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Sample records for biliary duct dilatation

  1. [Pancreato-biliary maljunctions and congenital cystic dilatation of the bile ducts in adults].

    PubMed

    Kianmanesh, R; Régimbeau, J M; Belghiti, J

    2001-08-01

    Pancreato-biliary maljunctions (PBM) in adults are defined by the presence of an abnormally long common pancreato-biliary duct (more than 15 mm long) formed outside the duodenal wall and/or by high amylase level in the bile. The high amylase level in the bile is the functional expression of a chronic toxic reflux of pancreatic juices into the biliary tree. The presence of the PBM have two basic consequences: (i) formation of congenital cystic dilatations of the bile duct (CCBD) during embryogenesis and (ii) cancerous degeneration of extrahepatic bile ducts including the gall bladder. CCBD are commonly found in Southeast of Asia and in Japan where more than two-thirds of the worldwide cases are reported. Women are more frequently touched. The main manifestations are pain, cholangitis and acute pancreatitis. Cancerous degeneration mainly due to chronic pancreatico-biliary reflux consecutive to the presence of PBM is the most serious complication of CCBD. Its global incidence is about 16% and increases by age and after cysto-digestive derivations widely performed in the past. In 80% of the cases a cholangiocarcinoma involving the extrahepatic portion of the biliary tree including dilated segments such as the gall bladder and/or cystic wall is found. The treatment of choice of most common types of CCBD with PMD is complete excision of most of the sites where cancer may arise and should interrupt the pancreato-biliary reflux. This treatment significantly reduces the incidence of bile duct cancer to 0.7%. However, despite the absence of mortality, the overall morbidity rates reach from 20% to 40%. In the complete excision, the entire common bile duct from porta hepatis to the intrapancreatic portion of the choledochus and the gall bladder are resected. The bile continuity is assured by a hepatico-jejunal Y anastomosis. When there is no CCBD, the high risk of gall bladder cancer in the presence of a PBM justifies by itself a preventive cholecystectomy even if no biliary stone is present. PMID:11557897

  2. Peripheral portal vein-oriented non-dilated bile duct puncture for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kato, Atsushi; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peripheral portal vein (PV)-oriented non-dilated bile duct (BD) puncture for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with non-dilated BDs underwent PTBD for the management of various biliary disorders, including benign bilioenteric anastomotic stricture (n = 24), BD stricture (n = 5) associated with iatrogenic BD injury, and postoperative biliary leakage (n = 6). Under ultrasonographic guidance, percutaneous transhepatic puncture using a 21-G needle was performed along the running course of the peripheral targeted non-dilated BD (preferably B6 for right-sided approach, and B3 for left-sided approach) or along the accompanying PV when the BD was not well visualized. This technique could provide an appropriate insertion angle of less than 30° between the puncture needle and BD running course. The puncture needle was then advanced slightly beyond the accompanying PV. The needle tip was moved slightly backward while injecting a small amount of contrast agent to obtain the BD image, followed by insertion of a 0.018-inch guide wire (GW). A drainage catheter was then placed using a two-step GW method. RESULTS: PTBD was successful in 33 (94.3%) of the 35 patients with non-dilated intrahepatic BDs. A right-sided approach was performed in 25 cases, while a left-sided approach was performed in 10 cases. In 31 patients, the first PTBD attempt proved successful. Four cases required a second attempt a few days later to place a drainage catheter. PTBD was successful in two cases, but the second attempt also failed in the other two cases, probably due to poor breath-holding ability. Although most patients (n = 26) had been experiencing cholangitis with fever (including septic condition in 8 cases) before PTBD, only 5 (14.3%) patients encountered PTBD procedure-related complications, such as transient hemobilia and cholangitis. No major complications such as bilioarterial fistula or portal thrombosis were observed. There was no mortality in our series. CONCLUSION: Peripheral PV-oriented BD puncture for PTBD in patients with non-dilated BDs is a safe and effective procedure for BD stricture and postoperative bile leakage. PMID:26640339

  3. Bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation in a 16-year-old female: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hideki; Yazawa, Naoki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Masuoka, Yoshihito; Yamada, Misuzu; Mashiko, Taro; Kawashima, Yohei; Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mine, Tetsuya; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Nakagohri, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    We encountered a very rare case of bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) in a 16-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of right upper abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the common bile duct measuring 7 cm in diameter and two enhanced tumors 4 cm in diameter located in the inferior bile duct and middle bile duct. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography clearly demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct (Todani's CBD classification: type 4-A). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also revealed two tumors. Biopsy results of one of the tumors confirmed adenocarcinoma. Excision of the perihilar bile duct and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with dissection of the major lymph nodes were performed. A postoperative histopathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, which remained within the mucosal layer, and no lymph node metastasis was found. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 10 days after surgery and has remained disease-free for 21 months. PMID:26943681

  4. Association of extrahepatic bile duct duplication with pancreaticobiliary maljunction and congenital biliary dilatation in children: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kazunori; Ishimaru, Yuki; Fujino, Junko; Suzuki, Makoto; Hatanaka, Masahiro; Igarashi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    We herein report a case of cystic-type congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) in whom an extremely rare anomalous duplication of the common bile duct and pancreaticobiliary maljunction were diagnosed intraoperatively by meticulous surgical manipulations via conventional open surgery. By performing a dissection at the outer epicholedochal layer of the cyst, a thin cord-like structure shown to be the distal part of the common bile duct was identified. A further exploration revealed that the most distal (extra- and intrapancreatic) part of the common bile duct was duplicated, and each branch of the duct was connected to the main and accessory pancreatic ducts. The experience with our case and a literature review showed that extrahepatic bile duct duplication is generally associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction and CBD. We conclude that an extremely careful exploration with delicate and meticulous surgical manipulation is essential to identify these morphological anomalies and prevent intraoperative and postoperative complications of CBD, such as pancreatic duct injury or pancreatitis. PMID:22825653

  5. Diagnostics of Biliary Dilatation by Means of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Szalacha-Tara?a, Ewa; Ramotowski, Rados?aw; Guz, Wies?aw; Samojedny, Antoni; Dziurzy?ska-Bia?ek, Ewa; Jadczak, Przemys?aw

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is a relatively noninvasive technique of biliary and pancreatic duct imaging. MRCP technique utilizes T2-weighted sequences, in which bile is characterized by high signal intensity, whilst signal intensity of surrounding tissues is reduced. The purpose of this publication was to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnostics of biliary dilatation. Material/Methods MRCP examinations of 148 patients (48 men and 100 women; the average age was 56) performed on a 1.5T Achieva Philips device in the Provincial Hospital in Rzeszow between November 2011 and April 2013 were included in retrospective analysis. Examined group was divided into three subgroups: patients after cholecystectomy, patients with cholecystolithiasis and patients without gallbladder concretions. The definitive cause of biliary dilatation was determined mainly on the basis of MRCP and ECPW examinations, and, in individual cases, during intraoperative cholangiography and laparatomy. Results Signal loss corresponding to probable concretions was identified in 34 cases. In the group of patients with cholecystolithiasis the cause of biliary dilatation was usually (45%) cholelithiasis. MRCP image was typical in 4 out of 9 malignant cases. The cause of biliary dilatation was usually (20%) a neoplasm in the group of patients without gallstones. Benign causes of biliary dilatation, apart from cholelithiasis, were identified in 16 individuals, including 4 cases in which the diagnosis was identified using MRCP, whereas in the remaining 12 cases ECPW examination proved conclusive to the final diagnosis. Conclusions Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography enables reliable diagnosis of causes of biliary dilatation as long as they involve presence of gallbladder deposits and tumors. In benign causes of biliary dilatation, apart from cholelithiasis, MRCP picture is often atypical and therefore, the final identification of the cause of biliary dilatation is possible when this imagining method is combined with ERCP and additional tests. PMID:25243036

  6. Computed tomography of localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Itai Y.; Tasaka, A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-nine patients showed localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts on computed tomography, usually unaccompanied by jaundice. Congenital dilatation was diagnosed when associated with a choledochal cyst, while cholangiographic contrast material was helpful in differentiating such dilatation from a simple cyst by showing its communication with the biliary tract when no choledochal cyst was present. Obstructive dilatation was associated with intrahepatic calculi in 4 cases, hepatoma in 9, cholangioma in 5, metastatic tumor in 5, and polycystic disease in 2. Cholangioma and intrahepatic calculi had a greater tendency to accompany such localized dilatation; in 2 cases, the dilatation was the only clue to the underlying disorder.

  7. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF CYSTIC DILATATION BILE DUCTS IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    da FONSECA-NETO, Olival Cirilo Lucena; de ALBUQUERQUE-NETO, Moacir Cavalcante; de MIRANDA, Antonio Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Background The cystic dilatation of the biliary tract is a rare disease and uncertain origin. It is recognized more frequently in children; however, its incidence comes increasing in adults, representing 20% of the cases. Aim To evaluate morbimortality rates, evolution and handing of patients with cystic dilatation bile ducts in adults. Methods Were evaluated, retrospectively, five adults who had the diagnosis of choledochal cyst and that had been submitted to some surgical procedure. Results Abdominal pain was the commonest complain to all patients. Jaundice was present in 80%. Ultrasound scanning was done in all the cases as initial examination. CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were also done in some patients; however, the diagnosis was established intra-operatively in all cases. The cyst resection with reconstruction of the biliary tract was done in 60%; the cystojejunostomy in 20%; and in 20% biliary tract drainage. Conclusions Biliary tract cystic dilatation is a rare disease. However, its incidence is increasing in the adult population, so, it must be thought as differential diagnosis when facing obstructive jaundice. PMID:25861062

  8. Unchanged size of a dilated common bile duct after a fatty meal: results and significance.

    PubMed

    Willson, S A; Gosink, B B; vanSonnenberg, E

    1986-07-01

    Sonographic measurement of common bile duct caliber alone is insufficient to ascertain the presence of obstruction. Fatty meal stimulation significantly improves diagnostic accuracy. An increase in caliber of a normal or slightly dilated common duct after the subject has ingested a fatty meal is a strong indicator of biliary obstruction, while a decrease in caliber indicates normal dynamics and virtually excludes obstruction. This study determines the significance of no change in the caliber of the dilated common bile duct of subjects who have eaten a fatty meal. Further imaging studies and clinical/laboratory follow-up of 31 patients showed that in 84% of the cases no obstruction was present. A dilated common duct that does not decrease in size after a fatty meal is not a specific indicator of obstruction. The use of invasive diagnostic procedures in these patients is not advised unless there is other evidence of biliary obstruction. PMID:3520653

  9. Sonography of gallstones and biliary dilatation without a visible aetiology: the infrequency of obstructing choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, O; van Sonnenberg, O E; Wittich, G R; Leopold, G R; Gosink, U B; Bowen, J S

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes 50 consecutive patients who sonographically had gallbladder stones and dilated bile ducts, but no visible aetiology for the dilatation. We reviewed these cases to determine the frequency of choledocholithiasis in this setting. Common duct stones caused obstruction in only 36% of these patients. Other aetiologies included strictures due to chronic pancreatitis or prior stone passage in 24% of the patients, and malignant obstruction in 16%. In 24% of the patients, no cause was found for biliary dilatation; common duct stones or obstructing tumours were excluded in the group. Since aetiologies other than stones are likely in a majority of cases, further preoperative workup (CT, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, ERCP) or intraoperative cholangiography (if the patient requires urgent cholecystectomy) is indicated. The additional studies should provide a diagnosis, help determine whether or not the common duct should be explored, or avoid unnecessary operation in case of incurable malignancy. PMID:3281837

  10. "Mustache sign" due to Stensen duct dilation.

    PubMed

    Yoruk, O; K?l?c, K; Kantarc?, M

    2013-12-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of painless swellings of the left and right cheeks. The degree of swelling did not change with mastication. On palpation, the cheeks were soft, well defined, and movable. Compression and massage of the swollen areas caused increased salivary discharge from the orifices of the Stensen ducts. Three-dimensional computed tomography showed well-bordered, 15- to 20-mm wide, bilateral, tube-like dilatations of the ducts. The ductal origin of the swellings was explained to the patient, but she refused invasive procedures, thus no sialogram or surgical procedure was performed. We describe the clinical and radiographic features of a case of bilateral, congenital Stensen duct dilatation with bilateral swelling of the cheeks. PMID:24209996

  11. [Reflux into the pancreatic duct during peroperative biliary radiomanometry. Report of 200 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lataste, J; Albou, J C

    1977-01-01

    The authors have observed 200 cases of reflux into the pancreatic duct out of 2,500 biliary operations with radiomanometry. Out of the 200 cases, 109 were functional, i.e. due to a common duct with or without an ampoule of Vater, or due to duodenal stockage whether there was a common duct or not. They had no therapeutic consequence. 38 were organic due to an obstruction (impacted gall stone, or odditis which favours reflux) and needed sphincterotomy especially when the pancreatic duct was dilated. In 53 cases, no organic or anatomical explanation was found. Reflux occurring at physiological pressures is more likely to be functional. The degree of reflux does not always depend on the increase in perfusion pressure. The time of the reflux depends partly on its nature. Early reflux is found mainly in cases of obstruction. Reflux secondary to passage into the duodenum is mainly found in functional reflux with stockage. Wirsung's duct is dilated in more than 75% of cases with obstruction and in only 3 cases out of 20 with functional reflux. Reflux into Santorini's duct is 3 times more common when there is papillary obstruction. PMID:849964

  12. The Efficacy of Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for Patients with Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Chih; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lin, Kung-Hung; Wang, Kai-Ming; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chiang, Po-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Li, Yun-Da; Wang, E-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background. No study investigated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for the treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). Method. We retrospectively reviewed the effects of EPBD on patients with ABP from February 2003 to December 2012. The general data, findings of image studies, details of the procedure, and outcomes after EPBD were analyzed. Result. Total 183 patients (male/female: 110/73) were enrolled. The mean age was 65.9 years. Among them, 155 patients had mild pancreatitis. The meantime from admission to EPBD was 3.3 days. Cholangiogram revealed filling defects inside the common bile duct (CBD) in 149 patients. The mean dilating balloon size was 10.5?mm and mean duration of the dilating procedure was 4.3 minutes. Overall, 124 patients had gross stones retrieved from CBD. Four (2.2%) adverse events and 2 (1.1%) intraprocedure bleeding incidents but no procedure-related mortality were noted. Bilirubin and amylase levels significantly decreased after EPBD. On average, patients resumed oral intake within 1.4 days. The clinical parameters and outcomes were similar in patients with different severity of pancreatitis. Conclusion. EPBD can be effective and safe for the treatment of ABP, even in patients presenting with severe disease. PMID:25949236

  13. Paclitaxel-eluting balloon dilation of biliary anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hüsing, Anna; Reinecke, Holger; Cicinnati, Vito R; Beckebaum, Susanne; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut H; Kabar, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic therapy with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) for biliary anastomotic stricture (AS) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: This prospective pilot study enrolled 13 consecutive eligible patients treated for symptomatic AS after LT at the University Hospital of Münster between January 2011 and March 2014. The patients were treated by endoscopic therapy with a PEB and followed up every 8 wk by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In cases of re-stenosis, further balloon dilation with a PEB was performed. Follow-up was continued until 24 mo after the last intervention. RESULTS: Initial technical feasibility, defined as successful balloon dilation with a PEB during the initial ERCP procedure, was achieved in 100% of cases. Long-term clinical success (LTCS), defined as no need for further endoscopic intervention for at least 24 mo, was achieved in 12 of the 13 patients (92.3%). The mean number of endoscopic interventions required to achieve LTCS was only 1.7 ± 1.1. Treatment failure, defined as the need for definitive alternative treatment, occurred in only one patient, who developed recurrent stenosis with increasing bile duct dilatation that required stent placement. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic therapy with a PEB is very effective for the treatment of AS after LT, and seems to significantly shorten the overall duration of endoscopic treatment by reducing the number of interventions needed to achieve LTCS. PMID:25624733

  14. Operative ultrasound of the liver and biliary ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Bismuth, H.; Castaing, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the intraoperative use of sonography of the liver and biliary ducts which opens up new perspectives for the surgeon. The diagnosis of tumors becomes much more sensitive and efficient with intraoperative ultrasound than with preoperative transcutaneous sonography of intraoperative palpation. Sonographically aimed puncture and balloon-tipped catheter occlusion of segments or subsegment branches of the portal vein allow on the one hand local blue marking, and on the other hand local bloodlessness during the operation. Surgery of liver tumors thus becomes much more precise.

  15. Paucity of biliary ducts: A rare etiology of neonatal cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Figiel, Steven Cornell; Franco, Arie; Pucar, Darko; Lewis, Kristopher Neal; Lee, Jeffrey Roberts

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a newborn with cholestasis that was diagnosed as nonsyndromic Alagille syndrome. The main feature of the disease is a paucity of biliary ducts. There are two known types of the disease: the syndromic type which is associated with other congenital defects and the nonsyndromic type without other anomalies detected at birth. We describe the case and discuss its clinical and radiologic findings. We also discuss the various etiologies of cholestasis that are included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22690284

  16. Paucity of biliary ducts: A rare etiology of neonatal cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Steven Cornell; Franco, Arie; Pucar, Darko; Lewis, Kristopher Neal; Lee, Jeffrey Roberts

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a newborn with cholestasis that was diagnosed as nonsyndromic Alagille syndrome. The main feature of the disease is a paucity of biliary ducts. There are two known types of the disease: the syndromic type which is associated with other congenital defects and the nonsyndromic type without other anomalies detected at birth. We describe the case and discuss its clinical and radiologic findings. We also discuss the various etiologies of cholestasis that are included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22690284

  17. Congenital dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (Caroli's disease).

    PubMed

    Lucaya, J; Gomez, J L; Molino, C; Atienza, J G

    1978-06-01

    Caroli's disease (congenital dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts) was diagnosed in an 11-year-old girl with the aid of intravenous cholangiography. Recurrent abdominal pain, fever, and intermittent obstructive jaundice are the most common symptoms and usually develop during childhood or young adulthood. Operative cholangiography has been the most valuable method of diagnosing the condition and determining the location and extent of the disease process. PMID:663169

  18. Percutaneous biliary interventions through the gallbladder and the cystic duct: What radiologists need to know.

    PubMed

    Hatzidakis, A; Venetucci, P; Krokidis, M; Iaccarino, V

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an established drainage procedure for the management of high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. However, percutaneous image-guided access to the gallbladder may not be limited to the simple placement of a drain, but may also be used as an alternative approach to the biliary tree through the catheterization of the cystic duct, for a variety of other more complicated conditions. Percutaneous transcholecystic interventions may be performed in both malignant and benign disease. In the case of malignant jaundice, the transcholecystic route may be used when the liver parenchyma is occupied by metastatic lesions and transhepatic access is not possible. In benign conditions, access through the gallbladder may offer a solution if the biliary tree is not dilated. The transcholecystic access may then be route of insertion of large sheaths, internal drainage catheters, lithotripsy devices, stone retrieval baskets, and stents. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the techniques and to discuss the indications, complications, and technical difficulties of this alternative access to the biliary tree. PMID:25172204

  19. Congenital left intrahepatic bile duct draining into gastric wall mimicking biliary reflux gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jian; Zhang, Ling; Chu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Shao-Chun; Li, Zi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities and variations of the biliary ducts are not rare. Most aberrant bile ducts eventually drain into the descending part of duodenum through the papilla of vater. However, drainage of the left hepatic bile duct into the stomach is extremely rare. A 29-year old man was admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of biliary reflux gastritis. Comprehensive imaging modalities were performed including electronic endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography. Finally, congenital ectopic left intrahepatic bile duct draining into the stomach was found, which caused biliary reflux gastritis. The patient did not receive any surgery. Good recovery was achieved by medical treatment. PMID:25805955

  20. Congenital left intrahepatic bile duct draining into gastric wall mimicking biliary reflux gastritis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; Zhang, Ling; Chu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Shao-Chun; Li, Zi-Ping

    2015-03-21

    Abnormalities and variations of the biliary ducts are not rare. Most aberrant bile ducts eventually drain into the descending part of duodenum through the papilla of vater. However, drainage of the left hepatic bile duct into the stomach is extremely rare. A 29-year old man was admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of biliary reflux gastritis. Comprehensive imaging modalities were performed including electronic endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography. Finally, congenital ectopic left intrahepatic bile duct draining into the stomach was found, which caused biliary reflux gastritis. The patient did not receive any surgery. Good recovery was achieved by medical treatment. PMID:25805955

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct dilatation with normal liver enzymes

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Claudio; Marietti, Milena; Bruno, Mauro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Rizzetto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the description of isolated bile duct dilatation has been increasingly observed in subjects with normal liver function tests and nonspecific abdominal symptoms, probably due to the widespread use of high-resolution imaging techniques. However, there is scant literature about the evolution of this condition and the impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnostic work up. When noninvasive imaging tests (transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) fail to identify the cause of dilatation and clinical or biochemical alarm signs are absent, the probability of having biliary disease is considered low. In this setting, using EUS, the presence of pathologic findings (choledocholithiasis, strictures, chronic pancreatitis, ampullary or pancreatic tumors, cholangiocarcinoma), not always with a benign course, has been observed. The aim of this review has been to evaluate the prevalence of disease among non-jaundiced patients without signs of cytolysis and/or cholestasis and the assessment of EUS yield. Data point out to a promising role of EUS in the identification of a potential biliary pathology. EUS is a low invasive technique, with high accuracy, that could play a double cost-effective role: identifying pathologic conditions with dismal prognosis, in asymptomatic patients with negative prior imaging tests, and excluding pathologic conditions and further follow-up in healthy subjects. PMID:26191344

  2. Isolation and culture of intrahepatic bile ducts and its application in assessing putative inducers of biliary epithelial cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Gall, J. A.; Bhathal, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    A method for the isolation and culture of intact intrahepatic bile ducts from normal rats, and its use in studying putative inducers of biliary epithelial cell (BEC) hyperplasia was developed. Ducts were isolated by sequential perfusion of the liver with EGTA and collagenase-hyaluronidase followed by mild mechanical agitation. The resultant fraction, consisting of numerous small bile ducts within a connective tissue framework, was collected and embedded in a collagen gel and cultured on a raft assembly in Medium 199 supplemented with 15% newborn calf serum and antibiotics. Following 10-15 days in culture, the tissue consisted of dilated bile ducts lined by large cuboidal to elongated BEC. At day 15, the BEC 3H-thymidine-labelling index was 5.56 +/- 0.66% (mean +/- s.e.m.) which is nine times that observed in normal rat BEC in situ and similar to the rate of cell division of BEC lining hyperplastic ductules following bile duct ligation in the rat. Putative cholangiotrophic factors, proline, lithocholic acid and extracts of liver and small intestinal mucosa from normal rats and rats after 3 weeks' total biliary obstruction (TBO), were added to the culture medium for the last 5 days of a 15-day culture. With the exception of the extract of liver following TBO which had a growth inhibitory effect and lithocholic acid which was toxic, these treatments did not result in any alteration in the rate of BEC replication. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3307883

  3. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, Guido Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Salvetti, Monica; Romito, Raffaele; Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

  4. [Temporary replacement of the common biliary duct by a silicone tube as an urgent repair of iatrogenic injury. Experimental study in pigs].

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Daniel A; Rodríguez Bertola, Xavier; Sambuelli, Gabriela M; Vial, Luis H; Torrecillas, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Surgery of the biliary tract is complex, and its volume has increased with iatrogenic injuries and living donor transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze if the common duct can be temporarily replaced. We used nine 18-20 kg pigs. They were operated on, and their bile duct was replaced by a 100% silicone tube. All pigs underwent laboratory tests, magnetic resonance imaging, intraoperative ultrasound, cholangiography and biliar manometry with pathological biopsy examination within 60 days from the initial surgery. All pigs survived the first surgery over 60 days without laboratory evidence of evident cholestasis. Nine pigs were re-operated on at 60 days showing dilated common bile duct and hepatic ducts doubling its original size without dilating the intrahepatic bile ducts. There were no clinical, relevant laboratory or biopsy signs showing cholestasis. This experience represents the initial intention to find an optimal situation and prosthesis for replacement of the thin biliary tract, in surgical emergencies or palliative situations. The silicon tube, is a positive answer that remains permeable. A non-fibrotic reaction was found that allows a posterior definitive procedure, maintaining a good nutritional status. PMID:25194225

  5. Uncinate Duct Dilation in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: A Radiographic Finding with Potentially Increased Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ammori, John B; Do, Richard KG; Brennan, Murray F; D’Angelica, Michael I; Dematteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; Jarnagin, William R; Allen, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk of high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas is increased in main-duct compared to branch-duct lesions. We hypothesized that isolated uncinate duct dilation may also be a radiographic indicator of high-risk disease as the primary drainage of this portion of the gland originates from a distinct embryologic precursor. Methods All patients with available preoperative imaging who underwent resection for IPMN between 1994 and 2010 were included (n=184). Imaging studies were reviewed by an experienced radiologist who was blinded to the pathologic results, and studies were categorized as main-duct, branch- duct, or combined-duct. The presence of uncinate duct dilation was assessed as a risk factor for tumors which proved to have high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or invasive carcinoma (IC) on pathologic assessment. Results IPMN with HGD or IC were identified in 82 of 184 cases (45%). Without considering uncinate duct dilation, IPMN with HGD or IC were present in 84% of patients with main-duct IPMN (n= 31/37), 58% with combined-duct IPMN (n= 23/40), and 26% with branch-duct IPMN (n=28/107). Dilation of the uncinate duct was observed in 47 patients, with or without main duct dilation, and 30 of these (64%) contained HGD or IC on pathology. Isolated uncinate duct dilation without main duct dilation was observed in 17 patients, and 11 (65%) had HGD. On multivariate analysis of IPMN without associated main-duct dilation, uncinate duct dilation was independently associated with IPMN with HGD or IC (p=0.002). Conclusion Uncinate duct dilation on preoperative radiologic imaging appears to be an additional risk factor for IPMN-associated high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. PMID:24448998

  6. Diagnosis of bile duct cancer by bile cytology: usefulness of post-brushing biliary lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Keiko; Nagata, Kaori; Ohno, Sachiyo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Mori, Keita; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathologic evidence of biliary diseases can be obtained from cytology in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); however, the diagnostic effectiveness is not satisfactory. Study aim: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the efficacy of various sampling methods for the cytologic diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Patients and methods: Biliary samples included bile that was simply aspirated, brush smear, brush-rinsed saline, and post-brushing biliary lavage fluid. A set of samples was compared for cytologic efficacy in 76 patients with surgically proven bile duct cancer and in 50 patients with benign biliary stricture. Results: The cytologic sensitivity for diagnosing biliary cancer was 34?% with aspirated bile, 32?% with brush smear, 43?% with brush-rinsed saline, and 70?% with post-brushing biliary lavage fluid, in contrast to the null false-positive result in the benign cases. The sensitivity of cytology was significantly higher with post-brushing lavage fluid than with the other three sampling methods (P?biliary cytology was also associated with the amount of aspirated bile (P?=?0.01) and with the aspiration site (P?=?0.03). The rate of cancer positivity in a cytology set differed according to the tumor macroscopic type (85?% in the protruding type vs. 40?% in the flat type; P?=?0.003), and according to the size of the cancer (87?% for tumors ??50?mm vs. 66?% for tumors biliary lavage fluid cytology provides superior diagnostic efficacy, and its addition to ERCP procedures is recommended for obtaining cytologic evidence of bile duct cancer. PMID:26357678

  7. Advanced Imaging Technology in Biliary Tract Diseases:Narrow-Band Imaging of the Bile Duct

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah

    2015-01-01

    Newly introduced direct peroral cholangioscopy and the development of video choledochoscopes have enabled more defined observation of bile duct mucosal lesions with clearer images. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a unique endoscopic imaging technology that provides enhanced endoscopic images of surface mucosal structures and its superficial microvessels. Advanced cholangioscopy and NBI are expected to be useful for precise evaluation and correct diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. However, the diagnostic value of advanced bile duct imaging with cholangioscopy requires further evaluation.

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention. PMID:25400865

  9. Colon carcinoma metastasis to the intrapancreatic tract of the common biliary duct: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Luca; Faraci, Rosario; Piscioli, Irene; Pusiol, Teresa; Del Nonno, Franca; Licci, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Jaundice, a common feature of advanced colon cancer, is usually due to liver parenchyma metastasis, but it can sometimes be caused by extrahepatic biliary obstruction. This rare event is related to metastasis to the lymph nodes placed behind the duodenum, along the choledochus or the vena porta, extrinsically compressing the common duct. Stenosis of the common bile duct secondary to parietal metastatic involvement is extremely rare. We report on a case of colon carcinoma metastasis to the intrapancreatic tract of the common bile duct, with a review of the literature. PMID:17506002

  10. Resection of hepaticocystic duct which is a rare anomaly of the extrahepatic biliary system: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are several variations in the morphologic characteristics of the extrahepatic biliary system. A hepaticocystic duct is one of the rare variations. Case presentation A 69-year-old Asian man underwent a cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. His cystic duct was not detected during surgery. An intraoperative cholangiography revealed that his common hepatic ducts drained directly into the neck of his gallbladder. There was no common bile duct, as evidenced by the union of the common hepatic and cystic ducts. Conclusion Knowledge of anomalies related to the extrahepatic biliary system is important for decreasing the severe morbidity and mortality that may result from a failure to recognize the anomaly. PMID:24378250

  11. Morphologic, biophysical, and biochemical consequences of ligation of the common biliary duct in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, E.; Zukoski, C. F.; Campbell, J.; Chvapil, M.

    1977-01-01

    Common biliary ducts of 32 adult mongrel dogs were ligated for a period of 2 days to 6 weeks. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Bile ducts were removed at sacrifice, and biophysical, morphologic, and biochemical parameters were measured. Our study shows that biliary duct ligation results in an immediate increase of intraductular pressure and is followed quickly by significant increase in the rate of collagen synthesis and the activity of prolyl hydroxylase. Histologic data show subepithelial inflammation followed by marked increases in periductular fibrosis. This fibroproliferative response is paralleled by peak levels of prolyl hydroxylase activity at 2 weeks prostligation. Paradoxically, bile ducts continuously distend throughout the ligation period despite increased fibroplasia. We present here the first topographic (SEM) study of normal and ligated common bile duct epithelium. Following 2 weeks of ligation large crater-like fenestrae are seen ductular epithelial surfaces. This is followed by focal epithelial sloughing. We speculate that the continuous distention and epithelial necrosis seen in the present study may be due to biliary stasis and/or subepithelial infiltration of bile through epithelial fenestrae. This hypothesis is supported by our studies which show that collagen extractibility is markedly increased by the addition of bile to the homogenate. Images Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:836674

  12. High incidence of common bile duct dilatation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, I; Chikamoto, E; Nakamura, M; Asaka, M; Tomosugi, N; Yuri, T

    1996-03-01

    Two autosomal dominant kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with cholecystitis or communicating extrahepatic dilatation of the common bile duct accompanied by tiny common bile duct stones prompted us to examine the incidence of gall stone disease and dilatation of the common bile duct in ADPKD patients. Computed tomography scans were examined retrospectively in 55 ADPKD patients and 55 age-, gender-, and duration of dialysis-matched non-ADPKD patients. The incidence of calcium-containing gall stones found on tomography scans was the same: eight of the 55 ADPKD patients and nine of the 55 non-ADPKD patients. However, common bile duct dilatation, defined as measuring more than 7 mm in diameter at the pancreatic head on CT scans, was found more frequently in the ADPKD patients (22 patients; 40.0%) than in the non-ADPKD patients (5 patients; 9.1%) (P = 0.0002). These results suggest that the high incidence of intrapancreatic common bile duct dilatation in ADPKD is a previously undescribed sign of extracellular matrix remodeling in ADPKD. PMID:8604699

  13. A comparative study of one minute versus five seconds endoscopic biliary balloon dilation after small sphincterotomy in choleducolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Minakari, Mohammad; Ardestani, Mohammad Hadi Shafigh; Sadeghizadeh, Atefeh; Shavakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a low-risk method for the treatment of choleducolithiasis. Traditionally one minute ballooning time (BT) is applied; however, the effective BT is not clear. In this study, we compare five seconds and one minute ballooning time. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind, randomized, clinical trial 60 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones documented in ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), with no severe hepatic, biliary or systemic diseases, enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive EPBD with either five seconds (n = 31) or one minute (n = 29) ballooning time (BT) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and small sphincterotomy. Then stones were retrieved with an extractor balloon. The patients were followed for 48 hours to check the possible complications. Results: Successful CBD stone removal was the same in the five-second and one-minute BT groups (93.5% vs. 96.6%; P = 0.594). Pancreatitis occurred in three (9.7%) patients in the five-second BT group and in six (20.7%) patients in the one-minute BT group (P = 0.233). No hemorrhage or perforation was noted. Conclusions: After a small sphincterotomy, EPBD in the five-second and one-minute BT groups had a similar efficacy. Small sphincterotomy combined with very short BT is a safe and effective method for CBD stone removal. PMID:25709993

  14. Overlapping of primary biliary cirrhosis and small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis: first case report.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Elze Maria Gomes; Oliveira, Patricia Marinho; Becker, Vitoria; Dellavance, Alessandra; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho; Lanzoni, Valeria; Silva, Antonio Eduardo Benedito; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are both autoimmune cholestatic liver disease and the association of these two conditions in the same patient is very rare. We report the case of a female patient presenting with a cholestatic liver disease and a panel of autoantibodies specific for PBC, including antibodies to mitochondrial E2-pyruvate dehydrogenase, gp-210 and Sp-100. Beside these findings, the liver biopsy revealed concentric fibrosis of small biliary ducts and the magnetic resonance cholangiography presented no abnormal findings. Diagnosis of small duct PSC/PBC overlapping was done. No description of this association was found in the literature. Clinical and serological features of this unusual finding are discussed. PMID:23226177

  15. [Plasty of extrahepatic biliary ducts with the use of ileal autotransplantate].

    PubMed

    Markov, P V; Onopriev, V I; Fomenko, I V; Grigorov, S P

    2010-01-01

    A method of extrahepatic biliary duct plasty with the use of tubular ileal autotransplantate of 1 sm in diameter was presented in 19 patients with benign strictures. The transplantate on the vascular pedicle was created by resection of the antimesenterial side of the intestinal loop. Distally the anastomosis was performed with the common bile duct, including, thus, papilla Vateri into the bile passage (4 patients). By the impossibility of the latter, the anastomosis was performed with the vertical part of duodenum (16 patients). Postoperative follow-up variated from 1 to 15 years. 18 patients demonstrated good long-term result, 1 patients had a stricture recurrence. PMID:21169941

  16. Balloon Dilatation of Salivary Duct Strictures: Report on 36 Treated Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Drage, Nicholas A.; Brown, Jackie E.; Escudier, Michael P.; Wilson, Ron F.; McGurk, Mark

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the technique for balloon dilatation of salivary duct strictures and evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in a consecutive series of 36 affected glands. Methods: Thirty-four patients (36 glands) had balloon dilatation of their salivary duct strictures performed under fluoroscopic control. They were evaluated immediately afterwards and at review by sialography. Results: In 36 cases attempted, 33 (92%) strictures were dilated. The immediate post-treatment sialogram was available in 28 cases, of which 23 (82%) demonstrated complete and four (14%) partial elimination of stricture. In one case the appearance was unchanged(4%). Review data (mean 6.8 months) were available on 25 glands: 12 were asymptomatic (48%), 12 (48%) had reduced symptoms and one (4%)failed to improve. Sialographic data were available on 21 glands: in 10(48%) the duct remained patent, in one (5%) the stricture was partially eliminated, in seven (33%) the strictures had returned and in the remaining three (14%) cases there was complete obstruction. Conclusions: Balloon dilatation is an effective treatment of salivary duct stenosis. In half the cases the stricture recurred but symptomatic improvement was achieved and maintained in the majority of cases.

  17. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  18. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  19. Management of common bile duct stones with a biliary endoprosthesis. Report on 40 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, R; Macmathuna, P; Lombard, M; Karani, J; Westaby, D

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of a biliary endoprosthesis has been proposed for the management of choledocholithiasis when stone extraction is difficult or considered hazardous. Over a two year period this approach was used in 40 such patients. There were 24 women and 16 men with a median age of 76 years. In seven patients with severe cholangitis no attempt was made to extract the stones. Twenty three (57.5%) patients underwent a sphincterotomy and four (10%) needle knife papillotomy. The endoprosthesis insertion was considered a temporary measure in 13 (32.5%) patients and definitive treatment in 27 (67.5%). Bile duct drainage was established in all patients. Early complications occurred in six patients (15%), but were without sequelae. Late complications developed in eight (20%) of the patients and included biliary colic (four), cholangitis (three), and cholecystitis (one). Two patients (one cholangitis and one cholecystitis) died as a consequence of the complication. Only patients without a sphincterotomy developed cholangitis. A total of eight patients (20%) underwent surgery (one as an emergency) and nine a repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (two as an emergency) to clear the duct. The remaining 23 patients are asymptomatic at a median of 13 months (range five to 24 months). Biliary endoprosthesis insertion for choledocholithiasis is an important alternative means of establishing drainage in selected cases, and is probably the optimum method of management for the elderly and or debilitated patients with previous cholecystectomy. Caution must be exercised, however, in patients with an in situ gall bladder. PMID:1446871

  20. Covered Metal Stenting for Malignant Lower Biliary Stricture with Pancreatic Duct Obstruction: Is Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Needed?

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Kazunari; Okuse, Chiaki; Suetani, Keigo; Michikawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Otsubo, Takehito; Itoh, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the need for endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) before covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS) deployment for malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Methods. This study included 79 patients who underwent CSEMS deployment for unresectable malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Treatment outcomes and complications were compared between 38 patients with EST before CSEMS deployment (EST group) and 41 without EST (non-EST group). Results. The technical success rates were 100% in both the EST and the non-EST group. The incidence of pancreatitis was 2.6% in the EST, and 2.4% in the non-EST group (P = 0.51). The incidences of overall complications were 18.4% and 14.6%, respectively, (P = 0.65). Within the non-EST groups, the incidence of pancreatitis was 0% in patients with fully covered stent deployment and 3.6% in those with partially covered stent deployment (P = 0.69). In the multivariate analysis, younger age (P = 0.003, OR 12) and nonpancreatic cancer (P = 0.001, OR 24) were significant risk factors for overall complications after CSEMS deployment. EST was not identified as a risk factor. Conclusions. EST did not reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after CSEMS deployment in patients of unresectable distal malignant obstruction with pancreatic duct obstruction. PMID:24324486

  1. Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-01-01

    Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

  2. [Ultrasound of gallbladder and bile duct].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Joleini, S; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cystic nature of the gallbladder and bile duct when dilated, and the advantages of ultrasound as a quick, reproducible, convenient, cheap and low risk technique, with a high sensitivity and specificity, make it the most eligible technique in biliary pathology studies. Ultrasound has become a valuable tool for doctors studying biliary pathology and its complications, from abnormal liver function results, right upper quadrant pain, or jaundice, to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or suspicion of biliary tumors. PMID:25450432

  3. Metachronous biliary carcinoma with intraductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma 13?years after curative resection of hilar bile duct cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Hisatsugu; Fujikawa, Takahisa; Tanaka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with metachronous bile duct cancer and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. She had undergone extended left hepatic lobectomy for hilar bile duct carcinoma. However, when she was admitted to our hospital 13?years later for an annual follow-up, abdominal CT revealed a mass in the dilated remnant of her lower bile duct. This was diagnosed as a second primary tumour, a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and 15?months after the second operation, she remains recurrence-free. Nineteen cases of patients with metachronous bile duct carcinomas were identified in the literature and have been reviewed. PMID:24596413

  4. Immune-mediated bile duct injury: The case of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, Carlo; Affronti, Andrea; Ferrari, Laura; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune cholangitis would be the appropriate name to define the immune-mediated bile duct injury following the breakdown of tolerance to mitochondrial proteins and the appearance of serum autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Nevertheless, the condition is universally named primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The disease etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown despite the proposed lines of evidence. One twin study and numerous epidemiology reports suggest that both a susceptible genetic background and environmental factors determine disease onset while a recent genome-wide association study proposed highly significant associations with several common genetic polymorphisms in subgroups of patients. Specific infectious agents and chemicals may contribute to the disease onset and perpetuation in a genetically susceptible host, possibly through molecular mimicry. Importantly, several murine models have been proposed and include strains in which PBC is genetically determined or induced by immunization with chemicals and bacteria. From a pathogenetic standpoint, new exciting data have demonstrated the unique apoptotic features of bile duct cells that allow the mitochondrial autoantigens to be taken up in their intact form within apoptotic blebs. We are convinced that the application of the most recent molecular techniques will soon provide developments in PBC etiology and pathogenesis with likely implications in diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:21607152

  5. Biliary stricture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to a gallstone in the bile duct Pancreatitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis Risk factors include: Gallstones Injury to ... Inflammation and narrowing of the biliary duct may return in some ... remain for a long period can lead to liver damage ( cirrhosis ).

  6. Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Stents in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: One-Stage or Two-Stage Procedure? Pre-Dilate or Not?

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Aksungur, Erol; Akguel, Erol; Oguz, Mahmut; Seydaoglu, Guelsah

    2003-02-15

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the necessity of percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation procedures performed before stent insertion. One hundred and twenty-six patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction underwent palliative therapy by means of percutaneous transhepatic placement of 183 metallic biliary endoprotheses. Forty-four (35%) patients underwent metallic stent insertion in a one-stage procedure and 82(65%) had undergone percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage before stent insertion. Balloon dilation of the stenosis before stent placement (pre-dilation) was performed in 53 (42%) of 126 patients. The rate of the 30-day mortality was 11%, with no procedure-related deaths. The total rate of early complications was 29%, and 84% of these complications were due to percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation procedures. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation had no clinical or statistically significant effect on the patients' survival and stent patency rate. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation increased the cost of stent placement 18% and 19%, respectively. Palliation of malignant biliary obstruction with percutaneous transhepatic stent insertion should be done directly, in the simplest way, without performing percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation before stent placement. It is more useful, safe, and cost-effective.

  7. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the bile ducts of the liver. This blocks ... ducts in the liver is not known. However, primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune disorder. That means ...

  8. Efficient generation of biliary epithelial cells from rabbit intrahepatic bile duct by Y-27632 and Matrigel.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lifang; Ji, Shaohui; Sun, Aijing

    2013-06-01

    Efficient culture of primary biliary epithelial cells (BECs) from adult liver is useful for both experimental studies and clinical applications of tissue engineering. However, an effective culture system for long-term proliferation of adult BECs is still unachieved. Laboratory rabbit has been used in a large number of studies; however, there are no reports of BECs from normal adult rabbit. As little as 5 g of normal rabbit liver tissue were minced, digested, and then clonally cultured in medium containing FBS and ITS. Cells were characterized by cell morphology, immunoassaying, and growth rate assay. Different combination of growth factors and substrates, including Y-27632 and Matrigel, were employed to assess their effect on cell proliferation. In the primary culture, the BECs cellular sheets consisting of cuboidal cells, as well as fibroblast-like cells and other hepatic cells, emerged with time of culture. The BECs cellular sheets were then manually split into cells clumps for further characterization. The subcultured cells had typical cell morphology of cholangiocytes, expressed the specific markers of BECs, including GGT, cytokeratin (CK18), and CK19, and possessed the capacity to form duct-like structure in three-dimensional Matrigel. Y-27632 and Matrigel-treated BECs had a steady growth rate as well as colony-formation capacity. The BECs were maintained in Y-27632 and Matrigel culture system for more than 3 mo. This is the first example, to our knowledge, of the successful culture of BECs from normal adult rabbit liver. Furthermore, our results indicate that treatment of BECs with Y-27632 and Matrigel is a simple method for efficient output of BECs. PMID:23670599

  9. Screening of targeted genes in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    You, Zhen; Wen, Jing; Cheng, Liping; Ye, Hui; Li, Bei

    2015-09-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile disease resulting from a severe cholangiopathy, which can obstruct extrahepatic bile ducts, disrupt bile flow and lead to end‑stage cirrhosis. The current study aimed to develop a genetic method to investigate the pathogenesis of BA. The gene expression profile of BA (GSE46967) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and included 18 samples from newborn mice. These samples were collected at three time points following the induction of BA with rhesus rotavirus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in mice with BA were identified using the limma package in R language, followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. Gene ontology functional analysis and Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of the selected common DEGs was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. In total, 306 DEGs were identified in the samples from the 3 day time point, 721 at 7 days and 370 at 14 days. A total of 74 common DEGs were identified in these three sample groups, which are reported to function in multiple immune biological processes, including the defense response, leukocyte migration, cell chemotaxis and leukocyte chemotaxis. In addition, 'cytokine‑cytokine receptor interaction' and 'chemokine signaling pathway' were observed to be significantly enriched in BA. A total of six common DEGs (CCL3, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCR2, CCL5 and CCL6) were identified that were involved in the significantly enriched functions and the significantly enriched pathways. The data from the current study suggested that the immune response is a critical biological process in the development of BA. The six critical hub genes identified (CCL3, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCR2, CCL5 and CCL6) may be used as specific target genes in the treatment of BA. PMID:26059850

  10. Somatostatin prevents acute pancreatitis after pancreatic duct sphincter hydrostatic balloon dilation in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Guelrud, M; Mendoza, S; Viera, L; Gelrud, D

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether prophylactic somatostatin infusion can prevent pancreatitis after hydrostatic balloon dilation of the pancreatic duct sphincter segment in 16 patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. This study demonstrated that prophylactic administration of somatostatin before, during, and after the procedure diminished the incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis. We recommend consideration of such prophylaxis in patients undergoing this procedure. PMID:1672278

  11. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hong; Yang, Min Jae; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) has been widely used as the alternative to EST along with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (EML) for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones. Furthermore, EPLBD without EST was recently introduced as its simplified alternative technique. Thus, we systematically searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE, and analyzed all gathered data of EPLBD with and without EST, respectively, by using a single standardized definition, reviewing relevant literatures, published between 2003 and June 2013, where it was performed with large-diameter balloons (12-20 mm). The outcomes, including the initial success rate, the rate of needs for EML, and the overall success rate, and adverse events were assessed in each and compared between both of two procedures: “EPLBD with EST” and “EPLBD without EST”. A total of 2511 procedures from 30 published articles were included in EPLBD with EST, while a total of 413 procedures from 3 published articles were included in EPLBD without EST. In the results of outcomes, the overall success rate was 96.5% in EPLBD with EST and 97.2% in EPLBD without EST, showing no significant difference between both of them. The initial success rate (84.0% vs 76.2%, P < 0.001) and the success rate of EPLBD without EML (83.2% vs 76.7%, P = 0.001) was significantly higher, while the rate of use of EML was significantly lower (14.1% vs 21.6%, P < 0.001), in EPLBD with EST. The rate of overall adverse events, pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, other adverse events, surgery for adverse events, and fatal adverse events were 8.3%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 0.6%, 1.7%, 0.2% and 0.2% in EPLBD with EST and 7.0%, 3.9%, 1.9%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0% and 0% in EPLBD without EST, respectively, showing no significant difference between both of them. In conclusion, recent accumulated results of EPLBD with or even without EST suggest that it is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones without any additional risk of severe adverse events, when performed under appropriate guidelines. PMID:24379575

  12. Endoscopic management of a major bile duct stricture from surgical clips following laparoscopic hemicolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailendra; Aoun, Elie; Thakkar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Benign postoperative bile duct strictures are usually complications of cholecystectomies. However, development of obstructive jaundice and biliary stricture as a result of surgical clips after laparoscopic right hemicolectomy is rare and has not been reported in the literature. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with sudden onset jaundice and abdominal pain, 1?week following right hemicolectomy. Laboratory reports suggested obstructive jaundice. Subsequent imaging studies showed biliary dilation of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts with no evidence of bile duct stones. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed an abrupt, complete obstruction of the common bile duct at the level of the surgical clips. The bile duct stricture formed at the site of surgical clips improved significantly after serial incremental biliary dilations with successive placement of increasing number of endoprostheses side-by-side at repeat ERCP sessions. PMID:23446047

  13. Biliary Strictures after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Choong Heon

    2011-01-01

    Biliary strictures are one of the most common complications following liver transplantation, representing an important cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The reported incidence of biliary stricture is 5% to 15% following deceased donor liver transplantations and 28% to 32% following living donor liver transplantations. Bile duct strictures following liver transplantation are easily and conveniently classified as anastomotic strictures (AS) or non-anastomotic strictures (NAS). NAS are characterized by a far less favorable response to endoscopic management, higher recurrence rates, graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Current endoscopic strategies to correct biliary strictures following liver transplantation include repeated balloon dilatations and the placement of multiple side-by-side plastic stents. Endoscopic balloon dilatation with stent placement is successful in the majority of AS patients. In patients for whom gaining biliary access is technically difficult, a combined endoscopic and percutaneous/surgical approach proves quite useful. Future directions, including novel endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography techniques, advanced endoscopy, and improved stents could allow for a decreased number of interventions, increased intervals before retreatment, and decreased reliance on percutaneous and surgical modalities. The aim of this review is to detail the present status of endoscopy in the diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and future directions of biliary strictures related to orthotopic liver transplantation from the viewpoint of a clinical gastroenterologists. PMID:21814591

  14. Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy of Evolving Spontaneous Biliary Leak.

    PubMed

    Flynt, Lesley; Grant, Paul; Seitz, John P; Qing, Feng

    2015-07-01

    The patient is a 44-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, who presented to the ED with abdominal pain. Initial imaging by CT and US showed mild biliary tree dilatation, mild gallbladder distension, and pericholecystic fluid. The cystic and common bile ducts were patent without bile leak on cholescintigraphy. The next day, MRCP revealed free fluid extending from the gallbladder fossa to the right lower quadrant. Subsequently, a repeat cholescintigraphy was performed which was positive for bile leak. This case highlights the use of multiple imaging modalities in assessing abdominal pain, pre-and post-biliary leak. PMID:25899598

  15. Cholangiocarcinoma Arising from a Type VI Biliary Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Çamlıdağ, İlkay; Nural, Mehmet Selim; Danacı, Murat; Karabıçak, İlhan; Karabulut, Kağan

    2015-01-01

    Cystic dilatations of the cystic duct which are suggested as type VI biliary cysts are very rare and many of them go unrecognized or are confused with other cysts until the operation although they are obvious on imaging studies. They can present with fusiform or saccular dilatations and can be accompanied by common bile duct dilatations. It is important to identify these cysts as they share the same characteristics as the other biliary cyst types and can be complicated with malignancy. We herein present a very unusual case of a cholangiocarcinoma arising from a type VI biliary cyst in a 58-year-old female patient and review the literature. The patient presented with jaundice, weight loss, and abdominal pain. On imaging, the cystic duct and common bile duct were fusiformly dilated and had a wide communication. There was a mass filling the distal parts of both ducts. The patient was urgently operated on after perforation following ERCP. Histopathology was compatible with a type VI biliary cyst and an associated cholangiocarcinoma.

  16. Superiority of 10-mm-wide Balloon over 8-mm-wide Balloon in Papillary Dilation for Bile Duct Stones: A Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Tsujino, Takeshi; Umefune, Gyotane; Takahara, Naminatsu; Mohri, Dai; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Sasahira, Naoki; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a possible alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for common bile duct (CBD) stones. To date, 10- and 8-mm EPBD have not been fully compared. Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent EPBD for CBD stones at two Japanese tertiary care centers between May 1994 and January 2014 were identified. Matched pairs with 10- and 8-mm EPBD were generated. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 869 patients were identified (61 and 808 patients for 10- and 8-mm EPBD, respectively), and 61 well-balanced pairs were generated. The rate of complete stone removal within a single session was higher in the 10-mm EPBD group than in the 8-mm EPBD group (69% vs. 44%, P < 0.001), and use of lithotripsy was less frequent in the 10-mm EPBD group (23% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). The rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were similar between the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups (11% vs. 8%). Cumulative biliary complication-free rates were not statistically different between the two groups: 88% [95% confidence interval (CI): 79–97%] and 94% (95% CI: 88–100%) at 1 year and 69% (95% CI: 56–85%) and 80% (95% CI: 69–93%) at 2 years in the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups, respectively. In the 10-mm EPBD group, ascending cholangitis was not observed, and pneumobilia was found in 5% of cases during the follow-up period. Conclusions: EPBD using a 10-mm balloon for CBD stones is safe and more effective than 8-mm EPBD. The sphincter function is highly preserved after 10-mm EPBD. PMID:26228364

  17. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation in comparison with endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of large common bile duct stone

    PubMed Central

    Minakari, Mahammad; Samani, Rahil R.; Shavakhi, Ahmad; Jafari, Alireza; Alijanian, Neda; Hajalikhani, Mehri

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are concerns on the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) as an alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. We compared the efficacy and safety of EPBD and EST for removing large common bile duct (CBD) stones. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty patients with CBD stones of 10-20 mm were randomized to undergo EPBD or EST. A 15-mm dilatation balloon was used for EPBD. Cotton's criteria were used to determine the incidence of post-EPBD or post-EST complications. CBD stone removal and complications were compared between the two methods. Results: CBD stones were completely removed in 97.5% of the EPBD and 96.2% of the EST group (P = 0.5). The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis (11.2% vs 8.7%) and bleeding (1.2% vs 1.2%) were similar between the EPBD and EST groups (P > 0.05). Perforation did not occur in any patient. Conclusions: EPBD with 15-mm dilator balloon appears to be equally safe and effective compared with EST for removal of large CBD stones. So because of low complication and high success rate we recommend EPBD as the preferred method for removal of large (10-20 mm) CBD stones. PMID:24516846

  18. Large balloon dilation post endoscopic sphincterotomy in removal of difficult common bile duct stones: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Olivier; Bommelaer, Gilles; Abergel, Armando; Poincloux, Laurent

    2014-06-28

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the standard therapy in common bile duct (CBD) stones extraction. Large stones (≥ 12 mm) or multiple stones extraction may be challenging after ES alone. Endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation (ESLBD) has been described as an alternative to ES in these indications. Efficacy, safety, cost-effectiveness and technical aspects of the procedure have been here reviewed. PubMed and Google Scholar search resulted in forty-one articles dealing with CBD stone extraction with 12 mm or more dilation balloons after ES. ESLBD is at least as effective as ES, and reduces the need for additional mechanical lithotripsy. Adverse events rates are not statistically different after ESLBD compared to ES for pancreatitis, bleeding and perforation. However, particular attention should be paid in patients with CBD strictures, which is identified as a risk factor of perforation. ESLBD is slightly cost-effective compared to ES. A small sphincterotomy is usually performed, and may reduce bleeding rates compared to full sphincterotomy. Dilation is performed with 12-20 mm enteral balloons. Optimal inflation time is yet to be determined. The procedure can be performed safely even in patients with peri-ampullary diverticula and surgically altered anatomy. ESLBD is effective and safe in the removal of large CBD stones, however, small sphincterotomy might be preferred and CBD strictures should be considered as a relative contraindication. PMID:24976713

  19. Biliary Tract Anatomy and its Relationship with Venous Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S.; Sharma, Malay

    2013-01-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

  20. Biliary tract anatomy and its relationship with venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S; Sharma, Malay

    2014-02-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

  1. Percutaneous catheter drainage in intraabdominal fluid collections including infected biliary ducts and gallbladders

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.H.; Frederick, P.R.; Tocino, I.; Bahr, A.L.

    1982-12-01

    Sixty-five abscesses, including 6 infected biliary systems and 15 sterile fluid collections, were treated by percutaneous catheter drainage in 77 febrile patients who were evaluated by computerized tomography or ultrasonography of intraabdominal infection. Percutaneous catheter drainage and systemic antibiotic administration without surgery provided satisfactory control of infection in 52 of 65 abscesses (80 percent). Catheter drainage followed by surgical exploration for abscess control was performed in an additional 5 of 65 abscesses (7 percent). Nine death (14 percent) occurred in the abscess group of 64 patients. In 15 patients, aspirations, Gram stain, and culture of the abnormal fluid collection revealed sterile fluid. Drainage with a single catheter allowed complete resolution in 14 of 15 sterile collections. Surgery was performed electively in one patient with a fistula from a pancreatic pseudocyst in the small bowel. No deaths occurred in the noninfected group of 15 patients, 2 of whom underwent drainage of coexisting abscesses.

