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Sample records for biliary duct dilatation

  1. Early Gastric Cancer Recurrence Following Curative Resection Presenting as Biliary Tract Dilatation, Pancreatic Duct Dilatation and Intestinal Wall Thickening.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukiko; Tanaka, Eri; Noguchi, Kensaku; Yamamoto, Shinzo; Taniguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Hideo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Nakata, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Early gastric cancer, especially cancer confined to the mucosa (stage T1a), is known to have a high cure rate with rare recurrence. We herein report the case of a 40-year-old female who initially presented with biliary tract dilatation, pancreatic duct dilatation and intestinal wall thickening 3 years after curative resection of pT1aN0 stage gastric cancer. The intestinal resection specimen revealed tumor cells spreading through the subserosa to the submucosa sparing mucosal membrane, which made exploratory laparotomy the only approach to confirm the diagnosis. It is always important to be aware of malignancy recurrence and clinicians should not hesitate to choose exploratory laparotomy to avoid any delay in the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27041158

  2. Peripheral portal vein-oriented non-dilated bile duct puncture for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kato, Atsushi; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peripheral portal vein (PV)-oriented non-dilated bile duct (BD) puncture for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with non-dilated BDs underwent PTBD for the management of various biliary disorders, including benign bilioenteric anastomotic stricture (n = 24), BD stricture (n = 5) associated with iatrogenic BD injury, and postoperative biliary leakage (n = 6). Under ultrasonographic guidance, percutaneous transhepatic puncture using a 21-G needle was performed along the running course of the peripheral targeted non-dilated BD (preferably B6 for right-sided approach, and B3 for left-sided approach) or along the accompanying PV when the BD was not well visualized. This technique could provide an appropriate insertion angle of less than 30° between the puncture needle and BD running course. The puncture needle was then advanced slightly beyond the accompanying PV. The needle tip was moved slightly backward while injecting a small amount of contrast agent to obtain the BD image, followed by insertion of a 0.018-inch guide wire (GW). A drainage catheter was then placed using a two-step GW method. RESULTS: PTBD was successful in 33 (94.3%) of the 35 patients with non-dilated intrahepatic BDs. A right-sided approach was performed in 25 cases, while a left-sided approach was performed in 10 cases. In 31 patients, the first PTBD attempt proved successful. Four cases required a second attempt a few days later to place a drainage catheter. PTBD was successful in two cases, but the second attempt also failed in the other two cases, probably due to poor breath-holding ability. Although most patients (n = 26) had been experiencing cholangitis with fever (including septic condition in 8 cases) before PTBD, only 5 (14.3%) patients encountered PTBD procedure-related complications, such as transient hemobilia and cholangitis. No major complications such as bilioarterial fistula or portal thrombosis were

  3. Bile Flow Phantom Model and Animal Bile Duct Dilation Model for Evaluating Biliary Plastic Stents with Advanced Hydrophilic Coating

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Won Seop; Lee, Don Haeng; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung Pyo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The efforts to improve biliary plastic stents (PSs) for decreasing biofilm formation and overcome short patency time have been continued. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of advanced hydrophilic coating for patency and biodurability of PS. Methods Using an in vitro bile flow phantom model, we compared patency between prototype PS with hydrophilic coating (PS+HC) and prototype PS without hydrophilic coating (PS−HC). We performed an analysis of the degree of luminal narrowing by microscopic examination. Using an in vivo swine bile duct dilation model made by endoscopic papillary closure and stent insertion, we evaluated biodurability of hydrophilic coating. Results In the phantom model, PS+HC showed less biofilm formation and luminal narrowing than PS−HC at 8 weeks (p<0.05). A total of 31 stents were inserted into the dilated bile duct of seven swine models, and 24 stents were successfully retrieved 8 weeks later. There was no statistical difference of stent patency between the polyethylene PS+HC and the polyurethane PS+HC. The biodurability of hydrophilic coating was sustained up to 8 weeks, when assessing the coating layer by scanning electron microscopy examination. Conclusions Advanced hydrophilic coating technology may extend the patency of PS compared to uncoated PS. PMID:27021507

  4. Bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation in a 16-year-old female: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hideki; Yazawa, Naoki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Masuoka, Yoshihito; Yamada, Misuzu; Mashiko, Taro; Kawashima, Yohei; Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mine, Tetsuya; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Nakagohri, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    We encountered a very rare case of bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) in a 16-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of right upper abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the common bile duct measuring 7 cm in diameter and two enhanced tumors 4 cm in diameter located in the inferior bile duct and middle bile duct. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography clearly demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct (Todani's CBD classification: type 4-A). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also revealed two tumors. Biopsy results of one of the tumors confirmed adenocarcinoma. Excision of the perihilar bile duct and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with dissection of the major lymph nodes were performed. A postoperative histopathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, which remained within the mucosal layer, and no lymph node metastasis was found. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 10 days after surgery and has remained disease-free for 21 months. PMID:26943681

  5. Congenital dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts with cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, P. J.; Millis, R. R.; Mitchinson, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were found at necropsy in two previously reported cases of congenital dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. The nature of the developmental abnormality is discussed and compared with other forms of biliary dilatation. Slow-flowing bile for many years probably leads to cholangiocarcinoma. Images PMID:4343747

  6. "Mustache sign" due to Stensen duct dilation.

    PubMed

    Yoruk, O; Kılıc, K; Kantarcı, M

    2013-12-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of painless swellings of the left and right cheeks. The degree of swelling did not change with mastication. On palpation, the cheeks were soft, well defined, and movable. Compression and massage of the swollen areas caused increased salivary discharge from the orifices of the Stensen ducts. Three-dimensional computed tomography showed well-bordered, 15- to 20-mm wide, bilateral, tube-like dilatations of the ducts. The ductal origin of the swellings was explained to the patient, but she refused invasive procedures, thus no sialogram or surgical procedure was performed. We describe the clinical and radiographic features of a case of bilateral, congenital Stensen duct dilatation with bilateral swelling of the cheeks. PMID:24209996

  7. The impact of duct-to-duct interaction on the hex duct dilation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.; Chang, L.K.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    Dilation of the hex duct is an important factor in the operational lifetime of fuel subassemblies in liquid metal fast reactors. It is caused primarily by the irradiation-enhanced creep and void swelling of the hex duct material. Excessive dilation may jeopardize subassembly removal from the core or cause a subassembly storage problem where the grid size of the storage basket is limited. Dilation of the hex duct in Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) limits useful lifetime because of these storage basket limitations. It is, therefore, important to understand the hex duct dilation behavior to guide the design and in-core management of fuel subassemblies in a way that excessive duct deformation can be avoided. To investigate the dilation phenomena, finite-element models of the hex duct have been developed. The inelastic analyses were performed using the structural analysis code, ANSYS. Both Type 316 and D9 austenitic stainless steel ducts are considered. The calculated dilations are in good agreement with profilometry measurements made after irradiation. The analysis indicates that subassembly interaction is an important parameter in addition to neutron fluence and temperature in determining hex duct dilation. 5 refs.

  8. Predictive Factors of Biliary Tract Cancer in Anomalous Union of the Pancreaticobiliary Duct

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Tae Young; Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Hyun Kyo; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The assessment of malignancies associated with anomalous union of the pancreaticobiliary duct (AUPBD) is essential for the design of appropriate treatment strategies. The aim of the present study is to measure the incidence of AUPBD-related pancreaticobiliary malignancy and to identify predictive factors. This retrospective cohort study included cases of 229 patients with AUPBD between January 1999 and December 2013. The impact of bile duct dilatation on the incidence of AUPBD-related pancreaticobiliary disease was measured, and predictive factors were evaluated. Among 229 patients with AUPBD, 152 had common bile duct dilatation (≥10 mm) (dilated group) and 77 did not (<10 mm) (nondilated group). Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma occurred more frequently in the nondilated group than in the dilated group (3.9% vs 0%; P < 0.05). By contrast, no significant difference in the incidence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was observed between the 2 groups (1.3% vs 3.9%; P = 0.271). By univariate analysis, age, type of AUPBD, and the level of pancreatic enzymes refluxed in the bile duct were associated with occurrence of biliary tract cancers. In multivariate analysis, age ≥45 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.042, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.011–1.073, P < 0.05), P-C type (OR 3.327, 95% CI 1.031–10.740, P < 0.05), and a high level of biliary lipase (OR 4.132, 95% CI 1.420–12.021, P < 0.05) showed a significant association with AUPBD-related biliary tract cancer. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma may occur more frequently in AUPBD patients without bile duct dilatation. Age ≥45 years, P-C type, and biliary lipase level ≥45,000 IU/L are significantly associated with AUPBD-related biliary tract cancer. PMID:27196455

  9. Predictive Factors of Biliary Tract Cancer in Anomalous Union of the Pancreaticobiliary Duct.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Seok; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Tae Young; Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Hyun Kyo; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of malignancies associated with anomalous union of the pancreaticobiliary duct (AUPBD) is essential for the design of appropriate treatment strategies. The aim of the present study is to measure the incidence of AUPBD-related pancreaticobiliary malignancy and to identify predictive factors. This retrospective cohort study included cases of 229 patients with AUPBD between January 1999 and December 2013. The impact of bile duct dilatation on the incidence of AUPBD-related pancreaticobiliary disease was measured, and predictive factors were evaluated.Among 229 patients with AUPBD, 152 had common bile duct dilatation (≥10 mm) (dilated group) and 77 did not (<10 mm) (nondilated group). Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma occurred more frequently in the nondilated group than in the dilated group (3.9% vs 0%; P < 0.05). By contrast, no significant difference in the incidence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was observed between the 2 groups (1.3% vs 3.9%; P = 0.271). By univariate analysis, age, type of AUPBD, and the level of pancreatic enzymes refluxed in the bile duct were associated with occurrence of biliary tract cancers. In multivariate analysis, age ≥45 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.042, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.011-1.073, P < 0.05), P-C type (OR 3.327, 95% CI 1.031-10.740, P < 0.05), and a high level of biliary lipase (OR 4.132, 95% CI 1.420-12.021, P < 0.05) showed a significant association with AUPBD-related biliary tract cancer.Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma may occur more frequently in AUPBD patients without bile duct dilatation. Age ≥45 years, P-C type, and biliary lipase level ≥45,000 IU/L are significantly associated with AUPBD-related biliary tract cancer. PMID:27196455

  10. Dilated common duct sign. A potential indicator of a sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia

    SciTech Connect

    DeRidder, P.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1984-05-01

    The cholescintigraphic findings of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia (SOD) in a 45-year-old woman with persistent right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic are reported. After an overnight fast, the patient was injected with 5 mCi of Tc-99 disofenin and .02 micrograms/kg of cholecystokinin (CCK) post maximal gallbladder filling. Pre and postcholescintiscans were obtained and gallbladder ejection fractions determined. The hepatobiliary scan was normal, except for a delay in biliary-bowel transit. The gallbladder responded normally to CCK, however, the Sphincter of Oddi responded abnormally, as there was a paradoxical response to CCK manifested by a marked dilatation of the common bile duct. It was postulate that this dilatation (the dilated common duct sign) was due to an inappropriate response of the smooth muscle of the Sphincter of Oddi (contraction vs relaxation) to CCK and was the cause of this patient's biliary colic. The dilated common duct sign should alert the physician to the possibility of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia.

  11. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  12. A rare cause of dilated bile duct incidentally detected on imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kah Poh; Nautsch, Deborah; Desilets, David; Mehendiratta, Vaibhav

    2014-01-01

    Adenomas involving the extrahepatic bile ducts are rare benign tumours of the biliary tract. Given the asymptomatic nature of these tumours and the natural progression of biliary adenoma to carcinoma including cholangiocarcinoma, early detection is challenging. We present a case of an octogenarian woman with a remote history of gallstones who initially presented to the gastroenterology office for an incidental finding of biliary dilation, and whose subsequent imagings and biopsy suggested common bile adenoma. However, the patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate for pancreaticoduodenectomy, and unfortunately represented 5 months later with findings suggesting cholangiocarcinoma. This case provides a unique opportunity to study the natural progression of biliary adenoma to cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:24859557

  13. Dilatation of the Proximal Cystic Duct: Is It a Variant to "Type VI" Choledochal Cyst?

    PubMed

    Kaselas, Christos; Patoulias, Dimitrios; Patoulias, Ioannis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2016-06-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare congenital malformations, comprising of dilatation of the biliary tree of different localization. Classically, classification of choledochal cysts describes five variants of the disease. Type VI choledochal cyst is considered by many authors as the sixth variant of this classification and is described either as a dilatation of the cystic duct or as a cystic duct cyst. We present a rare case of cystic duct dilatation that presented with acute cholangiopancreatitis and a clinical picture consistent of a choledochal cyst in a 10-year-old female patient. Cholecystectomy with excision of the cystic duct was performed. Histopathologic examination did not reveal any findings consistent with choledochal cyst. Based on these findings we speculate that in our case the dilatation of the cystic duct is a variant to type VI choledochal cyst, based on the fact that no cystic-like malformation has been identified in histology. We provide details of the pre-operative work-up and compare them with intraoperative findings in order to increase awareness of the condition. PMID:27504348

  14. A Rare Anomaly of Biliary System: MRCP Evidence of a Cystic Duct Cyst.

    PubMed

    Goya, Cemil; Arslan, Mehmet Serif; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Hamidi, Cihad; Kuday, Suzan; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin

    2014-01-01

    Cystic duct cysts are a rare congenital anomaly. While the other bile duct cysts (choledochus and the intrahepatic bile ducts) are classified according to the classification described by Tadoni, there is no classification method described by the cystic duct cysts, although it is claimed that the cystic duct cysts may constitute a new "Type 6" category. Only a limited number of patients with cystic duct cysts have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis is usually made in the neonatal period or during childhood. The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and usually include pain in the right upper quadrant and jaundice. The condition may also present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholelithiasis, or pancreatitis. In our case, the abdominal ultrasonography (US) performed on a 6-year-old female patient who presented with pain in the right upper quadrant pointed out an anechoic cyst at the neck of the gall bladder. Based on the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) results, a cystic dilatation was diagnosed in the cystic duct. The aim of this case-report presentation was to discuss the US and MRCP findings of the cystic dilatation of cystic duct, which is an extremely rare condition, in the light of the literature information. PMID:24987540

  15. Spread of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm Arising from the Cystic Duct of the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Yoshihiko; Yokota, Yuki; Komoto, Satoshi; Kubota, Nobuhito; Okamoto, Takahiro; Ishido, Nobuhiro; Okino, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a variant type of the bile duct carcinoma characterized by intraductal growth. IPNB is also recognized as a precursor of invasive carcinoma. We describe herein an extremely rare case of IPNB arising from the cystic duct. A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of epigastralgia and abnormal levels of biliary tract enzyme. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion spreading from the cystic duct to the upper-middle bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated diffuse duct dilation with a grossly visible intraductal mass and amorphous blobs, suggesting the presence of mucobilia or scattered tumors. We performed extrahepatic bile duct resection with lymphadenectomy. Macroscopically, a friable papillary tumor originated from the cystic duct grows intraluminally into the bile duct. Pathologically, the tumor was found to be intramucosal adenocarcinoma spreading to the whole extrahepatic bile duct, which was compatible with IPNB. We should discuss the features and progression processes of IPNB through this precious case.

  16. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-05-28

    We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

  17. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-01-01

    We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

  18. [Congenital dilatation of the biliary system in adult: about three clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Ungania, Silvio; Barletta, Nives

    2011-01-01

    The authors refer to three cases of congenital dilatation of the biliary system in an adult, an extremely rare pathology in the West, with no specific symptomatology, and therefore often discovered accidentally and unexpectedly The first patient had suffered from unexplained periods of fever since childhood, the second had only complained of vague abdominal pains a years before diagnosis; for the third, a Romanian woman, it was the first time she complained of a biliary colic. All the patients had an Ultrasound, a CT scan and a MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancretography). Based on the Todani classification, the first and the third case belongs to type IV A, while the second is a type I. In all three patients the pathology was resolved due to an operation entailing disconnection of the biliary-pancreatic tract, with complete surgical removal of the dilated bile ducts followed by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy. Nevertheless the procedures undertaken are not immune to criticism: in the first and second case the diagnostic imagery had not immediately produced a clear interpretation, leading to a delay in the diagnosis and the execution in the first of a not anodyne ERCP; in the third case a colecistectomy was performed as it were as an intermediary measure; finally there was probably omitted a thorough explanation to the patient with regard to a pathology deserving of a careful follow-up for the possible recidivist of the infectious phenomena and above all the onset of the dangerous degeneration carcinomatosa. PMID:22229240

  19. Transhepatic Balloon Dilatation of Early Biliary Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Successful Initial and Mid-Term Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Belenky, Alexander; Mor, Eytan; Bartal, Gabriel; Atar, Eli; Shapiro, Riki; Bar-Nathan, Nathan; Bachar, Gil N.

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial and mid-term outcomes of transhepatic balloon dilatation for the treatment of early biliary strictures in lateral left-segment liver transplants in young children.Methods: Between April 1997 and May 2001, seven children aged 9 months to 6 years with nine benign strictures in left-segment liver grafts were treated percutaneously. Sessions of two or three dilations were performed three or four times at average intervals of 10-20 days. In each session, the biliary stenoses were gradually dilated using balloons of 3-7 mm. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 54 months (mean 27 months, median 12 months). Clinical success was defined as resolution of the stenosis, normalization of liver enzymes and lack of clinical symptoms. Results: Technical success was achieved in all nine strictures. Hemobilia occurred in one patient and was successfully treated. On follow-up, all patients had complete clinical recovery with normalization of liver function and imaging of patent bile ducts. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation is an effective and relatively safe method for the treatment of early biliary strictures in left-segment liver transplantation in young children. We recommend this approach as the initial treatment for early strictures. Metal stents or surgery should be reserved for patients with late appearance of strictures or failure of balloon dilatation.

  20. Dilatation of the Proximal Cystic Duct: Is It a Variant to “Type VI” Choledochal Cyst?

    PubMed Central

    Patoulias, Dimitrios; Patoulias, Ioannis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare congenital malformations, comprising of dilatation of the biliary tree of different localization. Classically, classification of choledochal cysts describes five variants of the disease. Type VI choledochal cyst is considered by many authors as the sixth variant of this classification and is described either as a dilatation of the cystic duct or as a cystic duct cyst. We present a rare case of cystic duct dilatation that presented with acute cholangiopancreatitis and a clinical picture consistent of a choledochal cyst in a 10-year-old female patient. Cholecystectomy with excision of the cystic duct was performed. Histopathologic examination did not reveal any findings consistent with choledochal cyst. Based on these findings we speculate that in our case the dilatation of the cystic duct is a variant to type VI choledochal cyst, based on the fact that no cystic-like malformation has been identified in histology. We provide details of the pre-operative work-up and compare them with intraoperative findings in order to increase awareness of the condition. PMID:27504348

  1. Paclitaxel-eluting balloon dilation of biliary anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hüsing, Anna; Reinecke, Holger; Cicinnati, Vito R; Beckebaum, Susanne; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut H; Kabar, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic therapy with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) for biliary anastomotic stricture (AS) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: This prospective pilot study enrolled 13 consecutive eligible patients treated for symptomatic AS after LT at the University Hospital of Münster between January 2011 and March 2014. The patients were treated by endoscopic therapy with a PEB and followed up every 8 wk by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In cases of re-stenosis, further balloon dilation with a PEB was performed. Follow-up was continued until 24 mo after the last intervention. RESULTS: Initial technical feasibility, defined as successful balloon dilation with a PEB during the initial ERCP procedure, was achieved in 100% of cases. Long-term clinical success (LTCS), defined as no need for further endoscopic intervention for at least 24 mo, was achieved in 12 of the 13 patients (92.3%). The mean number of endoscopic interventions required to achieve LTCS was only 1.7 ± 1.1. Treatment failure, defined as the need for definitive alternative treatment, occurred in only one patient, who developed recurrent stenosis with increasing bile duct dilatation that required stent placement. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic therapy with a PEB is very effective for the treatment of AS after LT, and seems to significantly shorten the overall duration of endoscopic treatment by reducing the number of interventions needed to achieve LTCS. PMID:25624733

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct dilatation with normal liver enzymes

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Claudio; Marietti, Milena; Bruno, Mauro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Rizzetto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the description of isolated bile duct dilatation has been increasingly observed in subjects with normal liver function tests and nonspecific abdominal symptoms, probably due to the widespread use of high-resolution imaging techniques. However, there is scant literature about the evolution of this condition and the impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnostic work up. When noninvasive imaging tests (transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) fail to identify the cause of dilatation and clinical or biochemical alarm signs are absent, the probability of having biliary disease is considered low. In this setting, using EUS, the presence of pathologic findings (choledocholithiasis, strictures, chronic pancreatitis, ampullary or pancreatic tumors, cholangiocarcinoma), not always with a benign course, has been observed. The aim of this review has been to evaluate the prevalence of disease among non-jaundiced patients without signs of cytolysis and/or cholestasis and the assessment of EUS yield. Data point out to a promising role of EUS in the identification of a potential biliary pathology. EUS is a low invasive technique, with high accuracy, that could play a double cost-effective role: identifying pathologic conditions with dismal prognosis, in asymptomatic patients with negative prior imaging tests, and excluding pathologic conditions and further follow-up in healthy subjects. PMID:26191344

  3. Percutaneous biliary interventions through the gallbladder and the cystic duct: What radiologists need to know.

    PubMed

    Hatzidakis, A; Venetucci, P; Krokidis, M; Iaccarino, V

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an established drainage procedure for the management of high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. However, percutaneous image-guided access to the gallbladder may not be limited to the simple placement of a drain, but may also be used as an alternative approach to the biliary tree through the catheterization of the cystic duct, for a variety of other more complicated conditions. Percutaneous transcholecystic interventions may be performed in both malignant and benign disease. In the case of malignant jaundice, the transcholecystic route may be used when the liver parenchyma is occupied by metastatic lesions and transhepatic access is not possible. In benign conditions, access through the gallbladder may offer a solution if the biliary tree is not dilated. The transcholecystic access may then be route of insertion of large sheaths, internal drainage catheters, lithotripsy devices, stone retrieval baskets, and stents. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the techniques and to discuss the indications, complications, and technical difficulties of this alternative access to the biliary tree. PMID:25172204

  4. Regulation of intrahepatic biliary duct morphogenesis by Claudin 15-like b

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Isla D.; Bagnat, Michel; Ma, Taylur P.; Datta, Anirban; Evason, Kimberley; Moore, John C.; Lawson, Nathan; Mostov, Keith E.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2011-01-01

    The intrahepatic biliary ducts transport bile produced by the hepatocytes out of the liver. Defects in biliary cell differentiation and biliary duct remodeling cause a variety of congenital diseases including Alagille Syndrome and polycystic liver disease. While the molecular pathways regulating biliary cell differentiation have received increasing attention (Lemaigre, 2010), less is known about the cellular behavior underlying biliary duct remodeling. Here, we have identified a novel gene, claudin 15-like b (cldn15lb), which exhibits a unique and dynamic expression pattern in the hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in zebrafish. Claudins are tight junction proteins that have been implicated in maintaining epithelial polarity, regulating paracellular transport, and providing barrier function. In zebrafish cldn15lb mutant livers, tight junctions are observed between hepatocytes, but these cells show polarization defects as well as canalicular malformations. Furthermore, cldn15lb mutants show abnormalities in biliary duct morphogenesis whereby biliary epithelial cells remain clustered together and form a disorganized network. Our data suggest that Cldn15lb plays an important role in the remodeling process during biliary duct morphogenesis. Thus, cldn15lb mutants provide a novel in vivo model to study the role of tight junction proteins in the remodeling of the biliary network and hereditary cholestasis. PMID:22020048

  5. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, Guido Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Salvetti, Monica; Romito, Raffaele; Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

  6. BIODEGRADABLE BILIARY STENTS: A NEW APPROACH FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF HEPATICOJEJUNOSTOMY STRICTURES FOLLOWING BILE DUCT INJURY. PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    GIMÉNEZ, Mariano E.; PALERMO, Mariano; HOUGHTON, Eduardo; ACQUAFRESCA, Pablo; FINGER, Caetano; VERDE, Juan M.; CÚNEO, Jorge Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Once a biliary injury has occurred, repair is done by a hepaticojejunostomy. The most common procedure is to perform a dilatation with balloon with a success of 70 %. Success rates range using biodegradable stents is from 85% to 95%. Biodegradable biliary stents should change the treatment of this complication. Aim: To investigate the use of biodegradable stents in a group of patients with hepaticojejunonostomy strictures. Methods: In a prospective study 16 biodegradable stents were placed in 13 patients with hepaticojejunostomy strictures secondary to bile duct repair of a biliary surgical injury. Average age was 38.7 years (23-67), nine were female and four male. All cases had a percutaneous drainage before at the time of biodegradable stent placement. Results: In one case, temporary haemobilia was present requiring blood transfusion. In another, pain after stent placement required intravenous medication. In the other 11 patients, hospital discharge was the next morning following stent placement. During the patient´s follow-up, none presented symptoms during the first nine months. One patient presented significant alkaline phosphatase elevation and stricture recurrence was confirmed. One case had recurrence of cholangitis 11 months after the stent placement. 84.6% continued asymptomatic with a mean follow-up of 20 months. Conclusion: The placement of biodegradable stents is a safe and feasible technique. Was not observed strictures caused by the stent or its degradation. It could substitute balloon dilation in strictures of hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:27438039

  7. Comparison of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Hayashi, Masahiro; Senoo, Jun-Ichi; Kusakabe, Yuko; Yasui, Shin; Mikata, Rintaro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-05-25

    Endoscopic treatment for bile duct stones is low-invasive and currently considered as the first choice of the treatment. For the treatment of bile duct stones, papillary treatment is necessary, and the treatments used at the time are broadly classified into two types; endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation where bile duct closing part is dilated with a balloon and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) where bile duct closing part is incised. Both procedures have advantages and disadvantages. Golden standard is EST, however, there are patients with difficulty for EST, thus we must select the procedure based on understanding of the characteristics of the procedure, and patient backgrounds. PMID:27247706

  8. Comparison of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Hayashi, Masahiro; Senoo, Jun-ichi; Kusakabe, Yuko; Yasui, Shin; Mikata, Rintaro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment for bile duct stones is low-invasive and currently considered as the first choice of the treatment. For the treatment of bile duct stones, papillary treatment is necessary, and the treatments used at the time are broadly classified into two types; endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation where bile duct closing part is dilated with a balloon and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) where bile duct closing part is incised. Both procedures have advantages and disadvantages. Golden standard is EST, however, there are patients with difficulty for EST, thus we must select the procedure based on understanding of the characteristics of the procedure, and patient backgrounds. PMID:27247706

  9. [Human papillomavirus, neonatal giant cell hepatitis and biliary duct atresia].