  2. Dendritic Cells Regulate Treg-Th17 Axis in Obstructive Phase of Bile Duct Injury in Murine Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shao-tao; Wang, Xin-xing; Cao, Guo-qing; Li, Shuai; Lei, Hai-yan; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Several cell types are considered to be effector cells in bile duct injury in rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced experimental biliary atresia (BA). Here, we identified an increased T helper 17 (Th17) cell population in a BA mode. By depleting the Th17 cells, the BA symptoms (onset of jaundice, acholic stools and retarded growth) were attenuated and the survival rate was improved. Furthermore, we found that in mice with BA, the percentage of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells decreased along with the increased percentage of Th17 cells. However, the absolute numbers of Treg and Th17 cells were both increased in liver of RRV-injected mice compared to saline-injected mice. The proportion of Th17 cells at 7 days post-infection was decreased if Treg cells isolated from normal adult mice, but not Treg cells from the livers of mice with BA, were intraperitoneally transferred on day 5 of life. In vitro experiments also showed that Treg cells from mice with BA had a diminished suppressive effect on Th17 cell generation. To determine the mechanisms, we investigated the production of cytokines in the liver. The level of IL-6, which has been shown to be abundantly secreted by activated dendritic cells (DCs), was remarkably elevated. Importantly, in a Treg/Th17 cell suppression assay, IL-6 was demonstrated to paralyze the Treg cells’ suppressive effect on Th17 cells and eventually the unrestrained increase of Th17 cells contributed to bile duct injury. In conclusion, the DC-regulated Treg-Th17 axis, probably in conjunction with other effector T cells, aggravates progressive inflammatory injury at the time of ductal obstruction. PMID:26325187

  3. IMP3 expression in lesions of the biliary tract: a marker for high-grade dysplasia and an independent prognostic factor in bile duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Riener, Marc-Oliver; Fritzsche, Florian R; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Jochum, Wolfram; Kristiansen, Glen

    2009-10-01

    The oncofetal protein IMP3 (insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3) is expressed during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Various tumor types have been analyzed for IMP3 expression, which was exclusively found in tumor cells and correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and reduced overall survival. To our knowledge, IMP3 expression has not been investigated in bile duct carcinomas. Using large tissue sections from resection specimens of the extrahepatic biliary tract, we analyzed IMP3 in normal bile ducts (n = 36), bile ducts with acute inflammation and reactive epithelial changes (n = 26), low-grade dysplasia (n = 9), and high-grade dysplasia (n = 11). Furthermore, IMP3 expression was assessed in bile duct carcinoma (n = 115) using clinically well-characterized tissue microarrays. The findings were correlated with clinical-pathologic parameters including survival. High-grade dysplasia was strongly positive for IMP3 in all cases studied compared with no or weak expression in normal, inflamed, and low-grade dysplastic bile ducts. Of the bile duct carcinomas 58.3% (67/115) were strongly positive for IMP3, which was associated with a higher proliferation rate (P = .004) and p53 positivity (P = .022). Patients with strong IMP3 expression had significantly reduced overall survival (P = .037) similarly to the subgroup of pT3 carcinomas (P = .007). In multivariate analysis, IMP3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = .040, RR = 1.809). This comprehensive study shows that IMP3 is an independent prognostic biomarker in bile duct carcinoma. In addition, it may be a marker for high-grade dysplasia in the extrahepatic biliary tract. PMID:19467694

  4. EUS-Guided Biliary Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc; Bories, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The echoendoscopic biliary drainage is an option to treat obstructive jaundices when ERCP drainage fails. These procedures compose alternative methods to the side of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and it was only possible by the continuous development and improvement of echoendoscopes and accessories. The development of linear setorial array echoendoscopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to diagnostic and therapeutic dimenion on echoendoscopy capabilities, opening the possibility to perform punction over direct ultrasonographic view. Despite of the high success rate and low morbidity of biliary drainage obtained by ERCP, difficulty could be found at the presence of stent tumor ingrown, tumor gut compression, periampulary diverticula, and anatomic variation. The echoendoscopic technique starts performing punction and contrast of the left biliary tree. When performed from gastric wall, the access is made through hepatic segment III. From duodenum, direct common bile duct punction. Dilatation is required before stent introduction, and a plastic or metallic stent is introduced. This phrase should be replaced by: diathermic dilatation of the puncturing tract is required using a 6F cystostome. The technical success of hepaticogastrostomy is near 98%, and complications are present in 36%: pneumoperitoneum, choleperitoneum, infection, and stent disfunction. To prevent bile leakage, we have used the 2 stent techniques, the first stent introduced was a long uncovered metallic stent (8 or 10?cm), and inside this first stent a second fully covered stent of 6?cm was delivered to bridge the bile duct and the stomach. Choledochoduodenostomy overall success rate is 92% and described complications include, in frequency order, pneumoperitoneum and focal bile peritonitis, present in 19%. By the last 10 years, the technique was especially performed in reference centers, by ERCP experienced groups, and this seems to be a general guideline to safer procedure execution. PMID:21860619

  5. Adenomas involving the extrahepatic biliary tree are rare but have an aggressive clinical course.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kah Poh; Nautsch, Deborah; Mueller, James; Desilets, David; Mehendiratta, Vaibhav

    2016-02-01

    Biliary adenomas that are usually found in surgically removed gallbladders are rare, but can also occur in the extrahepatic biliary tree. We present a case series of extrahepatic bile duct adenomas at our institution, along with a review of the literature. All three patients with extrahepatic biliary adenomas (two in the common bile ducts, one in the hepatic duct) were female with a mean age of 74 years. On initial presentation, none of the patients had obstructive jaundice but two of the three patients had symptoms of biliary origin. Case 1 is an 85-year-old woman with an incidental biliary dilation seen on chest imaging; endoscopic ultrasound revealed a sessile adenomatous polyp in the distal bile duct. The patient refused surgery and presented with occlusive biliary stricture and jaundice 5 months after initial presentation, with cytology confirming malignant progression. Case 2 is a 78-year-old woman with a history of primary sclerosing cholangitis and who presented with cholangitis, and Gram-negative sepsis. A polypoid lesion was seen on imaging in the common hepatic duct and direct cholangioscopy with biopsies confirmed the presence of adenoma with high grade dysplasia. The patient underwent successful total bile duct resection and hepaticojejunostomy but represented 1 year later with diffuse metastatic disease to the bone, liver, and peritoneum. Case 3 is a 61-year-old woman who presented with symptoms suggestive of gallbladder pathology and was found to have a polypoid bile duct lesion on intraoperative cholangiogram. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy showed an adenomatous polyp with high grade dysplasia involving the distal common bile duct. The patient underwent distal bile duct resection with choledochojejunostomy but presented with jaundice 4 years after surgery. She was found to have adenocarcinoma involving the small bowel in the Roux limb of jejunum and transverse colon. All three patients in our series presented with interval gastrointestinal malignancy and we therefore recommend aggressive surgical intervention and close postoperative surveillance when diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct adenoma is made. PMID:26878036

  6. Adenomas involving the extrahepatic biliary tree are rare but have an aggressive clinical course

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kah Poh; Nautsch, Deborah; Mueller, James; Desilets, David; Mehendiratta, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Biliary adenomas that are usually found in surgically removed gallbladders are rare, but can also occur in the extrahepatic biliary tree. We present a case series of extrahepatic bile duct adenomas at our institution, along with a review of the literature. All three patients with extrahepatic biliary adenomas (two in the common bile ducts, one in the hepatic duct) were female with a mean age of 74 years. On initial presentation, none of the patients had obstructive jaundice but two of the three patients had symptoms of biliary origin. Case 1 is an 85-year-old woman with an incidental biliary dilation seen on chest imaging; endoscopic ultrasound revealed a sessile adenomatous polyp in the distal bile duct. The patient refused surgery and presented with occlusive biliary stricture and jaundice 5 months after initial presentation, with cytology confirming malignant progression. Case 2 is a 78-year-old woman with a history of primary sclerosing cholangitis and who presented with cholangitis, and Gram-negative sepsis. A polypoid lesion was seen on imaging in the common hepatic duct and direct cholangioscopy with biopsies confirmed the presence of adenoma with high grade dysplasia. The patient underwent successful total bile duct resection and hepaticojejunostomy but represented 1 year later with diffuse metastatic disease to the bone, liver, and peritoneum. Case 3 is a 61-year-old woman who presented with symptoms suggestive of gallbladder pathology and was found to have a polypoid bile duct lesion on intraoperative cholangiogram. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy showed an adenomatous polyp with high grade dysplasia involving the distal common bile duct. The patient underwent distal bile duct resection with choledochojejunostomy but presented with jaundice 4 years after surgery. She was found to have adenocarcinoma involving the small bowel in the Roux limb of jejunum and transverse colon. All three patients in our series presented with interval gastrointestinal malignancy and we therefore recommend aggressive surgical intervention and close postoperative surveillance when diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct adenoma is made.

  7. Less invasive causal treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation: a case report, literature review and suggestion of a CT- or MRI-guided intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Ole; Osmonov, Daniar; Harde, Jonas; Girolami, Guido; Wedel, Thilo; Schäfer, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Uni- or bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is a rare but correctable cause of infertility, chronic pelvic pain and postejaculatory pain. EDO is a congenital or acquired condition, it is the underlying cause of infertility in approximately 5% of infertile men. If acquired, the etiology often remains unresolved, but prostatitis or urethritis with post-inflammatory adhesion of the duct walls seems to be a common underlying pathomechanism. Although a certain constellation of physicochemical semen parameters may lead to correct diagnosis, EDO often resembles a diagnosis by exclusion. Imaging of acquired EDO remains a challenge and the established surgical therapy, transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts (TURED), leads to a low rate of natural conception and a high rate of complications such as reflux of urine and epididymitis. We present a case of a male with suspected EDO who underwent a combined approach to both, semi-invasive diagnosis and therapy by transrectal puncture of the seminal vesicles and antegrade balloon-dilation of the ejaculatory ducts. Possibilities and pitfalls of this procedure are described and the literature is reviewed. Furthermore, we suggest a CT- or MRI-guided, percutaneous intervention for treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation and demonstrate initial steps of this procedure with a body donor. We call this new procedure PTED (percutaneous transgluteal ejaculatory ductoplasty). PMID:22557939

  8. Risk factors of biliary intervention by imaging after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Kyu; Choi, Jong Young; Yeo, Dong Myung; Lee, Young Joon; Yoon, Seung Kew; Bae, Si Hyun; Jang, Jeong Won; Kim, Hee Yeon; Kim, Dong Goo; You, Young Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors of biliary intervention using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 196 patients who underwent right lobe LDLT between 2006 and 2010 at a single liver transplantation center. Direct duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis was performed in all 196 patients. MRCP images routinely taken 1 mo after LDLT were analyzed to identify risk factors for biliary intervention during follow-up, such as retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Two experienced radiologists evaluated the MRCP findings, including the anastomosis site angle on three-dimensional images, the length of the filling defect on maximum intensity projection, bile duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and leakage. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients underwent biliary intervention during follow-up. The anastomosis site angle [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-0.75, P < 0.001], a filling defect in the anastomosis site (HR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.41-3.38, P = 0.001), and biliary leakage (HR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.02-6.20, P = 0.048) on MRCP were identified in the multivariate analysis as significant risk factors for biliary intervention during follow-up. Moreover, a narrower anastomosis site angle (i.e., below the median angle of 113.3°) was associated with earlier biliary intervention (38.5 ± 4.2 mo vs 62. 1 ± 4.1 mo, P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis comparing biliary intervention-free survival according to the anastomosis site angle revealed that lower survival was associated with a narrower anastomosis site angle (36.3% vs 62.0%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The biliary anastomosis site angle in MRCP after LDLT may be associated with the need for biliary intervention. PMID:26900296

  9. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor's biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor. PMID:20677347

  10. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother’s liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor’s biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor. PMID:20677347

  11. Double-balloon enteroscopy for ERCP in patients with Billroth II anatomy: results of a large series of papillary large-balloon dilation for biliary stone removal

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Liang; Liu, Nai-Jen; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Chin; Tsui, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ching-Song; Lin, Cheng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Data on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrphy (ERCP) in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and the use of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) for the removal of common bile duct stones in Billroth II anatomy are limited. The aims of the study were to evaluate the success of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and examine the efficacy of EPLBD (???10?mm) for the removal of common bile duct stones. Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy in whom standard ERCP had failed underwent DBE-assisted ERCP. DBE success was defined as visualizing the papilla and ERCP success as completing the intended intervention. The clinical results of EPLBD for the removal of common bile duct stones were analyzed. Results: DBE was successful in 73 of 77 patients (95?%), and ERCP success was achieved in 67 of these 73 (92?%). Therefore, the rate of successful DBE-assisted ERCP was 87?% (67 of a total of 77 patients). The reasons for ERCP failure (n?=?10) included tumor obstruction (n?=?2), adhesion obstruction (n?=?2), failed cannulation (n?=?3), failed stone removal (n?=?2), and bowel perforation (n?=?1). Overall DBE-assisted ERCP complications occurred in 5 of 77 patients (6.5?%). A total of 48 patients (34 male, mean age 75.5 years) with common bile duct stones underwent EPLBD. Complete stone removal in the first session was accomplished in 36 patients (75?%); mechanical lithotripsy was required in 1 patient. EPLBD-related mild perforation occurred in 2 patients (4?%). No acute pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions: DBE permits therapeutic ERCP in patients who have a difficult Billroth II gastrectomy with a high success rate and acceptable complication rates. EPLBD is effective and safe for the removal of common bile duct stones in patients with Billroth II anatomy. PMID:26171434

  12. Small sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation vs sphincterotomy alone for removal of common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shi-Bin; Meng, Hua; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary large diameter balloon dilation (EPLBD) following limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and EST alone for removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: We retrospectively compared EST + EPLBD (group A, n = 64) with EST alone (group B, n = 89) for the treatment of large or multiple bile duct stones. The success rate of stone clearance, procedure-related complications and incidents, frequency of mechanical lithotripsy use, and recurrent stones were recorded. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding periampullary diverticula (35.9% vs 34.8%, P > 0.05), pre-cut sphincterotomy (6.3% vs 6.7%, P > 0.05), size (12.1 ± 2.0 mm vs 12.9 ± 2.6 mm, P > 0.05) and number (2.2 ± 1.9 vs 2.4 ± 2.1, P > 0.05) of stones or the diameters of CBD (15.1 ± 3.3 mm vs 15.4 ± 3.6 mm, P > 0.05). The rates of overall stone removal and stone removal in the first session were not significantly different between the two groups [62/64 (96.9%) vs 84/89 (94.4%), P > 0.05; and 58/64 (90.6%) vs 79/89 (88.8%), P > 0.05, respectively]. The rates of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia were not significantly different between the two groups [3/64 (4.7%) vs 4/89 (4.5%), P > 0.05; 7/64 (10.9%) vs 9/89 (10.1%), P > 0.05, respectively]. There were no cases of perforation, acute cholangitis, or cholecystitis in the two groups. The rate of bleeding and the recurrence of CBD stones were significantly lower in group A than in group B [1/64 (1.6%) vs 5/89 (5.6%), P < 0.05; 1/64 (1.6%) vs 6/89 (6.7%), P < 0.05, respectively]. CONCLUSION: EST + EPLBD is an effective and safe endoscopic approach for removing large or multiple CBD stones. PMID:25548495

  13. Biliary cast - complication of cholangitis and pancreatitis in a pancreas divisum patient.

    PubMed

    Graur, F; Neagos, H; Cavasi, A; Al Hajjar, N

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare cause of biliary cast secondary to cholangitis and pancreatitis, in a 60 year old female patient with pancreas divisum. She was admitted in our hospital with an acute pancreatitis (alcoholic etiology was excluded) complicated with pancreatic abscess and obstructive jaundice. The patient had undergone a complex surgical intervention: cholecystectomy,choledocotomy with extraction of the biliary thrombus,external biliary drainage through a T tube, evacuation of the pancreatic abscess, sequestrectomy, peritoneal lavage and multipledrainages. In spite of the surgical and intensive care support,the biliary drainage through the T tube had ceased and the obstructive jaundice had reappeared in a more accentuated fashion. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed complete pancreas divisum and diffuse multiple stenosis alternating with dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary tree (a pattern of sclerosing cholangitis). An endoscopic prosthesis was placed inside the right hepatic bile duct. Despite the use of the combined endoscopic plus UDCA (ursodeoxycholic acid) treatment for the management of the biliary cast syndrome, the evolution was unfavorable with hepatic coma,septic shock and finally death. The necropsy revealed an extensive biliary cast in the entire biliary tree and pyogeniccholangitis. The patient had a fatal outcome despite all the surgical, endoscopic and conservative efforts, with development of intraductal biliary obstruction and secondary pyogenic cholangitis. Biliary cast syndrome is a rare but very aggressive entity and its management is often difficult despite the advances in surgery and endoscopy treatments. PMID:25375059

  14. Fight-or-flight: murine unilateral ureteral obstruction causes extensive proximal tubular degeneration, collecting duct dilatation, and minimal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Michael S.; Thornhill, Barbara A.; Minor, Jordan J.; Gordon, Katherine A.; Galarreta, Carolina I.

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is the most widely used animal model of progressive renal disease. Although renal interstitial fibrosis is commonly used as an end point, recent studies reveal that obstructive injury to the glomerulotubular junction leads to the formation of atubular glomeruli. To quantitate the effects of UUO on the remainder of the nephron, renal tubular and interstitial responses were characterized in mice 7 and 14 days after UUO or sham operation under anesthesia. Fractional proximal tubular mass, cell proliferation, and cell death were measured by morphometry. Superoxide formation was identified by nitro blue tetrazolium, and oxidant injury was localized by 4-hydroxynonenol and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Fractional areas of renal vasculature, interstitial collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin were also measured. After 14 days of UUO, the obstructed kidney loses 19% of parenchymal mass, with a 65% reduction in proximal tubular mass. Superoxide formation is localized to proximal tubules, which undergo oxidant injury, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, with widespread mitochondrial loss, resulting in tubular collapse. In contrast, mitosis and apoptosis increase in dilated collecting ducts, which remain patent through epithelial cell remodeling. Relative vascular volume fraction does not change, and interstitial matrix components do not exceed 15% of total volume fraction of the obstructed kidney. These unique proximal and distal nephron cellular responses reflect differential “fight-or-flight” responses to obstructive injury and provide earlier indexes of renal injury than do interstitial compartment responses. Therapies to prevent or retard progression of renal disease should include targeting proximal tubule injury as well as interstitial fibrosis. PMID:22535799

  15. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carry the bile to your small intestine. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a ... liver failure. A rare form of bile duct disease called biliary atresia occurs in infants. It is ...

  16. Percutaneous papillary large balloon dilation during percutaneous cholangioscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large bile-duct stones: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Young; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng

    2015-03-01

    When access to a major duodenal papilla or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has failed, percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy (PTCS-L) may be useful for removing common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, the feasibility and usefulness of percutaneous transhepatic papillary large-balloon dilation (PPLBD) during PTCS-L for the removal of large CBD stones has not been established. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of PPLBD for the treatment of large CBD stones. Eleven patients with large CBD stones in whom the access to the major papilla or bile duct had failed were enrolled prospectively. Papillary dilation was performed using a large (12-20 mm) dilation balloon catheter via the percutaneous transhepatic route. Post-procedure adverse events and efficacy of the stone retrieval were measured. The initial success rate of PPLBD was 100%. No patient required a basket to remove a stone after PPLBD. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy was required in 2 (18.2%) patients. The median time to complete stone removal after PPLBD was 17.8 min and no adverse events occurred after PPLBD. Asymptomatic hyperamylasemia was not encountered in any patients. This study indicates that PPLBD is safe and effective for removal of large CBD stones. PMID:25729250

  17. The long-term outcome of hepaticojejunostomy in the treatment of benign bile duct strictures.

    PubMed Central

    Tocchi, A; Costa, G; Lepre, L; Liotta, G; Mazzoni, G; Sita, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors review the treatment and outcome of patients with benign bile duct strictures who underwent biliary enteric repair. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors conducted a retrospective review of all clinical records of patients referred for treatment of benign bile duct strictures caused by surgery, trauma, or common bile duct lithiasis or choledochal cyst. The authors performed univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical and pathologic factors in relation to patient outcome and survivals. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with documented benign bile duct strictures underwent hepaticojejunostomy, choledochojejunostomy, and intrahepatic cholangiojejunostomy during a 15-year period (January 1975 to December 1989). Morbidity, mortality, and patient survival rates were measured. RESULTS: Early and late outcomes correlated neither with demographic and clinical features at presentation nor with etiologic or pathologic characteristics of the stricture. Best results correlated with high biliary enteric anastomoses and degree of common bile duct dilatation independently of bile duct stricture location. CONCLUSIONS: High biliary enteric anastomosis provides a safe, durable, and highly effective solution to the problem of benign strictures of the bile duct. Transanastomotic tube stenting is unnecessary. Endoscopic and percutaneous transhepatic dilatation seems more appropriate for the treatment of patients in poor condition and those with anastomotic strictures. PMID:8757379

  18. Obstructive Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas Taylor

    1982-01-01

    The techniques that have come into general use for diagnosing problems of obstructive jaundice, particularly in the past ten years, have been ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging, transhepatic percutaneous cholangiography using a long thin needle, transhepatic percutaneous drainage for obstructive jaundice due to malignancy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the papilla (ERCP), endoscopic sphincterotomy and choledochoscopy. It is helpful to review obstructive jaundice due to gallstones from a clinical point of view and the use of the directable stone basket for the retrieval of retained stones, choledochoscopy for the same purpose using the rigid versus flexible choledochoscopes and dissolution of stones using various fluids through a T tube. The use of dilation of the sphincter for the treatment of stenosis or stricture of the bile duct is now frowned on; rather, treatment choices are between the use of sphincteroplasty versus choledochoduodenostomy and choledochojejunostomy. Any patient with obstructive jaundice or anyone undergoing manipulation of the bile ducts should have prophylactic antibiotic therapy. The current literature regarding treatment of cancer of the bile ducts is principally devoted to the new ideas relative to treatment of tumors of the upper third, especially the bifurcation tumors that are now being resected rather than bypassed. Tumors of the distal bile duct are still being resected by focal operations. Finally, it is now felt that early operation for congenital biliary atresia and choledochal cysts gives the best prognosis, with preoperative diagnosis now possible with the use of ultrasonography and ERCP. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:7051569

  19. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: resect, dilate, or transplant?

    PubMed Central

    Ahrendt, S A; Pitt, H A; Kalloo, A N; Venbrux, A C; Klein, A S; Herlong, H F; Coleman, J; Lillemoe, K D; Cameron, J L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study examines the results of extrahepatic biliary resection, nonoperative endoscopic biliary dilation with or without percutaneous stenting, and liver transplantation in the management of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a progressive inflammatory disease leading to secondary biliary cirrhosis. The most effective management of sclerosing cholangitis before the onset of cirrhosis remains unclear. METHODS: From 1980 to 1994, 146 patients with PSC were managed with either resection of the extrahepatic bile ducts and long-term transhepatic stenting (50 patients), nonoperative endoscopic biliary dilation with or without percutaneous stenting (54 patients), medical therapy (28 patients), and/or liver transplantation (21 patients). RESULTS: Procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates were similar between surgically resected and nonoperatively managed patients. In noncirrhotic patients, the serum bilirubin level was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from preoperative levels (8.3+/-1.5 mg/dL) 1 (1.7+/-0.4 mg/dL) and 3 (2.7+/-0.9 mg/ dL) years after resection, but not after endoscopic or percutaneous management. For noncirrhotic PSC patients, overall 5-year survival (85% vs. 59%) and survival until death or transplantation (82% vs. 46%) were significantly longer (p < 0.05) after resection than after nonoperative dilation with or without stenting. For cirrhotic patients, survival after liver transplantation was longer than after resection or nonoperative dilation with or without stenting. Five patients developed cholangiocarcinoma, including three (6%) of the nonoperatively managed patients but none of the resected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In carefully selected noncirrhotic patients with PSC, resection and long-term stenting remains a good option. Patients with cirrhosis should undergo liver transplantation. PMID:9527065

  20. Twenty-Second versus Sixty-Second Dilation Duration in Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for the Treatment of Small Common Bile Duct Stones: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Byoung Wook; Lee, Tae Hoon; Song, Tae Jun; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Kwon, Chang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) has been advocated as an alternative therapy to endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, there is no established consensus on the optimal balloon dilation duration (BDD). We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complications between the 20- and 60-second EPBD groups. Methods A total of 228 patients with small CBD stones (?12 mm) were randomly assigned to undergo EPBD with a 20- or 60-second duration at six institutions. We evaluated baseline patient characteristics, endoscopic data, clinical outcomes, and procedure-related complications. In addition, we analyzed risk factors for postprocedural pancreatitis. Results CBD stones were removed successfully in 107 of 109 patients (98.1%) in the 20-second group and in 112 of 119 patients (94.1%) in the 60-second group (p=0.146). Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in seven patients (6.4%) in the 20-second group and nine patients (7.5%) in the 60-second group (p=0.408). In multivariate analysis, contrast dye injection into the pancreatic duct is a significant risk factor for post-EPBD pancreatitis. Conclusions Based on the data showing that there were no significant differences in safety and efficacy between the two BDD groups, 20 seconds of BDD may be adequate for treatment of small CBD stones with EPBD. PMID:25674528

  1. [Prophylaxis of injuries of biliary ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: clinical recommendations of Ukrainian association of specialists for miniinvasive, endoscopic and laser technologies].

    PubMed

    Nichita?lo, M E; Grubnik, V V; Skums, A V; Ogorodnik, P V; Tkachenko, A I; Malinovski', A V

    2013-06-01

    Wide introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCHE) caused during last 20 years a significant enhancement of rate of the biliary ducts injuries (BDI). Taking into account the experience gained in performing of more than 40,000 operations of LCHE in a leading clinics, including such in a technically complex situations, as well as experience of more than 500 operations performance for BDI, clinical recommendations, based on principles of a substantiality medicine were elaborated. More than 100 sources of foreign and domestic literature were analyzed, summarizing the results of more than 150,000 operations of LCHE, special attention was drawn to the sources I (meta-analysis and prospective randomized investigations) and II (systematic reviews, thoroughly planned prospective comparative investigations) levels of substantiality. Every paragraph is accompanied by a certain level of a recommendation strength (RS, A-C). It is necessary to follow these recommendations strictly today. PMID:23987021

  2. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy: the diagnostic dilemma of a recurrent biliary stricture. Should surgery be offered for all?

    PubMed Central

    Seow-En, Isaac; Chiow, Adrian Kah Heng; Tan, Siong San; Poh, Wee Teng

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old man presented with the initial diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice. CT of the abdomen revealed an oedematous pancreas and dilated common bile duct (CBD), without gallstones. After failure of initial retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a percutaneous biliary catheter was inserted with good drainage. Subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a 2?cm distal CBD stricture. A biliary stent was inserted past the stricture. Biopsy of the stricture, brush cytology of the bile duct and fine needle aspiration of pancreatic head under endoscopic ultrasound guidance were negative for malignancy. Autoimmune screen was negative as well. However, the patient represented with cholangitis requiring repeat ERCP and insertion of a second biliary stent. He finally underwent cholecystectomy with excision of the distal CBD and Roux-En-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Histology revealed diffuse eosinophilic cholecystitis and cholangitis. A retrospective review of the blood results showed persistent eosinophilia in full blood count measurements from presentation and persisting throughout the treatment period. PMID:24390967

  3. MR cholangiopancreatography of the pancreas and biliary system: a review of the current applications.

    PubMed

    Hossary, Sandy Hassan; Zytoon, Ashraf Anas; Eid, Mohamed; Hamed, Ahmed; Sharaan, Mohamed; Ebrahim, Ahmed Abd El-Maguid

    2014-01-01

    MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is still a rapidly evolving technique, but it has been already accepted as clinically useful and is widely used to evaluate biliary or pancreatic diseases. The advantages of this technique are that it does not use contrast media or ionizing radiation, it is noninvasive and complication free, and the examination is relatively short. MRCP has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing biliary dilatation and for determining the site and cause of stenosis. With further improvements of hardware and technique, MRCP is expected to replace diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to examine the biliary and pancreatic ducts in the near future. The other applications include evaluation of primary sclerosing cholangitis, stenosis after liver transplantation, and bilioenteric anastomoses. This article reviews the current applications of MRCP in the evaluation of the pancreas and the biliary system. PMID:24290199

  4. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-In; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month. PMID:26155279

  5. Endoscopic Treatment of Biliary Stenosis in Patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis – Report of 7 Consecutive Patients with Serial ERC Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovic, Marija; Junghanss, Thomas; Veeser, Mira; Weber, Tim F.; Sauer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Biliary vessel pathology due to alveolar echicococcosis (AE) results in variable combinations of stenosis, necrosis and inflammation. Modern management strategies for patients with cholestasis are desperately needed. The aim is proof of principle of serial ERC (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) balloon dilation for AE biliary pathology. Methods Retrospective case series of seven consecutive patients with AE-associated biliary pathology and ERC treatment in an interdisciplinary endoscopy unit at a University Hospital which hosts a national echinococcosis treatment center. The AE patient cohort consists of 106 patients with AE of the liver of which 13 presented with cholestasis. 6/13 received bilio-digestive anastomosis and 7/13 patients were treated by ERC and are reported here. Biliary stricture balloon dilation was performed with 18-Fr balloons at the initial and with 24-Fr balloons at subsequent interventions. If indicated 10 Fr plastic stents were placed. Results Six patients were treated by repeated balloon dilation and stenting, one by stenting only. After an acute phase of 6 months with repeated balloon dilation, three patients showed “sustained clinical success” and four patients “assisted therapeutic success,” of which one has not yet reached the six month endpoint. In one patient, sustained success could not be achieved despite repeated insertion of plastic stents and balloon dilation, but with temporary insertion of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS). There was no loss to follow up. No major complications were observed. Conclusions Serial endoscopic dilation is a standard tool in the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Serial endoscopic intervention with balloon dilation combined with benzimidazole treatment can re-establish and maintain biliary duct patency in AE associated pathology and probably contributes to avoid or postpone bilio-digestive anastomosis. This approach is in accordance with current ERC guidelines and is minimally disruptive for patients. PMID:26910822

  6. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

  7. Current diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-28

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remain a significant biliary complication and play an important role in graft and patient survival. Benign biliary strictures after transplantation are classified into anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures. These two types differ in presentation, outcome, and response to therapy. The leading causes of biliary strictures include impaired blood supply, technical errors during surgery, and biliary anomalies. Because patients usually have non-specific symptoms, a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Magnetic resonance cholangiography has gained widespread acceptance as a reliable noninvasive tool for detecting biliary complications. Endoscopy has played an increasingly prominent role in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary strictures after LDLT. Endoscopic management in LDLT recipients may be more challenging than in deceased donor liver transplantation patients because of the complex nature of the duct-to-duct reconstruction. Repeated aggressive endoscopic treatment with dilation and the placement of multiple plastic stents is considered the first-line treatment for biliary strictures. Percutaneous and surgical treatments are now reserved for patients for whom endoscopic management fails and for those with multiple, inaccessible intrahepatic strictures or Roux-en-Y anastomoses. Recent advances in enteroscopy enable treatment, even in these latter cases. Direct cholangioscopy, another advanced form of endoscopy, allows direct visualization of the inner wall of the biliary tree and is expected to facilitate stenting or stone extraction. Rendezvous techniques can be a good option when the endoscopic approach to the biliary stricture is unfeasible. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. PMID:26819525

  8. Current diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remain a significant biliary complication and play an important role in graft and patient survival. Benign biliary strictures after transplantation are classified into anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures. These two types differ in presentation, outcome, and response to therapy. The leading causes of biliary strictures include impaired blood supply, technical errors during surgery, and biliary anomalies. Because patients usually have non-specific symptoms, a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Magnetic resonance cholangiography has gained widespread acceptance as a reliable noninvasive tool for detecting biliary complications. Endoscopy has played an increasingly prominent role in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary strictures after LDLT. Endoscopic management in LDLT recipients may be more challenging than in deceased donor liver transplantation patients because of the complex nature of the duct-to-duct reconstruction. Repeated aggressive endoscopic treatment with dilation and the placement of multiple plastic stents is considered the first-line treatment for biliary strictures. Percutaneous and surgical treatments are now reserved for patients for whom endoscopic management fails and for those with multiple, inaccessible intrahepatic strictures or Roux-en-Y anastomoses. Recent advances in enteroscopy enable treatment, even in these latter cases. Direct cholangioscopy, another advanced form of endoscopy, allows direct visualization of the inner wall of the biliary tree and is expected to facilitate stenting or stone extraction. Rendezvous techniques can be a good option when the endoscopic approach to the biliary stricture is unfeasible. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. PMID:26819525

  9. Pure Laparoscopic Left Hemihepatectomy for Hepatic Peribiliary Cysts with Biliary Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Akira; Suto, Takayuki; Sasaki, Akira; Nitta, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Seika; Endo, Fumitaka; Harada, Kazuho; Ishida, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hepatic peribiliary cysts (HPCs) usually originate due to the cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic extramural peribiliary glands. We describe our rare experience of pure laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy (PLLH) in a patient with HPCs accompanied by a component of biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN). Case Presentation. A 65-year-old man was referred for further investigation of mild hepatic dysfunction. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed dilatation of the left-sided intrahepatic bile duct, and biliary cytology showed class III cells. The patient was highly suspected of having left side-dominated cholangiocarcinoma and underwent PLLH. Microscopic findings revealed multiple cystic dilatations of the extramural peribiliary glands; hence, this lesion was diagnosed as HPCs. The resected intrahepatic bile duct showed that the normal ductal lumen comprised low columnar epithelia; however, front formation on the BilIN was observed in some parts of the intrahepatic bile duct, indicating that the BilIN coexisted with HPCs. Conclusion. We chose surgical therapy for this patient owing to the presence of some features of biliary malignancy. We employed noble PLLH as a minimally invasive procedure for this patient.

  10. Intraductal ultrasonographic anatomy of biliary varices in patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Tadayuki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Hikichi, Takuto; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The term, portal biliopathy, denotes various biliary abnormalities, such as stenosis and/or dilatation of the bile duct, in patients with portal hypertension. These vascular abnormalities sometimes bring on an obstructive jaundice, but they are not clear which vessels participated in obstructive jaundice. The aim of present study was clear the bile ductal changes in patients with portal hypertension in hopes of establishing a therapeutic strategy for obstructive jaundice caused by biliary varices. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and thirty-seven patients who underwent intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for biliary abnormalities were enrolled. Portal biliopathy was analyzed using IDUS. Results: Biliary varices were identified in 11 (2.7%) patients. IDUS revealed biliary varices as multiple, hypoechoic features surrounding the bile duct wall. These varices could be categorized into one of two groups according to their location in the sectional image of bile duct: epicholedochal and paracholedochal. Epicholedochal varices were identified in all patients, but paracholedochal varices were observed only in patients with extrahepatic portal obstruction. Conclusion: IDUS was useful to characterize the anatomy of portal biliopathy in detail. PMID:25789284

  11. Thyroid hormone inhibits biliary growth in bile duct-ligated rats by PLC/IP(3)/Ca(2+)-dependent downregulation of SRC/ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giammarco; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Glaser, Shannon; Francis, Heather; Demorrow, Sharon; Marucci, Luca; Marzioni, Marco; Benedetti, Antonio; Venter, Julie; Vaculin, Bradley; Vaculin, Shelley; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2007-04-01

    The role of the thyroid hormone agonist 3,3',5 l-tri-iodothyronine (T3) on cholangiocytes is unknown. We evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of T3 on cholangiocyte proliferation of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. We assessed the expression of alpha(1)-, alpha(2)-, beta(1)-, and beta(2)-thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) by immunohistochemistry in liver sections from normal and BDL rats. BDL rats were treated with T3 (38.4 mug/day) or vehicle for 1 wk. We evaluated 1) biliary mass and apoptosis in liver sections and 2) proliferation in cholangiocytes. Serum-free T3 levels were measured by chemiluminescence. Purified BDL cholangiocytes were treated with 0.2% BSA or T3 (1 muM) in the absence/presence of U-73122 (PLC inhibitor) or BAPTA/AM (intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) before measurement of PCNA protein expression by immunoblots. The in vitro effects of T3 (1 muM) on 1) cAMP, IP(3), and Ca(2+) levels and 2) the phosphorylation of Src Tyr139 and Tyr530 (that, together, regulate Src activity) and ERK1/2 of BDL cholangiocytes were also evaluated. alpha(1)-, alpha(2)-, beta(1)-, and beta(2)-THRs were expressed by bile ducts of normal and BDL rats. In vivo, T3 decreased cholangiocyte proliferation of BDL rats. In vitro, T3 inhibition of PCNA protein expression was blocked by U-73122 and BAPTA/AM. Furthermore, T3 1) increased IP(3) and Ca(2+) levels and 2) decreased Src and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of BDL cholangiocytes. T3 inhibits cholangiocyte proliferation of BDL rats by PLC/IP(3)/Ca(2+)-dependent decreased phosphorylation of Src/ERK1/2. Activation of the intracellular signals triggered by T3 may modulate the excess of cholangiocyte proliferation in liver diseases. PMID:17192280

  12. Mucin-hypersecreting bile duct neoplasm characterized by clinicopathological resemblance to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Fukuzawa, Kengo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Aishima, Shinichi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Tsujita, Eiji; Harimoto, Norifumi; Harada, Noboru; Wakasugi, Kenzo; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is acceptable as a distinct disease entity, the concept of mucin-secreting biliary tumors has not been fully established. Case presentation We describe herein a case of mucin secreting biliary neoplasm. Imaging revealed a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter at the left lateral segment of the liver. Duodenal endoscopy revealed mucin secretion through an enlarged papilla of Vater. On the cholangiogram, the cystic lesion communicated with bile duct, and large filling defects caused by mucin were observed in the dilated common bile duct. This lesion was diagnosed as a mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. Left and caudate lobectomy of the liver with extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction was performed according to the possibility of the tumor's malignant behavior. Histological examination of the specimen revealed biliary cystic wall was covered by micropapillary neoplastic epithelium with mucin secretion lacking stromal invasion nor ovarian-like stroma. The patient has remained well with no evidence of recurrence for 38 months since her operation. Conclusion It is only recently that the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)," which is accepted as a distinct disease entity of the pancreas, has begun to be used for mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. This case also seemed to be intraductal papillary neoplasm with prominent cystic dilatation of the bile duct. PMID:17725824

  13. Interval Biliary Stent Placement Via Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystostomy: Another Approach to Palliative Treatment in Malignant Biliary Tract Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, James Mortimer, Alex; Kelly, Michael; Loveday, Eric

    2010-12-15

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure for providing gallbladder decompression, often in critically ill patients. It can be used in malignant biliary obstruction following failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography when the intrahepatic ducts are not dilated or when stent insertion is not possible via the bile ducts. In properly selected patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy in obstructive jaundice is a simple, safe, and rapid option for biliary decompression, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality involved with percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Subsequent use of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for definitive biliary stent placement is an attractive concept and leaves patients with no external drain. To the best of our knowledge, it has only been described on three previous occasions in the published literature, on each occasion forced by surgical or technical considerations. Traditionally, anatomic/technical considerations and the risk of bile leak have precluded such an approach, but improvements in catheter design and manufacture may now make it more feasible. We report a case of successful interval metal stent placement via percutaneous cholecystostomy which was preplanned and achieved excellent palliation for the patient. The pros and cons of the procedure and approach are discussed.

  14. Gallbladder and bile duct abnormalities in AIDS: sonographic findings in eight patients.

    PubMed

    Romano, A J; vanSonnenberg, E; Casola, G; Gosink, B B; Withers, C E; McCutchan, J A; Leopold, G R

    1988-01-01

    Gallbladder and biliary tract abnormalities were observed on sonography in eight patients with AIDS. The studies were obtained to evaluate right upper quadrant pain (two patients), tenderness (three patients), and abnormal liver function tests (eight patients). The two major sonographic findings were gallbladder wall thickening (eight patients), which often was marked, and bile duct dilatation (two patients). Gallbladder wall thickness varied from 4 to 15 mm and was greater than 1 cm in four patients. Follow-up sonograms in five patients showed increasing wall thickness in four and decreasing thickness in one, but these findings did not correlate well with the clinical status of the patient. Pericholecystic fluid was shown in three cases. None of the patients had gallstones. Common bile duct dilatation varied from 12 to 15 mm; no specific cause for dilatation was found by cholangiography. Mycobacterium avium intracellulare was recovered from the gallbladder in one patient, and Cryptosporidium was recovered from the duodenum in two patients. AIDS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder wall thickening or bile duct dilatation in the appropriate clinical setting. These findings may indicate opportunistic infection of the biliary tract. A disparity may exist between the mild symptoms and signs (or lack of symptoms and signs) related to the gallbladder and bile ducts and the sometimes marked sonographic abnormalities. PMID:3275444

  15. A case of cholecystohepatic duct with atrophic common hepatic duct

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, A; Hankins, J

    2003-01-01

    Background Cholecystohepatic ducts are rare congenital variants of the biliary tree. Case outline An 81-year-old woman presented with biliary colic and elevated liver function tests. An ERCP demonstrated a common bile duct stone and stricture of the common hepatic duct. An operative cholangiogram demonstrated an atrophic common hepatic duct and retrograde filling of the gallbladder through a large cholecystoheptic duct. The patient had a cholecystectomy and reconstructive cholecystohepatic duct jejunostomy. Discussion This case demonstrates a rare congenital anomaly where the gallbladder fills retrograde during an intraoperative cholangiogram despite clipping of the cystic duct. The major path of biliary drainage was through a large cholecystoheptic duct similar to a gallbladder interposition; however, the common hepatic duct was still present but atrophic. This anomaly has not been described previously. PMID:18332999

  16. Biliary cystic disease.

    PubMed

    Lipsett, Pamela A; Locke, Jayme E

    2006-04-01

    Biliary cystic disease, though uncommon, can present at a wide range of ages with a wide range of symptoms. Choledochal cysts are associated with the development of both cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Thus, most biliary cystic disease is best managed operatively. Many factors should be considered when performing surgery on patients with choledochal cysts, including age, presenting symptoms, cyst type, associated biliary stones, prior biliary surgery, intrahepatic strictures, hepatic atrophy/hypertrophy, biliary cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and associated biliary malignancy. When feasible, surgical treatment should consist of cholecystectomy and complete surgical excision of extrahepatic cysts with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Because the risk of recurrent cholangitis is significant and additional symptoms and problems are common, the use of long-term soft Silastic biliary stents (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI) should be considered when complex intrahepatic and extrahepatic cystic disease is present. Alternatively, the Roux-en-Y jejunal limb can be marked at the fascia for future percutaneous access. Reconstruction via hepaticoduodenostomy and jejunal interposition has been associated with increased postoperative pain due to bile reflux gastritis. Thus, hepaticojejunostomy reconstruction is recommended. For choledochal cysts involving the distal bile duct, the bile duct should be excised at the intrapancreatic portion. Resection of the pancreatic head should be reserved for patients with established malignancies. Surgical excision of the intrahepatic portion of the bile duct should be individualized to include preservation of hepatic parenchyma when the liver is not cirrhotic. If cirrhosis is advanced, hepatic transplantation may be indicated, but this is rare. Oncologic principles should be followed in the presence of a malignancy. Lifelong follow-up is required because of the possibility of a "field" defect increasing susceptibility to cancer throughout the biliary tract epithelium. PMID:16539871

  17. Partial biliary obstruction caused by chronic pancreatitis. An appraisal of indications for surgical biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Stahl, T J; Allen, M O; Ansel, H J; Vennes, J A

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a retrospective review of 38 patients with intrapancreatic bile duct strictures secondary to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The strictures were identified by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All patients with pancreatic cancer and gallstone pancreatitis were excluded. The mean alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin values were 344 +/- 57 IU/dl and 4.4 +/- 0.7 mg/dl, respectively. The mean stricture length was 3.9 +/- 0.5 cm, and the mean common bile duct (CBD) diameter was 1.8 +/- 0.2 cm. The degree of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase elevation did not correlate with stricture length or the severity of bile duct dilatation. Eighteen of the 38 patients received surgical biliary drainage (BD) as part of their initial therapy, and 20 patients did not. Liver function tests, intrapancreatic stricture length, and the degree of proximal CBD dilation were comparable in these two groups. Patients not undergoing BD did well clinically as only one patient required BD over an average follow-up period of 3.8 years. In conclusion, bypass of these strictures is usually unnecessary, and most patients may be safely treated without operation. PMID:3337559

  18. Surgical treatment of biliary ductal stricture complicating localized left hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen-Bing; Han, Ben-Li; Cai, Jing-Xiu; He, Zhen-Ping

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the experience in the clinical treatment of biliary duct strictures complicating localized left hepatolithiasis in the last two decades. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 67 cases of biliary duct strictures complicating localized left hepatolithiasis treated in our center in the last two decades was made with regards to each patient’s age, gender, results of various preoperative examinations, operative findings, treatment and postoperative courses. RESULTS: The incidence of left hepatic duct (LHD) stricture was 59.8% and that of a left external hepatic duct (LEHD) stricture was 84.0 % and 84.8% respectively, in which a severe degree dominated. Among the operative procedures used in the treatment of LHD strictures, plastic operation plus biliary enteric anastomosis ranks first in frequency (52.2%), with a re-stricture rate of 17.1%. Left lobectomy ranks third (19.4%) with no re-stricture. Simple plastic performance or dilation had a high occurrence rate of re-stricture and usually needed subsequent surgery. Most LEHD strictures were eradicated by lateral segmentectomy or lobectomy, whereas most LMHD strictures were just the opposite. The rate of preoperative diagnosis of LMHD by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, computed tomography or intraoperative and postoperative trans-T-tube cholangiography was much lower than that of LEHD or extrahepatic duct. CONCLUSION: Too much attention paid to LEHD disorders in the treatment of localized left hepatolithiasis potentially results in negligence or omission in LMHD disorders. Malpractice treatments of LHD strictures are important factors affecting the long term results of localized left hepatolithiasis, for which left lobectomy is usually the therapy of choice. PMID:27006579

  19. Deep Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes Revealed GNAS Mutations to Be Associated with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Its Main Pancreatic Duct Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Maekawa, Shinya; Kadokura, Makoto; Miura, Mika; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues. Methods Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer. Results Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n?=?3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p?=?0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN. Conclusions The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion. PMID:24897499

  20. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  1. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-06-28

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  2. Bile duct cysts in adults: a multi-institutional retrospective study. French Associations for Surgical Research.

    PubMed Central

    Lenriot, J P; Gigot, J F; Ségol, P; Fagniez, P L; Fingerhut, A; Adloff, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the features of adult patients undergoing surgery for bile duct cysts, focusing on the anatomy of the biliary tree as well as the long-term outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Bile duct cysts (BDCs) are uncommon in Western countries, and the majority of reported cases originate from Asia. Japanese authors have emphasized the frequent association of extra- and intrahepatic bile duct dilatations, but grading of patients based on Todani's classification is often hindered by the absence of an accurate definition of types IC and IVA cysts. Moreover, despite the increasing use of extrahepatic cyst excision, little is known about the long-term outcome in patients with intrahepatic bile duct involvement. METHODS: Forty-two adult patients with BDC were treated between 1980 and 1992 in 17 institutions of the French Associations for Surgical Research. Clinical presentation, radiologic presurgical evaluation, and surgical procedures were analyzed. The long-term postsurgical outcome was derived from patient charts, attending physicians, or direct patient contact. RESULTS: Twelve patients (30%) had recurrent abdominal pain or jaundice from childhood. Seven (17%) had undergone prior cystenterostomy. Twenty-one (50%) had a Todani-type IVA cyst with extra- and intrahepatic bile duct involvement. Of these, nine had segmental, exclusively left-sided intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Biliary carcinoma was encountered in five patients (12%). Extrahepatic cyst excision with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed in 34 patients with type I or IV cysts. The overall operative mortality rate was 2.4%. Long-term results were clearly correlated with cyst type: during a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 11 of 12 patients (92%) treated by cyst excision for type I cyst remained free of symptoms, whereas 31% of patients who underwent surgery for type IV cyst had episodic or severe cholangitis with intrahepatic stones. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with BDC, particular attention must be given to the associated intrahepatic bile duct dilatations. We propose a modification of Todani's classification to distinguish cystic, segmental, and fusiform dilatations of the intrahepatic biliary tree in type IV cysts. In patients with segmental left intrahepatic cystic dilatations, combined left liver lobectomy and extrahepatic cyst excision is suggested to decrease late postsurgical biliary complications. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:9712559

  3. Endoscopic management of post-liver transplant biliary complications

    PubMed Central

    Girotra, Mohit; Soota, Kaartik; Klair, Jagpal S; Dang, Shyam M; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Biliary complications are being increasingly encountered in post liver transplant patients because of increased volume of transplants and longer survival of these recipients. Overall management of these complications may be challenging, but with advances in endoscopic techniques, majority of such patients are being dealt with by endoscopists rather than the surgeons. Our review article discusses the recent advances in endoscopic tools and techniques that have proved endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with various interventions, like sphincterotomy, bile duct dilatation, and stent placement, to be the mainstay for management of most of these complications. We also discuss the management dilemmas in patients with surgically altered anatomy, where accessing the bile duct is challenging, and the recent strides towards making this prospect a reality. PMID:25992185

  4. Intraluminal biliary obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, N D; Davenport, M; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Jaundice caused by intraluminal bile duct obstruction in infancy is rare but may occur in association with biliary sludge, inspissated bile plugs, or gall stones. Nine boys (aged 2 weeks-6 months) with obstruction caused by inspissated bile (n = 7) or gall stones (n = 2) are presented. Haemolysis was not a factor in the patients' histories but an abnormal entry of the common bile duct into the third part of the duodenum was demonstrated in two and one had an asymptomatic haemangioma. Ultrasonography was the most useful investigation. Surgical removal of the bile duct obstruction was necessary in eight cases and included biliary tract drainage in six and cholecystectomy for changes of cholecystitis in four. Obstruction resolved spontaneously in one infant after percutaneous cholangiography. There were no postoperative complications. Images p1396-a PMID:1776884

  5. An intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct mimicking a hemorrhagic hepatic cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct is a biliary, epithelium-lined, cystic lesion that exhibits papillary proliferation and rarely causes large hemorrhagic cystic lesions. Here, we report a case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct mimicking a hemorrhagic hepatic cyst in a middle-aged man with large hemorrhagic hepatic cysts who experienced abdominal pain and repeated episodes of intracystic bleeding. Following portal vein embolization, extended right hepatic lobectomy was performed, and intraoperative cholangiography revealed communication between the intracystic space and the hepatic duct. Although histological studies revealed that the large hemorrhagic lesion was not lined with epithelium, the surrounding multilocular lesions contained biliary-derived epithelial cells that presented as papillary growths without ovarian-like stroma. A diagnosis of oncocytic-type intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct was made, and we hypothesized that intracystic bleeding with denudation of the lining epithelial cells might occur as the cystically dilated bile duct increased in size. Differential diagnosis between a hemorrhagic cyst and a cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct with bleeding is difficult. However, an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct could manifest as multilocular hemorrhagic lesions; therefore, complete resection should be performed for a better prognosis. PMID:23706166

  6. Management of iatrogenic bile duct injuries: role of the interventional radiologist.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Colin M; Saad, Nael E; Quazi, Robin R; Darcy, Michael D; Picus, Daniel D; Menias, Christine O

    2013-01-01

    Bile duct injuries are infrequent but potentially devastating complications of biliary tract surgery and have become more common since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The successful management of these injuries depends on the injury type, the timing of its recognition, the presence of complicating factors, the condition of the patient, and the availability of an experienced hepatobiliary surgeon. Bile duct injuries may lead to bile leakage, intraabdominal abscesses, cholangitis, and secondary biliary cirrhosis due to chronic strictures. Imaging is vital for the initial diagnosis of bile duct injury, assessment of its extent, and guidance of its treatment. Imaging options include cholescintigraphy, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and fluoroscopy with a contrast medium injected via a surgically or percutaneously placed biliary drainage catheter. Depending on the type of injury, management may include endoscopic, percutaneous, and open surgical interventions. Percutaneous intervention is performed for biloma and abscess drainage, transhepatic biliary drainage, U-tube placement, dilation of bile duct strictures and stent placement to maintain ductal patency, and management of complications from previous percutaneous interventions. Endoscopic and percutaneous interventional procedures may be performed for definitive treatment or as adjuncts to definitive surgical repair. In patients who are eligible for surgery, surgical biliary tract reconstruction is the best treatment option for most major bile duct injuries. When reconstruction is performed by an experienced hepatobiliary surgeon, an excellent long-term outcome can be achieved, particularly if percutaneous interventions are performed as needed preoperatively to optimize the patient's condition and postoperatively to manage complications. PMID:23322833

  7. Intrahepatic biliary stones in children.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, G; Lucaya, J; Allende, E; Garcia-Peña, P

    1992-01-01

    Intrahepatic biliary stones in seven non-Oriental patients were studied in all by sonography, in four patients by computed tomography and in four patients by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. For patients had extrahepatic biliary atresia treated with portoenterostomies, one patient had undergone partial liver transplantation and of the remaining two, one had cystic fibrosis and the other immunodeficiency syndrome. All sonograms were abnormal and showed echogenic foci within the liver, with or without associated signs of biliary tract dilatation. CT confirmed the biliary tract dilatation yet calculi were identified in one patient only. PTC was particularly helpful in the patient with immunodeficiency in whom features typical of sclerosing cholangitis were found. This report emphasizes the variable radiological appearance of bile stones which to our knowledge have rarely been described in children with entities other than Oriental cholangitis. PMID:1523054

  8. Primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carey, Elizabeth J; Ali, Ahmad H; Lindor, Keith D

    2015-10-17

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterised by destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and potential cirrhosis through resulting complications. The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis is the antimitochondrial antibody, a highly disease-specific antibody identified in about 95% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. These patients usually have fatigue and pruritus, both of which occur independently of disease severity. The typical course of primary biliary cirrhosis has changed substantially with the introduöction of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Several randomised placebo-controlled studies have shown that UDCA improves transplant-free survival in primary biliary cirrhosis. However, about 40% of patients do not have a biochemical response to UDCA and would benefit from new therapies. Liver transplantation is a life-saving surgery with excellent outcomes for those with decompensated cirrhosis. Meanwhile, research on nuclear receptor hormones has led to the development of exciting new potential treatments. This Seminar will review the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis, discuss management of the disease and its sequelae, and introduce research on new therapeutic options. PMID:26364546

  9. Detection, localization, and quantitation of degree of common bile duct obstruction by scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Lieberman, D.A.; Brar, H.S.

    1985-07-01

    The detection, localization, and quantitation of the degree of obstruction was successfully accomplished by (/sup 99m/Tc)IDA scintigraphy in 13 of 14 patients with cholangiographically documented common bile duct (CBD) obstruction. Ductal dilation was present on ultrasound examination in only seven patients. The accuracy of biliary scintigraphy was enhanced by several innovations including: (a) selection of a radiopharmaceutical with rapid hepatic uptake and excretion; (b) shorter imaging interval over longer period of time; (c) substitution of image parameter for appearance time; and (d) quantitative measurement of bile emptying parameters following cholecystokinin infusion. Scintigraphically, the partial obstruction was characterized by CBD segmental narrowing or intraluminal filling defects and bile stasis within the area and segmental ducts. It is concluded that quantitative biliary dynamic scintigraphy employing modern techniques can accurately detect and localize CBD obstruction.

  10. Biliary access procedure in the management of oriental cholangiohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gott, P E; Tieva, M H; Barcia, P J; Laberge, J M

    1996-11-01

    The objective was to review the treatment of oriental cholangiohepatitis using a combined approach of surgical access to the biliary tree with a cutaneous choledochoenteric conduit and interventional radiology to remove intrahepatic stones and dilate biliary strictures. Design was a retrospective case series. Oriental cholangiohepatitis is a condition marked by intrahepatic strictures and extensive formation of pigmented stones leading to recurrent biliary sepsis and hepatic abscesses. It is a common condition in southeast Asia and is seen with increasing frequency in Western populations due to Asian immigration. Ten patients were treated at Tripler Army Medical Center from 1986 to 1994. Tripler is a 500 bed tertiary referral center located in Honolulu, Hawaii, and serves the military community in the Pacific basin as well as beneficiaries of the Trust Territories of Micronesia. Patients underwent cholecystectomy and formation of a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy with a lateral limb that was brought out as a cutaneous stoma. After 4 weeks of healing, the intestinal conduit was used by the interventional radiologist to extract retained stones and dilate strictures using a variety of techniques. This was easily performed under light sedation. After completion of therapy, the stoma was closed and buried subcutaneously. This retains the option for accessing the conduit percutaneously or reopening the stoma if necessary for recurrence. Resolution of symptoms and radiologic clearance of intrahepatic stones, biliary strictures, and hepatic abscesses were the main outcome measures. Eight patients underwent the biliary access procedure and had clearance of stones and strictures after one to 10 interventional sessions. There was no major morbidity associated with treatment. No patient required liver resection, and there was resolution of the hepatic abscesses in all cases. The access procedure could not be completed in one patient due to extensive adhesions; this patient was successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the biliary duct. Another patient was treated by the same method on several occasions and never referred to surgery. A combined approach using surgical access to the biliary tree and interventional radiology offers effective treatment of oriental cholangiohepatitis without the need for hepatic resection. PMID:8895715

  11. A variant of multicystic biliary hamartoma presenting as an intrahepatic cystic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Kinoshita, Naoe; Murakami, Tomonori; Sato, Yasunori; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Harada, Kenich; Masuda, Junichi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nanashima, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    A rare case of an intrahepatic multicystic tumor is described. A 26-year-old man visited our hospital because of abdominal discomfort. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 10 × 7 cm multicystic tumor of the bile duct in the right side of the liver. The gross appearance of the tumor resembled an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, and right hepatectomy with regional lymphadenectomy was performed. Histologically, these cystic lesions were composed of variably and irregularly dilated duct structures lined by columnar epithelium resembling bile duct lining. There were no atypical cells and no papillary growth of the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the dilated ducts contained inspissated bile, and the inter-cystic parenchyma contained variable but irregularly distributed and hamartomatous hepatic parenchyma with an abnormal lobular pattern. Though it had atypical features of a hamartoma in some aspects (age, smooth muscle), this case could finally be regarded as a variant of multicystic biliary hamartoma. PMID:26017582

  12. In Vivo Study of Polyurethane-Coated Gianturco-Rosch Biliary Z-Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Severini, Aldo; Mantero, Sara; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Cigada, Alberto; Addis, Flaminio; Cozzi, Guido; Salvetti, Monica; Andreola, Salvatore; Motta, Antonella; Regalia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea; De Pedri, Enrico; Doci, Roberto

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Prototypes of Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents coated with polycarbonate urethane (PCU) were placed in the biliary tree of pigs, in order to test their biomechanical behavior, stability, and biocompatibility. Methods: The stents were surgically implanted in the common bile duct of three pairs of pigs, which were killed after 1, 3, and 6 months respectively. Explanted livers from pigs of the same race, age, and size were used to provide comparative data. The bile ducts were radiologically and histopathologically examined; the stents were processed and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: No complications occurred and the animals showed a normal weight gain. The main bile duct appeared radiologically and macroscopically dilated, but the stents proved to be in place. Histologically, the bile duct epithelium was destroyed, but neither hyperplastic nor inflammatory fibrotic reactions of the wall were evident. Both the metallic structure and the polymeric coating of the stents were intact. A layer of organic material with a maximum thickness of approximately 3 {mu}m was evident on the inner surface of the stents. Conclusion: The present in vivo study demonstrates the biocompatibility, efficacy, and stability of PCU-coated Gianturco-Rosch stents in the biliary environment.

  13. Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses

    SciTech Connect

    Tidmore, H.; Ram, M.D.

    1985-03-01

    The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses.

  14. Pneumoperitoneum Caused by Transhepatic Air Leak After Metallic Biliary Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jei Hee; Lee, Deok Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Se Joon; Kwon, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Ki Whang

    2000-11-15

    A self-expanding metallic biliary stent was placed for palliation of a common bile duct obstruction in a 68-year-old male with unresectable pancreatic head cancer 3 days after initial percutaneous right transhepatic catheter decompression. The stent crossed the ampulla of Vater. Three days later, the stent was balloon-dilated and the percutaneous access was removed. At removal, a small contrast leak from the transhepatic tract was seen. Three days later, pneumoperitoneum was found with symptoms of peritoneal irritation and fever. A widely open sphincter of Oddi caused by the metallic stent, accompanied by delayed sealing of the transhepatic tract, may have caused the air and bile leakage into the peritoneal space. This case shows that pneumoperitoneum may occur without ductal tear or bowel injury, with a biliary stent crossing the ampulla of Vater.

  15. Follicular cholangitis associated with focal biliary stricture treated with left hepatectomy after 8 years of follow-up: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, RYUSUKE; FUKUDA, TOSHIKATSU; AMANO, HIRONOBU; NAKAHARA, MASAHIRO; YOSHIDA, MAKOTO; YAMAKI, MINORU; HANADA, KEIJI; YONEHARA, SHUJI; NORIYUKI, TOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Follicular cholangitis may lead to severe focal biliary stricture, which is difficult to distinguish from cholangiocarcinoma. This is the report of a rare case of follicular cholangitis associated with an intrahepatic focal biliary stricture in a 69-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for upper abdominal pain in 2006. Computed tomography revealed common bile duct stones and focal stricture of the left intrahepatic duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a severe B3 stricture and dilation of the peripheral biliary tract. Repeated cytology revealed no malignancy. The patient was followed up for 8 years and repeated attacks of cholangitis severely compromised her quality of life. A left hepatectomy was performed, and the pathological findings were consistent with follicular cholangitis. It is generally difficult to make a definitive diagnosis after identifying a biliary stricture, and the stricture is often treated with surgical resection. The clinical presentation and radiological findings of follicular cholangitis are similar to those of cholangiocarcinoma; therefore, if a conservative approach is selected, frequent follow-up is recommended. The present case suggests that follicular cholangitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of biliary stricture. PMID:26870368

  16. Postcholecystectomy syndrome: evaluation using biliary scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Burrell, M.I.; Dobbins, J.; Jaffe, M.K.; Choyke, P.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors prospectively studied 30 patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome to determine the efficacy of biliary scintigraphy in the detection of stenosis of the sphincter of Oddi. All patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Biliary scintigraphy disclosed stenosis of the sphincter by agreement with the ERCP or surgical findings in nine (90%) of ten patients and in eight (100%) of eight patients with biliary obstruction from other causes. Retention of activity at 2 hours in visually prominent ducts was the best predictor of abnormal biliary drainage. Biliary scintigraphy is a useful, noninvasive screening test for the detection of postcholecystectomy biliary obstruction.

  17. Benign Biliary Strictures: Diagnostic Evaluation and Approaches to Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Interventional radiologists are often consulted to help identify and treat biliary strictures that can result from a variety of benign etiologies. Mainstays of noninvasive imaging for benign biliary strictures include ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and computed tomography cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the invasive diagnostic procedure of choice, allowing both localization of a stricture and treatment. Percutaneous biliary interventions are reserved for patients who are not candidates for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (eg, history of distal gastrectomy and biliary-enteric anastomosis to a jejunal roux limb). This review discusses the roles of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage in the diagnosis of benign biliary strictures. The methodology for crossing benign biliary strictures, approaches to balloon dilation, management of recalcitrant strictures (ie, large-bore biliary catheters and retrievable covered stents), and the expected outcomes and complications of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary strictures are also addressed. PMID:26615161

  18. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Intrahepatic and Choledochal Biliary Stones

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, Uri; Kleinmann, Nir; Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris; Winkler, Harry

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-{mu}m holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. Results: All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive 'balloon push' (n = 4) and 'rendezvous' (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Conclusion: Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

  19. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy or hepaticoduodenostomy for biliary reconstruction during the surgical treatment of choledochal cyst: which is better?

    PubMed

    Shimotakahara, Akihiro; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Yanai, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Lane, Geoffrey J; Miyano, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed our experience of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) and hepaticoduodenostomy (HD) performed for the surgical repair of choledochal cyst (CC), with special emphasis on postoperative complications related to the type of biliary reconstruction performed. Eighty-six patients underwent primary cyst excision for CC from 1986 to 2002 at our institution. Forty-six cases with concurrent intrahepatic bile duct dilatation (IHBD) were excluded because HD was not used for biliary reconstruction if IHBD was present. Thus, 28 cases had RYHJ, and 12 had HD. Differences between the RYHJ and HD groups with respect to type of CC, age at cyst excision, and length of follow-up were not statistically significant. However, the incidences of postoperative complications related to biliary reconstruction, such as endoscopy-proven bilious gastritis due to duodenogastric bile reflux [4/12 (33.3%) of the HD group], and adhesive bowel obstruction/cholangitis [2/28 (7.1%) of the RYHJ group] were significantly different (p<.05). Our experience suggests that HD is not ideal for biliary reconstruction in CC because of a high incidence (33.3%) of complications due to duodenogastric bile reflux. Currently, RYHJ is our exclusive technique of choice for biliary reconstruction during the surgical repair of CC. PMID:15372285

  20. Extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J; Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was the macromorphological analysis of extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina). Bile ducts, the gall bladder and portal vein were injected with coloured latex. Using the technique of dissection, bile ducts were isolated from the liver lobes. It was found that the cystic duct in this species is rarely single. Hepatic ducts form a system of multiple anastomosing structures running in the hepatoduodenal ligament. Many bile duct openings were observed in the duodenal papilla. The results confirm wide variations of the biliary tract in mammals and may be important for comparative analysis of the morphological differentiation of these structures in small mammals. PMID:25091180

  1. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  2. Hepatectomy with primary closure of common bile duct for hepatolithiasis combined with choledocholithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chang-Ku; Weng, Jie; Chen, You-Ke; Yang, Qing-Zhuang; Fu, Yu; Qin, Qi-Fan; Yu, Wei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of hepatectomy and primary closure of common bile duct for intrahepatic and extrahepatic calculi. METHODS: From January 2008 to May 2013, anatomic hepatectomy followed by biliary tract exploration without biliary drainage (non-drainage group) was performed in 43 patients with intrahepatic and extrahepatic calculi. After hepatectomy, flexible choledochoscopy was used to extract residual stones and observe the intrahepatic bile duct and common bile duct (CBD) for determination of biliary stricture and dilatation. Function of the sphincter of Oddi was determined by manometry of the CBD. Primary closure of the CBD without T-tube drainage or bilioenteric anastomosis was performed when there was no biliary stricture or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Dexamethasone and anisodamine were intravenously injected 2-3 d after surgery to prevent postoperative retrograde infection due to intraoperative bile duct irrigation, and to maintain relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, respectively. During the same period, anatomic hepatectomy followed by biliary tract exploration with biliary drainage (drainage group) was performed in 48 patients as the control group. Postoperative complications and hospital stay were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no operative mortality in either group of patients. Compared to intrahepatic and extrabiliary drainage, hepatectomy with primary closure of the CBD (non-drainage) did not increase the incidence of complications, including residual stones, bile leakage, pancreatitis and cholangitis (P > 0.05). Postoperative hospital stay and costs were nevertheless significantly less in the non-drainage group than in the drainage group. The median postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the non-drainage group than in the drainage group (11.2 ± 2.8 d vs 15.4 ± 2.1 d, P = 0.000). The average postoperative cost of treatment was lower in the non-drainage group than in the drainage group (29325.6 ± 5668.2 yuan vs 32933.3 ± 6235.1 yuan, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy followed by choledochoendoscopic stone extraction without biliary drainage is a safe and effective treatment of hepatolithiasis combined with choledocholithiasis. PMID:25834321

  3. Biliary secretion of endotoxin and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sakisaka, S.; Koga, H.; Sasatomi, K.; Mimura, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Tanikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested endotoxin, derived from the intestine through the portal blood to the liver, was predominantly metabolized by Kupffer cells. In the present study, fluorescent-labeled endotoxin injected into the rat portal vein was demonstrated not only in Kupffer cells but also in hepatocytes. Furthermore a great amount of labeled endotoxin was recovered in bile. In the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), immunohistochemistry demonstrated significant retention of endotoxin in the biliary epithelial cells, and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid significantly reduced the retention in those cells. The study for detection of apoptosis demonstrated increased rates of apoptosis in hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in PBC liver, and the rate of apoptosis in biliary epithelial cells was significantly reduced after treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Immunohistochemistry in PBC liver demonstrated significant reduction of fluorescence intensity for a 7H6 antigen in biliary epithelial cells, indicating the increased paracellular permeability of bile ducts, because cellular immunolocalization of that antigen has been shown to be inversely correlated with the paracellular permeability of the tight junction. These results suggest that, in biliary epithelial cells, retention of endotoxin, increased apoptosis, and increased permeability of tight junctions may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626760

  4. Contribution of Mature Hepatocytes to Biliary Regeneration in Rats with Acute and Chronic Biliary Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Hui-Ling; Chien, Chin-Sung; Wu, Shang-Hsin; Ho, Yi-Tian; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2015-01-01

    Whether hepatocytes can convert into biliary epithelial cells (BECs) during biliary injury is much debated. To test this concept, we traced the fate of genetically labeled [dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)-positive] hepatocytes in hepatocyte transplantation model following acute hepato-biliary injury induced by 4,4’-methylene-dianiline (DAPM) and D-galactosamine (DAPM+D-gal) and in DPPIV-chimeric liver model subjected to acute (DAPM+D-gal) or chronic biliary injury caused by DAPM and bile duct ligation (DAPM+BDL). In both models before biliary injury, BECs are uniformly DPPIV-deficient and proliferation of DPPIV-deficient hepatocytes is restricted by retrorsine. We found that mature hepatocytes underwent a stepwise conversion into BECs after biliary injury. In the hepatocyte transplantation model, DPPIV-positive hepatocytes entrapped periportally proliferated, and formed two-layered plates along portal veins. Within the two-layered plates, the hepatocytes gradually lost their hepatocytic identity, proceeded through an intermediate state, acquired a biliary phenotype, and subsequently formed bile ducts along the hilum-to-periphery axis. In DPPIV-chimeric liver model, periportal hepatocytes expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) were exclusively DPPIV-positive and were in continuity to DPPIV-positives bile ducts. Inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation by additional doses of retrorsine in DPPIV-chimeric livers prevented the appearance of DPPIV-positive BECs after biliary injury. Moreover, enriched DPPIV-positive BEC/hepatic oval cell transplantation produced DPPIV-positive BECs or bile ducts in unexpectedly low frequency and in mid-lobular regions. These results together suggest that mature hepatocytes but not contaminating BECs/hepatic oval cells are the sources of periportal DPPIV-positive BECs. We conclude that mature hepatocytes contribute to biliary regeneration in the environment of acute and chronic biliary injury through a ductal plate configuration without the need of exogenously genetic or epigenetic manipulation. PMID:26308208

  5. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). METHODS: The imaging findings of five cases of IPMN-B which were pathologically confirmed at our hospital between March 2012 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Three of these cases were diagnosed by duodenal endoscopy and biopsy pathology, and two cases were diagnosed by surgical pathology. All five patients underwent enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI; one case underwent both Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography-CT. The clinical data and imaging results for these cases were compared and are presented. RESULTS: Conventional imaging showed diffuse dilatation of bile ducts and multiple intraductal polypoid and papillary neoplasms or serrated changes along the bile ducts. In two cases, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed dilated biliary ducts and intraductal tumors, as well as filling defects caused by mucin in the dilated bile ducts in the hepatobiliary phase. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in one case clearly showed a low-signal tumor in the hepatobiliary phase, similar to what was seen by positron emission tomography-CT. In two patients, routine inspection was unable to discern whether the lesions were inflammation or tumors. However, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed a pattern of gradual enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, and the signal intensity of the lesions was lower than the surrounding liver parenchyma, suggesting tissue inflammation in both cases, which were confirmed by surgical pathology. CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI reveals the intraductal mucin component of IPMN-B in some cases and the extent of tumor infiltration beyond the bile ducts in invasive cases. PMID:26167082

  6. Melatonin regulation of biliary functions

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Shannon; Han, Yuyan; Francis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The intrahepatic biliary epithelium is a three-dimensional tubular system lined by cholangiocytes, epithelial cells that in addition to modify ductal bile are also the targets of vanishing bile duct syndromes (i.e., cholangiopathies) such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) that are characterized by the damage/proliferation of cholangiocytes. Cholangiocyte proliferation is critical for the maintenance of the biliary mass and secretory function during the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies. Proliferating cholangiocytes serve as a neuroendocrine compartment during the progression of cholangiopathies, and as such secrete and respond to hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides contributing to the autocrine and paracrine pathways that regulate biliary homeostasis. The focus of this review is to summarize the recent findings related to the role of melatonin in the modulation of biliary functions and liver damage in response to a number of insults. We first provide a general background on the general function of cholangiocytes including their anatomic characteristics, their innervation and vascularization as well the role of these cells on secretory and proliferation events. After a background on the synthesis and regulation of melatonin and its role on the maintenance of circadian rhythm, we will describe the specific effects of melatonin on biliary functions and liver damage. After a summary of the topics discussed, we provide a paragraph on the future perspectives related to melatonin and liver functions. PMID:24696836

  7. Newly Designed Y-configured Single-Catheter Stenting for the Treatment of Hilar-Type Nonanastomotic Biliary Strictures After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changming; Li Xuan; Song Shibing; Lv Xianjun; Luan Jingyuan; Dong Guoxiang

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to introduce our novel technique of percutaneous single catheter placement into the hilar bile ducts strictures while fulfilling the purpose of bilateral biliary drainage and stenting. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the technique for the treatment of hilar nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Methods: Ten patients who were post-orthotopic liver transplantation between July 2000 and July 2010 were enrolled in this study. Percutaneous Y-configured single-catheter stenting for bilateral bile ducts combined with balloon dilation was designed as the main treatment approach. Technical success rate, clinical indicators, complications, and recurrent rate were analyzed. Results: Technical success rate was 100%. Nine of the ten patients had biochemical normalization, cholangiographic improvement, and clinical symptoms relief. None of them experienced recurrence in a median follow-up of 26 months after completion of therapy and removal of all catheters. Complications were minor and limited to two patients. The one treatment failure underwent a second liver transplantation but died of multiple system organ failure. Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic Y-configured single-catheter stenting into the hilar bile ducts is technically feasible. The preliminary trial of this technique combined with traditional PTCD or choledochoscopy for the treatment of hilar biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation appeared to be effective and safe. Yet, further investigation is needed.

  8. Metachronous bile duct cancer in a patient surviving for a decade and undergoing curative surgery twice.

    PubMed

    Saiura, A; Takayama, T; Sano, K; Toyoda, H; Abe, H; Kubota, K; Mori, M; Makuuchi, M

    1999-07-01

    We report a 75-year-old woman with metachronous bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection twice and has survived for a decade. In 1989, she was admitted because her serum alkaline phosphatase level was elevated. Computed tomography (CT) showed a low-density mass, 2 cm in diameter, at the left hepatic duct and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lobe. We diagnosed the lesion as an intrahepatic bile duct cancer and performed extended left hepatic lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was a well differentiated cholangiocellular carcinoma with hepatic hilar and celiac lymph node metastases (T1N2M0, Stage IVB). In 1996, she was re-admitted with obstructive jaundice. CT showed a slightly enhanced mass, 4 cm in diameter, in the pancreatic head. After reducing the jaundice by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The histological diagnosis of this lesion was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma originating from the intrapancreatic bile duct. Ten years after the first operation, she is leading a normal daily life with no cancer recurrence. These findings suggest that repeated curative surgery can result in a long-term survival of patients with metachronous bile duct cancer. PMID:10470661

  9. Major bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Follow-up after combined surgical and radiologic management.

    PubMed Central

    Lillemoe, K D; Martin, S A; Cameron, J L; Yeo, C J; Talamini, M A; Kaushal, S; Coleman, J; Venbrux, A C; Savader, S J; Osterman, F A; Pitt, H A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors provide the results of follow-up evaluation after combined surgical and radiologic management of 89 patients with major bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence and mechanism of injury of major bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been clearly defined. Furthermore, a number of series have described the management of these injuries by surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic techniques with excellent short-term results. Long-term follow-up data, however, are lacking in the management of these injuries. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 89 patients treated at a single institution with major bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy managed between July 1, 1990, and July 1, 1996. Patients referred with injuries underwent early percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage. Based on the cholangiographic appearance and clinical situation, patients were managed by either percutaneous balloon dilatation or surgical reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with transanastomotic stenting. Follow-up was obtained by personal interview during October 1996. RESULTS: Two patients died without an attempt at definitive therapy. Both deaths were caused by sepsis and multisystem organ failure present at the time of transfer to the authors' institution. The remaining 87 patients were managed initially by either balloon dilatation (N = 28) or surgical reconstruction (N = 59). Ten patients have not completed treatment and still have biliary stents in place. Evaluation of 25 patients completing treatment after balloon dilatation (mean follow-up, 27.8 months) showed a success rate of 64%. Evaluation of 52 patients completing treatment after surgical reconstruction (mean follow-up, 33.4 months) showed a success rate of 92%. All failures were managed successfully by either surgical reconstruction or balloon dilatation. CONCLUSIONS: Major bile duct injuries can be managed successfully by combined surgical and radiologic techniques. This series provides, for the first time, significant follow-up on a large number of patients with overall success rates of 64% after balloon dilatation and 92% after surgical reconstruction. The combination of surgery and balloon dilatation resulted in a successful outcome in 100% of patients treated. PMID:9193174

  10. Percutaneous transhepatic stenting by Wallstents of portal vein and bile duct stenoses caused by immunoblastic sarcoma in a liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, J I; Ruza, M; Longo, J M; Mansilla, F; Picardi, A; de Villa, V; Pardo, F; Sola, J; Quiroga, J

    1994-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders are infrequent tumors related to chronic immunosuppressive therapy. We present a liver transplant recipient who developed such a tumor in the porta hepatis that provoked obstruction of the entire portal triad. Treatment consisted of systemic chemotherapy, percutaneous dilatation, and placement of Wallstent endoprostheses across both biliary and portal vein stenoses. The patient died 3 weeks later of pneumonia and sepsis. At necropsy, the tumor was completely necrosed and the prostheses in both the common bile duct and the portal vein were patent. PMID:7954576

  11. [Biliary atresia: a severe illness].

    PubMed

    Ramonet, Margarita; Ciocca, Mirta; Alvarez, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Biliary atresia is a serious disease of unknown cause, affecting newborns. An inflammation and progressive destruction of the bile ducts lead to jaundice, dark urines, and acholia, between the second and sixth weeks of life. Neonatal cholestasis could be due to several different diseases, thus a diagnosis of biliary atresia and early derivation for surgical treatment are necessary to allow a restoration of the bile flow. Eighty percent of the children normalize serum bilirubin after the portoenterostomy (Kasai operation), if they are operated before their 45 days of life. When Kasai operation fails, a liver transplantation is the only possibility. Biliary atresia must be diagnosed before the first month of life and must be considered as a surgical emergency. PMID:25362914

  12. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  13. [Electrohydraulic biliary lithotripsy. What approach?].

    PubMed

    Ponchon, T; Martin, X; Valette, P J; Ayela, P

    1987-10-31

    In 11 patients stones in the common bile duct or in intrahepatic bile ducts could not be extracted by the retrograde route after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Electro-hydraulic lithotripsy was then attempted, using the retrograde route in 4 cases, the transhepatic route in 3 cases and the extracorporeal shock wave technique in 7 cases. The stones could be divided into fragments small enough to be extracted in all patients. The respective indications of the 3 types of electro-hydraulic biliary lithotripsy are discussed. PMID:2962103

  14. Gallstone disease: Symptoms, diagnosis and endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Caddy, Grant R; Tham, Tony C K

    2006-01-01

    Bile duct stones (BDS) are often suspected on history and clinical examination alone but symptoms may be variable ranging from asymptomatic to complications such as biliary colic, pancreatitis, jaundice or cholangitis. The majority of BDS can be diagnosed by transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance cholangiography prior to endoscopic or laparoscopic removal. Approximately 90% of BDS can be removed following endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC)+sphincterotomy. Most of the remaining stones can be removed using mechanical lithotripsy. Patients with uncorrected coagulopathies may be treated with ERC+pneumatic dilatation of the sphincter of Oddi. Shockwave lithotripsy (intraductal and extracorporeal) and laser lithotripsy have also been used to fragment large bile duct stones prior to endoscopic removal. The role of medical therapy in treatment of BDS is currently uncertain. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, investigation and current management of BDS. PMID:17127190

  15. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  16. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  17. Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ.

    PubMed

    Consolo, Pierluigi; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Crinò, Stefano F; Tortora, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Cintolo, Marcello; Familiari, Luigi; Pallio, Socrate

    2013-07-16

    The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing "irretrievable stones" include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis. PMID:23858381

  18. Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ

    PubMed Central

    Consolo, Pierluigi; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Crinò, Stefano F; Tortora, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Cintolo, Marcello; Familiari, Luigi; Pallio, Socrate

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing “irretrievable stones” include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis. PMID:23858381

  19. Endoscopic Extraction of Biliary Fascioliasis Diagnosed Using Intraductal Ultrasonography in a Patient with Acute Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji Su; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Tae, Jae Woong; Choi, Moon Han; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection may result in biliary obstruction with or without cholangitis in the chronic biliary phase. Because clinical symptoms and signs of F. hepatica are similar to other biliary diseases that cause bile duct obstruction, such as stones or bile duct malignancies, that are, in fact, more common, this condition may not be suspected and diagnosis may be overlooked and delayed. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography for the evaluation of bile duct obstruction may be incidentally detected with the worm, and diagnosis can be confirmed by extraction of the leaf-like trematode from the bile duct. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of the bile duct, and is useful in evaluating indeterminate biliary diseases. We present a case of biliary fascioliasis that was diagnosed using IDUS and managed endoscopically in a patient with acute cholangitis. PMID:26668810

  20. Endoscopic Extraction of Biliary Fascioliasis Diagnosed Using Intraductal Ultrasonography in a Patient with Acute Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Su; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Tae, Jae Woong; Choi, Moon Han; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection may result in biliary obstruction with or without cholangitis in the chronic biliary phase. Because clinical symptoms and signs of F. hepatica are similar to other biliary diseases that cause bile duct obstruction, such as stones or bile duct malignancies, that are, in fact, more common, this condition may not be suspected and diagnosis may be overlooked and delayed. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography for the evaluation of bile duct obstruction may be incidentally detected with the worm, and diagnosis can be confirmed by extraction of the leaf-like trematode from the bile duct. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of the bile duct, and is useful in evaluating indeterminate biliary diseases. We present a case of biliary fascioliasis that was diagnosed using IDUS and managed endoscopically in a patient with acute cholangitis. PMID:26668810

  1. Biliary Fasciola gigantica infestation in a nonendemic area - An intraoperative surprise.

    PubMed

    Menon, Prema; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Khurana, Sumeeta; Lal, Sadhana; Thapa, Babu Ram

    2015-11-01

    A 7year old girl infected with the zoonotic trematode, Fasciola gigantica is reported because of the extreme rarity of this condition in our region. Because of the overlap in symptomatology and radiological features, the more common amebic/pyogenic liver abscess in the initial hepatic migratory phase and later choledochal cyst/biliary ascariasis when the parasite was finally located in the extrahepatic bile ducts, were thought of delaying effective treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed only by surgical exploration. The characteristic contrast enhanced computed tomography scan features retrospectively identified were multiple clustered hypodense lesions in the liver with peripheral enhancement in the acute hepatic migratory phase, and periportal tracking in the previously affected areas of the liver with biliary dilatation and a linear hypointense lesion within the common bile duct in the chronic phase. Although a known association, she did not have eosinophilia. This child, who became symptomatic at the age of 5.5years, also appears to be one of the youngest patients reported with Fasciola gigantica. PMID:26362003

  2. Biliary glutathione and some amino acids are markedly diminished when biliary pressure is elevated.

    PubMed

    Moslen, M T; Kanz, M F; Bhatia, J; Smith, C V; Rassin, D K

    1994-08-01

    We studied the effects of a transient elevation in biliary pressure on biliary glutathione and amino acids in rats. Other biliary solutes monitored were total bile salt, Pi, which is a putative marker of paracellular leakage, and glucose, which is reabsorbed from the biliary tract. Experiments were carried out on anesthetized rats intraduodenally infused with taurocholate to maintain bile flow during a 2-hr basal period, a 4-hr pressure period during which the bile duct cannula was elevated until bile flow decreased to 1/3 the basal rate, and a 2-hr period after release of hydrostatic biliary pressure. We found that pressure treatment caused biliary concentrations of glutathione to progressively decrease by 80%, while biliary Pi rapidly rose approximately 3- to 4-fold, bile salt gradually increased approximately 3-fold, and biliary glucose concentration progressively rose 15-fold. HPLC analysis of monobromobimane-derivatized biliary thiols indicated that the decline in biliary glutathione was not accompanied by an increase in its breakdown products, cysteine and cysteinylglycine. Pressure treatment led to four patterns of change in biliary amino acid concentrations: (1) increases of 29 to 76% for the basic amino acids lysine and arginine, which have very low bile/plasma ratios of about 0.1; (2) no change for the more water soluble amino acids with bile/plasma ratios close to 1.0, e.g., histidine and urea; (3) modest decreases of 16 to 48% for a variety of amino acids including serine, glutamate, and glycine; and (4) marked, progressive decreases of > 50% for aromatic and branched chain amino acids. By 2 hr after release of pressure, only the alterations in biliary glucose and some amino acids, particularly the branched chains, persisted. This is the first report of cholestasis-induced alterations in biliary amino acids. PMID:7995375

  3. Bile duct stone formation around a Prolene suture after cholangioenterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Tao, Liang; Wu, Xingyu; Mou, Lingjun; Sun, Xitai; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The iatrogenic cause of bile duct stone formation is mainly due to suture materials, especially silk sutures. In recent years, Prolene and Vicryl sutures have been widely used in biliary surgery, and bile duct stone formation related to sutures are seemingly becoming rare, as there has only been one report of bile duct stone formation caused by Prolene sutures in the literature. In the last few years we have had two cases of Prolene suture-related bile duct stone formation within our unit. We therefore suggest that Vicryl sutures should be used as the first choice in biliary surgery, in order to prevent the formation of iatrogenic bile duct stones.

  4. De novo Choledocholithiasis in Retained Common Bile Duct Stent

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Salman T.; Ghetla, Smruti R.; Shetty, Tilakdas S.

    2015-01-01

    De novo choledocholithiasis means formation of stone in the common bile duct (CBD). It can present as biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis or it may be asymptomatic. There are various indications for biliary stenting like CBD stone, CBD stricture, biliary leak, peri ampullary carcinoma, CBD malignancy, etc. Foreign bodies like silk sutures, endo-clips, fish bone, retained T- tubes, plastic or metallic stents, etc. lead to biliary stasis leading to eventual stone formation. Here, we discuss a case of choledocholithiasis post-cholecystectomy with CBD stenting done 15 years back which had migrated and acted as a nidus for stone formation in the CBD and hepatic duct. PMID:26500952

  5. Current treatment of benign biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Guido; Boškoski, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is a widely used approach for the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Most common benign biliary strictures amandable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, dominant biliary strictures due to primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary anastomotic strictures occurring after liver transplantation, and common bile duct strictures due to chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is a valid option in cases of complete transection or ligation of the common bile duct, in selected patients with benign strictures related to chronic pancreatitis, and in noncompliant patients. In any case, even in these patients, endoscopy should always be attempted, because it is safe and repeatable. Endoscopic treatment consists of passing the stricture and placement of at least one large bore plastic stent, followed by further sessions of stenting with multiple plastic stents. Temporary placement of multiple plastic stents is the recommended approach in patients with benign biliary strictures. Self-expandable metal stents have a larger diameter compared to plastic stents, and can be covered and uncovered. Placement of uncovered metal stents in patients with benign biliary strictures is strongly discouraged. However, covered self-expandable metal stents can be safely placed in selected patients. PMID:24714594

  6. Current treatment of benign biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Guido; Boškoski, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is a widely used approach for the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Most common benign biliary strictures amandable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, dominant biliary strictures due to primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary anastomotic strictures occurring after liver transplantation, and common bile duct strictures due to chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is a valid option in cases of complete transection or ligation of the common bile duct, in selected patients with benign strictures related to chronic pancreatitis, and in noncompliant patients. In any case, even in these patients, endoscopy should always be attempted, because it is safe and repeatable. Endoscopic treatment consists of passing the stricture and placement of at least one large bore plastic stent, followed by further sessions of stenting with multiple plastic stents. Temporary placement of multiple plastic stents is the recommended approach in patients with benign biliary strictures. Self-expandable metal stents have a larger diameter compared to plastic stents, and can be covered and uncovered. Placement of uncovered metal stents in patients with benign biliary strictures is strongly discouraged. However, covered self-expandable metal stents can be safely placed in selected patients. PMID:24714594

  7. Percutaneous Management of Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Christopher M; Ryu, Robert K

    2015-12-01

    Malignancy resulting in impaired biliary drainage includes a number of diagnoses familiar to the interventional radiologist. Adequate drainage of such a system can significantly improve patient quality of life, and can facilitate the further treatment options and care of such patients. In the setting of prior instrumentation, cholangitis can present as an urgent indication for drainage. Current initial interventional management of malignant biliary duct obstruction frequently includes endoscopic or percutaneous intervention, with local practices and preprocedural imaging guiding interventional approaches and subsequent management. This article addresses the indications for percutaneous drainage, technical considerations in performing such drainage, and specific techniques useful in attempting to achieve clinical end points in patients with malignant biliary duct obstruction. PMID:26615162

  8. Endoscopic pancreatic and biliary manometry in pancreatic, biliary, and papillary disease, and after endoscopic sphincterotomy and surgical sphincteroplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, J A; Carr-Locke, D L

    1984-01-01

    Endoscopic manometry was used to measure pancreatic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct sphincter and bile duct sphincter pressures in 43 healthy volunteers and 162 patients with a variety of papillary, pancreatic and biliary disorders. Common bile duct pressure was significantly raised after cholecystectomy, with common bile duct stones and papillary stenosis but pancreatic duct pressure only in papillary stenosis. After endoscopic sphincterotomy mean common bile duct pressure fell from 11.2 to 1.1 mmHg and pancreatic duct pressure from 18.0 to 11.2 mmHg. Distinct pancreatic duct sphincter and bile duct sphincter zones were identified as phasic pressures of 3-12 waves/minute on pull-through from pancreatic duct and common bile duct to duodenum. Pancreatic duct sphincter pressures were higher with common bile duct stones and stenosis whereas bile duct sphincter pressures were higher in pancreatitis and stenosis. Bile duct sphincter activity was present in 60% of patients after surgical sphincteroplasty but 21% of patients after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic manometry facilitated the diagnosis of papillary stenosis, has allowed study of papillary pathophysiology and has shown a functional inter-relationship between the two sphincteric zones. PMID:6500363

  9. Filling Defect on ERCP: Biliary Cystadenoma, a Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rayapudi, Krishna; Schmitt, Timothy; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Biliary cystadenomas are rare tumors of the bile ducts most commonly presenting as large right liver lobe lesions. These are usually slow-growing and mostly benign. They commonly present with abdominal pain. On physical exam an abdominal mass can be identified occasionally. Walls of biliary cystadenomas appear thicker than simple cysts, with soft tissue nodules and enhancing septations on CT or MRI. Radiographic images can vary with the amount of protein content in the fluid on CT or MRI. Due to the risk of malignant transformation, complete surgical resection is advised. Hereby, we describe a 37-year-old lady who presented to the outpatient clinic with bloating and abdominal discomfort with intermittent elevated liver enzymes and hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts followed by CT scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts. It was seen as a filling defect of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts (common hepatic duct) on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Involvement of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts simultaneously is a rare presentation of this tumor. She later on underwent exploratory laparotomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, left hepatic lobe resection and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. Pathology confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma with ovarian-like stroma. She had recovered uneventfully from the surgery when seen 2 weeks later in the clinic. Biliary cystadenoma is a rare, mostly benign neoplasm of the biliary tract that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the biliary tract. PMID:23467382

  10. Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Nanda, Mohit; Singh, Kartar

    2007-04-01

    Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in tropical countries and can lead to such serious complications as cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Endoscopic therapy has helped in the management of biliary complications caused by these parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides organisms, which normally reside in the jejunum, are actively motile and can invade the papilla, thus migrating into the bile duct and causing biliary obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a useful diagnostic tool with potential for therapeutic management of biliary ascariasis. Infestation with Clonorchis sinensis organisms can cause such complications as intrahepatic stones, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, cirrhosis, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, and cholangiocarcinoma. Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum are closely related to C. sinensis and can also cause serious biliary complications. Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, is a zoonotic helminthiasis that can present as acute hepatic or chronic biliary tract infection. CT, MRI, and ultrasound guidance are useful imaging tools for identifying these parasites and their complications. PMID:17418062

  11. Biliary Atresia: Cellular Dynamics and Immune Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy; Mack, Cara L.

    2012-01-01

    The cause of biliary atresia (BA) is unknown and in the past few decades the majority of investigations related to pathogenesis have centered on virus infections and immunity. The acquired or perinatal form of BA entails a progressive, inflammatory injury of bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and obliteration of both the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Theories of pathogenesis include viral infection, chronic inflammatory or autoimmune-mediated bile duct injury and abnormalities in bile duct development. This review will focus solely on human studies pertaining to a potential viral trigger of bile duct injury at diagnosis and provide insight into the interplay of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:22800972

  12. Update on primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-06-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune chronic liver disease characterized by progressive bile duct destruction eventually leading to cirrhosis, liver failure, and death. The autoimmune pathogenesis is supported by a plethora of experimental and clinical data, such as the presence of autoreactive T cells and serum autoantibodies. The aetiology remains unknown, although evidence suggests a role for both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors that remain to be determined. In fact, a number of chemicals and infectious agents have been proposed to induce the disease in predisposed individuals. The recent availability of several murine models will significantly help in understanding pathophysiology mechanisms. In this review, we critically summarize the most recent data on the aetiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis, discuss the latest theories and developments, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:20359968

  13. Intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from colon cancer after resection of liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Shoji; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Takayama, Yuichi; Fukami, Yasuyuki; Onoe, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    An extremely rare case of intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma is herein presented. Sigmoid colon cancer (T3, N0, M0, stage IIA) had been diagnosed and treated by sigmoidectomy in October 1993. In December 2002, a liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth was found, and this was treated by extended right hepatic lobectomy and caudate lobectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. In February 2014, intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis was found, and this was treated by subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The intrapancreatic metastasis was judged to have arisen from cancer cell implantation, either by spontaneous shedding of cancer cells or as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Twelve months have passed since the last surgical intervention, and there has been no sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Differential diagnosis between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and intrabiliary growth of a liver metastasis originating from colorectal adenocarcinoma is difficult but very important for determining the therapeutic strategy. Careful examination is needed to diagnose intrahepatic biliary dilatation, especially for patients with a history of carcinoma in the digestive tract and even if years have passed since curative resection of the digestive tract cancer. Aggressive surgical management for localized recurrence of a hepatic metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma may improve patient survival. PMID:26293132

  14. [Congenital cystic disease of the biliary system in adults].

    PubMed

    Târcoveanu, E; Niculescu, D; Georgescu, St; Cotea, Elena; Vintil?, D; Dimofte, G; Neac?u, C N; Lupa?cu, C; Crumpei, Felicia; Cîrdei, C

    2003-01-01

    Congenital cystic disease of the biliary system is a complex syndrome of ectasies of the intra-, extra- or both situation of biliary tree. This disease has an unsure etiopathogeny. It is uncommon through the third age, with a greater incidence in child, teen-ager and young adult. The goal of our study is to evaluate the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and histological aspects of the congenital biliary cysts. We performed a retrospective study from March 1988 to July 2003 about 11 patients with this disease treated in our surgical clinic. Clinical features, methods of diagnosis and surgical treatment were assessed. All patients were females with mean age 51 years (extreme 26-77 years). The symptoms were: right upper quadrant pain--11 cases (100%), jaundice--6 cases (54.5%), fever--3 cases (27%), palpable abdominal mass--2 cases (18%), weight loss--1 case (9%). The imaging diagnosis was helpful (ultrasonography, CT, ERCP, percutaneous cholangiography and preoperative cholangiography). In concordance with Todani classification the patients were included in the following types: Ia--3 cases (27%), I b--1 case (9%), I c--3 cases (27%), IV a--2 cases (18%), IV b--1 case (9%), V--1 case (9%). All patients were operated on: after cholecystectomy and transcystic cholangiography (11 cases--100%) we performed the total excision of the cyst--9 cases (82%) with choledochal jejunostomy (Roux-en-Y)--6 cases (54.5%), choledochal jejunostomy (omega)--1 case (9%) and choledochal duodenostomy--2 cases (18%). In one case of neoplasic cyst with portal invasion we performed a cyst-jejunostomy (omega) and in one case of Caroli disease with total obstruction of the distal choledoc, the solution of choice was choledocal-duodenostomy. The microscopic pathology of the cyst wall showed: chronic intramural inflammation--9 cases (82%) and the absence of the nervous intramural terminations--1 case (9%). The additional lesions was: hepatic cirrhosis--1 case (9%) and hepatic fibrosis--3 cases (27%). We found three cases with neoplasia: malign cyst with advanced local invasion--1 case (9%), pancreatic carcinoma--1 case (9%) and gallbladder carcinoma (microscopic finding)--1 case (9%). The postoperative morbidity includes biliary fistula--2 cases (18%) and wound infection--2 cases (18%). Long-term follow-up revealed cholangitis in one case--9%. The cystic dilatations of the common bile duct is an exclusive indication for surgery as soon as it was discovered. PMID:14756026

  15. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  16. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy. PMID:23214186

  17. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy. PMID:23214186

  18. Magnetic resonance evaluations of biliary malignancy and condition at high-risk for biliary malignancy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Reiji

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the biliary tree are relatively rare; but their incidence is rising worldwide. There are several known risk factors for bile duct cancers, and these are seem to be associated with chronic inflammation of the biliary epithelium. Herein, 2 risk factors have been discussed, primary sclerosing cholangitis and reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct, as seen in such as an abnormal union of the pancreatic-biliary junction because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used widely and effectively in the diagnosis of these diseases. When biliary disease is suspected, MRI can often help differentiate between benignity and malignancy, stage tumors, select surgical candidates and guide surgical planning. MRI has many advantages over other modalities. Therefore, MRI is a reliable noninvasive imaging tool for diagnosis and pre-surgical evaluation of bile duct tumors. Nowadays remarkable technical advances in magnetic resonance technology have expanded the clinical applications of MRI in case of biliary diseases. In this article, it is also discussed how recent developments in MRI contributes to the diagnosis of the bile duct cancer and the evaluation of patients with risk factors affecting bile duct cancer. PMID:24432183

  19. Long-Term Placement of Subcutaneous Ruesch-Type Stents for Double Biliary Stenosis in a Living-Donor Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi Baccarani, Umberto; Lorenzin, Dario; Risaliti, Andrea; Como, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Daniele; Sponza, Massimo; Bresadola, Vittorio; Bresadola, Fabrizio

    2007-04-15

    Biliary reconstruction continues to be a major source of morbidity following liver transplantation. The spectrum of biliary complications is evolving due to the increasing number of split-liver and living-donor liver transplantation, which are even associated with a higher incidence of biliary complications. Bile duct strictures are the most common cause of late biliary complications and account for up to 40% of all biliary complications. Optimal therapy for posttransplantation anastomotic biliary strictures remains uncertain and requires a multidisciplinary approach. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male affected by hepatocarcinoma and hepatitis C-related cirrhosis who underwent right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation from his son complicated by double anastomotic stenosis of the main right hepatic duct and of an accessory biliary duct draining segments 6 and 7 of the graft that was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with long-term subcutaneous placement of two internal Ruesch-type biliary stents.

  20. Role of CD56-expressing immature biliary epithelial cells in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Zhong; Yu, Jia-Kang; Peng, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Hai-Ying; Lui, Vincent CH; Nicholls, John M; Tam, Paul KH; Lamb, Jonathan R; Chen, Yan; Xia, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and pathological parameters and expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) in patients with biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: Established clinical laboratory markers of hepatic function, including enzyme activity, protein synthesis, and bilirubin metabolism, were evaluated in patients with BA and compared with those in patients with choledochal cysts and neonatal hepatitis. Pathological changes in tissue morphology and fibrosis were examined by histological and tissue collagen staining. Immunohistochemical staining for the biliary epithelial cell markers CD56 and CK19 together with the Notch signaling related molecules Notch1 and Notch2 was performed in the context of alterations in the structure of intrahepatic biliary ducts. RESULTS: Differences in some clinical laboratory parameters among the three diseases examined were observed, but they did not correlate with the pathological classification of fibrosis in BA. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of CD56-positive immature bile ducts in most patients (74.5%) with BA but not in patients with choledochal cysts or neonatal hepatitis. The number of CD56-expressing cells correlated with disease severity, with more positive cells present in the later stages of liver damage (81.8% vs 18.2%). Furthermore, bile plugs were mainly found in CD56-positive immature biliary ducts. Notch signaling was a key regulatory pathway in biliary duct formation and played a role in tissue fibrosis. Notch1 was co-expressed in CD56-positive cells, whereas Notch2 was found exclusively in blood vessels in the portal area of patients with BA. CONCLUSION: The maturation of biliary epithelial cells and the expression of Notch may play a role in the pathogenesis of BA. PMID:26937142

  1. Biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy: Optimization of endoscopic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ljubi?i?, Neven; Biš?anin, Alen; Pavi?, Tajana; Nikoli?, Marko; Budimir, Ivan; Miji?, August; ?uzel, Ana

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the results of endoscopic treatment of postoperative biliary leakage occurring after urgent cholecystectomy with a long-term follow-up. METHODS: This is an observational database study conducted in a tertiary care center. All consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for presumed postoperative biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy in the period between April 2008 and April 2013 were considered for this study. Patients with bile duct transection and biliary strictures were excluded. Biliary leakage was suspected in the case of bile appearance from either percutaneous drainage of abdominal collection or abdominal drain placed at the time of cholecystectomy. Procedural and main clinical characteristics of all consecutive patients with postoperative biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy, such as indication for cholecystectomy, etiology and type of leakage, ERC findings and post-ERC complications, were collected from our electronic database. All patients in whom the leakage was successfully treated endoscopically were followed-up after they were discharged from the hospital and the main clinical characteristics, laboratory data and common bile duct diameter were electronically recorded. RESULTS: During a five-year period, biliary leakage was recognized in 2.2% of patients who underwent urgent cholecystectomy. The median time from cholecystectomy to ERC was 6 d (interquartile range, 4-11 d). Endoscopic interventions to manage biliary leakage included biliary stent insertion with or without biliary sphincterotomy. In 23 (77%) patients after first endoscopic treatment bile flow through existing surgical drain ceased within 11 d following biliary therapeutic endoscopy (median, 4 d; interquartile range, 2-8 d). In those patients repeat ERC was not performed and the biliary stent was removed on gastroscopy. In seven (23%) patients repeat ERC was done within one to fourth week after their first ERC, depending on the extent of the biliary leakage. In two of those patients common bile duct stone was recognized and removed. Three of those seven patients had more complicated clinical course and they were referred to surgery and were excluded from long-term follow-up. The median interval from endoscopic placement of biliary stent to demonstration of resolution of bile leakage for ERC treated patients was 32 d (interquartile range, 28-43 d). Among the patients included in the follow-up (median 30.5 mo, range 7-59 mo), four patients (14.8%) died of severe underlying comorbid illnesses. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the great efficiency of the endoscopic therapy in the treatment of the patients with biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy. PMID:25992194

  2. Biliary parasites: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Niraj; Shaw, Joanna; Jain, Mamta K

    2008-04-01

    Parasitic infections of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in endemic areas. This article focuses on primary biliary parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica. Tropical and subtropical countries have the highest incidence and prevalence of these infections. Diagnosis is made primarily through direct microscopic examination of eggs in the stool, duodenal, or bile contents. Radiologic imaging may show intrahepatic ductal dilatation, whereas endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can be used diagnostically and therapeutically. However, oral treatment is inexpensive and effective for most of these parasites and can prevent untoward consequences. Primary and alternative treatments are available and are reviewed in this article. PMID:18321435

  3. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Biliary Fistulas in the Laparoscopic Era

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, M.; Montecamozzo, G.; Foschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary fistulas are rare complications of gallstone. They can affect either the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract and are usually classified as primary or secondary. The primary fistulas are related to the biliary lithiasis, while the secondary ones are related to surgical complications. Laparoscopic surgery is a therapeutic option for the treatment of primary biliary fistulas. However, it could be the first responsible for the development of secondary biliary fistulas. An accurate preoperative diagnosis together with an experienced surgeon on the hepatobiliary surgery is necessary to deal with biliary fistulas. Cholecystectomy with a choledocoplasty is the most frequent treatment of primary fistulas, whereas the bile duct drainage or the endoscopic stenting is the best choice in case of minor iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the extreme therapeutic option for both conditions. The sepsis, the level of the bile duct damage, and the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract increase the complexity of the operation and affect early and late results. PMID:26819608

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Biliary Fistulas in the Laparoscopic Era.

    PubMed

    Crespi, M; Montecamozzo, G; Foschi, D

    2016-01-01

    Biliary fistulas are rare complications of gallstone. They can affect either the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract and are usually classified as primary or secondary. The primary fistulas are related to the biliary lithiasis, while the secondary ones are related to surgical complications. Laparoscopic surgery is a therapeutic option for the treatment of primary biliary fistulas. However, it could be the first responsible for the development of secondary biliary fistulas. An accurate preoperative diagnosis together with an experienced surgeon on the hepatobiliary surgery is necessary to deal with biliary fistulas. Cholecystectomy with a choledocoplasty is the most frequent treatment of primary fistulas, whereas the bile duct drainage or the endoscopic stenting is the best choice in case of minor iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the extreme therapeutic option for both conditions. The sepsis, the level of the bile duct damage, and the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract increase the complexity of the operation and affect early and late results. PMID:26819608

  6. Burdick's Technique for Biliary Access Revisited.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Rai, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The precut sphincterotomy is used to facilitate selective biliary access in cases of difficult biliary cannulation. Needle-knife precut papillotomy is the standard of care but is associated with a high rate of complications such as pancreatitis, duodenal perforation, bleeding, etc. Sometimes during bowing of the sphincterotome/cannula and the use of guide wire to facilitate biliary cannulation, inadvertent formation of a false passage occurs in the 10 to 11 o'clock direction. Use of this step to access the bile duct by the intramucosal incision technique was first described by Burdick et al., and since then two more studies have also substantiated the safety and efficacy of this non-needle type of precut sphincterotomy. In this review, we discuss this non-needle technique of precut sphincterotomy and also share our experience using this "Burdick's technique." PMID:25674522

  7. Surgical anatomy of the biliary tract

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    An intimate knowledge of the morphological, functional, and real anatomy is a prerequisite for obtaining optimal results in the complex surgery of extra and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the bile ducts includes study of the liver, hepatic surface, margins, and scissures. The frequent variations from the normal anatomy are described and an overview of the blood supply and lymphatics of the biliary tract is presented. PMID:18773059

  8. Pathogenesis and classification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: different characters of perihilar large duct type versus peripheral small duct type.

    PubMed

    Aishima, Shinichi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are made up of heterogenous carcinomas arising from different anatomical sites of the liver. Two types of candidate stem/progenitor cells of the biliary tree are postulated to exist at the peribiliary glands for large bile ducts and at the canals of Hering for small ducts and hepatocytes. According to the recent observations, ICCs can be subclassified into two types: tumors involving the large bile ducts comparable in size to the intrahepatic second branches and composed of a tubular or papillary component with tall columnar epithelium, and tumors involving the smaller duct than segmental branches and composed of small tubules with cuboidal epithelium. Perihilar large duct type ICCs can be interpreted as arising from large bile duct type ICCs, and peripheral small duct type ICCs may arise from small bile duct type or ductular type ICCs. Chronic biliary inflammation induces neoplastic change of the large bile ducts and thereby progression to the perihilar large duct type ICC, which can be grossly classified into periductal filtrating type ICC and intraductal growth type ICC, while chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis induces mass-forming peripheral small duct type ICC. The different morphological and molecular features, including stromal components and tumor vasculature, support the hypothesis that perihilar large duct type ICCs and peripheral small duct type ICCs arise from different backgrounds, have different carcinogenetic pathways, and exhibit different biologic behaviors. PMID:25181580

  9. Section 11. Radiological intervention approaches to biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gi-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2014-04-27

    Although endoscopic treatment has become the first choice to treat biliary complications, percutaneous transhepatic treatment still has important roles to treat biliary stricture or leak after living donor liver transplantation. This study reviewed a total of 527 recipients who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic treatment to treat biliary stricture (n=498) and leaks (n=29). Percutaneous transhepatic treatment included percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, perihepatic biloma drainage, balloon dilation of biliary stricture, and drainage catheter interposition or retrievable covered stent placement across a stricture or leak segment. Clinical success was achieved in 440 (88.4%) recipients with biliary stricture and 19 (65.5%) recipients with bile leaks. Percutaneous transhepatic treatment seems to be an effective alternative for treating biliary complications resistant to or inaccessible by endoscopic treatment. PMID:24849833

  10. Common Bile Duct Duplication: The more the murkier

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ankur; Sureka, Binit; Kasana, Vivek; Patidar, Yashwant; Bansal, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Congenital duplication of the common bile duct is an extremely rare anomaly of the biliary tract, which putatively represents failure of regression of the embryological double biliary system. Depending on the morphology of the duplicated bile duct, the anomaly can be classified into five distinct subtypes as per the modified classification (proposed by Choi et al). Among the five subtypes of bile duct duplication, type V duplication is considered to be the least common with only two previous cases of type Va variant reported in medical literature prior to the current report. PMID:25672240

  11. Bile duct cyst type V (Caroli's disease): surgical strategy and results

    PubMed Central

    Schelotto, Pablo Barros; Rodríguez, Juan Alvarez; Duek, Fernando; Quarin, Carlos; Garay, Verónica; Amante, Marcelo; Cassini, Eduardo; Imventarza, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Background. Caroli's disease (CD) is a benign congenital disorder characterized by segmental cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary ducts. Therapeutic strategy includes medical treatment, percutaneous, endoscopic or surgical drainage of the affected bile ducts, liver resection or transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyse the results and long-term follow-up of a consecutive series of patients who underwent surgical treatment for CD. Patients and methods. Between 1995 and 2005, 10 patients were surgically treated for CD. Variables evaluated were: age, gender, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, percutaneous and surgical treatments, histopathological analysis and outcome. Results. The average age of the patients was 45.8 years. Recurrent cholangitis was the main clinical manifestation (70%). In unilateral CD a liver resection was performed in nine patients (left lateral sectionectomy in seven, left hepatectomy in one and right hepatectomy in one). In bilateral disease a cholecystectomy, duct exploration, hepaticojejunostomy and liver biopsy of both lobes were performed. Average follow-up was 60 months. All the patients are alive and free of symptoms without recurrence in the remnant liver. Discussion. Liver resection is the preferred therapeutic option for unilateral CD, demonstrating good results in long-term follow-up. In bilateral disease, hepaticojejunostomy could be considered as an alternative or a previous step to liver transplantation, which still remains the ultimate option. PMID:18345305

  12. Recurrent cholangitis by biliary stasis due to non-obstructive afferent loop syndrome after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Yamada, Naoya; Taguchi, Masanobu; Morishima, Kazue; Kasahara, Naoya; Kaneda, Yuji; Miki, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Yasunao; Kurogochi, Akira; Endo, Kazuhiro; Koizumi, Masaru; Sasanuma, Hideki; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hyodo, Masanobu; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We report a 71-year-old man who had undergone pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) using PPPD-IV reconstruction for cholangiocarcinoma. For 6 years thereafter, he had suffered recurrent cholangitis, and also a right liver abscess (S5/8), which required percutaneous drainage at 9 years after PPPD. At 16 years after PPPD, he had been admitted to the other hospital because of acute purulent cholangitis. Although medical treatment resolved the cholangitis, the patient was referred to our hospital because of dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary duct (B2). Peroral double-balloon enteroscopy revealed that the diameter of the hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis was 12 mm, and cholangiography detected intrahepatic stones. Lithotripsy was performed using a basket catheter. At 1 year after lithotripsy procedure, the patient is doing well. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy at 60 minutes after intravenous injection demonstrated that deposit of the tracer still remained in the upper afferent loop jejunum. Therefore, we considered that the recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, and intrahepatic lithiasis have been caused by biliary stasis due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome. Biliary retention due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome may cause recurrent cholangitis or liver abscess after hepaticojejunostomy, and double-balloon enteroscopy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy are useful for the diagnosis of nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome. PMID:25058778

  13. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction and Erosive Disruption by Cavitating Porta Hepatis Nodal Metastasis, Treated by Uncovered Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Trambert, Jonathan J. Frost, Andrei; Malasky, Charlotte

    2004-08-15

    A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.