    PubMed

    Drut, R; Gómez, M A; Drut, R M; Cueto, R E; Lojo, M

    1998-01-01

    We previously recognized the presence of HPV-DNA in cases of idiopathic neonatal giant cell hepatitis (INGCH) and extrahepatic biliary duct atresia (EBDA) in archivated tissue using the PCR technique. In order to investigate a possible vertical transmission we looked for the presence of HPV-DNA in cervical swabs in the mothers along with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded hepatic tissue from 3 infants with INGCH and 4 patients with EBDA by nested-PCR. Cervical smears showed koilocytosis consistent with HPV infection in 2 cases. Delivery was vaginal except for one that was by cesarean section. All infants were males. Amplification of HPV-DNA was demonstrated in all cases, the types being concordant in infants and mothers. Although this is a small group, the findings appear in line with previous data. The presence of the same type of HPV-DNA in the infants' livers and their mothers' cervical swabs is another argument supporting the possibility of vertical transmission of the virus. PMID:9607071

  10. Congenital absence of the common bile duct: A rare anomaly of extrahepatic biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Tarun; Pulle, Mohan V; Dey, Ashish; Malik, Vinod K

    2016-01-01

    Congenital absence of the common bile duct (CBD) is an extremely rare developmental anomaly with right and left hepatic ducts draining directly into the gallbladder (GB). Other synonyms for this clinical condition are "cholecystohepatic ducts", "transverse lie of the GB" or "interposition of the GB". The potential for iatrogenic injury is high, because of either inadvertent division or ligation of the ducts. Diagnosis is mostly made intraoperatively, and needs some form of biliary reconstruction. Herein, we are reporting a case of congenital absence of the CBD in a 36-year-old lady that was detected intraoperatively. PMID:27279403

  11. Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in orthotopic liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis: a viable and safe alternative.

    PubMed

    Damrah, Osama; Sharma, Dinesh; Burroughs, Andrew; Rolando, Nancy; Fernando, Bimbi; Davidson, Brian; Rolles, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Roux-en-Y loop is considered the reconstruction method of choice in Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT) for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC). We have adopted an approach of duct-to-duct (D-D) reconstruction when recipient common bile duct is free of gross disease. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who underwent a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy and patients who had a D-D anastomosis. Morbidity, mortality, disease recurrence and graft and patient survival were compared between the two groups and analyzed. Ninety-one patients had OLT for PSC. Sixty-three patients underwent a D-D biliary reconstruction, whereas 28 patients had a Roux-en-Y loop. Biliary leak complicated 8% from the D-D group, and 14% from the Roux-en-Y group (P = 0.08), whereas biliary strictures were identified in 10% vs. 7% patients from the D-D and Roux-en-Y group, respectively (P = 0.9). Actuarial 1, 3 and 10 year survival for D-D and Roux-en-Y group was (87%, 80% and 62%) and (82%, 73% and 73%), respectively (P = 0.7). The corresponding 1, 3 and 10 year graft survival was (72%, 58% and 42%) and (67%, 58% and 53%), respectively (P = 0.6). No difference was seen in disease recurrence rates. D-D biliary reconstruction in OLT for selected PSC patients remains our first option of reconstruction. PMID:22017643

  12. Ketamine-induced biliary dilatation: from Hong Kong to New York.

    PubMed

    Gutkin, Ellen; Hussain, Syed A; Kim, Sang H

    2012-03-01

    Ketamine is a popular drug of abuse in China, especially for young adults between the 18 and 30 years. It produces desirable short-term sensations of excitement, dream-like states, hallucinations, and vivid imagery, but is also responsible for untoward effects of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Abusers often present with severe abdominal pain and dysuria. In addition to its excretion in urine, ketamine is also excreted in bile and can lead to biliary dilatation. Sixteen reports of this phenomenon have been described in the literature, mostly in China. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in the United States. We present 2 cases of ketamine-induced biliary dilatation in young adult Asian patients. It is a new entity in the United States but should be recognized early, as it may prevent unnecessary investigation with blood work, imaging, therapeutic endoscopy, or even surgery. PMID:22124288

  13. Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in selected cases in pediatric living-donor left-lobe liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chinsu; Loong, Che-Chuan; Hsia, Cheng-Yuan; Peng, Cheng-Kang; Tsai, Hsin-Lin; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Wei, Choufu

    2009-09-01

    The feasibility of D-D biliary reconstruction in pediatric LDLT using left-lobe graft has been discussed in few reports. The use of a trans-anastomotic biliary tube seemed to be the favorable method to avoid the complications according to these reports. We had performed left-lobe LDLT for seven pediatric cases and D-D was done originally. Three cases were converted to R-Y hepaticojejunostomy due to radical resection of hepatoduodenal ligament (n = 1) and severe kinking of D-D (n = 2). Four cases received D-D using 6-0 PDS interrupted sutures without external stent tube. One D-D case died of intra-cerebral hemorrhage 10 days after operation with a functioning graft. There was one biliary leakage in a D-D patient who required PTCD stent for 4 months without any sequale. From our limited experience, D-D biliary reconstruction without external stent tube in left-lobe LDLT is feasible in certain pediatric cases having normal extra-hepatic bile ducts. In smaller recipient with larger graft, the use of a trans-anastomotic biliary tube can prevent anastomotic kinking although we suggest R-Y biliary reconstruction is better for this condition. PMID:19067924

  14. Congenital absence of the common bile duct: A rare anomaly of extrahepatic biliary tract

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Tarun; Pulle, Mohan V.; Dey, Ashish; Malik, Vinod K.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital absence of the common bile duct (CBD) is an extremely rare developmental anomaly with right and left hepatic ducts draining directly into the gallbladder (GB). Other synonyms for this clinical condition are “cholecystohepatic ducts”, “transverse lie of the GB” or “interposition of the GB”. The potential for iatrogenic injury is high, because of either inadvertent division or ligation of the ducts. Diagnosis is mostly made intraoperatively, and needs some form of biliary reconstruction. Herein, we are reporting a case of congenital absence of the CBD in a 36-year-old lady that was detected intraoperatively. PMID:27279403

  15. Balloon Catheter Dilation and Nasolacrimal Intubation for Treatment of Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Following a Failed Probing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal intubation as treatments for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) after a failed probing in children less than 4 years of age Methods We conducted a prospective, non-randomized multicenter study which enrolled 159 children aged 6 to <48 months who had a history of a single failed nasolacrimal duct probing and had at least one of the following clinical signs of NLDO present: epiphora, mucous discharge and/or increased tear lake. One hundred ninety-nine eyes underwent either balloon catheter nasolacrimal duct dilation or nasolacrimal duct intubation. Treatment success was defined as no epiphora, mucous discharge or increased tear lake present at the outcome visit six months after surgery. Results Treatment success was reported in 65 of 84 eyes (77%, 95% CI = 65% to 85%) in the balloon group compared with 72 of 88 eyes (84%, 95% CI = 74% to 91%) eyes in the intubation group (risk ratio for success for intubation vs. balloon = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusions Balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal duct intubation each alleviate the clinical signs of persistent nasolacrimal duct obstruction in a similar proportion of patients. PMID:19433712

  16. Normothermic machine perfusion reduces bile duct injury and improves biliary epithelial function in rat donor livers.

    PubMed

    Op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Westerkamp, Andrie C; Sutton, Michael E; Kuipers, Michiel; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Ottens, Petra J; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Bile duct injury may occur during liver procurement and transplantation, especially in livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) has been shown to reduce hepatic injury compared to static cold storage (SCS). However, it is unknown whether NMP provides better preservation of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of NMP on bile duct preservation in both DCD and non-DCD livers. DCD and non-DCD livers obtained from Lewis rats were preserved for 3 hours using either SCS or NMP, followed by 2 hours ex vivo reperfusion. Biomarkers of bile duct injury (gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in bile) were lower in NMP-preserved livers compared to SCS-preserved livers. Biliary bicarbonate concentration, reflecting biliary epithelial function, was 2-fold higher in NMP-preserved livers (P < 0.01). In parallel with this, the pH of the bile was significantly higher in NMP-preserved livers (7.63 ± 0.02 and 7.74 ± 0.05 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively) compared with SCS-preserved livers (7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.49 ± 0.04 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of donor extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated significantly decreased injury of the biliary epithelium of NMP-preserved donor livers (including the loss of lateral interdigitations and mitochondrial injury). Differences between NMP and SCS were most prominent in DCD livers. Compared to conventional SCS, NMP provides superior preservation of bile duct epithelial cell function and morphology, especially in DCD donor livers. By reducing biliary injury, NMP could have an important impact on the utilization of DCD livers and outcome after transplantation. Liver Transplantation 22 994-1005 2016 AASLD. PMID:26946466

  17. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  18. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  19. Medical treatment of biliary duct stones: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration.

    PubMed Central

    Salvioli, G; Salati, R; Lugli, R; Zanni, C

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with radiolucent biliary duct stones without cholangitis and jaundice were randomly allocated into two treatment groups receiving ursodeoxycholic acid 12 mg/kg (group A) or placebo (group B) in three daily doses for 24 months. In group A stones disappeared completely in seven patients and partially in one; placebo administration had no effect on stone size and three patients of group B (only one of group A) went to surgery for complications. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment did not adversely affect liver function tests, and alkaline phosphatase decreased. Abdominal and biliary colics also became less frequent in the first six months of therapy in group A, but not in the placebo group. The bile was supersaturated with cholesterol in both groups, but decreased significantly only in patients receiving ursodeoxycholic acid even though the lithogenic index remained high. Cholesterol saturation of bile does not seem to be the only factor determining the dissolution of biliary duct stones which sometimes contain cholesterol as the main component. PMID:6345281

  20. DNA hypomethylation causes bile duct defects in zebrafish and is a distinguishing feature of infantile biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Randolph P.; EauClaire, Steven F.; Mugnier, Monica; Lorent, Kristin; Cui, Shuang; Ross, Megan M.; Zhang, Zhe; Russo, Pierre; Pack, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Summary Infantile cholestatic disorders arise in the context of progressively developing intrahepatic bile ducts. Biliary atresia (BA), a progressive fibroinflammatory disorder of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, is the most common identifiable cause of infantile cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation in children. The etiology of BA is unclear, and while there is some evidence for viral, toxic, and complex genetic causes, the exclusive occurrence of BA during a period of biliary growth and remodeling suggests an importance of developmental factors. Interestingly, interferon-γ (IFNγ) signaling is activated in patients and in the frequently utilized Rhesus rotavirus mouse model of BA, and is thought to play a key mechanistic role. Here we demonstrate intrahepatic biliary defects and upregulated hepatic expression of IFNγ pathway genes caused by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation in zebrafish larvae. Biliary defects elicited by inhibition of DNA methylation were reversed by treatment with glucocorticoid, suggesting that the activation of inflammatory pathways was critical. DNA methylation was significantly reduced in bile duct cells from BA patients compared to patients with other infantile cholestatic disorders, thereby establishing a possible etiologic link between decreased DNA methylation, activation of IFNγ signaling, and biliary defects in patients. Conclusion: Inhibition of DNA methylation leads to biliary defects and activation of IFNγ-responsive genes, thus sharing features with BA, which we determine to be associated with DNA hypomethylation. We propose epigenetic activation of IFNγ signaling as a common etiologic mechanism of intrahepatic bile duct defects in BA. PMID:21319190

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage for right hepatic bile duct obstruction: novel technical tips.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takeshi; Sano, Tatsushi; Onda, Saori; Imoto, Akira; Masuda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is not normally indicated for an obstructed right intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD). The technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of a novel technique of EUS-BD for right IHBD obstruction were evaluated. A total of 11 patients underwent drainage using either a left or a right biliary access route. The causes of obstructive jaundice were cholangiocarcinoma (n = 6), pancreatic cancer (n = 3), gastric cancer (n = 1), and colon cancer (n = 1). After placement of an uncovered metal stent to bridge the obstruction, a hepaticogastrostomy was completed using a covered stent. Mean procedure time was 33.9 ± 10.0 minutes. Technical and functional success were achieved in all patients, and no adverse events occurred. This novel method appears to be safe and effective for right IHBD obstruction. PMID:25264761

  2. IgG4-related Sclerosing Cholangitis with No Biliary Stricture but Severe Thickening of the Bile Duct Wall.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuya; Naitoh, Itaru; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Hayashi, Kazuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Yoshida, Michihiro; Umemura, Shuichiro; Hori, Yasuki; Kato, Akihisa; Ohara, Hirotaka; Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru; Joh, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of a 56-year-old man with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) with no biliary stricture, but with a severely thickened bile duct wall. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed diffuse swelling of the pancreas and thickening of the common bile duct (CBD) wall with delayed enhancement. Obvious diffuse wall thickening of the CBD was observed on endoscopic ultrasonography. However, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed no biliary stricture in the CBD that had thickened. Although IgG4-SC has been classified by a stenotic lesion on cholangiography, we should be aware of some IgG4-SC cases showing only bile duct wall thickness without any biliary stricture. PMID:27301508

  3. Clues to the Etiology of Bile Duct Injury in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Cara L.; Feldman, Amy G.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile obstructive cholangiopathy of unknown etiology with suboptimal therapy, which is responsible for 40 to 50% of all pediatric liver transplants. Although the etiology of bile duct injury in BA in unknown, it is postulated that a pre- or perinatal viral infection initiates cholangiocyte apoptosis and release of antigens that trigger a Th1 immune response that leads to further bile duct injury, inflammation, and obstructive fibrosis. Humoral immunity and activation of the innate immune system may also play key roles in this process. Moreover, recent investigations from the murine BA model and human data suggest that regulatory T cells and genetic susceptibility factors may orchestrate autoimmune mechanisms. What controls the coordination of these events, why the disease only occurs in the first few months of life, and why a minority of infants with perinatal viral infections develop BA are remaining questions to be answered. PMID:23397531

  4. Association of Endoscopic Sphincterotomy or Papillary Balloon Dilatation and Biliary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Wan-Yun; Chow, Wai-Keung; Lee, Show-Wu; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) have become the main therapeutic procedures in the treatment of biliary and pancreas disease. The risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is not well investigated among post-EST/EPBD patients with benign diseases, particularly in Asia population. A retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2010) was conducted. Among patients with history of biliary stone with cholangitis, there were 17,503 patients in the EST/EPBD cohort and 69,998 subjects in the comparison. The incidence rate ratio was calculated using the Poisson regression model. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounding factors, were used to assess the risk of developing CCA associated with endoscopic EST/EPBD. The cumulative incidences of CCA in the 2 cohorts were calculated using Kaplan–Meier analyses, and differences between the survival curves of the 2 cohorts were analyzed using a log-rank test. The overall incidence of CCA in the EST/EPBD cohort was higher than in the controls (1.36 vs 7.37 per 1000 person-years, IRR = 5.40, 95% CI = 5.15–5.67), with an adjusted HR of 4.41 (95% CI = 3.86–5.04). There were no CCA occurrences among patients receiving EST over the follow-up period 3 year after EST performed. The cumulative incidence of extrahepatic CCA seemed to be little growing in patients receiving EPBD. The cumulative incidence of intrahepatic CCA was also steady increasing in patients treated with EPBD and was more than patients receiving EST 10 years after EPBD by Kaplan–Meier analysis. In the population-based cohort study, EST is not associated with a long-term risk of intrahepatic and extrahepatic CCA. The risk of CCA for EPBD needs further investigation. PMID:26061315

  5. [Gallstone obstruction of the common bile duct, a severe form of biliary lithiasis. Choice of treatment].

    PubMed

    Le Neel, J C; Guiberteau, B; Kohen, M; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C

    1992-01-01

    Collection of 10 or more stones in the extrahepatic common bile duct causes lithiasic obstruction of the CBD, a fairly rare entity observed in less than 10% of cases of bile duct lithiasis. This study is based on 35 cases recorded over 10 years, including 60% in patients aged more than 75 years. Endoscopic treatment was attempted in 28% of patients and was totally successful in one case our of four only because of insufficient removal of obstruction after sphincterotomy. Surgery, either necessary (8 cases) or systematic (25 cases) combines cholecystectomy, choledocotomy and biliary fiberendoscopy for a complete treatment minimizing the risks of residual lithiasis. While biliodigestive anastomoses prevailed (58%) during the first years of this study, external biliary drainage was most often chosen during the last 5 years. This surgery in aged patients still entails high morbidity (25%) and considerable mortality (9%). Better efficacy may be provided in the future by the combination of fiberendoscopic means and of lithotrity for aged subjects at high surgical risks. PMID:1342650

  6. Improving patient and user safety during endoscopic investigation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, John E.; Melville, C. David; Lee, Cameron M.; Saunders, Michael D.; Burkhardt, Matthew R.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Endoscopic investigation of the main pancreatic duct and biliary ducts is called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and carries a risk of pancreatitis for the patient. During ERCP, a metal guidewire is inserted into the pancreatobiliary duct from a side-viewing large endoscope within the duodenum. To verify correct placement of the ERCP guidewire, an injection of radiopaque dye is required for fluoroscopic imaging, which exposes the patient and clinical team to x-ray radiation. A safer and more effective means to access the pancreatobiliary system can use direct optical imaging, although the endoscope diameter and stiffness will be significantly larger than a guidewire's. To quantify this invasiveness before human testing, a synthetic force-sensing pancreas was fabricated and attached to an ERCP training model. The invasiveness of a new, 1.7-mm diameter, steerable scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) was compared to the standard ERCP guidewire of 0.89-mm (0.035") diameter that is not steerable. Although twice as large and significantly stiffer than the ERCP guidewire, the SFE generated lower or significantly less average force during insertion at all 4 sensor locations (P<0.05) within the main pancreatic duct. Therefore, the addition of steering and forward visualization at the tip of the endoscope reduced the invasiveness of the in vitro ERCP procedure. Since fluoroscopy is not required, risks associated with dye injection and x-ray exposure can be eliminated when using direct optical visualization. Finally, the SFE provides wide-field high resolution imaging for image-guided interventions, laser-based fluorescence biomarker imaging, and spot spectral analysis for future optical biopsy.

  7. Hybrid endolaparoscopic management of biliary tract pathology in bariatric patients after gastric bypass: case report and review of a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Pimentel, Ronnie; Rosenthal, Raul J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor in cholesterol crystal and gallstone formation. After an Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliary duct dilatation can appear and gallstone formation can cause biliary duct obstruction or gallstone pancreatitis. Management of this clinical situation can be challenging and many approaches have been reported. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plays an important role in the management of biliary duct obstruction in these patients. However, a previous modified anatomy makes this procedure technically difficult. For these reason, we describe our single-institution experience in the management of biliary duct obstruction utilizing a hybrid approach combining laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. PMID:24105293

  8. Biliary stricture

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a gallstone in the bile duct Pancreatitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis Risk factors include: Gallstones Injury to ... Inflammation and narrowing of the biliary duct may return in some ... remain for a long period can lead to liver damage ( cirrhosis ).

  9. Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Stents in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: One-Stage or Two-Stage Procedure? Pre-Dilate or Not?

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Aksungur, Erol; Akguel, Erol; Oguz, Mahmut; Seydaoglu, Guelsah

    2003-02-15

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the necessity of percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation procedures performed before stent insertion. One hundred and twenty-six patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction underwent palliative therapy by means of percutaneous transhepatic placement of 183 metallic biliary endoprotheses. Forty-four (35%) patients underwent metallic stent insertion in a one-stage procedure and 82(65%) had undergone percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage before stent insertion. Balloon dilation of the stenosis before stent placement (pre-dilation) was performed in 53 (42%) of 126 patients. The rate of the 30-day mortality was 11%, with no procedure-related deaths. The total rate of early complications was 29%, and 84% of these complications were due to percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation procedures. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation had no clinical or statistically significant effect on the patients' survival and stent patency rate. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation increased the cost of stent placement 18% and 19%, respectively. Palliation of malignant biliary obstruction with percutaneous transhepatic stent insertion should be done directly, in the simplest way, without performing percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation before stent placement. It is more useful, safe, and cost-effective.

  10. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole. PMID:26374772

  11. Surgical aspect ot cystic dilatation of the bile duct. An anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary tract in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, J; Sakoda, K; Akita, H

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-two cholangiograms of adults with congenital dilatation of the common bile duct were studied and analyzed. Diagnosis of this disease was established by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography in nine patients, by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in two patients, and by operative cholangiography in 11 patients. All patients, except one with Caroli's disease, were classified as type I according to Alonso-Lej. An anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system (AJPBDS) was observed in 15 cases. In nine patients the common bile duct joined the main pancreatic duct, and in the remaining six patients, the pancreatic duct was noted to join the common bile duct. These anomalies are considered to be an important etiologic factor in the development of choledochal dilatation. Total cyst excision and hepaticojejunostomy in a Roux-en-Y fashion is recommended as the procedure of choice in those cases with AJPBDS. This is based on the high incidence of cholangitis and the high propensity to induce malignancy of cystic wall following simple drainage. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:7055397

  12. Microcatheter use for difficult percutaneous biliary procedures.

    PubMed

    Brountzos, Elias N; Kelekis, Alexis D; Ptohis, Nikolaos; Kotsioumba, Ioanna; Misiakos, Evangelos; Perros, George; Gouliamos, Athanasios D

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous biliary drainage procedures in patients with nondilated ducts are demanding, resulting in lower success rates than in patients with bile duct dilatation. Pertinent clinical settings include patients with iatrogenic bile leaks, diffuse cholangiocarcinomas, and sclerosing cholangitis. We describe a method to facilitate these procedures with the combined use of a 2.7-Fr microcatheter and a 0.018-in. hydrophilic wire. PMID:18320271

  13. Short-Term Biliary Stent Placement Contributing Common Bile Duct Stone Disappearance with Preservation of Duodenal Papilla Function

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yuzo; Kurokami, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the effect of biliary stent placement without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) on common bile duct stones (CBDS) disappearance and the contribution of preserving the duodenal papilla function to reduce recurrence of CBDS. Methods. Sixty-six patients admitted for acute obstructive cholangitis due to CBDS who underwent biliary stent placement without EST for 2 years from March 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The second endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed for treatment of CBDS 3 to 4 months after the first ERCP. We estimated the rate of stone disappearance at the time of second ERCP. Results. CBDS disappearance was observed in 32 (48.5%) of 66 patients. The diameter of the bile ducts and the diameter of CBDS in patients with CBDS disappearance were significantly smaller than in those with CBDS requiring extraction (p = 0.007 and p < 0.001, resp.). Stone disappearance was evident when the diameter of bile ducts and that of CBDS were <10 and 7 mm, respectively (p = 0.002). Conclusions. Short-term stent placement without EST eliminates CBDS while preserving duodenal papilla function and may be suitable for treating CBDS in patients with nondilated bile ducts and small CBDS. PMID:27247568

  14. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the bile ducts of the liver. This blocks the flow ... ducts in the liver is not known. However, primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune disorder. That means your body's ...

  15. An Unusual Cause of Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Sern Wei

    2012-01-01

    Portal biliary ductopathy (PBD) is a condition in which biliary and pancreatic ducts are extrinsically compressed by collateral branches of the portal venous system, which in turn have become dilated and varicosed due to portal hypertension. While the majority of patients with PBD are asymptomatic, a minority can present with symptoms of biliary obstruction and cholangitis with the potential of developing secondary chronic liver disease. This paper reports the case of a 29 year old male presenting with acute cholangitis, in whom PBD was diagnosed radiologically. A brief review of current literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this condition will also be presented. PMID:22844197

  16. Chronic biliary colic associated with ketamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nowfal, Ahmed; Al-Abed, Yahya A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biliary colic is a common clinical presentation, with the majority of cases being related to gallstone disease. However, rarely, patients may present with biliary symptoms without evidence of gallbladder stones – referred to as acalculous gallstone disease. This case report details a rare case of chronic biliary colic associated with ketamine abuse. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian female presented to the emergency department with a history of intermittent right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and malaise. She had experienced bouts of similar symptoms three times a year for the past 4 years. Various investigations had been conducted during her multiple admissions, which showed possible dilatation of the common bile duct, with no evidence of gallstones. Conclusion Patients can present with a dilated common bile duct and an acalculous cholecystitis. This requires considerable investigation, with an emphasis on drug history, especially with the current rise of recreational hallucinogenic drug abuse. PMID:27330331

  17. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hong; Yang, Min Jae; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo

    2013-12-14

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) has been widely used as the alternative to EST along with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (EML) for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones. Furthermore, EPLBD without EST was recently introduced as its simplified alternative technique. Thus, we systematically searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE, and analyzed all gathered data of EPLBD with and without EST, respectively, by using a single standardized definition, reviewing relevant literatures, published between 2003 and June 2013, where it was performed with large-diameter balloons (12-20 mm). The outcomes, including the initial success rate, the rate of needs for EML, and the overall success rate, and adverse events were assessed in each and compared between both of two procedures: "EPLBD with EST" and "EPLBD without EST". A total of 2511 procedures from 30 published articles were included in EPLBD with EST, while a total of 413 procedures from 3 published articles were included in EPLBD without EST. In the results of outcomes, the overall success rate was 96.5% in EPLBD with EST and 97.2% in EPLBD without EST, showing no significant difference between both of them. The initial success rate (84.0% vs 76.2%, P < 0.001) and the success rate of EPLBD without EML (83.2% vs 76.7%, P = 0.001) was significantly higher, while the rate of use of EML was significantly lower (14.1% vs 21.6%, P < 0.001), in EPLBD with EST. The rate of overall adverse events, pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, other adverse events, surgery for adverse events, and fatal adverse events were 8.3%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 0.6%, 1.7%, 0.2% and 0.2% in EPLBD with EST and 7.0%, 3.9%, 1.9%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0% and 0% in EPLBD without EST, respectively, showing no significant difference between both of them. In conclusion, recent accumulated results of EPLBD with or even without EST suggest that it is a safe and effective procedure for the

  18. Diagnosis of Cancer Spread Using Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Cholangioscopy-guided Ultrasonography for Malignant Bile Duct Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of sites of intramural cancer spread were examined by comparing the intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) and wall thickening findings at sites of intramural cancer spread and non-spread, in patients with malignant bile duct stenosis who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). The subjects were ten patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer, two with pancreatic cancer, one with cancer of the gallbladder, and one with cancer of the papilla of Vater who underwent preoperative IDUS. From these patients, 50 IDUS slices were examined with a congruent relationship with the histologic section of resected tissue. The maximum thickening, minimum thickening, maximum/minimum thickening ratio, and form factor of the medial and lateral margins of the medial hypoechoic layer were determined using diagnostic imaging, and the results were compared at sites of cancer spread and non-spread. Twelve slices were obtained from the site of stenosis, 14 from sites of cancer spread, and 24 from non-spread sites. The maximum thickening, minimum thickening, and maximum/minimum thickening ratio differed significantly between the sites of spread and the non-spread. The absolute values for wall thickening are useful for diagnosing the presence of intramural spread in patients with malignant biliary duct stenosis. PMID:18493560