  14. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA), Benett

    1994-01-01

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic.

  15. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.

    1994-04-26

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding is described. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic. 3 figures.

  16. Combined radiological-endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones: 18-year single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Cannavale, Alessandro; Bezzi, Mario; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Fanello, Gianfranco; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Fiocca, Fausto; Donatelli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Clinical evidence regarding radiological–endoscopic management of intrahepatic bile duct stones is currently lacking. Our aim is to report our 18-year experience in combined radiological–endoscopic management of intrahepatic difficult bile duct stones. Methods: From June 1994 to June 2012, 299 symptomatic patients with difficult bile duct stones were admitted to our institution. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)/biliary drainage/s was performed, dilating the PTC track to 10 or 16 French within 3–7 days. Afterward we carried out percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) with electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) and/or interventional radiology techniques. Follow up was made with clinical/laboratory tests and ultrasound (US). We retrospectively analyzed our radiological–endoscopic approach and reported our technical and clinical outcomes. Results: Complete stone clearance was achieved in 298 patients after a maximum of 4 consecutive sessions. Most patients (64.6%) were treated with PTCS/EHL alone, while the remaining with radiological techniques alone (26%) or a combination of both techniques (13.3%). Recurrence of stones occurred in 45 cases (15%, Tsunoda class III and class IV) within 2 years and were successfully retreated. Major adverse events were: 5 (1.6%) cases of massive bleeding that required embolisation, 2 (0.66%) perforations of the common bile duct and 31 cases (10.3%) of acute cholangitis managed with medical therapy or intervention. Conclusion: After 18 years of experience we demonstrated that our combined radiological–endoscopic approach to ‘difficult bile duct stones‘ may result in both immediate and long-term clearance of stones with a low rate of adverse events. PMID:26557890

  17. Acceptable Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors Adjacent to the Central Biliary System

    SciTech Connect

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate biliary toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: Among 297 consecutive patients with liver tumors treated with SBRT of 35 to 50 Gy in 5 fractions, patients who were irradiated with >20 Gy to the central biliary system (CBS), including the gallbladder, and had follow-up times >6 months were retrospectively analyzed. Toxicity profiles, such as clinical symptoms and laboratory and radiologic data especially for obstructive jaundice and biliary infection, were investigated in relation to the dose volume and length relationship for each biliary organ. Results: Fifty patients with 55 tumors were irradiated with >20 Gy to the CBS. The median follow-up period was 18.2 months (range, 6.0-80.5 months). In the dose length analysis, 39, 34, 14, and 2 patients were irradiated with >20 Gy, >30 Gy, >40 Gy, and >50 Gy, respectively, to >1 cm of the biliary tract. Seven patients were irradiated with >20 Gy to >20% of the gallbladder. Only 2 patients experienced asymptomatic bile duct stenosis. One patient, metachronously treated twice with SBRT for tumors adjacent to each other, had a transient increase in hepatic and biliary enzymes 12 months after the second treatment. The high-dose area >80 Gy corresponded to the biliary stenosis region. The other patient experienced biliary stenosis 5 months after SBRT and had no laboratory changes. The biliary tract irradiated with >20 Gy was 7 mm and did not correspond to the bile duct stenosis region. No obstructive jaundice or biliary infection was found in any patient. Conclusions: SBRT for liver tumors adjacent to the CBS was feasible with minimal biliary toxicity. Only 1 patient had exceptional radiation-induced bile duct stenosis. For liver tumors adjacent to the CBS without other effective treatment options, SBRT at a dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions is a safe treatment with regard to biliary toxicity.

  18. Biliary atresia: From Australia to the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This review is based upon an invited lecture for the 52nd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, July 2015. The aetiology of biliary atresia (BA) is at best obscure, but it is probable that a number of causes or pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved leading to the final common phenotype we recognise clinically. By way of illustration, similar conditions to human BA are described, including biliary agenesis, which is the normal state and peculiar final pattern of bile duct development in the jawless fish, the lamprey. Furthermore, there have been remarkable outbreaks in the Australian outback of BA in newborn lambs whose mothers were exposed to and grazed upon a particular plant species (Dysphania glomulifera) during gestation. More recent work using a zebrafish model has isolated a toxic isoflavonoid, now named Biliatresone, thought to be responsible for these outbreaks. Normal development of the bile ducts is reviewed and parallels drawn with two clinical variants thought to definitively have their origins in intrauterine life: Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) and Cystic Biliary Atresia (CBA). For both variants there is sufficient clinical evidence, including associated anomalies and antenatal detection, respectively, to warrant their aetiological attribution as developmental BA. CMV IgM +ve associated BA is a further variant that appears separate with distinct clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. In these it seems possible that this involves perinatal obliteration of a normally formed duct system. Although still circumstantial, this evidence appears convincing enough to perhaps warrant a different treatment strategy. This then still leaves the most common (more than 60% in Western series) variant, now termed Isolated BA, whereby origins can only be alluded to. PMID:26653951

  19. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endobiliary Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Rupture into the Biliary System: An Unusual Route for Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Soyupak, Suereyya; Akguel, Erol; Ezici, Hueseyin

    2002-10-15

    The most common and serious complication of hydatid cyst of the liver is rupture into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and abscess. The traditional treatment of biliary-cystic fistula is surgery and recently endoscopic sphincterotomy. We report a case of complex heterogeneous cyst rupture into the biliary tract causing biliary obstruction in which the obstruction and cyst were treated successfully by percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage. Our case is the second report of percutaneous transbiliary internal drainage of hydatid cyst with rupture into the biliary duct in which the puncture and drainage were not performed through the cyst cavity.

  20. Discordance of sonography and cholescintigraphy in acute biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Collins, T.L.

    1983-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that there is a brief interval of several hours after acute biliary obstruction during which sonography will demonstrate only normal-sized bile ducts while /sup 99m/Tc cholescintigraphy will document total obstruction. Serial studies documented this phenomenon in a patient whose case is reported and reviewed.

  1. Delayed perforation of a duodenal diverticulum by a biliary endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Elder, J; Stevenson, G

    1993-02-01

    A 73-year-old woman with cholangitis due to stricture of the bile duct and the presence of stones was treated by the placement of a biliary endoprosthesis. However, 8 weeks later the lower end of the stent had retracted into a duodenal diverticulum and penetrated its inferior wall. The patient was readmitted to hospital for treatment of a retroperitoneal abscess. PMID:8425156

  2. Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin; Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B.

    1996-03-15

    Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

  3. Outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic stenting has become a widely method for the management of various malignant and benign pancreatico-biliary disorders. Biliary and pancreatic stents are devices made of plastic or metal used primarily to establish patency of an obstructed bile or pancreatic duct and may also be used to treat biliary or pancreatic leaks, pancreatic fluid collections and to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases. PMID:26290631

  4. Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Mimicking Biliary Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Bashar; Kumaravel, Arthi; Aucejo, Federico; Jang, Sunguk; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John; Parsi, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    We present a 42-year-old man with a 1-month history of painless jaundice, dark urine, clay-colored stools, and a 13.5-kg weight loss. Laboratory tests revealed elevated liver enzymes and CA19-9. Imaging showed dilation of both the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, narrowing of the bile duct at the junction of the common bile duct and common hepatic duct, and a hypoechoic mass involving the neck of the gallbladder and the muscularis propria of the duodenum. Examination of the resected gallbladder and perihilar nodes ruled out malignancy and revealed a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of giant histiocytes with clear, lipid-containing cytoplasm (xanthoma cells), consistent with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. PMID:26504881

  5. Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Mimicking Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Bashar; Bhatt, Amit; Kumaravel, Arthi; Aucejo, Federico; Jang, Sunguk; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John; Parsi, Mansour

    2015-10-01

    We present a 42-year-old man with a 1-month history of painless jaundice, dark urine, clay-colored stools, and a 13.5-kg weight loss. Laboratory tests revealed elevated liver enzymes and CA19-9. Imaging showed dilation of both the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, narrowing of the bile duct at the junction of the common bile duct and common hepatic duct, and a hypoechoic mass involving the neck of the gallbladder and the muscularis propria of the duodenum. Examination of the resected gallbladder and perihilar nodes ruled out malignancy and revealed a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of giant histiocytes with clear, lipid-containing cytoplasm (xanthoma cells), consistent with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. PMID:26504881

  6. UPDATE ON PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune chronic liver disease characterized by progressive bile duct destruction eventually leading to cirrhosis, liver failure, and death. The autoimmune pathogenesis is supported by a plethora of experimental and clinical data, such as the presence of autoreactive T cells and serum autoantibodies. The etiology remains unknown, although evidence suggests a role for both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors that remain to be determined. In fact, a number of chemicals and infectious agents have been proposed to induce the disease in predisposed individuals. The recent availability of several murine models will significantly help in understanding pathphysiology mechanisms. In this review, we critically summarize the most recent data on the etiopathogenesis of PBC, discuss the latest theories and developments, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:20359968

  7. Palliation double stenting for malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANG; XU, HAITAO; ZHANG, YUBAO

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of patients with malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction is complex. Tumor excision is no longer possible in the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraluminal dual stent placement in malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. In total, 20 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction, including 6 with pancreatic carcinoma, 11 with cholangiocarcinoma, 1 with duodenal carcinoma and 2 with abdominal lymph node metastasis, were treated with intraluminal stent placement. Bile duct obstruction with late occurrence of duodenal obstruction was observed in 16 cases, and duodenal obstruction followed by a late occurrence of bile duct obstruction was observed in 3 cases, while, in 1 case, bile duct obstruction and duodenal obstruction occurred simultaneously. After X-ray fluoroscopy revealed obstruction in the bile duct and duodenum, stents were placed into the respective lumens. Percutaneous transhepatic placement was employed for the biliary stent, while the duodenal stent was placed perioraly. The clinical outcomes, including complications associated with the procedures and patency of the stents, were evaluated. The biliary and duodenal stents were successfully implanted in 18 patients and the technical success rate was 90% (18/20). A total of 39 stents were implanted in 20 patients. In 2 cases, duodenal stent placement failed following biliary stent placement. Duodenal obstruction remitted in 15 patients, and 1 patient succumbed to aspiration pneumonia 5 days after the procedure. No severe complications were observed in any other patient. The survival time of the 18 patients was 5–21 months (median, 9.6 months), and 6 of those patients survived for >12 months. The present study suggests that X-ray fluoroscopy-guided intraluminal stent implantation is an effective procedure for the treatment of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. PMID:26889267

  8. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagi, Teru; Heathcote, E Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology characterized by injury of the intrahepatic bile ducts that may eventually lead to liver failure. Affected individuals are usually in their fifth to seventh decades of life at time of diagnosis, and 90% are women. Annual incidence is estimated between 0.7 and 49 cases per million-population and prevalence between 6.7 and 940 cases per million-population (depending on age and sex). The majority of patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis, however, some patients present with symptoms of fatigue and/or pruritus. Patients may even present with ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and/or esophageal variceal hemorrhage. PBC is associated with other autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, Raynaud's phenomenon and CREST syndrome and is regarded as an organ specific autoimmune disease. Genetic susceptibility as a predisposing factor for PBC has been suggested. Environmental factors may have potential causative role (infection, chemicals, smoking). Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, abnormal liver biochemical pattern in a cholestatic picture persisting for more than six months and presence of detectable antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in serum. All AMA negative patients with cholestatic liver disease should be carefully evaluated with cholangiography and liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only currently known medication that can slow the disease progression. Patients, particularly those who start UDCA treatment at early-stage disease and who respond in terms of improvement of the liver biochemistry, have a good prognosis. Liver transplantation is usually an option for patients with liver failure and the outcome is 70% survival at 7 years. Recently, animal models have been discovered that may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and facilitate appreciation for novel treatment in PBC. PMID:18215315

  9. Primary biliary cirrhosis in adults.

    PubMed

    Momah, Njideka; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-05-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, autoimmune, cholestatic liver disease. It is characterized by slow destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, impaired biliary secretion and stasis of toxic endogenous bile acids within the liver with progression to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has an increasing prevalence worldwide. It occurs more commonly in women than men at a ratio of 10:1. In most cases, diagnosis relies on a positive antimitochondrial antibody in the context of chronic cholestasis, without the need for a liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves survival even in patients with advanced liver disease. Certain findings such as fatigue, anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-centromere antibodies and the GP210 antinuclear antibody predict a poor outcome. Up to 40% of patients do not respond satisfactorily to ursodeoxycholic acid therapy and should be considered for adjunctive therapies. Several adjunctive and newer therapies are being tested and some appear promising. We provide a review of PBC with a focus on advances in therapies that may impact the management of PBC in the near future. PMID:24580040

  10. Adenocarcinoma with pyloric gland phenotype of the extrahepatic bile ducts: a previously unrecognized and distinctive morphologic variant of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Mercado, Miguel Ángel; Vilatoba-Chapa, Mario; Henson, Donald E

    2012-12-01

    Carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts are uncommon and morphologically heterogeneous. We report 3 unique examples of adenocarcinomas that show predominantly pyloric gland differentiation (80%-100%) and compare their immunohistochemical profile with that of pyloric gland adenomas of the gallbladder, foveolar, and intestinal-type adenocarcinomas of the extrahepatic bile duct. The 3 patients with pyloric gland adenocarcinomas were younger than those with conventional adenocarcinomas. The 3 tumors were very well differentiated but showed extensive perineural invasion. They consisted of a variable proportion of small, medium-sized, and cystically dilated glands separated by abundant desmoplastic stroma. The glands were lined by columnar cells with abundant mucin-containing cytoplasm and small hyperchromatic basally placed nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli. A characteristic feature of these pyloric gland adenocarcinomas was that the glands had a stellar pattern that was not seen in foveolar-, intestinal-, or biliary-type adenocarcinomas. Two pyloric gland adenocarcinomas coexpressed MUC6 and MUC5AC. The diffuse pattern of reactivity of MUC5AC and MUC6 was similar to that of 10 pyloric gland adenomas of the gallbladder and 2 foveolar adenocarcinomas of the extrahepatic bile duct. In contrast, 5 intestinal adenocarcinomas of the extrahepatic bile duct labeled with the intestinal marker CDX2 and 3 with the colonic MUC2 but were negative for MUC6 and MUC5AC. We believe that these pyloric gland adenocarcinomas represent a previously unrecognized distinct clinicopathologic entity. Despite their deceptively benign microscopic appearance, 1 patient died with local recurrence and liver metastasis, another patient is living with tumor, and the third patient is asymptomatic but only 5 months after surgery. PMID:22795356

  11. Biliary tract cancer and occupation in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, B K; Stone, B J; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Blot, W J

    1986-01-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry, which links the incidence of cancer (1961-79) and the 1960 census data on industry and occupation for all employed individuals in Sweden, the occurrence of biliary tract cancer (ICD 7th rev 155.1-.9) was systematically assessed according to occupational and industrial classifications. Data are presented separately for cancer of the gall bladder (ICD 155.1) and other cancers of the biliary tract (ICD 155.2-.9) including cancers of the extrahepatic bile ducts, ampulla of Vater, and unspecified bile passages. Statistically significant increased risks for cancer of the gall bladder were observed for men employed in petroleum refining, papermills, chemical processing, shoemaking, and repairing, and for both men and women employed in textile work. A significant increase in the incidence of other cancers of the biliary tract (mostly cancers of the bile duct) was found for such asbestos related employment as shipbuilding and in the wholesale construction materials industry and among insulation workers. These findings should be considered only as clues to aetiological factors, although several are consistent with earlier observations from other countries. PMID:3964574

  12. Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction in two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Hauptman, K; Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

    2011-07-01

    This report describes extrahepatic bile duct obstruction in two ferrets, which were presented with anorexia, chronic weight loss and general weakness. Physical examination revealed lethargy, cachexia, dehydration, abdominal pain and icterus. Marked haematological, serum chemistry and urinalysis abnormalities included hyperbilirubinaemia (65·5 and 114·2 μmol/L), high concentrations of alanine transaminase (1327·53 and 2578·88 IU/L) and biluribinuria. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed thickening of the bile duct together with the gall bladder wall. The common bile duct was obviously distended. Choledochotomy revealed inspissated bile with fragile green gelatinous plugs that was removed to allow the bile to flow into the duodenum. Cytology and culture of the biliary tract contents were negative for bacteria. Laboratory analyses of biliary plugs showed presence of only protein substances, without detectable mineral composition. Histopathological examination of the liver showed diffuse steatosis and non-specific cholangiohepatitis in both cases. PMID:21671943

  13. Per oral cholangiopancreatoscopy in pancreatico biliary diseases - Expert consensus statements

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandani, Mohan; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Tandan, Manu; Maydeo, Amit; Chandrashekhar, Thoguluva Seshadri; Kumar, Ajay; Sud, Randhir; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Makmun, Dadang; Khor, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide consensus statements on the use of per-oral cholangiopancreatoscopy (POCPS). METHODS: A workgroup of experts in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endosonography, and POCPS generated consensus statements summarizing the utility of POCPS in pancreaticobiliary disease. Recommendation grades used validated evidence ratings of publications from an extensive literature review. RESULTS: Six consensus statements were generated: (1) POCPS is now an important additional tool during ERCP; (2) in patients with indeterminate biliary strictures, POCS and POCS-guided targeted biopsy are useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis; (3) POCS and POCS-guided lithotripsy are recommended for treatment of difficult common bile duct stones when standard techniques fail; (4) in patients with main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) POPS may be used to assess extent of tumor to assist surgical resection; (5) in difficult pancreatic ductal stones, POPS-guided lithotripsy may be useful in fragmentation and extraction of stones; and (6) additional indications for POCPS include selective guidewire placement, unexplained hemobilia, assessing intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. CONCLUSION: POCPS is important in association with ERCP, particularly for diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures and for intra-ductal lithotripsy when other techniques failed, and may be useful for pre-operative assessment of extent of main duct IPMN, for extraction of difficult pancreatic stones, and for unusual indications involving selective guidewire placement, assessing unexplained hemobilia or intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. PMID:25914484

  14. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.; Al-azzawi, Khairallh H.; Alkarboly, Taha A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biliary leak can occur as a complication of biliary surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography manipulations and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Consequently, bile may collect in the abdominal cavity, a condition called biloma. Rarely, it may reach a massive size. Case presentation A 72-year-old man presented with gastric upset with gradual abdominal distension reaching a large size due to intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stenting for post laparoscopic cholecystectomy common bile duct stricture. This huge biloma was treated by percutaneous insertion of a tube drain for a few days, evacuating the collection successfully without recurrence. Discussion This patient might sustain injury to the common bile duct either by the guide wire or stent, or the injury occurred at the angle between the common bile duct and duodenum during sphincterotomy of the ampulla. Although any of these rents may lead to a bile leak, causing a huge biloma, they could be successfully treated by percutaneous drainage. Conclusions (1) Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2) A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3) Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective. PMID:26402876

  15. Scissors Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers are preparing to conduct water tests on an updated version of the scissors duct component of the J-2X engine. Measuring about 2 feet long and about 8 inches in diameter, the duct on the J-2X predecessor, the J-2, connected its fuel turbo pumps to the flight vehicle's upper stage run tanks. According to NASA's J-2X project manager at SSC, Gary Benton, the water tests should establish the limits of the duct's ability to withstand vibration.

  16. "Biliary Diseases with Pancreatic Counterparts": Cross-sectional Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Flaherty, Erin M; Dasyam, Anil K; Menias, Christine O; Riddle, Nicole D; Lath, Narayan; Kozaka, Kazuto; Matsui, Osamu; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the similarities in the histopathologic findings and the clinical-biologic behaviors of select biliary and pancreatic conditions, a new disease concept, "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts," has been proposed. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic pathologic conditions of the biliary tract have their counterparts in the pancreas. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing cholangitis is the biliary manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is its pancreatic counterpart. People with chronic alcoholism can develop peribiliary cysts and fibrosis as well as pancreatic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis simultaneously. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous cystic neoplasm are considered pancreatic counterparts for the biliary neoplasms of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract, and hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, respectively. The anatomic proximity of the biliary tract and the pancreas, the nearly simultaneous development of both organs from the endoderm of the foregut, and the presence of pancreatic exocrine acini within the peribiliary glands surrounding the extrahepatic bile ducts are suggested as causative factors for these similarities. Interestingly, these diseases show "nearly" identical findings at cross-sectional imaging, an observation that further supports this new disease concept. New information obtained with regard to biliary diseases can be used for evaluation of pancreatic abnormalities, and vice versa. In addition, combined genetic and molecular studies may be performed to develop novel therapeutic targets. For both biliary and pancreatic diseases, imaging plays a pivotal role in initial diagnosis, evaluation of treatment response, efficacy testing of novel drugs, and long-term surveillance. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26824512

  17. Effects of warm ischemia time on biliary injury in rat liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Jun-Ping; Wu, Ya-Fu; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of different secondary warm ischemia time (SWIT) on bile duct injury in liver-transplanted rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male inbred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: a sham-operation group and three groups with secondary biliary warm ischemia time of 0 min, 10 min and 20 min. A rat model of autologous liver transplantation under ether anesthesia was established, and six rats were killed in each group and blood samples and the median lobe of the liver were collected for assay at 6 h and 24 h after hepatic arterial reperfusion. RESULTS: With prolongation of biliary warm ischemia time, the level of vascular endothelial growth factor-A was significantly decreased, and the value at 24 h was higher than that at 6 h after hepatic arterial reperfusion, but with no significant difference. The extended biliary SWIT led to a significant increase in bile duct epithelial cell apoptosis, and a decrease in the number of blood vessels, the bile duct surrounding the blood vessels and bile duct epithelial cell proliferation in the early postoperative portal area. Pathologic examinations showed that inflammation of the rat portal area was aggravated, and biliary epithelial cell injury was significantly worsened. CONCLUSION: A prolonged biliary warm ischemia time results in aggravated injury of the bile duct and the surrounding vascular plexus in rat autologous orthotopic liver transplantation. PMID:23180953

  18. Role of radiation after operative palliation in cancer of the proximal bile ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, M.K.; Hermann, R.E.; Vogt, D.P.; Broughan, T.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Cancer of the proximal bile ducts continues to pose a formidable problem to even the most experienced biliary surgeon. From 1977 through 1985, 51 patients with histologically confirmed proximal bile duct cancers underwent surgical treatment. The lesion was confined to the hilar region in 30 patients; there was extensive hepatic infiltration or distant metastatic disease in 21 patients. One patient underwent resection. Biopsy only was performed in six patients. In the remaining 44 patients, transtumoral dilation and intubation were performed. These 44 patients were further analyzed with regard to how survival was affected by the presence of metastatic disease and by the adjunctive use of radiation therapy. Mean survival in those patients with metastatic disease (n = 16) was 6.1 months, and survival was not improved by the use of postoperative radiation. In the absence of metastatic or advanced local disease, however, the addition of external beam radiation did significantly extend the mean survival from 4.5 to 12.2 months and the median survival from 2.2 to 12.2 months. The operative mortality for the series was 14% and postoperative complications occurred in 18 patients. These findings suggest that the addition of external beam radiation improves survival in patients undergoing palliative treatment of hilar tumors. Further confirmation of the value of radiation awaits prospective investigation.

  19. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L. (Canoga Park, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  20. Simultaneous Extensive Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct and Pancreas: A Very Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Luvira, Vor; Pugkhem, Ake; Tipwaratorn, Theerawee; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a specific type of bile duct tumor. It has been proposed that it could be the biliary counterpart of the intraductal papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P). This hypothesis is supported by the presence of simultaneous intraductal tumors of both the bile duct and pancreas. There have been five reports of patients with simultaneous IPNB and IPMN-P. In all of these cases, biliary involvement was limited to the intrahepatic and perihilar bile duct, which had characteristics similar to IPMN-P and usually had slow progression in nature. Herein, we present the first case of extensive intraductal neoplasm involving the extrahepatic bile duct, intrahepatic bile duct, and entire length of the pancreas with a poor outcome, even after being treated aggressively with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, we summarize previous case reports of simultaneous intraductal lesions of the bile duct and pancreas. PMID:26925284

  1. Identification and Manipulation of Biliary Metaplasia in Pancreatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    DelGiorno, Kathleen E.; Hall, Jason C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth K.; Pan, Fong Cheng; Halbrook, Christopher J.; Washington, M. Kay; Olive, Kenneth P.; Spence, Jason; Sipos, Bence; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Wells, James M.; Crawford, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Metaplasias often have characteristics of developmentally related tissues. Pancreatic metaplastic ducts are usually associated with pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The tuft cell is a chemosensory cell that responds to signals in the extracellular environment via effector molecules. Commonly found in the biliary tract, tuft cells are absent from normal murine pancreas. Using the aberrant appearance of tuft cells as an indicator, we tested if pancreatic metaplasia represents transdifferentiation to a biliary phenotype and what effect this has on pancreatic tumorigenesis. Methods We analyzed pancreatic tissue and tumors that developed in mice that express an activated form of Kras (KrasLSL−G12D/+;Ptf1aCre/+ mice). Normal bile duct, pancreatic duct, and tumor-associated metaplasias from the mice were analyzed for tuft cell and biliary progenitor markers, including SOX17, a transcription factor that regulates biliary development. We also analyzed pancreatic tissues from mice expressing transgenic SOX17 alone (ROSAtTa/+;Ptf1 CreERTM/+;tetO-SOX17) or along with activated Kras (ROSAtT a/+;Ptf1a CreERTM/+;tetO-SOX17;KrasLSL−G12D;+). Results Tuft cells were frequently found in areas of pancreatic metaplasia, decreased throughout tumor progression, and were absent from invasive tumors. Analysis of the pancreatobiliary ductal systems of mice revealed tuft cells in the biliary tract, but not the normal pancreatic duct. Analysis for biliary markers revealed expression of SOX17 in pancreatic metaplasia and tumors. Pancreas-specific overexpression of SOX17 led to ductal metaplasia along with inflammation and collagen deposition. Mice that overexpressed SOX17 along with KrasG12D had a greater degree of transformed tissue compared with mice expressing only KrasG12D. Immunofluorescence analysis of human pancreatic tissue arrays revealed the presence of tuft cells in metaplasia and early-stage tumors, along with SOX17 expression, consistent with a biliary phenotype. Conclusions Expression of KrasG12D and SOX17 in mice induces development of metaplasias with a biliary phenotype, containing tuft cells. Tuft cells express a number of tumorigenic factors that can alter the microenvironment. Expression of SOX17 induces pancreatitis and promotes KrasG12D-induced tumorigenesis in mice. PMID:23999170

  2. Intraoperative cholangiography and bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Costi, R; Roncoroni, L

    2006-01-01

    We are not in agreement with the opinion that the credit for excellent results after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is to be attributed to the routine performing of intraoperative cholangiography. We performed 2538 laparoscopic cholecystectomies without routine intraoperative cholangiography and we obtained very low rate and severity of common bile duct injuries: there was a total of four common bile duct injuries (0.16%), in no case was the injury a major transaction, and injuries were detected intraoperatively and easily repaired with a T-tube. Cholangiography could prevent bile duct transaction, but that it is not necessary for intraoperative cholangiography to be routinely performed for this purpose. It is sufficient for intraoperative cholangiography to be performed whenever the surgeon is in doubt as to the biliary anatomy or common bile duct clearance, and that when dissection of the cholecystic peduncle proves difficult he does not hesitate to convert to open access. PMID:16333543

  3. Precut sphincterotomy: A reliable salvage for difficult biliary cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Saritas, Ulku; Ustundag, Yucel; Harmandar, Ferda

    2013-01-01

    Even experienced endoscopists have 90% success in achieving deep biliary cannulation with standard methods. Biliary cannulation may become difficult in 10%-15% of patients with biliary obstruction and precut (access) sphincterotomy is frequently chosen as a rescue treatment in these cases. Generally, precut sphincterotomy ensures a rate of 90%-100% successful deep biliary cannulation. The precut technique has been performed as either a fistulotomy with a needle knife sphincterotome or as a transpapillary septotomy with a standard sphincterotome. Both methods have similar efficacy and complication rates when administered to the proper patient. Although precut sphincterotomy ensures over 90% success of biliary cannulation, it has been characterized as an independent risk factor for pancreatitis. The complications of the precut technique are not limited to pancreatitis. Two more important ones, bleeding and perforation, are also reported in some publications as being observed more commonly than during standard sphincterotomy. It is also reported that precut sphincterotomy increases morbidity when performed in patients without dilatation of their biliary tract. Nevertheless, precut sphincterotomy is a good alternative as a rescue method in the setting of a failed standard cannulation method. This paper discusses the technical details, timing, efficacy and potential complications of precut sphincterotomy. PMID:23326155

  4. Apotopes and the Biliary Specificity of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lleo, Ana; Selmi, Carlo; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Coppel, Ross L.; Mackay, Ian R.; Gores, Gregory J.; Ansari, Aftab A.; Van de Water, Judy; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), directed to the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2). Notwithstanding the presence of mitochondria in virtually all nucleated cells, the destruction in PBC is limited to small intrahepatic bile ducts. The reasons for this tissue specificity remain unknown, although biliary epithelial cells (BEC) uniquely preserve the PDC-E2 epitope following apoptosis. Notably, PBC recurs in an allogeneic transplanted liver, suggesting generic rather than host-PBC-specific susceptibility of BEC. We used cultured human intrahepatic BEC (HIBEC) and other well-characterized cell lines, including, HeLa, CaCo-2 cells, and non transformed human keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells (BrEpC), to determine the integrity and specific localization of PDC-E2 during induced apoptosis. All cell lines, both before and after apoptosis, were tested with sera from patients with PBC (n=30), other autoimmune liver and rheumatic diseases (n=20), and healthy individuals (n=20), a mouse monoclonal antibody against PDC-E2, and AMA with an IgA isotype. PDC-E2 was found to localize unmodified within apoptotic blebs of HIBEC, but not within blebs of various other cell lineages studied. The fact that AMA- containing sera reacted with PDC-E2 on apoptotic BEC without a requirement for permeabilization suggests that the autoantigen is accessible to the immune system during apoptosis. In conclusion, our data indicate that the tissue (cholangiocyte) specificity of the autoimmune injury in PBC is a consequence of the unique characteristics of HIBEC during apoptosis and can be explained by exposure to the immune system of intact immunoreactive PDC-E2 within apoptotic blebs. PMID:19185000

  5. On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoyu; Li, Wenguang; Bird, Nigel; Chin, Swee Boon; Hill, NA; Johnson, Alan G

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system. Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system, and finally the future challenges in the area. PMID:17457970

  6. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  7. Etiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lleo, Ana; Invernizzi, Pietro; Mackay, Ian R; Prince, Harry; Zhong, Ren-Qian; Gershwin, M Eric

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease of the liver characterized by progressive bile duct destruction eventually leading to cirrhosis and liver failure. The serological hallmark of the disease is the presence of circulating antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). These reflect the presence of autoreactive T and B cells to the culprit antigens, the E2 subunits of mitochondrial 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase enzymes, chiefly pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2). The disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Genetic predisposition is indicated by the higher familial incidence of the disease particularly among siblings and the high concordance rate among monozygotic twins. Environmental triggering events appear crucial to disrupt a pre-existing unstable immune tolerance of genetic origin allowing, after a long latency, the emergence of clinical disease. Initiating mimotopes of the vulnerable epitope of the PDC-E2 autoantigen can be derived from microbes that utilize the PDC enzyme or, alternatively, environmental xenobiotics/chemical compounds that modify the structure of native proteins to make them immunogenic. A further alternative as a source of antigen is PDC-E2 derived from apoptotic cells. In the effector phase the biliary ductular cell, by reason of its proclivity to express the antigen PDC-E2 in the course of apoptosis, undergoes a multilineage immune attack comprised of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and antibody. In this article, we critically review the available evidence on etiopathogenesis of PBC and present interpretations of complex data, new developments and theories, and nominate directions for future research. PMID:18528930

  8. Biliary wound healing, ductular reactions, and IL-6/gp130 signaling in the development of liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A J; III, John G Lunz; Specht, Susan; Nozaki, Isao

    2006-01-01

    Basic and translational wound healing research in the biliary tree lag significantly behind similar studies on the skin and gastrointestinal tract. This is at least partly attributable to lack of easy access to the biliary tract for study. But clinical relevance, more interest in biliary epithelial cell (BEC) pathophysiology, and widespread availability of BEC cultures are factors reversing this trend. In the extra-hepatic biliary tree, ineffectual wound healing, scarring and stricture development are pressing issues. In the smallest intra-hepatic bile ducts either impaired BEC proliferation or an exuberant response can contribute to liver disease. Chronic inflammation and persistent wound healing reactions in large and small bile ducts often lead to liver cancer. General concepts of wound healing as they apply to the biliary tract, importance of cellular processes dependent on IL-6/gp130/STAT3 signaling pathways, unanswered questions, and future directions are discussed. PMID:16773708

  9. Role of Cholangiocytes in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lleo, Ana; Maroni, Luca; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2); characteristics of the disease are also the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. Recent evidence suggests that cholangiocytes show specific immunobiological features that are responsible for the selective targeting of those cells by the immune system. The immune reaction in PBC selectively targets small sized, intrahepatic bile ducts; although a specific reason for that has not been defined yet, it has been established that the biliary epithelium displays a unique heterogeneity, for which the physiological and pathophysiological features of small and large cholangiocytes significantly differ. In this review article, the authors provide a critical overview of the current evidence on the role of cholangiocytes in the immune-mediated destruction of the biliary tree that characterizes PBC. PMID:25057951

  10. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-10-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  11. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  12. Eosinophilic Cholangitis-A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I; Kontis, Elissaios A; Pantiora, Eirini V; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G; Politi, Aikaterini N; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K; Mela, Maria K; Polydorou, Andreas A

    2016-01-01

    When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task.We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids.Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  13. Surgical Management of Benign Biliary Stricture in Chronic Pancreatitis: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sukanta; Ghatak, Supriyo; Das, Khaunish; Dasgupta, Jayanta; Ray, Sujay; Khamrui, Sujan; Sonar, Pankaj Kumar; Das, Somak

    2015-12-01

    Biliary stricture in chronic pancreatitis (CP) is not uncommon. Previously, all cases were managed by surgery. Nowadays, three important modes of treatment in these patients are observation, endoscopic therapy, and surgery. In the modern era, surgery is recommended only in a subset of patients who develop biliary symptoms or those who have asymptomatic biliary stricture and require surgery for intractable abdominal pain. We want to report on our experience regarding surgical management of CP-induced benign biliary stricture. Over a period of 5 years, we have managed 340 cases of CP at our institution. Bile duct stricture was found in 62 patients. But, surgical intervention was required in 44 patients, and the remaining 18 patients were managed conservatively. Demographic data, operative procedures, postoperative complications, and follow-up parameters of these patients were collected from our prospective database. A total 44 patients were operated for biliary obstruction in the background of CP. Three patients were excluded, so the final analysis was based on 41 patients. The indication for surgery was symptomatic biliary stricture in 27 patients and asymptomatic biliary stricture with intractable abdominal pain in 14 patients. The most commonly performed operation was Frey's procedure. There was no inhospital mortality. Thirty-five patients were well at a mean follow-up of 24.4 months (range 3 to 54 months). Surgery is still the best option for CP-induced benign biliary stricture, and Frey's procedure is a versatile operation unless you suspect malignancy as the cause of biliary obstruction. PMID:26730073

  14. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Is a Generalized Autoimmune Epithelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Bingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by highly specific antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and the specific immune-mediated injury of small intrahepatic bile ducts. Unique apoptotic feature of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) may contribute to apotope presentation to the immune system, causing unique tissue damage in PBC. Perpetuation of inflammation may result in senescence of BECs, contributing to irreversible loss of bile duct. In addition to the classic liver manifestations, focal inflammation and tissue damage are also seen in salivary glands and urinary tract in a significant proportion of PBC patients. These findings provide potent support to the idea that molecular mimicry may be involved in the breakdown of autoimmune tolerance and mucosal immunity may lead to a systematic epithelitis in PBC patients. Thus, PBC is considered a generalized epithelitis in clinical practice. PMID:25803105

  15. Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2006-12-15

    A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

  16. Differentiation of jaundice in infancy: an application of radionuclide biliary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, G.S.; Rosenbaum, R.C.; Hill, J.L.; Diaconis, J.N.

    1985-12-01

    Atresia and hypoplasia of the bile ducts are the most common congenital biliary anomalies of clinical importance. Surgical correction can help about 10% of these infants. However, surgery should be performed within the first month of life to avoid irreversible liver parenchymal changes. It is difficult to separate the surgical condition, biliary atresia, from conditions in which the trauma of laparotomy should be avoided, such as neonatal hepatitis and other clinically indistinguishable causes of obstructive jaundice. Radionuclide imaging with the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled N-substituted iminodiacetic acids (HIDA, PIDIDA, DISIDA, etc) have been helpful in the differential diagnosis of biliary atresia.

  17. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report.

    PubMed

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-Zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involve the common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bile duct. PMID:25932083

  18. Common bile duct strictures associated with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Eckhauser, F E; Knol, J A; Strodel, W E; Achem, S; Nostrant, T

    1983-07-01

    Common bile duct (CBD) strictures associated with chronic pancreatitis may cause significant hepatobiliary disease. Nine patients with chronic alcohol-related pancreatitis and CBD obstruction requiring operative biliary or pancreatobiliary decompression are reported. Alkaline phosphatase was the most specific biochemical indicator of cholestasis. Abnormal CBD anatomy was delinated accurately in 89 per cent of cases with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All strictures were localized to the intrapancreatic portion of the distal CBD. Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPC) were identified in six (67%) cases. All nine patients underwent biliary decompression. Simultaneous PPC drainage or pancreatic duct decompression (Peustow procedure) was performed in eight cases (89%). No perioperative mortality occurred, and all patients reported subjective improvement in symptoms. Biliary tract strictures sufficient to cause clinical or biochemical cholestasis are a poorly recognized complication of chronic pancreatitis. Cholangiography (PTC or ERCP) should be obtained in order to delineate radiographic features, and extent and severity of the biliary stricture because there is no predictable correlation between levels of serum alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. A percutaneous biopsy is requisite to document changes in hepatic morphology. In order to prevent potential hepatobiliary complications such as cholangitis and secondary biliary cirrhosis, biliary strictures should be managed surgically even in anicteric and otherwise asymptomatic patients. Simultaneous treatment of associated pancreatic pathology can be performed if necessary with little added morbidity. PMID:6614652

  19. CD8 T cells mediate direct biliary ductule damage in nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Yuehong; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Leung, Patrick S; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Rainbow, Daniel B; Hunter, Kara M; Morris, Gerard A; Lyons, Paul A; Peterson, Laurence B; Wicker, Linda S; Gershwin, M Eric; Ridgway, William M

    2011-01-15

    We previously described the NOD.c3c4 mouse, which is protected from type 1 diabetes (T1D) because of protective alleles at multiple insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) genes, but develops autoimmune biliary disease (ABD) resembling primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In this paper, we characterize the NOD.ABD strain, which is genetically related to the NOD.c3c4 strain but develops both ABD and T1D. Histologically, NOD.ABD biliary disease is indistinguishable from that in NOD.c3c4 mice. The frequency of effector memory (CD44(+)CD62L(-)) and central memory (CD44(+)CD62L(+)) CD8 T cells is significantly increased in the intrahepatic lymphocyte fraction of NOD.ABD mice, and NOD.ABD CD8 T cells produce more IFN-? and TNF-?, compared with controls. NOD.ABD splenocytes can transfer ABD and T1D to NOD.c3c4 scid mice, but only T1D to NOD scid mice, suggesting that the genetic origin of the target organ and/or its innate immune cells is critical to disease pathogenesis. The disease transfer model, importantly, shows that biliary duct damage (characteristic of PBC) and inflammation precede biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Unlike T1D where both CD4 and CD8 T cells are required for disease transfer, purified NOD.ABD CD8 T cells can transfer liver inflammation into NOD.c3c4 scid recipients, and disease transfer is ameliorated by cotransferring T regulatory cells. Unlike NOD.c3c4 mice, NOD.ABD mice do not develop anti-nuclear or anti-Smith autoantibodies; however, NOD.ABD mice do develop the antipyruvate dehydrogenase Abs typical of human PBC. The NOD.ABD strain is a model of immune dysregulation affecting two organ systems, most likely by mechanisms that do not completely coincide. PMID:21169553

  20. [Primary biliary cirrhosis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Bernuau, J; Luton, D

    2014-05-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, asymptomatic during a protracted time, characterized by changes in the small-sized bile ducts near portal spaces. The etiology of PBC is undefined, but immunologic and environmental disturbances may contribute to the disease. Infertility is often associated with PBC and cirrhosis, but pregnancy may well occur in women with PBC and without cirrhosis or in some others with compensated cirrhosis. A pluridisciplinary approach including gastroenterologists and obstetricians is recommended. The patient must be closely monitored throughout her pregnancy with maternal and routine antenatal care. Medical treatment requires ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In non-cirrhotic UDCA-treated women with PBC, pregnancy often follows a normal course with vaginal delivery. In cirrhotic patients, UDCA must be continued during pregnancy, esophageal and gastric varices must be evaluated before pregnancy, and endoscopic ligature is recommended for treating large varices. Additionally, beta-blocker therapy may be associated, especially when variceal rupture occurred previously. Elective cesarean section is recommended in patients with large esophageal or gastric varices because of the potentially increased risk of variceal bleeding during maternal expulsive efforts in case of vaginal delivery. PMID:23628147

  1. Intraoperative air leak test was useful for the detection of a small biliary fistula: A rare case of non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Hata, Shojiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication are rare and no standard treatment has been established yet. Careful attention should be paid to avoidance of postoperative bile leakage during surgical treatment. Presentation of case We report the case of a 74-year-old man who visited our department complaining of right upper abdominal pain and elevated serum levels of the liver enzymes. Computed tomography revealed hepatic cysts including a large one measuring 16 cm in diameter in Segments IV and VIII. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst revealed bile-staining of the cyst fluid. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated the presence of a cyst–biliary communication. We performed open deroofing of the cyst. During the operation, the biliary fistula was invisible, however, air injection into the bile duct through the stump of the cystic duct caused release of air bubbles from the cyst cavity, which allowed us to detect the small biliary orifice and repair it successfully by suture. Discussion We utilized the intraoperative air leak test, which has previously been reported to be effective for preventing postoperative bile leakage in patients undergoing hepatectomy to detect of a small cyst–biliary communication in a case undergoing non-parasitic hepatic cyst surgery. Conclusion An intraoperative air leak test may be a useful test during surgical treatment of non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication. PMID:26398333

  2. Contrast-free endoscopic stent insertion in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Lombardi, Giovanni; Rega, Maria; Simeoli, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Siciliano, Saverio; Maione, Francesco; Salvatori, Francesca; Balzano, Antonio; Persico, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To present a case series of MRCP-guided endoscopic biliary stent placement, performed entirely without contrast injection. METHODS: Contrast-free endoscopic biliary drainage was attempted in 20 patients with malignant obstruction, unsuitable for resection on the basis of tumor extent or medical illness. MRCP images were used to confirm the diagnosis of tumor, to exclude other biliary diseases and to demonstrate the stenoses as well as dilation of proximal liver segments. The procedure was carried out under conscious sedation. Patients were placed in the left lateral decubitus position. The endoscope was inserted, the papilla identified and cannulated by a papillotome. A guide wire was inserted and guided deeply into the biliary tree, above the stenosis, by fluoroscopy. A papillotomy approximately 1 cm. long was performed and the papillotome was exchanged with a guiding-catheter. A 10 Fr, Amsterdam-type plastic stent, 7 to 15 cm long, was finally inserted over the guide wire/guiding catheter by a pusher tube system. RESULTS: Successful stent insertion was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications. Successful drainage, with substantial reduction in bilirubin levels, was achieved in all patients. CONCLUSION: This new method of contrast-free endoscopic stenting in malignant biliary obstruction is a safe and effective method of palliation. However, a larger, randomized study comparing this new approach with the standard procedure is needed to confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:17663512

  3. Tubulovillous adenoma in the common bile duct causing obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Akaydin, M; Ersoy, Y E; Erozgen, F; Ferlengez, E; Kaplan, R; Celik, A; Memmi, N

    2009-01-01

    Villous adenomas are benign epithelial lesions with a malignant potential which can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the rectum and colon, less frequently in the small bowel and very rarely in the biliary tract. Villous adenomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts are exceptional and only a few cases have been reported. Common bile duct (CBD) adenomas often present in a fashion similar to their malignant counterparts, and adenocarcinoma arising from a villous adenoma of the ampullary biliary epithelium is also extremely rare. We present here a tubulovillous adenoma, arising in the common bile duct, as a cause of obstructive jaundice, and discuss the characteristics of these lesions. PMID:20163042

  4. A Rare Case of Biliary Leakage After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy–Diagnostic Evaluation and Nonsurgical Treatment: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehmedovic, Zlatan; Mehmedovic, Majda; Hasanovic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a gold standard in treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis, it is associated with higher risk of intraoperative lesions and primarily lesions of biliary ducts. In small percentage of cases biliary fistulas occur, most commonly after leakage from cystic duct stump or accessory bile ducts – Luschka’s duct. We report of a patient who had episodes of abdominal pain following routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous gallbladder. Results of conducted diagnostics verify the presence of biliary fistula caused by obstruction of bile pathways by stagnant pus and microcalculi of common bile duct, with development of biloma presumably caused by pressure injection of contrast material during ERCP procedure. Endoscopic sphincterectomy via ERCP enabled healing of formed biliary fistula, whilst continuous percutaneous ultrasound guided drainage of biloma was method of choice in later treatment of our patient. It is important to note that diagnostic evaluation of biliary fistula is very challenging and that timely nonsurgical treatment is of great benefit for patient. PMID:26005280

  5. Biomarkers in bile-complementing advanced endoscopic imaging in the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; Tharian, Benjamin; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge and a conundrum, particularly when an initial work up including abdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography based sampling are non-diagnostic. Advances in endoscopic imaging have helped us diagnose these strictures better. However, even with modern technology, some strictures remain a diagnostic challenge. The proximity of bile fluid to the bile duct epithelia makes it an attractive option to investigate for bio-markers, which might be representative of the functions/abnormal changes taking place in the biliary system. A number of biomarkers in bile have been discovered recently in approaching biliary strictures with their potential future diagnostic utility, further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tissue specimens. Novel biliary biomarkers especially carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seem promising in differentiating malignant from benign biliary strictures. Recent developments in lipidomic profiling of bile are also very promising. Biliary biomarkers appear to complement endoscopic imaging in diagnosing malignant etiologies of biliary stricture. Future studies addressing these biomarkers need to be incorporated to the current endoscopic techniques to determine the best approach in determining the etiology of biliary strictures. PMID:25901209

  6. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cutting Balloon Papillotomy for Removal of Common Bile Duct Stones

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Ozkan, Ugur; Gumus, Burcak

    2009-09-15

    We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with jaundice secondary to recurrent adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and several common bile duct stones. Percutaneous papillary dilatation was planned to remove the common bile duct stones. Papilla was dilated through the percutaneous approach with an 8-mm peripheral cutting balloon instead of a standard balloon. All the stones were pushed successfully into the duodenum with a saline flush. No complications were encountered. Use of a peripheral cutting balloon for dilatation of the papilla seems to be safe and effective because it has the advantage of controlled incision and dilatation of the target at low pressures.

  7. Endoscopy and biliary parasites.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, D K

    1996-01-01

    Biliary parasites demand increased awareness among physicians all over the world in view of international travel and migration. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment options for a variety of parasites are discussed in this article. Duodenofiberscopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of these parasites. PMID:8903568

  8. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... liver cancer every 6 to 12 months. Health care providers use blood tests, ultrasound, or both to check for signs of ... the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. A health care provider uses the test selectively when he or she is concerned that ...

  9. Risk of subsequent biliary malignancy in patients undergoing cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Taku; Wakai, Toshifumi; Kubota, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yasunobu; Arai, Yuhki; Ohyama, Toshiyuki; Nakaya, Kengo; Okuyama, Naoki; Sakata, Jun; Shirai, Yoshio; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate the risk of subsequent biliary malignancy in patients undergoing cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts. Methods A retrospective analysis of 94 patients who had undergone cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts was conducted. The median age at the time of cyst excision and median follow-up time after cyst excision were 7 years and 181 months, respectively. Results Biliary tract cancer developed in four patients at 13, 15, 23, and 32 years after cyst excision. The cumulative incidences of biliary tract cancer at 15, 20, and 25 years after cyst excision were 1.6%, 3.9%, and 11.3%, respectively. The sites of biliary tract cancer were the intrahepatic (n = 2), hilar (n = 1), and intrapancreatic (n = 1) bile ducts. Of the four patients with biliary tract cancer after cyst excision, three patients underwent surgical resection and one patient received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall cumulative survival rates after treatment in the four patients with biliary tract cancer were 50% at 2 years and 25% at 3 years, with a median survival time of 15 months. Conclusions The risk of subsequent biliary malignancy in patients undergoing cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts seems to be relatively high in the long-term. The risk of biliary malignancy in the remnant bile duct increases more than 15 years after cyst excision. Despite an aggressive treatment approach for this condition, subsequent biliary malignancy following cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts shows an unfavorable outcome. PMID:22989043

  10. Fine structure of a freshwater teleost (Pimelodus maculatus) intrahepatic biliary pathways.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S

    1982-01-01

    The intrahepatic biliary passages of a teleost liver composed by a muralium duplex was studied by electron microscopy. The bile canaliculus was commonly formed by 2 or more hepatic cells. In the transition zone between the intercellular bile canaliculus and the bile ductule, this duct was formed in part by hepatic cells and in part by duct cells. While the number of duct cells increased, the number of hepatocytes decreased until the entire ductule was formed by 2 or 3 duct cells. Bile duct was formed only by pyramidal duct cells. These cells are readily distinguished from the hepatocytes by its irregular shape, by a paucity of organelles and by the abundance of microfilaments. PMID:7201253

  11. Unilateral versus bilateral endoscopic biliary stenting for malignant hilar biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2013-05-01

    The present review compared unilateral versus bilateral stenting in order to determine the optimal stenting strategy for malignant hilar biliary strictures based on the previous literature. The role of preoperative biliary drainage prior to liver resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains under discussion. However, in Japan, endoscopic placement of single nasobiliary drainage in the future remnant hepatic lobe is currently considered the most suitable method. In most unresectable cases, unilateral stenting appears to be adequate for ameliorating jaundice. It is technically easier and less expensive than bilateral stenting, with reintervention for stent dysfunction also being considerably easier. However, contrast medium injection into undrained bile ducts is associated with uncontrolled cholangitis and poor prognosis. To prevent this complication, bilateral stenting may be preferred to unilateral stenting. Additionally, previous studies have demonstrated bilateral stenting to be associated with longer stent patency as compared to unilateral stenting. We consider that further large-scale studies are required to clarify whether unilateral or bilateral stenting is a better therapeutic technique for malignant hilar biliary stricture. PMID:23617655

  12. Sanguineous normothermic machine perfusion improves hemodynamics and biliary epithelial regeneration in DCD porcine livers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Nassar, Ahmed; Farias, Kevin; Buccini, Laura; Baldwin, William; Mangino, Martin; Bennett, Ana; O'Rourke, Colin; Okamoto, Toshiro; Uso, Teresa Diago; Fung, John; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Miller, Charles; Quintini, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    The effect of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) on post-reperfusion hemodynamics and extrahepatic biliary duct histology of donors after cardiac death (DCD) livers after transplantation has not been addressed thoroughly and represented the object of this study. Ten livers (n=5/group) with 60’ of warm ischemia were preserved by cold storage (CS) or sanguineous NMP for 10 hours, and then reperfused for 24 hours with whole blood in an isolated perfusion system to simulate transplantation. In our experiment, arterial and portal venous flows were stable in NMP group during the entire simulated reperfusion, while decreased dramatically in CS group after 16 hours post-reperfusion (P<.05), findings consistent with severe parenchymal injury. Similarly, significant differences existed between CS and NMP group on hepatocellular enzyme release, bile volume produced, and enzyme released into bile (P<.05). On histology CS livers presented with diffuse hepatocyte congestion, necrosis, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, denudated biliary epithelium and submucosal bile duct necrosis, while NMP liver showed very mild injury in liver parenchyma and biliary architecture. Most importantly, Ki67 staining in extrahepatic bile duct showed biliary epithelial regeneration. Our findings advance the knowledge of post-reperfusion events that characterize DCD livers and propose NMP as a beneficial preservation modality able to improve biliary regeneration after a major ischemic event, which may prevent in clinical transplantation the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. PMID:24805852

  13. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involvethe common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bileduct. PMID:25932083

  14. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal result means there are no signs of cancer, disease, or infection in the biopsy sample. ... cholangiocarcinoma ) Cysts in the liver Liver cancer Pancreatic cancer Swelling and scarring of the bile ducts ( primary sclerosing cholangitis )

  15. Recent advances in the morphological and functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuyan; Glaser, Shannon; Meng, Fanyin; Francis, Heather; Marzioni, Marco; McDaniel, Kelly; Alvaro, Domenico; Venter, Julie; Carpino, Guido; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent advances related to the heterogeneity of different-sized bile ducts with regard to the morphological and phenotypical characteristics, and the differential secretory, apoptotic and proliferative responses of small and large cholangiocytes to gastrointestinal hormones/peptides, neuropeptides and toxins. We describe several in vivo and in vitro models used for evaluating biliary heterogeneity. Subsequently, we discuss the heterogeneous proliferative and apoptotic responses of small and large cholangiocytes to liver injury and the mechanisms regulating the differentiation of small into large (more differentiated) cholangiocytes. Following a discussion on the heterogeneity of stem/progenitor cells in the biliary epithelium, we outline the heterogeneity of bile ducts in human cholangiopathies. After a summary section, we discuss the future perspectives that will further advance the field of the functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium. PMID:23856906

  16. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  17. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  18. [Successful endoscopic transpapillary pancreaticobiliary drainage for omental panniculitis by hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by biliary fistula and pancreatic fistula].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Yuji; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Takeshi; Ikeya, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Ikeda, Masatoshi; Tokai, Kouichi; Ushimaru, Shinya; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Asano, Takeharu; Takamatsu, Toru; Fukunishi, Masanori; Iwaki, Takaaki; Sagihara, Yoshinori; Asabe, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yukio

    2012-07-01

    A 78-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by chemoembolization and percutaneous ethanol injection was admitted to our hospital because of acute abdomen. The CT scan showed biliary fistula caused by hepatocellular carcinoma protruding from S3. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed disruption of an intrahepatic duct and the main pancreatic duct, and contrast agent leaked into the peritoneal cavity from each duct. Omental panniculitis with biliary fistula and pancreatic fistula was diagnosed. The symptoms improved by endoscopic nasobiliary drainage and endoscopic pancreatic stenting. On the 13th day after admission, we added endoscopic nasopancreatic drainage because his abdominal pain had been exacerbated by pancreatic juice leakage. Omental panniculitis by hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by biliary fistula and pancreatic fistula is extremely rare. Endoscopic transpapillary pancreaticobiliary drainage was effective for omental panniculitis in this case. PMID:22790630

  19. Common duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yadegar, J; Williams, R A; Passaro, E; Wilson, S E

    1980-05-01

    Common bile duct stricture secondary to chronic pancreatitis is difficult to detect clinically. Surgical bypass is necessary if complications from biliary obstruction develop. In 21 patients operated on between 1968 and 1979, the earliest typical biochemical finding was a persistently elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level. The SGOT level was minimally elevated in seven patients, but did not correlate with changes in the stricture. An increased bilirubin level was noted either during an acute exacerbation of pancreatitis or late in the course of the stricture development, when obstruction was almost complete. Operative cholangiograms taken in 12 of these patients and transhepatic cholangiograms taken in nine demonstrated a stricture of the intrapancreatic bile duct more than 2 cm long. Operations were performed for treatment of obstructive jaundice (11), ascending cholangitis (three), suspected pancreatic cancer (three), and progressive biliary cirrhosis (two). Sphincteroplasty, initially attempted in four patients, uniformly failed to relieve the obstruction due to the length of strictured duct. Satisfactory drainage was obtained for up to ten years with choledochoduodenostomy (12), choledochojejunostomy (three), and cholecystojejunostomy (six). PMID:7377960

  20. Future developments in biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Clark D; Sejpal, Divyesh V

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting. PMID:23837001

  1. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients' demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  2. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  3. Repeated Negative Biopsies in Isolated High-Grade Cystic Duct Dysplasia with Progression to Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sunkel-Laing, Benjamin; Kalam, Abdul; Renfrew, Ian; Mears, Lisa; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic and bile duct dysplasia is a rare histological finding, especially when found in the absence of an underlying malignancy. We report a patient who presented with jaundice and weight loss. Clinical and cytological evidence suggested a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and the patient underwent a pancreatico-duodenectomy. Histopathological examination suggested a diagnosis of two foci of biliary dysplasia: cystic duct and lower common bile duct. Fifteen months later, the patient re-presented with signs of obstructive jaundice and biliary sepsis. Although CT scan revealed images highly indicative of metastatic disease, repeated biopsies failed to confirm this. Eventually a liver biopsy did reveal moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, however oncological interventional was no longer appropriate and the patient was managed palliatively. This case report focuses on the current understanding of progression of biliary dysplasia. PMID:25473388

  4. Repeated negative biopsies in isolated high-grade cystic duct dysplasia with progression to adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sunkel-Laing, Benjamin; Kalam, Abdul; Renfrew, Ian; Mears, Lisa; Kocher, Hemant M

    2014-09-01

    Cystic and bile duct dysplasia is a rare histological finding, especially when found in the absence of an underlying malignancy. We report a patient who presented with jaundice and weight loss. Clinical and cytological evidence suggested a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and the patient underwent a pancreatico-duodenectomy. Histopathological examination suggested a diagnosis of two foci of biliary dysplasia: cystic duct and lower common bile duct. Fifteen months later, the patient re-presented with signs of obstructive jaundice and biliary sepsis. Although CT scan revealed images highly indicative of metastatic disease, repeated biopsies failed to confirm this. Eventually a liver biopsy did reveal moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, however oncological interventional was no longer appropriate and the patient was managed palliatively. This case report focuses on the current understanding of progression of biliary dysplasia. PMID:25473388

  5. Role of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography in the Evaluation of Biliary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhuhli, Humoud

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonace cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was introduced in 1991, as a non-invasive method of imaging the biliary tree. Although endoscopic cholongiopancreatography (ERCP) has been the mainstay for diagnosing and treating pancreatico-biliary disease, complications such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, haemorrhage and duodenal perforation have limited its use as a routine diagnostic test. Although ERCP is still the standard of reference for imaging the pancreatico-biliary system, MRCP is the examination of choice in a setting where ERCP is difficult or impossible. It is useful in cases with severe biliary obstruction to evaluate the ducts proximal to the obstruction. MRCP has specific advantages over ERCP as it is non-invasive, cheaper, uses no radiation, requires no anaesthesia and is less operator dependent. When combined with conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences, it allows detection of extraductal disease. The technology is still evolving to make the MRCP examination faster, sharper and with higher spatial resolution. PMID:21509322

  6. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs. PMID:8560608

  7. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  8. [Biliary diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Heger, E; Lammert, F

    2014-05-01

    Gallstone disease is more common in the elderly. In this short review, we summarize guideline-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary diseases in elderly patients. Warning episodes of biliary colic represent a general indication for cholecystectomy to avoid stone-related complications. Elderly patients with mild and moderate acute cholecystitis should undergo urgent cholecystectomy. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and stone extraction as well as mild acute biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy should be performed during the same hospital admission. Since the elevated risk of gallstone carriers to develop biliary cancer increases with age, cholecystectomy also protects against cancer. PMID:24824910

  9. Pore dilation reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that many P2X family channels undergo a time-dependent process of pore dilation when activated by ATP. Li et al. now propose a different interpretation of the key experiments. PMID:26505561

  10. Primary Malt Lymphoma of the Common Bile Duct

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Hoon; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma arising in the common bile duct (CBD) is extremely rare. In our case of MALT lymphoma, CT and MRI showed long, segmental, irregular wall thickening of the CBD and minimal dilatation of the upstream bile duct. A preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma was made, but histologic evaluation confirmed MALT lymphoma of the CBD. We herein present a rare case of MALT lymphoma of the CBD with CT and MRI findings. PMID:24043969

  11. Pancreas-preserving biliary amputation with pancreatic diversion: a new surgical technique for complete resection of the intrapancreatic biliary system.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hirano, Satoshi; Ambo, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Eiichi; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is not optimal for organ preservation in patients with mucosal carcinoma of the choledochus. When the lesion spreads near the papilla of Vater, pancreas-preserving biliary amputation may be indicated to achieve complete resection of the biliary system. The first successful case is reported here with technical considerations. First, the pancreatic neck was divided and a tube was inserted into the main pancreatic duct beyond the papilla. The choledochus was dissected downward with division of the posterior pancreatoduodenal vessels. The main pancreatic duct was isolated with the aid of palpation of the tube, and was then ligated and divided. Subsequent dissection was performed to the level of the duodenal mucosa, which was incised circularly. The duodenal defect was then closed. The elevated jejunum was interposed between the pancreatic stumps and bilateral pancreaticojejunostomies were created. The procedure was successfully performed in a patient with superficially spreading cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative bile leak and pancreatic fistula were controlled with medical management. The patient is currently well without tumor recurrence 19 months after surgery. Her glucose tolerance, which was moderately impaired preoperatively, has been maintained. Pancreas-preserving biliary amputation has been developed as an organ-preserving procedure alternative to pancreatoduodenectomy. Indications, methods of pancreatic reconstruction, and long-term results require further study. PMID:15362726

  12. [Shape-memory nitinol alloy endoprosthesis for malignant biliary strictures].