  19. Recommendation to Exclude Bile-Duct-Cannulated Rats with Hyperbilirubinemia for Proper Conduct of Biliary Drug Excretion Studies.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Katsuya; Ichikawa, Takuya; Yahara, Tohru; Tsuji, Satoshi; Sugiura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) is sometimes encountered following bile-duct cannulation in rats. It possibly originates from the reduced functioning of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and subsequent adaptive alterations in the expression of Mrp3 and the organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Our aim was to clarify the importance of excluding bile-duct-cannulated (BDC) rats with HB for proper conduct of drug excretion studies. We detected HB [serum total bilirubin concentration (TBIL) ≥0.20 mg/dl] in 16% of all BDC rats prepared. The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase were within the respective normal ranges in the BDC rats with mild HB (TBIL, 0.20-0.79 mg/dl), indicating the absence of hepatic failure. In the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, an Oatps/Mrp2 probe drug in the BDC rats, the apparent volume of distribution and the clearance were smaller in the mild HB group as compared with the normal group, suggesting the reduction of apparent hepatic uptake and hepatobiliary elimination. The biliary excretion (percentage of dose) was significantly reduced by 54%, suggesting that the biliary efflux activity via Mrp2 was reduced to a greater extent relative to metabolic activity in hepatocytes. The serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity correlated with TBIL and inversely correlated with biliary excretion of pravastatin, a finding which could serve as a clue to uncover the regulatory system involving cooperation between GGT and Mrp2. In conclusion, BDC rats with HB, however mild, should be excluded from drug excretion studies to avoid the risk of underestimation of the biliary excretion of drugs. PMID:27208382

  20. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures. PMID:27044769

  1. Combined liver and extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary invasion of colorectal metastasis: a case-cohort analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wiggers, Jimme K.; te Riele, Wouter W.; van Dongen, Tristan H.; Verheij, Joanne; Busch, Olivier R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) with biliary invasion can be treated with a combined liver and extrahepatic bile duct resection. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of this procedure in a case-cohort analysis and systematic review. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent a major liver resection for CRLM between 2003 and 2013 were selected from a single center prospective database, comparing patients with and without biliary invasion. A specific and a general search strategy were used to identify relevant articles in the systematic review. Results Ten patients (13.2%) underwent combined liver and extrahepatic bile duct resection for CLRM with biliary invasion, among 76 patients included. An R0 resection was achieved in five of ten patients (50%); one of ten patients died postoperatively. Median overall survival was 19 months among patients with biliary invasion, versus 106 months among patients without biliary invasion (P=0.12). The systematic review yielded a large variability in 5-year survival after resection of CLRM with biliary invasion, ranging between 33–80%. Conclusions Surgical resection of CLRM with central biliary invasion is feasible, but survival in these patients tends to be lower due to a high rate of non-radical resections. PMID:27500147

  2. A case of concurrent pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis with marked pancreatic duct dilatation.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuichi; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Yamamura, Eiichi; Maruoka, Naotaka; Yokomizo, Kazuaki; Mizukami, Hiroki; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Ohike, Nobuyuki

    2016-08-01

    The case patient was a previously healthy 82-year-old male. Abdominal ultrasound during a medical check-up revealed a dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, and the patient was referred to our hospital for closer examination. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a low-density mass of 20 mm in the pancreatic head-body transitional area. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed marked dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and branches in the body-tail. On endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), a hypoechoic mass with irregular shape was detected, which was consistent with the area of pancreatic duct stenosis. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and pancreatic juice cytology were performed; however, there were no malignant findings. Serum IgG4 levels had increased to 299 mg/dL. Cancer of the pancreatic head was suspected and a pancreaticoduodenectomy was thus performed. Macroscopic findings included a white mass with indistinct border in the constricted part of the pancreatic duct and mottled fatty replacement of the pancreatic head. Pathologically, a large amount of IgG4-positive plasma cells was found in the white mass, with storiform fibrosis and obstructive phlebitis, which led to the diagnosis of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Furthermore, scattered low-high grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions were observed throughout the pancreatic head, separately from the AIP lesion. This is an interesting case that suggests an association between AIP and pancreatic cancer. We report the case with a review of relevant literature. PMID:27351197

  3. Dilated common bile duct and deranged liver function tests associated with ketamine use in two HIV-positive MSM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Judith; Shaw, Simon G; Gilleece, Yvonne

    2013-08-01

    We report here the first two cases of hepatobiliary pathology in HIV-positive men following recreational use of ketamine: >1 g/day over a 12-month period while on ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy. Presentation in each case was acute with nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain. Alanine aminotransferase was raised at 3.2× and 10.1 × upper limit of normal and alkaline phosphatase was raised at 1.7× and 2.5 × ULN for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed dilatation of the common bile duct; case 1, 18 mm and case 2, 14 mm with no ductal obstruction on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The symptoms resolved, common bile duct dilatation and liver function improved on discontinuation of ketamine use. Time to development of symptoms is shorter than reported in HIV-negative cases (12 months vs. 4 years) which may be explained by an interaction between ketamine and ritonavir. PMID:23970577

  4. Superiority of 10-mm-wide Balloon over 8-mm-wide Balloon in Papillary Dilation for Bile Duct Stones: A Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Tsujino, Takeshi; Umefune, Gyotane; Takahara, Naminatsu; Mohri, Dai; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Sasahira, Naoki; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a possible alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for common bile duct (CBD) stones. To date, 10- and 8-mm EPBD have not been fully compared. Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent EPBD for CBD stones at two Japanese tertiary care centers between May 1994 and January 2014 were identified. Matched pairs with 10- and 8-mm EPBD were generated. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 869 patients were identified (61 and 808 patients for 10- and 8-mm EPBD, respectively), and 61 well-balanced pairs were generated. The rate of complete stone removal within a single session was higher in the 10-mm EPBD group than in the 8-mm EPBD group (69% vs. 44%, P < 0.001), and use of lithotripsy was less frequent in the 10-mm EPBD group (23% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). The rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were similar between the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups (11% vs. 8%). Cumulative biliary complication-free rates were not statistically different between the two groups: 88% [95% confidence interval (CI): 79–97%] and 94% (95% CI: 88–100%) at 1 year and 69% (95% CI: 56–85%) and 80% (95% CI: 69–93%) at 2 years in the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups, respectively. In the 10-mm EPBD group, ascending cholangitis was not observed, and pneumobilia was found in 5% of cases during the follow-up period. Conclusions: EPBD using a 10-mm balloon for CBD stones is safe and more effective than 8-mm EPBD. The sphincter function is highly preserved after 10-mm EPBD. PMID:26228364

  5. Endoscopic removal of a spontaneously fractured biliary uncovered self-expandable metal stent.

    PubMed

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Nakai, Yousuke; Sasahira, Naoki; Kogure, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Nagano, Rie; Miyabayashi, Kouji; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Mohri, Dai; Sasaki, Takashi; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are widely used for the palliative treatment of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. However, the long-term durability of SEMSs in biliary strictures is not clear. We describe a case of endoscopic removal of spontaneously fractured uncovered biliary SEMS. A 59-year-old woman presented to our institution with a 1-year history of recurrent cholangitis. Her medical history included a proctectomy for rectal cancer and right hemihepatectomy for liver metastasis 10 years earlier. Five years after these operations, she developed a benign hilar stricture and had an uncovered SEMS placed in another hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated that the SEMS was torn in half and the distal part of the stent was floating in the dilated common bile duct. The papillary orifice was dilated by endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) using a 15-mm wire-guided balloon catheter. Subsequently, we inserted biopsy forceps into the bile duct and grasped the distal end of the broken SEMS under fluoroscopy. We successfully removed the fragment of the SEMS from the bile duct, along with the endoscope. The patient was discharged without complications. Placement of an uncovered biliary SEMS is not the preferred treatment for benign biliary strictures. Spontaneous fracture of an uncovered biliary SEMS is an extremely rare complication. We should be aware that stent fracture can occur when placing uncovered biliary SEMSs in patients with a long life expectancy. EPLBD is very useful for retrieving the fractured fragment of SEMS. PMID:22507093

  6. Anatomical study of the intrahepatic biliary ducts. Parameters that guide the surgical approach in transplanting the left lobe of the liver

    PubMed Central

    FARIAS, F.; BIGOLIN, A. VICENTE; CAVAZZOLA, L. TOTTI; DA COSTA FILHO, O. PEREIRA; DA COSTA, R. GONÇALVES; KALIL, A. NOCCHI

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction The techniques of split liver transplantation and transplanting organs from living donors require a thorough anatomical knowledge of biliary drainage, and this is an important factor in preventing complications. Methods forty-five human livers were used to perform this study. Measurements were made between the confluence of the right hepatic duct (RHD) and the left hepatic duct (LHD) and among the following structures: the venous ligament, the vertex of the confluence of the duct of segment II (DSll) and the duct of segment III (DSIII), the insertion of the duct of the segment I (DSI) and the duct of segment IV (DSIV). Then the distance between the vertex of the confluence of DSII and DSIII and the ligamentum venosum was checked. Results The LHD had less anatomical variation than the RHD. Four drainage patterns were established for the left lobe, and pattern l, in which the confluence of DSll and DSIII is to the left of the ligamentum venosum, is considered to be the most constant one. A single duct of the confluence of DSll and DSIII was found 1, 2 and 2.5 cm to the right of the ligamentum venosum in 65%, 80%, and 95% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion It was possible to show evidence of four drainage patterns of the left anatomical lobe of the liver. Furthermore, it was possible to establish the ligamentum venosum as an anatomical reference for locating the confluences of the ducts of the left liver segments. PMID:24091176

  7. Biliary pressure: manometric and perfusion studies at percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and percutaneous biliary drainage

    SciTech Connect

    vanSonnenberg, E.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Neff, C.C.; Mueller, P.R.; Simeone, J.F.; Wittenberg, J.

    1983-07-01

    Manometric pressure recordings were attempted during percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) in 203 cases. Successful readings were achieved at PTC in 85% (104/122) of patients. Pressure measurements were also obtained through 56 biliary drainage catheters, and controlled perfusion challenges were performed in 12 patients (on 18 occasions). Documentation of the occasionally poor correlation between the caliber of ducts and the degree of obstruction (i.e., pressure) was shown, and it was suggested that very high pressures may be predictive of a bile leak after PTC. Adequacy of percutaneous drainage and stricture dilatation were further assessed with these manometric techniques. Pressure and perfusion data aided in detecting and determining the significance of the nondilated obstructed duct, the dilated nonobstructed ductal system, and subtle distal ductal strictures. The knowledge obtained from percutaneous pressure recordings may help to determine appropriate therapy.

  8. Adenomas involving the extrahepatic biliary tree are rare but have an aggressive clinical course.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kah Poh; Nautsch, Deborah; Mueller, James; Desilets, David; Mehendiratta, Vaibhav

    2016-02-01

    Biliary adenomas that are usually found in surgically removed gallbladders are rare, but can also occur in the extrahepatic biliary tree. We present a case series of extrahepatic bile duct adenomas at our institution, along with a review of the literature. All three patients with extrahepatic biliary adenomas (two in the common bile ducts, one in the hepatic duct) were female with a mean age of 74 years. On initial presentation, none of the patients had obstructive jaundice but two of the three patients had symptoms of biliary origin. Case 1 is an 85-year-old woman with an incidental biliary dilation seen on chest imaging; endoscopic ultrasound revealed a sessile adenomatous polyp in the distal bile duct. The patient refused surgery and presented with occlusive biliary stricture and jaundice 5 months after initial presentation, with cytology confirming malignant progression. Case 2 is a 78-year-old woman with a history of primary sclerosing cholangitis and who presented with cholangitis, and Gram-negative sepsis. A polypoid lesion was seen on imaging in the common hepatic duct and direct cholangioscopy with biopsies confirmed the presence of adenoma with high grade dysplasia. The patient underwent successful total bile duct resection and hepaticojejunostomy but represented 1 year later with diffuse metastatic disease to the bone, liver, and peritoneum. Case 3 is a 61-year-old woman who presented with symptoms suggestive of gallbladder pathology and was found to have a polypoid bile duct lesion on intraoperative cholangiogram. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy showed an adenomatous polyp with high grade dysplasia involving the distal common bile duct. The patient underwent distal bile duct resection with choledochojejunostomy but presented with jaundice 4 years after surgery. She was found to have adenocarcinoma involving the small bowel in the Roux limb of jejunum and transverse colon. All three patients in our series presented with interval gastrointestinal

  9. Management of Biliary Strictures After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.

    2015-01-01

    Strictures of the bile duct are a well-recognized complication of liver transplant and account for more than 50% of all biliary complications after deceased donor liver transplant and living donor liver transplant. Biliary strictures that develop after transplant are classified as anastomotic strictures or nonanastomotic strictures, depending on their location in the bile duct. The incidence, etiology, natural history, and response to therapy of the 2 types vary greatly, so their distinction is clinically important. The imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of biliary strictures is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography because of its high rate of diagnostic accuracy and limited risk of complications. Biliary strictures that develop after liver transplant may be managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), or surgical revision, including retransplant. The initial treatment of choice for these strictures is ERC with progressive balloon dilation and the placement of increasing numbers of plastic stents. PTC and surgery are generally reserved for failures of endoscopic therapy or for anatomic variants that are not suitable for ERC. In this article, we discuss the classification of biliary strictures, their diagnosis, and the therapeutic strategies that can be used to manage these common complications of liver transplant. PMID:27482175

  10. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  11. Endocoil placement after endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage may prevent a bile leak

    PubMed Central

    van der Merwe, Schalk Willem; Omoshoro-Jones, Jones; Sanyika, Charles

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To further reduce the risk of bleeding or bile leakage. METHODS: We performed endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary drainage in 6 patients in whom endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) had failed. Biliary access of a dilated segment 2 or 3 duct was achieved from the stomach using a 19G needle. After radiologically confirming access a guide wire was placed, a transhepatic tract created using a 6 Fr cystotome followed by balloon dilation of the stricture and antegrade metallic stent placement across the malignant obstruction. This was followed by placement of an endocoil in the transhepatic tract. RESULTS: Dilated segmental ducts were observed in all patients with the linear endoscopic ultrasound scope from the proximal stomach. Transgastric biliary access was obtained using a 19G needle in all patients. Biliary drainage was achieved in all patients. Placement of an endocoil was possible in 5/6 patients. All patients responded to biliary drainage and no complications occurred. CONCLUSION: We show that placing endocoils at the time of endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary stenting is feasible and may reduce the risk of bleeding or bile leakage. PMID:23678378

  12. [Unusual evolution of a complex bile duct injury after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of laparoscopic surgery of cholelithiasis the incidence rate of bile duct injuries has increased significantly in the literature in relation to the operators' learning curve. Unknown injuries can have dramatic, immediate consequences and progress to bile peritonitis. Moreover surgical repair of external biliary fistula at the stage of bile duct dilatation requires biliodigestive anastomosis or liver resections "réglées". PMID:27279975

  13. Risk factors of biliary intervention by imaging after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Kyu; Choi, Jong Young; Yeo, Dong Myung; Lee, Young Joon; Yoon, Seung Kew; Bae, Si Hyun; Jang, Jeong Won; Kim, Hee Yeon; Kim, Dong Goo; You, Young Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors of biliary intervention using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 196 patients who underwent right lobe LDLT between 2006 and 2010 at a single liver transplantation center. Direct duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis was performed in all 196 patients. MRCP images routinely taken 1 mo after LDLT were analyzed to identify risk factors for biliary intervention during follow-up, such as retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Two experienced radiologists evaluated the MRCP findings, including the anastomosis site angle on three-dimensional images, the length of the filling defect on maximum intensity projection, bile duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and leakage. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients underwent biliary intervention during follow-up. The anastomosis site angle [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-0.75, P < 0.001], a filling defect in the anastomosis site (HR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.41-3.38, P = 0.001), and biliary leakage (HR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.02-6.20, P = 0.048) on MRCP were identified in the multivariate analysis as significant risk factors for biliary intervention during follow-up. Moreover, a narrower anastomosis site angle (i.e., below the median angle of 113.3°) was associated with earlier biliary intervention (38.5 ± 4.2 mo vs 62. 1 ± 4.1 mo, P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis comparing biliary intervention-free survival according to the anastomosis site angle revealed that lower survival was associated with a narrower anastomosis site angle (36.3% vs 62.0%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The biliary anastomosis site angle in MRCP after LDLT may be associated with the need for biliary intervention. PMID:26900296

  14. Intrahepatic versus extrahepatic cholestasis. Discrimination with biliary scintigraphy combined with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.

    1986-03-01

    Biliary scintigraphy and ultrasound imaging were performed in 52 patients with suspected biliary tract pathology. Results were correlated with the findings of direct cholangiography. Several new innovations in scintigraphic technique were used. The combination of ultrasound imaging and scintigraphy correctly identified biliary tract obstruction in 17 of 19 patients, 12 of whom had dilated bile ducts on ultrasonography. Intrahepatic cholestasis was correctly diagnosed in 11 of 13 patients. Accurate discrimination between intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis was achieved in 28 of 32 patients (88%) with the combined studies. Scintigraphy also provided a correct diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in all 9 patients with surgically confirmed disease. Eleven additional patients with gallbladder or pancreatic disease had normal bile ducts at scintigraphy, which was confirmed with cholangiography. When combined with ultrasound imaging, modern biliary scintigraphy can (a) provide excellent discrimination between intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis and (b) help determine the need for subsequent invasive diagnostic studies in selected patients.

  15. Percutaneous papillary large balloon dilation during percutaneous cholangioscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large bile-duct stones: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Young; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng

    2015-03-01

    When access to a major duodenal papilla or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has failed, percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy (PTCS-L) may be useful for removing common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, the feasibility and usefulness of percutaneous transhepatic papillary large-balloon dilation (PPLBD) during PTCS-L for the removal of large CBD stones has not been established. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of PPLBD for the treatment of large CBD stones. Eleven patients with large CBD stones in whom the access to the major papilla or bile duct had failed were enrolled prospectively. Papillary dilation was performed using a large (12-20 mm) dilation balloon catheter via the percutaneous transhepatic route. Post-procedure adverse events and efficacy of the stone retrieval were measured. The initial success rate of PPLBD was 100%. No patient required a basket to remove a stone after PPLBD. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy was required in 2 (18.2%) patients. The median time to complete stone removal after PPLBD was 17.8 min and no adverse events occurred after PPLBD. Asymptomatic hyperamylasemia was not encountered in any patients. This study indicates that PPLBD is safe and effective for removal of large CBD stones. PMID:25729250

  16. Double-balloon enteroscopy for ERCP in patients with Billroth II anatomy: results of a large series of papillary large-balloon dilation for biliary stone removal

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Liang; Liu, Nai-Jen; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Chin; Tsui, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ching-Song; Lin, Cheng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Data on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrphy (ERCP) in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and the use of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) for the removal of common bile duct stones in Billroth II anatomy are limited. The aims of the study were to evaluate the success of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and examine the efficacy of EPLBD ( ≥ 10 mm) for the removal of common bile duct stones. Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy in whom standard ERCP had failed underwent DBE-assisted ERCP. DBE success was defined as visualizing the papilla and ERCP success as completing the intended intervention. The clinical results of EPLBD for the removal of common bile duct stones were analyzed. Results: DBE was successful in 73 of 77 patients (95 %), and ERCP success was achieved in 67 of these 73 (92 %). Therefore, the rate of successful DBE-assisted ERCP was 87 % (67 of a total of 77 patients). The reasons for ERCP failure (n = 10) included tumor obstruction (n = 2), adhesion obstruction (n = 2), failed cannulation (n = 3), failed stone removal (n = 2), and bowel perforation (n = 1). Overall DBE-assisted ERCP complications occurred in 5 of 77 patients (6.5 %). A total of 48 patients (34 male, mean age 75.5 years) with common bile duct stones underwent EPLBD. Complete stone removal in the first session was accomplished in 36 patients (75 %); mechanical lithotripsy was required in 1 patient. EPLBD-related mild perforation occurred in 2 patients (4 %). No acute pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions: DBE permits therapeutic ERCP in patients who have a difficult Billroth II gastrectomy with a high success rate and acceptable complication rates. EPLBD is effective and safe for the removal of common bile duct stones in patients with Billroth II anatomy. PMID:26171434

  17. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  18. A novel biodegradable biliary stent in the normal duct hepaticojejunal anastomosis: an 18-month follow-up in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Sand, Juhani A; Chow, Pierce; Juuti, Hanne; Kellomäki, Minna; Kärkkäinen, Päivi; Isola, Jorma; Yu, Sidney; Somanesan, Satchithanantham; Kee, Irene; Song, In Chin; Ng, Teck Hin; Nordback, Isto H

    2007-06-01

    Creating a well-functioning hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) anastomosis with nondilated bile ducts remains a challenge. Our aim was to study the use in a large animal model of a novel, braided polylactide barium sulfate biodegradable biliary stent (BDBS) without external connection and with no need for later removal. Fifty swine were randomly operated on for Roux-Y HJ with or without BDBS in the anastomosis, and followed up (dynamic biligraphy, x-ray, serum determinations, anastomosis inner diameter, and histology) for 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. During the follow-up, one nonstented animal died because of anastomotic leakage. In x-ray BDBS was seen in place until 1.5 months in all of the stented animals. In the nonstented animals HJ anastomosis inner diameter was decreased at 18 months [6.3 (5.0-7.0) mm vs 7.4 (7.0-9.0) mm, p = 0.05] and liver clearance reduced at 12 and 18 months compared to stented animals. Serum liver values and liver and bile duct histology did not differ between the groups. We conclude that this novel BDBS is easy to insert into the HJ anastomosis with nondilated ducts. It is nontoxic, dissolves safely, and may be associated with a larger and better draining anastomosis at 18-month follow-up. These results encourage us to proceed to clinical studies. PMID:17436052

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Endoscopic Balloon Dilation Combined with Stenting in Patients with Biliary Anastomotic Strictures After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chunyan; Ma, Chao; Xu, Guifang; Shen, Shanshan; Lv, Ying; Zou, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic balloon dilation combined with stenting has been increasingly used in managing biliary anastomotic strictures (BAS) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, data on the efficacy and safety vary among different studies. To obtain reliable estimates for the efficacy and safety of this endoscopic combination therapy in post-OLT BAS. A systematic search was conducted in the literature published until June 2012. The outcomes of individual study were transformed into comparable data using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Fixed-effect or random-effect models were built to simulate the outcomes. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to explore the sources of clinical heterogeneity. Clinical resolution and recurrence were defined as the primary outcomes and complications and mortality as secondary outcomes. Nineteen studies (15 retrospective, 4 prospective; 17 full-texts, 2 abstracts) were included, with a total of 745 patients. Fully covered self-expandable metal stent was only reported in one study, achieving a resolution rate of 92.3 %, recurrence rate of 8.3 %, and complication rate of 7.7 %. For 18 studies using plastic stents, the pooled resolution rate was 86 % (95 % CI 80-91 %; I (2) = 74.7 %). Abstracts, study design, and the delay from OLT to BAS diagnosis were contributing factors for heterogeneity in resolution. The pooled recurrence rate was 9 % (95 % CI 5-13 %; I (2) = 59.6 %). Longer stenting duration predicted less recurrence (OR = 0.95, p = 0.002). The pooled complication rate was 14 % (95 % CI 8-21 %, I (2) = 71.2 %). No procedure-related mortality was reported. Endoscopic balloon dilation combined with stenting is a relatively effective and safe modality in post-OLT BAS. PMID:25552252

  20. [Digestive endoscopy: biliary tract and pancreas].

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Guido

    2016-06-01

    New technological developments in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound, both for diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic diseases, have opened up new scenarios in the recent years. For instance, removal of large bile duct stones with endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation has been proven to be a safe and effective technique. Also cholangioscopy evolved in terms of better imaging, tissue acquisition and stones management. Self-expandable metal stents are used mostly for malignant diseases, but their role in benign diseases has also been deeply investigated in the last years. The rapid evolution in the field of radiofrequency brought new devices for safer ablation and palliation of biliary tumours. Self-expandable metal stents are also used for ultrasound-guided drainage of walled off pancreatic necrosis and for choledocoduodenostomy and cholecystogastrostomy. PMID:27362720

  1. Biliary cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, P D

    1975-01-01

    This review brings the total number of biliary cysts reported in the world literature to 955. Eighty-one per cent of patients are females and 61% were discovered before age ten. The classical triad of right upper quadrant pain, right upper quandrant mass, and juandice is present in 38% of cases. The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged from less than one week to more than 40 years. The etiology is multifaceted and evidence of the existence of both acquired and congenital cysts is presented. The most useful diagnostic tool is fiberoptic endoscopy with retrograde contrast injection of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. The incidence of biliary carcinoma in patients with biliary cysts is found to be 2.5%; 24 cases have been reported. Considerable controversy has existed concerning the best operative procedure for biliary cysts; no treatment or medical treatment yielding a 97% mortality rate. In an analysis of 235 patients presented since 1968 with an average followup of 5.2 years, the best procedure appears to be excision with either choledochocholedocostomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The operative mortality for all procedures is now 3 to 4%. PMID:1103760

  2. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-In; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month. PMID:26155279

  3. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-In; Hwang, Shin; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month. PMID:26155279

  4. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Rosario; MacFadyen, Bruce V

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has become the procedure of choice in the management of choledocholithiasis in several laparoscopic centers. The increasing interest for this laparoscopic approach is due to the development of instrumentation and technique, allowing the procedure to be performed safely, and it is also the result of the revised role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which has been questioned because of its cost, risk of complications and effectiveness. Many surgeons, however, are still not familiar with this technique. In this article we discuss the technique and results of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Both the laparoscopic transcystic approach and choledochotomy are discussed, together with the results given in the literature. When one considers the costs, morbidity, mortality and the time required before the patient can return to work, it would appear that laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration is more favorable than open surgery or laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative or postoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. However, the technique requires advanced laparoscopic skills, including suturing, knot tying, the use of a choledochoscope, guidewire, dilators and balloon stone extractor. Although laparoscopic common bile duct exploration appears to be the most cost-effective method to treat common bile duct stones, it should be emphasized that this procedure is very challenging, and it should be performed by well-trained laparoscopic surgeons with experience in biliary surgery. PMID:11981684

  5. Endoscopic Treatment of Biliary Stenosis in Patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis – Report of 7 Consecutive Patients with Serial ERC Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovic, Marija; Junghanss, Thomas; Veeser, Mira; Weber, Tim F.; Sauer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Biliary vessel pathology due to alveolar echicococcosis (AE) results in variable combinations of stenosis, necrosis and inflammation. Modern management strategies for patients with cholestasis are desperately needed. The aim is proof of principle of serial ERC (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) balloon dilation for AE biliary pathology. Methods Retrospective case series of seven consecutive patients with AE-associated biliary pathology and ERC treatment in an interdisciplinary endoscopy unit at a University Hospital which hosts a national echinococcosis treatment center. The AE patient cohort consists of 106 patients with AE of the liver of which 13 presented with cholestasis. 6/13 received bilio-digestive anastomosis and 7/13 patients were treated by ERC and are reported here. Biliary stricture balloon dilation was performed with 18-Fr balloons at the initial and with 24-Fr balloons at subsequent interventions. If indicated 10 Fr plastic stents were placed. Results Six patients were treated by repeated balloon dilation and stenting, one by stenting only. After an acute phase of 6 months with repeated balloon dilation, three patients showed “sustained clinical success” and four patients “assisted therapeutic success,” of which one has not yet reached the six month endpoint. In one patient, sustained success could not be achieved despite repeated insertion of plastic stents and balloon dilation, but with temporary insertion of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS). There was no loss to follow up. No major complications were observed. Conclusions Serial endoscopic dilation is a standard tool in the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Serial endoscopic intervention with balloon dilation combined with benzimidazole treatment can re-establish and maintain biliary duct patency in AE associated pathology and probably contributes to avoid or postpone bilio-digestive anastomosis. This approach is in accordance with current

  6. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation may preserve sphincter of Oddi function after common bile duct stone management: evaluation from the viewpoint of endoscopic manometry

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Kodama, T; Takaaki, J; Tatsumi, Y; Maeda, T; Fujita, S; Fukui, Y; Ogasawara, H; Mitsufuji, S

    1997-01-01

    Background—Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) has been reported as a safe and effective alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of common bile duct (CBD) stones; its effect on papillary function has yet to be elucidated. 
Aim—To investigate sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility before and after EPBD to determine its effect on SO function. 
Patients and methods—The papillary function of 10 patients with CBD stones was studied using endoscopic manometry before and one week after EPBD. The manometric studies were repeated one month after EPBD in seven patients. 
Results—One week after EPBD, CBD pressure, SO peak pressure, SO basal pressure, and SO frequency decreased significantly. One month after EPBD, however, all parameters increased although the increases in SO basal pressure and CBD pressure were not significant. There was no significant difference in values of any parameter before and one month after EPBD. No serious complications occurred. 
Conclusion—These data suggest at least partial recovery of papillary function one month after the procedure. EPBD seems to preserve papillary function in treatment of CBD stones; a longer term follow up study with SO manometry should be performed to clarify the effect of EPBD on SO function. 

 Keywords: endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation; sphincter of Oddi PMID:9391256

  7. Current diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remain a significant biliary complication and play an important role in graft and patient survival. Benign biliary strictures after transplantation are classified into anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures. These two types differ in presentation, outcome, and response to therapy. The leading causes of biliary strictures include impaired blood supply, technical errors during surgery, and biliary anomalies. Because patients usually have non-specific symptoms, a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Magnetic resonance cholangiography has gained widespread acceptance as a reliable noninvasive tool for detecting biliary complications. Endoscopy has played an increasingly prominent role in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary strictures after LDLT. Endoscopic management in LDLT recipients may be more challenging than in deceased donor liver transplantation patients because of the complex nature of the duct-to-duct reconstruction. Repeated aggressive endoscopic treatment with dilation and the placement of multiple plastic stents is considered the first-line treatment for biliary strictures. Percutaneous and surgical treatments are now reserved for patients for whom endoscopic management fails and for those with multiple, inaccessible intrahepatic strictures or Roux-en-Y anastomoses. Recent advances in enteroscopy enable treatment, even in these latter cases. Direct cholangioscopy, another advanced form of endoscopy, allows direct visualization of the inner wall of the biliary tree and is expected to facilitate stenting or stone extraction. Rendezvous techniques can be a good option when the endoscopic approach to the biliary stricture is unfeasible. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. PMID:26819525

  8. Intraductal ultrasonographic anatomy of biliary varices in patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Tadayuki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Hikichi, Takuto; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The term, portal biliopathy, denotes various biliary abnormalities, such as stenosis and/or dilatation of the bile duct, in patients with portal hypertension. These vascular abnormalities sometimes bring on an obstructive jaundice, but they are not clear which vessels participated in obstructive jaundice. The aim of present study was clear the bile ductal changes in patients with portal hypertension in hopes of establishing a therapeutic strategy for obstructive jaundice caused by biliary varices. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and thirty-seven patients who underwent intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for biliary abnormalities were enrolled. Portal biliopathy was analyzed using IDUS. Results: Biliary varices were identified in 11 (2.7%) patients. IDUS revealed biliary varices as multiple, hypoechoic features surrounding the bile duct wall. These varices could be categorized into one of two groups according to their location in the sectional image of bile duct: epicholedochal and paracholedochal. Epicholedochal varices were identified in all patients, but paracholedochal varices were observed only in patients with extrahepatic portal obstruction. Conclusion: IDUS was useful to characterize the anatomy of portal biliopathy in detail. PMID:25789284

  9. Biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chardot, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease characterised by a biliary obstruction of unknown origin that presents in the neonatal period. It is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in this age group. BA occurs in approximately 1/18,000 live births in Western Europe. In the world, the reported incidence varies from 5/100,000 to 32/100,000 live births, and is highest in Asia and the Pacific region. Females are affected slightly more often than males. The common histopathological picture is one of inflammatory damage to the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with sclerosis and narrowing or even obliteration of the biliary tree. Untreated, this condition leads to cirrhosis and death within the first years of life. BA is not known to be a hereditary condition. No primary medical treatment is relevant for the management of BA. Once BA suspected, surgical intervention (Kasai portoenterostomy) should be performed as soon as possible as operations performed early in life is more likely to be successful. Liver transplantation may be needed later if the Kasai operation fails to restore the biliary flow or if cirrhotic complications occur. At present, approximately 90% of BA patients survive and the majority have normal quality of life. PMID:16872500

  10. Deep Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes Revealed GNAS Mutations to Be Associated with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Its Main Pancreatic Duct Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Maekawa, Shinya; Kadokura, Makoto; Miura, Mika; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues. Methods Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer. Results Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n = 3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p = 0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN. Conclusions The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion. PMID:24897499

  11. Interval Biliary Stent Placement Via Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystostomy: Another Approach to Palliative Treatment in Malignant Biliary Tract Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, James Mortimer, Alex; Kelly, Michael; Loveday, Eric

    2010-12-15

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure for providing gallbladder decompression, often in critically ill patients. It can be used in malignant biliary obstruction following failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography when the intrahepatic ducts are not dilated or when stent insertion is not possible via the bile ducts. In properly selected patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy in obstructive jaundice is a simple, safe, and rapid option for biliary decompression, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality involved with percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Subsequent use of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for definitive biliary stent placement is an attractive concept and leaves patients with no external drain. To the best of our knowledge, it has only been described on three previous occasions in the published literature, on each occasion forced by surgical or technical considerations. Traditionally, anatomic/technical considerations and the risk of bile leak have precluded such an approach, but improvements in catheter design and manufacture may now make it more feasible. We report a case of successful interval metal stent placement via percutaneous cholecystostomy which was preplanned and achieved excellent palliation for the patient. The pros and cons of the procedure and approach are discussed.

  12. Opium-related sphincter of Oddi dysfunction causing double duct sign

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder Singh; Chaudhary, Vinita; Dhaka, Narendra; Manrai, Manish; Sivalingam, Jegan; Sharma, Ravi; Dutta, Usha; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Double duct sign where there is a simultaneous dilatation of both the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct is usually associated with sinister causes like malignancies of pancreatic head or ampulla. Occasionally, benign causes like chronic pancreatitis or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) may cause double duct sign. Chronic opium abuse is a rare cause of the double duct sign, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings of this rare entity have been occasionally reported. We report about a 54-year-old male with a history of chronic alcohol and opioid abuse evaluated for episodes of abdominal pain and found to have opioid-related SOD and improved with biliary sphincterotomy. EUS was done to rule out malignancy and revealed hypoechoic prominence around terminal CBD suggestive of hypertrophied muscle. PMID:27503161

  13. Opium-related sphincter of Oddi dysfunction causing double duct sign.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder Singh; Chaudhary, Vinita; Dhaka, Narendra; Manrai, Manish; Sivalingam, Jegan; Sharma, Ravi; Dutta, Usha; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Double duct sign where there is a simultaneous dilatation of both the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct is usually associated with sinister causes like malignancies of pancreatic head or ampulla. Occasionally, benign causes like chronic pancreatitis or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) may cause double duct sign. Chronic opium abuse is a rare cause of the double duct sign, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings of this rare entity have been occasionally reported. We report about a 54-year-old male with a history of chronic alcohol and opioid abuse evaluated for episodes of abdominal pain and found to have opioid-related SOD and improved with biliary sphincterotomy. EUS was done to rule out malignancy and revealed hypoechoic prominence around terminal CBD suggestive of hypertrophied muscle. PMID:27503161

  14. Cystadenomas of the liver and extrahepatic bile ducts: Morphologic and immunohistochemical characterization of the biliary and intestinal variants.

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Henson, Donald E

    2015-06-01

    Cystadenomas of the liver and extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBD) are uncommon but distinctive neoplasms whose terminology and epithelial phenotype have been a source of controversy. We reviewed 20 cases, 16 arising in the liver and 4 in the EHBD. Eighteen patients were women, with a mean age of 36.5 years. Eighteen tumors were multiloculated and 2 were unilocular. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 29 cm (average, 11 cm). The cyst fluid in 13 tumors was described as serous, in 2 as clear, in 2 others as hemorrhagic, and in 1 as serous and mucinous. Only in 2 tumors was the fluid described as mucinous. In 18 cystadenomas, the predominant epithelial lining consisted of a single layer of cuboidal or low-columnar nondysplastic cells similar to those of the gallbladder or bile ducts. This epithelial lining was strongly positive for cytokeratins 7 and 19, and focally positive for MUC1. Only 2 cystadenomas showed predominant intestinal differentiation characterized by mature goblet cells and columnar absorptive cells. These cells expressed CDX2, MUC2, and cytokeratin 20. Admixed with the goblet and columnar cells, there were serotonin-containing cells and Paneth cells. These 2 tumors showed extensive areas of high-grade dysplasia and invasive adenocarcinoma with intestinal phenotype. A subepithelial ovarian-like stroma was present in all tumors. None of the patients died of the tumors. We believe that the term mucinous cystic tumor recommended by the World Health Organization for all cystadenomas of the liver and EHBD is a misnomer. PMID:25792461

  15. Iatrogenic Biliary Injuries: Multidisciplinary Management in a Major Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Ibrahim Abdelkader; Shoreem, Hany Abdelmeged; Saleh, Sherif Mohamed; Hegazy, Osama; Housseni, Mohamed; Abbasy, Mohamed; Badra, Gamal; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iatrogenic biliary injuries are considered as the most serious complications during cholecystectomy. Better outcomes of such injuries have been shown in cases managed in a specialized center. Objective. To evaluate biliary injuries management in major referral hepatobiliary center. Patients & Methods. Four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy biliary injuries were managed with multidisciplinary team (hepatobiliary surgeon, gastroenterologist, and radiologist) at major Hepatobiliary Center in Egypt over 10-year period using endoscopy in 232 patients, percutaneous techniques in 42 patients, and surgery in 198 patients. Results. Endoscopy was very successful initial treatment of 232 patients (49%) with mild/moderate biliary leakage (68%) and biliary stricture (47%) with increased success by addition of percutaneous (Rendezvous technique) in 18 patients (3.8%). However, surgery was needed in 198 patients (42%) for major duct transection, ligation, major leakage, and massive stricture. Surgery was urgent in 62 patients and elective in 136 patients. Hepaticojejunostomy was done in most of cases with transanastomotic stents. There was one mortality after surgery due to biliary sepsis and postoperative stricture in 3 cases (1.5%) treated with percutaneous dilation and stenting. Conclusion. Management of biliary injuries was much better with multidisciplinary care team with initial minimal invasive technique to major surgery in major complex injury encouraging early referral to highly specialized hepatobiliary center. PMID:25435672

  16. Biliary scintigraphy: comparison with other modern techniques for evaluation of biliary tract disease

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, A.N.

    1982-10-01

    The recent availability of iminodiacetic acid analogues labeled with technetium Tc 99m provides a safe and accurate noninvasive test of biliary function. Biliary scintigraphy is a simple and rapid method of detecting acute cholecystitis in particular but also of distinguishing acute biliary pancreatitis from nonbiliary pancreatitis, of evaluating the patency of the common duct in early obstruction, of assessing possible postcholecystectomy syndrome, of evaluating the patency of a biliary enteric bypass, and of detecting postoperative biliary leaks.

  17. Long-term outcome of ischemic type biliary stricture after interventional treatment in liver living donors: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Jung, Bo-Hyun; Kwang, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2015-05-01

    The wall of normal proximal bile duct is occasionally thin with close approximation to the right hepatic artery. Thus, isolation of this hepatic artery can result in excessive weakening of the remnant proximal bile duct wall during hemiliver graft harvest. This type of injury can induce ischemic stricture of the donor common bile duct. This study aimed to review the clinical sequences of such ischemic type donor bile duct injuries primarily managed with endoscopic and radiological interventional treatments. A retrospective review of medical records was performed for two living donors who suffered from ischemic type donor bile duct injury. They were followed up for more than 10 years. The right and left liver grafts were harvested from these two donors. Bile duct anatomy was normal bifurcation in one and anomalous branching in the other. Bile duct stenosis was detected in them at 2 weeks and 1 week after liver donation. They underwent endoscopic balloon dilatation and temporary stent (endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage tube) insertion. After keeping the tube for 2 months, the tube was successfully removed in one donor. However, endoscopic treatment was not successful, thus additional radiological intervention was necessary in the other donor. On follow-up over 10 years, they are doing well so far with no recurrence of biliary stricture. Based on our limited experience, interventional treatment with subsequent long-term follow-up appears to be an essential and choice treatment for ischemic type biliary stricture occurring in liver living donors. PMID:26155280

  18. Ultrasound of Biliary Cast Syndrome and Its Mimics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Horrow, Mindy M

    2016-09-01

    Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) consists of mass-like hardened collections of inspissated bile and sloughed biliary mucosa filling the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic bile ducts, which show an alternating pattern of dilatation and stricture. It is a rare but serious complication of liver transplantation frequently necessitating repeated percutaneous, endoscopic or surgical stent placements, and cast retrieval. Although not typically considered as the modality of choice for BCS compared with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, ultrasound can be quite useful for this diagnosis. This article reviews the sonographic appearance of BCS in postliver transplant patients and correlates with other imaging modalities including computed tomography, MRCP, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Also reviewed are other intrahepatic pathologies that mimic the appearance of BCS on ultrasound. PMID:26561220

  19. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-06-28

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  20. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  1. An incidental case of biliary fascioliasis with subtle clinical findings: US and MRCP findings

    PubMed Central

    Önder, Hakan; Ekici, Faysal; Adin, Emin; Kuday, Suzan; Gümüş, Hatice; Bilici, Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. Cholangitis is a common clinical manifestation. Although fascioliasis may show various radiological and clinical features, cases without biliary dilatation are rare. Case report We present unique ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings of a biliary fascioliasis case which doesn’t have biliary obstruction or cholestasis. Radiologically, curvilinear parasites compatible with juvenile and mature Fasciola hepatica within the gallbladder and common bile duct were found. The parasites appear as bright echogenic structures with no acoustic shadow on US and hypo-intense curvilinear lesions on T2 weighted MRCP images. Conclusions Imaging studies may significantly contribute to the diagnosis of patients with subtle clinical and laboratory findings, particularly in endemic regions. PMID:23801908

  2. Magnetic compression anastomosis for bile duct stenosis after donor left hepatectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oya, H; Sato, Y; Yamanouchi, E; Yamamoto, S; Hara, Y; Kokai, H; Sakamoto, T; Miura, K; Shioji, K; Aoyagi, Y; Hatakeyama, K

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic compression anastomosis (MCA) provides a minimally invasive treatment creating a nonsurgical, sutureless enteric anastomosis in conjunction with an interventional radiologic technique by using 2 high-power magnets. Recently, the MCA technique has been applied to bile duct strictures after living donor liver transplantation or major hepatectomy. Herein we described use of MCA for bile duct stenosis 5 months after donor left hepatectomy in a 24-year-old man who presented with a stricture at the porta hepatis and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Unsuccessful transpapillary biliary drainage and balloon dilatation through a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) route led to the MCA. A 4-mm-diameter cylindrical samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) daughter magnet with a long nylon wire was placed at the superior site of the obstruction through the PTBD route. A 5-mm-diameter Sm-Co parent magnet with an attached nylon handle was endoscopically inserted into the common bile duct and placed at the inferior site of obstruction. The 2 magnets were attracted, sandwiching the stricture and establishing a reanastomosis. In conclusion, the MCA technique was a unique procedure for choledochocholedochostomy in a patient with bile duct stenosis after donor hepatectomy. PMID:22483501

  3. Endoscopic management of post-liver transplant biliary complications.

    PubMed

    Girotra, Mohit; Soota, Kaartik; Klair, Jagpal S; Dang, Shyam M; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-05-16

    Biliary complications are being increasingly encountered in post liver transplant patients because of increased volume of transplants and longer survival of these recipients. Overall management of these complications may be challenging, but with advances in endoscopic techniques, majority of such patients are being dealt with by endoscopists rather than the surgeons. Our review article discusses the recent advances in endoscopic tools and techniques that have proved endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with various interventions, like sphincterotomy, bile duct dilatation, and stent placement, to be the mainstay for management of most of these complications. We also discuss the management dilemmas in patients with surgically altered anatomy, where accessing the bile duct is challenging, and the recent strides towards making this prospect a reality. PMID:25992185

  4. Endoscopic management of post-liver transplant biliary complications

    PubMed Central

    Girotra, Mohit; Soota, Kaartik; Klair, Jagpal S; Dang, Shyam M; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Biliary complications are being increasingly encountered in post liver transplant patients because of increased volume of transplants and longer survival of these recipients. Overall management of these complications may be challenging, but with advances in endoscopic techniques, majority of such patients are being dealt with by endoscopists rather than the surgeons. Our review article discusses the recent advances in endoscopic tools and techniques that have proved endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with various interventions, like sphincterotomy, bile duct dilatation, and stent placement, to be the mainstay for management of most of these complications. We also discuss the management dilemmas in patients with surgically altered anatomy, where accessing the bile duct is challenging, and the recent strides towards making this prospect a reality. PMID:25992185

  5. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A case report and review of the published work.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fujikura, Kohei; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Takenaka, Mamoru; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Azuma, Takeshi; Zen, Yoh

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a peculiar tumor mimicking intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPN) of the pancreas can develop in the bile duct. Here, we present a similar case and review the published work on the newly proposed biliary neoplasm. A 68-year-old woman was referred to us for further evaluation of a liver mass. On imaging, the tumor was 40 mm in size and intraductal in location, and was enhanced slightly on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography. No mucin overproduction was found. She underwent right hepatectomy for suspected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. The tumor histologically consisted of the biliary-type epithelium arranged in a tubular architecture within the dilated bile duct. Tumor cells had features of high-grade dysplasia but no stroma invasion. No expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC were noted. On molecular studies, KRAS and GNAS appeared to be wild-type genotypes. These features were in keeping with ITPN. In the published work review, "biliary ITPN" described in four manuscripts were characterized by predominantly intrahepatic/hilar in location, histological tubular architecture, negative expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC, and uncommon alterations of KRAS, GNAS and BRAF. Although invasive malignancy was present in 71%, the outcome was favorable with the 5-year survival expected to be approximately 90%. Biliary ITPN are supposedly uncommon, but a greater awareness of this condition may give more chance to diagnose the underrecognized neoplasm. PMID:26459784

  6. Brunner's gland hamartoma: a cause of the double-duct sign.

    PubMed

    Kostalas, M; Jackson, P; Karanjia, N

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Brunner's glands are submucosal glands found in the duodenum. Proliferation of these glands can lead to the formation of Brunner's gland hamartomas (BGHs), which are uncommon, asymptomatic and usually found incidentally. They are predominantly benign lesions, but instances of malignant transformation have been reported. Case History We describe a rare case in which a periampullary lesion was causing biliary obstruction on a background of weight loss, and was associated with dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Further investigation with endoscopic ultrasound and biopsy did not provide a definitive diagnosis. Given the symptoms and findings upon investigations, we proceeded to pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Conclusions This was a rare case in which BGH gave rise to biliary obstruction against a background of weight loss. Due to a high index of suspicion (weight loss and evidence of dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct), this procedure was justified because the consequences of a missed periampullary cancer far outweighed surgical risks. PMID:27055413

  7. Advances in endoscopic management of biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation: Comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shin, Milljae; Joh, Jae-Won

    2016-07-21

    Apart from noticeable improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive agents, biliary complications remain the major causes of morbidity and mortality after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Bile leakage and stricture are the predominant complications. The reported incidence of biliary complications is 15%-40%, and these are known to occur more frequently in living donors than in deceased donors. Despite the absence of a confirmed therapeutic algorithm, many approaches have been used for treatment, including surgical, endoscopic, and percutaneous transhepatic techniques. In recent years, nonsurgical approaches have largely replaced reoperation. Among these, the endoscopic approach is currently the preferred initial treatment for patients who undergo duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction. Previously, endoscopic management was achieved most optimally through balloon dilatation and single or multiple stents placement. Recently, there have been significant developments in endoscopic devices, such as novel biliary stents, as well as advances in endoscopic technologies, including deep enteroscopy, the rendezvous technique, magnetic compression anastomosis, and direct cholangioscopy. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. Multiple recent publications suggest superior long-term results, with overall success rates ranging from 58% to 75%. This article summarizes the advances in endoscopic management of patients with biliary complications after LDLT. PMID:27468208

  8. Advances in endoscopic management of biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation: Comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Milljae; Joh, Jae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Apart from noticeable improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive agents, biliary complications remain the major causes of morbidity and mortality after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Bile leakage and stricture are the predominant complications. The reported incidence of biliary complications is 15%-40%, and these are known to occur more frequently in living donors than in deceased donors. Despite the absence of a confirmed therapeutic algorithm, many approaches have been used for treatment, including surgical, endoscopic, and percutaneous transhepatic techniques. In recent years, nonsurgical approaches have largely replaced reoperation. Among these, the endoscopic approach is currently the preferred initial treatment for patients who undergo duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction. Previously, endoscopic management was achieved most optimally through balloon dilatation and single or multiple stents placement. Recently, there have been significant developments in endoscopic devices, such as novel biliary stents, as well as advances in endoscopic technologies, including deep enteroscopy, the rendezvous technique, magnetic compression anastomosis, and direct cholangioscopy. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. Multiple recent publications suggest superior long-term results, with overall success rates ranging from 58% to 75%. This article summarizes the advances in endoscopic management of patients with biliary complications after LDLT. PMID:27468208

  9. Current Concepts in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Sclair, Seth N; Little, Ester; Levy, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are chronic, cholestatic diseases of the liver with common clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of PBC slows progression and decreases the need for transplant. However, one-third of patients will progress regardless of treatment. Bilirubin <1.0 and alkaline phosphatase <2.0 x the upper limit of normal at 1 year after treatment appear to predict 10-year survival. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the recommended treatment for PBC, and recent studies with obeticholic acid showed promising results for UDCA non-responders. Unlike PBC, no therapy has been shown to alter the natural history of PSC. The recommended initial diagnostic test for PSC is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, typically showing bile duct wall thickening, focal bile duct dilatation, and saccular dilatation of the intra- and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. Immunoglobulin 4-associated cholangitis must be excluded when considering the diagnosis of PSC, to allow for proper treatment, and monitoring of disease progression. In addition to the lack of therapy, PSC is a pre-malignant condition and close surveillance is indicated. PMID:26312413

  10. [Atypical biliary stenting in patient with obstructive biliary jaundice].

    PubMed

    Garcarek, Jerzy; Kurcz, Jacek; Guziński, Maciej; Janczak, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive biliary jaundice is a common complication in patients with malignancies which infiltrate biliary ducts. If untreated efficiently the jaundice is fatal a short period of time. We present a case of 60-year-old male patient who had undergone Whipple procedure in the past and presented with local recurrence treated successfully by percutaneous stenting of obstructed biliary duct. When passing through the obstruction we observed a contrast-bile leakage at the level of occluded segment and instability of implanted stent which was a complication that extorted atypical approach. We applied a covered stent in association with oversized nitinol stent which allowed to form a funnel-like construction efficiently decompressing biliary tree. Thanks to this management we also avoided further complications. PMID:23276050

  11. Biliary complications of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S; Keogan, M; Casey, M; Duffy, G; McErlean, D; Fitzgerald, M X; Hegarty, J E

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and four adult patients with cystic fibrosis were evaluated for the presence of liver disease as defined by abnormal liver function tests of six months' duration, histological evidence of fibrosis or cirrhosis, or the presence of portal hypertension, or both. Twenty patients fulfilled these criteria and were evaluated further for the presence of biliary tract abnormalities with biliary scintigraphy using 99Tc diisopropylphenyl-carboxymethyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Clearance of 99Tc DISIDA from the liver and biliary tree was diminished at 45 (E45) and 60 (E60) minutes in the patients with liver disease compared with those without liver disease; E45 = 37.8% and 65.8%, p less than 0.01; E60 = 48.2% and 77.5%, p less than 0.01 respectively. Serial analogue images of the extrahepatic biliary tree were consistent with common bile duct obstruction with retention of DISIDA and tapering of the common bile duct in seven of 18 patients with and two of 10 patients without liver disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed changes consistent with sclerosing cholangitis, with beading and stricturing of the intrahepatic ducts in 12 of the 14 patients. In all 14 patients, including those in whom biliary scintigraphy had suggested obstruction, no abnormality of the common bile duct was identified. These results indicate that abnormalities of the bile ducts in patients with cystic fibrosis related liver disease are confined to the intrahepatic biliary tree and that common bile duct strictures do not contribute to either the progression or development of liver disease in these patients. Images Figure 2 PMID:1568661

  12. In Vivo Study of Polyurethane-Coated Gianturco-Rosch Biliary Z-Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Severini, Aldo; Mantero, Sara; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Cigada, Alberto; Addis, Flaminio; Cozzi, Guido; Salvetti, Monica; Andreola, Salvatore; Motta, Antonella; Regalia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea; De Pedri, Enrico; Doci, Roberto

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Prototypes of Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents coated with polycarbonate urethane (PCU) were placed in the biliary tree of pigs, in order to test their biomechanical behavior, stability, and biocompatibility. Methods: The stents were surgically implanted in the common bile duct of three pairs of pigs, which were killed after 1, 3, and 6 months respectively. Explanted livers from pigs of the same race, age, and size were used to provide comparative data. The bile ducts were radiologically and histopathologically examined; the stents were processed and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: No complications occurred and the animals showed a normal weight gain. The main bile duct appeared radiologically and macroscopically dilated, but the stents proved to be in place. Histologically, the bile duct epithelium was destroyed, but neither hyperplastic nor inflammatory fibrotic reactions of the wall were evident. Both the metallic structure and the polymeric coating of the stents were intact. A layer of organic material with a maximum thickness of approximately 3 {mu}m was evident on the inner surface of the stents. Conclusion: The present in vivo study demonstrates the biocompatibility, efficacy, and stability of PCU-coated Gianturco-Rosch stents in the biliary environment.

  13. Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Tidmore, H; Ram, M D

    1985-03-01

    The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using 99mTc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses. PMID:3883866

  14. [BALLOON DILATATION IN COMBINATION WITH A DOSED PAPILLOTOMY IN THE TREATMENT OF DIFFICULT FORMS OF CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS].