    PubMed

    Gu, W Q

    1993-05-01

    A new design of endoprosthesis, made of shape-memory nitinol alloy, was used to replace the currently used one, which was soon clogged with bile mud. After nitinol wire coil stent was slenderized in ice water, it was inserted into the strictured bile duct by endoscopy or operation. When nitinol wire coil was positioned in a narrowed biliary segment, normal saline heated to 39 degrees C was rapidly hand-injected into the lumen of the inner transport catheter to make the alloy coil to resume its original shape with a length of 3 to 10cm, and a diameter of 5 to 10mm. Since June 1991, 13 patients with malignant biliary strictures were treated with nitinol endoprosthesis. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 16 months (average 6 months). Biliary sludge was not found in the endoprosthesis during the period. The results suggested that shape-memory nitinol alloy endoprosthesis could maintain long term patency without severe infection or obstruction due to biliary sludge. PMID:8112151

  13. Absorption of biliary cobalamin in baboons following total gastrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.; Jacobsen, D.W.; Van Tonder, S.V.; Kew, M.C.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Absorption of radiolabeled cobalamin in baboons was assessed by whole body counting. Retention of biliary cobalamin and an aqueous solution of cyanocobalamin was measured in normal baboons and in baboons after total gastrectomy by using /sup 57/Co-labeled biliary cobalamin and /sup 58/C0-cyanocobalamin, with and without baboon gastric juice containing intrinsic factor. Radiolabeled biliary cobalamin was obtained by intravenous injection of /sup 57/Co-cyanocobalamin in baboons and collection of bile through a cannula placed in the common bile duct. Cobalamin absorption was not completely abolished by gastrectomy and biliary cobalamin was better retained than cyanocobalamin; intrinsic factor enhanced absorption of both forms. After gastrectomy there was steady depletion of liver and serum cobalamin levels, which ceased after a new equilibrium was reached between a progressively diminishing cobalamin loss and the impaired but significant residual level of absorption. These studies in the nonhuman primate provide further information concerning the enterohepatic circulation of cobalamin and suggest that the form of cobalamin in bile may be more readily absorbed than is cyanocobalamin or that bile itself may have an enhancing effect on cobalamin absorption. The data also suggest that physiologically significant amounts of cobalamin may be absorbed in the absence of a gastric source of intrinsic factor.

  14. Questionnaire Based Assessment of Risk Factors for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Craig; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. Aims Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. Methods Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. Results Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection (UTI) was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple UTIs more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis. PMID:23490343

  15. [Long term follow-up of bile duct stenosis treated with interventional radiology in pediatric liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Brun, N; Bueno, J; Pérez, M; Venturi, C; Giné, C; Lloret, J; Segarra, A; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Charco, R

    2010-01-01

    The reported incidence of biliary strictures following pediatric liver transplantation has ranged between 5-34%, with a higher incidence in segmental grafts. Currently, percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation of biliary strictures is considered as the first line treatment owing to its minimal invasiveness. Between 1995-2006, 20 children who underwent liver transplantation developed biliary complications treated with interventional radiology. 16/20 developed biliary stricture, of whom 10 were treated with percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation. The mean age at the procedure was 6.6 years (range 8 m--14 years). The allograft types included whole (n=4), split (n=3), and reduced (n=3) livers. The procedure was performed at a mean time post-transplantation of 2.6 years. All patients are alive with a mean follow-up post-procedure of 24 months (range: 4 months-11 years). Currently, only 4 have a normal appearing biliary tree by imaging techniques and 6 developed stricture recurrence; of whom 3 developed biliary cirrhosis (2 splits, 1 reduced), one patient underwent successful rescue surgery, one was treated again percutaneously, and the remaining was lost to followup. In conclusion, treatment of percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation of biliary strictures is effective avoiding surgical correction. However, stricture recurrence in the medium- long term follow-up is frequent, particularly in segmental grafts. [corrected] PMID:20578568

  16. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xue-Shuai; Xu, Yi-Yao; Qian, Jun-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, An-Qiang; He, Lian; Zhao, Hai-Tao; Sang, Xin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a variant of bile duct carcinoma that is characterized by intraductal growth and better outcomes compared with common cholangiocarcinoma. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. According to the immunohistochemical profiles of the mucin core proteins, IPNBs are classified into four types: pancreaticobiliary, intestinal, gastric, and oncocytic. Approximately 40%-80% of IPNBs contain a component of invasive carcinoma or tubular or mucinous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that IPNB is a disease with high potential for malignancy. It is difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis because of IPNB’s low incidence and the lack of specificity in its clinical manifestation. The most common abnormal preoperative imaging findings of IPNB are intraductal masses and the involvement of bile duct dilation. Simultaneous proximal and distal bile duct dilation can be detected in some cases, which has diagnostic significance. Cholangiography and cholangioscopy are needed to confirm the pathology and demonstrate the extent of the lesions. However, pathologic diagnosis by biopsy cannot reflect the actual stage in many cases because different foci may be of different stages and because mixed pathologic findings may exist in the same lesion. Surgical resection is the major treatment. Systematic cholangioscopy with staged biopsies and frozen sections is recommended during resection to ensure that no minor tumors are left and that curative resection is achieved. Staging, histologic subtype, curative resection and lymph node metastasis are factors affecting long-term survival. PMID:24379576

  17. Fractalkine and Other Chemokines in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Shinji; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by the autoimmune injury of small intrahepatic bile duct. On this basis, it has been suggested that the targeted biliary epithelial cells (BEC) play an active role in the perpetuation of autoimmunity by attracting immune cells via chemokine secretion. To address this issue, we challenged BEC using multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands as well as autologous liver infiltrating mononuclear cells (LMNC) with subsequent measurement of BEC phenotype and chemokine production and LMNC chemotaxis by quantifying specific chemokines, specially CX3CL1 (fractalkine). We submit the hypothesis that BEC are in fact the innocent victims of the autoimmune injury and that the adaptive immune response is critical in PBC. PMID:22235377

  18. [Renal cancer metastasis into common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Simůnek, R; Sirotek, L; Sefr, R

    2011-03-01

    We present rare case of clear cell renal carcinoma metastasis into common bile duct. It is a 9th case listed on the MEDLINE data base from 1966 to 2010.71-year-old woman underwent right nefrectomy for renal cancer G1 in 1986. She was reoperated in 2006 for relaps in renal bed on the right side. Histological examination confirmed clear cell renal carcinoma again. At present, a new liver metastasis in S 4/5 was detected. During the operation we found first described liver metastasis and second another one in common bile duct with intraluminal growth. Before surgery the patient showed neither clinical nor laboratory marks of biliary obstruction. Even abdominal ultrasound, SONO VUE, CT and body PET were negative. We carried out choledochectomy with hepaticojejunoanastomosis sec Roux and liver metastasis was destructed using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21634099

  19. Biliary Atresia: Clinical Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy G; Mack, Cara L

    2015-08-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of unclear etiology, in which obstruction of the biliary tree causes severe cholestasis leading to cirrhosis and ultimately death if left untreated. Biliary atresia is the leading cause of neonatal cholestasis and the most frequent indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Any infant with persistent jaundice beyond 2 weeks of life needs to be evaluated for biliary atresia with fractionation of the bilirubin into conjugated and unconjugated portions. Early performance of a hepatoportoenterostomy in the first 45 days of life to restore bile flow and lessen further damage to the liver is thought to optimize outcome. Despite surgery, progressive liver scarring occurs, and 80% of patients with biliary atresia will require liver transplantation during childhood. PMID:25658057

  20. Early endoscopic ultrasonography in acute biliary pancreatitis: A prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anderloni, Andrea; Galeazzi, Marianna; Ballarè, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Orsello, Marco; Del Piano, Mario; Repici, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical usefulness of early endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the management of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). METHODS: All consecutive patients entering the emergency department between January 2010 and December 2012 due to acute abdominal pain and showing biochemical and/or radiological findings consistent with possible ABP were prospectively enrolled. Patients were classified as having a low, moderate, or high probability of common bile duct (CBD) stones, according to the established risk stratification. Exclusion criteria were: gastrectomy or patient in whom the cause of biliary obstruction was already identified by ultrasonography. All enrolled patients underwent EUS within 48 h of their admission. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed immediately after EUS only in those cases with proven CBD stones or sludge. The following parameters were investigated: (1) clinical: age, sex, fever; (2) radiological: dilated CBD; and (3) biochemical: bilirubin, AST, ALT, gGT, ALP, amylase, lipasis, PCR. Association between presence of CBD stone at EUS and the individual predictors were assessed by univariate logistic regression. Predictors significantly associated with CBD stones (P < 0.05) were entered in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients with pancreatitis were admitted to the emergency department between January 2010 and December 2012. After exclusion criteria a total of 71 patients (38 females, 53.5%, mean age 58 ± 20.12 years, range 27-89 years; 33 males, 46.5%, mean age 65 ± 11.86 years, range 41-91 years) were included in the present study. The probability of CBD stones was considered low in 21 cases (29%), moderate in 26 (37%), and high in the remaining 24 (34%). The 71 patients included in the study underwent EUS, which allowed for a complete evaluation of the target sites in all the cases. The procedure was completed in a mean time of 14.7 min (range 9-34 min), without any notable complications.The overall CBD stone frequency was 44% (31 of 71), with a significant increase from the group at low pretest probability to that at moderate (OR = 5.79, P = 0.01) and high (OR = 4.25, P = 0.03) pretest probability. CONCLUSION: Early EUS in ABP allows, if appropriate, immediate endoscopic treatment and significant spare of unnecessary operative procedures thus reducing possible related complications. PMID:26420969

  1. Facts and fallacies of common bile duct obstruction by pancreatic pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, A L; Rattner, D W

    1980-07-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that pancreatic pseudocysts can cause obstruction of the common bile duct, few documented examples of this phenomenon exist. Most cases of obstructive jaundice associated with pseudocysts appear to be due to fibrotic stricture of the intrapancreatic portion of the common bile duct, rather than to pressure on the duct by the pseudocyst. We report three additional cases, in two of which fibrosis and not the pseudocyst caused the biliary obstruction. This experience illustrates the imperative to perform intraoperative cholangiography after drainage of the pseudocyst and the necessity of a biliary-enteric bypass if bile duct obstruction has not been relieved by simple decompression of the pseudocyst. PMID:7406561

  2. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    ?urlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-11-28

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

  3. Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang alleviates biliary obstructive cirrhosis in rats by inhibiting biliary epithelial cell proliferation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Sun, Ming-Yu; Long, Ai-Hua; Cao, Hong-Yan; Ren, Shuang; Bian, Yan-Qin; Lu, Xiong; Gu, Hong-Tu; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) consists of three aqueous extracts from Artemisia capillaris, Gardenia sp., and prepared Rheum rhabarbarum (rhubarb) (3:2:1). YCHT is characterized by its anti-inflammatory properties in liver regulation and relief of jaundice. We aimed to study the effects and mechanisms of action of YCHT on biliary obstructive cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: Secondary biliary fibrosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation (BDL) and scission. One week after BDL, rats were randomly divided into a saline-treated BDL or YCHT-treated BDL group for 4 weeks. Liver function and hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were assessed. Types I and IV collagen (Col-IV), laminin, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were assessed with immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the YCHT-treated BDL group, serum total bilirubin, total bile acids, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and ?-glutamyl transferase were lower than those in the sham-operated BDL group. The proliferation of bile ducts in hepatic tissues and the Hyp content and Col deposition were also significantly lower than those in control rats. In addition, ?-SMA and Col-IV staining was less obvious, and mRNA expression of Procol-?1 (IV), platelet derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF)-B, connective tissue growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta in proliferative biliary epithelial cells (BECs) in the YCHT-treated BDL group was significantly lower than those in controls. Conclusions: YCHT effectively reduces the formation of biliary obstructive cirrhosis mainly via inhibition of BEC proliferation by down-regulation of PDGF-B mRNA expression, inhibition of BEC profibrogenic paracrines, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathological process. PMID:25829784

  4. Continuous controllable balloon dilation: a novel approach for cervix dilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical dilation using mechanical dilators is associated with various complications, such as uterine perforation, cervical laceration, infections and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. To achieve safe and painless cervical dilation, we constructed a new medical device to achieve confident mechanical cervical dilation: a continuous controllable balloon dilator (CCBD). Methods Controlled pumping of incompressible fluid into the CCBD increases the pressure and outer diameter of the CCBD, continuously dilating the cervical canal. The reliability of the CCBD was confirmed in vitro (testing for consistency and endurance, with no detected risk for breakage) and in vivo. A multi-center clinical study was conducted,with 120 pregnant women randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group I,control group, no dilation;Group II,mechanical dilation, Hegar dilator (HeD); and Group III,CCBD. The tissue material for histological evaluation was obtained from the endocervical mucosa before and after dilation using the HeD or CCBD. Results The CCBD dilations were successful and had no complications in all 40 patients of Group III. The cervical tissue was markedly less damaged after CCBD dilation compared with HeD dilation (epithelium damage: 95% (HeD) vs. 45% (CCBD), P <0.001; basal membrane damage: 82.5% (HeD) vs. 27.5% (CCBD), P <0.001; stromal damage: 62.5% (HeD) vs. 37.5% (CCBD), P <0.01). Cervical hemorrhagia was observed in 90% of the patients after HeD dilation versus in 32.5% of the patients after CCBD dilation. Conclusions The CCBD should be used as a replacement for mechanical dilators to prevent uterine and cervical injury during cervical dilation. Trial registration ISRCTN54007498 PMID:23088906

  5. ERCP for biliary strictures associated with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Boškoski, Ivo; Bove, Vincenzo; Costamagna, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP)-related common bile duct (CBD) strictures are more difficult to treat endoscopically compared with benign biliary strictures because of their nature, particularly in patients with calcific CP. Before any attempt at treatment, malignancy must be excluded. Single plastic stents can be used for immediate symptom relief and as "bridge to surgery and/or bridge to decision," but are not suitable for definitive treatment of CP-related CBD strictures because of long-term poor results. Temporary simultaneous placement of multiple plastic stents has a high technical success rate and provides good long-term results. PMID:24079793

  6. Duct joining system

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P. (44 Glen Dr., Fairfax, CA 94930); deKieffer, Robert C. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  7. Duct Joining System

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P. (Fairfax, CA)

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  8. Imaging of biliary disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Rozel, Céline; Garel, Laurent; Rypens, Françoise; Viremouneix, Loïc; Lapierre, Chantale; Décarie, Jean Claude; Dubois, Josée

    2011-02-01

    Biliary atresia and related disorders of the biliary tree, such as choledochal cyst, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infants and children. Pediatric biliary tract diseases include a variety of entities with a wide range of clinical presentations. Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these pathologies. Unrecognized causes of biliary disease, like biliary atresia, can lead to liver transplantation during the first year of life. The aim of this article is to review the imaging of pediatric biliary disorders, including the implications of interventional radiology in some biliary diseases. PMID:20865413

  9. Biliary cirrhosis caused by Campula spp. in a dolphin and four porpoises.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Rotstein, D; Zafra, R; Herráez, P; Carrascosa, C; Fernández, A

    2013-09-24

    Biliary cirrhosis produced by Campula spp. is described in 1 striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena. The hepatic lesions consisted of severe proliferation of fibrous connective tissue with loss of the lobular pattern, nodular regeneration of the hepatic tissue, bile duct hyperplasia and severe inflammatory infiltrate composed of eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. These lesions were associated with severe infestation by Campula spp. Although inflammatory and degenerative hepatic lesions are frequently found in stranded dolphins, biliary cirrhosis has not been previously reported in cetaceans. Massive infestation by these parasites should be included as a cause of hepatic failure resulting in stranding of marine mammals. PMID:24062555

  10. Of cholescintigraphy, sonography, and great bears. A view on modern biliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, M.I.; Zeman, R.K.

    1988-04-01

    We review the discrepancies and the reasons for them, to conclude that clinical findings hold the key to selection of the proper imaging test in biliary obstruction. Cholescintigraphy is a more rewarding approach in detecting low grade obstruction, as by common duct stones, whereas in the patient with prolonged painless jaundice, and the high likelihood of a malignancy, computed tomography or ultrasound will yield the best results. Because of the potential for noninvasive imaging to miss choledocholithiasis and because of ever increasing therapeutic options, direct cholangiography will continue to be the mainstay in definition evaluation of the biliary tract. 12 references.

  11. End-ischemic machine perfusion reduces bile duct injury in donation after circulatory death rat donor livers independent of the machine perfusion temperature.

    PubMed

    Westerkamp, Andrie C; Mahboub, Paria; Meyer, Sophie L; Hottenrott, Maximilia; Ottens, Petra J; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S H; Lisman, Ton; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Porte, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    A short period of oxygenated machine perfusion (MP) after static cold storage (SCS) may reduce biliary injury in donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor livers. However, the ideal perfusion temperature for protection of the bile ducts is unknown. In this study, the optimal perfusion temperature for protection of the bile ducts was assessed. DCD rat livers were preserved by SCS for 6 hours. Thereafter, 1 hour of oxygenated MP was performed using either hypothermic machine perfusion, subnormothermic machine perfusion, or with controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) conditions. Subsequently, graft and bile duct viability were assessed during 2 hours of normothermic ex situ reperfusion. In the MP study groups, lower levels of transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured compared to SCS. In parallel, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production were significantly higher in the MP groups. Biomarkers of biliary function, including bile production, biliary bicarbonate concentration, and pH, were significantly higher in the MP groups, whereas biomarkers of biliary epithelial injury (biliary gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT] and LDH), were significantly lower in MP preserved livers. Histological analysis revealed less injury of large bile duct epithelium in the MP groups compared to SCS. In conclusion, compared to SCS, end-ischemic oxygenated MP of DCD livers provides better preservation of biliary epithelial function and morphology, independent of the temperature at which MP is performed. End-ischemic oxygenated MP could reduce biliary injury after DCD liver transplantation. PMID:26097213

  12. Hollow lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Mitchell, Scott (Tracy, CA); Lang, John (Pleasanton, CA); Maderas, Dennis (Pleasanton, CA); Speth, Joel (San Ramon, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  13. Non-invasive intraductal papillary neoplasms of the common bile duct: a clinicopathologic study of six cases

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several studies of intraductal papillary neoplasms (IPN) of the biliary tracts have been reported in the liver, but there have been only one study of them in the common bile duct (CBD). The author reviewed 34 archival pathologic materials of surgically resected specimens containing CBD tumors. Results: Six cases (18%) of IPN of the CBD were found. All cases were non-invasive intraductal papillary carcinomas (IPC). The age of the patients with IPC ranged from 49 to 77 years with a mean of 67 years. The male to female ratio was 4:2. The initial symptoms were abdominal pain in 2 cases, abdominal discomfort in 1 case, and obstructive jaundice in 3 cases. Imaging modalities including US, CT, MRI, and ERCP revealed the CBD luminal tumors and biliary dilations in all cases. Surgical procedures were pancreaticoduodenectomy in 4 cases and segmental resection in 2 cases. The survival is relatively good; five patients are now alive, and one died of other disease. Grossly, all the 6 IPC showed intraductal papillary tumors. No mucus was found. Histologically, papillary proliferation of atypical cells with hyperchromatic nuclei regarded as malignant was recognized. The papillary proliferation was accompanied by fine fibrovascular cores in all cases. No stromal invasion was recognized, but lateral non-papillary in situ extension was recognized in 5 cases. Tubular formations were present in some areas in all cases. Goblet cells were present in 5 cases. No mucous hypersecretion was recognized. In one case, the tumor was composed of malignant oncocytes, and was regarded as intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, p53 expression was present in 5 cases, and Ki-67 labeling ranged from 30% to 70%. The author presented clinicopathologic findings of 6 cases of non-invasive IPC of the CBD. PMID:22977666

  14. Plastic Biliary Stent Migration During Multiple Stents Placement and Successful Endoscopic Removal Using Intra-Stent Balloon Inflation Technique: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Calcara, Calcedonio; Broglia, Laura; Comi, Giovanni; Balzarini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 77 Final Diagnosis: Biliary neoplasm Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Biliary stent removal using intra-stent balloon inflation techniqueextraction Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Late migration of a plastic biliary stent after endoscopic placement is a well known complication, but there is little information regarding migration of a plastic stent during multiple stents placement. Case Report: A white man was hospitalized for severe jaundice due to neoplastic hilar stenosis. Surgical eligibility appeared unclear on admission and endoscopy was carried out, but the first stent migrated proximally at the time of second stent insertion. After failed attempts with various devices, the migrated stent was removed successfully through cannulation with a dilation balloon. Conclusions: The migration of a plastic biliary stent during multiple stents placement is a possible complication. In this context, extraction can be very complicated. In our patient, cannulation of a stent with a dilation balloon was the only effective method. PMID:26847214

  15. IKK1 and IKK2 cooperate to maintain bile duct integrity in the liver.

    PubMed

    Luedde, Tom; Heinrichsdorff, Jan; de Lorenzi, Rossana; De Vos, Rita; Roskams, Tania; Pasparakis, Manolis

    2008-07-15

    Inflammatory destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts is a common cause of vanishing bile duct syndrome and cholestasis, often progressing to biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of inflammatory biliary disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that the two IkappaB kinases, IKK1/IKKalpha and IKK2/IKKbeta, display distinct collaborative and specific functions that are essential to protect the liver from cytokine toxicity and bile duct disease. Combined conditional ablation of IKK1 and IKK2, but not of each kinase alone, sensitized the liver to in vivo LPS challenge, uncovering a redundant function of the two IkappaB kinases in mediating canonical NF-kappaB signaling in hepatocytes and protecting the liver from TNF-induced failure. Unexpectedly, mice with combined ablation of IKK1 and IKK2 or IKK1 and NEMO spontaneously developed severe jaundice and fatal cholangitis characterized by inflammatory destruction of small portal bile ducts. This bile duct disease was caused by the combined impairment of canonical NF-kappaB signaling together with inhibition of IKK1-specific functions affecting the bile-blood barrier. These results reveal a novel function of the two IkappaB kinases in cooperatively regulating liver immune homeostasis and bile duct integrity and suggest that IKK signaling may be implicated in human biliary diseases. PMID:18606991

  16. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mizandari, Malkhaz; Pai, Madhava Xi Feng; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Ao Guokun; Kyriakides, Charis; Dickinson, Robert; Nicholls, Joanna; Habib, Nagy

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14-260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14-260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14-260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38-210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  17. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  18. Cholangiocarcinoma and malignant bile duct obstruction: A review of last decades advances in therapeutic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mangiafico, Santi; Caruso, Angelo; Manno, Mauro; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Pigò, Flavia; Barbera, Carmelo; Manta, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades many advances have been achieved in endoscopy, in the diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma, however blood test, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan may fail to detect neoplastic disease at early stage, thus the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is achieved usually at unresectable stage. In the last decades the role of endoscopy has moved from a diagnostic role to an invaluable therapeutic tool for patients affected by malignant bile duct obstruction. One of the major issues for cholangiocarcinoma is bile ducts occlusion, leading to jaundice, cholangitis and hepatic failure. Currently, endoscopy has a key role in the work up of cholangiocarcinoma, both in patients amenable to surgical intervention as well as in those unfit for surgery or not amenable to immediate surgical curative resection owing to locally advanced or advanced disease, with palliative intention. Endoscopy allows successful biliary drainage and stenting in more than 90% of patients with malignant bile duct obstruction, and allows rapid reduction of jaundice decreasing the risk of biliary sepsis. When biliary drainage and stenting cannot be achieved with endoscopy alone, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage represents an effective alternative method affording successful biliary drainage in more than 80% of cases. The purpose of this review is to focus on the currently available endoscopic management options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26078827

  19. Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bile duct cancer may include a physical exam, imaging tests of the liver and bile ducts, blood tests, and a biopsy. Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  20. Progenitor cell niches in the human pancreatic duct system and associated pancreatic duct glands: an anatomical and immunophenotyping study.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Overi, Diletta; Rossi, Massimo; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Alvaro, Domenico; Reid, Lola M; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) are tubule-alveolar glands associated with the pancreatic duct system and can be considered the anatomical counterpart of peribiliary glands (PBGs) found within the biliary tree. Recently, we demonstrated that endodermal precursor niches exist fetally and postnatally and are composed functionally of stem cells and progenitors within PBGs and of committed progenitors within PDGs. Here we have characterized more extensively the anatomy of human PDGs as novel niches containing cells with multiple phenotypes of committed progenitors. Human pancreata (n = 15) were obtained from cadaveric adult donors. Specimens were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. PDGs were found in the walls of larger pancreatic ducts (diameters > 300 μm) and constituted nearly 4% of the duct wall area. All of the cells identified were negative for nuclear expression of Oct4, a pluripotency gene, and so are presumably committed progenitors and not stem cells. In the main pancreatic duct and in large interlobular ducts, Sox9(+) cells represented 5-30% of the cells within PDGs and were located primarily at the bottom of PDGs, whereas rare and scattered Sox9(+) cells were present within the surface epithelium. The expression of PCNA, a marker of cell proliferation, paralleled the distribution of Sox9 expression. Sox9(+) PDG cells proved to be Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+/-) /Oct4A(-) . Nearly 10% of PDG cells were positive for insulin or glucagon. Intercalated ducts contained Sox9(+) /Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+) cells, a phenotype that is presumptive of committed endocrine progenitors. Some intercalated ducts appeared in continuity with clusters of insulin-positive cells organized in small pancreatic islet-like structures. In summary, PDGs represent niches of a population of Sox9(+) cells exhibiting a pattern of phenotypic traits implicating a radial axis of maturation from the bottoms of the PDGs to the surface of pancreatic ducts. Our results complete the anatomical background that links biliary and pancreatic tracts and could have important implications for the common patho-physiology of biliary tract and pancreas. PMID:26610370

  1. Hepatobiliary imaging of common bile duct obstruction by a hydronephrotic kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, E.D.; Henken, E.M.; Spencer, R.P.

    1982-02-01

    A patient with intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain thought to represent acute cholecystitis had common bile duct obstruction due to an enlarged right renal pelvis. A Tc-99m-HIDA scan provided the first clue to the diagnosis. The case reinforces the value of cholescintigraphy in diagnosing pathology outside the biliary system.

  2. Managing injuries of hepatic duct confluence variants after major hepatobiliary surgery: An algorithmic approach

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios; Marinis, Athanasios; Polydorou, Andreas; Konstantinidis, Christos; Anastasopoulos, Georgios; Contis, John; Voros, Dionysios; Smyrniotis, Vassilios

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate injuries of anatomy variants of hepatic duct confluence during hepatobiliary surgery and their impact on morbidity and mortality of these procedures. An algorithmic approach for the management of these injuries is proposed. METHODS: During a 6-year period 234 patients who had undergone major hepatobiliary surgery were retrospectively reviewed in order to study postoperative bile leakage. Diagnostic workup included endoscopic and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (E/MRCP), scintigraphy and fistulography. RESULTS: Thirty (12.8%) patients who developed postoperative bile leaks were identified. Endoscopic stenting and percutaneous drainage were successful in 23 patients with bile leaks from the liver cut surface. In the rest seven patients with injuries of hepatic duct confluence, biliary variations were recognized and a stepwise therapeutic approach was considered. Conservative management was successful only in 2 patients. Volume of the liver remnant and functional liver reserve as well as local sepsis were used as criteria for either resection of the corresponding liver segment or construction of a biliary-enteric anastomosis. Two deaths occurred in this group of patients with hepatic duct confluence variants (mortality rate 28.5%). CONCLUSION: Management of major biliary fistulae that are disconnected from the mainstream of the biliary tree and related to injury of variants of the hepatic duct confluence is extremely challenging. These patients have a grave prognosis and an early surgical procedure has to be considered. PMID:18494057

  3. LKB1 and Notch Pathways Interact and Control Biliary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Poncy, Alexis; Charawi, Sara; Dahmani, Rajae; Traore, Massiré; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drouet, Valérie; Dumont, Florent; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Colnot, Sabine; Terris, Benoit; Coulouarn, Cédric; Lemaigre, Frédéric; Perret, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background LKB1 is an evolutionary conserved kinase implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including inhibition of cell proliferation, regulation of cell polarity and metabolism. When Lkb1 is inactivated in the liver, glucose homeostasis is perturbed, cellular polarity is affected and cholestasis develops. Cholestasis occurs as a result from deficient bile duct development, yet how LKB1 impacts on biliary morphogenesis is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the phenotype of mice in which deletion of the Lkb1 gene has been specifically targeted to the hepatoblasts. Our results confirmed that lack of LKB1 in the liver results in bile duct paucity leading to cholestasis. Immunostaining analysis at a prenatal stage showed that LKB1 is not required for differentiation of hepatoblasts to cholangiocyte precursors but promotes maturation of the primitive ductal structures to mature bile ducts. This phenotype is similar to that obtained upon inactivation of Notch signaling in the liver. We tested the hypothesis of a functional overlap between the LKB1 and Notch pathways by gene expression profiling of livers deficient in Lkb1 or in the Notch mediator RbpJκ and identified a mutual cross-talk between LKB1 and Notch signaling. In vitro experiments confirmed that Notch activity was deficient upon LKB1 loss. Conclusion LKB1 and Notch share a common genetic program in the liver, and regulate bile duct morphogenesis. PMID:26689699

  4. Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and Curettage ( ... February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage (D& ...

  5. Role and timing of endoscopy in acute biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Anderloni, Andrea; Repici, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The role and timing of endoscopy in the setting of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is still being debated. Despite numerous randomized trials have been published, there is an obvious lack of consensus on the indications and timing of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in ABP in meta-analyses and nationwide guidelines. The present editorial has been written to clarify the role of endoscopy in ABP. In clinical practice the decision to perform an ERCP is often based on biochemical and radiological criteria despite they already have been shown to be unreliable predictors of common bile duct stone presence. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is not currently a worldwide standard diagnostic procedure early in the course of acute biliary pancreatitis, but it has been shown to be accurate, safe and cost effective in diagnosing biliary obstructions compared with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and ERCP and therefore in preventing unnecessary ERCP and its related complications. Early EUS in ABP allows, if appropriate, immediate endoscopic treatment and significant spare of unnecessary operative procedures thus reducing possible related complications. PMID:26527465

  6. Role and timing of endoscopy in acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Anderloni, Andrea; Repici, Alessandro

    2015-10-28

    The role and timing of endoscopy in the setting of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is still being debated. Despite numerous randomized trials have been published, there is an obvious lack of consensus on the indications and timing of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in ABP in meta-analyses and nationwide guidelines. The present editorial has been written to clarify the role of endoscopy in ABP. In clinical practice the decision to perform an ERCP is often based on biochemical and radiological criteria despite they already have been shown to be unreliable predictors of common bile duct stone presence. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is not currently a worldwide standard diagnostic procedure early in the course of acute biliary pancreatitis, but it has been shown to be accurate, safe and cost effective in diagnosing biliary obstructions compared with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and ERCP and therefore in preventing unnecessary ERCP and its related complications. Early EUS in ABP allows, if appropriate, immediate endoscopic treatment and significant spare of unnecessary operative procedures thus reducing possible related complications. PMID:26527465

  7. Intraluminal radiation therapy in the management of malignant biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Molt, P.; Hopfan, S.; Watson, R.C.; Botet, J.F.; Brennan, M.F.

    1986-02-01

    Fifteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction from carcinoma of the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas (Group I) or metastatic disease (Group II) were treated with intraluminal radiation therapy (ILRT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In 11 cases ILRT was used as a central boost in combination with 3000 cGy external beam radiation therapy (ERT). No significant treatment toxicity was observed. Cholangiographic response was observed in 2 of 12 evaluable patients. In no patient was long-term relief of jaundice without indwelling biliary stent achieved. Survival from treatment in eight Group I patients treated with ILRT +/- ERT was 3 to 13 months (median, 4.5). Survival in seven similarly treated Group II patients was 0.5 to 8 months (median, 4.0). Additional data for ten similar patients referred for ILRT but treated with ERT alone are presented. Analysis of this and other reports indicate the need for prospective controlled trials of the role of this regimen in the management of malignant biliary obstruction before wider application can be recommended.

  8. Prognostic significance of aquaporins in human biliary tract carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shinichi; Shimada, Yutaka; Nagata, Takuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Omura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tomoko; Hori, Ryouta; Yoshioka, Isaku; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Sawada, Shigeaki; Fukuoka, Junya; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are important in controlling bile formation, however, the exact role of AQPs in human biliary tract carcinogenesis has not been clearly defined. In this study, we analyzed AQP-1, -4, -5 and -8 expression immunohistochemically using tissue microarrays (TMAs) in 81 samples. (45 gallbladder carcinomas and 36 bile duct carcinomas). The survival of patients with high AQP-5 expression was longer compared to that of patients with low AQP-5 expression (P=0.017). Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that AQP-5 expression was an independent prognostic factor (RR, 0.38; P=0.025). Chi-square analysis revealed that high AQP-5 expression correlated to small tumor size in biliary tract carcinoma patients (P=0.006). With regard to the expression of other AQPs, depth of tumor invasion, histological type and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were associated with high AQP-1 expression (P=0.039, 0.011 and 0.032). However, AQP-4 and AQP-8 expression had no association with clinicopathological factors. Among the 10 patients who underwent gemcitabine (GEM) plus S-1 postoperative chemotherapy, the group of patients (n=5) with high AQP-5 expression were associated with higher rates of both overall and disease-free survival (log-rank P=0.033, 0.002). In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that AQP-5 expression may be associated with prognosis and drug sensitivity in biliary tract carcinoma. PMID:22470085

  9. Prospective study of outcomes after percutaneous biliary drainage for malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Robson, P. C.; Heffernan, N.; Gonen, M.; Thornton, R.; Brody, L. A.; Holmes, R.; Brown, K. T.; Covey, A. M.; Fleischer, D.; Getrajdman, G. I.; Jarnagin, W.; Sofocleous, C.; Blumgart, L.; D’Angelica, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) is used to relieve malignant bile duct obstruction (MBO) when endoscopic drainage is not feasible. Little is known about the effects of PBD on the quality of life (QoL) in patients with MBO. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in QoL and pruritus after PBD and to explore the variables that impact these changes. Patients and Methods Eligible patients reported their QoL and pruritus before and after PBD using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Hepatobiliary instrument (FACT-HS) and the Visual Analog Scale for Pruritus (VASP). Instruments were completed pre-procedure and at one and four weeks following PBD. Results One hundred and nine (60 male/49 female) patients enrolled, 102 (94%) had unresectable disease. PBD was technically successful (hepatic ducts cannulated at the conclusion of procedure) in all patients. There were two procedure-related deaths. All-cause mortality was 10% (N=11) at 4 weeks and 28% (N=31) at 8 weeks post PBD with a median survival of 4.74 months. The mean FACT-HS scores declined significantly (P<.01) over time (101.3, 94.8, 94.7 at baseline, 1 week, 4 weeks, respectively). The VASP scores showed significant improvement at 1 week with continued improvement at 4 weeks (P<.01). Conclusion PBD improves pruritus but not QoL in patients with MBO and advanced malignancy. There is high early mortality in this population. PMID:20358300

  10. Genome-wide association studies in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, Mylarappa; Min, Jun; Higgs, Brandon W; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a model complex disease resulting from interactions between multiple susceptibility loci and environmental factors. This perception is based on a heterogeneous phenotype extending beyond an absent extrahepatic bile duct to include gut and cardiovascular anomalies, and the association of BA with viral infections. Refractory jaundice and progression to cirrhosis shortly after birth can be fatal without surgical correction, and further suggests a pathogenesis during liver and bile duct development. Conclusive proof for a developmental origin would require documentation of disease progression in the perinatal or fetal liver, an impossible task for obvious reasons. We review three different sets of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from three different cohorts of BA patients by three different groups of investigators, which address this knowledge gap. Knockdown of each susceptibility gene identified by GWAS in zebrafish embryos impairs excretion of bile from the liver, duplicating the characteristic diagnostic finding seen in affected children. This finding is associated with impaired intrahepatic biliary network formation in zebrafish morphants. Although distinct, these susceptibility genes share several functions including roles in mechanisms for organogenesis (glypican 1 or GPC1, and adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 6, or ARF6) or a greater expression in fetal liver than in adult liver (adducin 3 or ADD3). Together, these studies emphasize the importance of the human evidence, and present opportunities to map novel pathways which explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of BA. PMID:25963027

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with understanding familial dilated cardiomyopathy? arrhythmia ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; autosomal recessive ; cardiac ; cardiomyopathy ; cell ; chromosome ; chronic ; contraction ; cytoskeleton ; dilated ; ...

  12. Confocal Endomicroscopic Examination of Malignant Biliary Strictures and Histologic Correlation With Lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Loeser, Caroline S.; Robert, Marie E.; Mennone, Albert; Nathanson, Michael H.; Jamidar, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Current methods to diagnose malignant biliary strictures are of low sensitivity. Confocal endomicroscopy is a new approach that may improve the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate indeterminate biliary strictures using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy and to understand the histologic basis for the confocal images. Methods Fourteen patients with indeterminate biliary strictures underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with examination of their common bile duct with fluorescein-aided probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy. Standard brushings and biopsies were performed. In parallel, rat bile ducts were examined either with conventional staining and light microscopy or with multiphoton microscopy. Results Earlier published criteria were used to evaluate possible malignancy in the confocal images obtained in the 14 patients. None of the individual criteria were found to be specific enough for malignancy, but a normal-appearing reticular pattern without other putative markers of malignancy was observed in all normal patients. Multiphoton reconstructions of intact rat bile ducts revealed that the reticular pattern seen in normal tissue was in the same focal plane but was smaller than blood vessels. Special stains identified the smaller structures in this network as lymphatics. Conclusions Our limited series suggests that a negative confocal imaging study of the biliary tree can be used to rule out carcinoma, but there are frequent false positives using individual earlier published criteria. An abnormal reticular network, which may reflect changes in lymphatics, was never seen in benign strictures. Better correlation with known histologic structures may lead to improved accuracy of diagnoses. PMID:21063210

  13. A new method of three-dimensional computer assisted reconstruction of the developing biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Prudhomme, M; Gaubert-Cristol, R; Jaeger, M; De Reffye, P; Godlewski, G

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) computer assisted reconstruction of the biliary tract was performed in human and rat embryos at Carnegie stage 23 to describe and compare the biliary structures and to point out the anatomic relations between the structures of the hepatic pedicle. Light micrograph images from consecutive serial sagittal sections (diameter 7 mm) of one human and 16 rat embryos were directly digitalized with a CCD camera. The serial views were aligned automatically by software. The data were analysed following segmentation and thresholding, allowing automatic reconstruction. The main bile ducts ascended in the mesoderm of the hepatoduodenal ligament. The extrahepatic bile ducts: common bile duct (CD), cystic duct and gallbladder in the human, formed a compound system which could not be shown so clearly in histologic sections. The hepato-pancreatic ampulla was studied as visualised through the duodenum. The course of the CD was like a chicane. The gallbladder diameter and length were similar to those of the CD. Computer-assisted reconstruction permitted easy acquisition of the data by direct examination of the sections through the microscope. This method showed the relationships between the different structures of the hepatic pedicle and allowed estimation of the volume of the bile duct. These findings were not obvious in two-dimensional (2-D) views from histologic sections. Each embryonic stage could be rebuilt in 3-D, which could introduce the time as a fourth dimension, fundamental for the study of organogenesis. PMID:10370994

  14. Sequential algorithm analysis to facilitate selective biliary access for difficult biliary cannulation in ERCP: a prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous clinical trials to improve the success rate of biliary access in difficult biliary cannulation (DBC) during ERCP have been reported. However, standard guidelines or sequential protocol analysis according to different methods are limited in place. We planned to investigate a sequential protocol to facilitate selective biliary access for DBC during ERCP. Methods This prospective clinical study enrolled 711 patients with naïve papillae at a tertiary referral center. If wire-guided cannulation was deemed to have failed due to the DBC criteria, then according to the cannulation algorithm early precut fistulotomy (EPF; cannulation time?>?5 min, papillary contacts?>?5 times, or hook-nose-shaped papilla), double-guidewire cannulation (DGC; unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation???3 times), and precut after placement of a pancreatic stent (PPS; if DGC was difficult or failed) were performed sequentially. The main outcome measurements were the technical success, procedure outcomes, and complications. Results Initially, a total of 140 (19.7%) patients with DBC underwent EPF (n?=?71) and DGC (n?=?69). Then, in DGC group 36 patients switched to PPS due to difficulty criteria. The successful biliary cannulation rate was 97.1% (136/140; 94.4% [67/71] with EPF, 47.8% [33/69] with DGC, and 100% [36/36] with PPS; P?duct cannulations, and PPS in failed or difficult DGC may facilitate successful biliary cannulation. PMID:24529239

  15. Inflammatory Polyp in the Common Bile Duct with Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yuichiro; Ome, Yusuke; Shimata, Keita; Nagahisa, Yoshio; Okabe, Michio; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki; Park, Tae Bum; Itoh, Tadashi; Ogasahara, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman was admitted because of epigastric pain and obstructive jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and intraductal ultrasonography revealed a 25-mm papillary nodule in the middle to inferior portion of the common bile duct (CBD). Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) was also identified. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography also showed an enhanced nodule in the CBD, and we suspected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. We performed pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Postoperative pathological examination revealed an inflammatory polyp in the middle CBD. Inflammatory polyp in the bile duct is rare and there are no previous reports accompanied by PBM. PBM is a major risk factor for biliary tract cancer. Preoperative diagnosis of a benign disorder was difficult in this case. PMID:25969675

  16. Effective Treatment of Biliary Cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K Tyson; Welch, Derek; Trueblood, Andrew; Sulur, Paulgun; Wise, Paul; Gorden, D Lee; Chari, Ravi S.; Wright, J Kelly; Washington, Kay; Pinson, C Wright

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate experience over 15 years with treatment of this lesion. Summary Background Data: Biliary cystadenoma, a benign hepatic tumor arising from Von Meyenberg complexes, usually present as septated intrahepatic cystic lesions. Methods: Data were collected concurrently and retrospectively on patients identified from hospital medical records reviewed for pertinent International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and CPT codes, pathology logs, and from operative case logs. Pathology specimens were rereviewed to confirm the diagnosis of biliary cystadenoma or biliary cystadenocarcinoma by 2 GI pathologists. Results: From October 1989 to April 2004 at our institution, 19 (18F:1M) patients had pathologically confirmed biliary cystadenomas, including one with a biliary cystadenocarcinoma. The mean age was 48 ± 15 years at initial evaluation. Complaints included abdominal pain in 74%, abdominal distension in 26%, and nausea/vomiting in 11%. Only 1 patient presented with an incidental finding. Symptoms had been present for 3 ± 5 years, with 1 to 4 different surgeons and many other physicians involved in the diagnosis or treatment prior to definitive ablation. Eight patients had undergone 20 previous treatments, including multiple percutaneous aspirations in 4 and 11 operative procedures. CT or US was diagnostic in 95%, with internal septations present in the hepatic cysts. Definitive operative intervention consisted of hepatic resection in 12 patients, enucleation in 6 patients, and fenestration and complete fulguration in 1 patient. There were no perioperative deaths. No recurrences were observed after definitive therapy, with follow-up of 4 ± 4 years. Conclusions: Biliary cystadenoma must be recognized and treated differently than most hepatic cysts. There remains a need for education about the imaging findings for biliary cystadenoma to reduce the demonstrated delay in appropriate treatment. Traditional treatment of simple cysts such as aspiration, drainage, and marsupialization results in near universal recurrence and occasional malignant degeneration. This experience demonstrates effective options include total ablation by standard hepatic resection and cyst enucleation. PMID:15849512

  17. Extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinoma. Report of seven cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, W; Chow, M; Nagorney, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to describe the clinical features, diagnosis, pathologic characteristics, and optimal surgical management for patients with extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas are rare epithelial neoplasms. The clinical features and optimal surgical management for these lesions have not been defined clearly. The usual presenting symptom is jaundice. These lesions should be considered premalignant and necessitate resection. Sporadic case studies have reported instances of recurrence with local excision. To the authors' knowledge, this study represents the largest collected single series of extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas and reviews previously reported cases. METHODS: The authors reviewed and reported their institutional experience from 1950 to 1993 in treating seven patients with extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas as well as 19 previously reported cases in the literature. RESULTS: A strong female predominance (96.3% of patients reviewed) was associated with extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas. Obstructive jaundice was the most common presenting symptom (85%). Abdominal pain occurred in 50% of patients; other symptoms included fever and hemobilia. The most common site of occurrence was the common hepatic duct (32%). Papillary cystadenoma with foci of invasive adenocarcinoma, thus supporting the malignant potential of cystadenomas, occurred in one patient. Local excision from the wall of the bile duct was performed in 18 patients and was associated with 50% recurrence within a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 4-24 months). No recurrence was reported after formal sleeve resection and bilioenteric reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Extrahepatic biliary cystadenomas can become malignant, and in this study, local surgical excision was associated with a 50% local recurrence rate. Sleeve resection with negative histologic resection margins followed by bilioenteric reconstruction, therefore, is recommended. PMID:7487208

  18. Liver resection for the treatment of post-cholecystectomy biliary stricture with vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Marcos V; Herman, Paulo; Montagnini, Andre L; Jukemura, Jose; Coelho, Fabricio F; Kruger, Jaime A; Bacchella, Telesforo; Cecconello, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report experience with liver resection in a select group of patients with postoperative biliary stricture associated with vascular injury. METHODS: From a prospective database of patients treated for benign biliary strictures at our hospital, cases that underwent liver resections were reviewed. All cases were referred after one or more attempts to repair bile duct injuries following cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic). Liver resection was indicated in patients with Strasberg E3/E4 (hilar stricture) bile duct lesions associated with vascular damage (arterial and/or portal), ipsilateral liver atrophy/abscess, recurrent attacks of cholangitis, and failure of previous hepaticojejunostomy. RESULTS: Of 148 patients treated for benign biliary strictures, nine (6.1%) underwent liver resection; eight women and one man with a mean age of 38.6 years. Six patients had previously been submitted to open cholecystectomy and three to laparoscopic surgery. The mean number of surgical procedures before definitive treatment was 2.4. All patients had Strasberg E3/E4 injuries, and vascular injury was present in all cases. Eight patients underwent right hepatectomy and one underwent left lateral sectionectomy without mortality. Mean time of follow up was 69.1 mo and after long-term follow up, eight patients are asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Liver resection is a good therapeutic option for patients with complex postoperative biliary stricture and vascular injury presenting with liver atrophy/abscess in which previous hepaticojejunostomy has failed. PMID:25717244

  19. Review of experimental animal models of biliary acute pancreatitis and recent advances in basic research

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Latawiec, Diane; Jiang, Kun; Booth, David M; Elliott, Victoria; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Xia, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a formidable disease, which, in severe forms, causes significant mortality. Biliary AP, or gallstone obstruction-associated AP, accounts for 30–50% of all clinical cases of AP. In biliary AP, pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) death (the initiating event in the disease) is believed to occur as acinar cells make contact with bile salts when bile refluxes into the pancreatic duct. Recent advances have unveiled an important receptor responsible for the major function of bile acids on acinar cells, namely, the cell surface G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar1), located in the apical pole of the PAC. High concentrations of bile acids induce cytosolic Ca2+ overload and inhibit mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in cell injury to both PACs and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Various bile salts are employed to induce experimental AP, most commonly sodium taurocholate. Recent characterization of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulphate on PACs has led researchers to focus on this bile salt because of its potency in causing acinar cell injury at relatively low, sub-detergent concentrations, which strongly implicates action via the receptor Gpbar1. Improved surgical techniques have enabled the infusion of bile salts into the pancreatic duct to induce experimental biliary AP in mice, which allows the use of these transgenic animals as powerful tools. This review summarizes recent findings using transgenic mice in experimental biliary AP. PMID:22221567

  20. Hepatic and Biliary Ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anup K

    2014-01-01

    Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA) is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number. PMID:24926166

  1. Percutaneous Embolization of Transhepatic Tracks for Biliary Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Stuart M.; Terhaar, Olaf; Given, Mark F.; O'Dwyer, Helena M.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2006-12-15

    Significant pain can occur after removing transhepatic catheters from biliary access tracks, after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) or stenting. We undertook a randomized prospective study to ascertain whether track embolization decreases the amount of pain or analgesic requirement after PBD. Fifty consecutive patients (M:F, 22:28; age range:29-85 years; mean age: 66.3 years) undergoing PBD were randomized to receive track embolization or no track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters. A combination of Lipoidol and n-butyl cyanoacrylate were used to embolize transhepatic tracks using an 8F dilator. The patients who did not have track embolization performed had biliary drainage catheters removed over a guide wire. A visual analog scoring (VAS) system was used to grade pain associated with catheter removal, 24 h afterward. A required analgesic score (RAS) was devised to tabulate the analgesia required. No analgesia had a score of 0, oral or rectal nonopiate analgesics had a score of 1, oral opiates had a score of 2, and parenteral opiates had a score of 3. The average VAS and RAS for both groups were calculated and compared.Seven patients were excluded for various reasons, leaving 43 patients in the study group. Twenty-one patients comprised the embolization group and 22 patients comprised the nonembolization group. The mean biliary catheter dwell time was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the embolization group and nonembolization (mean: 5.4 days vs 6.9 days, respectively). In the nonembolization group, the mean VAS was 3.4. Eight patients required parenteral opiates, three patients required oral opiates, and five patients required oral or rectal analgesics, yielding a mean RAS of 1.6. In the embolization group, the mean VAS was 0.9. No patient required parenteral opiates, six patients required oral opiates, and two patients had oral analgesia. The average RAS was 0.6. Both the VAS and the RAS were significantly lower in the embolization group compared with the nonembolization group (p < 0.0023 and p < 0.002, respectively). No complications were seen related to track embolization. Percutaneous track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters decreases patient's perception of pain and decreases the amount of required analgesia. In particular, the amount of opiate analgesia required is considerably less.