    PubMed

    Shapovalova, E I; Grubnik, V V; Tkachenko, A I; Gerasimov, D V; Romak, R P

    2016-04-01

    Results of treatment was studied in 2008 - 2015 yrs in 57 patients, suffering "difficult stones" (choledocholithiasis), in whom a dosed papillotomy in combination with the balloon dilatation. The advantages of application of combined dosed endoscopic papillosphincterotomy and balloon dilatation, comparing with complete endoscopic papillosphincterotomy, while treating "difficult stones" of common biliary duct, were established. Application of the procedure have guaranteed a good access through the duodenal papilla magna and have permitted to perform the calculi extraction in a less traumatic way, what have promoted its function preservation, and reduction of a postoperative complications rate, the patients' stationary treatment duration, and the remote complications rate. Using questionnaire SF-36, the quality of life was analyzed in patients, in whom in remote period the duodenal papilla magna function was preserved. PMID:27434947

  15. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Intrahepatic and Choledochal Biliary Stones

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, Uri; Kleinmann, Nir; Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris; Winkler, Harry

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-{mu}m holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. Results: All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive 'balloon push' (n = 4) and 'rendezvous' (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Conclusion: Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

  16. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation: outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Sanna, C; Saracco, G M; Reggio, D; Moro, F; Ricchiuti, A; Strignano, P; Mirabella, S; Ciccone, G; Salizzoni, M

    2009-05-01

    Biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The most frequent complications are strictures and leakages in OLT cases with duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction (D-D), which can be treated with dilatation or stent placement during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), although this procedure is burdened with potentially severe complications, such as retroperitoneal perforation, acute pancreatitis, septic cholangitis, bleeding, recurrence of stones, strictures due to healing process. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome of this treatment and the complications related to the procedure. Among 1634 adult OLTs, we compared postprocedural complications and mortality rates with a group of 5852 nontransplanted patients (n-OLTs) who underwent ERCP. Of 472 (28,8%) post-OLT biliary complications, 319 (67.6%) occurred in D-D biliary anstomosis cases and 94 (29.5%) patients underwent 150 ERCP sessions. Among 49/80 patients (61.2%) who completed the procedure, ERCP treatment was successful. Overall complication rate was 10.7% in OLT and 12.8% in n-OLT (P = NS). Compared with the n-OLT group, post-ERCP bleeding was more frequent in OLT (5.3% vs 1.3%, P = .0001), while the incidence of pancreatitis was lower (4.7% vs 9.6%, P = .04). Procedure-related mortality rate was 0% in OLT and 0.1% in n-OLT (P = NS). ERCP is a safe procedure for post-OLT biliary complications in the presence of a D-D anastomosis. Morbidity and mortality related with this procedure are acceptable and similar to those among nontransplanted population. PMID:19460551

  17. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). METHODS: The imaging findings of five cases of IPMN-B which were pathologically confirmed at our hospital between March 2012 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Three of these cases were diagnosed by duodenal endoscopy and biopsy pathology, and two cases were diagnosed by surgical pathology. All five patients underwent enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI; one case underwent both Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography-CT. The clinical data and imaging results for these cases were compared and are presented. RESULTS: Conventional imaging showed diffuse dilatation of bile ducts and multiple intraductal polypoid and papillary neoplasms or serrated changes along the bile ducts. In two cases, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed dilated biliary ducts and intraductal tumors, as well as filling defects caused by mucin in the dilated bile ducts in the hepatobiliary phase. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in one case clearly showed a low-signal tumor in the hepatobiliary phase, similar to what was seen by positron emission tomography-CT. In two patients, routine inspection was unable to discern whether the lesions were inflammation or tumors. However, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed a pattern of gradual enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, and the signal intensity of the lesions was lower than the surrounding liver parenchyma, suggesting tissue inflammation in both cases, which were confirmed by surgical pathology. CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI reveals the intraductal mucin component of IPMN-B in some cases and the extent of tumor infiltration beyond the bile ducts in invasive cases. PMID:26167082

  18. Benign Biliary Strictures: Diagnostic Evaluation and Approaches to Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Interventional radiologists are often consulted to help identify and treat biliary strictures that can result from a variety of benign etiologies. Mainstays of noninvasive imaging for benign biliary strictures include ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and computed tomography cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the invasive diagnostic procedure of choice, allowing both localization of a stricture and treatment. Percutaneous biliary interventions are reserved for patients who are not candidates for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (eg, history of distal gastrectomy and biliary-enteric anastomosis to a jejunal roux limb). This review discusses the roles of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage in the diagnosis of benign biliary strictures. The methodology for crossing benign biliary strictures, approaches to balloon dilation, management of recalcitrant strictures (ie, large-bore biliary catheters and retrievable covered stents), and the expected outcomes and complications of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary strictures are also addressed. PMID:26615161

  19. Mutations in vacuolar H+-ATPase subunits lead to biliary developmental defects in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    EauClaire, Steven F.; Cui, Shuang; Ma, Liyuan; Matous, James; Marlow, Florence L.; Gupta, Tripti; Burgess, Harold A.; Abrams, Elliott W.; Kapp, Lee D.; Granato, Michael; Mullins, Mary C.; Matthews, Randolph P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We identified three zebrafish mutants with defects in biliary development. One of these mutants, pekin (pn), also demonstrated generalized hypopigmentation and other defects, including disruption of retinal cell layers, lack of zymogen granules in the pancreas, and dilated Golgi in intestinal epithelial cells. Bile duct cells in pn demonstrated an accumulation of electron dense bodies. We determined that the causative defect in pn was a splice site mutation in the atp6ap2 gene that leads to an inframe stop codon. atp6ap2 encodes a subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-H+-ATPase), which modulates pH in intracellular compartments. The Atp6ap2 subunit has also been shown to function as an intracellular renin receptor that stimulates fibrogenesis. Here we show that mutants and morphants involving other V-H+-ATPase subunits also demonstrated developmental biliary defects, but did not demonstrate the inhibition of fibrogenic genes observed in pn. The defects in pn are reminiscent of those we and others have observed in class C VPS (vacuolar protein sorting) family mutants and morphants, and we report here that knockdown of atp6ap2 and vps33b had an additive negative effect on biliary development. Our findings suggest that pathways important in modulating intracompartmental pH lead to defects in digestive organ development, and support previous studies demonstrating the importance of intracellular sorting pathways in biliary development. PMID:22465374

  20. Duplicated extrahepatic bile duct identified following cholecystectomy injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoepfner, Lauren; Sweeney, Mary Katherine; White, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    Though variations of intrahepatic biliary anatomy are quite common, duplication of the extrahepatic biliary system is extremely rare and reported infrequently in the literature. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgery procedures performed. Unfortunately, iatrogenic bile duct injuries can contribute to significant morbidity including hospital readmissions, infectious complications and death. Anomalous extrahepatic biliary anatomy may be one of the factors, which increases the likelihood of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of an iatrogenic bile duct injury that occurred during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in which a duplicated extrahepatic biliary system was identified intraoperatively during the definitive operative repair. PMID:27141049

  1. Extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J; Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was the macromorphological analysis of extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina). Bile ducts, the gall bladder and portal vein were injected with coloured latex. Using the technique of dissection, bile ducts were isolated from the liver lobes. It was found that the cystic duct in this species is rarely single. Hepatic ducts form a system of multiple anastomosing structures running in the hepatoduodenal ligament. Many bile duct openings were observed in the duodenal papilla. The results confirm wide variations of the biliary tract in mammals and may be important for comparative analysis of the morphological differentiation of these structures in small mammals. PMID:25091180

  2. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy. PMID:24902412

  3. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  4. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  5. Complicated bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  6. Newly Designed Y-configured Single-Catheter Stenting for the Treatment of Hilar-Type Nonanastomotic Biliary Strictures After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changming; Li Xuan; Song Shibing; Lv Xianjun; Luan Jingyuan; Dong Guoxiang

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to introduce our novel technique of percutaneous single catheter placement into the hilar bile ducts strictures while fulfilling the purpose of bilateral biliary drainage and stenting. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the technique for the treatment of hilar nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Methods: Ten patients who were post-orthotopic liver transplantation between July 2000 and July 2010 were enrolled in this study. Percutaneous Y-configured single-catheter stenting for bilateral bile ducts combined with balloon dilation was designed as the main treatment approach. Technical success rate, clinical indicators, complications, and recurrent rate were analyzed. Results: Technical success rate was 100%. Nine of the ten patients had biochemical normalization, cholangiographic improvement, and clinical symptoms relief. None of them experienced recurrence in a median follow-up of 26 months after completion of therapy and removal of all catheters. Complications were minor and limited to two patients. The one treatment failure underwent a second liver transplantation but died of multiple system organ failure. Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic Y-configured single-catheter stenting into the hilar bile ducts is technically feasible. The preliminary trial of this technique combined with traditional PTCD or choledochoscopy for the treatment of hilar biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation appeared to be effective and safe. Yet, further investigation is needed.

  7. Contribution of Mature Hepatocytes to Biliary Regeneration in Rats with Acute and Chronic Biliary Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Hui-Ling; Chien, Chin-Sung; Wu, Shang-Hsin; Ho, Yi-Tian; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2015-01-01

    Whether hepatocytes can convert into biliary epithelial cells (BECs) during biliary injury is much debated. To test this concept, we traced the fate of genetically labeled [dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)-positive] hepatocytes in hepatocyte transplantation model following acute hepato-biliary injury induced by 4,4’-methylene-dianiline (DAPM) and D-galactosamine (DAPM+D-gal) and in DPPIV-chimeric liver model subjected to acute (DAPM+D-gal) or chronic biliary injury caused by DAPM and bile duct ligation (DAPM+BDL). In both models before biliary injury, BECs are uniformly DPPIV-deficient and proliferation of DPPIV-deficient hepatocytes is restricted by retrorsine. We found that mature hepatocytes underwent a stepwise conversion into BECs after biliary injury. In the hepatocyte transplantation model, DPPIV-positive hepatocytes entrapped periportally proliferated, and formed two-layered plates along portal veins. Within the two-layered plates, the hepatocytes gradually lost their hepatocytic identity, proceeded through an intermediate state, acquired a biliary phenotype, and subsequently formed bile ducts along the hilum-to-periphery axis. In DPPIV-chimeric liver model, periportal hepatocytes expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) were exclusively DPPIV-positive and were in continuity to DPPIV-positives bile ducts. Inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation by additional doses of retrorsine in DPPIV-chimeric livers prevented the appearance of DPPIV-positive BECs after biliary injury. Moreover, enriched DPPIV-positive BEC/hepatic oval cell transplantation produced DPPIV-positive BECs or bile ducts in unexpectedly low frequency and in mid-lobular regions. These results together suggest that mature hepatocytes but not contaminating BECs/hepatic oval cells are the sources of periportal DPPIV-positive BECs. We conclude that mature hepatocytes contribute to biliary regeneration in the environment of acute and chronic biliary injury through a ductal plate

  8. Function of the sphincter of Oddi in patients with juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula: evaluation by intraoperative biliary manometry under a duodenal pressure load.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, S; Sakamoto, T; Miyata, M; Yamasaki, Y; Yamasaki, H; Kuwata, K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) in patients with juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula (JDDs). The SO function was evaluated by intraoperative biliary manometry in three groups of patients. Group 1 consisted of nine patients with JDDs and a dilated common bile duct (CBD) (diameter > 10 mm). Group 2 consisted of six patients with JDDs and a normal-sized CBD (diameter < 10 mm). Group 3 consisted of 26 patients without JDDs and with normal-sized CBDs. In the absence of a duodenal pressure load, the patients in group 1 demonstrated a lower baseline SO pressure and lower resistance of the biliary outflow than patients in group 3. They also demonstrated a lower baseline SO pressure and shorter decay time (which represented terminal biliary ductal resistance) than patients in group 2. In the presence of a duodenal pressure load of 300 mm H2O, the patients in group 1 demonstrated a lower incidence of phasic SO contractions, a higher baseline SO pressure, and a higher resistance of the biliary outflow than group 2 and group 3 patients. The decay time in group 1 and group 2 patients was higher than that of group 3 patients. Based on these findings, we conclude that the SO function in patients with JDDs is impaired owing in part to long-standing compression of the terminal biliary ductal system by a distended JDD associated with a rise in intraduodenal pressure in daily life. PMID:7754640

  9. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  10. Successive breaks in biliary stents.

    PubMed

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; Guerra, María

    2016-04-01

    A 64 year-old male, was diagnosed with obstructive jaundice due to a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with liver metastases. The patient underwent endoscopic placement of covered self-expanding biliary stent (10x60 mm, Hanaro) by ERCP. He was admitted with cholangitis one year later. The following ERCP revealed a fractured stent with loss of the distal end (duodenal) and partial migration of the remaining stent to the common bile duct. The fragmented stent was removed from the common bile duct and a new, similar one was inserted. Four months later the patient was admitted with cholangitis. A new ERCP was done and biliary stent was also fragmented. It was removed and an uncovered stent (Wallflex) was inserted. PMID:27065248

  11. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  12. Biliary stricture

    MedlinePlus

    ... help reveal a problem with the biliary system . Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is higher than normal. Bilirubin level ... the small intestine. In some cases, a tiny metal or plastic mesh tube ( stent ) is placed across ...

  13. Biliary Fasciola gigantica infestation in a nonendemic area--An intraoperative surprise.

    PubMed

    Menon, Prema; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Khurana, Sumeeta; Lal, Sadhana; Thapa, Babu Ram

    2015-11-01

    A 7year old girl infected with the zoonotic trematode, Fasciola gigantica is reported because of the extreme rarity of this condition in our region. Because of the overlap in symptomatology and radiological features, the more common amebic/pyogenic liver abscess in the initial hepatic migratory phase and later choledochal cyst/biliary ascariasis when the parasite was finally located in the extrahepatic bile ducts, were thought of delaying effective treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed only by surgical exploration. The characteristic contrast enhanced computed tomography scan features retrospectively identified were multiple clustered hypodense lesions in the liver with peripheral enhancement in the acute hepatic migratory phase, and periportal tracking in the previously affected areas of the liver with biliary dilatation and a linear hypointense lesion within the common bile duct in the chronic phase. Although a known association, she did not have eosinophilia. This child, who became symptomatic at the age of 5.5years, also appears to be one of the youngest patients reported with Fasciola gigantica. PMID:26362003

  14. Endoscopic Extraction of Biliary Fascioliasis Diagnosed Using Intraductal Ultrasonography in a Patient with Acute Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji Su; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Tae, Jae Woong; Choi, Moon Han; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection may result in biliary obstruction with or without cholangitis in the chronic biliary phase. Because clinical symptoms and signs of F. hepatica are similar to other biliary diseases that cause bile duct obstruction, such as stones or bile duct malignancies, that are, in fact, more common, this condition may not be suspected and diagnosis may be overlooked and delayed. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography for the evaluation of bile duct obstruction may be incidentally detected with the worm, and diagnosis can be confirmed by extraction of the leaf-like trematode from the bile duct. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of the bile duct, and is useful in evaluating indeterminate biliary diseases. We present a case of biliary fascioliasis that was diagnosed using IDUS and managed endoscopically in a patient with acute cholangitis. PMID:26668810

  15. Endoscopic Extraction of Biliary Fascioliasis Diagnosed Using Intraductal Ultrasonography in a Patient with Acute Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Su; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Tae, Jae Woong; Choi, Moon Han; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection may result in biliary obstruction with or without cholangitis in the chronic biliary phase. Because clinical symptoms and signs of F. hepatica are similar to other biliary diseases that cause bile duct obstruction, such as stones or bile duct malignancies, that are, in fact, more common, this condition may not be suspected and diagnosis may be overlooked and delayed. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography for the evaluation of bile duct obstruction may be incidentally detected with the worm, and diagnosis can be confirmed by extraction of the leaf-like trematode from the bile duct. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of the bile duct, and is useful in evaluating indeterminate biliary diseases. We present a case of biliary fascioliasis that was diagnosed using IDUS and managed endoscopically in a patient with acute cholangitis. PMID:26668810

  16. Combined radiologic and endoscopic treatment (using the "rendezvous technique") of a biliary fistula following left hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Gracient, Aurélien; Rebibo, Lionel; Delcenserie, Richard; Yzet, Thierry; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-14

    Despite the ongoing decrease in the frequency of complications after hepatectomy, biliary fistulas still occur and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Here, we report on an unusual technique for managing biliary fistula following left hepatectomy in a patient in whom the right posterior segmental duct joined the left hepatic duct. The biliary fistula was treated with a combined radiologic and endoscopic procedure based on the "rendezvous technique". The clinical outcome was good, and reoperation was not required. PMID:27570431

  17. Dilated cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Hare JM. The dilated, restrictive, and infiltrative cardiomyopathies. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 68.

  18. Intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from colon cancer after resection of liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Shoji; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Takayama, Yuichi; Fukami, Yasuyuki; Onoe, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    An extremely rare case of intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma is herein presented. Sigmoid colon cancer (T3, N0, M0, stage IIA) had been diagnosed and treated by sigmoidectomy in October 1993. In December 2002, a liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth was found, and this was treated by extended right hepatic lobectomy and caudate lobectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. In February 2014, intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis was found, and this was treated by subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The intrapancreatic metastasis was judged to have arisen from cancer cell implantation, either by spontaneous shedding of cancer cells or as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Twelve months have passed since the last surgical intervention, and there has been no sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Differential diagnosis between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and intrabiliary growth of a liver metastasis originating from colorectal adenocarcinoma is difficult but very important for determining the therapeutic strategy. Careful examination is needed to diagnose intrahepatic biliary dilatation, especially for patients with a history of carcinoma in the digestive tract and even if years have passed since curative resection of the digestive tract cancer. Aggressive surgical management for localized recurrence of a hepatic metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma may improve patient survival. PMID:26293132

  19. Endoscopic biliary drainage as a bridging procedure to single-stage surgery for perforated choledochal cyst: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Takuya; Dowaki, Shoichi; Kikunaga, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Koji; Ishikawa, Keiichi; Mori, Katsuaki; Sakuragawa, Tadayuki; Ichisaka, Shunsuke; Miura, Hiroshi; Kumai, Koichiro; Mikami, Shuji; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    Choledochal cyst (CC)-a congenital anomaly of the bile duct-is rare. We report a 28-year-old woman complaining of epigastralgia who was transferred to our hospital. Physical examination revealed severe tenderness to abdominal palpation without symptoms of diffuse peritonitis. Urgent contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography indicated the dilated common bile duct (CBD) was perforated, with a presumed diagnosis of perforated CC. Endoscopic external biliary drainage was performed immediately as a bridging procedure to the definitive surgery. Additional evaluations confirmed a type IVa CC, according to Todani's classification, but no signs of malignancy. Twenty-two days after biliary drainage, laparotomy was performed. A large cystic mass was found in the CBD with a perforated scar on the right-side wall. Because inflammation around the pancreas head was too severe to perform cyst excision safely, the patient underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 29th postoperative day. Pathologic examination of a specimen showed no malignancy, and the patient has remained well during the 3-year follow-up. Our experience with this case suggests that definitive single-stage surgery for perforated CC in an adult can be performed safely owing to external biliary drainage as a bridging procedure, if manifestation of diffuse peritonitis is not evident. PMID:26943441

  20. Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

    2014-12-01

    Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

  1. [Common bile duct distomatosis managed by coelioscopic aproach. One case report].

    PubMed

    Khelifi, Slim; Bouhafa, Ahmed; Ouertani, Fethi; Ben Maamer, Anis; Hedfi, Mohamed; Cherif, Abderraouf; Ghorbel, Abdeljabbar; Letaief, Abdelmajid

    2006-06-01

    Biliary distomatosis is caused by a parasitis of trematode family: the fascialo hepatica. It is a rare affection in Tunisia. The diagnostic is often done in the status phase. Adult parasite stay preferentially at biliary ducts, cause obstruction and cholangitis. The authors report a case of biliary treated successfully by laparoscopic procedure. PMID:17042216

  2. Biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, E K; Vauthey, J N

    2001-09-01

    Advances in cellular and molecular biology of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder adenocarcinoma are providing innovative means for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract cancer. Similarly, refinements in noninvasive studies--including helical computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography--are enabling more accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning for these tumors. Complete resection remains the only means for cure, and recent reports from major hepatobiliary centers support aggressive wide resection for bile duct and gallbladder cancer. Palliation of malignant strictures has improved with advanced endoscopic techniques, newer polyurethane-covered stents, endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy, and radiofrequency intraluminal endohyperthermia. The preliminary data on such minimally invasive techniques suggest an improvement in quality of life and survival for selected patients. PMID:17031200

  3. Biliary fascioliasis--an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: report of a case and brief review.

    PubMed

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report. PMID:22566787

  4. Morphologic factors of biliary trees are associated with gallstone-related biliary events

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Lim, Jun Hyeok; Jeong, Seok; Jeon, Young Sun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors for gallstone-related biliary events. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography images from 141 symptomatic and 39 asymptomatic gallstone patients who presented at a single tertiary hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with gallstones in relation to the number of gallstones, the angle between the long axis of the gallbladder and the cystic duct, and the cystic duct diameter. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of gallstones (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.03-1.57; P = 0.026), the angle between the long axis of the gallbladder and the cystic duct (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.03; P = 0.015), and the diameter of the cystic duct (OR = 0.819, 95%CI: 0.69-0.97; P = 0.018) were significantly associated with biliary events. The incidence of biliary events was significantly elevated in patients who had the presence of more than two gallstones, an angle of > 92° between the gallbladder and the cystic duct, and a cystic duct diameter < 6 mm. CONCLUSION: These findings will help guide the treatment of patients with asymptomatic gallstones. Clinicians should closely monitor patients with asymptomatic gallstones who exhibit these characteristics. PMID:25574102

  5. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  6. Molecular Identification of Biliary Isospora Belli: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Eng, Hock-Liew

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the novel sampling of bile from the biliary endoscopic intervention for the molecular identification of parasite infection.A 63-year-old Vietnamese man underwent travel health examination in our hospital. Physical examination showed that his height was 159 cm and weight was 41 kg. He had a 15-year history of intermittent abdominal pain and frequent episodes of diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed raised eosinophil count (23%, normal range [NR] 0-5), absolute eosinophil count (1899/μL, NR 50-350), and levels of serum immunoglobulin E (3770 IU/mL, NR < 100), aspartate transaminase (270 U/L, NR 0-37), alanine transaminase (210 U/L, NR 0-40), and total bilirubin (1.8 mg/dL, NR 0.2-1.4); however, the serum alkaline phosphatase level was normal (65 U/L, NR 28-94) and non-reactive result for serum human insufficiency virus antibody.Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed diffuse dilatation of the biliary tree; the common hepatic and pancreatic duct diameters increased to 1.86 cm and 0.61 cm, respectively.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed and a 10-Fr model plastic biliary stent was inserted and flushed with 20 cc normal saline; thereafter, the bile was collected and sent for DNA sequencing. Isospora belli (IB) infection was identified by a polymerase chain reaction.Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800 mg q6h was administered for 1 month. Liver enzyme levels normalized and negative for concentration method of ova study. The patient was doing well and weighed 51 kg at the outpatient clinic visit 3 months later.This bile sampling with molecular identification has not been described in the literature. We believe that an acute IB infection through fecal-oral transmission may progress to chronic infection of the hepatobiliary system, leading to biliary obstruction and jaundice. PMID:26962840

  7. Anomalous opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb: endoscopic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Disibeyaz, Selcuk; Parlak, Erkan; Cicek, Bahattin; Cengiz, Cem; Kuran, Sedef O; Oguz, Dilek; Güzel, Hakan; Sahin, Burhan

    2007-01-01

    Background Anomalous biliary opening especially the presence of the ampulla of Vater in the duodenal bulb is a very rare phenomenon. We report clinical implications, laboratory and ERCP findings and also therapeutic approaches in 53 cases. Methods The data were collected from the records of 12.158 ERCP. The diagnosis was established as an anomalous opening of the common bile duct (CBD) into the duodenal bulb when there is an orifice observed in the bulb with the absence of a papillary structure at its normal localization and when the CBD is visualized by cholangiography through this orifice without evidence of any other opening. Results A total of 53 cases were recruited. There was an obvious male preponderance (M/F: 49/4). Demographic data and ERCP findings were available for all, but clinical characteristics and laboratory findings could be obtained from 39 patients with full records. Thirty – seven of 39 cases had abdominal pain (95%) and 23 of them (59%) had cholangitis as well. Elevated AP and GGT were found in 97.4% (52/53). History of cholecystectomy was present in 64% of the cases, recurrent cholangitis in 26% and duodenal ulcer in 45%. Normal papilla was not observed in any of the patients and a cleft-like opening was evident instead. The CBD was hook shaped at the distal part that opens to the duodenal bulb. Pancreatic duct (PD) was opening separately into the bulb in all the cases when it was possible to visualize. Dilated CBD in ERCP was evident in 94% and the CBD stone was demonstrated in 51%. PD was dilated in four of 12 (33%) cases. None of them has a history of pancreatitis. Endoscopically, Papillary Balloon Dilatation instead of Sphincterotomy carried out in 19 of 27 patients (70%) with choledocholithiazis. Remaining eight patients had undergone surgery (30%). Clinical symptoms were resolved with medical treatment in 16(32%) patients with dilated CBD but no stone. Perforation and bleeding were occurred only in two patients, which stones extracted

  8. Long-Term Placement of Subcutaneous Ruesch-Type Stents for Double Biliary Stenosis in a Living-Donor Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi Baccarani, Umberto; Lorenzin, Dario; Risaliti, Andrea; Como, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Daniele; Sponza, Massimo; Bresadola, Vittorio; Bresadola, Fabrizio

    2007-04-15

    Biliary reconstruction continues to be a major source of morbidity following liver transplantation. The spectrum of biliary complications is evolving due to the increasing number of split-liver and living-donor liver transplantation, which are even associated with a higher incidence of biliary complications. Bile duct strictures are the most common cause of late biliary complications and account for up to 40% of all biliary complications. Optimal therapy for posttransplantation anastomotic biliary strictures remains uncertain and requires a multidisciplinary approach. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male affected by hepatocarcinoma and hepatitis C-related cirrhosis who underwent right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation from his son complicated by double anastomotic stenosis of the main right hepatic duct and of an accessory biliary duct draining segments 6 and 7 of the graft that was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with long-term subcutaneous placement of two internal Ruesch-type biliary stents.

  9. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  10. Role of CD56-expressing immature biliary epithelial cells in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Zhong; Yu, Jia-Kang; Peng, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Hai-Ying; Lui, Vincent CH; Nicholls, John M; Tam, Paul KH; Lamb, Jonathan R; Chen, Yan; Xia, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and pathological parameters and expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) in patients with biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: Established clinical laboratory markers of hepatic function, including enzyme activity, protein synthesis, and bilirubin metabolism, were evaluated in patients with BA and compared with those in patients with choledochal cysts and neonatal hepatitis. Pathological changes in tissue morphology and fibrosis were examined by histological and tissue collagen staining. Immunohistochemical staining for the biliary epithelial cell markers CD56 and CK19 together with the Notch signaling related molecules Notch1 and Notch2 was performed in the context of alterations in the structure of intrahepatic biliary ducts. RESULTS: Differences in some clinical laboratory parameters among the three diseases examined were observed, but they did not correlate with the pathological classification of fibrosis in BA. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of CD56-positive immature bile ducts in most patients (74.5%) with BA but not in patients with choledochal cysts or neonatal hepatitis. The number of CD56-expressing cells correlated with disease severity, with more positive cells present in the later stages of liver damage (81.8% vs 18.2%). Furthermore, bile plugs were mainly found in CD56-positive immature biliary ducts. Notch signaling was a key regulatory pathway in biliary duct formation and played a role in tissue fibrosis. Notch1 was co-expressed in CD56-positive cells, whereas Notch2 was found exclusively in blood vessels in the portal area of patients with BA. CONCLUSION: The maturation of biliary epithelial cells and the expression of Notch may play a role in the pathogenesis of BA. PMID:26937142

  11. Successful Treatment with a Covered Stent and 6-Year Follow-Up of Biliary Complication After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Doros, Attila Nemeth, Andrea; Deak, Akos Pal; Hartmann, Erika; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Fazakas, Janos; Kobori, Laszlo

    2010-04-15

    The role of covered stent in the management of biliary complications is not yet defined in liver transplant recipients. This Case Report presents a patient with anastomotic stricture and leakage with biloma treated with a covered stent 32 months following liver transplantation. Signs of in-stent restenosis developed 52 months following covered stent placement, which was resolved by balloon dilation. There were no complications during the interventions. The latest follow-up, at 69 months following primary and 19 months following secondary percutaneous intervention, shows a patent covered stent without any clinical or morphological sign of further restenosis. The clinical success with long-term follow-up data suggests that covered stent implantation can be a rational, minimally invasive option for simultaneous treatment of bile duct stenosis and bile leak following liver transplantation in selected cases.

  12. Rupture of Right Hepatic Duct into Hydatid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

  13. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.

    1994-04-26

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding is described. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic. 3 figures.

  14. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. , Benett

    1994-01-01

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic.

  15. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  16. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks. PMID:27606045

  17. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure.

    PubMed

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-08-10

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks. PMID:27606045

  18. Biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy: Optimization of endoscopic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ljubičić, Neven; Bišćanin, Alen; Pavić, Tajana; Nikolić, Marko; Budimir, Ivan; Mijić, August; Đuzel, Ana

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the results of endoscopic treatment of postoperative biliary leakage occurring after urgent cholecystectomy with a long-term follow-up. METHODS: This is an observational database study conducted in a tertiary care center. All consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for presumed postoperative biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy in the period between April 2008 and April 2013 were considered for this study. Patients with bile duct transection and biliary strictures were excluded. Biliary leakage was suspected in the case of bile appearance from either percutaneous drainage of abdominal collection or abdominal drain placed at the time of cholecystectomy. Procedural and main clinical characteristics of all consecutive patients with postoperative biliary leakage after urgent cholecystectomy, such as indication for cholecystectomy, etiology and type of leakage, ERC findings and post-ERC complications, were collected from our electronic database. All patients in whom the leakage was successfully treated endoscopically were followed-up after they were discharged from the hospital and the main clinical characteristics, laboratory data and common bile duct diameter were electronically recorded. RESULTS: During a five-year period, biliary leakage was recognized in 2.2% of patients who underwent urgent cholecystectomy. The median time from cholecystectomy to ERC was 6 d (interquartile range, 4-11 d). Endoscopic interventions to manage biliary leakage included biliary stent insertion with or without biliary sphincterotomy. In 23 (77%) patients after first endoscopic treatment bile flow through existing surgical drain ceased within 11 d following biliary therapeutic endoscopy (median, 4 d; interquartile range, 2-8 d). In those patients repeat ERC was not performed and the biliary stent was removed on gastroscopy. In seven (23%) patients repeat ERC was done within one to fourth week after their first ERC

  19. Targeting the Achilles' heel of adult living donor liver transplant: Corner-sparing sutures with mucosal eversion technique of biliary anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Vij, Vivek; Makki, Kausar; Chorasiya, Vishal Kumar; Sood, Gaurav; Singhal, Ashish; Dargan, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Biliary complications are regarded as the Achilles' heel of liver transplantation, especially for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to smaller, multiple ducts and difficult ductal anatomy. Overall biliary complications reported in most series are between 10% and 30%. This study describes our modified technique of biliary anastomosis and its effects on incidence of biliary complications. This was a single-center retrospective study of 148 adult LDLT recipients between December 2011 and June 2014. Group 1 (n = 40) consisted of the first 40 patients for whom the standard technique of biliary anastomosis (minimal hilar dissection during donor duct division, high hilar division of the recipient bile duct, and preservation of the recipient duct periductal tissue) was used. Group 2 (n = 108) consisted of 108 patients for whom biliary anastomosis was done with the addition of corner-sparing sutures and mucosal eversion of the recipient duct to the standard technique. Primary outcome measures included biliary complications (biliary leaks and strictures). Biliary complications occurred in 7/40 patients in group 1 (17.5%) and in 4/108 patients in group 2 (3.7%). The technical factors mentioned above are aimed at preserving the blood supply of the donor and recipient ducts and hold the key for minimizing biliary complications in adult-to-adult LDLT. PMID:26390361

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Biliary Fistulas in the Laparoscopic Era

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, M.; Montecamozzo, G.; Foschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary fistulas are rare complications of gallstone. They can affect either the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract and are usually classified as primary or secondary. The primary fistulas are related to the biliary lithiasis, while the secondary ones are related to surgical complications. Laparoscopic surgery is a therapeutic option for the treatment of primary biliary fistulas. However, it could be the first responsible for the development of secondary biliary fistulas. An accurate preoperative diagnosis together with an experienced surgeon on the hepatobiliary surgery is necessary to deal with biliary fistulas. Cholecystectomy with a choledocoplasty is the most frequent treatment of primary fistulas, whereas the bile duct drainage or the endoscopic stenting is the best choice in case of minor iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the extreme therapeutic option for both conditions. The sepsis, the level of the bile duct damage, and the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract increase the complexity of the operation and affect early and late results. PMID:26819608

  1. Combined radiological-endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones: 18-year single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Cannavale, Alessandro; Bezzi, Mario; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Fanello, Gianfranco; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Fiocca, Fausto; Donatelli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Clinical evidence regarding radiological–endoscopic management of intrahepatic bile duct stones is currently lacking. Our aim is to report our 18-year experience in combined radiological–endoscopic management of intrahepatic difficult bile duct stones. Methods: From June 1994 to June 2012, 299 symptomatic patients with difficult bile duct stones were admitted to our institution. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)/biliary drainage/s was performed, dilating the PTC track to 10 or 16 French within 3–7 days. Afterward we carried out percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) with electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) and/or interventional radiology techniques. Follow up was made with clinical/laboratory tests and ultrasound (US). We retrospectively analyzed our radiological–endoscopic approach and reported our technical and clinical outcomes. Results: Complete stone clearance was achieved in 298 patients after a maximum of 4 consecutive sessions. Most patients (64.6%) were treated with PTCS/EHL alone, while the remaining with radiological techniques alone (26%) or a combination of both techniques (13.3%). Recurrence of stones occurred in 45 cases (15%, Tsunoda class III and class IV) within 2 years and were successfully retreated. Major adverse events were: 5 (1.6%) cases of massive bleeding that required embolisation, 2 (0.66%) perforations of the common bile duct and 31 cases (10.3%) of acute cholangitis managed with medical therapy or intervention. Conclusion: After 18 years of experience we demonstrated that our combined radiological–endoscopic approach to ‘difficult bile duct stones‘ may result in both immediate and long-term clearance of stones with a low rate of adverse events. PMID:26557890

  2. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction and Erosive Disruption by Cavitating Porta Hepatis Nodal Metastasis, Treated by Uncovered Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Trambert, Jonathan J. Frost, Andrei; Malasky, Charlotte

    2004-08-15

    A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.

  3. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  4. Burdick's Technique for Biliary Access Revisited.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Rai, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The precut sphincterotomy is used to facilitate selective biliary access in cases of difficult biliary cannulation. Needle-knife precut papillotomy is the standard of care but is associated with a high rate of complications such as pancreatitis, duodenal perforation, bleeding, etc. Sometimes during bowing of the sphincterotome/cannula and the use of guide wire to facilitate biliary cannulation, inadvertent formation of a false passage occurs in the 10 to 11 o'clock direction. Use of this step to access the bile duct by the intramucosal incision technique was first described by Burdick et al., and since then two more studies have also substantiated the safety and efficacy of this non-needle type of precut sphincterotomy. In this review, we discuss this non-needle technique of precut sphincterotomy and also share our experience using this "Burdick's technique." PMID:25674522

  5. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  6. Congenital duplex gallbladder and biliary mucocele associated with partial hepatic cholestasis and cholelithiasis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Katharine S.; Brisson, Brigitte A.; Defarges, Alice M.N.; Oblak, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute onset of vomiting. Exploratory laparotomy identified a duplex gallbladder and left cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed biliary mucocele and hepatic cholestasis. While rare, biliary mucoceles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for feline extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. PMID:22942442

  7. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Alexandra T; Clayton, Steven B; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  8. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Steven B.; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  9. Histochemical Analyses of Biliary Development During Metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis Tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tomoya; Ishihara, Akinori; Yagi, Shinomi; Koike, Toru; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian liver development, intrahepatic biliary morphogenesis takes place in periportal, but not in pericentral, regions. Liver progenitor cells transiently form epithelial plate structures and then intrahepatic bile ducts around the portal veins under the influence of the mesenchyme. The present study was undertaken to histochemically examine normal biliary development and its dependence on the action of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. In these tadpoles, the development of hepatic ducts and intrahepatic biliary ducts commenced along the portal veins at NF stages 48-50 and stages 50-52, respectively, when the blood concentration of thyroid hormone may be still low. Some periportal hepatocytes expressed carbamoylphosphate synthase I and SOX9, which are hepatocyte and biliary cell markers, respectively, suggesting that periportal hepatocytes give rise to biliary epithelial cells. Periportal biliary cells did not form ductal plates, nor was the periportal mesenchyme well developed as seen in fetal mouse livers. jag1 mRNA was moderately expressed in cells of portal veins and biliary epithelial cells, and notch1 and notch2 mRNAs were weakly detectable in biliary epithelial cells during metamorphosis as seen in developing mammalian livers. These results suggest that Notch signaling plays a decisive role in biliary cell differentiation and morphogenesis of Xenopus tadpoles. Anti-thyroid agent treatment of the tadpoles resulted in delayed biliary morphogenesis, suggesting that biliary development may depend on T3. However, T3 treatment of the tadpoles did not enhance biliary development. Thus, T3 may act positively on biliary development at a very low concentration. PMID:25660701

  10. Irradiation of biliary carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Herskovic, A.; Heaston, D.; Engler, M.J.; Fishburn, R.I.; Jones, R.S.; Noell, K.T.

    1981-04-01

    External and interstitial irradiation have effected the disappearance of biliary lesions. The use of indwelling catheters in the biliary tract makes the technique more appealing. Iridium 192 implants were used.

  11. Acceptable Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors Adjacent to the Central Biliary System

    SciTech Connect

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate biliary toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: Among 297 consecutive patients with liver tumors treated with SBRT of 35 to 50 Gy in 5 fractions, patients who were irradiated with >20 Gy to the central biliary system (CBS), including the gallbladder, and had follow-up times >6 months were retrospectively analyzed. Toxicity profiles, such as clinical symptoms and laboratory and radiologic data especially for obstructive jaundice and biliary infection, were investigated in relation to the dose volume and length relationship for each biliary organ. Results: Fifty patients with 55 tumors were irradiated with >20 Gy to the CBS. The median follow-up period was 18.2 months (range, 6.0-80.5 months). In the dose length analysis, 39, 34, 14, and 2 patients were irradiated with >20 Gy, >30 Gy, >40 Gy, and >50 Gy, respectively, to >1 cm of the biliary tract. Seven patients were irradiated with >20 Gy to >20% of the gallbladder. Only 2 patients experienced asymptomatic bile duct stenosis. One patient, metachronously treated twice with SBRT for tumors adjacent to each other, had a transient increase in hepatic and biliary enzymes 12 months after the second treatment. The high-dose area >80 Gy corresponded to the biliary stenosis region. The other patient experienced biliary stenosis 5 months after SBRT and had no laboratory changes. The biliary tract irradiated with >20 Gy was 7 mm and did not correspond to the bile duct stenosis region. No obstructive jaundice or biliary infection was found in any patient. Conclusions: SBRT for liver tumors adjacent to the CBS was feasible with minimal biliary toxicity. Only 1 patient had exceptional radiation-induced bile duct stenosis. For liver tumors adjacent to the CBS without other effective treatment options, SBRT at a dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions is a safe treatment with regard to biliary toxicity.

  12. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endobiliary Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Rupture into the Biliary System: An Unusual Route for Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Soyupak, Suereyya; Akguel, Erol; Ezici, Hueseyin

    2002-10-15

    The most common and serious complication of hydatid cyst of the liver is rupture into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and abscess. The traditional treatment of biliary-cystic fistula is surgery and recently endoscopic sphincterotomy. We report a case of complex heterogeneous cyst rupture into the biliary tract causing biliary obstruction in which the obstruction and cyst were treated successfully by percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage. Our case is the second report of percutaneous transbiliary internal drainage of hydatid cyst with rupture into the biliary duct in which the puncture and drainage were not performed through the cyst cavity.

  13. [Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts].

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, F; Marzano, P F; Giacinti, I; Di Bello, M G; Maturo, A; Di Matteo, F M; Micacchi, M; Zaccagnino, P; Morucci, R; Petrassi, P; Ascenzi, P; Di Curzio, B

    1996-01-01

    In the last 5 years 25 patients (11 men, 14 women) with carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary duct were studied. The most frequent localization of the carcinoma was the hepatic hilum. D.C.P. according to Whipple was possible only in one patient, while in 20 patients a palliative approach with external and internal biliary derivations was the choice. In the remaining 4 patients an explorative laparotomy with biopsy was performed. It is concluded that palliative resection allows for a better quality of life. PMID:9162182

  14. Successful endoscopic ultrasound-guided overstenting biliary drainage through a pre-existing proximal migrated metal biliary stent.

    PubMed

    Artifon, E L A; Takada, J; Okawa, L; Ferreira, F; Santos, M; Moura, E G H; Otoch, J P; Sakai, P

    2011-01-01

    Biliary endoscopic drainage using metallic self-expanded stents has become a well-established method for palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. However, its occlusion, mainly by tumor overgrowth, is still the main complication without a standard treatment. We here describe a new method of treatment for biliary metallic stent occlusion, through the echo guided biliary drainage. We present a 68-year-old patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer previously treated for jaundice with ERCP and self-expandable metallic stent insertion. Four weeks later, the patient developed jaundice and symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction. A new ERCP confirmed obstruction of the second portion of the duodenum, due to diffuse tumor growth. EUS was performed, and the previous metal biliary stent was seen occluded at the distal portion in the common bile duct. A EUS-guided choledocododenostomy was performed and then, an overlapping self-expanding metal enteral stent was placed through the malignant obstruction. There were no early complications and the procedure was also clinically effective in relieving jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction symptoms. If ERCP fails in the management of occluded biliary metallic stents, EUS biliary drain can provide effective biliary decompression and should be considered an alternative to other endoscopic techniques. PMID:22041320

  15. Biliary atresia: From Australia to the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This review is based upon an invited lecture for the 52nd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, July 2015. The aetiology of biliary atresia (BA) is at best obscure, but it is probable that a number of causes or pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved leading to the final common phenotype we recognise clinically. By way of illustration, similar conditions to human BA are described, including biliary agenesis, which is the normal state and peculiar final pattern of bile duct development in the jawless fish, the lamprey. Furthermore, there have been remarkable outbreaks in the Australian outback of BA in newborn lambs whose mothers were exposed to and grazed upon a particular plant species (Dysphania glomulifera) during gestation. More recent work using a zebrafish model has isolated a toxic isoflavonoid, now named Biliatresone, thought to be responsible for these outbreaks. Normal development of the bile ducts is reviewed and parallels drawn with two clinical variants thought to definitively have their origins in intrauterine life: Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) and Cystic Biliary Atresia (CBA). For both variants there is sufficient clinical evidence, including associated anomalies and antenatal detection, respectively, to warrant their aetiological attribution as developmental BA. CMV IgM +ve associated BA is a further variant that appears separate with distinct clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. In these it seems possible that this involves perinatal obliteration of a normally formed duct system. Although still circumstantial, this evidence appears convincing enough to perhaps warrant a different treatment strategy. This then still leaves the most common (more than 60% in Western series) variant, now termed Isolated BA, whereby origins can only be alluded to. PMID:26653951

  16. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis. PMID:23272363

  17. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  18. Outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-08-14

    Endoscopic stenting has become a widely method for the management of various malignant and benign pancreatico-biliary disorders. Biliary and pancreatic stents are devices made of plastic or metal used primarily to establish patency of an obstructed bile or pancreatic duct and may also be used to treat biliary or pancreatic leaks, pancreatic fluid collections and to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases. PMID:26290631

  19. Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin; Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B.

    1996-03-15

    Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

  20. Outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic stenting has become a widely method for the management of various malignant and benign pancreatico-biliary disorders. Biliary and pancreatic stents are devices made of plastic or metal used primarily to establish patency of an obstructed bile or pancreatic duct and may also be used to treat biliary or pancreatic leaks, pancreatic fluid collections and to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases. PMID:26290631

  1. Biliary reconstructions and complications encountered in 50 consecutive right-lobe living donor liver transplantations.

    PubMed

    Icoz, Gokhan; Kilic, Murat; Zeytunlu, Murat; Celebi, Arzu; Ersoz, Galip; Killi, Refik; Memis, Ahmet; Karasu, Zeki; Yuzer, Yildiray; Tokat, Yaman

    2003-06-01

    Biliary complications appear to be the leading cause of postoperative complications after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study is to analyze the complications, treatment modalities, and outcomes of biliary anastomoses in a series of 50 consecutive right-lobe LDLTs. Median patient age was 45 years, and median right-lobe graft volume was 740 g. Graft-recipient weight ratio was 0.69 to 1.80. Median follow-up time was 15 months (range, 2 to 38 months). Eleven of 50 patients died, resulting in an overall allograft and patient survival rate of 78%. In biliary reconstruction, a duct-to-duct (D-D) anastomosis or a standard Roux-en-Y (R-Y) anastomosis was performed. Twenty-nine grafts (58%) had a single duct for anastomosis. Seventeen grafts (34%) had two bile duct orifices, and four grafts (8%) had three bile duct orifices. A D-D anastomosis was performed in 36 cases (72%), whereas R-Y reconstruction was preferred in 14 cases (28%). The overall incidence of biliary anastomotic complications was 30% in this series. Five patients developed biliary leaks, presumably from the cut surface, and all of them healed spontaneously. Two bilomas were drained percutaneously. Anastomotic strictures occurred in 8 patients (16%) and were significantly greater than in the R-Y group (P =.03). Although strictures seemed to develop more frequently in allografts with multiple bile ducts, this did not reach statistical significance (P =.05). All strictures were managed by nonsurgical measures initially. Restenosis occurred in 2 patients, both of whom had an R-Y anastomotic stricture. These anastomoses were revised surgically, giving a reoperation rate of 4% for biliary problems. No graft or patient was lost because of biliary problems. Our data suggest that D-D anastomosis is a safe and feasible method of biliary reconstruction in LDLT by preserving physiological bilioenteric continuity and allowing easy access through endoscopic techniques. PMID:12783398

  2. Palliation double stenting for malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANG; XU, HAITAO; ZHANG, YUBAO

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of patients with malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction is complex. Tumor excision is no longer possible in the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraluminal dual stent placement in malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. In total, 20 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction, including 6 with pancreatic carcinoma, 11 with cholangiocarcinoma, 1 with duodenal carcinoma and 2 with abdominal lymph node metastasis, were treated with intraluminal stent placement. Bile duct obstruction with late occurrence of duodenal obstruction was observed in 16 cases, and duodenal obstruction followed by a late occurrence of bile duct obstruction was observed in 3 cases, while, in 1 case, bile duct obstruction and duodenal obstruction occurred simultaneously. After X-ray fluoroscopy revealed obstruction in the bile duct and duodenum, stents were placed into the respective lumens. Percutaneous transhepatic placement was employed for the biliary stent, while the duodenal stent was placed perioraly. The clinical outcomes, including complications associated with the procedures and patency of the stents, were evaluated. The biliary and duodenal stents were successfully implanted in 18 patients and the technical success rate was 90% (18/20). A total of 39 stents were implanted in 20 patients. In 2 cases, duodenal stent placement failed following biliary stent placement. Duodenal obstruction remitted in 15 patients, and 1 patient succumbed to aspiration pneumonia 5 days after the procedure. No severe complications were observed in any other patient. The survival time of the 18 patients was 5–21 months (median, 9.6 months), and 6 of those patients survived for >12 months. The present study suggests that X-ray fluoroscopy-guided intraluminal stent implantation is an effective procedure for the treatment of malignant

  3. Simultaneous Extensive Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct and Pancreas: A Very Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Luvira, Vor; Pugkhem, Ake; Tipwaratorn, Theerawee; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a specific type of bile duct tumor. It has been proposed that it could be the biliary counterpart of the intraductal papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P). This hypothesis is supported by the presence of simultaneous intraductal tumors of both the bile duct and pancreas. There have been five reports of patients with simultaneous IPNB and IPMN-P. In all of these cases, biliary involvement was limited to the intrahepatic and perihilar bile duct, which had characteristics similar to IPMN-P and usually had slow progression in nature. Herein, we present the first case of extensive intraductal neoplasm involving the extrahepatic bile duct, intrahepatic bile duct, and entire length of the pancreas with a poor outcome, even after being treated aggressively with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, we summarize previous case reports of simultaneous intraductal lesions of the bile duct and pancreas. PMID:26925284

  4. [Isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Carbia, S; Pagola, J; Flaster, N; Guida, A; Jufe, L; González, B; Caniparoli, A

    1995-01-01

    The neurogenic tumors in the biliary tract are rare and usually are amputation neuroma that occur after cholecystectomy. We describe a case of isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct in a young man not cholecystectomized. The patient suffered recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss without clinical signs of Von Recklinghausen's disease or jaundice. The hepatogram was normal. The echography indicated a solid formation with obstruction of the proximal common bile duct. In the ERCP the stenosis was found. Surgical excision of the tumor and anastomosis of bilateral hepatic ducts and jejunum were carried out. At microscopic examination intraparietal neurofibroma of the common bile duct was found. As isolated entity, we know of only one reported case. PMID:8731581

  5. Intraoperative cholangiography and bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Costi, R; Roncoroni, L

    2006-01-01

    We are not in agreement with the opinion that the credit for excellent results after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is to be attributed to the routine performing of intraoperative cholangiography. We performed 2538 laparoscopic cholecystectomies without routine intraoperative cholangiography and we obtained very low rate and severity of common bile duct injuries: there was a total of four common bile duct injuries (0.16%), in no case was the injury a major transaction, and injuries were detected intraoperatively and easily repaired with a T-tube. Cholangiography could prevent bile duct transaction, but that it is not necessary for intraoperative cholangiography to be routinely performed for this purpose. It is sufficient for intraoperative cholangiography to be performed whenever the surgeon is in doubt as to the biliary anatomy or common bile duct clearance, and that when dissection of the cholecystic peduncle proves difficult he does not hesitate to convert to open access. PMID:16333543

  6. Prevention of Biliary Lesions That May Occur During Radiofrequency Ablation of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Frédéric; Elias, Dominique; Rauch, Philippe; Zarnegar, Rasa; Leroux, Agnès; Stines, Joseph; Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc; Guillemin, François; Carteaux, Jean Pierre; Villemot, Jean Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To prevent bile duct injury by using a cold 5% glucose isotonic solution cooling in the bile ducts when radiofrequency (RF) is performed in a porcine model. Summary Background Data: Complications that may arise during liver RF ablation include biliary stenosis and abscesses. Methods: The RITA 1500 generator was used for the experiments. Two lesions were performed in the left liver. The pigs were killed 1 or 3 weeks after the procedure. An ex vivo cholangiogram was obtained by direct injection into the main bile duct. Samples of RF lesions, of liver parenchyma near and at a distance from the RF lesions, underwent pathologic studies. Two groups of 20 pigs each were treated: one without perfusion of the bile ducts and the other with perfusion of cold 5% glucose isotonic solution into the bile ducts. The Pringle maneuver was used in 50% of the RF procedures. Radiologic lesions were classified as biliary stenosis, complete interruption of the bile duct, or extravasation of the radiologic contrast liquid. Results: Histologic lesions of the bile ducts were observed near the ablated RF lesion site and at a distance from the RF lesions when a Pringle maneuver was performed. Radiologic and histologic lesions of the bile ducts were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) when the bile ducts were cooled. Conclusions: Cooling of the bile ducts with a cold 5% glucose isotonic solution significantly protects the intrahepatic bile ducts from damages caused by the heat generated by RF when performed close to the bile ducts. PMID:16371740

  7. Biliary tract cancer and occupation in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, B K; Stone, B J; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Blot, W J

    1986-01-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry, which links the incidence of cancer (1961-79) and the 1960 census data on industry and occupation for all employed individuals in Sweden, the occurrence of biliary tract cancer (ICD 7th rev 155.1-.9) was systematically assessed according to occupational and industrial classifications. Data are presented separately for cancer of the gall bladder (ICD 155.1) and other cancers of the biliary tract (ICD 155.2-.9) including cancers of the extrahepatic bile ducts, ampulla of Vater, and unspecified bile passages. Statistically significant increased risks for cancer of the gall bladder were observed for men employed in petroleum refining, papermills, chemical processing, shoemaking, and repairing, and for both men and women employed in textile work. A significant increase in the incidence of other cancers of the biliary tract (mostly cancers of the bile duct) was found for such asbestos related employment as shipbuilding and in the wholesale construction materials industry and among insulation workers. These findings should be considered only as clues to aetiological factors, although several are consistent with earlier observations from other countries. PMID:3964574

  8. Adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. B.; Cooper, M. J.; Williamson, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing survival rates for carcinoma of the biliary tree could reflect the selection of patients for referral to a specialist centre as well as modern improvements in diagnosis and treatment. To determine the true incidence and outcome of biliary cancer, the records of 243 unselected Bristol patients were reviewed retrospectively over a 15-year period. Mean age was 64 years. Gallstones were associated in 38% of cases. Sixty-nine of 87 patients with gallbladder carcinoma were submitted to laparotomy. The operative (30-day) mortality rate was 56% and the one-year survival rate was 7%; one patient with an unexpected carcinoma is alive 7 years after cholecystectomy (1% five-year survival rate). Among 31 patients with carcinoma of the ampulla the operative mortality rate was 27%; one-year and five-year survival rates were 46% and 15%. Bile duct cancers (n = 125) arose proximal to the entry of the cystic duct (n = 63), distal to that point (n = 46) or diffusely (n = 16). For proximal cholangiocarcinoma the operative mortality rate was 38% and 1-year survival rate 17%; no patient lived for 2 years. For distal cholangiocarcinoma the operative mortality rate was 45% and one-year survival rate 26%; no patient lived for 3 years. Only palliative procedures were undertaken for diffuse cholangiocarcinoma; 2 patients survived 1 year (13%). Overall 5 patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree appear to have been cured (2%). PMID:2988399

  9. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  10. Interferon-Gamma Directly Mediates Developmental Biliary Defects

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuang; EauClaire, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common identifiable hepatobiliary disease affecting infants, in which there are defects in intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and progressive fibrosis. Activation of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) appears to be critical in both patients with BA and in rodent models of BA. We have recently reported a zebrafish model of biliary disease that shares features with BA, in which inhibition of DNA methylation leads to intrahepatic biliary defects and activation of IFNγ target genes. Here we report that ifng genes are hypomethylated and upregulated in zebrafish larvae treated with azacytidine (azaC), an inhibitor of DNA methylation. Injection of IFNγ protein into developing zebrafish larvae leads to biliary defects, suggesting that activation of the IFNγ pathway is sufficient to cause developmental biliary defects. These defects are associated with decreased cholangiocyte proliferation and with a decrease in the expression of vhnf1 (hnf1b, tcf2), which encodes a homeodomain protein with previously reported roles in biliary development in multiple models. These results support an importance of IFNγ in mediating biliary defects, and also demonstrate the feasibility of direct injection of intact protein into developing zebrafish larvae. PMID:23448251

  11. Pediatric Biliary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Atchie, Benjamin; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Josephs, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    An interventional radiologist is frequently called to evaluate and treat biliary diseases in children; a tailored approach specific to this population is required. Imaging with an emphasis on minimizing ionizing radiation is used not only in the initial workup but also to guide interventions. The most common form of intervention generally consists of transhepatic biliary drainage to treat either biliary obstruction or bile leakage, a scenario frequently encountered after pediatric liver transplantation. Other pathologies referred for evaluation and management include biliary atresia and, rarely, symptomatic choledochal cysts. Biliary complications caused by an underlying malignancy are not a frequently encountered problem in the pediatric population. The initial evaluation, role of preprocedural imaging, and interventional management with an emphasis on technique are discussed regarding these common biliary pathologies in children. PMID:26615168

  12. Endoscopic stenting for malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lai, E C; Lo, C M; Liu, C L

    2001-10-01

    Use of endoscopic stents to manage patients with malignant obstructive jaundice is a well accepted measure. Interpretation of the results of endoscopic stenting must be made with reference to the level of the bile duct obstruction. Results were generally unsatisfactory for hilar lesions, especially when the intrahepatic ducts were segregated into multiple isolated systems. After deployment, stent dysfunction due to clogging by biliary sludge is apparently an inevitable process for the conventional plastic stent. Considerable efforts had been made to prolong the stent patency by changing its physical configuration, coating the inner lumen, and the choice of material but with little success. The development of a self-expandable metal stent is a major advance, but the benefits derived from a larger stent lumen are compromised by the initial expense and the tumor ingrowth through the wires for all models available commercially. Current data failed to substantiate the value of routine preoperative biliary decompression, as there is no reduction in the morbidity and mortality rates after surgery. Although biased patient selection may have resulted in the negative observations made, repeated clinical trials should probably focus on patients with distal bile duct tumors who are preparing for a major pancreatic resection. As a definitive palliative measure, endoscopic stenting is a more cost-effective option than surgery for patients with limited life expectancy based on data regarding plastic stents. The recommendations are evolving however, as there is progressive refinement of laparoscopic surgery techniques and designs of endoscopic stents. PMID:11596892

  13. Biliary repair and carcinogenesis are mediated by IL-33–dependent cholangiocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Razumilava, Nataliya; Gores, Gregory J.; Walters, Stephanie; Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Mourya, Reena; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Glaser, Shannon S.; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers inflammation and fibrosis, which can result in severe liver diseases and may progress to malignancy. Development of a type 1 immune response has been linked to biliary injury pathogenesis; however, a subset of patients with biliary atresia, the most common childhood cholangiopathy, exhibit increased levels of Th2-promoting cytokines. The relationship among different inflammatory drivers, epithelial repair, and carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we determined that the Th2-activating cytokine IL-33 is elevated in biliary atresia patient serum and in the livers and bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia. Administration of IL-33 to WT mice markedly increased cholangiocyte proliferation and promoted sustained cell growth, resulting in dramatic and rapid enlargement of extrahepatic bile ducts. The IL-33–dependent proliferative response was mediated by an increase in the number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which released high levels of IL-13 that in turn promoted cholangiocyte hyperplasia. Induction of the IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 circuit in a murine biliary injury model promoted epithelial repair; however, induction of this circuit in mice with constitutive activation of AKT and YAP in bile ducts induced cholangiocarcinoma with liver metastases. These findings reveal that IL-33 mediates epithelial proliferation and suggest that activation of IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 may improve biliary repair and disruption of the circuit may block progression of carcinogenesis. PMID:24892809

  14. Per oral cholangiopancreatoscopy in pancreatico biliary diseases - Expert consensus statements

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandani, Mohan; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Tandan, Manu; Maydeo, Amit; Chandrashekhar, Thoguluva Seshadri; Kumar, Ajay; Sud, Randhir; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Makmun, Dadang; Khor, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide consensus statements on the use of per-oral cholangiopancreatoscopy (POCPS). METHODS: A workgroup of experts in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endosonography, and POCPS generated consensus statements summarizing the utility of POCPS in pancreaticobiliary disease. Recommendation grades used validated evidence ratings of publications from an extensive literature review. RESULTS: Six consensus statements were generated: (1) POCPS is now an important additional tool during ERCP; (2) in patients with indeterminate biliary strictures, POCS and POCS-guided targeted biopsy are useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis; (3) POCS and POCS-guided lithotripsy are recommended for treatment of difficult common bile duct stones when standard techniques fail; (4) in patients with main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) POPS may be used to assess extent of tumor to assist surgical resection; (5) in difficult pancreatic ductal stones, POPS-guided lithotripsy may be useful in fragmentation and extraction of stones; and (6) additional indications for POCPS include selective guidewire placement, unexplained hemobilia, assessing intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. CONCLUSION: POCPS is important in association with ERCP, particularly for diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures and for intra-ductal lithotripsy when other techniques failed, and may be useful for pre-operative assessment of extent of main duct IPMN, for extraction of difficult pancreatic stones, and for unusual indications involving selective guidewire placement, assessing unexplained hemobilia or intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. PMID:25914484

  15. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.; Al-azzawi, Khairallh H.; Alkarboly, Taha A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biliary leak can occur as a complication of biliary surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography manipulations and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Consequently, bile may collect in the abdominal cavity, a condition called biloma. Rarely, it may reach a massive size. Case presentation A 72-year-old man presented with gastric upset with gradual abdominal distension reaching a large size due to intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stenting for post laparoscopic cholecystectomy common bile duct stricture. This huge biloma was treated by percutaneous insertion of a tube drain for a few days, evacuating the collection successfully without recurrence. Discussion This patient might sustain injury to the common bile duct either by the guide wire or stent, or the injury occurred at the angle between the common bile duct and duodenum during sphincterotomy of the ampulla. Although any of these rents may lead to a bile leak, causing a huge biloma, they could be successfully treated by percutaneous drainage. Conclusions (1) Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2) A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3) Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective. PMID:26402876

  16. Management of Bile Duct Injury at Various Stages of Presentation: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Ibrarullah, Md; Sankar, S; Sreenivasan, K; Gavini, S R K

    2015-04-01

    The clinical presentation, management and outcome of all patients with bile duct injury who presented to our tertiary care centre at various stages after cholecystectomy were analyzed. The patients were categorized into three groups: group A-patients in whom the injury was detected during cholecystectomy, group B-patients who presented within 2 weeks of cholecystectomy and group C-patients who presented after 2 weeks of cholecystectomy. Our team acted as rescue surgeons and performed 'on-table' repair for injuries occurring in another unit or in another hospital. Strasberg classification of bile duct injury was followed. In group A, partial and complete transections were managed by repair over T-tube and high hepaticojejunostomy, respectively. Patients in group B underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram and/or magnetic resonance cholangiogram to evaluate the biliary tree. Those with intact common bile duct underwent endoscopic papillotomy and stenting in addition to drainage of intra-abdominal collection when present. For those with complete transection, early repair was considered if there was no sepsis. In presence of intra-abdominal sepsis an attempt was made to create controlled external biliary fistula. This was followed by hepatico jejunostomy at least after 3 months. Group C patients underwent hepaticojejunostomy at least 6 weeks after the injury. The outcome was graded into three categories: grade A-no clinical symptoms, normal LFT; grade B-no clinical symptoms, mild derangement of LFT or occasional episodes of pain or fever; grade C-pain, cholangitis and abnormal LFT; grade D-surgical revision or dilatation required. Fifty nine patients were included in the study and the distribution was group A-six patients, group B-33 patients and group C-20 patients. In group A, one patient with complete transection of the right hepatic duct (type C) and partial injury to left hepatic duct (LHD) underwent right hepaticojejunostomy and repair of the LHD over

  17. Combined radiologic and endoscopic treatment (using the “rendezvous technique”) of a biliary fistula following left hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gracient, Aurélien; Rebibo, Lionel; Delcenserie, Richard; Yzet, Thierry; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing decrease in the frequency of complications after hepatectomy, biliary fistulas still occur and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Here, we report on an unusual technique for managing biliary fistula following left hepatectomy in a patient in whom the right posterior segmental duct joined the left hepatic duct. The biliary fistula was treated with a combined radiologic and endoscopic procedure based on the “rendezvous technique”. The clinical outcome was good, and reoperation was not required. PMID:27570431

  18. "Biliary Diseases with Pancreatic Counterparts": Cross-sectional Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Flaherty, Erin M; Dasyam, Anil K; Menias, Christine O; Riddle, Nicole D; Lath, Narayan; Kozaka, Kazuto; Matsui, Osamu; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the similarities in the histopathologic findings and the clinical-biologic behaviors of select biliary and pancreatic conditions, a new disease concept, "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts," has been proposed. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic pathologic conditions of the biliary tract have their counterparts in the pancreas. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing cholangitis is the biliary manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is its pancreatic counterpart. People with chronic alcoholism can develop peribiliary cysts and fibrosis as well as pancreatic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis simultaneously. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous cystic neoplasm are considered pancreatic counterparts for the biliary neoplasms of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract, and hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, respectively. The anatomic proximity of the biliary tract and the pancreas, the nearly simultaneous development of both organs from the endoderm of the foregut, and the presence of pancreatic exocrine acini within the peribiliary glands surrounding the extrahepatic bile ducts are suggested as causative factors for these similarities. Interestingly, these diseases show "nearly" identical findings at cross-sectional imaging, an observation that further supports this new disease concept. New information obtained with regard to biliary diseases can be used for evaluation of pancreatic abnormalities, and vice versa. In addition, combined genetic and molecular studies may be performed to develop novel therapeutic targets. For both biliary and pancreatic diseases, imaging plays a pivotal role in initial diagnosis, evaluation of treatment response, efficacy testing of novel drugs, and long-term surveillance. PMID:26824512

  19. Prolonged exposure of cholestatic rats to complete dark inhibits biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Meng, Fanyin; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Franchitto, Antonio; Ray, Debolina; Kennedy, Lindsey; Greene, John; Renzi, Anastasia; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2014-11-01

    Biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are common features in cholestatic liver disease. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland as well as the liver. Melatonin inhibits biliary hyperplasia of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Since melatonin synthesis (by the enzyme serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) from the pineal gland increases after dark exposure, we hypothesized that biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are diminished by continuous darkness via increased melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland. Normal or BDL rats (immediately after surgery) were housed with light-dark cycles or complete dark for 1 wk before evaluation of 1) the expression of AANAT in the pineal gland and melatonin levels in pineal gland tissue supernatants and serum; 2) biliary proliferation and intrahepatic bile duct mass, liver histology, and serum chemistry; 3) secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (functional index of biliary growth); 4) collagen deposition, liver fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver, and cholangiocytes; and 5) expression of clock genes in cholangiocytes. In BDL rats exposed to dark there was 1) enhanced AANAT expression/melatonin secretion in pineal gland and melatonin serum levels; 2) improved liver morphology, serum chemistry and decreased biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated choleresis; and 4) decreased fibrosis and expression of fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver and cholangiocytes and reduced biliary expression of the clock genes PER1, BMAL1, CLOCK, and Cry1. Thus prolonged dark exposure may be a beneficial noninvasive therapeutic approach for the management of biliary disorders. PMID:25214401

  20. Preoperative biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Payal; Kumbhari, Vivek; Zein, Mohamad E L; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    The role of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with distal or proximal biliary obstruction secondary to resectable tumors has been a matter for debate. A review of the literature using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases was undertaken for studies evaluating routes of drainage (endoscopic or percutaneous) and stent types (plastic or metal) in patients with resectable disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is indicated for relief of symptomatic jaundice, cholangitis, patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy or those patients where surgery may be delayed. Endoscopic methods are preferred over percutaneous methods because of lower complication rates. In patients with proximal biliary obstruction, PBD should be guided by imaging studies to aid in selective biliary cannulation for unilateral drainage in order to reduce the risk of cholangitis in undrained liver segments. PMID:25293587

  1. Acute Biliary Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Forty-seven cases of biliary tract infection with septic shock are presented. The sepsis was caused by empyema of the gallbladder in 23 cases and by cholangitis in the remainder. Gallstones were most frequently the cause of the sepsis. An appropriate diagnostic description of the syndrome of biliary tract infection and septic shock should therefore include a description of the underlying biliary disease as well as the term acute biliary shock. In this series, emergency surgical management by removal of gallstones and drainage of suppuration was felt to be the most appropriate treatment. There was a high incidence of gallbladder rupture (10.6%) and intrahepatic stones (53.2%). Of the 13 patients who died, 8 might have survived if early operation had been performed after the diagnosis of acute biliary septic shock was established. PMID:2278914

  2. Bile Duct Reconstruction by a Young Surgeon in Living Donor Liver Transplantation Using Right Liver Graft

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Man; Cho, Wontae; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Park, Jae Berm; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Gwak, Mi Sook; Kim, Gaab Soo; Kim, Sung Joo; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Biliary strictures and bile leaks account for the majority of biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study was to examine differences in biliary complications after adult LDLTs were performed by an experienced senior surgeon and an inexperienced junior surgeon. Surgeries included bile duct reconstruction after adult LDLT using a right liver graft, and risk factors for biliary stricture were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 136 patients who underwent LDLT in order to identify patients who developed biliary complications. The senior surgeon performed 102 surgeries and the junior surgeon performed 34 surgeries. The proportion of patients with biliary stricture was similar between the senior and the junior surgeons (27.5% vs 26.5%; P = 0.911). However, the incidence of biliary leakage was higher in patients of the junior surgeon than in those of the senior surgeon (23.5% vs 2.9%; P = 0.001). The frequency of percutaneous drainage was also higher for the junior surgeon than the senior surgeon because of the junior surgeon’s high leakage rate of the drainage. When the junior surgeon performed bile duct anastomosis, biliary leakage occurred in 7 patients between the 11th and 20th cases. However, biliary leakage occurred in only 1 case thereafter. Bile duct reconstruction performed by beginner surgeons in LDLT using right lobe grafts should be cautiously monitored and observed by a senior surgeon until an inexperienced junior surgeon has performed at least 20 cases, because of the high incidence of biliary leakage related to surgeon’s inexperience in bile duct reconstructions in LDLT. PMID:25255023

  3. Management issues in post living donor liver transplant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Biliary complications are common after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) although with advancements in surgical understanding and techniques, the incidence is decreasing. Biliary strictures are more common than leaks. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first line modality of treatment of post LDLT biliary strictures with a technical success rate of 75%-80%. Most of ERCP failures are successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and rendezvous technique. A minority of patients may require surgical correction. ERCP for these strictures is technically more challenging than routine as well post deceased donor strictures. Biliary strictures may increase the morbidity of a liver transplant recipient, but the mortality is similar to those with or without strictures. Post transplant strictures are short segment and soft, requiring only a few session of ERCP before complete dilatation. Long-term outcome of patients with biliary stricture is similar to those without stricture. With the introduction of new generation cholangioscopes, ERCP success rate may increase, obviating the need for PTBD and surgery in these patients. PMID:27057304

  4. Management issues in post living donor liver transplant biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Biliary complications are common after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) although with advancements in surgical understanding and techniques, the incidence is decreasing. Biliary strictures are more common than leaks. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first line modality of treatment of post LDLT biliary strictures with a technical success rate of 75%-80%. Most of ERCP failures are successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and rendezvous technique. A minority of patients may require surgical correction. ERCP for these strictures is technically more challenging than routine as well post deceased donor strictures. Biliary strictures may increase the morbidity of a liver transplant recipient, but the mortality is similar to those with or without strictures. Post transplant strictures are short segment and soft, requiring only a few session of ERCP before complete dilatation. Long-term outcome of patients with biliary stricture is similar to those without stricture. With the introduction of new generation cholangioscopes, ERCP success rate may increase, obviating the need for PTBD and surgery in these patients. PMID:27057304

  5. Multicenter study of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sasahira, Naoki; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Togawa, Osamu; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Iwai, Tomohisa; Tamada, Kiichi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Kenji; Koike, Takero; Yoshida, Yu; Sugimori, Kazuya; Ryozawa, Shomei; Kakimoto, Toshiharu; Nishikawa, Ko; Kitamura, Katsuya; Imamura, Tsunao; Mizuide, Masafumi; Toda, Nobuo; Maetani, Iruru; Sakai, Yuji; Itoi, Takao; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimal method of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study was conducted in patients who underwent plastic stent (PS) or nasobiliary catheter (NBC) placement for resectable malignant distal biliary obstruction followed by surgery between January 2010 and March 2012. Procedure-related adverse events, stent/catheter dysfunction (occlusion or migration of PS/NBC, development of cholangitis, or other conditions that required repeat endoscopic biliary intervention), and jaundice resolution (bilirubin level < 3.0 mg/dL) were evaluated. Cumulative incidence of jaundice resolution and dysfunction of PS/NBC were estimated using competing risk analysis. Patient characteristics and preoperative biliary drainage were also evaluated for association with the time to jaundice resolution and PS/NBC dysfunction using competing risk regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 419 patients were included in the study (PS, 253 and NBC, 166). Primary cancers included pancreatic cancer in 194 patients (46%), bile duct cancer in 172 (41%), gallbladder cancer in three (1%), and ampullary cancer in 50 (12%). The median serum total bilirubin was 7.8 mg/dL and 324 patients (77%) had ≥ 3.0 mg/dL. During the median time to surgery of 29 d [interquartile range (IQR), 30-39 d]. PS/NBC dysfunction rate was 35% for PS and 18% for NBC [Subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 4.76; 95%CI: 2.44-10.0, P < 0.001]; the pig-tailed tip was a risk factor for PS dysfunction. Jaundice resolution was achieved in 85% of patients and did not depend on the drainage method (PS or NBC). CONCLUSION: PS has insufficient patency for preoperative biliary drainage. Given the drawbacks of external drainage via NBC, an alternative method of internal drainage should be explored. PMID:27076764

  6. History of biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Spirou, Yannos; Yannos, Spirou; Petrou, Athanasios; Athanasios, Petrou; Christoforides, Christos; Christos, Christoforides; Felekouras, Evangelos; Evangelos, Felekouras

    2013-05-01

    Since ancient times biliary surgery has been one of the major interests of doctors and other scientists around the world. From the ancient Greeks and Egyptians to the greatest scientists of modern times biliary surgery has advanced remarkably. Especially during the last century huge progress has been made in this field. Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been developed and combined with general anesthesia and antisepsis that have made biliary surgery particularly safe for every patient and have made cholecystectomy one of the most common operations in the world today. PMID:23430002

  7. EUS hepaticogastrostomy for bilioenteric anastomotic strictures: a permanent access for repeated ambulatory dilations? Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-García, Pablo; Gonzalez, Jean M.; Tellechea, Juan I.; Culetto, Adrian; Barthet, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Postsurgical benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures are a major adverse event of biliary surgery and endoscopic treatment, including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), is challenging in this setting. We present an innovative approach to treating this complication. Patients and methods: Patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-hepaticogastrostomy (HG) to treat nonmalignant biliary obstructions. A first endoscopy was performed to create the hepaticogastrostomy and to drain the biliary tree. The second step had a therapeutic purpose: antegrade dilation of the anastomosis. Results: Four men and three women with benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures were included. Patients presented with jaundice or recurrent cholangitis. A fully covered HG stent was successfully deployed during the first endoscopy. During the second step, repeat antegrade dilation was performed through the HG in four cases (1 – 4 dilations) followed by double pigtail stenting in three cases. In three other patients, the stenosis was not crossable and a double pigtail stent was placed to maintain biliary drainage. All patients had symptom relief at the end of follow-up (45 weeks, range 33 – 64). Conclusions: Dilation of anastomotic stenosis through a hepaticogastrostomy is feasible and may provide permanent biliary drainage or recurrent access to the biliary tree in patients with altered anatomy. Double pigtail stents might prevent migration. PMID:27092329

  8. Temporary Trans-jejunal Hepatic Duct Stenting in Roux-en-y Hepaticojejunostomy for Reconstruction of Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh Fazeli, Mohammad; Kazemeini, Ali Reza; Jafarian, Ali; Bashashati, Mohammad; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile Duct Injuries (BDI) during cholecystectomy are now being recognized as major health problems. Objectives Herein, we present our experience with handling major BDIs and report long-term outcome of hepaticojejunostomies followed by trans-jejunal hepatic duct stenting performed to reconstruct extra-hepatic biliary tracts. Materials and Methods In this case series, we prospectively collected data of 22 patients, who underwent first time biliary reconstruction through Roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy followed by hepatic duct stenting using a trans-jejunal bifurcated 6F tube drain. The long-term outcome was assessed and defined as excellent (asymptomatic, normal liver enzymes and bilirubin levels), good (asymptomatic, mild abnormality in liver enzyme and bilirubin levels), poor (symptomatic, abnormal liver enzymes and bilirubin level) and failure (requiring reoperation). Results A total of 22 patients including four males (18.1%) and 18 females (81.8%) were evaluated. The mean age was 42.71 (range: 23 - 74) years. Twelve patients had undergone open cholecystectomy (54.5%) and the rest had a history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The mean interval between the primary operation and reconstruction was 92.71 days. The mean follow-up period after biliary reconstruction was 42.33 (range: 1 - 96) months. No instance of anastomotic leakage or stenosis, biliary sepsis, thromboembolic event, or respiratory infection was noted in the long-term follow-up. The outcome was excellent in all patients. No case with poor or failure of result was noticed. Conclusions Although a devastating complication iatrogenic major bile duct injuries can be corrected surgically with a high rate of success. Temporary trans-jejunal stenting of the hepatic ducts can help in maintaining the integrity of anastomosis without stenosis or biliary sepsis. PMID:27626003

  9. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Is a Generalized Autoimmune Epithelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Bingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by highly specific antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and the specific immune-mediated injury of small intrahepatic bile ducts. Unique apoptotic feature of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) may contribute to apotope presentation to the immune system, causing unique tissue damage in PBC. Perpetuation of inflammation may result in senescence of BECs, contributing to irreversible loss of bile duct. In addition to the classic liver manifestations, focal inflammation and tissue damage are also seen in salivary glands and urinary tract in a significant proportion of PBC patients. These findings provide potent support to the idea that molecular mimicry may be involved in the breakdown of autoimmune tolerance and mucosal immunity may lead to a systematic epithelitis in PBC patients. Thus, PBC is considered a generalized epithelitis in clinical practice. PMID:25803105

  10. Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2006-12-15

    A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

  11. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  12. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-10-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  13. Incipient primary biliary cirrhosis/autoimmune hepatitis overlap or hepatitic form of primary biliary cirrhosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Minz, Ranjana W; Chhabra, Seema; Aggarwal, Ritu; Das, Ashim; Saikia, Biman; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2009-01-01

    A 42 year old asymptomatic female detected as incipient Primary Biliary Cirrhosis/Autoimmune Hepatitis overlap during routine checkup. The biochemical profile showed evolution from a mildly deranged liver function test in 2004 along with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate to a 4 times elevation of alkaline phosphatase in 2006 with mildly deranged alanine transaminase. Autoimmune markers demonstrable were Anti mitochondrial antibody M(2) and sp100. Histopathology showed dual features, dominant findings were of autoimmune heptatitis. Features consistent with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis were minimal with an occasional portal tract showing paucity of bile ducts and occasional bile duct proliferation. Human leucocyte antigen DR/DQ genotype was as follows: DRB1*03, DRB1*07, DQB1*02, DQB1*04. PMID:19829977

  14. Incipient primary biliary cirrhosis/autoimmune hepatitis overlap or hepatitic form of primary biliary cirrhosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Minz, Ranjana W; Aggarwal, Ritu; Das, Ashim; Saikia, Biman; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2009-01-01

    A 42 year old asymptomatic female detected as incipient Primary Biliary Cirrhosis/Autoimmune Hepatitis overlap during routine checkup. The biochemical profile showed evolution from a mildly deranged liver function test in 2004 along with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate to a 4 times elevation of alkaline phosphatase in 2006 with mildly deranged alanine transaminase. Autoimmune markers demonstrable were Anti mitochondrial antibody M2 and sp100. Histopathology showed dual features, dominant findings were of autoimmune heptatitis. Features consistent with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis were minimal with an occasional portal tract showing paucity of bile ducts and occasional bile duct proliferation. Human leucocyte antigen DR/DQ genotype was as follows: DRB1*03, DRB1*07, DQB1*02, DQB1*04. PMID:19829977

  15. Stenting in Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-10-01

    Decompression of the biliary system in patients with malignant biliary obstruction has been widely accepted and implemented as part of the care. Despite a wealth of literature, there remains a significant amount of uncertainty as to which approach would be most appropriate in different clinical settings. This review covers stenting of the biliary system in cases of resectable or palliative malignant biliary obstruction, potential candidates for biliary drainage, technical aspects of the procedure, as well as management of biliary stent dysfunction. Furthermore, periprocedural considerations including proper mapping of the location of obstruction and the use of antibiotics are addressed. PMID:26431598

  16. Pathogenesis of biliary atresia: defining biology to understand clinical phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Akihiro; Miethke, Alexander; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a severe cholangiopathy of early infancy that destroys extrahepatic bile ducts and disrupts bile flow. With a poorly defined disease pathogenesis, treatment consists of the surgical removal of duct remnants followed by hepatoportoenterostomy. Although this approach can improve the short-term outcome, the liver disease progresses to end-stage cirrhosis in most children. Further improvement in outcome will require a greater understanding of the mechanisms of biliary injury and fibrosis. Here, we review progress in the field, which has been fuelled by collaborative studies in larger patient cohorts and the development of cell culture and animal model systems to directly test hypotheses. Advances include the identification of phenotypic subgroups and stages of disease based on clinical, pathological and molecular features. Stronger evidence exists for viruses, toxins and gene sequence variations in the aetiology of biliary atresia, triggering a proinflammatory response that injures the duct epithelium and produces a rapidly progressive cholangiopathy. The immune response also activates the expression of type 2 cytokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production by nonparenchymal cells. These advances provide insight into phenotype variability and might be relevant to the design of personalized trials to block progression of liver disease. PMID:26008129

  17. Intraoperative air leak test was useful for the detection of a small biliary fistula: A rare case of non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Hata, Shojiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication are rare and no standard treatment has been established yet. Careful attention should be paid to avoidance of postoperative bile leakage during surgical treatment. Presentation of case We report the case of a 74-year-old man who visited our department complaining of right upper abdominal pain and elevated serum levels of the liver enzymes. Computed tomography revealed hepatic cysts including a large one measuring 16 cm in diameter in Segments IV and VIII. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst revealed bile-staining of the cyst fluid. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated the presence of a cyst–biliary communication. We performed open deroofing of the cyst. During the operation, the biliary fistula was invisible, however, air injection into the bile duct through the stump of the cystic duct caused release of air bubbles from the cyst cavity, which allowed us to detect the small biliary orifice and repair it successfully by suture. Discussion We utilized the intraoperative air leak test, which has previously been reported to be effective for preventing postoperative bile leakage in patients undergoing hepatectomy to detect of a small cyst–biliary communication in a case undergoing non-parasitic hepatic cyst surgery. Conclusion An intraoperative air leak test may be a useful test during surgical treatment of non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication. PMID:26398333