  2. Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, A; Lankford, A; Boswell, W C; Rittmeyer, C

    2000-11-01

    We present a classic but rare case of spontaneous perforation of the bile duct in infancy and a previously undescribed treatment technique. The patient, a male age 5 weeks, was admitted with abdominal distention, ascites, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound revealed ascites but did not provide visualization of the gallbladder. Although hepatobiliary scintigraphy with technetium [dimethyl iminodiacetic acid (HIDA scan)] showed normal uptake peritoneal excretion suggested perforation of the common bile duct (CBD). Exploratory laparotomy revealed 200 cm3 dark amber ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity and cholestasis of the liver. Intraoperative cholangiogram performed via the gallbladder showed a large perforation at the cystic duct/CBD junction. The perforation was large and leakage of contrast prevented demonstration of the distal CBD despite our attempt to primarily repair the perforation. The CBD was explored; a T-tube was placed. T-tube cholangiogram demonstrated flow of contrast into the duodenum. A large leak remained at the cystic CBD junction. A cholecystectomy was performed and a vascularized flap of the gallbladder wall was used to repair the CBD over the T-tube. The T-tube was clamped intermittently beginning 3 weeks postoperatively. T-tube cholangiogram performed 6 weeks postoperatively revealed no extravasation and normal intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. The T-tube was subsequently discontinued and liver function tests remained normal at 6 months follow-up. PMID:11090020

  3. Stimulatory and inhibitory histamine receptors in canine cystic duct.

    PubMed Central

    Clanachan, A. S.; Courtney, D. F.; Scott, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effects of histamine receptor stimulation were assessed on the resistance of the canine cystic duct in vivo and on the contractility of circular muscle preparations of canine cystic duct in vitro. 2 In anaesthetized dogs, the H1-receptor agonist, 2-pyridylethylamine (0.05 to 15 mumol, i.a.), elicited dose-dependent increases in cystic duct resistance, whereas the H2-receptor agonist, 4-methylhistamine (0.05 to 15 mumol, i.a.) decreased cystic duct resistance. These responses were antagonized by the H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, and the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, respectively. 3 Histamine (0.1 to 3000 nmol, i.a.) also increased cystic duct resistance in vivo. In the presence of diphenhydramine, the stimulatory effect of histamine was antagonized and slight decreases in cystic duct resistance became apparent. Cimetidine or prazosin also antagonized the stimulatory effects of histamine. 4 Histamine (1 to 100 microM) or 2-pyridylethylamine (1 to 100 microM) contracted, whereas 4-methylhistamine (1 to 100 microM) relaxed, circular muscle preparations of cystic duct. These excitatory and inhibitory responses were antagonized by diphenhydramine and cimetidine, respectively. 5 These results indicate that the canine cystic duct possesses excitatory H1- and inhibitory H2-receptors. The predominant effect of histamine is an H1-receptor-mediated increase in cystic duct resistance. Histamine, which may be released in association with cholecystitis, may exert significant effects on the regulation of bile flow in and out of the gallbladder and may contribute to gallbladder stasis during biliary disease. PMID:7150877

  4. The Role of ARF6 in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Joseph; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Min, Jun; Higgs, Brandon W.; Sun, Qing; Haberman, Kimberly; Schmitt, Lori; Vilarinho, Silvia; Mistry, Pramod K.; Vockley, Gerard; Dhawan, Anil; Gittes, George K.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Jaffe, Ronald; Subramaniam, Shankar; Shin, Donghun; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Altered extrahepatic bile ducts, gut, and cardiovascular anomalies constitute the variable phenotype of biliary atresia (BA). Methods To identify potential susceptibility loci, Caucasian children, normal (controls) and with BA (cases) at two US centers were compared at >550000 SNP loci. Systems biology analysis was carried out on the data. In order to validate a key gene identified in the analysis, biliary morphogenesis was evaluated in 2-5-day post-fertilization zebrafish embryos after morpholino-antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of the candidate gene ADP ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6, Mo-arf6). Results Among 39 and 24 cases at centers 1 and 2, respectively, and 1907 controls, which clustered together on principal component analysis, the SNPs rs3126184 and rs10140366 in a 3’ flanking enhancer region for ARF6 demonstrated higher minor allele frequencies (MAF) in each cohort, and 63 combined cases, compared with controls (0.286 vs. 0.131, P = 5.94x10-7, OR 2.66; 0.286 vs. 0.13, P = 5.57x10-7, OR 2.66). Significance was enhanced in 77 total cases, which included 14 additional BA genotyped at rs3126184 only (p = 1.58x10-2, OR = 2.66). Pathway analysis of the 1000 top-ranked SNPs in CHP cases revealed enrichment of genes for EGF regulators (p<1 x10-7), ERK/MAPK and CREB canonical pathways (p<1 x10-34), and functional networks for cellular development and proliferation (p<1 x10-45), further supporting the role of EGFR-ARF6 signaling in BA. In zebrafish embryos, Mo-arf6 injection resulted in a sparse intrahepatic biliary network, several biliary epithelial cell defects, and poor bile excretion to the gall bladder compared with uninjected embryos. Biliary defects were reproduced with the EGFR-blocker AG1478 alone or with Mo-arf6 at lower doses of each agent and rescued with arf6 mRNA. Conclusions The BA-associated SNPs identify a chromosome 14q21.3 susceptibility locus encompassing the ARF6 gene. arf6 knockdown in zebrafish implicates early biliary dysgenesis as a basis for BA, and also suggests a role for EGFR signaling in BA pathogenesis. PMID:26379158

  5. The Diagnosis of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowlus, Christopher L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by the immune mediated destruction of small intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. The autoimmune basis of PBC is supported by the highly specific anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and autoreactive T cells, the former being the basis for diagnosis in the vast majority of cases. Although a rare disease, the incidence rates of PBC have been increasing, possibly due to increased testing and diagnosis as opposed to a true increase in disease incidence. Presently, most cases are asymptomatic and only suspected based upon routine liver tests. Those with symptoms typically complain of pruritus and fatigue. The diagnosis of PBC is based on the presence of at least 2 of 3 key criteria including a persistently elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, the presence of serum AMA, and liver histology consistent with PBC. Anti-nuclear antibodies specific to PBC are useful in cases in which AMA are not detected and may indicate a more aggressive course. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the only proven therapy for PBC and in most cases can delay or prevent disease progression. However, a subgroup of patients does not adequately respond to ursodeoxycholic acid and for whom new therapies are needed. PMID:24424173

  6. Advances in pharmacotherapy for primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Hani; Lleo, Ana; Invernizzi, Pietro; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease mostly seen in middle aged women characterized by progressive non-suppurative destruction of small bile ducts resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, parenchymal injury, and ultimately end stage liver disease. Despite major breakthroughs in our understanding of PBC, there remains only one FDA-approved agent for treatment: ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to which one third of patients are unresponsive. Areas covered Biochemical response to treatment with UDCA is associated with excellent survival rates in PBC patients. However, there is a need for alternative treatments for non-responders. Results from human epidemiological and genetic studies as well as preclinical studies in PBC animal models have provided a strong impetus for the development of new therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in translational research in PBC focusing on promising therapeutic approaches, namely immune-based targeted therapies and agents targeting the synthesis and circulation of bile acids. Expert opinion We are in a new era for the development of novel therapies for PBC. Data on fibrates, budesonide, and obeticholic acid offer encouragement for non-responders to UDCA. PMID:25543678

  7. Genomic variants associated with primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune hepatobiliary disease characterized by immune-mediated injury of small and medium-sized bile ducts, eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Several studies have addressed PBC immunopathology, and the data support an immune activation leading to autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells acting against the lipoylated 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes. The causes of the disease remain unknown, but environmental factors and genetic susceptibility both contribute to its onset. Over the past two decades several association studies have addressed the role of genetic polymorphisms in PBC pathogenesis and have reported multiple associations. However, only a few studies had sufficient statistical power, and in most cases results were not independently validated. A genome-wide association study has recently been reported, but this too awaits independent confirmation. The aim of this present work is to critically review the numerous studies dedicated to revealing genetic associations in PBC, and to predict the potential for future studies based on these data. PMID:20193050

  8. Geographic Clusters of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Mouch, Saif; Selmi, Carlo; Benson, Gordon D.; Kenny, Thomas P.; Invernizzi, Pietro; Zuin, Massimo; Podda, Mauro; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors have been widely suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology leading to destruction of small bile ducts. Interestingly, epidemiologic data indicate a variable prevalence of the disease in different geographical areas. The study of clusters of PBC may provide clues as to possible triggers in the induction of immunopathology. We report herein four such unique PBC clusters that suggest the presence of both genetic and environmental factors in the induction of PBC. The first cluster is represented by a family of ten siblings of Palestinian origin that have an extraordinary frequency of PBC (with 5/8 sisters having the disease). Second, we describe the cases of a husband and wife, both having PBC. A family in which PBC was diagnosed in two genetically unrelated individuals, who lived in the same household, represents the third cluster. Fourth, we report a high prevalence of PBC cases in a very small area in Alaska. Although these data are anedoctal, the study of a large number of such clusters may provide a tool to estimate the roles of genetics and environment in the induction of autoimmunity. PMID:14768943

  9. Biliary atresia and neonatal hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wynchank, S.; Guillet, J.; Leccia, F.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.

    1984-03-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m diethyl IDA was performed on 14 jaundiced neonates. It aided greatly the differential diagnosis between neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. Limitations in the interpretation of the results are described, as neonatal hepatitis may be accompanied by biliary excretion ranging from zero to normal. Also both biliary atresia (intra- and extrahepatic) and neonatal hepatitis may show no biliary excretion within 24 hours.

  10. Evaluation of biliary disease by scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, M.D.; Hagihara, P.F.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.; Griffen, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    The value of biliary scintigraphy was studied in 180 patients with suspected biliary tract disease. Most of the patients were investigated additionally by conventional techniques such as cholecystography, cholangiography and ultrasonography. It is concluded that biliary scintigraphy is a simple and safe technique for visualization of the biliary tract. It is particularly useful in the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, in patients with iodine sensitivity obstructive from nonobstructive jaundice.

  11. Prediction of common bile duct stones by noninvasive tests.

    PubMed Central

    Prat, F; Meduri, B; Ducot, B; Chiche, R; Salimbeni-Bartolini, R; Pelletier, G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define accurate and useful predictors of common bile duct stones (CBDS). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The ability to predict CBDS with noninvasive tests can avoid unnecessary, costly, or risky procedures. METHODS: All patients referred for examination for CBDS by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) from 1993-1996 were prospectively entered in a database. In a first sample selected randomly from the whole population, predictors of CBDS were determined by univariate analysis and logistic regression. Predictors were subsequently tested in that sample and in the rest of the population. A separate analysis was done for patients planned for cholecystectomy. RESULTS: Eight hundred and eighty patients (328 men, 552 women), aged 57.8 +/- 17 years (range 16-94), were included. The prevalence of CBDS was 18.8%. Age, serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase, and the existence of jaundice and fever, a dilated bile duct, and a pathologic gallbladder were found to be associated with CBDS. Logistic regression was undertaken separately for patients younger than 70 years (predictors: GGT >7 x normal; pathologic gallbladder; dilated bile duct) and older than 70 years (predictors: GGT >7 x normal; fever > 38 degrees C; dilated bile duct). Odds ratios were 3 to 6.7. The model was satisfactorily applicable to the second sample; age <70 years: chi2 = 3.3 (NS); age >70 years: chi2 = 3.8 (NS). In patients younger than age 70 and planned for cholecystectomy, the combination of the level of GGT and dilated bile duct predicted CBDS accurately. CONCLUSIONS: A simple screening of patients at risk for CBDS can be achieved with three predictive criteria adapted for the patient's age. PMID:10077048

  12. Trps1 Regulates Biliary Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Has Roles during Biliary Fibrosis in Liver Grafts: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhe, Cheng; Yu, Fan; Tian, Ju; Zheng, Shuguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role(s) of Trps1 in non-anastomotic biliary stricture (NABS) following liver transplantation. Methods Immunohistochemical and histological techniques were used to detect Trps1, E-cadherin, CK19, vimentin, α-SMA, and collagen deposition. Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBECs) were infected with a Trps1 adenovirus, or transfected with Trps1 short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays and western blotting were used to determine expression levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and Trps1 in HIBECs. Results Expression of Trps1 and epithelial markers was down-regulated or absent in NABS liver samples. Mesenchymal markers were seen in biliary epithelial cells (BECs), with collagen deposited around the bile duct. Trps1 expression positively correlated with epithelial markers. Expression of epithelial marker mRNAs and proteins in HIBECs decreased with prolonged cold preservation (CP), while mesenchymal marker expression increased. A 12-h CP period led to increased Trps1 mRNA and protein levels. Expression of E-cadherin was increased in HIBECs following Trps1 adenovirus infection and CP/reperfusion injury (CPRI), with vimentin expression levels reduced and CPRI-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibited. Transfection of HIBECs with Trps1 siRNAs in conjunction with CPRI revealed that E-cadherin expression was decreased, vimentin expression was increased, and CPRI-mediated EMT was promoted. Conclusion Trps1 is involved in NABS pathogenesis following liver transplantation and negatively correlates with BEC EMT and biliary fibrosis in liver grafts. Trps1 demonstrates antagonistic effects that could reverse EMT. PMID:25886207

  13. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Oto, Aytekin; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Various biliary pathologic conditions can lead to acute abdominal pain. Specific diagnosis is not always possible clinically because many biliary diseases have overlapping signs and symptoms. Imaging can help narrow the differential diagnosis and lead to a specific diagnosis. Although ultrasonography (US) is the most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of the biliary system, multidetector computed tomography (CT) is helpful when US findings are equivocal or when biliary disease is suspected. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by optimizing the CT protocol and using multiplanar reformations to localize biliary obstruction. CT can be used to diagnose and stage acute cholecystitis, including complications such as emphysematous, gangrenous, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis; gallbladder perforation; gallstone pancreatitis; gallstone ileus; and Mirizzi syndrome. CT also can be used to evaluate acute biliary diseases such as biliary stone disease, benign and malignant biliary obstruction, acute cholangitis, pyogenic hepatic abscess, hemobilia, and biliary necrosis and iatrogenic complications such as biliary leaks and malfunctioning biliary drains and stents. Treatment includes radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Familiarity with CT imaging appearances of emergent biliary pathologic conditions is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical referral and treatment. PMID:24224584

  14. Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Bowlus, Christopher L; Olson, Kristin A; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-01-01

    Biliary strictures frequently present a diagnostic challenge during pre-operative evaluation to determine their benign or malignant nature. A variety of benign conditions, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, frequently mimic malignancies. In addition, PSC and other chronic biliary diseases increase the risk of cholangiocarcinoma and so require ongoing vigilance. Although traditional methods of evaluation including imaging, detection of circulating tumour markers, and sampling by endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography have a high specificity, they suffer from low sensitivity. Currently, up to 20% of biliary strictures remain indeterminate after pre-operative evaluation and necessitate surgical intervention for a definitive diagnosis. The discovery of novel biomarkers, new imaging modalities and advanced endoscopic techniques suggests that a multimodality approach might lead to better diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26526122

  15. Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Cisco; Unruh, William G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer (Gooding and Unruh in Phys Rev D 90:044071, 2014). The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015). We note that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, emphasizing that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Whereas the effect described in (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015) vanishes in the absence of an external gravitational field, our approach bootstraps the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, yielding a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.

  16. Endoscopic management of biliary complications after liver transplantation: An evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Gómez, Carlos; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Biliary tract diseases are the most common complications following liver transplantation (LT) and usually include biliary leaks, strictures, and stone disease. Compared to deceased donor liver transplantation in adults, living donor liver transplantation is plagued by a higher rate of biliary complications. These may be promoted by multiple risk factors related to recipient, graft, operative factors and post-operative course. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is the first-choice examination when a biliary complication is suspected following LT, in order to diagnose and to plan the optimal therapy; its limitations include a low sensitivity for the detection of biliary sludge. For treating anastomotic strictures, balloon dilatation complemented with the temporary placement of multiple simultaneous plastic stents has become the standard of care and results in stricture resolution with no relapse in > 90% of cases. Temporary placement of fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) has not been demonstrated to be superior (except in a pilot randomized controlled trial that used a special design of FCSEMSs), mostly because of the high migration rate of current FCSEMSs models. The endoscopic approach of non-anastomotic strictures is technically more difficult than that of anastomotic strictures due to the intrahepatic and/or hilar location of strictures, and the results are less satisfactory. For treating biliary leaks, biliary sphincterotomy and transpapillary stenting is the standard approach and results in leak resolution in more than 85% of patients. Deep enteroscopy is a rapidly evolving technique that has allowed successful treatment of patients who were not previously amenable to endoscopic therapy. As a result, the percutaneous and surgical approaches are currently required in a minority of patients. PMID:26078829

  17. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary diseases

    PubMed Central

    García-Cano, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Biliary fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) are now being used to treat several benign biliary conditions. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters in addition to an easy insertion technique. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. In benign biliary strictures that usually require multiple procedures, despite the substantially higher cost of FCSEMS compared with plastic stents, the use of FCSEMS is offset by the reduced number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography interventions required to achieve stricture resolution. In the same way, FCSEMS have also been employed to treat complex bile leaks, perforation and bleeding after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and as an aid to maintain permanent drainage tracts obtained by means of Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided biliary drainage. Good success rates have been achieved in all these conditions with an acceptable number of complications. FCSEMS were successfully removed in all patients. Comparative studies of FCSEMS and plastic stents are needed to demonstrate efficacy and cost-effectiveness PMID:22523615

  18. Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

  19. In recurrent primary biliary cirrhosis after liver transplantation, biliary epithelial cells show increased expression of mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Motoko; Hsu, Maylee; Yeh, Matthew M; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2015-10-01

    In biliary epithelial lesions in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), mitochondrial proteins associated with deregulated autophagy are abnormally expressed. We examined whether this could be used as a diagnostic marker for end-stage PBC and recurrent PBC after liver transplantation. We examined the expression of the mitochondrial protein pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 component and cytochrome c oxidase, subunit I (CCO), the autophagy-related marker microtubule-associated protein-light chain 3 (LC3), and p62/sequestosome-1 and the senescence markers p16(Ink4a) and p21(WAF1/Cip1) in small bile ducts and bile ductules in explanted livers from patients with PBC (n?=?20) in comparison with liver tissue from control patients (n?=?21) and post-transplant samples including recurrent PBC and cellular rejection (n?=?28). Intense granular expression of mitochondrial proteins was significantly more frequent in small bile ducts in explanted livers with PBC than in control livers (p?ducts may be a useful diagnostic marker for end-stage PBC and recurrent PBC after liver transplantation. PMID:26259963

  20. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae Woong Lu, David S. K. Osuagwu, Ferdnand Raman, Steven; Lassman, Charles

    2013-11-07

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

  1. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Visrodia, Kavel H; Tabibian, James H; Baron, Todd H

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic management of biliary obstruction has evolved tremendously since the introduction of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. For the last several decades, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become established as the mainstay for definitively diagnosing and relieving biliary obstruction. In addition, and more recently, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained increasing favor as an auxiliary diagnostic and therapeutic modality in facilitating decompression of the biliary tree. Here, we provide a review of the current and continually evolving role of gastrointestinal endoscopy, including both ERCP and EUS, in the management of biliary obstruction with a focus on benign biliary strictures. PMID:26322153

  2. Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected weekly. The baking test specimens were visually inspected weekly, and the durability was judged by the observed deterioration in terms of brittleness, cracking, flaking and blistering (the terminology used in the UL 181B-FX test procedure).

  3. Duct Tape Durability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2004-04-01

    Duct leakage is a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums, or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections, a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that taped seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been testing sealant durability for several years using accelerated test methods and found that typical duct tape (i.e., cloth-backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) fails more rapidly than other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing over two years for four UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (two cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The tests involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars. Periodic air leakage tests and visual inspection were used to document changes in sealant performance. After two years of testing, the flex-to-collar connections showed little change in air leakage, but substantial visual degradation from some products. A surprising experimental result was failure of most of the clamps used to mechanically fasten the connections. This indicates that the durability of clamps also need to be addressed ensure longevity of the duct connection. An accelerated test method developed during this study has been used as the basis for an ASTM standard (E2342-03).

  4. Cardiomyopathy, familial dilated

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Matthew RG; Carniel, Elisa; Mestroni, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterized by ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function. Patients with DCM suffer from heart failure, arrhythmia, and are at risk of premature death. DCM has a prevalence of one case out of 2500 individuals with an incidence of 7/100,000/year (but may be under diagnosed). In many cases the disease is inherited and is termed familial DCM (FDC). FDC may account for 20–48% of DCM. FDC is principally caused by genetic mutations in FDC genes that encode for cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins in the cardiac myocyte. Family history analysis is an important tool for identifying families affected by FDC. Standard criteria for evaluating FDC families have been published and the use of such criteria is increasing. Clinical genetic testing has been developed for some FDC genes and will be increasingly utilized for evaluating FDC families. Through the use of family screening by pedigree analysis and/or genetic testing, it is possible to identify patients at earlier, or even presymptomatic stages of their disease. This presents an opportunity to invoke lifestyle changes and to provide pharmacological therapy earlier in the course of disease. Genetic counseling is used to identify additional asymptomatic family members who are at risk of developing symptoms, allowing for regular screening of these individuals. The management of FDC focuses on limiting the progression of heart failure and controlling arrhythmia, and is based on currently accepted treatment guidelines for DCM. It includes general measures (salt and fluid restriction, treatment of hypertension, limitation of alcohol intake, control of body weight, moderate exercise) and pharmacotherapy. Cardiac resynchronization, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices have progressively expanding usage. Patients with severe heart failure, severe reduction of the functional capacity and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction have a low survival rate and may require heart transplant. PMID:16839424

  5. SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE LIVER DISEASE CAUSED BY A BILIARY CALCULUS IN A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Chatterton, James; Unwin, Steve; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Bridson-Walton, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    A 40-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with intermittent, short-duration episodes of nonspecific clinical signs that included lethargy and reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Clinical examination and diagnostics suggested obstructive hepatic disease, which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonographic examination. During routine laparotomy, a biliary calculus was removed from the distal common bile duct and the gallbladder was removed, which resulted in complete clinical recovery. The biliary calculus was analyzed as a mixed composition of predominantly cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium. PMID:26667553

  6. Loft duct project report

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    On October 16, 1992, during a routine examination of the loft of Building 332, the Building Coordinator observed cracks in the welds of the duct work that services the fume hoods for Rooms 1313, 1321, and 1329. Further examination revealed cracks in the weld of the duct work that services the gloveboxes in Rooms 1321 and 1329. Upon discovery of the cracked welds, facility management immediately took the following two actions: Because one crack in the fume hood exhaust extended 70% around the duct circumference, a 1-ton chain fall was used to secure the duct to the roof support structure to prevent the duct from falling if the duct completely fractured. The Facility Manager suspended plutonium handling operations in the gloveboxes and work in the fume hoods in the affected rooms until the situation could be thoroughly investigated. Building 332 is ventilated by drawing conditioned air from the building hallways into the laboratories, hoods, and gloveboxes. This air is filtered through two sets of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being exhausted from the facility. Figure 1 is a schematic of the typical air flow pattern for the facility. All affected duct work is located in the loft of the facility or pressure zone 4. This ducting is fabricated from 12-, 14- and 16-gauge, 304 stainless-steel sheet stock and joined by the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process.

  7. Cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and common duct stenosis in children and adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, G W; O'Neill, J A; Holcomb, G W

    1980-01-01

    A study of 100 patients from 14 months through 18 years of age with extrahepatic biliary tract conditions who have been treated from 1950 through 1979 is reported. For discussion, these have been classified into four groups including acalculous cholecystitis, nonhemolytic cholelithiasis, hemolytic cholelithiasis and stenosis of the common duct. Ninety-nine patients were operated on and there were no deaths. Except for unusual contraindications, cholecystectomy is preferred for acute noncalculous cholecystitis. The largest number having gallstones were those patients (87%) without hemolytic disease. Only 13% had an associated hemolytic disorder. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment and common duct exploration is utilized when indicated. Six children with chronic relapsing pancreatitis secondary to stenosis of the ampulla of Vater and two with common duct stenosis are analyzed. Although extrahepatic biliary disorders are usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of children and adolescents with vague abdominal pain, it is evident by this large number of patients that there should be greater emphasis placed on earlier diagnosis in the future. PMID:6989334

  8. Spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct in children

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, J.O.; Condon, V.R.; Berdon, W.E.; Oh, K.S.; Price, A.P.; Bowen, A.; Cohen, H.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors describe radiologic findings in five patients with spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct (a rare disorder). The patients were 5 weeks, 9 weeks, 3 months, 11 months, and 2 1/2 years old at presentation. The most common presenting complaints were jaundice and abdominal distention (due to ascites). Sonographic findings included ascites in three patients, a loculated fluid collection around the gallbladder in two patients, and both in one patient. The biliary tree was undilated in all patients. Results of hepatobiliary scintigraphy definitely demonstrated that intraperitoneal fluid originated from the biliary tract. Intraoperative cholangiography was used to confirm the diagnosis at surgery. All children were successfully treated with surgery. Recognition of these findings on sonograms and subsequent confirmation with scintigraphy are important to prevent delays in diagnosis of a potentially fatal condition.

  9. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  10. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  11. Congenital web of the common bile duct in association with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, Basilios; Lazaridis, Charalampos; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Galanis, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Papaziogas, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Congenital web formations are extremely rare anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree. The age at presentation and the clinical symptomatology of these anomalies depend on the grade of the biliary obstruction. We report a case of a common bile duct septum in association with cholelithiasis in a 30-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made on preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and confirmed with intraoperative cholangiography. Because all known causes of acquired web formation were excluded, a congenital origin of the web was assumed. The patient was treated with a hepaticoduodenostomy above the level of the septum. The embryological aspects of this rare anomaly are described. PMID:12140619

  12. Primary biliary cirrhosis: lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Sambataro, A; Baldi, S; Modena, V; Todros, L; Libertucci, D; Coni, F; Fusaro, E; Revello, F; Murgia, A

    1995-08-01

    Sub-clinical lung impairment, mostly represented by a reduced diffusion of alveolar gases, is a recognised complication of advanced primary biliary cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of pulmonary involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis and the relationship between lung function abnormalities and selected epidemiological and clinical variables. Sixty-one patients with different stages of primary biliary cirrhosis consecutively seen in our outpatient clinic were evaluated. The advancement of primary biliary cirrhosis was characterised by the histological stage, the presence of signs of portal hypertension and the Mayo Risk Score: a Cox regression model using serum bilirubin and albumin levels, prothrombin time, age and degree of oedema as selected variables. We measured static and dynamic lung volumes, by means of a spirometer, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. Rheumatological disorders were evaluated by an independent rheumatologist. No patient complained of respiratory symptoms. Airway obstruction was present in one patient. In 24 patients (39%) the alveolar diffusion capacity was reduced. We did not find any significant relationship between diffusing capacity and smoking habits, advancement of liver disease and concomitant Sjogren syndrome. Reduced diffusion capacity showed a significant correlation with the presence of complete or incomplete CREST syndrome (p < 0.01) and with the presence of circulating anti-centromere antibodies (p < 0.05). Alveolar diffusion capacity is frequently impaired in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, usually in the absence of clinical manifestations. These alterations mostly affect patients with concomitant CREST syndrome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8544642

  13. A new method of preventing bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Xu, Cheng-Gang; Xu, De-Zheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Of all the complications of laparoscopic cholectecystomy, bile duct injury (BDI) is the most serious complication. The prevention of injury to the common bile duct (CBD) remains a significant concern in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Different kinds of methods have been advanced to avoid this injury but no single method has gained wide acceptance. Because of various limitations of current methodologies we began a study using cold light illumination of the extrahepatic biliary system (light cholangiography LCP) to better visualize this area and thereby reduce the risk of bile duct injury. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with cholelithiasis were divided into two groups. Group I (16 cases) received LCP and group II (20 cases) received methelenum coeruleum cholangiography (MCCP). In group I cold light was used to illuminate the common bile duct by leading an optical fiber into the common duct with a duodenoscope at the time of LC. The light coming from the fiber in the CBD could clearly illuminate the location of CBD and hepatic duct establishing its location relative to the cystic duct. This method was compared with the dye injection technique using methelenum coeruleum. RESULTS: In group I thirteen cases were successfully illuminated and three failed. The cause of three failed cases was due to the difficulty in inserting the fiber into the ampulla of Vater. No complications occurred in the thirteen successful cases. In each of these successful cases the location of the common and hepatic ducts was clearly seen differentiating the ductal system from surrounding anatomy. In ten cases both the left and right hepatic ducts could be seen and in three only the right hepatic ducts were seen. In four of the thirteen cases, cystic ducts were also seen. In group II, eighteen of the twenty cases were successful. The location of extrahepatic ducts became blue differentiating the ductal system from surrounding anatomy. Two cases failed due to a stone obstructing the cystic duct, and extravisation of the dye turned the entire area blue. LCP showed the common and hepatic ducts more clearly than MCCP. CONCLUSION: LCP is the only technique that can clearly and directly show the location of the extrahepatic biliary system and may be useful in selecting cases of uncertain anatomy in the prevention of bile duct injury. PMID:15334701

  14. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Clearance of Occluded Metal Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Madhava; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Doros, Attila; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Habib, Nagy

    2013-07-11

    PurposeThe major complication occurring with biliary stents is stent occlusion, frequently seen because of tumour in-growth, epithelial hyperplasia, and sludge deposits, resulting in recurrent jaundice and cholangitis. We report a prospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation to clear the blocked metal stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a novel bipolar RF catheter.MethodsNine patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary RF ablation through the blocked metal stent following external biliary decompression with an internal–external biliary drainage.ResultsAll nine patients had their stent patency restored successfully without the use of secondary stents. Following this intervention, there was no 30-day mortality, haemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the nine patients, six are alive and three patients are dead with a median follow-up of 122 (range 50–488) days and a median stent patency of 102.5 (range 50–321) days. Six patients had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. Three patients with stent blockage at 321, 290, and 65 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and repeat ablation.ConclusionsIn this selective group of patients, it appears that this new approach is safe and feasible. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  15. Medical history and the risk of biliary tract cancers in Shanghai, China: implications for a role of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Liu, Enju; Gao, Yu-Tang; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Rashid, Asif; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bin-Shen; Deng, Jie; Han, Tian-Quian; Zhang, Bai-He; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that inflammation may play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers. To examine further the role of inflammation, we evaluated the associations between self-reported inflammatory-related medical conditions and the risk of biliary tract cancers in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Our analysis included 368 gallbladder cancer cases, 191 bile duct cancer cases, 68 ampulla of Vater cancer cases, and 959 healthy subjects. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for biliary tract cancers in relation to six inflammation-related conditions. Gallbladder cancer was significantly associated with cholecystitis occurring at least 5 years prior to interview (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.9). Even though biliary stones did not significantly modify the associations between cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer, 90% of the gallbladder cancer cases with cholecystitis also had biliary stones, indicating that stones likely play an important role in the link between cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer. Among subjects who smoked and drank alcohol, a history of gastric (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-15.0) or duodenal ulcers (OR = 3.7, 1.2-12.0) was associated with an excess risk of gallbladder cancer. Although the mechanisms are unclear, our results further support the role for inflammation in the etiology of biliary tract cancers. PMID:21744094

  16. Ratio of hepatic arterial flow to recipient body weight predicts biliary complications after deceased donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter T W; Saracino, Giovanna; Jennings, Linda; Ramsay, Michael; McKenna, Gregory J; Testa, Giuliano; Anthony, Tiffany L; Onaca, Nicholas; Ruiz, Richard M; Goldstein, Robert M; Levy, Marlon F; Klintmalm, Goran B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adequate hepatic arterial (HA) flow to the bile duct is essential in liver transplantation. This study was conducted to determine if the ratio of directly measured HA flow to weight is related to the occurrence of biliary complications after deceased donor liver transplantation. Methods A retrospective review of 2684 liver transplants carried out over a 25-year period was performed using data sourced from a prospectively maintained database. Rates of biliary complications (biliary leaks, anastomotic and non-anastomotic strictures) were compared between two groups of patients with HA flow by body weight of, respectively, <5?ml/min/kg (n = 884) and ?5?ml/min/kg (n = 1800). Results Patients with a lower ratio of HA flow to weight had higher body weight (92?kg versus 76?kg; P < 0.001) and lower HA flow (350?ml/min versus 550?ml/min; P < 0.001). A lower ratio of HA flow to weight was associated with higher rates of biliary complications at 2 months, 6 months and 12 months (19.8%, 28.2% and 31.9% versus 14.8%, 22.4% and 25.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions A ratio of HA flow to weight of < 5?ml/min/kg is associated with higher rates of biliary complications. This ratio may be a useful parameter for application in the prevention and early detection of biliary complications. PMID:25041738

  17. Biliary tract schwannoma: a rare cause of obstructive jaundice in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Gilton Marques; Montagnini, André Luis; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Bernardes, Mário Vinícius Angelete Alvarez; Cecconello, Ivan; Jukemura, José

    2012-10-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor derived from Schwann cells which usually arises in the upper extremities, trunk, head and neck, retroperitoneum, mediastinum, pelvis, and peritoneum. However, it can arise in the gastrointestinal tract, including biliary tract. We present a 24-year-old male patient with obstructive jaundice, whose investigation with computed tomography abdomen showed focal wall thickening in the common hepatic duct, difficult to differentiate with hilar adenocarcinoma. He was diagnosed intraoperatively schwannoma of common bile duct and treated with local resection. The patient recovered well without signs of recurrence of the lesion after 12 mo. We also reviewed the common bile duct schwannoma related in the literature and evaluated the difficulty in pre and intraoperative differential diagnosis with adenocarcinoma hilar. Resection is the treatment of choice for such cases and the tumor did not recur in any of the resected cases. PMID:23066328

  18. Biliary tract schwannoma: A rare cause of obstructive jaundice in a young patient

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Gilton Marques; Montagnini, André Luis; Rocha, Manoel Souza; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Bernardes, Mário Vinícius Angelete Alvarez; Cecconello, Ivan; Jukemura, José

    2012-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor derived from Schwann cells which usually arises in the upper extremities, trunk, head and neck, retroperitoneum, mediastinum, pelvis, and peritoneum. However, it can arise in the gastrointestinal tract, including biliary tract. We present a 24-year-old male patient with obstructive jaundice, whose investigation with computed tomography abdomen showed focal wall thickening in the common hepatic duct, difficult to differentiate with hilar adenocarcinoma. He was diagnosed intraoperatively schwannoma of common bile duct and treated with local resection. The patient recovered well without signs of recurrence of the lesion after 12 mo. We also reviewed the common bile duct schwannoma related in the literature and evaluated the difficulty in pre and intraoperative differential diagnosis with adenocarcinoma hilar. Resection is the treatment of choice for such cases and the tumor did not recur in any of the resected cases. PMID:23066328

  19. The role of the pathologist in diagnosing and grading biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Y; Harada, K

    2011-05-01

    Pathological features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reviewed. Immune-mediated, non-suppurative cholangitis is the initial lesion and is followed by the gradual and extensive destruction of bile ducts and development of chronic cholestasis. Simultaneously, necro-inflammatory activities of the hepatic parenchyma and limiting plates of milder form develop not infrequently. Eventually, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis develop. A new system applicable to needle liver biopsies in which staging is evaluated using a combination of three factors (fibrosis, cholestasis, and bile duct loss) and necro-inflammatory activities of the bile duct and hepatic parenchyma are graded, is proposed. The clinical and therapeutic evaluation of PBC using this system is warranted. PMID:21474418

  20. Robotic-assisted surgery approach in a biliary rhabdomyosarcoma misdiagnosed as choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Nakib, Ghassan; Calcaterra, Valeria; Goruppi, Ilaria; Romano, Piero; Raffaele, Alessandro; Schleef, Jurgen; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2014-01-23

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue malignant tumor affecting 1% of children from 0 to 14 years. Preoperative imaging may not always be diagnostic for hepatobiliary rhabdomyosarcoma and differential diagnosis with choledochal cyst (CC) could be difficult. We report a case of 2-years-old girl with a strange CC pattern of presentation. A grapelike lesion involving the choledochal and biliary ducts was easily and completely resected by robotic assisted surgery. Since no previous reports were available about oncologic safety of robotic approach, the porto-enterostomy was performed in open surgery. On histologic examination, the specimen revealed a botryoidembryonal rhabdomyosarcoma affecting both the common bile duct and the common hepatic duct. One year postoperatively the child is safe of tumor relapse. Robotic approach seems to be safe and advantageous to obtain a radical excision of the tumor at the porta hepatis, even in case of misdiagnosed malignant lesion mimicking a CC. PMID:24711907

  1. Laparoscopic Anatomical Left Hepatectomy for Intrahepatic Bile Duct Papillary Mucinous Cystadenoma With Intraoperative Vascular Repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyu; Peng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic hepatectomy has been widely performed for patients with benign liver tumors such as hepatic hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma. We here present a case of a 78-year-old female patient who was initially admitted to our department due to fever and jaundice for 2 days. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan showed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with liver atrophy of left lobe. Unenhanced nodules were seen within the left intrahepatic bile duct. Ultrasonography revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with viscous fluid, tubular adenoma? Tumor markers including alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA19-9 were normal. Preoperative total bilirubin was 64.4 mmol/L. Laparoscopic anatomical left hepatectomy and common bile duct exploration were performed. In this procedure, a lot of mucus was seen within the common bile duct and left intrahepatic bile duct. No bile duct stones were found after the exploration. During parenchymal transection, intraoperative hemorrhage from middle hepatic vein was met, and we repaired middle hepatic vein by laparoscopic suture (5-0 Prolene). No air embolism and hypotension were met. This operation took 232 minutes and estimated blood loss was 300 mL. Postoperative ultrasonography indicated a normal outflow of middle hepatic vein and there was no stricture. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and was discharged on the 6th day after surgery. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was intrahepatic bile duct papillary mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:26871845

  2. Intrahepatic bile ducts develop according to a new mode of tubulogenesis regulated by the transcription factor SOX9

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Aline; Raynaud, Peggy; Cordi, Sabine; Zong, Yiwei; Tronche, François; Stanger, Ben; Jacquemin, Patrick; Pierreux, Christophe E.; Clotman, Frederic; Lemaigre, Frederic P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS A number of diseases are characterized by defective formation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. In the embryo, hepatoblasts differentiate to cholangiocytes which give rise to the intrahepatic bile ducts. Here we investigated how these ducts develop in mouse liver and characterized the role of the transcription factor SOX9. METHODS We identified SOX9 as a new biliary marker and used it with other cell markers in immunostaining experiments to characterize the process of bile duct morphogenesis. The expression of growth factors was determined by in situ hybridization and immunostaining, and their role was studied on cultured embryonic hepatoblasts. SOX9 function was investigated by phenotyping mice with a liver-specific inactivation of Sox9. RESULTS Biliary tubulogenesis started with formation of asymmetrical ductal structures, lined on the portal side by cholangiocytes and on the parenchymal side by hepatoblasts. When the ducts grew from the hilum to the periphery, the hepatoblasts lining the asymmetrical structures differentiated to cholangiocytes, thereby allowing formation of symmetrical ducts lined only by cholangiocytes. We also provide evidence that TGFβ promotes differentiation of the hepatoblasts lining the asymmetrical structures. In the absence of SOX9, the maturation of asymmetrical structures into symmetrical ducts was delayed. This was associated with abnormal expression of C/EBPα and HES1, as well as of the TGFβ receptor type II, which are regulators of biliary development. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that biliary development proceeds according to a new mode of tubulogenesis characterized by transient asymmetry and whose timing is controlled by SOX9. PMID:19403103

  3. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates biliary proliferation by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debolina; Han, Yuyan; Franchitto, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon; Meng, Fanyin; Venter, Julie; McMillin, Matthew; Kennedy, Lindsey; Francis, Heather; Onori, Paolo; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S

    2015-04-01

    During cholestatic liver disease, there is dysregulation in the balance between biliary growth and loss in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats modulated by neuroendocrine peptides via autocrine/paracrine pathways. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a trophic peptide hormone that modulates reproductive function and proliferation in many cell types. We evaluated the autocrine role of GnRH in the regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation. The expression of GnRH receptors was assessed in a normal mouse cholangiocyte cell line (NMC), sham, and BDL rats. The effect of GnRH administration was evaluated in normal rats and in NMC. GnRH-induced biliary proliferation was evaluated by changes in intrahepatic bile duct mass and the expression of proliferation and function markers. The expression and secretion of GnRH in NMC and isolated cholangiocytes was assessed. GnRH receptor subtypes GnRHR1 and GnRHR2 were expressed in cholangiocytes. Treatment with GnRH increased intrahepatic bile duct mass as well as proliferation and function markers in cholangiocytes. Transient knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of GnRHR1 in NMC decreased proliferation. BDL cholangiocytes had increased expression of GnRH compared with normal rats, accompanied by increased GnRH secretion. In vivo and in vitro knockdown of GnRH decreased intrahepatic bile duct mass/cholangiocyte proliferation and fibrosis. GnRH secreted by cholangiocytes promotes biliary proliferation via an autocrine pathway. Disruption of GnRH/GnRHR signaling may be important for the management of cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:25794706

  5. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Palak J; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by progressive nonsuppurative destruction of small bile ducts, resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, fibrosis and ultimately end-stage liver disease. Timely intervention with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with excellent survival, although approximately one-third of all patients fail to achieve biochemical response, signifying a critical need for additional therapeutic strategies. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent ligand of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Activation of FXR inhibits bile acid synthesis and protects against toxic accumulation in models of cholestasis and facilitates hepatic regeneration in preclinical studies. Data from recent Phase II and III controlled trials suggest a therapeutic impact of OCA in PBC biochemical nonresponders, as evidenced by change in proven laboratory surrogates of long-term outcome. Dose-dependent pruritus is a common adverse effect, but may be overcome through dose-titration. Longer term studies are needed with focus on safety and long-term clinical efficacy. PMID:26549695

  6. How to access photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Isomoto, Hajime; Abo, Takafumi; Nonaka, Takashi; Morisaki, Tomohito; Arai, Junichi; Takagi, Katsunori; Ohnita, Ken; Shoji, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Senoo, Takemasa; Murakami, Goshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment option for local control of remnant cancer after surgical resection or biliary stenosis by the unresectable tumor in patients with bile duct carcinomas (BDC). To achieve effective tumor necrosis, an appropriate approach to laser irradiation is necessary. Methods The efficacy of endoscopy-guided PDT using porfimer (n=12) or talaporfin sodium (n=13) was investigated by evaluating the transhepatic biliary routes and endoscopic retrograde biliary (ERB) routes in 25 patients with BDC. Results Diseases included perihilar intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in four patients, extrahepatic BDCs in 19 and ampular carcinoma (AC) in two patients. Adjuvant PDT after surgical resection was performed in 18 patients, and PDT for tumor biliary stenosis was performed in seven. In patients undergoing surgical resections, the mean period between the operation and PDT was 87±42 days. In patients who underwent prior surgical resections, the transhepatic route was used in five (28%), the jejunal loop was used in 11 (61%), the T-tube route was used in one, and the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) route via papilla Vater was used in one. In unresectable BDC, the ERC route was used in four patients (57%), and the transhepatic biliary route was used in three (43%). Endoscopic-guided PDT could not be performed in one patient because of a technical failure. Except for the complication of photosensitivity, endoscopy-related complications were not observed in any patients. Patients undergoing PDT with porfimer sodium had a significantly longer admission period compared to patients undergoing PDT with talaporfin sodium (36 vs. 5 days, respectively) (P<0.01). Conclusions PDT was safely and definitively performed using the endoscopy-guided approach via the transhepatic or ERC route. By considering the disadvantages of both routes, PDT must be adequately achieved for local control of BDC. PMID:25332999

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Draganov, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to percutaneous and surgical interventions for patients with biliary obstruction who had failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). EUS-guided biliary drainage has become feasible due to the development of large channel curvilinear therapeutic echo-endoscopes and the use of real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopy imaging in addition to standard ERCP devices and techniques. EUS-guided biliary drainage is an attractive option because of its minimally invasive, single step procedure which provides internal biliary decompression. Multiple investigators have reported high success and low complication rates. Unfortunately, high quality prospective data are still lacking. We provide detailed review of the use of EUS for biliary drainage from the perspective of practicing endoscopists with specific focus on the technical aspects of the procedure. PMID:22363114

  8. The Sea Lamprey as an Etiological Model for Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, inflammatory, and fibrosclerosing cholangiopathy in infants that results in obstruction of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. It is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult with steatohepatitis and fibrosis in the liver. In this paper, we present new histological evidence and compare the sea lamprey to existing animal models to highlight the advantages and possible limitations of using the sea lamprey to study the etiology and compensatory mechanisms of BA and other liver diseases. Understanding the signaling factors and genetic networks underlying lamprey BA can provide insights into BA etiology and possible targets to prevent biliary degeneration and to clear fibrosis. In addition, information from lamprey BA can be used to develop adjunct treatments for patients awaiting or receiving surgical treatments. Furthermore, the cholestatic adult lamprey has unique adaptive mechanisms that can be used to explore potential treatments for cholestasis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PMID:26101777

  9. The Sea Lamprey as an Etiological Model for Biliary Atresia.

    PubMed

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, inflammatory, and fibrosclerosing cholangiopathy in infants that results in obstruction of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. It is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult with steatohepatitis and fibrosis in the liver. In this paper, we present new histological evidence and compare the sea lamprey to existing animal models to highlight the advantages and possible limitations of using the sea lamprey to study the etiology and compensatory mechanisms of BA and other liver diseases. Understanding the signaling factors and genetic networks underlying lamprey BA can provide insights into BA etiology and possible targets to prevent biliary degeneration and to clear fibrosis. In addition, information from lamprey BA can be used to develop adjunct treatments for patients awaiting or receiving surgical treatments. Furthermore, the cholestatic adult lamprey has unique adaptive mechanisms that can be used to explore potential treatments for cholestasis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PMID:26101777

  10. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for biliary tract disease

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), or laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, has been employed in various fields to minimize traumatic effects over the last two decades. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has been the most frequently studied SILS to date. Hundreds of studies on SILC have failed to present conclusive results. Most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been small in scale and have been conducted under ideal operative conditions. The role of SILC in complicated scenarios remains uncertain. As common bile duct exploration (CBDE) methods have been used for more than one hundred years, laparoscopic CBDE (LCBDE) has emerged as an effective, demanding, and infrequent technique employed during the laparoscopic era. Likewise, laparoscopic biliary-enteric anastomosis is difficult to carry out, with only a few studies have been published on the approach. The application of SILS to CBDE and biliary-enteric anastomosis is extremely rare, and such innovative procedures are only carried out by a number of specialized groups across the globe. Herein we present a thorough and detailed analysis of SILC in terms of operative techniques, training and learning curves, safety and efficacy levels, recovery trends, and costs by reviewing RCTs conducted over the past three years and two recently updated meta-analyses. All existing literature on single-incision LCBDE and single-incision laparoscopic hepaticojejunostomy has been reviewed to describe these two demanding techniques. PMID:26811621

  11. Role for mycobacterial infection in pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis?

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Zen, Yoh; Abeles, Robin Daniel; Billinis, Charalambos; Pares, Albert; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the immune-mediated destruction of biliary epithelial cells in small intrahepatic bile ducts. The disease is characterized by circulating antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) as well as disease-specific antinuclear antibodies, cholestatic liver function tests, and characteristic histological features, including granulomas. A variety of organisms are involved in granuloma formation, of which mycobacteria are the most commonly associated. This has led to the hypothesis that mycobacteria may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC, along with other infectious agents. Additionally, AMAs are found in a subgroup of patients with mycobacterial infections, such as leprosy and pulmonary tuberculosis. Antibodies against species-specific mycobacterial proteins have been reported in patients with PBC, but it is not clear whether these antibodies are specific for the disease. In addition, data in support of the involvement of the role of molecular mimicry between mycobacterial and human mitochondrial antigens as triggers of cross-reactive immune responses leading to the loss of immunological tolerance, and the induction of pathological features have been published. Thus, antibodies against mycobacterial heat shock protein appear to cross-recognize AMA-specific autoantigens, but it is not clear whether these autoantibodies are mycobacterium-species-specific, and whether they are pathogenic or incidental. The view that mycobacteria are infectious triggers of PBC is intriguing, but the data provided so far are not conclusive. PMID:23002357

  12. Biliary atresia: the animal models.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Claus

    2012-08-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibrosing process of the neonatal biliary tree and liver, of unknown origin, and an as-yet unexplained pathologic mechanism. The crucial point is to elucidate the origin of this rare disease to change palliative surgery to etiology-related procedures. Patient-based research can only begin at the time of the Kasai procedure and does not allow retracing of the pathology back to its origin. Basic research has focused on similar diseases in the veterinary literature and started to simulate BA in animal models. Unfortunately, even after 50 years of research, no knowledge has been gained from such models, which has led to a single clinical application. This article reviews BA in the context of the animal models available and discusses whether future studies are promising or futile. PMID:22800971

  13. microRNA-222 modulates liver fibrosis in a murine model of biliary atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Wen-jun; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong Zheng, Shan

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • The RRV infected group showed cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. • miR-222 was highly expressed, and PPP2R2A was inhibited in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 might represent a potential target for improving biliary atresia prognosis. - Abstract: microRNA-222 (miR-222) has been shown to initiate the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of miR-22 in a mouse model of biliary atresia (BA) induced by Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV) infection. New-born Balb/c mice were randomized into control and RRV infected groups. The extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. The experimental group was divided into BA group and negative group based on histology. The expression of miR-222, protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B alpha (PPP2R2A), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-Akt were detected. We found that the experimental group showed signs of cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. No abnormalities were found in the control group. In the BA group, miR-222, PCNA and Akt were highly expressed, and PPP2R2A expression was significantly inhibited. Our findings suggest that miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine BA model, which might represent a potential target for improving BA prognosis.

  14. Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Bile Duct Cancer ... with Side Effects After Treatment Questions to Ask ...

  15. Atypical Ormond's disease associated with bile duct stricture mimicking cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Quante, Michael; Appenrodt, Beate; Randerath, Simone; Wolff, Martin; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with suspected hilar cholangiocarcinoma presented with jaundice and dilated intrahepatic bile ducts owing to high-grade hepatic duct confluence stenosis. The suspected tumour and the entire extrahepatic bile duct system were resected and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. Histological investigations showed perihepatic fibrosis but no signs of malignancy. One year later the patient developed bilateral hydronephrosis caused by ureteral obstruction. Since the patient had a gynaecological history of widespread inflammation, she was referred for transabdominal operative ureterolysis combined with hysterectomy and adnexectomy. Histological investigations as well as fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) findings were compatible with retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease). Treatment with tamoxifen was initiated. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of intraperitoneal fibroses mimicking cholangiocarcinoma followed by the typical symptoms of retroperitoneal Ormond's disease have been reported. PMID:18759151

  16. Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches Involved in Hepatic and Biliary Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Franchitto, Antonio; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Onori, Paolo; Reid, Lola; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Niches containing stem/progenitor cells are present in different anatomical locations along the human biliary tree and within liver acini. The most primitive stem/progenitors, biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs), reside within peribiliary glands located throughout large extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. BTSCs are multipotent and can differentiate towards hepatic and pancreatic cell fates. These niches' matrix chemistry and other characteristics are undefined. Canals of Hering (bile ductules) are found periportally and contain hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HpSCs), participating in the renewal of small intrahepatic bile ducts and being precursors to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. The niches also contain precursors to hepatic stellate cells and endothelia, macrophages, and have a matrix chemistry rich in hyaluronans, minimally sulfated proteoglycans, fetal collagens, and laminin. The microenvironment furnishes key signals driving HpSC activation and differentiation. Newly discovered third niches are pericentral within hepatic acini, contain Axin2+ unipotent hepatocytic progenitors linked on their lateral borders to endothelia forming the central vein, and contribute to normal turnover of mature hepatocytes. Their relationship to the other stem/progenitors is undefined. Stem/progenitor niches have important implications in regenerative medicine for the liver and biliary tree and in pathogenic processes leading to diseases of these tissues. PMID:26880956

  17. Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches Involved in Hepatic and Biliary Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Franchitto, Antonio; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Onori, Paolo; Reid, Lola; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Niches containing stem/progenitor cells are present in different anatomical locations along the human biliary tree and within liver acini. The most primitive stem/progenitors, biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs), reside within peribiliary glands located throughout large extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. BTSCs are multipotent and can differentiate towards hepatic and pancreatic cell fates. These niches' matrix chemistry and other characteristics are undefined. Canals of Hering (bile ductules) are found periportally and contain hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HpSCs), participating in the renewal of small intrahepatic bile ducts and being precursors to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. The niches also contain precursors to hepatic stellate cells and endothelia, macrophages, and have a matrix chemistry rich in hyaluronans, minimally sulfated proteoglycans, fetal collagens, and laminin. The microenvironment furnishes key signals driving HpSC activation and differentiation. Newly discovered third niches are pericentral within hepatic acini, contain Axin2+ unipotent hepatocytic progenitors linked on their lateral borders to endothelia forming the central vein, and contribute to normal turnover of mature hepatocytes. Their relationship to the other stem/progenitors is undefined. Stem/progenitor niches have important implications in regenerative medicine for the liver and biliary tree and in pathogenic processes leading to diseases of these tissues. PMID:26880956

  18. Dilatancy in Slow Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, Alexandre J.; Senden, Tim J.

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected.

  19. Dilatancy in slow granular flows.

    PubMed

    Kabla, Alexandre J; Senden, Tim J

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected. PMID:19658906

  20. Pseudo-obstruction of the biliary tract associated with a traumatic biliary fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-05-01

    Documentation of a biliary fistula as a complication of hepatic trauma may be made simply and noninvasively using radionuclide (technetium) cholescintigraphy. This report describes the utility of this approach in the evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying apparent biliary obstruction in a patient with a large traumatic biliary fistula.

  1. Investigations of ducted jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, A. J.; Damou, M.

    1991-07-01

    An attempt is made to obtain detailed information on ducted-jet flows for the testing of CFD modeling methods when applied to this type of flow. This goal was achieved for the case of ducted jets developing from a turbulent pipe flow in the nozzle. The results provide useful data that can be interpreted in terms of the physical structure of the turbulent flows.