  18. Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation for malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    WANG, FEI; LI, QUANPENG; ZHANG, XIUHUA; JIANG, GUOBING; GE, XIANXIU; YU, HONG; NIE, JUNJIE; JI, GUOZHONG; MIAO, LIN

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a novel palliation therapy for malignant biliary stricture; however, its feasibility and safety has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic RFA for the treatment of malignant biliary strictures. A total of 12 patients treated by endoscopic RFA between December 2011 and October 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Adverse events within 30 days post-intervention, stricture diameters prior to and following RFA, stent patency and survival time were investigated. A total of 12 patients underwent 20 RFA procedures as a treatment for malignant biliary strictures. Two patients required repeated elective RFA (4 and 6 times, respectively). All 20 RFA procedures were successfully performed without technical problems. During a 30 day period following each RFA procedure, two patients experienced fever (38.2 and 38.9°C, respectively) and another patient exhibited post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. The 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 0 and 8.3%, respectively. Mean stricture diameter prior to RFA was 5.3 mm (standard deviation (SD), 0.9 mm; range, 5–8 mm), and the mean diameter following RFA was 12.6 mm (SD, 3.1 mm; range, 8–15 mm). There was a significant increase of 7.3 mm in the bile duct diameter following RFA in comparison with prior to RFA (t=8.6; P≤0.001). Of the 11 patients with stents inserted following RFA, the median stent patency was 125.0 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 94.7–155.3 days]. Extrapolated median survival following the first RFA was 232 days (95% CI, 94.3–369.7 days). In conclusion, RFA appears to be an efficient and safe treatment strategy for the palliation of unresectable malignant biliary strictures. PMID:27284336

  19. The role of bile carcinoembryonic antigen in diagnosing bile duct cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kwang Ro; Kim, Do Ha; Park, Jong Ho; Bang, Sung-Jo; Shin, Jung Woo; Park, Neung Hwa; Park, Jae Hoo

    2003-01-01

    It is known that the fluids bathing tumors might contain a higher level of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) than those found in the blood. Therefore, we evaluated the role of bile CEA in diagnosing bile duct cancer. One hundred and thirty two patients were prospectively studied. The patients were divided into 3 groups: the bile duct cancer (n=32), pancreatic cancer (n=16), and benign biliary diseases (n=84) groups. Bile samples were obtained on the next day of the biliary drainage procedures. The mean bile CEA level in those with bile duct cancer (120.6 +/- 156.9 ng/mL) was significantly higher than those with pancreatic cancer and benign biliary diseases (32.0 +/- 28.5 ng/mL, 29.3 +/- 56.3 ng/mL). Using the level of 20 ng/mL, the sensitivity and specificity of bile CEA in the diagnosis of bile duct cancer from benign biliary diseases were 65.6% and 66.7%, respectively. Both the bile CEA and total bilirubin level were found to be an independent factor linked to bile duct cancer. This study result suggests that bile CEA level is a useful supplementary test for diagnosing bile duct cancer. PMID:14676443

  20. Angiographic Findings in Biliary Atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, Renan Pariente, Daniele M.

    2004-09-15

    We present the angiographic findings of 46 patients with biliary atresia (BA). There were 25 males and 21 females, with a mean age of 22.5 months (range - 1.5 to 141 months). Hepatic and mesenteric angiography were obtained as part of a liver transplantation work-up or as part of the treatment of clinical events. All patients had a histological diagnosis of BA. The portal vein was patent in 43 patients, with a mean size of 4.1 mm, using the arterial catheter as comparison. Portal hepatopetal flow was observed in 20 patient and hepatofugal flow was observed in 21 patients. Presence of gastroesophageal varices was observed in 41 patients. The hepatic artery was enlarged in all patients. In all 46 patients studied, the intrahepatic peripheral hepatic artery branches presented with irregularities in contour, including encasement, strictures, dilatation and angulation, and images suggestive of peripheral occlusion. Angiographic vascular 'tuft-like' blush surrounding the irregular or occluded peripheral arterial segments was observed in 40 patients. The injection of Microfil (registered) in one case showed a marked vascular proliferation within the portal tract, apparently derived from arterial and portal connections, filling the entire portal space. We conclude that the presence of angiographically demonstrable perivascular arterial tufts in the periphery of the hepatic arterial circulation is a common finding in cases of BA, and may be a characteristic diagnostic angiographic finding.

  1. CD8 T cells mediate direct biliary ductule damage in NOD autoimmune biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Yuehong; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Leung, Patrick S.; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Hunter, Kara M.; Morris, Gerard A.; Lyons, Paul A.; Peterson, Laurence B.; Wicker, Linda S.; Gershwin, M.E.; Ridgway, William M.

    2016-01-01

    We previously described the NOD.c3c4 mouse, which is protected from type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to protective alleles at multiple insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) genes, but develops autoimmune biliary disease (ABD) resembling primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Here we characterize the NOD.ABD strain, which is genetically-related to the NOD.c3c4 strain but develops both ABD and T1D. Histologically, NOD.ABD biliary disease is indistinguishable from that in NOD.c3c4 mice. The frequency of effector memory (CD44+CD62L-) and central memory (CD44+CD62L+) CD8 T cells is significantly increased in the intrahepatic lymphocyte fraction of NOD.ABD mice, and NOD.ABD CD8 T cells produce more IFN-γ and TNF-α, compared to controls. NOD.ABD splenocytes can transfer ABD and T1D to NOD.c3c4 scid mice, but only T1D to NOD scid mice, suggesting that the genetic origin of the target organ and/or its innate immune cells is critical to disease pathogenesis. The disease transfer model, importantly, shows that biliary duct damage (characteristic of PBC) and inflammation precede biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Unlike T1D where both CD4 and CD8 T cells are required for disease transfer, purified NOD.ABD CD8 T cells can transfer liver inflammation into NOD.c3c4 scid recipients, and disease transfer is ameliorated by co-transferring T regulatory cells. Unlike NOD.c3c4 mice, NOD.ABD mice do not develop antinuclear or anti-Smith autoantibodies; however, NOD.ABD mice do develop the anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase antibodies typical of human PBC. The NOD.ABD strain is a model of immune dysregulation affecting two organ systems, most likely by mechanisms that do not completely coincide. PMID:21169553

  2. Contrast-free endoscopic stent insertion in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Lombardi, Giovanni; Rega, Maria; Simeoli, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Siciliano, Saverio; Maione, Francesco; Salvatori, Francesca; Balzano, Antonio; Persico, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To present a case series of MRCP-guided endoscopic biliary stent placement, performed entirely without contrast injection. METHODS: Contrast-free endoscopic biliary drainage was attempted in 20 patients with malignant obstruction, unsuitable for resection on the basis of tumor extent or medical illness. MRCP images were used to confirm the diagnosis of tumor, to exclude other biliary diseases and to demonstrate the stenoses as well as dilation of proximal liver segments. The procedure was carried out under conscious sedation. Patients were placed in the left lateral decubitus position. The endoscope was inserted, the papilla identified and cannulated by a papillotome. A guide wire was inserted and guided deeply into the biliary tree, above the stenosis, by fluoroscopy. A papillotomy approximately 1 cm. long was performed and the papillotome was exchanged with a guiding-catheter. A 10 Fr, Amsterdam-type plastic stent, 7 to 15 cm long, was finally inserted over the guide wire/guiding catheter by a pusher tube system. RESULTS: Successful stent insertion was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications. Successful drainage, with substantial reduction in bilirubin levels, was achieved in all patients. CONCLUSION: This new method of contrast-free endoscopic stenting in malignant biliary obstruction is a safe and effective method of palliation. However, a larger, randomized study comparing this new approach with the standard procedure is needed to confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:17663512

  3. Sinuplasty (Balloon Catheter Dilation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... development of the balloon dilating catheter and its adaptation to sinus surgery. In the 1980s, the field ... used in endoscopic sinus surgery. It is the adaptation or application of minimally-invasive balloon technology to ...

  4. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  5. Development of hepatolithiasis due to a celery stalk retained within the bile ducts of the liver.

    PubMed

    Lv, G Y; Qiu, W; Yu, Y; Li, T

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Commonly encountered foreign bodies are remnants from surgical procedures and ingested materials. Rarely, the latter cause stone formation in the biliary tract. Case History We describe a 51-year-old female who underwent choledoduodenostomy and who presented with abdominal distension caused by multiple stones in the bile ducts within the liver (hepatolithiasis) and an intact celery stalk. Hepatolithiasis was demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen. The celery stalk was not confirmed until exploration of the biliary duct. Conclusions Here, we describe, for the first time, an intact, undigested celery stalk in the biliary tract which induced hepatolithiasis. We believe that choledochojejunostomy favoured reflux of the celery stalk from the duodenum into the biliary tract. PMID:27087342

  6. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  7. Choledochoduodenostomy for benign and malignant biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, S; Serour, F; Levi, S; Abulafia, A; Balassiano, M; Krispin, M

    1988-04-01

    Although nonsurgical alternative treatments for primary or retained common bile duct stones--such as dissolution of gallstones with deoxycholic acids and, especially endoscopic papillotomy--have become available, choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) has been used with increasing frequency over the past decade, with extension of the indications for its use. We report our experience with side-to-side CDS in 116 patients with benign (65 patients) and malignant (46 patients) biliary diseases. Even though the mean age of our patients with benign disease--patients who underwent urgent operations because of obstructive jaundice (74%), liver damage (approximately 60%), and other biliary complications--was 66.8 years, the perioperative mortality was 3.07% and the long-term follow-up results were excellent with no biliary complications. In regard to the controversy about the use of CDS in malignant biliary obstructions, our experience shows that none of the 42 patients had any complication due to malignant invasion of the stoma, and only one patient had ascending cholangitis; the perioperative mortality in this group was 8.6%. In our opinion, CDS is a relatively safe, definitive procedure for treatment of benign and malignant biliary diseases, with good long-term results in high-risk, aged patients. PMID:3353854

  8. Early biliary complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Malgras, Brice; Duron, Sandrine; Gaujoux, Sébastien; Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Rebours, Vinciane; Palazzo, Maxime; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background Early biliary complications (EBC) following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are poorly known. This study aimed to assess incidence, predictive factors, and treatment of EBC including bilio-enteric stricture, transient jaundice, biliary leak, and cholangitis. Method From 2007 to 2011, 352 patients underwent PD. Statistical analysis including logistic regression was performed to determine EBC predictive factors. Results 49 patients (14%) developed 51 EBC, including 7(2%) bilio-enteric strictures, 15(4%) transient jaundices, 9(3%) biliary leaks, and 20(6%) cholangitis with no mortality and a 18% reoperation rate. In multivariate analysis, male gender, benign disease, malignancy with preoperative chemoradiation, and common bile duct (CBD) diameter ≤5 mm were predictive of EBC. Of the 7 strictures, all were associated with CBD ≤5 mm and 5(71%) required reoperation. Transient jaundice resolved spontaneously in all 15 cases. Among 8 patients with serum bilirubin level >50 μmol/L (3 mg/dL) at POD3, 7(88%) developed bilio-enteric stricture. Biliary leak resolved spontaneously in 5(56%); otherwise, it required reoperation. Cholangitis recurred after antibiotics discontinuation in 5(25%). Conclusions EBC following PD do not increase mortality. EBC are more frequent with male gender, benign disease, malignancy with preoperative chemoradiation, and CBD ≤5 mm. Transient jaundice or cholangitis has a favorable outcome, whereas bilio-enteric stricture or biliary leak can require reintervention. PMID:27037207

  9. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Various Histopathological Features in Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Karnan, Indumathi; Srinivasan, Padmanaban; Sadagopan, Pappathi; Manickam, Saraswathy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extrahepatic biliary atresia is a progressive disorder characterised by fibroinflammatory obliteration or stenosis of the extrahepatic biliary tree leading to obstruction of bile flow and cholestatic jaundice. It is the most common cause for cholestasis in newborn. Histopathological criteria for diagnosing biliary atresia from liver biopsy have not been clearly defined. Aim This study was undertaken to analyse the significance of the various histopathological features in diagnosis and prognosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia from liver biopsy specimens. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of 43 cases of extra-hepatic biliary atresia diagnosed and treated at a tertiary care hospital between January 2010 to December 2014. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded liver biopsy tissues were processed by standard technique and the slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. All the slides were reviewed and graded by a semi-quantitative scoring system. Features such as increased age at kasai’s portoenterostomy, portal fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, cholestasis, portal inflammation and duct plate malformation were studied. Statistical analysis was worked out using SPSS 17.0 (statistical package for the social science software). Chi-square test was used to find association between various parameters with respect to mortality and Kaplan-Meier estimator was used for survival analysis of the population under study. Results In this study comprising of 43 cases, only 6 cases (13.95%) were alive at the end of 6 months follow-up. Twenty patients who died and the 17 cases with poor survival had greater degrees of fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and cholestasis. Majority of the cases with duct plate malformation expired inspite of earlier surgical intervention. Thus proving the association of fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, cholestasis and duct plate malformation with the survival and prognosis of biliary atresia cases. Age at surgery did not

  10. [Malignant biliary obstruction].

    PubMed

    Hucl, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma are the most common causes of malignant biliary obstruction. They are diseases of increasing incidence and unfavorable prognosis. Only patients with localized disease indicated for surgery have a chance of long-term survival. These patients represent less than 20 % of all patients, despite the progress in our diagnostic abilities.Locally advanced and metastatic tumors are treated with palliative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy; the results of such treatments are unsatisfactory. The average survival of patients with unresectable disease is 6 months and only 5-10 % of patients survive 5 years.Biliary drainage is an integral part of palliative treatment. Endoscopically or percutaneosly placed stents improve quality of life, decrease cholestasis and pruritus, but do not significantly improve survival. Biliary stents get occluded over time, possibly resulting in acute cholangitis and require repeated replacement.Photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation, locally active endoscopic methods, have been increasingly used in recent years in palliative treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. In photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer accumulates in tumor tissue and is activated 48 hours later by light of a specific wave length. Application of low voltage high frequency current during radiofrequency ablation results in tissue destruction by heat. Local ablation techniques can have a significant impact in a large group of patients with malignant biliary obstruction, leading to improved prognosis, quality of life and stent patency. PMID:26898789

  11. Gallbladder Agenesis and Cystic Duct Absence in an Adult Patient Diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Calabrese, Giovanna; Viarani, Silvia; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Gallbladder agenesis (GA) is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system often associated with other congenital abnormalities. Patients become symptomatic in 23% of cases. GA is often misinterpreted as other diseases, therefore, leading to unnecessary surgery. We report a case of congenital GA associated to cystic duct absence and a biliary tract abnormality diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance with Cholangiopancreatography. PMID:20148075

  12. Flue gas duct assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Montana, F.J.

    1984-08-28

    A length of longitudinally extending duct assembly for heated corrosive gases includes an outer support duct and a substantially gas-tight liner. The liner is spaced from the outer support duct by a relatively yielding spacer material that accommodates expansion of the liner in directions parallel to the inner surface of the outer support duct and in directions normal to the inner surface of the outer support duct without imposing any substantial resistance to such thermal expansion.

  13. Surgeon-performed ultrasound and transfacial sialoendoscopy for complete parotid duct stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, William R; Chang, Jolie L; Eisele, David W

    2014-02-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with a 16-month history of right parotid swelling since undergoing a transoral sialolithotomy of the parotid duct. An ultrasound and a computed tomography scan showed a 6 cm-long dilated parotid duct without evidence of sialolithiasis or tumor mass. The complete Stensen's duct stenosis that was found was managed by a surgeon-performed ultrasound-guided transfacial needle catheterization of the dilated parotid duct, anterograde sialoendoscopy, recanalization of the duct, and stent placement. At 15 month follow-up, the patient reported no recurrent facial swelling or discomfort. Surgeon-performed ultrasound, combined with sialoendoscopy, can provide unique advantages for managing parotid duct stenosis and obstructive sialadenitis. PMID:24130099

  14. Delayed Severe Hemobilia after Endoscopic Biliary Plastic Stent Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hak; Hong, Seung Goun; Lee, Kyoung yong; Park, Pyung Kang; Kim, Sung Du; Lee, Mahn; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Man Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hemobilia is a rare gastrointestinal bleeding, usually caused by injury to the bile duct. Hemobilia after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is generally self-limiting and patients will spontaneously recover, but some severe and fatal hemorrhages have been reported. ERCP-related bowel or bile duct perforation should be managed promptly, according to the type of injury and the status of the patient. We recently experienced a case of late-onset severe hemobilia in which the patient recovered after endoscopic biliary stent insertion. The problem was attributable to ERCP-related bile duct perforation during stone removal, approximately 5 weeks prior to the hemorrhagic episode. The removal of the stent was performed 10 days before the onset of hemobilia. The bleeding was successfully treated by two sessions of transarterial coil embolization. PMID:27012288

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2009-12-31

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging investigation for biliary diseases. However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases. The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has reached the field of bile duct disease in recent years and promising results have been achieved. In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for CEUS in the biliary system are summarized. CEUS may be indicated in the biliary system under the following circumstances: (1) Where there is a need to make a characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); (2) For differentiation diagnosis between ICC and other tumors (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastasis) or infectious diseases; (3) For differentiation diagnosis between biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma; (4) To detect malignant change in Caroli's disease; (5) To depict the extent of Klatskin's tumor with greater clarity; (6) To make a distinction between gallbladder cholesterol polyp, adenoma and polypoid cancer; (7) To make a distinction between chronic cholecystitis with thickened wall and gallbladder cancer; (8) For differentiation diagnosis between motionless sludge and gallbladder cancer; (9) For differentiation diagnosis between common bile duct cancer and sludge or stone without acoustic shadowing; and (10) In patients who are suspected of having a drop of their percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage tube, US contrast agent can be administered to through the tube detect the site of the tube. PMID:21160719

  16. Duct joining system

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P.; deKieffer, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  17. Duct Joining System

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P.

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  18. Cluster Hepaticojejunostomy Is a Useful Technique Enabling Secure Reconstruction of Severely Damaged Hilar Bile Ducts.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Goo; Kwon, Dong-Il; Ko, Gi-Young

    2015-08-01

    Secure reconstruction of multiple hepatic ducts severely damaged by tumor invasion or iatrogenic injury is very difficult. If percutaneous or endoscopic biliary stenting fails, one or more percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tubes must be maintained in place for the rest of the patient's life. To cope with such difficult situations, we present a surgical technique termed cluster hepaticojejunostomy (HJ), which can be coupled with palliative bile duct resection. The cluster HJ technique consisted of applying multiple internal biliary stents and a single wide porto-enterostomy to surrounding connective tissues. We present a preliminary study with six patients. Five perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients undergoing palliative bile duct resection received this procedure. Follow-up PTBD tubogram and hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed at 1-2 weeks after surgery, after which the PTBD tubes were removed. No patient showed surgical complications, and the 6-month patency rate of clustered HJ was 80%. Another patient with laparoscopic cholecystectomy-associated major bile duct injury showed no biliary complications in the 5-year period following this procedure. Based on the results of this study, the cluster HJ technique may be a useful surgical method enabling the secure reconstruction of severely damaged hilar bile ducts. PMID:25956723

  19. [The biliary intestinal obstruction].

    PubMed

    Demetrashvili, Z M; Asatiani, G A; Nemsadze, G Sh; Kenchadze, G Z

    2012-01-01

    The successful experience of treatment of 3 patients with biliary intestinal obstruction is depicted. The most informative means of diagnostics was the multispiral computed tomography. Authors state, that the volume of the operation should include only the liquidation of the intestinal obstruction. The simultaneous biliodigestive fistulae closure should be performed only in rare situations. PMID:22678540

  20. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver cancer every 6 to 12 months. Health care providers use blood tests, ultrasound, or both to check for signs of ... the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. A health care provider uses the test selectively when he or she is concerned that ...

  1. A New Xenobiotic-Induced Mouse Model of Sclerosing Cholangitis and Biliary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fickert, Peter; Stöger, Ulrike; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Moustafa, Tarek; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Weiglein, Andreas H.; Tsybrovskyy, Oleksiy; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Zatloukal, Kurt; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Xenobiotics and drugs may lead to cholangiopathies and biliary fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the cause and consequences of hepatobiliary injury and biliary fibrosis in 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-fed mice as a novel model of xenobiotic-induced cholangiopathy. Liver morphology, markers of inflammation, cell proliferation, fibrosis, bile formation, biliary porphyrin secretion, and hepatobiliary transporter expression were studied longitudinally in DDC- and control diet-fed Swiss albino mice. DDC feeding led to increased biliary porphyrin secretion and induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule, osteopontin, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in bile duct epithelial cells. This was associated with a pronounced pericholangitis with a significantly increased number of CD11b-positive cells, ductular reaction, and activation of periductal myofibroblasts, leading to large duct disease and a biliary type of liver fibrosis. After 4 weeks, we constantly observed intraductal porphyrin pigment plugs. Glutathione and phospholipid excretion significantly decreased over time. Expression of Ntcp, Oatp4, and Mrp2 was significantly reduced, whereas Bsep expression remained unchanged and adaptive Mrp3 and Mrp4 expression was significantly induced. We demonstrate that DDC feeding in mice leads to i) a reactive phenotype of cholangiocytes and bile duct injury, ii) pericholangitis, periductal fibrosis, ductular reaction, and consequently portal-portal bridging, iii) down-regulation of Mrp2 and impaired glutathione excretion, and iv) segmental bile duct obstruction. This model may be valuable to investigate the mechanisms of xenobiotic-induced chronic cholangiopathies and its sequels including biliary fibrosis. PMID:17600122

  2. Management of excluded segmental bile duct leakage following liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Honoré, Charles; Vibert, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Azoulay, Daniel; Adam, René; Castaing, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative bile leak secondary to a fistula is a known complication of hepatic surgery. Four different biliary fistula sub-types have been described: type A refers to minor leakage from the bile duct stump; type B to major leakage caused by insufficient closure of the bile duct stump; type C to major leakage caused by injury to the bile duct, and type D (the rarest) to the division and exclusion of a bile duct. This complication results from functional liver parenchyma in which bile drainage is excluded from the main duct. Methods: A retrospective review of the database for 163 patients diagnosed with post-hepatic surgery bile leak from April 1992 to June 2007 was performed. Results: Three patients were found to have type D biliary fistula, with durations of 3–21 months. The bile leak developed after a right hepatectomy in two patients and a right hepatectomy extending to segment IV in one patient. All three patients were rescheduled for surgical exploration, following failure of medical treatment. The procedure consisted of repeat resection of the independent liver parenchyma containing the fistula. One patient developed a postoperative leak from a hepaticojejunal anastomosis (treated conservatively) and the other two patients had an uneventful recovery. No recurrence of bile leak was encountered during their follow-up. Conclusions: Our experience indicates that conservative treatment is deceptive and not efficacious. For this condition, surgical intervention is the treatment of choice because it is very effective and is associated with a low morbidity. PMID:19718366

  3. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  4. Value of early cholescintigraphy in detection of biliary complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kulber, D A; Berci, G; Paz-Partlow, M; Ashok, G; Hiatt, J R

    1994-03-01

    Cholescintigraphy using technetium-99m disofenin tracer is accepted as a routine component of preoperative evaluation of the biliary tract in selected patients but is not used regularly in postoperative management. This is a retrospective analysis of the utility of the nuclide scan in 27 patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Most patients had vague postoperative symptoms such as nausea, pain, and low grade fever. Two patients developed jaundice. Seven of the 27 patients had biliary leaks, and two had common bile duct obstructions. We conclude that cholescintigraphy is a sensitive noninvasive test for the evaluation of biliary complications after LC and is a pivotal component of an algorithmic approach to postoperative complications. Because of the subtle clinical findings and the potential for delayed diagnosis of biliary complications after LC, early performance of this test will minimize patient morbidity. PMID:8116979

  5. T-tube bridging for the management of biliary tree injuries

    PubMed Central

    Olmez, Aydemir; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Itik, Veyis; Kotan, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Injuries of the biliary tree, which mainly occur as a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, are a potentially life threatening cause of high morbidity and mortality. The reported frequency of biliary injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is from 0.5–0.8%. Such injuries may sometimes become too complicated for surgical repair. Presented here is the case of a patient with a major bile duct injury for whom bile duct continuity was achieved using a T-tube. Case Report: A 53-year-old man, who developed bile duct injury following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in another center for cholelithiasis, was referred to our clinic. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed in the early postoperative period. However, ensuing anastomotic leakage prompted undoing of the hepaticojejunostomy followed by placement of a T-tube by which bile duct continuity was achieved. Conclusions: For injuries with tissue loss requiring external drainage, T-tube bridging offers a feasible option in that it provides bile duct continuity with biliary flow into the duodenum, as well as achieving external drainage, thus alleviating the need for further definitive surgery. PMID:23569540

  6. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients' demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  7. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  8. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  9. Radiation Therapy for Primary Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary System

    PubMed Central

    Flickinger, John C.; Epstein, Alan H.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Carr, Brian I.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    From 1976 to 1988, 63 patients received radiation therapy for primary cancers of the extrahepatic biliary system (eight gallbladder and 55 extrahepatic biliary duct). Twelve patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Chemotherapy was administered to 13 patients. Three patients underwent intraluminal brachytherapy alone (range, 28 to 55 Gy). Sixty patients received megavoltage external-beam radiation therapy (range, 5.4 to 61.6 Gy; median, 45 Gy), of whom nine received additional intraluminal brachytherapy (range, 14 to 45 Gy; median, 30 Gy). The median survival of all patients was 7 months. Sixty patients died, all within 39 months of radiation therapy. One patient is alive 11 months after irradiation without surgical resection, and two are alive 50 months after liver transplantation and irradiation. Symptomatic duodenal ulcers developed after radiation therapy in seven patients but were not significantly related to any clinical variable tested. Extrahepatic biliary duct cancers, the absence of metastases, increasing calendar year of treatment, and liver transplantation with postoperative radiation therapy were factors significantly associated with improved survival. PMID:2070327

  10. Selective biliary cannulation techniques for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures and prevention of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Shuntaro; Itoi, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Numerous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) techniques have been reported to achieve selective biliary cannulation success. For standard biliary cannulation procedures, the wire-guided cannulation technique has been reported to reduce the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and increase the biliary cannulation success rate, although conflicting reports exist. The pancreatic or double-guidewire technique and several precut techniques have been reported as useful techniques in difficult biliary cannulation cases. Although ERCP is a useful endoscopic procedure, the risk of adverse events, particularly post-ERCP pancreatitis, is inevitable. Previous studies and analyses have revealed the risk factors for PEP. The efficacy of prophylactic pancreatic duct stent placement and the administration of rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for preventing PEP has also been reported. Herein, we reviewed reports in the literature regarding the current status of selective biliary cannulation techniques and PEP prevention. PMID:26782710