  2. CD8+ T lymphocyte response against extrahepatic biliary epithelium is activated by epitopes within NSP4 in experimental biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuaiyu; Zhang, Hongyi; Zhang, Xiaojin; Peng, Fei; Chen, Xuyong; Yang, Jixin; Brigstock, David; Feng, Jiexiong

    2014-07-15

    Interferon (IFN)-γ-driven and CD8+ T cell-dependent inflammatory injury to extrahepatic biliary epithelium (EHBE) is likely to be involved in the development of biliary atresia (BA). We previously showed that viral protein NSP4 is the pathogenic immunogen that causes biliary injury in BA. In this study, NSP4 or four synthetic NSP4 (NSP4(157-170), NSP4(144-152), NSP4(93-110), NSP4(24-32)) identified by computer analysis as candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes were injected into neonatal mice. The pathogenic NSP4 epitopes were confirmed by studying extrahepatic bile duct injury, IFN-γ release and CD8+ T cell response against EHBE. The results revealed, at 7 days postinjection, inoculation of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-NSP4 caused EHBE injury and BA in neonatal mice. At 7 or 14 days postinject, inoculation of GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) increased IFN-γ release by CD8+ T cells, elevated the population of hepatic memory CD8+ T cells, and augmented cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells to rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-infected or naive EHBE cells. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ T cells in mice abrogated the elevation of GST-NSP4-induced serum IFN-γ. Lastly, parenteral immunization of mouse dams with GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) decreased the incidence of RRV-induced BA in their offspring. Overall, this study reports the CD8+ T cell response against EHBE is activated by epitopes within rotavirus NSP4 in experimental BA. Neonatal passive immunization by maternal vaccination against NSP4(144-152) or NSP4(157-170) is effective in protecting neonates from developing RRV-related BA. PMID:24875101

  3. Biliary papillary hyperplasia with clonorchiasis resembling cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Kim, C D; Lee, H S; Lee, S J; Jeen, Y T; Chun, H J; Song, C W; Lee, S W; Um, S H; Choi, J H; Ryu, H S; Hyun, J H

    1999-02-01

    Infection by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is very common in the Far East. It causes low grade inflammatory changes and proliferation in the biliary tree. Initially there is desquamation of the biliary epithelium, followed by hyperplasia and adenomatous proliferation. Cholangiocarcinomas are potential long term complications. We present a case of biliary papillary hyperplasia with clonorchiasis resembling cholangiocarcinoma in a 69-yr-old Korean man. Early recognition of biliary hyperplasia and treatment of Clonorchis sinensis is important to prevent development of cholangiocarcinoma, especially in the Far East. PMID:10022657

  4. Retroperitoneal Biloma Secondary to Operative Common Bile Duct Injury

    PubMed Central

    ?ólovi?, Radoje; Periši?-Savi?, Mirjana

    1991-01-01

    Encapsulated collections of bile (“biloma”) may be a sequela of liver trauma, operative injury or disease. Such collections may be intrahepatic or extrahepatic and usually in the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. This is a report of a retroperitoneal biloma, an entity that has been reported only twice to date but this is the first secondary to an operative common bile duct lesion. Evacuation of the biloma and reconstruction of the associated biliary stricture were successfully carried out. The patient remains sympton free with normal clinical and laboratory data more than 14 months after surgery. Operative common bile duct (CBD) injury may be followed by a number of complications. To our knowledge retroperitoneal biloma secondary to a CBD lesion has not been previously reported. PMID:2043516

  5. Artery to Cystic Duct: A Consistent Branch of Cystic Artery Seen in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Arshad; Mushtaque, Majid; Bali, Rajandeep Singh; Nazir, Saima; Khuroo, Suhail; Ishaq, Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled arterial bleeding during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a serious problem and may increase the risk of bile duct damage. Therefore, accurate identification of the anatomy of the cystic artery is very important. Cystic artery is notoriously known to have a highly variable branching pattern. We reviewed the anatomy of the cystic artery and its branch to cystic duct as seen through the video laparoscope. A single artery to cystic duct with the classical “H-configuration” was demonstrated in 161 (91.47%) patients. This branch may cause troublesome bleeding during laparoscopic dissection in the hepatobiliary triangle. Careful identification of artery to cystic duct is helpful in the proper dissection of Calot's triangle as it reduces the chances of hemorrhage and thus may also be helpful in prevention of extrahepatic biliary radical injuries. PMID:26240761

  6. Non-Newtonian bile flow in elastic cystic duct: one- and three-dimensional modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, W G; Luo, X Y; Chin, S B; Hill, N A; Johnson, A G; Bird, N C

    2008-11-01

    Bile flow is thought to play an essential role in the pathophysiological genesis of cholelithiasis (gallstone formation) and in gallbladder pain. In this paper, we extend our previous study of the human biliary system (Li et al., 2007, J. Biomech. Eng., 129:164-173) to include two important factors: the non-Newtonian properties of bile, and elastic deformation of the cystic duct. A one-dimensional (1D) model is analyzed and compared with three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction simulations. It is found that non-Newtonian bile raises resistance to the flow of bile, which can be augmented significantly by the elastic deformation (collapse) of the cystic duct. We also show that the 1D model predicts the pressure drop of the cystic duct flow well for all cases considered (Newtonian or non-Newtonian flow, rigid or elastic ducts), when compared with the full 3D simulations. PMID:18791826

  7. Biliary Complications in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Imaging Findings and the Roles of Interventional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Suh, Kyung Suk; Yi, Nam Joon; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo Choi, Byung Ihn

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To describe the incidence, types, and findings of biliary complications in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine the roles of interventional procedures. Materials and methods. Twenty-four biliary complications among 161 LDLT patients (24/161, 14.9%) were identified. These complications were divided into two groups according to the initial manifestation time, i.e., 'early' (<60 days) or 'late'. The CT and cholangiographic findings were reviewed regarding the presence of a stricture or leak and the location, and length, shape, and degree of the stricture. Both groups were categorized into three subgroups: leak, stricture, and both. The type of interventional procedures used and their roles were determined. Results. Early complications were identified in 14 of the 24 patients (58%) and late complications in 11 (46%). One patient showed both early and late complications. Biliary stricture was detected in 10 patients, leak in 10, and both in 5. By cholangiography, all strictures were irregular and short (mean length 15 {+-} 6 mm) at the anastomotic site and complete obstruction was observed in 2 patients with late stricture. Twenty-three of the 24 patients were treated using percutaneous and/or endoscopic drainage procedures with or without balloon dilatation. Seventeen (74%) showed a good response, but reoperations were inevitable in 6 (26%). All patients except those with complete obstruction showed a favorable outcome after interventional management. Conclusion. Biliary leaks and strictures are predominant complications in LDLT. Most show good responses to interventional treatment. However, complete obstruction needs additional operative management.

  8. Esophageal dilation in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E

    2015-10-01

    Tissue remodeling with scaring is common in adult EoE patients with long standing disease. This is the major factor contributing to their complaints of solid food dysphagia and recurrent food impactions. The best tests to define the degree of remodeling are barium esophagram, high resolution manometry and endoscopy. Many physicians are fearful to dilate EoE patients because of concerns about mucosal tears and perforations. However, multiple recent case series attest to the safety of esophageal dilation and its efficacy with many patients having symptom relief for an average of two years. This chapter will review the sordid history of esophageal dilation in EoE patients and outline how to perform this procedure safely. The key is graduated dilation over one to several sessions to a diameter of 15-18 mm. Postprocedural pain is to be expected and mucosal tears are a sign of successful dilation, not complications. In some healthy adults, occasional dilation may be preferred to regular use of medications or restricted diets. This approach is now supported by recent EoE consensus statements and societal guidelines. PMID:26552780

  9. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  10. Rhesus rotavirus VP4 sequence-specific activation of mononuclear cells is associated with cholangiopathy in murine biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Ashley; Mohanty, Sujit K; Donnelly, Bryan; Coots, Abigail; Lages, Celine S; Lobeck, Inna; Dupree, Phylicia; Meller, Jaroslaw; McNeal, Monica; Sestak, Karol; Tiao, Greg

    2015-09-15

    Biliary atresia (BA), a neonatal obstructive cholangiopathy, remains the most common indication for pediatric liver transplantation in the United States. In the murine model of BA, Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) VP4 surface protein determines biliary duct tropism. In this study, we investigated how VP4 governs induction of murine BA. Newborn mice were injected with 16 strains of rotavirus and observed for clinical symptoms of BA and mortality. Cholangiograms were performed to confirm bile duct obstruction. Livers and bile ducts were harvested 7 days postinfection for virus titers and histology. Flow cytometry assessed mononuclear cell activation in harvested cell populations from the liver. Cytotoxic NK cell activity was determined by the ability of NK cells to kill noninfected cholangiocytes. Of the 16 strains investigated, the 6 with the highest homology to the RRV VP4 (>87%) were capable of infecting bile ducts in vivo. Although the strain Ro1845 replicated to a titer similar to RRV in vivo, it caused no symptoms or mortality. A Ro1845 reassortant containing the RRV VP4 induced all BA symptoms, with a mortality rate of 89%. Flow cytometry revealed that NK cell activation was significantly increased in the disease-inducing strains and these NK cells demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of cytotoxicity against noninfected cholangiocytes. Rotavirus strains with >87% homology to RRV's VP4 were capable of infecting murine bile ducts in vivo. Development of murine BA was mediated by RRV VP4-specific activation of mononuclear cells, independent of viral titers. PMID:26206856

  11. CT evaluation of the bile ducts in patients with fatty liver

    SciTech Connect

    Quint, L.E.; Glazer, G.M.

    1984-12-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of the bile ducts in the fatty liver can be difficult, since hepatic attenuation decreases with increased triglyceride content, and liver parenchyma may become isodense with bile. Forty-seven patients with fatty infiltration of the liver were retrospectively identified. In 7 of these patients, attenuation of liver and bile differed by less than 10 HU. In 2 patients, dilated intrahepatic ducts were invisible using CT, because bile was isodense with fatty liver parenchyma. Thus, the fatty liver presents a potential pitfall in CT evaluation of the bile ducts. For maximal accuracy scans should be obtained both before and after administration of intravenous urographic contrast material.

  12. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of benign biliary strictures: What’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rosa; Loureiro, Rui; Nunes, Nuno; Santos, António Alberto; Maio, Rui; Cravo, Marília; Duarte, Maria Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common strictures amenable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, post-liver transplantation, related to primary sclerosing cholangitis and to chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures is widely used as first line therapy, since it is effective, safe, noninvasive and repeatable. Endoscopic techniques currently used are dilation, multiple plastic stents insertion and fully covered self-expandable metal stents. The main indication for dilation alone is primary sclerosing cholangitis related strictures. In the vast majority of the remaining cases, temporary placement of multiple plastic stents with/without dilation is considered the treatment of choice. Although this approach is effective, it requires multiple endoscopic sessions due to the short duration of stent patency. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents appear as a good alternative to plastic stents, since they have an increased radial diameter, longer stent patency, easier insertion technique and similar efficacy. Recent advances in endoscopic technique and various devices have allowed successful treatment in most cases. The development of novel endoscopic techniques and devices is still ongoing. PMID:26962404

  13. Biliary complications after pediatric liver transplantation: Risk factors, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Feier, Flavia H; da Fonseca, Eduardo A; Seda-Neto, Joao; Chapchap, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The expanded indications of partial grafts in pediatric liver transplantation have reduced waiting list mortality. However, a higher morbidity is observed, including an increased rate of biliary complications (BCs). Factors such as the type of graft, the preservation methods applied, the donor characteristics, the type of biliary reconstruction, and the number of bile ducts in the liver graft influences the occurrence of these complications. Bile leaks and strictures comprise the majority of post-transplant BCs. Biliary strictures require a high grade of suspicion, and because most children have a bileo-enteric anastomosis, its diagnosis and management rely on percutaneous hepatic cholangiography and percutaneous biliary interventions (PBI). The success rates with PBI range from 70% to 90%. Surgery is reserved for patients who have failed PBI. BCs in children after liver transplantation have a prolonged treatment and are associated with a longer length of stay and higher hospital costs. However, with early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, patient and graft survival are not significantly compromised. PMID:26328028

  14. Isolated Avulsion of the Common Hepatic Duct from Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Gee, Arvin; Hansen, Paul; Michaels, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Isolated extrahepatic biliary tract injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure, but include shear and/or compression forces on the biliary system. Associated morbidity rates are high and largely the result of delays in diagnosis. Imaging modalities commonly employed for diagnosis include ultrasonography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Percutaneous and endoscopic techniques have been used both for diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options are dictated by the stability of the patient and the extent of bile duct and concomitant injuries. In this paper, we discuss a case of isolated avulsion of the hepatic duct confluence following blunt trauma that was successfully managed with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. To our knowledge, this specific injury pattern has not been previously reported. PMID:22830067

  15. Food impaction in a duodenal diverticulum as an unusual cause of biliary obstruction: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, K; van der Linden, G H; Beukers, R; Cleophas, T A

    1997-06-01

    We present two patients with upper abdominal complaints and symptoms of biliary obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the common bile duct was obstructed by a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum filled with a food bezoar. There were no gallstones or other potential causes of obstruction. The bile flow was restored and symptoms disappeared after rinsing the diverticulum. Eventually, both of the patients were treated surgically because of recurrent symptoms. PMID:9222744

  16. An Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct at the Duodenal Papilla

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Izumi, Hideki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Yazawa, Naoki; Nakagori, Toshio; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the disease concept of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) has been attracting attention as a biliary lesion that is morphologically similar to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), which is considered to be a counterpart of IPMN. However, there are few reports on IPNB, and a consensus regarding the features of this disease is thus lacking. We experienced an extremely rare case of IPNB occurring in the bile duct at the duodenal papilla, which is a tumor presentation that has not previously been reported. Herein, we report this interesting case and discuss the possible association between IPMN and IPNB. PMID:25126070

  17. Natural Killer Cells Promote Long-Term Hepatobiliary Inflammation in a Low-Dose Rotavirus Model of Experimental Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Squires, James E.; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Mourya, Reena; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Walters, Stephanie; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rapidly progressive obstructive cholangiopathy of infants. Mechanistic studies in the mouse model of Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced biliary atresia have linked the importance of effector lymphocytes to the pathogenesis of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) injury and obstruction in experimental biliary atresia; however, studies of the progressive liver injury have been limited by early death of newborn mice. Here, we aimed to determine 1) if a lower inoculum of RRV induces obstruction of EHBDs while allowing for ongoing liver inflammation, and 2) if NK cells regulate intrahepatic injury. The administration of 0.25x106 fluorescence forming units of RRV induced an obstructive extrahepatic cholangiopathy, but allowed for restoration of the duct epithelium, increased survival, and the development of a progressive intrahepatic inflammatory injury with molecular and cellular signatures equivalent to the traditional infectious model. Investigating the mechanisms of liver injury, we found that NK cell depletion at the onset of jaundice decreased liver inflammation, suppressed the expression of fibrosis and inflammation/immunity genes, lowered plasma ALT and bilirubin and improved survival. Conclusions Lower inoculation of RRV-induced progressive liver injury and fibrosis via NK cells. These findings point to the potential use of NK cell-depleting strategies to block progression of liver disease in biliary atresia. PMID:25992581

  18. Pancreatoduodenectomy after hepato-biliary resection for recurrent metastatic rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sano, T; Kamiya, J; Nagino, M; Kanai, M; Uesaka, K; Nimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    Intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from rectal carcinoma is rare. A 48-year-old man underwent extended left hepatic lobectomy and caudate lobectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for liver metastasis from a rectal carcinoma presenting with intrabiliary growth. A second recurrent tumor was successfully resected by pancreatoduodenectomy without injury to the jejunal loop for biliary reconstruction. Preservation of the previous bilio-enteric anastomosis was critical. Placing the jejunal limb of the hepaticojejunostomy through the retrogastric route was superior to placement through the common retrocolic and anteduodenal route, because the mesentery of the Roux-en Y jejunal limb did not obscure the pancreatic head. Histologic examination revealed a recurrent tumor growing into the remnant intrapancreatic bile duct. This suggested two possibilities: spontaneous shedding of cancer cells from the proximal metastasis, and implantation as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. In both these circumstances, the metastatic lesion is not systemic, but is a local disease. An aggressive surgical approach for localized recurrence of this type may improve survival. PMID:11180880

  19. [Biliary fistulas and biliary congestion after hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery].

    PubMed

    Dahlke, M-H; Loss, M; Schlitt, H J

    2015-06-01

    Biliary complications after hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery can have severe consequences for the long-term quality of life of patients. Adequate and timely diagnosis of the underlying problem by an experienced surgeon is essential. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy of drains and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are helpful examinations that can be employed in a step-wise approach. Early re-do surgery is indicated in the initial postoperative course. Interventional methods, such as ERCP and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage ( PTCD, plus stents and drains) offer a variety of additional therapeutic options that should be used by the experienced interventionalist in a patient-tailored interdisciplinary fashion. PMID:26016714

  20. A Case of Infected Biloma due to Spontaneous Intrahepatic Biliary Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    A "biloma" is a loculated collection of bile located outside of the biliary tree. It can be caused by traumatic, iatrogenic or spontaneous rupture of the biliary tree. Prior reports have documented an association of biloma with abdominal trauma, surgery and other primary causes, but spontaneous bile leakage has rarely been reported. A spontaneous infected biloma, without any underlying disease, is a very rare finding. We recently diagnosed a spontaneous infected biloma by abdominal computed tomography and sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration. The patient was successfully managed with percutaneous drainage and intravenous antibiotics. We report here a case of infected biloma caused by spontaneous rupture of the intrahepatic duct, and review the relevant medical literature. PMID:17939343

  1. Technetium-99m BIDA biliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of the jaundiced patient

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.W.; Ram, M.D.; Shih, W.J.; Murphy, K.

    1986-09-01

    Biliary scintigraphy using 99mTc p-butyl acetanilidiminodiacetic acid (BIDA) was performed as part of the diagnostic evaluation on 96 patients with jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 2 mg/dl) to assess its value in this group of patients. The results of scintigraphy revealed no obstruction to the flow of the scintigraphic agent into the duodenum in 54 patients, delayed appearance of the agent (normal upper limit 60 min) in the duodenum indicating partial obstruction in 22 patients, and complete obstruction of the duct demonstrated by absence of agent in the duodenum in 20 patients. The findings were correlated with the final diagnosis and the overall results show accuracy of 92.7%, sensitivity of 97.3%, and specificity of 89.8%. Biliary scintigraphy was thus found to be useful in differentiating nonobstructive, partially obstructive, and completely obstructive causes of jaundice.

  2. Choledochal cyst and biliary atresia in the neonate: Imaging findings in five cases

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, J.M.; Haller, J.O.; Velcek, F.T. )

    1990-12-01

    The radiologic findings in five neonates with choledochal cyst associated with extra-hepatic biliary atresia are described. All five patients (age range, 13-72 days) presented with jaundice and acholic stools. In all four patients who underwent sonographic examination, a cystic structure separate from the gallbladder representing the choledochal cyst was shown. The diagnosis of atresia of the distal common bile duct was made preoperatively in all cases by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and was demonstrated by intraoperative cholangiography in four cases. All patients were successfully treated with surgical intervention within 1 month from the time of diagnosis. Early detection of this rare disorder, which may be distinct from choledochal cyst found in children and adults, is important to prevent fatal complications of biliary obstruction. The combined use of sonography and hepatobiliary scintigraphy can correctly identify this subset of patients with persistent neonatal jaundice and provide valuable information for prompt surgical management.

  3. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of cystic biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Morel, Baptiste; Kolanska, Kamila; Dhombres, Ferdinand; Jouannic, Jean Marie; Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Nonvisualization of the gallbladder during the second trimester of pregnancy should prompt concern for biliary atresia. A normal-sized gallbladder with irregular and crenelated wall associated with a cyst of the extrahepatic tract should raise concern for cystic biliary atresia. PMID:26734144

  4. Surgical strategy for bile duct cancer: Advances and current limitations

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Daijo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe recent advances and topics in the surgical management of bile duct cancer. Radical resection with a microscopically negative margin (R0) is the only way to cure cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with marked survival advantages compared to margin-positive resections. Complete resection of the tumor is the surgeon’s ultimate aim, and several advances in the surgical treatment for bile duct cancer have been made within the last two decades. Multidetector row computed tomography has emerged as an indispensable diagnostic modality for the precise preoperative evaluation of bile duct cancer, in terms of both longitudinal and vertical tumor invasion. Many meticulous operative procedures have been established, especially extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, to achieve a negative resection margin, which is the only prognostic factor under the control of the surgeon. A complete caudate lobectomy and resection of the inferior part of Couinaud’s segment IV coupled with right or left hemihepatectomy has become the standard surgical procedure for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy is the first choice for distal bile duct cancer. Limited resection for middle bile duct cancer is indicated for only strictly selected cases. Preoperative treatments including biliary drainage and portal vein embolization are also indicated for only selected patients, especially jaundiced patients anticipating major hepatectomy. Liver transplantation seems ideal for complete resection of bile duct cancer, but the high recurrence rate and decreased patient survival after liver transplant preclude it from being considered standard treatment. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a potentially crucial role in prolonging survival and controlling local recurrence, but no definite regimen has been established to date. Further evidence is needed to fully define the role of liver transplantation and adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. PMID:21603318

  5. Mid common bile duct inflammatory pseudotumor mimicking cholangiocarcinoma. A case report and literature review?

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, K.; Fortounis, K.; Papavasiliou, C.; Kokarhidas, A.; Al Nimer, A.; Fachiridis, D.; Pervana, S.; Makridis, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Biliary inflammatory pseudotumors (IPTs) represent an exceptional benign cause of obstructive jaundice. These lesions are often mistaken for cholangiocarcinomas and are treated with major resections, because their final diagnosis can be achieved only after formal pathological examination of the resected specimen. Consequently, biliary IPTs are usually managed with unnecessary major resections. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 71-year-old female patient underwent an extra-hepatic bile duct resection en-bloc with the gallbladder and regional lymph nodes for an obstructing intraluminal growing tumor of the mid common bile duct (CBD). Limited resection was decided intraoperatively because of negative for malignancy fast frozen sections analysis in addition to the benign macroscopic features of the lesion. Histologically the tumor proved an IPT, arising from the bile duct epithelium, composed of inflammatory cells and reactive mesenchymal tissues. DISCUSSION The present case underlines the value of intraoperative reassessment of patients undergoing surgical resection for histopathologically undiagnosed biliary occupying lesions, in order to optimize their surgical management. CONCLUSION The probability of benign lesions mimicking cholangiocarcinoma should always be considered to avoid unnecessary major surgical resections, especially in fragile and/or elderly patients. PMID:24394855

  6. Paravertebral Block: An Improved Method of Pain Control in Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, William C. McCowan, Timothy C.; DeValdenebro, Miguel; Wright, Lonnie B.; Workman, James L.; Culp, William C.

    2006-12-15

    Background and Purpose. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage remains a painful procedure in many cases despite the routine use of large amounts of intravenous sedation. We present a feasibility study of thoracic paravertebral blocks in an effort to reduce pain during and following the procedure and reduce requirements for intravenous sedation. Methods. Ten consecutive patients undergoing biliary drainage procedures received fluoroscopically guided paravertebral blocks and then had supplemental intravenous sedation as required to maintain patient comfort. Levels T8-T9 and T9-T10 on the right were targeted with 10-20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sedation requirements and pain levels were recorded. Results. Ten biliary drainage procedures in 8 patients were performed for malignancy in 8 cases and for stones in 2. The mean midazolam use was 1.13 mg IV, and the mean fentanyl requirement was 60.0 {mu}g IV in the block patients. Two episodes of hypotension, which responded promptly to volume replacement, may have been related to the block. No serious complications were encountered. The mean pain score when traversing the chest wall, liver capsule, and upon entering the bile ducts was 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 1 patient reporting a pain level of 1 and 9 reporting 0. The mean peak pain score, encountered when manipulating at the common bile duct level or when addressing stones there, was 5.4 and ranged from 0 to 10. Conclusions. Thoracic paravertebral block with intravenous sedation supplementation appears to be a feasible method of pain control during biliary interventions.

  7. Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo

    2002-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 {+-} 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 {+-} 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil <10 mg/dl, four (80%) showed good response,while in nine patients with T-bil > 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function.

  8. Post-liver Transplant Biliary Complications

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, Tegpal; Pastrana, Mariel; Sandhu, Bimaljit

    2012-01-01

    Biliary tract complications remain a common source of morbidity and mortality in liver transplant (LT) recipients with an estimated incidence of 5–30% after orthotopic LT and a mortality rate of up to 10%. Biliary complications after LT may be related to various factors including hepatic artery thrombosis or stenosis, ischemia reperfusion injury, immunologic injury, infections, donor pool, and technical issues which include imperfect anastomosis and T-tube-related complications. Management of the detected biliary complications includes nonsurgical and surgical methods. A majority of these post transplant biliary complications can be treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. If unsuccessful, a percutaneous intervention or surgery may be required. In this article, we review the incidence, clinical presentation, and management of the main types of biliary complications. PMID:25755409

  9. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.

    1981-08-01

    The new 99mTc biliary scintigraphy agents are highly sensitive and specific in detecting biliary tract disease and use of them is the initial procedure of choice in evaluating patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Other clinically useful indications are evaluation of biliary kinetics; evaluation of patients with suspected traumatic bile leakage, gallbladder perforation, or postsurgical biliary tract complications; and evaluation of patients with suspected biliary obstruction. In 99mTc we have a simple radiopharmaceutical of low radiation for evaluating congenital abnormalities and neonatal jaundice. In the Orient 99mTc cholescintigraphy is extremely important in evaluating patients with suspected intrahepatic stones. The overall advantages of this technique include availability, safety, simplicity, and accuracy. In addition, it may be performed in those patients who are allergic to iodinated contrast agents.

  10. Biliary lipid excretion after hepatic portoenterostomy.

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, J R; Javitt, N B

    1976-01-01

    Since 1974, 16 consecutive infants with biliary atresia have been treated by hepatic portoenterostomy employing an exteriorized Roux-en-Y intestinal segment (Miluliez). Simultaneous, sequential analyses of bile pigments and lipids in serum and biliary drainage were performed. In the 11 patients with sustained bile drainage, progressive increases in bile volume, bilirubin and biliary lipid concentrations correlated well with their subsequent return toward normal in the serum. Despite relief of biliary obstruction, four patients have had progressive liver cirrhosis. The other 7 have residual liver damage which has been stable, or in two instances, improved, at late biopsy. The clinical and biochemical results suggest that both obstructive and parenchymal factors are operative in infants with biliary atresia. Images Fig. 2. PMID:962401

  11. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  12. [Echographic signs of biliary atresia].

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, B A; Iaremenko, V V; Babko, S A; Klimenko, E F; Medvedenko, G F

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of echographic features of biliary atresia was conducted in 65 newborn children ageing up to 3 mo. Their characteristic variants were revealed: the absence or reduction in size of gall-bladder, the presence of hyperechogenic triangular formation in V. portae bifurcation (the symptom of "triangular cicatrix"); the thickening of anterior wall of V. portae right branch. The timely and correct establishment of the diagnosis permits a child to survive and serve the hepatic fibrosis prophylaxis. Echohepatography is a sufficiently trustful method of investigation. PMID:15628232

  13. Indocyanine green near-infrared fluorescence in pure laparoscopic living donor hepatectomy: a reliable road map for intra-hepatic ducts?

    PubMed

    Tomassini, F; Scarinci, A; Elsheik, Y; Scuderi, V; Broering, D; Troisi, R I

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence cholangiography (FC) has shown its usefulness to visualize the biliary ducts in open living donor hepatectomy (LDH) to check the intraoperative biliary anatomy. The fully laparoscopic LDH approach has been recently described. However, this procedure is very demanding for a possible misperception of right parenchymal transection line and the cut point of the lobar biliary ducts (BD). To explore the potential of ICG-NIR-FC method we report our experience in 11 fully laparoscopic left LDH using 5 different protocols. Protocol-A, consisted on intravenous (i.v.) ICG injection of 2.5 mg with immediate cut of the BD; -B, same dose and late cut; -C, 1 mg i.v. and late cut; -D, intra-cystic duct injection of 2.5 mg and immediate cut; -E, intra-cystic injection of 5 mg and immediate cut. Protocol-A showed fast fluorescence in the lobar artery and portal vein followed by the BD sheet ; -B showed intraductal excretion with a high parenchymal signal; -C showed a very week signal; -D failed to visualize the ducts; -E showed a good signal without parenchymal fluorescence. ICG-NIR-FC is an additional method to visualize the lobar ducts in fully laparoscopy LDH, but still insufficient for the segmental ducts. PMID:26021784

  14. A Comparative Study of CT Fluoroscopy Combined with Fluoroscopy Versus Fluoroscopy Alone for Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Laufer, Ulf; Kirchner, Johannes; Kickuth, Ralph; Adams, Stephan; Jendreck, Martin; Liermann, Dieter

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: We compared CT fluoroscopy (CTF) for the initial puncture of bile ducts with conventional fluoroscopic guidance in patients with malignant jaundice in whom percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was planned.Methods: Forty consecutive patients were randomized to two study groups: group A underwent PTBD under CTF and fluoroscopic guidance, group B underwent PTBD under fluoroscopic guidance alone. CTF-guided PTBD was performed using a combination of a helical CT scanner of the latest generation and a mobile C-arm; conventional PTBD was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in the angiographic unit. End points of the study were the success (a puncture that enabled safe placement of a guidewire in a suitable bile duct) and the complication rate (hemobilia, bile fistula, biliary peritonitis), the number of punctures required, the time needed for successful puncture of a suitable bile duct, and the patient's radiation exposure.Results: CTF-guided puncture of peripheral bile ducts suitable for PTBD was successful at the first attempt in 16 cases, under conventional fluoroscopic guidance, in only two cases. We found a significantly different number of punctures (1.2 in group A vs 2.9 in group B), a significantly shorter time for puncture in group A (mean 39 sec), but also a significantly higher skin exposure dosage in group A (mean 49.5 mSv surface dosage). There was no significant difference regarding the total procedure time. Only one complication occurred in group B (portobiliary fistula).Conclusion: CTF-guided initial puncture of bile ducts allowed a significantly reduced number of punctures and puncture times compared with puncture under conventional fluoroscopic guidance for placement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage catheters.

  15. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  16. Turbofan Duct Propagation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

  17. Spontaneous thoracic duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Ray, J; Braithwaite, D; Patel, P J

    2003-05-01

    Spontaneous and asymptomatic supraclavicular thoracic duct cysts (lymphoceles ) are rare. Only five cases have been reported so far. They are more common after surgery or trauma and have been reported in the abdomen, mediastinum, pelvis and neck. They must be differentiated from other neck cysts as failure to recognise their attachment may result in the disastrous consequence of chylothorax. A high index of suspicion is necessary, and diagnosis usually can be established by fine-needle aspiration and suitable imaging. This case is reported along with a review of the literature and management options, including that of inadvertent damage to the thoracic duct. PMID:12750920

  18. Effectiveness of duct cleaning methods on newly installed duct surfaces.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, R; Asikainen, V; Tuomainen, M; Björkroth, M; Pasanen, P; Seppänen, O

    2003-09-01

    Two kinds of air duct cleaning methods, mechanical brushing with different brushes and compressed air cleaning, were compared in the laboratory and in newly built buildings. The ducts were contaminated either with test dust or with dust originated from a construction site. The amount of dust on the duct surface was measured with the vacuum test method and estimated visually before and after the cleaning. In addition, the cleaning times of the different techniques were compared and the amount of residual oil in the ducts was measured in the laboratory test. The brushing methods were more efficient in metal ducts, and compressed air cleaning was more efficient in plastic ducts. After the duct cleaning the mean amount of residual dust on the surface of the ducts was ducts contaminated at construction site and ducts cleaned in the laboratory or in the building site, respectively. The oil residues and the dust stuck onto the oil were difficult to scrape off and remove, and none of the cleaning methods were capable of cleaning the oily duct surfaces efficiently enough. Thus new installations should consist only of oil-free ducts. PMID:12950583

  19. Percutaneous transhepatic treatment of hepaticojejunal anastomotic biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gi-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Kyung Rae; Gwon, Dong Il; Lee, Sung Gyu

    2008-09-01

    Endoscopic treatment has largely replaced surgery as the initial treatment for biliary strictures following living donor liver transplantation; however, this treatment is nearly impossible in patients who have previously undergone hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). We therefore retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic treatment in patients who developed HJ strictures following living donor liver transplantation. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and subsequent balloon dilation of biliary strictures were performed on 83 patients. Serial exchanges of drainage tubes with larger diameters up to 14 Fr were performed at 4-week intervals. Drainage tubes were removed if follow-up cholangiography revealed fluent passage of the contrast medium without recurrence of symptoms or changes in the biochemical findings. The clinical outcome, tube independence rate, and patency rate following drainage tube removal were retrospectively evaluated. Except for 2 patients who had failed negotiation of biliary strictures, clinical success was achieved in all 81 patients following percutaneous transhepatic treatment, and the drainage tubes were removed from 76 (93.8%) of these 81 patients. Tubes were removed 11.2 +/- 7.4 months after initial percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. The recurrence rate at a mean of 36.0 +/- 26.2 months following drainage tube removal was 15.8%. One- and three-year primary patency rates were 95.3% +/- 2.7% and 80.9% +/- 5.2%, respectively. In conclusion, percutaneous transhepatic treatment is an effective alternative treatment for HJ strictures following living donor liver transplantation. However, further research will be required in order to minimize the duration of treatment and the stricture recurrence rate following tube removal. PMID:18756470

  20. Endomicroscopy in bile duct: Inflammation interferes with pCLE applied in the bile duct: A prospective study of 54 patients

    PubMed Central

    Bories, Erwan; Poizat, Flora; Pesenti, Christian; Esterni, Benjamin; Monges, Geneviève; Giovannini, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background The preoperative diagnosis of biliary stenosis is associated with low accuracy. As a consequence, probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), an in-vivo histological imaging technique, was applied in the bile duct. The aim of this study was to establish whether previous inflammation of the bile duct affects confocal interpretation. The findings from pCLE were compared in two groups of patients: those in whom there had been no cholangitis nor stenting and those in whom stents had been used and subsequently retrieved or who had suffered cholangitis. Patients and methods pCLE was performed on 54 patients (mean age 66 years; 31 men, 23 women) from September 2008 to July 2011. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1: 39 patients who had not undergone a biliary procedure in the month preceding the pCLE procedure; and group 2: 15 patients who had undergone stent placement or presented with cholangitis in the month preceding the pCLE procedure. Endoscopic and pCLE data were collected prospectively. pCLE results were compared to benchmark histology (surgery, endoultrasonography, percutaneous biopsy). Patients with a benign stricture who did not undergo operation were followed for 1 year. pCLE images of the bile duct were obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures. pCLE images were interpreted prospectively using the Miami classification in vivo and in real time. Results In group 1, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 88, 83, and 87%, respectively. In group 2, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 75, 71, and 73%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of pCLE was lower when applied to group 2 (p?ducts affected by inflammation from cholangitis or previous stenting. Conclusions Inflammatory lesions of the bile duct interfere with interpretation of pCLE. A refined pCLE description of inflammatory lesions should improve accuracy of pCLE in bile duct stenosis. PMID:24917949

  1. Association of the reovirus S1 gene with serotype 3-induced biliary atresia in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G A; Morrison, L A; Fields, B N

    1994-01-01

    A panel of serotype 3 (T3) reovirus strains was screened to determine their relative capacities to cause lethal infection and hepatobiliary disease following peroral inoculation in newborn mice. A wide range of 50% lethal doses (LD50s) was apparent after peroral inoculation of the different virus strains. Two of the strains, T3 Abney and T3 clone 31, caused mice to develop the oily fur syndrome associated with biliary atresia. The capacity to cause biliary atresia was not related to the capacity to cause lethal infection, however, because the LD50s of T3 Abney and T3 clone 31 were grossly disparate. Examination of liver and bile duct tissues revealed histopathologic evidence of biliary atresia and hepatic necrosis in T3 Abney-infected mice but not in mice inoculated with a T3 strain of similar virulence or with the hepatotropic T1 Lang strain. The consistency with which T3 Abney-infected mice developed biliary atresia-associated oily fur syndrome permitted us to determine the viral genetic basis of reovirus-induced biliary atresia. Analysis of reassortant viruses isolated from an in vitro coinfection with T3 Abney and T1 Lang indicated a strong association of the hepatobiliary disease-producing phenotype with the T3 Abney S1 gene, which encodes the viral cell attachment protein, sigma 1. Amino acid residues within the sigma 1 protein that were unique to disease-producing T3 strains were identified by comparative sequence analysis. Specific changes exist within two regions of the protein, one of which is thought to be involved in binding to host cell receptors. We hypothesize that changes within this region of the protein are important in determining the tropism of this virus for bile-ductular epithelium. Images PMID:8083983

  2. Effects of Methylenedianiline on Tight Junction Permeability of Biliary Epithelial Cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Santa Cruz, Vicente; Liu, Hanlin; Kaphalia, Lata; Kanz, Mary F.

    2007-01-01

    Methylenedianiline (DAPM) is considered a cholangiodestructive toxicant in vivo. Increases in biliary inorganic phosphate (Pi) and glucose occur prior to biliary epithelial cell (BEC) injury, which could be due to increased paracellular permeability and/or impairment of Pi and glucose uptake by BEC. To evaluate these possibilities, we induced mild injury [loss of BEC from major bile ducts (6 h), ultrastructural alterations in BEC mitochondria and Golgi cisternae (3 h), and striking increases in biliary Pi and glucose (3–6 h)] with 25 mg DAPM/kg and then assessed temporal alterations in tight junction (TJ) permeability by measuring bile to plasma (B:P) ratios of [3H]-inulin. Parameters maintained by hepatocytes in bile were unchanged (bile flow, bile acids, bilirubin) or only transiently perturbed (protein, glutathione). Minimal elevations in B:P ratios of inulin occurred temporally later (4 h) in DAPM-treated rats than increases in biliary Pi and glucose. To confirm a direct effect of DAPM on BEC TJs, we measured transepithelial resistance (TER) and bi-ionic potentials of BEC monolayers prior to and after exposure to pooled (4 to 6) bile samples collected from untreated rats (Basal Bile) or rats treated with 50 mg DAPM/ kg (DAPM-Bile). BEC TJs were found to be cation selective. Exposure to DAPM-Bile for 1 h decreased TERs by ~35% and decreased charge selectivity of BEC TJs while exposure to Basal Bile had no effects. These observations indicate that DAPM-Bile impairs paracellular permeability of BEC in vitro. Further, our in vivo model suggests that increases in paracellular permeability induced by DAPM are localized to BEC because bile flow and constituents excreted by hepatocytes were unchanged; BEC damage was temporally correlated with increases in biliary Pi and glucose; and elevations in B:P ratios of inulin were delayed and minimal. PMID:17178199

  3. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  4. Vasodilator therapy of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Vasoconstriction increases impedance to ventricular ejection and impairs the performance of the dilated myopathic heart. Vasodilator drug therapy by reducing vascular resistance, increasing vascular compliance and increasing vascular capacitance improves cardiac function and relieves the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure. Earlier intervention in an attempt to alter the natural history of cardiomyopathy should be studied. PMID:3774700

  5. Cornice Duct System

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

    2004-10-29

    SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

  6. Laparoscopic Anatomical Left Hepatectomy for Intrahepatic Bile Duct Papillary Mucinous Cystadenoma With Intraoperative Vascular Repair: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Peng, Bing

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy has been widely performed for patients with benign liver tumors such as hepatic hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma.We here present a case of a 78-year-old female patient who was initially admitted to our department due to fever and jaundice for 2 days. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan showed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with liver atrophy of left lobe. Unenhanced nodules were seen within the left intrahepatic bile duct. Ultrasonography revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with viscous fluid, tubular adenoma? Tumor markers including alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA19-9 were normal. Preoperative total bilirubin was 64.4 mmol/L.Laparoscopic anatomical left hepatectomy and common bile duct exploration were performed. In this procedure, a lot of mucus was seen within the common bile duct and left intrahepatic bile duct. No bile duct stones were found after the exploration. During parenchymal transection, intraoperative hemorrhage from middle hepatic vein was met, and we repaired middle hepatic vein by laparoscopic suture (5-0 Prolene). No air embolism and hypotension were met. This operation took 232 minutes and estimated blood loss was 300 mL. Postoperative ultrasonography indicated a normal outflow of middle hepatic vein and there was no stricture. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and was discharged on the 6th day after surgery. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was intrahepatic bile duct papillary mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:26871845

  7. Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, Tarceva &/or Cisplatin in HCC & Biliary Tree Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-15

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Bile Duct Cancer; Periampullary Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  8. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  9. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into two neighboring organs of the stomach and duodenum presenting with abdominal pain and jaundice. Endoscopy showed thick mucin extruding from two openings of the fistulas. Endoscopic suction of thick mucin using direct peroral cholangioscopy with ultra-slim endoscope through choledochoduodenal fistula was very difficult and ineffective because of very thick mucin and next endoscopic suction through the stent after prior insertion of biliary metal stent into choledochogastric fistula also failed. Pathologic specimen obtained from the proximal portion of the choledochogastric fistula near left intrahepatic bile duct through the metal stent showed a low grade adenoma. The patient declined the surgical treatment due to her old age and her abdominal pain with jaundice was improved after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with the irrigation of N-acetylcysteine three times daily for 10 d. PMID:25031793

  10. Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1979-01-01

    Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

  11. Different Strategies for Transpancreatic Septotomy and Needle Knife Infundibulotomy Due to the Presence of Unintended Pancreatic Cannulation in Difficult Biliary Cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Jung; Park, Yun Kyung; Lee, Min Ji; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Several precut techniques have been used to gain biliary access for difficult cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success and complication rates of two precut techniques, transpancreatic septotomy (TPS) and needle knife infundibulotomy (NKI), in difficult biliary cannulation due to the presence of unintended pancreatic cannulation. Methods Eighty-six patients who failed standard biliary cannulation were included. TPS was performed when we failed to achieve biliary access despite 5 minutes of attempted cannulation or when more than three attempted unintended pancreatic cannulations occurred. If deep cannulation was not achieved within 5 minutes for any duct, NKI was performed. If this failed, we crossed over to the other technique in the second attempt. Results The initial total success rate of biliary cannulation was 88.4% (86.6% for the TPS group and 94.7% for the NKI group, p=0.447). After crossover of the techniques, the final success rate was 95.3%. The complication rate was 20.9% in patients with TPS and 15.8% in patients with NKI (p=0.753). Conclusions The use of different strategies based on the presence of unintended pancreatic cannulation may help increase the success rate for difficult biliary cannulation without increasing complication rates. PMID:25963080

  12. Markers of bile duct tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins. PMID:21528090

  13. Ischemia reperfusion of the hepatic artery induces the functional damage of large bile ducts by changes in the expression of angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Romina; Glaser, Shannon; Francis, Heather; Carpino, Guido; Franchitto, Antonio; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pannarale, Luigi; Venter, Julie; Meng, Fanyin; Alpini, Gianfranco; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2015-12-01

    Liver transplantation and cholangiocarcinoma induce biliary dysfunction following ischemia reperfusion (IR). The function of the intrahepatic biliary tree is regulated by both autocrine and paracrine factors. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that IR-induced damage of cholangiocytes is associated with altered expression of biliary angiogenic factors. Normal and bile duct ligation rats underwent 24-h sham or hepatic reperfusion after 30 min of transient occlusion of the hepatic artery (HAIR) or portal vein (PVIR) before collecting liver blocks and cholangiocyte RNA or protein. We evaluated liver histology, biliary apoptosis, proliferation and expression of VEGF-A/C, VEGFR-2/3, Ang-1/2, and Tie-1/2 in liver sections and isolated small and large cholangiocytes. Normal rat intrahepatic cholangiocyte cultures (NRICC) were maintained under standard conditions in normoxic or under a hypoxic atmosphere for 4 h and then transferred to normal conditions for selected times. Subsequently, we measured changes in biliary proliferation and apoptosis and the expression of VEGF-A/C and VEGFR-2/3. In vivo, HAIR (but not PVIR) induced damage of large bile ducts and decreased proliferation and secretin-stimulated cAMP levels. HAIR-induced damage of large bile ducts was associated with increased expression of VEGF-A/C, VEGFR-2/3, Ang-1/2, and Tie-1/2. In vitro, under hypoxic conditions, there was increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of NRICC concomitant with enhanced expression of VEGF-A/C and VEGFR-2/3. The functional damage of large bile ducts by HAIR and hypoxia is associated with increased expression of angiogenic factors in small cholangiocytes, presumably due to a compensatory mechanism in response to biliary damage. PMID:26451003

  14. Biliary tract cancer incidence in the United States-Demographic and temporal variations by anatomic site.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe A; Koshiol, Jill; Hsing, Ann W; Devesa, Susan S

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated incidence patterns of biliary tract cancers (gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, ampulla of Vater and not otherwise specified) to provide potential insight into the etiology of these cancers. Data were obtained from the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Rates for cases diagnosed during 1992-2009 were calculated by racial/ethnic, gender and age groups. Temporal trends during 1974-2009 and annual percentage changes (APC) during 1992-2009 were estimated. Age-adjusted rates by site were higher among American Indian/Alaska Natives, Hispanics (white) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (Asian/PI) and lower among whites and blacks. Gallbladder cancer was more common among women in all ethnic groups (female-to-male incidence rate ratio [IRR] ranged from 1.24 to 2.86), but bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers were more common among men (female-to-male IRR 0.57 to 0.82). Gallbladder cancer rates declined among all racial/ethnic and gender groups except blacks (APC -0.4% to -3.9%). In contrast, extrahepatic bile duct cancer rates rose significantly in most female racial/ethnic groups; the APCs among whites were 0.8 among females and 1.3 among males, both significant. Rates for ampulla of Vater cancer decreased among Asian/PI females (APC -2.7%) but remained stable for the other groups. In addition to confirming that biliary tract cancer incidence patterns differ by gender and site and that the gallbladder cancer incidence rates have been declining, our study provides novel evidence that extrahepatic bile duct cancer rates are rising. These observations may help guide future etiologic studies. PMID:23504585

  15. Elevated bile acids in newborns with Biliary Atresia (BA).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kejun; Lin, Na; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Wen, Jie; Zou, Gang-Ming; Gu, Xuefan; Cai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Biliary Atresia (BA), a result from inflammatory destruction of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, is a severe hepatobiliary disorder unique to infancy. Early diagnosis and Kasai operation greatly improve the outcome of BA patients, which encourages the development of early screening methods. Using HPLC coupled tandem mass spectrometry, we detected primary bile acids content in dried blood spots obtained from 8 BA infants, 17 neonatal jaundice and 292 comparison infants at 3-4 days of life. Taurocholate (TC) was significantly elevated in biliary atresia infants (0.98 ± 0.62 µmol/L) compared to neonatal jaundice (0.47 ± 0.30 µmol/L) and comparison infants (0.43 ± 0.40 µmol/L), with p=0.0231 and p=0.0016 respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for TC to discriminate BA and comparison infants was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.92). A cutoff of 0.63 µmol/L produced a sensitivity of 79.1% and specificity of 62.5%. The concentrations of total bile acids were also raised significantly in BA compared to comparison infants (6.62 ± 3.89 µmol/L vs 3.81 ± 3.06 µmol/L, p=0.0162), with the area under ROC curve of 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.89). No significant difference was found between the bile acids of neonatal jaundice and that of comparison infants. The early increase of bile acids indicates the presentation of BA in the immediate newborn period and the possibility of TC as newborn screening marker. PMID:23166626

  16. Targeting Extracellular Cyclophilins Ameliorates Disease Progression in Experimental Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Iordanskaia, Tatiana; Malesevic, Miroslav; Fischer, Gunter; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Bukrinsky, Michael; Nadler, Evan P

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a devastating liver disease of unknown etiology affecting children generally within the first 3 months of life. The disease is manifested by inflammation and subsequent obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts, fibrosis and liver failure. The mechanisms responsible for disease pathogenesis are not fully understood, but a number of factors controlled by the SMAD signaling pathway have been implicated. In this study, we investigated the role of a known proinflammatory factor, extracellular cyclophilin A (CypA), in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia using the rhesus rotavirus (RRV) murine model. We used a unique cyclosporine A derivative, MM284, which does not enter cells and therefore inactivates exclusively extracellular cyclophilins, as a potential treatment. We demonstrated that levels of CypA in plasma of RRV-infected mice were increased significantly, and that treatment of mice with MM284 prior to or one day after disease initiation by RRV infection significantly improved the status of mice with experimental BA: weight gain was restored, bilirubinuria was abrogated, liver infiltration by inflammatory cells was reduced and activation of the SMAD pathway and SMAD-controlled fibrosis mediators and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-4 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 was alleviated. Furthermore, treatment of human hepatic stellate cells with recombinant cyclophilin recapitulated SMAD2/3 activation, which was also suppressed by MM284 treatment. Our data provide the first evidence that extracellular cyclophilins activate the SMAD pathway and promote inflammation in experimental BA, and suggest that MM284 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating BA and possibly other intrahepatic chronic disorders. PMID:26225831

  17. [Biliary adenocarcinoma arising from atypical benign lesions].

    PubMed

    Amador, Auxiliadora; Hoyos, Sergio; Fuster, Josep; Ferrer, Joana; Fondevila, Constantino; Charco, Ramón; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos

    2005-09-01

    Tumors of the biliary tract have a poor prognosis. When these tumors arise from a prior benign lesion the prognosis improves. We present two cases of carcinoma developing from atypical benign lesions. Aggressive surgical treatment was provided. PMID:16420821

  18. Mediastinal thoracic duct cyst.

    PubMed Central

    Gowar, F J

    1978-01-01

    A case of mediastinal thoracic duct cyst is described; it is believed to be the first to be reported in Britain. Five surgically treated cases have been reported but in none was the diagnosis made before operation. Symptoms are caused by pressure of the cyst on the trachea and oesophagus and my be aggravted by eating a fatty meal. Differential diagnosis from other mediastinal tumours, especially bronchogenic cyst and neurofibroma, could perhaps be established before operation by lymphangiography. Images PMID:746509

  19. GENETIC CAUSES OF DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Mestroni, Luisa; Brun, Francesca; Spezzacatene, Anita; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Taylor, Matthew RG

    2014-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and/or dysfunction, affecting both adult and pediatric populations. Almost half of cases are genetically determined with an autosomal pattern of inheritance. Up to 40 genes have been identified affecting proteins of a wide variety of cellular structures such as the sarcomere, the nuclear envelope, the cytoskeleton, the sarcolemma and the intercellular junction. Novel gene mutations have been recently identified thanks to advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. Genetic screening is an essential tool for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prognostic stratification and, possibly, adoption of primary preventive measures in affected patients and their asymptomatic relatives. The purpose of this article is to review the genetic basis of DCM, the known genotype-phenotype correlations, the role of current genetic sequencing techniques in the discovery of novel pathogenic gene mutations and new therapeutic perspectives. PMID:25584016

  20. Biliary strictures: diagnostic considerations and approach

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajaypal; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

    2015-01-01

    Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge, especially when no etiology can be ascertained after laboratory evaluation, abdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sampling. These strictures were traditionally classified as indeterminate strictures, although with advances in endoscopic techniques and better understanding of hepato-biliary pathology, more are being correctly diagnosed. The implications of missing a malignancy in patients with biliary strictures—and hence delaying surgery—are grave but a significant number of patients (up to 20%) undergoing surgery for suspected biliary malignancy can have benign pathology. The diagnostic approach to these patients involves detailed history and physical examination and depends on the presence or absence of jaundice, level of obstruction, and presence or absence of a mass lesion. While abdominal imaging helps to find the level of obstruction and provides a ‘road map' for further endoscopic investigations, tissue diagnosis is usually needed to make decisions on management. Initially ERCP was the only modality to investigate these strictures but now, with the development of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration and the availability of newer techniques such as intraductal ultrasound, single-operator cholangioscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy, the diagnostic approach to biliary strictures has changed significantly. In this review, we will focus on the decision-making process for patients with biliary strictures and discuss the key decision points that should dictate further diagnostic investigations at each step. PMID:25355800

  1. Comparative analysis of iatrogenic injury of biliary tract in laparotomic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    FORTUNATO, André Augusto; GENTILE, João Kleber de Almeida; CAETANO, Diogo Peral; GOMES, Marcus Aurélio Zaia; BASSI, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Background Iatrogenic injury to the bile ducts is the most feared complication of cholecystectomy and several are the possibilities to occur. Aim To compare the cases of iatrogenic lesions of the biliary tract occurring in conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, assessing the likely causal factors, complications and postoperative follow-up. Methods Retrospective cohort study with analysis of records of patients undergoing conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All the patients were analyzed in two years. The only criterion for inclusion was to be operative bile duct injury, regardless of location or time of diagnosis. There were no exclusion criteria. Epidemiological data of patients, time of diagnosis of the lesion and its location were analyzed. Results Total of 515 patients with gallstones was operated, 320 (62.1 %) by laparotomy cholecystectomy and 195 by laparoscopic approach. The age of patients with bile duct injury ranged from 29-70 years. Among those who underwent laparotomy cholecystectomy, four cases were diagnosed (1.25 %) with lesions, corresponding to 0.77 % of the total patients. No patient had iatrogenic interventions with laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion Laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to laparotomy, had a lower rate of bile duct injury. PMID:25626937

  2. Plastic Biliary Stent Migration During Multiple Stents Placement and Successful Endoscopic Removal Using Intra-Stent Balloon Inflation Technique: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Calcara, Calcedonio; Broglia, Laura; Comi, Giovanni; Balzarini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Late migration of a plastic biliary stent after endoscopic placement is a well known complication, but there is little information regarding migration of a plastic stent during multiple stents placement. CASE REPORT A white man was hospitalized for severe jaundice due to neoplastic hilar stenosis. Surgical eligibility appeared unclear on admission and endoscopy was carried out, but the first stent migrated proximally at the time of second stent insertion. After failed attempts with various devices, the migrated stent was removed successfully through cannulation with a dilation balloon. CONCLUSIONS The migration of a plastic biliary stent during multiple stents placement is a possible complication. In this context, extraction can be very complicated. In our patient, cannulation of a stent with a dilation balloon was the only effective method. PMID:26847214

  3. The Biliary Epithelium Gives Rise to Liver Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Affò, Silvia; Coll, Mar; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Millán, Cristina; Blaya, Delia; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Rentero, Carles; José Lozano, Juan; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Solar, Myriam; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Enrich, Carlos; Ginès, Pere; Bataller, Ramon; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Severe liver diseases are characterized by expansion of liver progenitor cells (LPC), which correlates with disease severity. However, the origin and role of LPC in liver physiology and in hepatic injury remains a contentious topic. We found that ductular reaction cells in human cirrhotic livers express hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1β). However, HNF1β expression was not present in newly generated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive hepatocytes. In order to investigate the role of HNF1β- expressing cells we used a tamoxifen-inducible Hnf1βCreER/R26RYfp/LacZ mouse to lineage-trace Hnf1β+ biliary duct cells and to assess their contribution to LPC expansion and hepatocyte generation. Lineage tracing demonstrated no contribution of HNF1β+ cells to hepatocytes during liver homeostasis in healthy mice or after loss of liver mass. After acute acetaminophen or carbon tetrachloride injury no contribution of HNF1β+ cells to hepatocyte was detected. We next assessed the contribution of Hnf1β+ -derived cells following two liver injury models with LPC expansion, a diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidin (DDC)-diet and a choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented (CDE)-diet. The contribution of Hnf1β+ cells to liver regeneration was dependent on the liver injury model. While no contribution was observed after DDC-diet treatment, mice fed with a CDE-diet showed a small population of hepatocytes derived from Hnf1β+ cells that were expanded to 1.86% of total hepatocytes after injury recovery. Genome-wide expression profile of Hnf1β+ -derived cells from the DDC and CDE models indicated that no contribution of LPC to hepatocytes was associated with LPC expression of genes related to telomere maintenance, inflammation, and chemokine signaling pathways. Conclusion HNF1β+ biliary duct cells are the origin of LPC. HNF1β+ cells do not contribute to hepatocyte turnover in the healthy liver, but after certain liver injury, they can differentiate to hepatocytes contributing to liver regeneration. PMID:24700364

  4. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with cystic structures of sweat duct origin.

    PubMed

    Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Semoglou, Christos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Karkavelas, Georgios

    2007-08-01

    Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is an unusual soft tissue tumor, mostly arising in the subcutaneous fibro-adipose tissue of children and young adults and measuring a few centimeters in greatest dimension. Reported herein is a unique case of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma containing epithelium-lined cystic structures. This large tumor (12 cm) was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the left leg of a 28-year-old woman. The cystic structures were variably sized and were lined by a double cell layer with areas of squamous metaplasia. Their overall histological features suggested a sweat duct origin. Immunohistochemical stains confirmed such origin, demonstrating an inner epithelial and an outer myoepithelial (smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin 17 positive) cell layer. The present case is illustrative of a mechanism of sweat duct dilatation that may occur during the growth of neoplasms involving the dermis and subcutis, resulting in formation of tumors with unusual histological features. PMID:17610476

  5. Outcome of surgery for failed endoscopic extraction of common bile duct stones in elderly patients.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, B. R.; Lauri, A.; Horton, R.; Burroughs, A.; Dooley, J.

    1994-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the treatment of choice for common bile duct stones in elderly patients. For those in whom endoscopic clearance of the common bile duct fails the treatment options include stenting, dissolution therapy and lithotripsy. Surgery is often avoided because of the reported high morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. We have reviewed the outcome of patients referred for surgery after failed endoscopic clearance of common bile duct stones. Over a 3-year period, 100 patients with common bile duct stones were referred specifically for endoscopic clearance of the common bile duct (median age 69 years, range 19-97 years). In seven patients duct clearance was possible without ES and in five patients ES was considered inappropriate. ES was attempted in 88 patients and was successful in 75 (85%). Of the 13 patients failing ES or stone removal, surgery was performed in nine and four were stented. Of patients having successful ES (n = 75), ten were referred for surgery because of incomplete duct clearance. Surgery was performed to obtain duct clearance in 19 patients (eight male, 11 female, median age 77 years, range 47-90 years). Of the 19, eight had previously undergone a cholecystectomy (42%) and 17 of the 19 had biliary tract drainage preoperatively (90%). The procedures performed consisted of choledocholithotomy in all plus cholecystectomy (11), choledochoduodenostomy (7) and choledochojejunostomy (7). There were no deaths and only one major complication. The median total inpatient stay was 26 days (range 14-75 days) and the median postoperative stay was 12 days (range 7-50 days). We would conclude that open surgery can be performed safely and effectively in elderly patients with retained bile duct stones. Images Figure 2 PMID:7979073

  6. [Indication and outcome of extended right hemihepatectomy combined with pancreatoduodenectomy for bile duct carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Noie, T; Seyama, Y; Imamura, H; Kobayashi, A; Miyagawa, S; Kawasaki, S; Makuuchi, M

    2001-02-01

    During the past 10 years, we have performed extended right hemihepatectomy combined with pancreatoduodenectomy (rtHPD) in eight patients with bile duct carcinoma. We compared the results in these patients with those in 43 bile duct carcinoma patients who underwent extrahepatic bile duct resection with more extensive hepatectomy than hemihepatectomy. Our indication for rtHPD is bile duct carcinoma of the diffuse type involving the intrapancreatic bile duct. For patients with obstructive jaundice, biliary drainage was performed preferentially in the part of the liver to be preserved. Portal vein embolization was performed before extended right hemihepatectomy or left trisectorectomy. Complete external drainage of pancreatic juice followed by second-stage pancreatojejunostomy was performed in five rtHPD patients. There were no hospital deaths or hepatic failures. There were four 5-year survivors after rtHPD. There was no significant difference between the cumulative 5-year survival rates after rtHPD (71%) and non-HPD (42%). Patients with bile duct carcinoma whose prognosis can be improved only by rtHPD exist and should be treated by rtHPD. However, considering the reported high mortality rate after this procedure, rtHPD should not be performed in an institution where its safety cannot be guaranteed. PMID:11260903

  7. The inflammatory phenotype of the fibrous plate is distinct from the liver and correlates with clinical outcome in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Arva, Nicoleta C; Russo, Pierre A; Erlichman, Jessi; Hancock, Wayne W; Haber, Barbara A; Bhatti, Tricia R

    2015-03-01

    Biliary atresia is an inflammatory cholangiopathy of still undetermined etiology. Correlations between histologic findings and clinical outcome in this disease have largely been based on evaluation of liver parenchyma. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of inflammation within the biliary remnant and identify associations between the type and degree of inflammation and clinical outcome as reflected by the transplant-free interval. The inflammation within the fibrous plates and livers of 41 patients with biliary atresia was characterized using immunohistochemical markers and the cell populations were digitally quantified. The type and quantity of cells within the infiltrate were then correlated with length of time from Kasai portoenterostomy until transplant. Histologic and immunohistochemical features of the biliary remnant allowed stratification of patients into "inflammatory plate" and "fibrotic plate" groups. Overall there was no significant difference in transplant-free interval between the two cohorts; however, there was a trend towards a longer time to transplant among patients in the "fibrotic plate" group. In addition, the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in the fibrous plate was distinctly different from that present in the liver and only the characteristics of the inflammation in the fibrous plate, in particular the number of Foxp3+ T regulatory lymphocytes correlated with clinical outcome. The results of this study support the view of the extra-hepatic biliary tree as the primary site of injury in BA with the changes seen in the liver as secondary manifestations of outflow obstruction. The association between specific inflammatory cell subtypes within the fibrous plate and the length of transplant-free interval also supports the role of the immune system in the initial process of bile duct damage in biliary atresia. PMID:25624184

  8. The Role of Biliary Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cellular Adhesion Molecule 6 (CEACAM6) as a Biomarker in Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J. Bart; Correa-Gallego, Camilo; Li, Yu; Nelson, James; Alseidi, Adnan; Helton, W. Scott; Allen, Peter J.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Fong, Yuman; Kingham, T. Peter; Kowdley, Kris V.; Jarnagin, William R.; Rocha, Flavio G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study is to determine if CEACAM6 can be detected in the bile of patients with biliary cancer and can serve as a diagnostic biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma. Summary Background Data Distinguishing bile duct carcinoma from other diagnoses is often difficult using endoscopic or percutaneous techniques. The cell surface protein CEACAM6 is over-expressed in many gastrointestinal cancers and may be selectively elevated in biliary adenocarcinoma. Methods Bile from patients with benign biliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma (hilar, intrahepatic and distal) was collected at the time of index operation. The concentration of CEACAM6 was quantified by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlated to pathologic diagnosis. Diagnostic capability of CEACAM6 was evaluated by Wilcoxon rank-sum, linear regression, multiple regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Bile from 83 patients was analyzed: 42 with benign disease and 41 with cholangiocarcinoma. Patients in the benign cohort were younger, predominantly female, and had lower median biliary CEACAM6 levels than patients in the malignant cohort (7.5 ng/ml vs. 40 ng/ml; p = <.001). ROC curve analysis determined CEACAM6 to be a positive predictor cholangiocarcinoma with a CEACAM6 level >14 ng/ml associated with 87.5% sensitivity, 69.1% specificity, and a likelihood ratio of 2.8 (AUC 0.74). Multiple regression analysis suggested elevated alkaline phosphatase and the presence of biliary endoprostheses may influence CEACAM6 levels. Conclusion Biliary CEACAM6 can identify patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a high degree of sensitivity and should be investigated further as a potential screening tool. PMID:26974538

  9. Transjejunal biliary interventions: going back to a road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Jorge E; Ramsey, Gregory R

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions are not without risk and potential complications. In patients with bilioenteric anastomosis in whom repeat biliary interventions are expected, percutaneous transjejunal access is a very useful approach that is not frequently used nowadays. We provide a brief review of the history, indications, and current status of transjejunal biliary interventions. Transjejunal biliary access provides a relatively atraumatic pathway to the biliary system in patients that need repeat interventions. Multiple studies have provided convincing data that in appropriately chosen patients receiving a bilioenteric anastomosis, an antecolic limb of jejunum should be placed for subsequent access in biliary intervention. PMID:24316661

  10. Transcatheter thoracic duct embolization in the dog. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A D; Bright, R M; Walker, M A; Patton, C S

    1989-01-01

    Thoracic duct embolization was created by injecting an isobutyl 2-cyanoacrylate/iophendylate (IBCA) mixture through a cannulated mesenteric lymphatic vessel in eight normal dogs. Aqueous contrast lymphangiography was repeated at minute 10 and week 6. Six dogs were euthanatized at week 6 and two dogs at month 6. Embolization with 1.5 to 3.9 ml of the mixture resulted in complete obstruction of the thoracic duct in all eight dogs. Results of lymphangiography in six dogs at week 6 showed a persistent, complete obstruction of the thoracic duct in six dogs and alternate lymphaticovenous anastomoses in four dogs. Histologically, there were a sclerosing granulomatous response surrounding the lymphatic embolus, mild congestive changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes, and mild lacteal dilatation in the jejunum. The procedure was well tolerated with only a few complications. One dog suffered partial thrombosis of the cranial vena cava by the injected material with later dislodgement and embolization of a pulmonary artery branch. Modifications have been made in the injection procedure to avoid this complication. This technique for occlusion of the thoracic duct shows potential for clinical use in the management of canine chylothorax. The obstruction appears to be complete and permanent, and surgical/anesthetic time is decreased greatly from previously described procedures. PMID:2773291

  11. Laparoscopy-Assisted Percutaneous Cholangiography in Biliary Atresia Diagnosis: Comparison with Open Technique

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Murat; Tutus, Kamuran; Fakıoglu, Ender; Ozden, Onder; Hatipoglu, Zehra; Iskit, Serdar Hilmi; Tuncer, Recep; Zorludemir, Unal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Biliary atresia is a surgical cause of prolonged jaundice, which needs to be diagnosed with cholangiography that has traditionally been performed via laparotomy. Laparoscopic assistance has lately been introduced to avoid unnecessary laparotomy. We aim to evaluate the benefits of the laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography and compare it to the traditional procedure via laparotomy. Patients and Method. The medical records of the cases who had undergone cholangiography for prolonged jaundice between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. The patients were grouped according to cholangiography technique (laparotomy/laparoscopy). The laparoscopy and laparotomy groups with patent bile ducts were focused and compared in terms of operation duration, postoperative initiation time of enteral feeding, and full enteral feeding achievement time. Results. Sixty-one infants with prolonged jaundice were evaluated between 2007 and 2014. Among the patients with patent bile ducts, operation duration, postoperative enteral feeding initiation time, and the time to achieve full enteral feeding were shorter in laparoscopy group. Conclusion. Laparoscopic cholangiography is safe and less time-consuming compared to laparotomy, with less postoperative burden. As early age of operation is a very important prognostic factor, laparoscopic evaluation should be an early option in work-up of the infants with prolonged jaundice with direct hyperbilirubinemia, for diagnosis/exclusion of biliary atresia. PMID:26819607

  12. Non-Newtonian flow of pathological bile in the biliary system: experimental investigation and CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchumov, Alex G.; Gilev, Valeriy; Popov, Vitaliy; Samartsev, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vasiliy

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of pathological human bile taken from the gallbladder and bile ducts. The flow dependences were obtained for different types of bile from patients with the same pathology, but of different age and sex. The parameters of the Casson's and Carreau's equations were found for bile samples. Results on the hysteretic bile behavior at loading-unloading tests are also presented, which proved that the pathologic bile is a non-Newtonian thixotropic liquid. The viscosity of the gallbladder bile was shown to be higher compared to the duct bile. It was found that at higher shear stress the pathological bile behaves like Newtonian fluid, which is explained by reorientation of structural components. Moreover, some pathological bile flow in the biliary system CFD simulations were performed. The velocity and pressure distributions as well as flow rates in the biliary segments during the gallbladder refilling and emptying phases are obtained. The results of CFD simulations can be used for surgeons to assess the patient's condition and choose an adequate treatment.

  13. Laparoscopy-Assisted Percutaneous Cholangiography in Biliary Atresia Diagnosis: Comparison with Open Technique.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Murat; Tutus, Kamuran; Fak?oglu, Ender; Ozden, Onder; Hatipoglu, Zehra; Iskit, Serdar Hilmi; Tuncer, Recep; Zorludemir, Unal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Biliary atresia is a surgical cause of prolonged jaundice, which needs to be diagnosed with cholangiography that has traditionally been performed via laparotomy. Laparoscopic assistance has lately been introduced to avoid unnecessary laparotomy. We aim to evaluate the benefits of the laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography and compare it to the traditional procedure via laparotomy. Patients and Method. The medical records of the cases who had undergone cholangiography for prolonged jaundice between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. The patients were grouped according to cholangiography technique (laparotomy/laparoscopy). The laparoscopy and laparotomy groups with patent bile ducts were focused and compared in terms of operation duration, postoperative initiation time of enteral feeding, and full enteral feeding achievement time. Results. Sixty-one infants with prolonged jaundice were evaluated between 2007 and 2014. Among the patients with patent bile ducts, operation duration, postoperative enteral feeding initiation time, and the time to achieve full enteral feeding were shorter in laparoscopy group. Conclusion. Laparoscopic cholangiography is safe and less time-consuming compared to laparotomy, with less postoperative burden. As early age of operation is a very important prognostic factor, laparoscopic evaluation should be an early option in work-up of the infants with prolonged jaundice with direct hyperbilirubinemia, for diagnosis/exclusion of biliary atresia. PMID:26819607

  14. Navigation liver surgery for complex hydatid cyst with biliary tree communication

    PubMed Central

    Panaro, Fabrizio; Habibeh, Hussein; Pessaux, Patrick; Navarro, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Today, liver surgery navigation is utilized only in high-specialized centers for patients affected by malignant diseases. However, navigated surgery may also be of great interest for benign diseases such as hydatidosis in particular if the hydatid cyst is communicating with the biliary tree. With navigation we know exactly in each moment during the surgery the relationship of the cyst with the vascular/biliary structures around it. Presentation of case Herein, we report a case of a 20-year-old W/M affected by hepatic hydatid cyst communicating with the right bile duct, causing recurrent cholangitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The liver cystectomy was easily performed using a navigation system incorporating instrument tracking and three-dimensional CT-reconstruction, thus permitting a selective suture of the bile duct communicating with the cyst. Conclusions The navigated system may guide the surgeon in patients with severe and complicated hydatid cysts. PMID:26057992

  15. Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Sadao Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto; Nakajo, Masayuki

    2008-07-15

    We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

  16. Balloon dilator versus telescopic metal dilators for tract dilatation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn stones and calyceal stones

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, Mohamed; Salem, Shady; Allam, Adel; Hathout, Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of balloon dilatation (BD) vs. telescopic metal dilators (TMDs) in establishing the tract for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with calyceal stones or staghorn stones, but with no hydronephrosis. Patients and methods Data from selected patients over 4 years were recorded retrospectively. Patients with complex staghorn stones, an undilated targeted calyx, or the stone filling the targeted calyx, were included in the study. In all, 97 patients were included, of 235 undergoing PCNL between March 2010 and March 2014, and were divided into two groups according to the technique of primary tract dilatation. Group A included patients who had BD and group B those treated using TMDs. Results In group A (BD, 55 patients) dilatation was successful in 34 (62%). The dilatation failed or there was a need for re-dilatation using TMD in 21 patients (38%). In one of these 21 patients the dilatation failed due to extravasation. In group B (TMD, 42 patients) dilatation was successful in 38 (90%) patients, with incomplete dilatation and a need for re-dilatation in four (10%) patients, and no failed procedures. Group A had a significantly higher failure rate than group B (P < 0.001). Differences in operative duration, blood loss, stone-removal success rate and complication rate were statistically insignificant. Conclusion BD has a higher failure rate than TMD when establishing access for calyceal stones or staghorn stones that have little space around them. PMID:26413325

  17. Soft-Tissue-Anchored Transcutaneous Port for Long-Term Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Rickard Ekloef, Hampus; Eriksson, Lars-Gunnar; Karlsson, Britt-Marie; Rasmussen, Ib; Lundgren, Dan; Thomsen, Peter

    2005-01-15

    Purpose. A transcutaneous port (T-port) has been developed allowing easy exchange of a catheter, which was fixed inside the device, using the Seldinger technique. The objective of the study was to test the T-port in patients who had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Methods. The T-port, made of titanium, was implanted using local anesthesia in 11 patients (mean age 65 years, range 52-85 years) with biliary duct obstruction (7 malignant and 4 benign strictures). The subcutaneous part of the T-port consisted of a flange with several perforations allowing ingrowth of connective tissue. The T-port allowed catheter sizes of 10 and 12 Fr. Results. All wounds healed uneventfully and were followed by a stable period without signs of pronounced inflammation or infection. It was easy to open the port and to exchange the drainage tube. The patient's quality of life was considerably improved even though several patients had problems with repeated bile leakage due to frequent recurrent obstructions of the tubes. The ports were implanted for a mean time of 9 months (range 2-21 months). Histologic examination in four cases showed that the port was well integrated into the soft tissue. Tilting of the T-port in two cases led to perforation of the skin by the subcutaneous part of the ports, which were removed after 7 and 8 months. Conclusion. The T-port served as an excellent external access to the biliary ducts. The drainage tubes were well fixed within the ports. The quality of life of the patients was considerably improved. Together with improved aesthetic appearance they found it easier to conduct normal daily activities and personal care. However, the problem of recurrent catheter obstruction remained unsolved.

  18. Remains of the day: Biliary complications related to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Allemann, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assesse the rate of bile duct injuries (BDI) and overall biliary complications during single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) compared to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). METHODS: SPLC has recently been proposed as an innovative surgical approach for gallbladder surgery. So far, its safety with respect to bile duct injuries has not been specifically evaluated. A systematic review of the literature published between January 1990 and November 2012 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing SPLC versus CLC reporting BDI rate and overall biliary complications were included. The quality of RCT was assessed using the Jadad score. Analysis was made by performing a meta-analysis, using Review Manager 5.2. This study was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A retrospective study including all retrospective reports on SPLC was also performed alongside. RESULTS: From 496 publications, 11 RCT including 898 patients were selected for meta-analysis. No studies were rated as high quality (Jadad score ≥ 4). Operative indications included benign gallbladder disease operated in an elective setting in all studies, excluding all emergency cases and acute cholecystitis. The median follow-up was 1 mo (range 0.03-18 mo). The incidence of BDI was 0.4% for SPLC and 0% for CLC; the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.36). The incidence of overall biliary complication was 1.6% for SPLC and 0.5% for CLC, the difference did not reached statistically significance (P = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.66-15). Sixty non-randomized trials including 3599 patients were also analysed. The incidence of BDI reported then was 0.7%. CONCLUSION: The safety of SPLC cannot be assumed, based on the current evidence. Hence, this new technology cannot be recommended as standard technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24574757

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 mediates formation of bile ducts and hepatic maturation of fetal hepatic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Otani, Satoshi; Kakinuma, Sei; Kamiya, Akihide; Goto, Fumio; Kaneko, Shun; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Asano, Yu; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Nakata, Toru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2016-01-22

    Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the phenotype of these cells have not been completely elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is a type I transmembrane proteinase regulating pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is essential for the activation of several MMPs and cytokines. However, the physiological functions of MMP-14 in liver development are unknown. Here we describe a functional role for MMP-14 in hepatic and biliary differentiation of mouse hepatoblasts. MMP-14 was upregulated in cells around the portal vein in perinatal stage liver. Formation of bile duct-like structures in MMP-14-deficient livers was significantly delayed compared with wild-type livers in vivo. In vitro biliary differentiation assays showed that formation of cholangiocytic cysts derived from MMP-14-deficient hepatoblasts was completely impaired, and that overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatoblasts promoted the formation of bile duct-like cysts. In contrast, the expression of molecules associated with metabolic functions in hepatocytes, including hepatic nuclear factor 4? and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, were significantly increased in MMP-14-deficient livers. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly upregulated in MMP-14-deficient livers. We demonstrate that MMP-14-mediated signaling in fetal hepatic progenitor cells promotes biliary luminal formation around the portal vein and negatively controls the maturation of hepatocytes. PMID:26724533

  20. What Is Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancers are called cholangiocarcinomas . Most of these are adenocarcinomas, which are cancers that start in glandular cells. Bile duct adenocarcinomas develop from the mucous gland cells that line ...

  1. Noise reduction of spiral ducts.

    PubMed

    Lapka, Wojciech; Cempel, Czes?aw

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents noise reduction (NR) of spiral ducts as a result of computational modeling of acoustic wave propagation. Three-dimensional models were created with the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics version 3.3. Nine models of spiral ducts with 1-9 spiral leads were considered. Time-harmonic analysis was used to predict NR, which was shown in spectral and interval frequency bands. Spiral duct performance can be seen as a comparison of NR before and after a change from a circular to a spiral duct. PMID:18082024

  2. Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  3. Antarctic Analog for Dilational Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  4. [Congenital lacrimonasal duct cyst: Do not forget this radiological and clinical entity].

    PubMed

    Braun, J-J; Debry, C; Donato, L; Riehm, S

    2016-02-01

    Although obstruction of the lacrimonasal duct is a fairly common finding in newborns, development of a dacryocystocele (nasolacrimal duct cyst) is uncommon and is caused by stenosis in the proximal and distal area of the nasolacrimal duct leading to a cystic dilatation. Its diagnosis remains difficult for the pediatrician, the ENT specialist, the ophthalmologist, and the radiologist. The study of six cases of dacryocystocele and the review of the literature led the authors to describe the clinical and radiological features of this uncommon entity. The symptomatology includes nasal obstruction and, when bilateral, significant respiratory distress in the newborn (obligate nose-breather) and dilatation of the lacrimal duct with blue cystic swelling inferior to the medial canthus or with an inflammatory aspect of the lacrimal duct in case of infection. A careful endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities and CT or MRI imaging reveals a cystic tumor, which arises in the inferior meatus, inferolateral to the inferior turbinate, and can partly or completely obstruct the endonasal space, uni- or bilaterally. CT and MRI are equally sensitive in detecting dacryocystocele and are also useful for differential diagnosis for other cystic or tumoral nasal lesions such as meningoencephalocele, dermoid cyst, and glioma. To avoid the risk of potential complications (respiratory distress or even sudden infant death, infectious ophthalmologic complications), this radiological and clinical entity should not be forgotten. Endoscopic marsupialization leads to immediate and definitive healing recovery. PMID:26724215

  5. Cystic duct remnant carcinoma with widespread invasion along the extrahepatic bile duct wall: dynamic CT findings.

    PubMed

    Gabata, T; Matsui, O; Sanada, J; Kadoya, M; Ohmura, K; Minato, H

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of remnant cystic duct carcinoma with widespread invasion along the common bile duct wall. Thin-slice dynamic computed tomography showed circumferential wall thickening of the extrahepatic bile duct (from the common hepatic duct to the intrapancreatic common bile duct) and the remnant cystic duct. Pathologically, the extrahepatic bile duct wall was thickened due to submucosal tumor infiltration by cystic duct papillary adenocarcinoma. PMID:12483391

  6. GWAS in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gulamhusein, Aliya F.; Juran, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been a significant technological advance in our ability to evaluate the genetic architecture of complex diseases such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC). To date, six large-scale studies have been performed which identified 27 non-HLA risk loci associated with PBC. The identified risk variants emphasize important disease concepts; namely, that disturbances in immunoregulatory pathways are important in the pathogenesis of PBC and that such perturbations are shared among a diverse number of autoimmune diseases – suggesting the risk architecture may confer a generalized propensity to autoimmunity not necessarily specific to PBC. Furthermore, the impact of non-HLA risk variants, particularly in genes involved with IL-12 signaling, and ethnic variation in conferring susceptibility to PBC have been highlighted. While GWAS have been a critical stepping-stone in understanding common genetic variation contributing to PBC, limitations pertaining to power, sample availability, and strong linkage disequilibrium across genes have left us with an incomplete understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease pathogenesis. Future efforts to gain insight into this missing heritability, the genetic variation that contributes to important disease outcomes and the functional consequences of associated variants will be critical if practical clinical translation is to be realized. PMID:26676814

  7. Brain abscess in hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Morita, Keiichi; Fukuzawa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Kosaku

    2015-12-01

    The first-choice therapy for biliary atresia (BA) is Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy, which has been shown to greatly improve outcome. Various long-term complications, however, such as portal hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), can occur in patients with native liver. A rare case of brain abscess in an 11-year-old girl with HPS associated with BA is reported. The patient underwent hepatoportoenterostomy for BA at 53 days of age, with resolution of hyperbilirubinemia. At 10 years of age, she was diagnosed with severe HPS with right-to-left shunting, and preparations for liver transplantation proceeded. Three months after the diagnosis, she had a right parietal brain abscess. Given that the brain abscess enlarged in size, surgical drainage of the brain abscess was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, but a slight left hemiplegia remained at discharge. The presumed mechanism of abscess formation in HPS may be right-to-left bacterial transit through intrapulmonary vascular dilatations and/or arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:26711920

  8. Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Falchero, F.; Valentini, M.; Ciambellotti, E.; Becchi, G.

    1985-04-01

    Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging was performed in 11 jaundiced patients before, during, and after biliary decompression. The rates of plasma clearances and radionuclide accumulation in liver cells and biliary tree were calculated, in addition to the uptake and retention index.

  9. Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and postoperatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Results: Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:19660213

  10. Negative short-term impact of intraoperative biliary lavage in patients with hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ou; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Yang, Ke; Cai, Chun-Xian; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate short-term outcomes following intraoperative biliary lavage for hepatolithiasis. METHODS: A total of 932 patients who were admitted to the West China Medical Center of Sichuan University between January 2010 and January 2014 and underwent bile duct exploration and lithotomy were retrospectively included in our study. The patients were divided into the lavage group and the control group. Related pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors were recorded, analyzed, and compared between the two groups in order to verify the effects of biliary lavage on the short-term outcome of patients with hepatolithiasis. RESULTS: Amongst the patients who were included, 678 patients with hepatolithiasis were included in the lavage group, and the other 254 patients were enrolled in the control group. Data analyses revealed that preoperative baseline and related intraoperative variables were not significantly different. However, patients who underwent intraoperative biliary lavage had prolonged postoperative hospital stays (6.67 d vs 7.82 d, P = 0.024), higher hospitalization fees (RMB 28437.1 vs RMB 32264.2, P = 0.043), higher positive rates of bacterial cultures from blood (13.3% vs 25.8%, P = 0.001) and bile (23.6% vs 40.7%, P = 0.001) samples, and increased usage of advanced antibiotics (26.3% vs 38.2%, P = 0.001). In addition, in the lavage group, more patients had fever (> 37.5 °C, 81.4% vs 91.1%, P = 0.001) and hyperthermia (> 38.5°C,39.7% vs 54.9%, P = 0.001), and higher white blood cell counts within 7 d after the operation compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative biliary lavage might increase the risk of postoperative infection, while not significantly increasing gallstone removal rate. PMID:27004001

  11. Patent arterial duct occlusion with two Amplatzer Duct Occluder devices.

    PubMed

    Grech, V; Degiovanni, Jv

    2011-10-01

    It is accepted practice to close large patent arterial ducts (PDA) with Amplatzer duct occluder devices, with extremely low rates of residual PDA. We report a child who required device closure of PDA with two Amplatzer PDA devices on two separate occasions, despite the first device deployment being a standard placement of an appropriately sized Amplatzer device in the usual position. PMID:23720685

  12. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2000-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that these seals tend to fail over time periods ranging from days to years. We have used several test methods over the last few years to evaluate the longevity of duct sealants when subjected to temperatures and pressures representative of those found in the field. Traditional cloth duct tapes have been found to significantly under-perform other sealants and have been banned from receiving duct tightness credits in California's energy code (California Energy Commission 1998). Our accelerated testing apparatus has been redesigned since its first usage for improved performance. The methodology is currently under consideration by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a potential new test method. This report will summarize the set of measurements to date, review the status of the test apparatus and test method, and summarize the applications of these results to codes and standards.

  13. Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of the Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet; Toprak, Hüseyin; Burgazli, Mehmet; Bilgin, S. Sennur; Chasan, Ritvan; Erdogan, Ali; Balc?, Cem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, our purpose was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of the dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method in the patients with bile duct obstruction. Materials and Methods. 108 consecutive patients (53 men, 55 women, mean age; 55.77 ± 14.62, range 18–86 years) were included in this study. All the patients underwent conventional upper abdomen MRI using intravenous contrast material (Gd-DTPA) and MRCP in 1.5?Tesla MRI scanner. MRCP images were evaluated together with the T1 and T2w images, and both biliary ducts and surrounding tissues were examined for possible pathologies that may cause obstruction. Results. MRI/MRCP findings compared with final diagnoses, MRI/MRCP in the demonstration of bile duct obstruction sensitivity 96%, the specificity 100%, and accuracy 96.3%, in the detection of presence and level of obstruction, the sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 97.2%, in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, the sensitivity 82.3%, specificity 96%, and accuracy 91.7%, and in the determination of the character of the stenosis, sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 91.3%, and accuracy 94.5% were found. Conclusion. The combination of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and MRCP techniques in patients with suspected biliary obstruction gives the detailed information about the presence of obstruction, location, and causes and is a highly specific and sensitive method. PMID:22489200

  14. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage with Postoperative Morbidity after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Lu, Jian-Wen; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background. The advantages or disadvantages of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) prior to pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remain unclear. Methods. A prospectively maintained database was queried for 335 consecutive patients undergoing standard PD surgery between 2009 and 2013. Clinical data and postoperative complications of the 47 patients receiving PBD and 288 patients with early surgery were compared. A matching analysis was also performed between patients receiving or not receiving PBD (no-PBD). Results. The indication for PBD was severe obstructive jaundice (81%) and cholangitis (26%) at the time of PBD. 47?PBD patients had higher bilirubin level than 288 no-PBD patients preoperatively (363.2??mol/L versus 136.0??mol/L, p < 0.001). Although no significant difference of any complications could be observed between the two groups, positive intraoperative bile culture and wound infection seemed to be moderately increased in PBD compared to no-PBD patients (p = 0.084 and 0.183, resp.). In the matched-pair comparison, the incidence of wound infection was three times higher in PBD than no-PBD patients (14.9% versus 4.3%, p = 0.080). Conclusions. PBD seems to moderately increase the risk of postoperative wound and bile duct infection. Therefore, PBD should be selectively performed prior to PD. PMID:26798333

  15. Metabonomics reveals metabolite changes in biliary atresia infants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kejun; Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Aihua; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Mingming; Ni, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Weihua; Che, Yanran; Zhang, Ting; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Wen, Jie; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare neonatal cholestatic disorder caused by obstruction of extra- and intra-hepatic bile ducts. If untreated, progressive liver cirrhosis will lead to death within 2 years. Early diagnosis and operation improve the outcome significantly. Infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) present similar symptoms, confounding the early diagnosis of BA. The lack of noninvasive diagnostic methods to differentiate BA from NHS greatly delays the surgery of BA infants, thus deteriorating the outcome. Here we performed a metabolomics study in plasma of BA, NHS, and healthy infants using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scores plots of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated BA from NHS and healthy infants. Eighteen metabolites were found to be differentially expressed between BA and NHS, among which seven (l-glutamic acid, l-ornithine, l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-valine, l-tryptophan, and l-serine) were amino acids. The altered amino acids were quantitatively verified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the network of "Cellular Function and Maintenance, Hepatic System Development and Function, Neurological Disease" was altered most significantly. This study suggests that plasma metabolic profiling has great potential in differentiating BA from NHS, and amino acid metabolism is significantly different between the two diseases. PMID:25899098

  16. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Clinical and laboratory criteria for its diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic granulomatous, and destructive inflammatory lesion of small intralobular and septal bile ducts, which is likely to be caused by an autoimmune mechanism with a the presence of serum antimitochondrial antibodies and a potential tendency to progress to cirrhosis. Despite the fact that the etiology of this disease has been unknown so far, there has been a considerable body of scientific evidence that can reveal the clinical and laboratory signs of PBC and the individual components of its pathogenesis and elaborate diagnostic criteria for the disease and its symptomatic therapy. Deficiencies in autoimmune tolerance are critical factors for the initiation and perpetuation of the disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data available in the literature and the author’s findings on clinical and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of PBC. This review describes the major clinical manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms of its development. It presents the immunological, biochemical, and morphological signs of PBC and their significance for its diagnosis. A great deal of novel scientific evidence for the problem of PBC has been accumulated. However, the inadequate efficiency of therapy for the disease lends impetus to the quest for its etiological factors and to further investigations of its pathogenetic mechanisms and, on this basis, to searches for new methods for its early diagnosis. PMID:26167070

  17. Clinical features and management of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosignani, Andrea; Battezzati, Pier Maria; Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo; Prina, Elena; Podda, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which is characterized by progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, is not a rare disease since both prevalence and incidence are increasing during the last years mainly due to the improvement of case finding strategies. The prognosis of the disease has improved due to both the recognition of earlier and indolent cases, and to the wide use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). New indicators of prognosis are available that will be useful especially for the growing number of patients with less severe disease. Most patients are asymptomatic at presentation. Pruritus may represent the most distressing symptom and, when UDCA is ineffective, cholestyramine represents the mainstay of treatment. Complications of long-standing cholestasis may be clinically relevant only in very advanced stages. Available data on the effects of UDCA on clinically relevant end points clearly indicate that the drug is able to slow but not to halt the progression of the disease while, in advanced stages, the only therapeutic option remains liver transplantation. PMID:18528929

  18. Hypertension and Biliary Ductopenia in a Patient with Duplication of Exon 6 of the JAG1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Moreno, L.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a neonatal patient with biliary ductopenia featuring duplication of exon 6 of the JAG1 gene. Facial alterations were observed, consisting of a prominent forehead, sunken eyes, upward slanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, flat nasal root and prominent chin. From birth, these were accompanied by the development of haematuria and renal failure and by renal Doppler findings indicative of peripheral renal artery stenosis. JAG1 gene mutations on chromosome 20 have been associated with various anomalies, including biliary cholestasis, vertebral abnormalities, eye disorders, heart defects and facial dysmorphia. This syndrome, first described by Alagille, is an infrequent congenital disorder caused by a dominant autosomal inheritance with variable expressivity. Anatomopathological effects include the destruction and disappearance of hepatic bile ducts (ductopenia). The duplication of exon 6 of JAG1 has not previously been described as an alteration related to the Alagille syndrome with peripheral renal artery stenosis. PMID:23641167

  19. Computed-tomographic cholangiography: a new technique for evaluating the head of the pancreas and distal biliary tree

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.; Greenberg, B.M.; Rubin, J.M.; Greenberg, I.M.

    1982-07-01

    Computed-tomographic cholangiography was used to evaluate the abdomen of 97 patients. The gallbladder and/or biliary tree was visualized well in 84 patients (87%); the distal common bile duct (CBD) was visualized well in 68 patients (70%). For 26 patients (30%) from the latter group, visualization of the opacified CBD was essential in order to differentiate the pancreatic head from the duodenum. Measurements of the distal CBD showed a significant difference between patients with gallbladders (mean, 4.7 +/- 1.2 mm) and those without gallbladders (mean, 6.8 +/- 1.1 mm). By visualizing the CBD and the superior mesenteric vein, exact dimensions of the uncinate process can be obtained. Also, the pancreatic head can be assessed more accurately, and the distal biliary tree can be evaluated.

  20. The pupil dilation response to visual detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Claudio M.; Renninger, Laura W.; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley; Aguilar, Mario

    2008-02-01

    The pupil dilation reflex is mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic Edinger-Westphal oculomotor complex and sympathetic activity. It has long been documented that emotional and sensory events elicit a pupillary reflex dilation. Is the pupil response a reliable marker of a visual detection event? In two experiments where viewers were asked to report the presence of a visual target during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), pupil dilation was significantly associated with target detection. The amplitude of the dilation depended on the frequency of targets and the time of the detection. Larger dilations were associated with trials having fewer targets and with targets viewed earlier during the trial. We also found that dilation was strongly influenced by the visual task.

  1. Techniques of Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Better Delineation of the Bile Duct Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available.In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 ?mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies.FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD-CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD-CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90? min; range, 15-165? min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 ?min; range, 21-205? min; P?duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker.FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the "critical view of safety" during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of laparoscope close and vertically to Calot's triangle. PMID:26107666

  2. Techniques of Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Better Delineation of the Bile Duct Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available. In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies. FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD–CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD–CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90 min; range, 15–165 min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 min; range, 21–205 min; P < 0.01). The signal contrast on the fluorescence images of the bile duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker. FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the “critical view of safety” during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of laparoscope close and vertically to Calot's triangle. PMID:26107666

  3. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  4. Biliary ascariasis complicating endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Agarwal, D K; Choudhuri, G D; Saraswat, V A; Baijal, S S

    1998-10-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for patients with choledocholithiasis. Biliary ascariasis has been reported from many parts of the world but is common in Kashmir, India. We report five cases of biliary ascariasis of which four were the result of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. Therefore, biliary ascariasis is not an uncommon complication of endoscopic sphincterotomy. PMID:9835327

  5. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A biliary catheter and accessories is a tubular flexible...

  6. Dilated cardiomyopathy due to a phospholamban duplication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teresa M; Addonizio, Linda J; Chung, Wendy K

    2014-10-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by dilation and impaired systolic function. We present the case of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a 624 kb duplication of 6q22.31, which includes the phospholamban gene. The patient also has failure to thrive and developmental delay due to complex cytogenetic abnormalities including a 5p15 deletion associated with Cri du Chat and an 11p15 duplication associated with Russell-Silver syndrome. PMID:24451198

  7. Intrahepatic Transposition of Bile Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Delić, Jasmin; Savković, Admedina; Isaković, Eldar; Marković, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjalić, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24–43% of cases, out of which 1–22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  8. Streamwise computation of duct flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greywall, M. S.

    1980-02-01

    A computational method is presented to calculate momentum and energy transport in two-dimensional viscous compressible duct flows. The flow in the duct is partitioned into finite streams. The difference equations are then obtained by applying momentum and energy conservation principles directly to the individual streams. The method is applicable to laminar and turbulence flows.

  9. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Deli?, Jasmin; Savkovi?, Admedina; Isakovi?, Eldar; Markovi?, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjali?, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24-43% of cases, out of which 1-22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  10. Advanced endoscopic imaging of indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tabibian, James H; Visrodia, Kavel H; Levy, Michael J; Gostout, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures (IDBSs) has evolved considerably since the development of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography pancreatography (ERCP) was introduced nearly a decade later and has since become the mainstay of therapy for relieving obstruction of the biliary tract. However, longstanding methods of ERCP-guided tissue acquisition (i.e., biliary brushings for cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy for histology) have demonstrated disappointing performance characteristics in distinguishing malignant from benign etiologies of IDBSs. The limitations of these methods have thus helped drive the search for novel techniques to enhance the evaluation of IDBSs and thereby improve diagnosis and clinical care. These modalities include, but are not limited to, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography. In this review, we discuss established and emerging options in the evaluation of IDBSs. PMID:26675379

  11. Current endoscopic approach to indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Victor, David W; Sherman, Stuart; Karakan, Tarkan; Khashab, Mouen A

    2012-01-01

    Biliary strictures are considered indeterminate when basic work-up, including transabdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with routine cytologic brushing, are non-diagnostic. Indeterminate biliary strictures can easily be mischaracterized which may dramatically affect patient’s outcome. Early and accurate diagnosis of malignancy impacts not only a patient’s candidacy for surgery, but also potential timely targeted chemotherapies. A significant portion of patients with indeterminate biliary strictures have benign disease and accurate diagnosis is, thus, paramount to avoid unnecessary surgery. Current sampling strategies have suboptimal accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy. Emerging data on other diagnostic modalities, such as ancillary cytology techniques, single operator cholangioscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration, revealed promising results with much improved sensitivity. PMID:23180939

  12. Immunoexpression of intermediate filaments and morphological changes in the liver and bile duct of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, L; Laszczy?ska, M; Masiuk, M; Grabowska, M; Skrzydlewska, E

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the immunoexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and desmin, and the morphological changes in the liver of rats during experimental fasciolosis at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection. Rats were infected with 30 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Paraffin sections of the liver were stained using H & E, PAS and azan stains. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against cytokeratin and desmin. The experimental F. hepatica infection led to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and to inflammation of the common bile ducts. The expression of cytokeratin was increased in the epithelial cells of both the liver bile ductules at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection and in the common bile ducts at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection compared to uninfected rats; expression in the common bile ducts was more intense. The myofibroblasts of the liver and smooth myocytes of the interlobular bile ducts and common bile ducts, showed a slight increase in desmin expression compared to the uninfected rats. The increased expression of cytokeratins in the hyperplastic rat common bile duct epithelium during the biliary phase of fasciolosis at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection may be explained by mechanical irritation by the parasite and an inflammatory reaction in the bile duct epithelium and in periductal fibrous tissue. PMID:25923046

  13. Development of bile duct cancer in a 26-year-old man after resection of infantile choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeru; Sakai, Kohei; Kimura, Osamu; Iwai, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    Anomalous arrangement of the pancreaticobiliary duct is considered to be a high-risk factor for biliary tract malignancy. We report a case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a 26-year-old man after total resection of choledochal cyst with anomalous arrangement of the pancreaticobiliary duct at the age of 5 months. He had been doing well after total resection of the choledochal cyst; however, he suddenly presented with a spiky fever and abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant at the age of 26 years. Computed tomographic scan and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscope revealed multiple stones and stenosis of the hepatic duct and the left intrahepatic bile duct. Histologic examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the stenotic site showed adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic bile duct. Left lobectomy with re-reconstruction by right hepaticojejunostomy was performed, and his postoperative course was uneventful. One year after the operation, however, he died of carcinomatous peritonitis with recurrence of cholangiocarcinoma. This report warns us that bile stasis owing to stenosis of the intrahepatic bile duct and repeated cholangitis with multiple stones are high-risk factors for carcinogenesis of the intrahepatic bile duct even after total resection of the infantile choledochal cyst. PMID:18558159

  14. Granular cell tumor of the common bile duct: A Japanese case

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Junko; Kitagawa, Michiko; Kusanagi, Hiroshi; Kano, Nobuyasu; Ishii, Eiji; Nakaji, So; Hirata, Nobuto; Hoshi, Kazuei

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the biliary system is rare. It is reported that it occurs more commonly in young black women. We report here our seldom experience of a Japanese case in whom icterus was found as a first symptom just after a caesarean operation. A 36-year-old Japanese woman developed icterus after delivery by the Caesarean operation. A surgical operation was performed without can deny that there was a tumor-related change in a bile duct as a result of examination for various images. As a result of pathological evaluation, GCT was diagnosed. By the preoperative organization biomicroscopy result, it was not able to be attachd a right diagnosis. It was thought that this tumor, although rare, should be considered as one of the causes of biliary stenosis in the younger population. PMID:23180955

  15. Various Techniques for the Surgical Treatment of Common Bile Duct Stones: A Meta Review

    PubMed Central

    Shojaiefard, Abolfazl; Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Ghafouri, Ali; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2009-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) may occur in up to 3%–14.7% of all patients for whom cholecystectomy is preformed. Patients presenting with CBDS have symptoms including: biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis or may be asymptomatic. It is important to distinguish between primary and secondary stones, because the treatment approach varies. Stones found before, during, and after cholecystectomy had also differing treatments. Different methods have been used for the treatment of CBDS but the suitable therapy depends on conditions such as patient' satisfaction, number and size of stones, and the surgeons experience in laparoscopy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with or without endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, laparoscopic CBD exploration (transcystic or transcholedochal), or laparotomy with CBD exploration (by T-tube, C-tube insertion, or primary closure) are the most commonly used methods managing CBDS. We will review the pathophysiology of CBDS, diagnosis, and different techniques of treatment with especial focus on the various surgical modalities. PMID:19672460

  16. Common bile duct schwannoma: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Fenoglio, Luigi; Severini, Sara; Cena, Paola; Migliore, Elena; Bracco, Christian; Pomero, Fulvio; Panzone, Sergio; Cavallero, Giovan Battista; Silvestri, Alberto; Brizio, Rodolfo; Borghi, Felice

    2007-01-01

    Schwannoma is a myelin sheath tumor complicated with neurofibroma, neurofibromatosis and neurogenic sarcoma. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors represent 2%-6% of gastrointestinal tract stromal tumors (GIST), but there are deficient data about location of neurogenic tumors in the biliary system and only nine cases of schwannoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract have been reported. These tumors are clinically non-specific. They are usually symptomatic by compressing the close or adjacent structures when being retroperitoneal, and their preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. This paper reviews the literature data and describes a case of schwannoma of the common bile duct associated with cholestasis in a healthy young woman, diagnosed and treated in our department. This case is of interest on account of the complexity of its diagnosis and the atypical macroscopic growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:17451214

  17. Biliary Tree Stem Cells, Precursors to Pancreatic Committed Progenitors: Evidence for Possible Life-long Pancreatic Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfang; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Carpino, Guido; Cui, Cai-Bin; Dominguez-Bendala, Juan; Wauthier, Eliane; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Pileggi, Antonello; Gerber, David; Furth, Mark E.; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio; Inverardi, Luca; Reid, Lola M.

    2013-01-01

    Peribiliary glands (PBGs) in bile duct walls, and pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) associated with pancreatic ducts, in humans of all ages, contain a continuous, ramifying network of cells in overlapping maturational lineages. We show that proximal (PBGs)-to-distal (PDGs) maturational lineages start near the duodenum with cells expressing markers of pluripotency (NANOG,OCT4,SOX2), proliferation (Ki67), self-replication (SALL4), and early hepato-pancreatic commitment (SOX9,SOX17,PDX1,LGR5), transitioning to PDG cells with no expression of pluripotency or self-replication markers, maintenance of pancreatic genes (PDX1), and expression of markers of pancreatic endocrine maturation (NGN3,MUC6,insulin). Radial-axis lineages start in PBGs near the ducts’ fibromuscular layers with stem cells and end at the ducts’ lumens with cells devoid of stem cell traits and positive for pancreatic endocrine genes. Biliary tree-derived cells behaved as stem cells in culture under expansion conditions, culture plastic and serum-free Kubota’s Medium, proliferating for months as undifferentiated cells, whereas pancreas-derived cells underwent only ∼8-10 divisions, then partially differentiated towards an islet fate. Biliary tree-derived cells proved precursors of pancreas’ committed progenitors. Both could be driven by 3-dimensional conditions, islet-derived matrix components and a serum-free, hormonally defined medium for an islet fate (HDM-P), to form spheroids with ultrastructural, electrophysiological and functional characteristics of neoislets, including glucose regulatability. Implantation of these neoislets into epididymal fat pads of immuno-compromised mice, chemically rendered diabetic, resulted in secretion of human C-peptide, regulatable by glucose, and able to alleviate hyperglycemia in hosts. The biliary tree-derived stem cells and their connections to pancreatic committed progenitors constitute a biological framework for life-long pancreatic organogenesis. PMID:23847135

  18. Treatment of Common Bile Duct Obstruction by Pancreatic Cancer Using Various Stents: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Toshifumi; Hirai, Ritsuko; Kitagawa, Mutsuo; Takehira, Yasunori; Yamada, Masami; Tamakoshi, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Kanamori, Masao

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of various means of stenting in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer in a retrospective analysis. Methods: Sixty-two patients with biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent biliary stenting. On the basis of the findings obtained by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(10 patients) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (52 patients),the site of obstruction was distal to the hilar confluence,predominantly especially in the middle to lower third of the common bile duct. Polyurethane-covered Wallstents (9 mm in diameter) we reinserted in 13 patients, while uncovered Wallstents (10 mm in diameter)were used in 10 patients and plastic stents (10 Fr and 12 Fr) were used in 39 patients. Results: Stenting was successful in 34 patients (87.2%) treated with plastic stents and in 22 patients(95.7%) treated with Wallstents. Effective biliary drainage was achieved in 32 out of 34 patients (94.1%) treated with plastic stents and in 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) treated with Wallstents. The cumulative patency rate was significantly higher for the uncovered and covered Wallstents compared to plastic stents, but was not significantly higher for covered than for uncovered Wallstents. Stentocclusion occurred in 23 patients (70%; all by clogging) from the plastic stent group, in two patients (22%; by tumor ingrowth) from the uncovered Wallstent group, and in one patient (9%; by clogging) from the covered Wallstent group. The survival rate showed no significant difference among the three stent groups. Conclusion: The Wallstent is effective for long-term palliation in patients with obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer invading the middle to lower part of the common bile duct. The covered Wallstent can prevent tumor ingrowth, a problem with the uncovered Wallstent. However, it may be necessary to take measures to prevent the migration or clogging of covered Wallstents.

  19. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, N P; Biyabani, R; Herzig, M J; Ali, A; Nazir, Z; Sulaiman, M N; Talati, J

    1998-09-01

    Persistent müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism. We present 5 cases with PMDS (2 cases associated with testicular malignancy) and discuss the diagnosis and management. Management strategies of PMDS have changed. Whereas in the past, removal of the müllerian remnants was targeted together with orchidopexy or -ectomy, this is no longer recommended. However, testicles that cannot be descended at an early stage are at a high risk of malignancy and should, therefore, be removed. If this is necessary on both sides, there is the additional problem of lifelong testosterone substitution which requires efficient patient monitoring and good patient compliance. In cases where this cannot be achieved, compromises, such as temporarily delayed orchidectomy, may be considered. PMID:9732199

  20. Brocho-biliary fistula: A rare complication after ruptured liver abscess in a 3½ year old child.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prawin; Mehta, Poonam; Ismail, Javed; Agarwala, Sandeep; Jana, Manisha; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil K

    2015-01-01

    Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition, defined by the presence of abnormal communication between biliary tract and bronchial tree. We describe a 3½-year-old child who developed BBF after rupture of liver abscess. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and peritoneal wash for ruptured liver abscess. Seven months later she presented with fever and cough with yellow-colored expectoration (bilioptysis). An abnormal communication between right branch of the hepatic duct and a branch of right main bronchus was identified. Child underwent right lateral thoracotomy and right lower lobectomy with surgical excision of sinus tract. On follow-up child was asymptomatic and doing well. PMID:26628766

  1. Complicated hepatic hydatid cyst with simultaneous biliary tree and intraperitoneal rupture: can we treat it in a minimally invasive way?

    PubMed Central

    Germanidis, Georgios; Mantzoukis, Konstantinos; Kelekis, Tasos; Doumaki, Eleni; Vasiliou, Konstantinos; Kokinakis, Ioannis; Zebekakis, Pantelis; Nikolaidis, Pavlos

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of complicated liver hydatid cyst with biliary system communication, cholangitis, and having at the same time simultaneous free intraperitoneal rupture. This very rare case was treated successfully by a minimally invasive method, namely ERCP, large sphincterotomy and bile duct decompression by cysts and membranes, percutaneous radiologic subdiaphragmatic drainage and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. Our patient, an 87-year-old lady, was considered unfit for open or laparoscopic surgery because of her poor general condition, although surgery represents the common practice in such cases. PMID:24713778

  2. Extrahepatic biliary atresia: preoperative assessment and surgical results in 47 consecutive cases.

    PubMed Central

    Psacharopoulos, H T; Howard, E R; Portmann, B; Mowat, A P

    1980-01-01

    Of 47 consecutive infants with extrahepatic biliary atresia, effective bile drainage with the return of the serum bilirubin concentration to normal, was achieved in 17 (38%). Direct bile duct-to-bowl anastomosis, attempted in 15 infants, produced bile drainage in only those 4 (9%) in whom bile could be seen within the bile duct remnants at laparotomy. 13 (45%) of 29 infants subjected to portoenterostomy (direct liver-to-bowel anastomosis) had satisfactory prolonged bile drainage with normal serum bilirubin values. Although a correct preoperative diagnosis was made in each case, in 3 (6%) the 72-hour faecal rose bengal 131I excretion was greater than 10% of the injected dose, and in 5 (11%) the hepatic histology did not indicate bile duct obstruction, showing that both investigations are necessary for preoperative diagnosis. Preoperative clinical, laboratory, and hepatic histological features in the 16 jaundice-free survivors showed no significant difference when compared with the 31 infants in whom surgery was successful. Cholangitis occurred in only 7 (43%) of 16 infants with satisfactory bile drainage and was easily controlled with antibiotic treatment. No cutaneous enterostomies were performed. In most survivors liver function tests remain abnormal, but the patients are symptom-free. While it is too early to predict a long-term prognosis for these children, our eldest survivors are healthy and show normal development. PMID:7436455

  3. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  4. Cell adhesion molecules P-cadherin and CD24 are markers for carcinoma and dysplasia in the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Riener, Marc-Oliver; Vogetseder, Alexander; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kristiansen, Glen; Jochum, Wolfram

    2010-11-01

    P-cadherin (CDH3) and CD24 are cell adhesion molecules that control morphogenic processes, cell motility, and invasive growth of tumor cells. The aim of our study was to investigate P-cadherin and CD24 expression in carcinomas and dysplastic lesions of the biliary tract and to evaluate the potential diagnostic usefulness of these cell adhesion molecules. Using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, we analyzed P-cadherin, CD24, and p53 expression in 117 carcinomas of the biliary tract (19 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 59 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 39 gallbladder carcinomas) and correlated our findings with clinicopathologic parameters. We found P-cadherin positivity in 37% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 73% of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 64% of gallbladder carcinomas, respectively. CD24 reactivity was observed in 21% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 58% of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 42% of gallbladder carcinomas. Nuclear p53 expression was found in 37% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 46% of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 45% of gallbladder carcinomas. We also studied P-cadherin, CD24, and p53 expression in normal (n = 30), inflamed (n = 22), and dysplastic (n = 21) biliary epithelium of extrahepatic bile ducts. Dysplastic biliary epithelium was positive for P-cadherin in 91%, for CD24 in 71%, and for p53 in 24% of lesions, respectively. In contrast, normal and inflamed epithelia were negative for all 3 proteins. We conclude that P-cadherin and CD24 are expressed in carcinomas of the biliary tract with high frequency and at an early stage of carcinogenesis. Therefore, they may be useful markers for early detection and as targets for therapy of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:20621328

  5. Biliary casts after liver transplantation: Morphology and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Mei-Ju; Shi, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Yu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathogenesis of biliary casts after liver transplantation relative to their morphology and biochemical markers. METHODS: The microstructure of biliary casts was assessed using scanning electron microscopy and Hematoxylin and eosin staining assessed their histology. The expression levels of CD3, CD5, CD34, CD68 and CD79a in these biliary casts were evaluated immunohistochemically. RESULTS: Biliary casts differed widely in their microstructure, with some containing blood vessels positive for CD34 and collagen fibers with positive Masson staining. Large numbers of neutrophils and other inflammatory cells were present, but only on the edge of the biliary casts; although the boundaries were clear without crossover. None of the biliary casts contained T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, macrophages and other inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: The microcostructure of biliary casts differed. Bacteria and acute rejection are not clearly related to their formation. PMID:24282366

  6. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  11. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  12. The use of double balloon enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of strictures of hepaticojejunal anastomoses after primary correction of bile duct injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arlouski, Yury; Vizhinis, Egi; Shuleika, Anatoli; Lagodich, Natalia; Derkacheva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Development of strictures of hepaticojejunal anastomoses (HJA) is observed in 6–30% of patients and mortality after repeated reconstructive interventions ranges from 13% to 25%. Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) allows one to visualize the zone of Roux-en-Y anastomosis after reconstructive operations on the bile ducts for differentiation between stricture of HJA and recurrent cholangitis. Aim Report on the first experience of DBE of jejunal loop studies after reconstructive operations on the biliary tract. Material and methods During the period 2002–2012 we performed in our centre 86 hepaticojejunostomies after iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Mean age was 51 ±6 years. Patients with Roux-en-Y HJA and jejunum loop with Braun's bypass anastomosis who underwent DBE with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (DBE-RChG) in our unit between February 2009 and December 2012 were enrolled in this study. A total of 33 procedures were performed during this period. All of them involved examination of HJA through a jejunum loop by DBE with capture of bile for bacteriology, Roux loop wall for biopsy and miniinvasive procedures. Results The DBE-RChG after visualization of the HJA zone was performed in 21 cases: 3 of them had the jejunum loop to Braun's bypass, 18 – HJA on the Roux loop. In 13 cases stricture of HJA was confirmed: at 6 reoperations were performed, in 7 – miniinvasive procedures (3 – laser vaporizations, 2 – stone extraction, 1 – lithotripsy, 1 – at the first stage stone extraction was carried out, then laser vaporization). The DBE-RChG was performed in 13 (61.9%) patients. The overall diagnostic success with Braun's bypass was 100%, after Roux-en-Y reconstruction in 10 of 13 cases (55.6%). In connection with accumulation of experience, in 2012 diagnostic success in DBE-RChG of HJA on Roux loop increased to 81.3%. Conclusions The MRI-ChG in our series frequently (10.3%) shows a false-positive result in favor of HJA strictures. The DBE examination of HJA with additional cholangiography is a modern and precise method of detection of HJA strictures. Their DBE-balloon dilation and argon-laser vaporization or DBE lithoextraction are new ways of miniinvasive treatment. PMID:25097690

  13. Listeria monocytogenes-Associated Biliary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis. In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases. Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32–85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n = 6), IIb (n = 5), and IIa (n = 1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurren