These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Congenital bile duct dilation —Possibly an hereditary condition—  

Microsoft Academic Search

A female patient underwent resection of a large choledochal cyst and hepaticojejunostomy when she was 11 years old at Tokyo\\u000a Medical and Dental University Hospital. Her mother, 48 years old, also had congenital bile duct dilatation (CBD) with cancer.\\u000a The mother had an anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal junction. To investigate the possibility of a genetic link, family\\u000a members of another three

Takeo Iwama; Shoichiro Iwata; Saburo Murakami; Hideyuki Ishida; Yoshio Mishima

1985-01-01

2

Stensen's duct dilation: case report.  

PubMed

Extraoral longitudinal swellings involving the facial soft tissue along the course of Stensen's duct reflect the presence of significantly distended ducts. Infection, obstruction and salivary retention are key factors in the development of this duct widening. PMID:23513544

Rohani, Nima; Mandel, Louis

2013-01-01

3

The reliability and clinical limitations of sonographic scanning of the biliary ducts.  

PubMed Central

Sonographic scanning of the biliary ducts has been successfully used as a screening test to distinguish between patients with surgical and medical jaundice, with an accuracy of 90%. However, there is no consensus in the literature on what numerically defines a dilated biliary duct. To clarify this problem a prospective study of 102 consecutive patients was initiated to determine the sonographic size range of bile ducts in patients with and without extrahepatic ductal obstruction. The ultrasonic measurements were compared with direct measurements of the common bile duct, at surgery. The extrahepatic ductal system was visualized sonographically in 62% of the patients, while the intrahepatic ducts were found in 81% of the population. Direct measurements at operation agreed with the ultrasonic measurements in 84% of the patients. Analysis of the size range of the biliary ducts in patients with and without extrahepatic obstruction, by chi square analysis and the Student's t-test, allowed the following guidelines to be established. Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction was present if the extrahepatic bile ducts was 1 cm or wider (p less than 0.001) or if the intrahepatic bile duct was in excess of 0.5 cm (p less than 0.001). Similarly if the extrahepatic bile duct measured less than 0.8 cm sonographically, and the intrahepatic bile duct was 0.4 cm or less than bile duct, obstruction was not present (p less than 0.001). PMID:7259343

Deitch, E A

1981-01-01

4

Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; and smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

1981-06-01

5

Biliary ascariasis: an uncommon cause for recurrent biliary colic after biliary sphincterotomy and common bile duct stone removal.  

PubMed

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the most commonly used technique for removal of common bile duct stones. Biliary sphincterotomy during the procedure facilitates stone retrieval from the common bile duct. However, sphincterotomy ablates the normal biliary sphincter mechanism. This facilitates duodeno-biliary reflex and can result in inward migration of luminal parasite into the biliary system. In areas where ascariasis is endemic there is an increased risk of biliary ascariasis in postbiliary sphincterotomy patients. We report an unusual case where a patient presented with recurrent biliary colic after cholecystectomy and common bile duct stone extraction and was diagnosed to have biliary ascariasis with the help of endoscopic ultrasound examination of the biliary system. PMID:24407145

Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar

2014-04-01

6

Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; the smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. The dilatation of the central intrahepatic bile ducts was moderate in two patients and massive in one patient. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

1981-06-01

7

Persistent biliary dilatation and stenosis in postoperative congenital choledochal cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/purpose  Cholangitis and intrahepatic stones occur long after total cyst excision in patients with congenital choledochal cyst (CCC).\\u000a Our study aimed to characterize morphological features of intrahepatic biliary dilatation and stenosis before and after total\\u000a cyst excision, based on long-term follow-up data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pre- and postoperative morphological features of intrahepatic biliary dilatation were determined in 63 patients with CCC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Postoperatively, hepatic ductal

Tsugumichi Koshinaga; Mikiya Inoue; Kensuke Ohashi; Kiminobu Sugito; Tarou Ikeda; Noritsugu Hagiwara; Ryouichi Tomita

2011-01-01

8

Dilated common duct sign. A potential indicator of a sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia  

SciTech Connect

The cholescintigraphic findings of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia (SOD) in a 45-year-old woman with persistent right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic are reported. After an overnight fast, the patient was injected with 5 mCi of Tc-99 disofenin and .02 micrograms/kg of cholecystokinin (CCK) post maximal gallbladder filling. Pre and postcholescintiscans were obtained and gallbladder ejection fractions determined. The hepatobiliary scan was normal, except for a delay in biliary-bowel transit. The gallbladder responded normally to CCK, however, the Sphincter of Oddi responded abnormally, as there was a paradoxical response to CCK manifested by a marked dilatation of the common bile duct. It was postulate that this dilatation (the dilated common duct sign) was due to an inappropriate response of the smooth muscle of the Sphincter of Oddi (contraction vs relaxation) to CCK and was the cause of this patient's biliary colic. The dilated common duct sign should alert the physician to the possibility of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia.

DeRidder, P.; Fink-Bennett, D.

1984-05-01

9

A Rare Anomaly of Biliary System: MRCP Evidence of a Cystic Duct Cyst  

PubMed Central

Cystic duct cysts are a rare congenital anomaly. While the other bile duct cysts (choledochus and the intrahepatic bile ducts) are classified according to the classification described by Tadoni, there is no classification method described by the cystic duct cysts, although it is claimed that the cystic duct cysts may constitute a new “Type 6” category. Only a limited number of patients with cystic duct cysts have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis is usually made in the neonatal period or during childhood. The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and usually include pain in the right upper quadrant and jaundice. The condition may also present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholelithiasis, or pancreatitis. In our case, the abdominal ultrasonography (US) performed on a 6-year-old female patient who presented with pain in the right upper quadrant pointed out an anechoic cyst at the neck of the gall bladder. Based on the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) results, a cystic dilatation was diagnosed in the cystic duct. The aim of this case-report presentation was to discuss the US and MRCP findings of the cystic dilatation of cystic duct, which is an extremely rare condition, in the light of the literature information. PMID:24987540

Goya, Cemil; Arslan, Mehmet Serif; Hamidi, Cihad; Kuday, Suzan; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin

2014-01-01

10

[Complications of the dilatation of Stensen's duct: stenosis and lithiasis].  

PubMed

A recent publication noted the apparent lack of serious complications of dilatation of salivary canals, based on a review of 16 cases. This is contested by the report of three cases of dilatation of Stensen's duct complicated by lithiasis and stenosis, with associated canalar pseudo-cysts. Surgical excision was required and allowed study of histopathology of this affection. PMID:3479825

Laudenbach, P; Deboise, A; Quillard, J; Glon, Y; Dimaio, A; Doyon, D

1987-01-01

11

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2013-01-01

12

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma.  

PubMed

We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2013-05-28

13

Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after limited sphincterotomy for difficult biliary stones  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after biliary sphincterotomy for difficult bile duct stones retrieval. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients submitted to the technique during 18 mo. The main outcomes considered were: efficacy of the procedure (complete stone clearance; number of sessions; need of lithotripsy) and complications. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with a mean age of 68 ± 10 years, 23 female (77%) and 7 male (23%) were enrolled. In 10 patients, a single stone was found in the common bile duct (33%) and in 20 patients multiple stones (67%) were found. The median diameter of the stones was 17 mm (12-30 mm). Dilations were performed with progressive diameter Through-The-Scope balloons (up to 12, 15) or 18 mm. Complete retrieval of stones was achieved in a single session in 25 patients (84%) and in two sessions in 4 patients (13%). Failure occurred in 1 case (6%). Mechanical lithotripsy was performed in 6 cases (20%). No severe complications occurred. One patient (3%) had mild-grade post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic balloon dilatation with a large balloon after endoscopic sphincterotomy is a safe and effective technique that could be considered an alternative choice in therapeutic ERCP. PMID:22624069

Rebelo, Ana; Ribeiro, Pedro Moutinho; Correia, Antonio Pinto; Cotter, Jose

2012-01-01

14

Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

At present, radical resection remains the only effective treatment for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The surgical approach for R0 resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is complex and diverse, but for the biliary reconstruction after resection, almost all surgeons use Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. A viable alternative to Roux-en-Y reconstruction after radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma has not yet been proposed. We report a case of performing duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma. End-to-end anastomosis between the left hepatic duct and the distal common bile duct was used for the biliary reconstruction, and a single-layer continuous suture was performed along the bile duct using 5-0 prolene. The patient was discharged favorably without biliary fistula 2 wk later. Evidence for tumor recurrence was not found after an 18 mo follow-up. Performing bile duct end-to-end anastomosis in hilar cholangiocarcinoma can simplify the complex digestive tract reconstruction process. PMID:23613642

Wu, Wen-Guang; Gu, Jun; Dong, Ping; Lu, Jian-Hua; Li, Mao-Lan; Wu, Xiang-Song; Yang, Jia-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Ding, Qi-Chen; Weng, Hao; Ding, Qian; Liu, Ying-Bin

2013-01-01

15

Internal pancreatic stent causing irreversible dilatation of pancreatic duct.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old woman underwent a pylorus preserving Whipple procedure for pancreatic serous cystadenoma located on the head of the pancreas. During the operation, an internal stent (7F silastic catheter, 9 cm in length) was placed within the pancreatic duct in the area of pancreaticojejunal end-to-end Dunking type anastomosis to prevent development of fistula. The stent was positioned so that one third of its length would lie into the pancreatic duct, and it was anchored to the periductal pancreatic tissue with only one rapidly absorbable chromic suture. Leakage from the anastomosis was not observed, and she was discharged without any complaint. Early postoperative abdominal CT examination revealed that the stent was retained within the normal caliber pancreatic duct (Fig. 1a). Six months after the operation, she began to complain to epigastric pain triggered by the meals. The laboratory analysis was normal, particularly liver biochemical tests and serum amylase. The internal pancreatic stent within the dilated pancreatic duct was detected by an additional CT examination (Fig. 1b). The stent was removed endoscopically at the third attempt. The pain was resolved after its removal. Control CT examination which was taken at the 18th month after removal of the stent showed dilatation of the pancreatic duct (Fig. 2a). The patient remained free of any complaint, although regressed pancreatic duct dilatation has persisted over 4 years of follow-up (Fig. 2b). PMID:24799775

Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Erol, Cengiz

2014-02-01

16

Association of congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct and congenital diverticulum of the hepatic duct with concomitant ascariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case with association of congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct and congenital diverticulum of the hepatic duct is reported. The etiology and classification are briefly discussed and a radiological approach is recommended.

Renan Uflacker; Dakir Duarte; Paulo Silva

1978-01-01

17

[Reinterventions in classic and laparoscopic surgery of biliary ducts].  

PubMed

The study suggests to make a comparative analysis between the complications happened after classic and laparoscopic surgery require a surgical reintervention. The study was realised in the Surgical Department of the Districtual Hospital Baia Mare between 27.04.1997-27.04.1999, which means the precursory year of beginning laparoscopic surgery and the first year with experience in laparoscopic surgery. The conclusions of this study prove that the number of reinterventions after laparoscopic surgery is less than after classic surgery of biliary ducts. PMID:14870552

Lese, M; Naghi, I; Pop, C

2000-01-01

18

Operative ultrasound of the liver and biliary ducts  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the intraoperative use of sonography of the liver and biliary ducts which opens up new perspectives for the surgeon. The diagnosis of tumors becomes much more sensitive and efficient with intraoperative ultrasound than with preoperative transcutaneous sonography of intraoperative palpation. Sonographically aimed puncture and balloon-tipped catheter occlusion of segments or subsegment branches of the portal vein allow on the one hand local blue marking, and on the other hand local bloodlessness during the operation. Surgery of liver tumors thus becomes much more precise.

Bismuth, H.; Castaing, D.

1987-01-01

19

Primary biliary carcinoma: CT evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-three patients with documented primary biliary carcinoma were studied with computed tomography. Twenty-six patients had gallbladder carcinoma and 27 patients had carcinoma of the biliary ductal system. Ninety percent of patients with gallbladder cancer had an intraluminal mass. Local invasion into the liver was common. The majority of patients with biliary ductal carcinoma had dilated bile ducts, while only 50% of patients with gallbladder cancer had biliary ductal dilatation. The most common location of tumor involving the extrahepatic biliary ductal system was the distal common bile duct. This occurred in eight patients out of 27, or 30% of the cases.

Thorsen, M.K.; Quiroz, F.; Lawson, T.L.; Smith, D.F.; Foley, W.D.; Steward, E.T.

1984-08-01

20

Antegrade balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal duct obstruction in adults  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To determine the efficacy of antegrade balloon dilatation of postsaccal lacrimal stenosis in adults.?METHODS—Balloon dilatation was performed in a series of 30 patients with complete nasolacrimal duct obstructions and epiphora. Obstruction was diagnosed by canalicular irrigation and transcanalicular endoscopic examination of the lacrimal pathway. Except for four cases in which general anaesthesia was applied, the procedure was performed under local anaesthesia. The Lacricath balloon catheter set was used. Silicone intubation was performed simultaneously. The time at which the tubes were removed depended on the findings at postoperative follow up but was, at the earliest, 3 months postoperatively.?RESULTS—Success was objectified by irrigation and was evaluated subjectively at each follow up examination according to Munk's scale. In all cases the procedure could be performed with subsequent silicone intubation. Three months postoperatively 89.9% of all cases were positive on simple irrigation, and subjective success was also registered (Munk's grade 0 or 1). At 6 months 70% of all cases were positive on irrigation, again with subjective success (Munk's grade 0 or 1). One year postoperatively 73.3% of all procedures showed subjective success (two successful redilatations would raise the success rate to 79.9%).?CONCLUSION—Retrograde as well as antegrade dilatation has been reported to be more or less successful in partial nasolacrimal obstruction. Although the procedure is used as primary treatment in cases of complete obstruction, it can still be performed under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis. Long term observation will be required to prove the sustained effect of this procedure.?? PMID:11159486

Kuchar, A; Steinkogler, F

2001-01-01

21

[A new method for treating chronic sialodochitis and sialolithiasis in dilatation of the intraglandular portion of the parotid duct].  

PubMed

A new method for the treatment of chronic sialodochitis and sialolithiasis is suggested for cases with essential dilatation of the duct in the intraglandular compartment of the parotid gland: the external wall of dilated duct is dissected and the two resultant parts are twisted inside and sutured to the internal wall of the dilated duct; the parotid duct is ligated at the site of its exit from the gland. PMID:15159745

Afanas'ev, V V; Starodubtsev, V S; Abdusalamov, M R

2004-01-01

22

Repair of Extrahepatic Biliary Duct over T-tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the result of surgical procedures adopted for repair of iatrogenic injuries of extrahepatic biliary tract over T-tube. Methods: An interventional study conducted at Surgical Unit 1 of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi; and private hospitals in Karachi, from 1974 to 2004 (30 years). All the iatrogenic injuries of extrahepatic biliary tract during open cholecystectomies were recorded. The records

Mohammed Shamim; Syed Asim; Ali Jaffary; Shahid Shamim

23

Obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts by lymphocytes is regulated by IFN-? in experimental biliary atresia  

PubMed Central

The etiology and pathogenesis of bile duct obstruction in children with biliary atresia are largely unknown. We have previously reported that, despite phenotypic heterogeneity, genomic signatures of livers from patients display a proinflammatory phenotype. Here, we address the hypothesis that production of IFN-? is a key pathogenic mechanism of disease using a mouse model of rotavirus-induced biliary atresia. We found that rotavirus infection of neonatal mice has a unique tropism to bile duct cells, and it triggers a hepatobiliary inflammation by IFN-?–producing CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The inflammation is tissue specific, resulting in progressive jaundice, growth failure, and greater than 90% mortality due to obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. In this model, the genetic loss of IFN-? did not alter the onset of jaundice, but it remarkably suppressed the tissue-specific targeting of T lymphocytes and completely prevented the inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. As a consequence, jaundice resolved, and long-term survival improved to greater than 80%. Notably, administration of recombinant IFN-? led to recurrence of bile duct obstruction following rotavirus infection of IFN-?–deficient mice. Thus, IFN-?–driven obstruction of bile ducts is a key pathogenic mechanism of disease and may constitute a therapeutic target to block disease progression in patients with biliary atresia. PMID:15286798

Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Sabla, Gregg E.; Miethke, Alexander; Tiao, Greg; McNeal, Monica M.; Ward, Richard L.; Bezerra, Jorge A.

2004-01-01

24

Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions  

PubMed Central

When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention.

Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

2014-01-01

25

Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions.  

PubMed

When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention. PMID:25400865

Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

2014-11-16

26

Resection of hepaticocystic duct which is a rare anomaly of the extrahepatic biliary system: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are several variations in the morphologic characteristics of the extrahepatic biliary system. A hepaticocystic duct is one of the rare variations. Case presentation A 69-year-old Asian man underwent a cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. His cystic duct was not detected during surgery. An intraoperative cholangiography revealed that his common hepatic ducts drained directly into the neck of his gallbladder. There was no common bile duct, as evidenced by the union of the common hepatic and cystic ducts. Conclusion Knowledge of anomalies related to the extrahepatic biliary system is important for decreasing the severe morbidity and mortality that may result from a failure to recognize the anomaly. PMID:24378250

2013-01-01

27

Dilatation of Biliary Strictures through the Afferent Limb of a Roux-en-Y Choledochojejunostomy in Patients with Sclerosing Cholangitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Repeated dilatation of biliary strictures in patients with sclerosing cholangitis through a subcutaneously placed afferent\\u000a limb of a choledochojejunostomy is technically feasible and safe. This study is a prospective 15-year evaluation of 36 patients\\u000a treated by repeat dilatation through this jejunal limb. There was one operative death and one major complication of dilatation.\\u000a The 5-year survival of all patients

Duane G. Hutson; Edward Russell; Joe U. Levi; Lennox J. Jeffers; K. Rajender Reddy; Jose M. Yrizarry; Tomas Scagnelli; Danny Sleeman; Eugene R. Schiff; Alan S. Livingstone

2001-01-01

28

Ectopic opening of cystic dilatation of the ejaculatory duct into enlarged prostatic utricle.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old man was referred to our department for the management of recurrent hemospermia during the past 5 years. Genital examination and hormonal levels were normal. Semen analysis showed no change in volume and pH; however, hemospermia and asthenozoospermia were observed. Ultrasonography and computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a cystic lesion with calcification in the terminal part of seminal vesicles adjoining the prostate gland. The following vasography and endoscopic retrograde urethrography demonstrated 2 communicating cystic dilatations arising from the verumontanum. The diagnosis of cystic dilatation of the ejaculatory duct opening into an enlarged prostatic utricle was reached. Transurethral unroofing of the cyst was separately performed with a successful outcome. The characteristic of the 2 cystic dilatations was confirmed by pathologic examination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ectopic cystic dilatation of the ejaculatory duct opening into an enlarged prostatic utricle. PMID:22016352

Lin, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Hong-Fei; Wang, Ji-Chen; Le, Mei-Zhao; Yu, Hong-Bo; Zhou, He-Tong

2012-01-01

29

[Apropos of a case of acute pancreatitis revealing cystic dilatation of the common bile duct].  

PubMed

Dilatation of the common bile duct is rarely caused by cystic formations. Though the pathogenesis is uncertain, congenital disorders have been suggested. Most cases are observed in small children (80% female predominance) with only 20% of the cases reported in adults. Clinical signs vary. Recurrent acute pancreatitis has been reported but is rare. New imaging techniques using CT-scan cholangiography and sometimes MR cholangiography have greatly improved the diagnostic approach. MR of the bile ducts is a recent noninvasive technique enabling an analysis of the biliopancreatic ducts without contrast injection into the bile. To our knowledge, cystic dilatation of the common bile duct has not been previously reported in the literature. We report an interesting case in a 25-year-old woman who developed an episode of acute pancreatitis during the post partum period. We describe the clinical aspects and the different imaging findings, including magnetic resonance cholangiography results. PMID:9846293

Kabbaj, N; Ababou, A; el Fakir, Y; Amarouch, N; Dafiri, R; Sbihi, A; Imani, F

1998-11-01

30

Evaluation of gallbladder and biliary duct disease using microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound examination of the gallbladder is accepted as the primary imaging modality in the assessment of gallbladder disease, with inherent superiority in comparison to other imaging modalities. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is established as a reliable tool in the detection and characterisation of focal liver lesions. It is less well recognised in gallbladder and biliary disease but can be a valuable complement to baseline ultrasound examination. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound provides the advantages of real-time, repeatable, multiplanar imaging without compromising patient safety or exposing patients to radiation. It can provide specific information as pathology often becomes more conspicuous following the administration of contrast, allowing detailed assessment of benign and malignant conditions arising in the gallbladder and biliary tree. This review illustrates the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of a variety of gallbladder and biliary duct diseases. The examination allows clearer delineation of the disease process and more confident diagnosis. PMID:20603412

Meacock, L M; Sellars, M E; Sidhu, P S

2010-01-01

31

Biliary atresia  

MedlinePLUS

Biliary atresia is a blockage in the tubes (ducts) that carry a liquid called bile from the liver ... Biliary atresia occurs when the bile ducts inside or outside the liver do not develop normally. The reason ...

32

Outcome of duct-to-duct vs. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy biliary anastomoses in below 15-kg pediatric liver transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The best type of biliary anastomosis to use in lower weight pediatric liver transplant recipients is debatable. In this study, we share a single center's experience comparing the rate of anastomotic biliary complications based on the type of biliary anastomosis performed in this population of patients. A retrospective review of pediatric liver transplants for recipients weighing <15 kg from 11/2003 till 12/2011 was performed. Patients were grouped based on the type of biliary anastomosis into two groups: duct-to-duct (d-d) and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (h-j) anastomoses. A total of 24 patients (12 males, 12 females) with a mean age of 26 ± 20 months and a mean weight of 9.27 ± 2.63 kg (range = 5.3-13.9 kg) were studied. All anastomotic complications occurred in patients who received left lateral segments. No statistical differences were found in the post-operative biliary (p = 0.86) or vascular (p = 0.99) complications between the two groups. Acknowledging the limited sample size, our data suggest that duct-to-duct anastomosis can be performed safely in pediatric liver transplantation recipients weighing below 15 kg. PMID:25187071

Shaheen, Mohammed F; Alabdulkarim, Moayad S; Hamshow, Mohammad M; Abdullah, Khalid O; O'Hali, Wael A

2014-12-01

33

Covered Metal Stenting for Malignant Lower Biliary Stricture with Pancreatic Duct Obstruction: Is Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Needed?  

PubMed Central

Aims. To evaluate the need for endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) before covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS) deployment for malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Methods. This study included 79 patients who underwent CSEMS deployment for unresectable malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Treatment outcomes and complications were compared between 38 patients with EST before CSEMS deployment (EST group) and 41 without EST (non-EST group). Results. The technical success rates were 100% in both the EST and the non-EST group. The incidence of pancreatitis was 2.6% in the EST, and 2.4% in the non-EST group (P = 0.51). The incidences of overall complications were 18.4% and 14.6%, respectively, (P = 0.65). Within the non-EST groups, the incidence of pancreatitis was 0% in patients with fully covered stent deployment and 3.6% in those with partially covered stent deployment (P = 0.69). In the multivariate analysis, younger age (P = 0.003, OR 12) and nonpancreatic cancer (P = 0.001, OR 24) were significant risk factors for overall complications after CSEMS deployment. EST was not identified as a risk factor. Conclusions. EST did not reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after CSEMS deployment in patients of unresectable distal malignant obstruction with pancreatic duct obstruction. PMID:24324486

Nakahara, Kazunari; Okuse, Chiaki; Suetani, Keigo; Michikawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Otsubo, Takehito; Itoh, Fumio

2013-01-01

34

Common bile duct obstruction by portal cavernoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Obstructive jaundice occurring in a patient with portal hypertension is a rare association. In this report, a 24-year-old patient is described who had biliary obstruction due to a portal cavernoma compressing the common bile duct and in whom surgical decompression of the portal system resulted in relief of the biliary obstruction, thus proving that the dilated portal vein collaterals

G. Choudhuri; R. K. Tandon; S. Nundy; N. K. Misra

1988-01-01

35

Delta-aminolevulinic acid transport in cancer cells of the human extrahepatic biliary duct.  

PubMed

This study was performed to characterize the transport of the endogenous photosensitizer delta-aminolevulinic acid in tumor cells of the extrahepatic biliary duct. Uptake of [(3)H]delta-aminolevulinic acid into human cholangiocarcinoma SK-ChA-1 cells was linear for up to 10 min, independent of a Na(+) gradient, but stimulated 3- to 4-fold by an inwardly directed H(+) gradient. Uptake of delta-aminolevulinic acid was mediated by a single transport system with an apparent affinity (K(t)) of 2.1 mM and a maximal velocity (V(max)) of 60.1 nmol. 10 min(-1). mg of protein(-1). Glycylsarcosine, alanylalanine, and cefadroxil strongly inhibited the [(3)H]delta-aminolevulinic acid uptake with K(i) values of 1.3, 0.2, and 3.6 mM, respectively. In contrast, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, L-glutamic acid, and L-aspartic acid (all 10 mM) had no effect on the total [(3)H]delta-aminolevulinic acid uptake, neither at pH 6.0 nor at pH 7.5. Applying a Dixon type of experiment and the ABC test revealed that glycylsarcosine and delta-aminolevulinic acid are transported via the same system, PEPT1. Treatment of the cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a phorbol ester that activates protein kinase C, resulted in a significant inhibition of the transport rate. This inhibition could be blocked by cotreatment with staurosporine. We conclude that delta-aminolevulinic acid is transported by the H(+)/peptide cotransporter PEPT1 into epithelial cells of the extrahepatic biliary duct. delta-Aminolevulinic acid can be accumulated specifically in bile duct tumor cells before photodynamic therapy. PMID:12649372

Neumann, Jana; Brandsch, Matthias

2003-04-01

36

Usefulness of the 'Rendezvous' Technique in Living Related Right Liver Donors with Postoperative Biliary Leakage from Bile Duct Anastomosis  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on two cases of large bile leak following right hepatectomy performed for living related liver transplantation, originating from the stump of the ligated right bile duct, and treated with the placement of large percutaneous biliary catheters through a combined percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic approach (rendezvous technique).

Miraglia, R., E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.ed [Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Traina, M. [Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT), Department of Endoscopy (Italy); Maruzzelli, L.; Caruso, S. [Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Di Pisa, M. [Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT), Department of Endoscopy (Italy); Gruttadauria, S. [Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy); Luca, A. [Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Gridelli, B. [Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy)

2008-09-15

37

Improving patient and user safety during endoscopic investigation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endoscopic investigation of the main pancreatic duct and biliary ducts is called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and carries a risk of pancreatitis for the patient. During ERCP, a metal guidewire is inserted into the pancreatobiliary duct from a side-viewing large endoscope within the duodenum. To verify correct placement of the ERCP guidewire, an injection of radiopaque dye is required for fluoroscopic imaging, which exposes the patient and clinical team to x-ray radiation. A safer and more effective means to access the pancreatobiliary system can use direct optical imaging, although the endoscope diameter and stiffness will be significantly larger than a guidewire's. To quantify this invasiveness before human testing, a synthetic force-sensing pancreas was fabricated and attached to an ERCP training model. The invasiveness of a new, 1.7-mm diameter, steerable scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) was compared to the standard ERCP guidewire of 0.89-mm (0.035") diameter that is not steerable. Although twice as large and significantly stiffer than the ERCP guidewire, the SFE generated lower or significantly less average force during insertion at all 4 sensor locations (P<0.05) within the main pancreatic duct. Therefore, the addition of steering and forward visualization at the tip of the endoscope reduced the invasiveness of the in vitro ERCP procedure. Since fluoroscopy is not required, risks associated with dye injection and x-ray exposure can be eliminated when using direct optical visualization. Finally, the SFE provides wide-field high resolution imaging for image-guided interventions, laser-based fluorescence biomarker imaging, and spot spectral analysis for future optical biopsy.

Chandler, John E.; Melville, C. David; Lee, Cameron M.; Saunders, Michael D.; Burkhardt, Matthew R.; Seibel, Eric J.

2011-03-01

38

A comparison of common bile duct pressures after botulinum toxin injection into the sphincter of Oddi versus biliary stenting in a canine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Botulinum toxin A (Botox) functionally paralyzes the sphincter of Oddi in both animals and humans, resulting in reduced pressures. No study, however, has specifically addressed common bile duct (CBD) pressures after Botox injection into the sphincter of Oddi with regard to treating biliary leaks and fistulae. The goals of this present study are to compare, versus biliary stenting, the

Jeffrey M Marks; Andrew L Bower; Marlene Goormastic; Janis L Malycky; Jeffrey L Ponsky

2001-01-01

39

Intraoperative assessment of biliary anatomy for prevention of bile duct injury: a review of current and future patient safety interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dreaded complication of cholecystectomy, often caused by misinterpretation of biliary anatomy.\\u000a To prevent BDI, techniques have been developed for intraoperative assessment of bile duct anatomy. This article reviews the\\u000a evidence for the different techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses in terms of efficacy, ease, and cost-effectiveness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  PubMed was searched from January 1980 through

K. Tim Buddingh; Vincent B. Nieuwenhuijs; Lianne van Buuren; Jan B. F. Hulscher; Johannes S. de Jong; Gooitzen M. van Dam

2011-01-01

40

Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Stents in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: One-Stage or Two-Stage Procedure? Pre-Dilate or Not?  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the necessity of percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation procedures performed before stent insertion. One hundred and twenty-six patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction underwent palliative therapy by means of percutaneous transhepatic placement of 183 metallic biliary endoprotheses. Forty-four (35%) patients underwent metallic stent insertion in a one-stage procedure and 82(65%) had undergone percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage before stent insertion. Balloon dilation of the stenosis before stent placement (pre-dilation) was performed in 53 (42%) of 126 patients. The rate of the 30-day mortality was 11%, with no procedure-related deaths. The total rate of early complications was 29%, and 84% of these complications were due to percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation procedures. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation had no clinical or statistically significant effect on the patients' survival and stent patency rate. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation increased the cost of stent placement 18% and 19%, respectively. Palliation of malignant biliary obstruction with percutaneous transhepatic stent insertion should be done directly, in the simplest way, without performing percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation before stent placement. It is more useful, safe, and cost-effective.

Inal, Mehmet; Aksungur, Erol; Akguel, Erol; Oguz, Mahmut; Seydaoglu, Guelsah [Department of Radiology and Biostatistics, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Balcali, 01330, Adana (Turkey)

2003-02-15

41

Endoscopic balloon sphincteroplasty (papillary dilation) for bile duct stones: Efficacy, safety, and follow-up in 100 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because sphincterotomy accounts for a major portion of the morbidity and mortality associated with ERCP, we have proposed endoscopic balloon papillary dilation or sphincteroplasty as an alternative.Methods: We report the outcome in a series of 100 patients in whom balloon sphincteroplasty was attempted for bile duct stones up to 20 mm in diameter, with a median follow-up of 16

Padraic Mac Mathuna; Peggy White; Eileen Clarke; Raphael Merriman; John R. Lennon; John Crowe

1995-01-01

42

Biliary ascariasis in a bile duct stones-removed female patient.  

PubMed

Biliary ascariasis is a common problem in rural areas in China. The common presentations include biliary colic, acute cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, choledocholithiasis and acute cholecystitis. Here, we describe a case with biliary ascariasis two days after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. A living ascaris was successfully removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This case indicated that biliary ascariasis is not an uncommon complication of endoscopic sphincterotomy in some regions where ascariasis is epidemic. PMID:24106417

Wang, Jun; Pan, Yang-Lin; Xie, Yan; Wu, Kai-Chun; Guo, Xue-Gang

2013-09-28

43

Biliary ascariasis in a bile duct stones-removed female patient  

PubMed Central

Biliary ascariasis is a common problem in rural areas in China. The common presentations include biliary colic, acute cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, choledocholithiasis and acute cholecystitis. Here, we describe a case with biliary ascariasis two days after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. A living ascaris was successfully removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This case indicated that biliary ascariasis is not an uncommon complication of endoscopic sphincterotomy in some regions where ascariasis is epidemic. PMID:24106417

Wang, Jun; Pan, Yang-Lin; Xie, Yan; Wu, Kai-Chun; Guo, Xue-Gang

2013-01-01

44

Replicative Senescence of Biliary Epithelial Cells Precedes Bile Duct Loss in Chronic Liver Allograft Rejection  

PubMed Central

Early chronic liver allograft rejection (CR) is characterized by distinctive cytological changes in biliary epithelial cells (BECs) that resemble cellular senescence, in vitro, and precede bile duct loss. If patients suffering from early CR are treated aggressively, the clinical and histopathological manifestations of CR can be completely reversed and bile duct loss can be prevented. We first tested whether the senescence-related p21WAF1/Cip1 protein is increased in BECs during early CR, and whether treatment reversed the expression. The percentage of p21+ BECs and the number of p21+ BECs per portal tract is significantly increased in early CR (26 ± 17% and 3.6 ± 3.1) compared to BECs in normal liver allograft biopsies or those with nonspecific changes (1 ± 1% and 0.1 ± 0.3; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.02), chronic hepatitis C (2 ± 3% and 0.7 ± 1; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.04) or obstructive cholangiopathy (7 ± 7% and 0.7 ± 0.6; P < 0.006 and P = 0.04). Successful treatment of early CR is associated with a decrease in the percentage of p21+ BECs and the number of p21+ BECs per portal tract. In vitro, nuclear p21WAF1/Cip1 expression is increased in large and multinucleated BECs, and is induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-?. TGF-?1 also increases expression of TGF-? receptor II, causes phosphorylation of SMAD-2 and nuclear translocation of p21WAF1/Cip1, which inhibits BEC growth. Because conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus is an effective treatment for early CR, we next tested whether these two immunosuppressive drugs directly influenced BEC growth in vitro. The results show that cyclosporine, but not tacrolimus, stimulates BEC TGF-?1 production, which in turn, causes BEC mito-inhibition and up-regulation of nuclear p21WAF1/Cip1. In conclusion, expression of the senescence-related p21WAF1/Cip1 protein is increased in BECs during early CR and decreases with successful recovery. Replicative senescence accounts for the characteristic BEC cytological alterations used for the diagnosis of early CR and lack of a proliferative response to injury. The ability of cyclosporine to inhibit the growth of damaged BECs likely accounts for the relative duct sparing properties of tacrolimus. PMID:11290556

Lunz, John G.; Contrucci, Sarah; Ruppert, Kris; Murase, Noriko; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Demetris, Anthony J.

2001-01-01

45

An Unusual Cause of Biliary Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Portal biliary ductopathy (PBD) is a condition in which biliary and pancreatic ducts are extrinsically compressed by collateral branches of the portal venous system, which in turn have become dilated and varicosed due to portal hypertension. While the majority of patients with PBD are asymptomatic, a minority can present with symptoms of biliary obstruction and cholangitis with the potential of developing secondary chronic liver disease. This paper reports the case of a 29 year old male presenting with acute cholangitis, in whom PBD was diagnosed radiologically. A brief review of current literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this condition will also be presented. PMID:22844197

Yeoh, Sern Wei

2012-01-01

46

Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for difficult common bile duct stones: Our experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) performed for common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: From a computer database, we retrospectively analyzed the data relating to EBD performed in patients at the gastrointestinal unit of the Sandro Pertini Hospital of Rome (small center with low case volume) who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for CBD from January 1, 2010 to February 29, 2012. All patients had a proven diagnosis of CBD stones studied with echography, RMN-cholangiography and, when necessary, with computed tomography of the abdomen (for example, in cases with pace-makers). Prophylactic therapies, with gabexate mesilate 24 h before the procedure and with an antibiotic (ceftriaxone 2 g) 1 h before, were administered in all patients. The duodenum was intubated with a side-viewing endoscope under deep sedation with intravenous midazolam and propofol. The patients were placed in the supine position in almost all cases. EBD of the ampulla was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance with a balloon through the scope (Hercules, wireguided balloon®, Cook Ireland Ltd. and CRE®, Microvasive, Boston Scientific Co., Natick, MA, United States). RESULTS: A total of 14 patients (9 female, 5 male; mean age of 73 years; range 57-82 years) were enrolled in the study, in whom a total of 15 EBDs were performed. All patients underwent minor endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) prior to the EBD. The size of balloon insufflation depended on stone size and CBD dilation and this was performed until it reached 16 mm in diameter. EBD was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. The balloon was gradually filled with diluted contrast agent and was maintained inflated in position for 45 to 60 s before deflation and removal. The need for precutting the major papilla was 21.4%. In one patient (an 81-year-old), EBD was performed in a Billroth II. Periampullary diverticula were found only in a 74-year-old female. The adverse event related to the procedures (ERCP + ES) was only an intra procedural bleeding (6.6%) that occurred after ES and was treated immediately with adrenaline sclerotherapy. No postoperative complications were reported. CONCLUSION: With the current endoscopic techniques, very few patients with choledocholithiasis require surgery. EBD is an efficacious and safe procedure. PMID:24303455

Zippi, Maddalena; De Felici, Isabella; Pica, Roberta; Traversa, Giampiero; Occhigrossi, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

47

Pancreato-biliary Endoscopic Ultrasound in Opium Addicts Presenting with Abdominal Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective: Asymptomatic dilatation of bile duct and symptomatic sphincter of Oddi dysfunction have been reported in opium addicts. Except one case report, there is no report in the literature on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) study of pancreato-biliary system in opium addicts. The aim of the present study was to report the EUS features of pancreato-biliary system in opium addicts presenting with abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: A total of 15 opium addicts presenting with upper abdominal pain and dilated common bile duct (CBD) and or pancreatic duct (PD) on abdominal ultrasound were included in this study. EUS findings of pancreato-biliary system were analyzed in these patients. Results: All the 15 patients were males (mean age 53.3 years) presented with upper abdominal pain. Mean duration of opium addiction was 20.1 years. On EUS CBD was dilated in all the patients while PD was dilated in six patients. Gall bladder, liver and pancreatic parenchyma was normal in all these patients. Surface area of papilla of Vater (SPV) was increased in 12 patients. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes obstruction at ampulla and produces dilatation of bile duct and PD. Bile duct dilatation was seen in all the patients while PD dilatation was seen in few patients. Increase in SPV was a peculiar finding and appears to be as a result of direct effect of opium on ampulla. PMID:24949397

Sharma, Shyam Sundar; Ram, Seva; Maharshi, Sudhir; Shankar, Vijay; Katiyar, Prashant; Jhajharia, Ashok; Sardava, Vimal; Bhardwaj, Hemendra

2013-01-01

48

Endoscopic large-balloon dilation alone versus endoscopic sphincterotomy plus large-balloon dilation for the treatment of large bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) combined with large-balloon dilation (LBD) has been proposed as an alternative to manage large bile duct stones. However, recent reports indicate that LBD without EST may be safe and effective in this setting. Methods One hundred thirty-one patients with large common bile duct (CBD) stones 12 mm in size or larger underwent LBD alone (n?=?62) or EST plus LBD (n?=?69) for lithotripsy. The therapeutic outcome and complications were reviewed and compared. Results There were no differences between the two groups with regard to age, size and number of stones, or bile duct diameter. The LBD alone group (mean age, 70.4 years) and the EST plus LBD group (mean age, 68.2 years) had similar outcomes in terms of overall successful stone removal (96.8% vs. 95.7%, P?=?0.738) and complete stone removal without the need for mechanical lithotripsy (80.6% vs. 73.9%, P?=?0.360). Complications in the LBD alone and EST plus LBD groups were as follows: pancreatitis (6.5% vs. 4.3%, P?=?0.593), impaction of basket and stone (0% vs. 1.4%, P?=?0.341), and perforation (0% vs. 1.4%, P?=?0.341). Conclusions LBD alone may be a simple, safe, and effective alternative to EST plus LBD in relatively aged patients with large CBD stones, and it can simplify the procedure compared with EST plus LBD. PMID:23324454

2013-01-01

49

Polyarteritis nodosa presented as a dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct.  

PubMed

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-sized arteries in multiorgan systems. PAN may affect the gastrointestinal tract in 14%-65% of patients, but rarely involves the biliary tract and liver. We describe a patient without underlying disease who was diagnosed with PAN during resection of the gallbladder and liver. PMID:25368854

Choi, Han Lim; Sung, Ro Hyun; Kang, Min Ho; Jeon, Hyun Jeong; Yun, Hyo Yung; Jang, Lee Chan; Choi, Jae Woon; Song, Young Jin; Ryu, Dong Hee

2014-11-01

50

Polyarteritis nodosa presented as a dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct  

PubMed Central

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-sized arteries in multiorgan systems. PAN may affect the gastrointestinal tract in 14%-65% of patients, but rarely involves the biliary tract and liver. We describe a patient without underlying disease who was diagnosed with PAN during resection of the gallbladder and liver. PMID:25368854

Choi, Han Lim; Sung, Ro Hyun; Kang, Min Ho; Jeon, Hyun Jeong; Yun, Hyo Yung; Jang, Lee Chan; Choi, Jae Woon; Song, Young Jin

2014-01-01

51

Small Endoscopic Sphincterotomy plus Large-Balloon Dilation for Removal of Large Common Bile Duct Stones during ERCP  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study compared the therapeutic benefits and complication rates of small endoscopic sphincterotomy plus large-balloon dilation (ESLBD) with those of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) alone for large bile duct stones. Methods: We compared prospectively ESLBD group (n=63) with conventional EST group (n=69) for the treatment of large bile duct stones (?15mm). Mechanical lithotripsy was performed when the stone could not be removed using a normal basket. We compared the rates of stone removal, frequency of mechanical lithotripsy use, procedure-related complications, and recurrent stones. Results: A total of 132 patients were reviewed in the study. The mean age of the patients was 67.9 years. The two groups showed significant differences in complete stone removal during the first session (80.9 vs. 60.8%; P = 0.046), the use of mechanical lithotripsy (7.94 vs. 24.6%; P = 0.041), and less duration of admission (P =0.045). After ERCP, there were some instances of oozing in both groups, All patients recovered completely, 14 patients had recurrent common bile duct stones among the follow-up duration. Conclusion: The ESLBD technique seems to be a feasible and safe alternative technique for conventional EST and EBD and has no more Post-ERCP complications. PMID:24353657

Jun Bo, Qian; Li Hua, Xu; Tian Min, Chen; Liu Gen, Gu; Yan Mei, Yang; Hua Sheng, Lu

2013-01-01

52

Reduction in biliary IgA after burn injury. Role of diminished delivery via the thoracic duct and of enhanced loss from the systemic circulation.  

PubMed Central

The concentration of biliary IgA is greatly reduced after scald burn injury in the rat, thereby contributing to a deficiency in upper intestinal immune defense. This reduction in biliary IgA might have several explanations, including failure of the transhepatic transport of polymeric IgA (pIgA) from the circulation, decreased delivery of pIgA to the hepatocyte, or decreased local synthesis of IgA in the liver. The authors examined whether burn injury reduces circulating pIgA available for delivery to the hepatocyte. In initial studies, they demonstrated that burn injury induces a decrease in circulating pIgA in bile-duct-ligated rats. They then sought to determine whether this decrease in pIgA was due to increased loss from the circulation or to a decreased supply of pIgA to the circulation through the thoracic duct. After injection of purified 125I-pIgA into bile duct-ligated rats, radioactivity was removed more rapidly from the circulation of burn-injured compared with control rats. The radioactivity localized in the skin and muscle at the site of burn injury. In another group of rats with patent bile ducts, the thoracic duct was cannulated and lymph collected for 12 hours. The total amount of IgA protein in lymph was found to be reduced in burn-injured compared with control animals. Thus, burn injury is accompanied by reduced circulating pIgA, which may be attributed to its enhanced loss from the circulation and to decreased delivery of pIgA from the intestinal mucosa to the systemic circulation via the thoracic duct. PMID:1558414

Cappeller, W A; Bloch, K J; Hatz, R A; Carter, E A; Fagundes, J; Sullivan, D A; Harmatz, P R

1992-01-01

53

Less invasive causal treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation: a case report, literature review and suggestion of a CT- or MRI-guided intervention  

PubMed Central

Uni- or bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is a rare but correctable cause of infertility, chronic pelvic pain and postejaculatory pain. EDO is a congenital or acquired condition, it is the underlying cause of infertility in approximately 5% of infertile men. If acquired, the etiology often remains unresolved, but prostatitis or urethritis with post-inflammatory adhesion of the duct walls seems to be a common underlying pathomechanism. Although a certain constellation of physicochemical semen parameters may lead to correct diagnosis, EDO often resembles a diagnosis by exclusion. Imaging of acquired EDO remains a challenge and the established surgical therapy, transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts (TURED), leads to a low rate of natural conception and a high rate of complications such as reflux of urine and epididymitis. We present a case of a male with suspected EDO who underwent a combined approach to both, semi-invasive diagnosis and therapy by transrectal puncture of the seminal vesicles and antegrade balloon-dilation of the ejaculatory ducts. Possibilities and pitfalls of this procedure are described and the literature is reviewed. Furthermore, we suggest a CT- or MRI-guided, percutaneous intervention for treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation and demonstrate initial steps of this procedure with a body donor. We call this new procedure PTED (percutaneous transgluteal ejaculatory ductoplasty). PMID:22557939

Kayser, Ole; Osmonov, Daniar; Harde, Jonas; Girolami, Guido; Wedel, Thilo; Schafer, Philipp

2012-01-01

54

Intrahepatic versus extrahepatic cholestasis. Discrimination with biliary scintigraphy combined with ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Biliary scintigraphy and ultrasound imaging were performed in 52 patients with suspected biliary tract pathology. Results were correlated with the findings of direct cholangiography. Several new innovations in scintigraphic technique were used. The combination of ultrasound imaging and scintigraphy correctly identified biliary tract obstruction in 17 of 19 patients, 12 of whom had dilated bile ducts on ultrasonography. Intrahepatic cholestasis was correctly diagnosed in 11 of 13 patients. Accurate discrimination between intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis was achieved in 28 of 32 patients (88%) with the combined studies. Scintigraphy also provided a correct diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in all 9 patients with surgically confirmed disease. Eleven additional patients with gallbladder or pancreatic disease had normal bile ducts at scintigraphy, which was confirmed with cholangiography. When combined with ultrasound imaging, modern biliary scintigraphy can (a) provide excellent discrimination between intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis and (b) help determine the need for subsequent invasive diagnostic studies in selected patients.

Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.

1986-03-01

55

Fight-or-flight: murine unilateral ureteral obstruction causes extensive proximal tubular degeneration, collecting duct dilatation, and minimal fibrosis.  

PubMed

Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is the most widely used animal model of progressive renal disease. Although renal interstitial fibrosis is commonly used as an end point, recent studies reveal that obstructive injury to the glomerulotubular junction leads to the formation of atubular glomeruli. To quantitate the effects of UUO on the remainder of the nephron, renal tubular and interstitial responses were characterized in mice 7 and 14 days after UUO or sham operation under anesthesia. Fractional proximal tubular mass, cell proliferation, and cell death were measured by morphometry. Superoxide formation was identified by nitro blue tetrazolium, and oxidant injury was localized by 4-hydroxynonenol and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Fractional areas of renal vasculature, interstitial collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin were also measured. After 14 days of UUO, the obstructed kidney loses 19% of parenchymal mass, with a 65% reduction in proximal tubular mass. Superoxide formation is localized to proximal tubules, which undergo oxidant injury, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, with widespread mitochondrial loss, resulting in tubular collapse. In contrast, mitosis and apoptosis increase in dilated collecting ducts, which remain patent through epithelial cell remodeling. Relative vascular volume fraction does not change, and interstitial matrix components do not exceed 15% of total volume fraction of the obstructed kidney. These unique proximal and distal nephron cellular responses reflect differential "fight-or-flight" responses to obstructive injury and provide earlier indexes of renal injury than do interstitial compartment responses. Therapies to prevent or retard progression of renal disease should include targeting proximal tubule injury as well as interstitial fibrosis. PMID:22535799

Forbes, Michael S; Thornhill, Barbara A; Minor, Jordan J; Gordon, Katherine A; Galarreta, Carolina I; Chevalier, Robert L

2012-07-01

56

Atypical presentation of an advanced obstructive biliary cancer without jaundice  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Cholangiocarcinoma Symptoms: Abdominal pain • abdominal discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual natural history/clinical course Background: Cholangiocarcinoma remains to be a challenging case to diagnose and manage as it usually presents in advanced stage and survival rate remains dismal despite the medical breakthroughs. It is usually classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal tumor which can lead to bile duct obstruction causing sluggish flow of bile through the biliary tract and promoting increased absorption of bilirubin, bile acids and bile salts into systemic circulation accounting for the occurrence of jaundice, dark-colored urine and generalized pruritus. It usually becomes symptomatic when the tumor has significantly obstructed the biliary drainage causing painless jaundice and deranged liver function with cholestatic pattern. Jaundice occurs in 90% of the cases when the tumor has obstructed the biliary drainage system. A markedly dilated gallbladder as initial presenting feature in the absence of other typical obstructive clinical manifestations of an advanced stage of the cholangiocarcinoma is rare. Case Report: This case report presents an atypical case of an elderly woman who presented with advanced metastatic ductal cholangiocarcinoma with markedly dilated gallbladder and liver mass without other clinical manifestations and laboratory evidence of cholestatic jaundice. Conclusions: The mere presence of Courvoisier’s sign, even in the absence of other signs of biliary obstruction, could be suggestive of advanced neoplastic process along the biliary tract. Laboratory evidence of cholestasis might lag behind the clinical severity of the biliary obstruction in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:24223234

Salvador, Vincent Bryan; Samrao, Pushkinder; Leytin, Anatoly; Basith, Mohammed

2013-01-01

57

Percutaneous transhepatic intraductal biliary sonography for lymph node staging at 12.5 MHz in malignant bile duct obstruction: Work in progress  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To assess the value of intraductal ultrasound (US) for lymph node staging in malignant biliary obstruction. Methods, Eighteen patients with malignant extrahepatic obstruction were imaged during percutaneous bile duct drainage with a mechanically rotating US transducer at 12.5 MHz. Detectable lymph nodes were classified as malignant when two of three criteria (hypoechoic, rounded, conspicuous margins) were fulfilled. The results were compared with histopathological data in 8 patients and follow-up CT findings in 10 patients. Results. In 15 of 18 patients (83%) malignant lymph node involvement was suspected at intraductal US and in 5 of 18 patients (28%) during CT. Histopathological investigation after operation (n=8) and follow-up CT studies (n=10) revealed the presence of malignant nodal involvement in 13 of 18 (72%) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of transhepatic intraductal biliary US in determining merely the presence or absence of malignant lymph nodes without specific topographic assignment were 92%, 40%, and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. These preliminary results suggest that intraductal US may develop into a promising adjunctive modality during percutaneous bile duct drainage in patients with suspected malignant regional lymph node involvement.

Duda, Stephan H.; Huppert, Peter E.; Schott, Ulrich [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Brambs, Hans-J. [Universitaet Ulm, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

1997-03-15

58

Biliary cast - complication of cholangitis and pancreatitis in a pancreas divisum patient.  

PubMed

We report a rare cause of biliary cast secondary to cholangitisand pancreatitis, in a 60 year old female patient withpancreas divisum. She was admitted in our hospital with anacute pancreatitis (alcoholic etiology was excluded) complicatedwith pancreatic abscess and obstructive jaundice. The patienthad undergone a complex surgical intervention: cholecystectomy,choledocotomy with extraction of the biliary thrombus,external biliary drainage through a T tube, evacuation of thepancreatic abscess, sequestrectomy, peritoneal lavage and multipledrainages. In spite of the surgical and intensive care support,the biliary drainage through the T tube had ceased and theobstructive jaundice had reappeared in a more accentuatedfashion. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showedcomplete pancreas divisum and diffuse multiple stenosisalternating with dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary tree (apattern of sclerosing cholangitis). An endoscopic prosthesis wasplaced inside the right hepatic bile duct. Despite the use ofthe combined endoscopic plus UDCA (ursodeoxycholicacid) treatment for the management of the biliary castsyndrome, the evolution was unfavorable with hepatic coma,septic shock and finally death. The necropsy revealed anextensive biliary cast in the entire biliary tree and pyogeniccholangitis. The patient had a fatal outcome despite allthe surgical, endoscopic and conservative efforts, with development of intraductal biliary obstruction and secondarypyogenic cholangitis. Biliary cast syndrome is a rare but very aggressive entity and its management is often difficult despitethe advances in surgery and endoscopy treatments. PMID:25375059

Graur, F; Neagos, H; Cavasi, A; Hajjar, N Al

2014-01-01

59

Treatment of Complicated Hepatolithiasis with Intrahepatic Biliary Stricture by Ductal Dilatation and Stenting: Long-term Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A group of 190 cases of hepatolithiasis with postoperative residual stones located proximal to the stricture sites were managed\\u000a with the aim of complete clearance of stones and relief of bile stasis to decrease the potential risk of recurrence. All procedures\\u000a were performed through a T-tube track with gradual dilatation and stent placement through the stricture sites, creating a

Yu Fan Cheng; Tze Yu Lee; Shyr Ming Sheen-Chen; Tung Liang Huang; Tai Yi Chen

2000-01-01

60

Lesions of the segmental and lobar hepatic ducts.  

PubMed Central

Despite reports to the contrary, unobstructed drainage of 50% of an otherwise normal liver through either the right or left uninfected hepatic duct is adequate to restore normal liver function, even if the obstructed lobe remains in place. An undrained liver lobe, if present, may require no further treatment. As long as it is completely obstructed and uninfected, it will undergo a progressive asymptomatic atrophy. Cholangitis invariably develops behind a partial lobar ductal obstruction, producing jaundice, pruritis, and fever. Unless unobstructed, uninfected biliary flow can be achieved through a segmental or lobar duct, it is better that the duct be completely obstructed and the affected liver parenchyma allowed to atrophy, provided there is normal biliary flow from the residual 50% of liver. This concept is important in the management of injured anomalous segmental or lobar hepatic duct and in the palliative treatment of bile duct carcinoma. Localized intrahepatic infections communicating with abnormal biliary ducts will require hepatic resection of the infected parenchyma and ducts for cure. The abnormality may be saccular dilatation of the intrahepatic ductal system with abscess formation or intrahepatic abscess associated with stenosis of the ductal system from trauma to the duct, to the duct and liver, or to retained intrahepatic stones. Diffusely situated intrahepatic abscesses secondary to ductal abnormalities can be treated with systemic antibiotics, local drainage of a dmoninant abscess, and efforts to improve biliary drainage. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Figs. 11A and B Figs. 12A and B. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. PMID:1180585

Longmire, W P; Tompkins, R K

1975-01-01

61

[Prophylaxis of injuries of biliary ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: clinical recommendations of Ukrainian association of specialists for miniinvasive, endoscopic and laser technologies].  

PubMed

Wide introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCHE) caused during last 20 years a significant enhancement of rate of the biliary ducts injuries (BDI). Taking into account the experience gained in performing of more than 40,000 operations of LCHE in a leading clinics, including such in a technically complex situations, as well as experience of more than 500 operations performance for BDI, clinical recommendations, based on principles of a substantiality medicine were elaborated. More than 100 sources of foreign and domestic literature were analyzed, summarizing the results of more than 150,000 operations of LCHE, special attention was drawn to the sources I (meta-analysis and prospective randomized investigations) and II (systematic reviews, thoroughly planned prospective comparative investigations) levels of substantiality. Every paragraph is accompanied by a certain level of a recommendation strength (RS, A-C). It is necessary to follow these recommendations strictly today. PMID:23987021

Nichita?lo, M E; Grubnik, V V; Skums, A V; Ogorodnik, P V; Tkachenko, A I; Malinovski', A V

2013-06-01

62

Differentiation of pancreatobiliary cancer from benign biliary strictures using neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to investigate the value of serum and bile neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for distinguishing malignant strictures caused by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) or pancreatic cancer from benign biliary strictures. The study was performed prospectively on patients admitted for endoscopic or radiologic biliary decompression. Forty patients with dilated biliary ducts, including 16 cases of CCA, 6 cases of pancreatic cancer, and 18 cases of benign biliary stricture were enrolled. Their sera and bile were collected to measure NGAL. Routine biochemistry including measurement of serum levels of carbohydrate antigens (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was also performed. The serum CA19-9, serum CEA, and bile NGAL levels were significantly increased in patients with malignant strictures as compared with patients with benign biliary diseases. Serum NGAL had no significant value for discriminating between malignant and benign biliary strictures. Bile NGAL levels had a receiver characteristic area under the curve of 0.74, sensitivity 77.3, and specificity 72.2% for discriminating between pancreatobiliary cancer and benign biliary diseases. Bile NGAL and serum CA19-9 were independent parameters and their combined use improved diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 91%, negative predictive value 85.7%). We conclude that measurement of biliary, but not serum NGAL, may differentiate malignant pancreatobiliary from benign biliary strictures, serving as a complementary biomarker for serum CA19-9. PMID:23568978

Budzynska, A; Nowakowska-Dulawa, E; Marek, T; Boldys, H; Nowak, A; Hartleb, M

2013-02-01

63

The effect of decreased portal blood flow on the biliary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disturbance in the regional portal blood flow adjacent to the dilated bile duct in the liver is often observed in patients\\u000a with hepatolithiasis. The effects of this disturbed portal blood flow on the biliary system, with or without cholangitis,\\u000a were therefore investigated. Young rabbits were divided into the following four groups; (1) controls that had a laparotomy\\u000a only (n=3),

Yutaka Saji

1988-01-01

64

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct developing in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis: A case report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) that developed in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with obstructive jaundice. The liver function tests demonstrated increased serum liver enzyme levels. Computed tomography showed dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a highly echoic protruding lesion in the posterior bile duct near the right lobe of the liver. The lesion was suspected to be IPNB, but we were unable to confirm whether it was a carcinoma. A right hepatectomy was performed, and this showed that the dilated bile duct was filled with mucin and contained several yellowish papillary tumors. Histologically, the neoplastic biliary epithelium showed papillary growth in the dilated lumen. The tumor was diagnosed as IPNB, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia secreting abundant mucin. No recurrence has been detected 3 years after surgery.

Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kita, Junji; Shiraki, Takayuki; Iso, Yukihiro; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kubota, Keiichi

2014-01-01

65

Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: A brief report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Biliary Tract Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (BT-IPMN) is a very rare entity, gradually emerging into attention as sporadic cases are being reported worldwide. In this brief report we discuss about such an entity from our part of the world, based on a case from our institution. A 47-year-old female was referred to our department with jaundice, intermittent fever with chills and rigor of 6 weeks duration. Initial evaluation revealed obstructive jaundice with distended gall bladder. Imaging with ultrasonogram (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hugely dilated intra and extrahepatic biliary radicles with multiple and diffuse soft tissue lesions filling the common bile duct (CBD) extending to the ductal system of left lobe of liver. A side viewing endoscopy demonstrated mucin extruding from a prominent ampulla of Vater. The patient was managed successfully by left hepatectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy (HPD). Gross pathological examination of the specimen showed marked dilatation of intra and extra hepatic bile ducts with multiple polypoidal lesions and plenty of mucin filling the entire biliary ductal system. Histopathology revealed predominantly intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma at the hilum extending to left bile duct with diffuse dysplastic changes throughout the biliary tree. Thus the clinical, radiological and pathological features of this lesion clearly fit into the diagnosis of BT-IPMN, which is slowly being established as a definite clinical entity with features much similar to its pancreatic counterpart. PMID:25308012

Subhash, Raveendran; Valiyaveettil, Iyoob Ali; Natesh, Bonny; Raji, Laila

2014-01-01

66

How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

2010-01-01

67

Silymarin retards collagen accumulation in early and advanced biliary fibrosis secondary to complete bile duct obliteration in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silymarin (SIL), a standardized plant extract containing about 60% polyphenole silibinin, is used as a hepatoprotective agent. Its antifibrotic potential in chronic liver diseases has not been explored. Therefore, we applied SIL to adult Wistar rats that were subjected to complete bile duct occlusion (BDO) by injection of sodium amidotrizoate (Ethibloc). This treatment induces progressive portal fibrosis without significant inflammation.

G Boigk; L Stroedter; H Herbst; J Waldschmidt; EO Riecken; D Schuppan

1997-01-01

68

Laparoscopic Management of a Cystic Duct Cyst  

PubMed Central

Background: Choledochal cysts are rare cystic dilatations of the biliary tree. Though their cause is uncertain, these cysts are usually referred for surgical resection because of their association with developing malignancy. Traditionally, choledochal cysts have been classified under 5 main types. Not included in this classification are cysts of the cystic duct, a condition that is even rarer, with only 14 cases reported in the literature to date. We describe one such rare case of a cyst of the cystic duct that we successfully treated via laparoscopic resection. Methods and Results: A 41-year-old male was found to have a biliary abnormality on a routine follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan for an unrelated medical condition. Further magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) imaging identified a cystic dilation consistent with a Type II choledochal cyst. Laparoscopic resection was performed using a total of 5 trocars, at which time a cyst of the cystic duct was found instead of the expected Type II choledochal cyst. Intraoperative cholangiography was used as a surgical adjunct to confirm the anatomy, and resection of the cyst was completed without complications. Conclusions: Our case adds to the body of reports showing that cysts of the cystic duct, while extremely rare, do occur and need to be recognized. Given the preoperative similarity between cystic duct cysts and other choledochal cysts, proposal for a new “Type VI” category for choledochal cysts may be considered so that clinicians can be prepared for this variation. Once recognized, cysts of the cystic duct can be safely and effectively removed by laparoscopic excision, as we have demonstrated. PMID:19793491

Chan, Edward S.; Auyang, Edward D.

2009-01-01

69

Interval Biliary Stent Placement Via Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystostomy: Another Approach to Palliative Treatment in Malignant Biliary Tract Obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure for providing gallbladder decompression, often in critically ill patients. It can be used in malignant biliary obstruction following failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography when the intrahepatic ducts are not dilated or when stent insertion is not possible via the bile ducts. In properly selected patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy in obstructive jaundice is a simple, safe, and rapid option for biliary decompression, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality involved with percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Subsequent use of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for definitive biliary stent placement is an attractive concept and leaves patients with no external drain. To the best of our knowledge, it has only been described on three previous occasions in the published literature, on each occasion forced by surgical or technical considerations. Traditionally, anatomic/technical considerations and the risk of bile leak have precluded such an approach, but improvements in catheter design and manufacture may now make it more feasible. We report a case of successful interval metal stent placement via percutaneous cholecystostomy which was preplanned and achieved excellent palliation for the patient. The pros and cons of the procedure and approach are discussed.

Harding, James, E-mail: drjames.harding@btinternet.com; Mortimer, Alex [North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Kelly, Michael [North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay Hospital, Department of General Surgery (United Kingdom); Loveday, Eric [North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2010-12-15

70

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

71

Intraductal Papillary Neoplasms of the Bile Duct  

PubMed Central

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. IPNBs display a spectrum of premalignant lesion towards invasive cholangiocarcinoma. The most common radiologic findings for IPNB are bile duct dilatation and intraductal masses. The major treatment of IPNB is surgical resection. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance image, and cholangiography are usually performed to assess tumor location and extension. Cholangioscopy can confirm the histology and assess the extent of the tumor including superficial spreading along the biliary epithelium. However, pathologic diagnosis by preoperative biopsy cannot always reflect the maximum degree of atypia, because IPNBs are often composed of varying degrees of cytoarchitectural atypia. IPNBs are microscopically classified into four epithelial subtypes, such as pancreatobiliary, intestinal, gastric, and oncocytic types. Most cases of IPNB are IPN with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or with an associated invasive carcinoma. The histologic types of invasive lesions are either tubular adenocarcinoma or mucinous carcinoma. Although several authors have investigated molecular genetic changes during the development and progression of IPNB, these are still poorly characterized and controversial. PMID:24949206

Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kato, Atsushi; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sakai, Yuji; Yokosuka, Osamu

2014-01-01

72

Knockout of histidine decarboxylase decreases bile duct ligation-induced biliary hyperplasia via downregulation of the histidine decarboxylase/VEGF axis through PKA-ERK1/2 signaling.  

PubMed

Histidine is converted to histamine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). We have shown that cholangiocytes 1) express HDC, 2) secrete histamine, and 3) proliferate after histamine treatment via ERK1/2 signaling. In bile duct-ligated (BDL) rodents, there is enhanced biliary hyperplasia, HDC expression, and histamine secretion. This studied aimed to demonstrate that knockdown of HDC inhibits biliary proliferation via downregulation of PKA/ERK1/2 signaling. HDC(-/-) mice and matching wild-type (WT) were subjected to sham or BDL. After 1 wk, serum, liver blocks, and cholangiocytes were collected. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 1) hematoxylin and eosin, 2) intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) by cytokeratin-19, and 3) HDC biliary expression. We measured serum and cholangiocyte histamine levels by enzyme immunoassay. In total liver or cholangiocytes, we studied: 1) HDC and VEGF/HIF-1? expression and 2) PCNA and PKA/ERK1/2 protein expression. In vitro, cholangiocytes were stably transfected with shRNA-HDC plasmids (or control). After transfection we evaluated pPKA, pERK1/2, and cholangiocyte proliferation by immunoblots and MTT assay. In BDL HDC(-/-) mice, there was decreased IBDM, PCNA, VEGF, and HDC expression compared with BDL WT mice. Histamine levels were decreased in BDL HDC(-/-). BDL HDC(-/-) livers were void of necrosis and inflammation compared with BDL WT. PKA/ERK1/2 protein expression (increased in WT BDL) was lower in BDL HDC(-/-) cholangiocytes. In vitro, knockdown of HDC decreased proliferation and protein expression of PKA/ERK1/2 compared with control. In conclusion, loss of HDC decreases BDL-induced biliary mass and VEGF/HIF-1? expression via PKA/ERK1/2 signaling. Our data suggest that HDC is a key regulator of biliary proliferation. PMID:25169977

Graf, Allyson; Meng, Fanyin; Hargrove, Laura; Kennedy, Lindsey; Han, Yuyan; Francis, Taylor; Hodges, Kyle; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Nguyen, Quy; Greene, John F; Francis, Heather

2014-10-15

73

Iatrogenic Biliary Injuries: Multidisciplinary Management in a Major Tertiary Referral Center  

PubMed Central

Background. Iatrogenic biliary injuries are considered as the most serious complications during cholecystectomy. Better outcomes of such injuries have been shown in cases managed in a specialized center. Objective. To evaluate biliary injuries management in major referral hepatobiliary center. Patients & Methods. Four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy biliary injuries were managed with multidisciplinary team (hepatobiliary surgeon, gastroenterologist, and radiologist) at major Hepatobiliary Center in Egypt over 10-year period using endoscopy in 232 patients, percutaneous techniques in 42 patients, and surgery in 198 patients. Results. Endoscopy was very successful initial treatment of 232 patients (49%) with mild/moderate biliary leakage (68%) and biliary stricture (47%) with increased success by addition of percutaneous (Rendezvous technique) in 18 patients (3.8%). However, surgery was needed in 198 patients (42%) for major duct transection, ligation, major leakage, and massive stricture. Surgery was urgent in 62 patients and elective in 136 patients. Hepaticojejunostomy was done in most of cases with transanastomotic stents. There was one mortality after surgery due to biliary sepsis and postoperative stricture in 3 cases (1.5%) treated with percutaneous dilation and stenting. Conclusion. Management of biliary injuries was much better with multidisciplinary care team with initial minimal invasive technique to major surgery in major complex injury encouraging early referral to highly specialized hepatobiliary center.

Salama, Ibrahim Abdelkader; Shoreem, Hany Abdelmeged; Saleh, Sherif Mohamed; Hegazy, Osama; Housseni, Mohamed; Abbasy, Mohamed; Badra, Gamal; Ibrahim, Tarek

2014-01-01

74

Deep Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes Revealed GNAS Mutations to Be Associated with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Its Main Pancreatic Duct Dilation  

PubMed Central

Background To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues. Methods Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer. Results Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n?=?3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p?=?0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN. Conclusions The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion. PMID:24897499

Takano, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Maekawa, Shinya; Kadokura, Makoto; Miura, Mika; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

2014-01-01

75

Abnormal responses to morphine-neostigmine in patients with undefined biliary type pain.  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of pain and changes in serum concentrations of liver enzymes and amylase were investigated after challenge with intramuscular morphine (0.12 mg/kg) and neostigmine (0.012 mg/kg) in 25 control subjects and 80 patients with undefined biliary type pain, both with and without prior cholecystectomy. Peak enzyme concentrations were reached at four hours after the injection of morphine-neostigmine. When compared with controls, patients who had pain after cholecystectomy and a dilated bile duct and/or spontaneous changes in liver enzymes, had a higher frequency of drug induced pain and a higher frequency of rise (greater than 2 X N) in serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and amylase; postcholecystectomy patients with pain but without bile duct dilatation, and patients with pain without prior cholecystectomy, had a higher frequency of drug induced pain but did not have a higher frequency of enzyme rise. Increases in liver enzymes after morphine-neostigmine were abolished by endoscopic sphincterotomy. Thirty three patients with a dilated bile duct and/or spontaneous changes in liver enzymes were also studied by endoscopic manometry of the sphincter of Oddi: similar frequencies of enzyme changes were observed in patients with normal manometry as in those with various manometric disorders. Increases in serum concentrations of liver enzymes after morphine-neostigmine may be explained by high biliary pressures resulting from an exaggerated motor response in the sphincter of Oddi. PMID:2417918

Roberts-Thomson, I C; Toouli, J

1985-01-01

76

[Biliary cystic neoplasm: biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma].  

PubMed

Biliary cystic tumors, such as cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma, are rare cystic tumors of liver accounting for fewer than 5% of all intrahepatic cysts of biliary origin. Most biliary cystic tumors arise from intrahepatic bile duct and 10-20% arise from extrahepatic bile duct like common hepatic duct, common bile duct, and gallbladder. The first case report of biliary cystic neoplasm in Korea dated back to 1975 by Bae et al, and over 40 cases of cystadenoma and 35 cases of cystadenocarcinoma were reported since then. These tumors usually present in middle-aged women with a mean age of 50 years. Biliary cystadenomas are lined by single layer of cuboidal or columnar epithelium and are very often multilocular with septal or papillary foldings. Over 80% of cystadenoma have dense mesenchymal stroma composed of dense spindle cells, like ovary. The epithelial lining of cystadenocarcinoma exhibits cellular atypia, mitotic activity, and infiltrative growth, but part of lining epithelium retain the feature of cystadenoma, which support the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The size of tumors varies from 1.5 to 35 cm. Many patients are asymptomatic, except for the presence of palpable mass. When symptoms are present, they include epigastric or right upper quadrant pain or jaundice by enlarged mass. Biliary cystic tumor should be considered when a single or multilocular cystic lesion with papillary infoldings is detected in the liver by computed tomogram (CT) or ultrasound (US). Cystic wall and internal foldings can be seen enhanced by enhanced CT. US reveals a hypoechoic cystic mass with echogenic septation or papillary infoldings. Cystadenocarcinoma should be suspected when there is elevated mass or nodule in the wall or foldings, or thickened cystic wall on CT or US. But it is extremely difficult to differentiate between cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma by imaging alone. Increased tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, in serum or cystic fluid have been reported in biliary cystic tumor. But tumor markers cannot distinguish cystadenocarcinoma from cystadenoma or both from other cystic lesions of liver. Malignant cells are not usually recovered in patients with cystadenocarcinoma who underwent cystic fluid cytology before and during surgery. The treatment of choice is radical excision of the mass by means of lobectomy or wide tumor excision. Aspiration, marsupialization, and drainage must be avoided. Inadequate excision of both cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma may lead to recurrence. Prognosis after complete excision is excellent. PMID:16434863

Kim, Ho Gak

2006-01-01

77

Simultaneous segmental obstruction of bile duct and portal vein markedly changes a population of biliary and hepatic cells in human liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsNo studies have investigated histologic changes caused by simultaneous segmental obstruction of the bile duct and portal vein in human liver.Patients\\/MethodsLiver tissues with simultaneous obstruction of the segmental bile duct and portal vein (O +\\/+ liver), with segmental bile duct obstruction alone (O +\\/- liver), and without obstruction (O -\\/- liver) were obtained from patients who underwent hepatectomy,

Takanori Kyokane; Masato Nagino; Junichi Kamiya; Yuji Nimura; Tetsuro Nagasaka

2003-01-01

78

Role of Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent for Treatment of Benign Biliary Strictures and Bile Leaks  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic therapy by balloon dilation and placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents is the treatment of choice for benign biliary stricture. This approach is effective but it typically requires multiple endoscopic sessions given the short duration of stent patency. The endoscopic approach for treatment of bile leak involves the placement of a stent with or without biliary sphincterotomy. The self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has traditionally been used for palliation of malignant biliary strictures given the long duration of stent patency owing to their larger stent diameter. Recently, SEMS has been used in a variety of benign biliary strictures and leaks, especially with the design of the covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS), which permits endoscopic-mediated stent removal. The use of CSEMS in benign biliary stricture could potentially result in a decrease in endoscopic sessions and it is technically easier when compared to placement of multiple plastic stents. However, complications such as cholecystitis due to blockage of cystic duct, stent migration, infection and pancreatitis have been reported. The potential subsegmental occlusion of contralateral intrahepatic ducts also limits the use of CSEMS in hilar stricture. Certain techniques and improvement of stent design may overcome these challenges in the future. Thus, CSEMS may be appropriate in only highly selected conditions, such as refractory benign biliary stricture, despite multiple plastic stent placement or difficult to treat bile duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis, and should not be used routinely. This review focuses on the use of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for benign biliary strictures and bile leaks. PMID:22563290

Pausawasadi, Nonthalee; Soontornmanokul, Tanassanee

2012-01-01

79

Detection, localization, and quantitation of degree of common bile duct obstruction by scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The detection, localization, and quantitation of the degree of obstruction was successfully accomplished by (/sup 99m/Tc)IDA scintigraphy in 13 of 14 patients with cholangiographically documented common bile duct (CBD) obstruction. Ductal dilation was present on ultrasound examination in only seven patients. The accuracy of biliary scintigraphy was enhanced by several innovations including: (a) selection of a radiopharmaceutical with rapid hepatic uptake and excretion; (b) shorter imaging interval over longer period of time; (c) substitution of image parameter for appearance time; and (d) quantitative measurement of bile emptying parameters following cholecystokinin infusion. Scintigraphically, the partial obstruction was characterized by CBD segmental narrowing or intraluminal filling defects and bile stasis within the area and segmental ducts. It is concluded that quantitative biliary dynamic scintigraphy employing modern techniques can accurately detect and localize CBD obstruction.

Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Lieberman, D.A.; Brar, H.S.

1985-07-01

80

Pancreatic duct drainage using EUS-guided rendezvous technique for stenotic pancreaticojejunostomy  

PubMed Central

The patient was a 30-year-old female who had undergone excision of the extrahepatic bile duct and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for congenital biliary dilatation at the age of 7. Thereafter, she suffered from recurrent acute pancreatitis due to pancreaticobiliary maljunction and received subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. She developed a pancreatic fistula and an intra-abdominal abscess after the operation. These complications were improved by percutaneous abscess drainage and antibiotic therapy. However, upper abdominal discomfort and the elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes persisted due to stenosis from the pancreaticojejunostomy. Because we could not accomplish dilation of the stenosis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, we tried an endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) guided rendezvous technique for pancreatic duct drainage. After transgastric puncture of the pancreatic duct using an EUS-fine needle aspiration needle, the guidewire was inserted into the pancreatic duct and finally reached to the jejunum through the stenotic anastomosis. We changed the echoendoscope to an oblique-viewing endoscope, then grasped the guidewire and withdrew it through the scope. The stenosis of the pancreaticojejunostomy was dilated up to 4 mm, and a pancreatic stent was put in place. Though the pancreatic stent was removed after three months, the patient remained symptom-free. Pancreatic duct drainage using an EUS-guided rendezvous technique was useful for the treatment of a stenotic pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:23964156

Takikawa, Tetsuya; Kanno, Atsushi; Masamune, Atsushi; Hamada, Shin; Nakano, Eriko; Miura, Shin; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Unno, Jun; Kume, Kiyoshi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2013-01-01

81

Pancreatic duct drainage using EUS-guided rendezvous technique for stenotic pancreaticojejunostomy.  

PubMed

The patient was a 30-year-old female who had undergone excision of the extrahepatic bile duct and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for congenital biliary dilatation at the age of 7. Thereafter, she suffered from recurrent acute pancreatitis due to pancreaticobiliary maljunction and received subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. She developed a pancreatic fistula and an intra-abdominal abscess after the operation. These complications were improved by percutaneous abscess drainage and antibiotic therapy. However, upper abdominal discomfort and the elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes persisted due to stenosis from the pancreaticojejunostomy. Because we could not accomplish dilation of the stenosis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, we tried an endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) guided rendezvous technique for pancreatic duct drainage. After transgastric puncture of the pancreatic duct using an EUS-fine needle aspiration needle, the guidewire was inserted into the pancreatic duct and finally reached to the jejunum through the stenotic anastomosis. We changed the echoendoscope to an oblique-viewing endoscope, then grasped the guidewire and withdrew it through the scope. The stenosis of the pancreaticojejunostomy was dilated up to 4 mm, and a pancreatic stent was put in place. Though the pancreatic stent was removed after three months, the patient remained symptom-free. Pancreatic duct drainage using an EUS-guided rendezvous technique was useful for the treatment of a stenotic pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:23964156

Takikawa, Tetsuya; Kanno, Atsushi; Masamune, Atsushi; Hamada, Shin; Nakano, Eriko; Miura, Shin; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Unno, Jun; Kume, Kiyoshi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2013-08-21

82

Adult bile duct strictures: role of MR imaging and MR cholangiopancreatography in characterization.  

PubMed

Bile duct strictures in adults are secondary to a wide spectrum of benign and malignant pathologic conditions. Benign causes of bile duct strictures include iatrogenic causes, acute or chronic pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, liver transplantation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, Mirizzi syndrome, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Malignant causes include cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and periampullary carcinomas. Rare causes include biliary inflammatory pseudotumor, gallbladder carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases to bile ducts, and extrinsic bile duct compression secondary to periportal or peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiopancreatography is extremely helpful in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice, an obstructive pattern of liver function, or incidentally detected biliary duct dilatation. Some of these conditions may show characteristic findings at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography that help in making a definitive diagnosis. Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with tissue biopsy or surgery is needed for the definitive diagnosis of many of these strictures, certain MR imaging characteristics of the narrowed segment (eg, thickened wall, long-segment involvement, asymmetry, indistinct outer margin, luminal irregularity, hyperenhancement relative to the liver parenchyma) may favor a malignant cause. Awareness of the various causes of bile duct strictures in adults and familiarity with their appearances at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography are important for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management. PMID:24819781

Katabathina, Venkata S; Dasyam, Anil K; Dasyam, Navya; Hosseinzadeh, Keyanoosh

2014-01-01

83

Identification of factors predictive of malignancy in patients with atypical biliary brushing results obtained via ERCP.  

PubMed

Biliary brushings obtained during ERCP can have one of three cellular interpretations: benign, malignant, or "atypical." Atypical interpretations usually result in further testing, and may cause controversy over management and increases in cost. We evaluated a large cohort of patients with atypical biliary brushings for analysis and risk stratification. All biliary brushing specimens collected between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2010 that had an atypical result were included. Hospital electronic records were reviewed for these patients to include: demographics, indication for ERCP, endoscopist/pathologist impressions, serologic testing, stricture site, and information relating to the final clinical diagnosis. Eighty-six patients were included. Totally, 60/86 patients (70%) had malignancies while 26/86 (30%) had no evidence of malignancy during long term follow up. Univariate analysis showed that the risk of malignant outcomes was significantly associated with older age, suspicious/malignant endoscopic impression, pancreatic mass, indications including jaundice and/or dilated bile ducts, stricture location within the common bile duct, PSC, and CA 19-9 levels >300 U/mL. We created a novel scoring system for prediction of malignancy based on clinical and endoscopic factors. We identified parameters that are typically available to the clinician to categorize patients with an "atypical" bile duct brushing results into "high risk" and "lower risk" classifications. Our proposed scoring system would allow such risk stratification to take place. PMID:23008113

Witt, Benjamin L; Kristen Hilden, R N; Scaife, Courtney; Chadwick, Barbara; Layfield, Lester; Cory Johnston, W; Safaee, Maryam; Siddiqui, Ali; Adler, Douglas G

2013-08-01

84

Management of Hilar Biliary Strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary strictures at the liver hilum are caused by a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant conditions. In the absence of a clear-cut benign etiology, i.e. bile duct damage during surgery, hilar biliary strictures remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for which a multidisciplinary approach is often necessary. A definitive diagnosis can be achieved in only 40–60% of the patients,

Alberto Larghi; Andrea Tringali; Piera G. Lecca; Marco Giordano; Guido Costamagna

2008-01-01

85

Functional Discrepancy between Two Liver Lobes after Hemilobe Biliary Drainage in Patients with Jaundice and Bile Duct Cancer: An Appraisal Using (99m)Tc-GSA SPECT/CT Fusion Imaging.  

PubMed

Purpose To determine the functional discrepancy between the two liver lobes using technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin ( GSA diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) fusion imaging following preoperative biliary drainage and portal vein embolization ( PVE portal vein embolization ) in patients with jaundice who have bile duct cancer ( BDC bile duct cancer ). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Preoperative (99m)Tc- GSA diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin SPECT/CT fusion images from 32 patients with extrahepatic BDC bile duct cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into four groups according to the extent of biliary drainage and presence of a preoperative right PVE portal vein embolization : right lobe drainage group (right drainage), bilateral lobe drainage group (bilateral drainage), left lobe drainage group (left drainage), and left lobe drainage with right PVE portal vein embolization group (left drainage with right PVE portal vein embolization ). Percentage volume and percentage function were measured in each lobe using fusion imaging. The ratio between percentage function and percentage volume (the function-to-volume ratio) was calculated for each lobe, and the results were compared among the four groups. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results The median values for the function-to-volume ratio in the right drainage, bilateral drainage, left drainage, and left drainage with right PVE portal vein embolization group were 1.12, 1.05, 1.02, and 0.81 in the right lobe; and 0.51, 0.88, 0.96, and 1.17 in the left lobe. Significant differences in the function-to-volume ratio were observed among the four groups (right drainage vs bilateral drainage vs left drainage vs left drainage with right PVE portal vein embolization ; with P < .002, P = .023, and P < .002 for the right lobe and P < .001, P = .023, and P < .002 for the left lobe). Conclusion Hepatic lobar function significantly differs between the two lobes, depending on the extent of biliary drainage and the presence of portal vein embolization. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25007049

Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Hata, Yasuhiro; Murata, Yoriko; Kozuki, Akihito; Tokumaru, Teppei; Nakamura, Toshio; Uka, Kiminori

2014-11-01

86

Histologic assessment of biliary obstruction with different percutaneous endoluminal techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the sophisticated cross sectional image techniques currently available, a number of biliary stenosis or obstructions remain of an uncertain nature. In these pathological conditions, an "intrinsic" parietal alteration is the cause of biliary obstruction and it is very difficult to differentiate benign from malignant lesions using cross-sectional imaging procedures alone. We evaluated the efficacy of different endoluminal techniques to achieve a definitive pathological diagnosis in these situations. Methods Eighty patients underwent brushing, and or biopsy of the biliary tree through an existing transhepatic biliary drainage route. A subcoort of 12 patients needed balloon-dilatation of the bile duct and the material covering the balloon surface was also sent for pathological examination (balloon surface sampling). Pathological results were compared with surgical findings or with long-term clinical and instrumental follow-ups. Success rates, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, confidential intervals, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the three percutaneous techniques in differentiating benign from malignant disease were assessed. The agreement coefficient of biopsy and brushing with final diagnosis was calculated using the Cohen's "K" value. Results Fifty-six patients had malignant strictures confirmed by surgery, histology, and by clinical follow-ups. Success rates of brushing, balloon surface sampling, and biopsy were 90.7, 100, and 100%, respectively. The comparative efficacy of brushing, balloon-surface sampling, and biopsy resulted as follows: sensitivity of 47.8, 87.5, and 92.1%, respectively; specificity of 100% for all the techniques; accuracy of 69.2, 91.7 and 93.6%, Positive Predictive Value of 100% for all the procedures and Negative Predictive Value of 55, 80, and 75%, respectively. Conclusions Percutaneous endoluminal biopsy is more accurate and sensitive than percutaneous bile duct brushing in the detection of malignant diseases (p < 0.01). PMID:15329152

Rossi, Michele; Cantisani, Vito; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Rebonato, Alberto; Greco, Laura; Giglio, Luigi; Guido, Giampiero; Pagliara, Elisa; David, Vincenzo

2004-01-01

87

Biliary tract manifestations of the Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of the Marfan syndrome rests on the four criteria of characteristic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, ocular, and familial features. Biliary tract manifestations have not been described. A case of Marfan syndrome with recurrent biliary obstruction is presented. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiograms presented a grossly ectatic biliary system which is postulated to be an unrecognized manifestation of this syndrome. In addition, the patient developed choledocholithiasis, which may have resulted from biliary stasis secondary to bile duct ectasia. Biliary obstruction developed in the presence and absence of choledocholithiasis, the latter apparently through kinking of the ectatic common bile duct. Obstruction was clinically relieved by biliary endoprosthesis. The presence of a Zenker's diverticulum in this patient, also unreported in the Marfan syndrome, is of incidental interest. PMID:3605039

Merza, A P; Raiser, M W

1987-08-01

88

In Vivo Study of Polyurethane-Coated Gianturco-Rosch Biliary Z-Stents  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Prototypes of Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents coated with polycarbonate urethane (PCU) were placed in the biliary tree of pigs, in order to test their biomechanical behavior, stability, and biocompatibility. Methods: The stents were surgically implanted in the common bile duct of three pairs of pigs, which were killed after 1, 3, and 6 months respectively. Explanted livers from pigs of the same race, age, and size were used to provide comparative data. The bile ducts were radiologically and histopathologically examined; the stents were processed and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: No complications occurred and the animals showed a normal weight gain. The main bile duct appeared radiologically and macroscopically dilated, but the stents proved to be in place. Histologically, the bile duct epithelium was destroyed, but neither hyperplastic nor inflammatory fibrotic reactions of the wall were evident. Both the metallic structure and the polymeric coating of the stents were intact. A layer of organic material with a maximum thickness of approximately 3 {mu}m was evident on the inner surface of the stents. Conclusion: The present in vivo study demonstrates the biocompatibility, efficacy, and stability of PCU-coated Gianturco-Rosch stents in the biliary environment.

Severini, Aldo [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mantero, Sara [Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Cigada, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica Chimica Applicata, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Addis, Flaminio [Clinica Chirurgica Veterinaria, Universita di Milano, Via Ponzio 7, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Cozzi, Guido; Salvetti, Monica [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Andreola, Salvatore [Divisione di Anatomia Patologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Motta, Antonella [Stazione Sperimentale per la Seta, Via G. Colombo 81, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Regalia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea [Divisione di Chirurgia dell'Apparato Digerente, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); De Pedri, Enrico [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Doci, Roberto [Divisione di Chirurgia dell'Apparato Digerente, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

1999-11-15

89

Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses.

Tidmore, H.; Ram, M.D.

1985-03-01

90

Choledochoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy and lithotomy for stones in the common bile duct, intrahepatic ducts, and gallbladder.  

PubMed Central

Choledochoscopic lithotomy with the aid of electrohydraulic lithotripsy was performed in 40 patients, including 16 patients with choledocholithiasis, 15 with hepatolithiasis, and 9 with cholecystolithiasis. As a route for the choledochoscopy, a T-tube tract, external cholecystostomy, or jejunal limb of hepaticojejunostomy was used in nine patients, while percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage followed by dilatation of the track was established in 31 patients. The largest cholesterol stone measured 55 mm by 33 mm and the largest bilirubinate stone measured 52 mm by 37 mm. The stones were disintegrated in all but one patient in whom choledochoscopic access to a gallstone was difficult due to deformity of the gallbladder. Complete removal of the stones was achieved in 38 of 39 patients. In a patient with hepatolithiasis, small stones located deep in inaccessible branches of the intrahepatic duct remained unremovable. There were no serious complication. Minor complications occurred, including bleeding from the bile duct mucosa in four patients and postprocedure chills and fever in three. Choledochoscopic lithotomy with electrohydraulic lithotripsy is efficient and useful to remove biliary calculi in patients who are poor surgical risks. Images Figs. 1A-C. Figs. 2A-C. Figs. 3A-D. PMID:2818026

Yoshimoto, H; Ikeda, S; Tanaka, M; Matsumoto, S; Kuroda, Y

1989-01-01

91

Dilated cardiomyopathy  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiomyopathy - dilated ... The most common causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are: Heart disease caused by a narrowing of the arteries Poorly controlled high blood pressure There are many other causes of dilated ...

92

MRI in the workup of biliary tract filling defects.  

PubMed

Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made imaging the biliary tract faster while providing excellent anatomic reproduction of this duct system. MRI/MR-cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has now become the first-line imaging procedure for many biliary tract problems. This work briefly discusses the MR techniques for biliary tree imaging and reviews MRI's role in the numerous diagnoses of filling defects in the biliary tract. PMID:23606140

Eason, Joseph B; Taylor, Andrew J; Yu, Jinxing

2013-05-01

93

Biliary atresia in lampreys.  

PubMed

The preceding pages have described an organism that is far removed from mammals on the taxonomic scale of vertebrates but one that has proven to have a unique and most useful system for studies of liver function and, in particular, bile product transport and excretion. It is also an organism in which iron loading can be studied in the liver and other organs and tissues. Many of the events that occur in this animal during its life cycle with regard to bile pigment metabolism as normal programmed phenomena are unparalleled among the vertebrates. In the larval (ammocoete) period of lampreys, there is an intrahepatic gallbladder and a biliary tree that is well equipped for the storage, transport, and elimination of bile products into the intestine for ultimate excretion with the feces. The importance of the patency of these bile ducts to bile excretion is illustrated in one species of lampreys in which the bile ducts of young ammocoetes become infested with larval nematodes to a degree that bile pigment regurgitation into the blood results in a green serum that is identified as biliverdin. Despite having serum levels of biliverdin that would be toxic to humans, these individuals live a complete larval life. The larvae of all lamprey species undergo a phase of metamorphosis in which they transform into adults. During this phase the larval gallbladder, the bile canaliculi of the hepatocytes, and all the intrahepatic bile ducts completely regress in a developmental process called lamprey biliary atresia. The epithelium of the extrahepatic common bile duct transforms and expands into a caudal portion of the endocrine pancreas of the adult. Many of the events of lamprey biliary atresia resemble events occurring during experimental and pathological conditions of mammalian cholestasis, including disruption to the bile-blood barrier (intercellular junctions), accumulation of bile components in the cytoplasmic inclusions, and alteration of the distribution of membrane enzymes in hepatocytes. Regression of the bile ducts and ductules is accompanied by a periductular fibrosis that seems to be a product of activity by lipocytes (Ito cells). The regurgitation of bile products into the interstitial tissue of the liver during early biliary atresia may be the stimulus for both inflammatory (granulomatous) and autoimmune responses. There are no bile ducts in adults lampreys, yet they seem to show no immediate consequences of the absence of an exocrine mechanism for the elimination of bile products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8273515

Youson, J H

1993-01-01

94

Obstructive putty-like cast of the biliary tree.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old woman was presented at the emergency department with cholangiosepsis. She had a history of liver metastases for which she had a left hemihepatectomy and loco regional recurrence at the liver hilum for which she received chemoradiation therapy MR-imaging of the liver showed multiple intrahepatic fluid collections/abscesses, together with significantly dilated intrahepatic bile ducts. For her significant hepatic function impairment she received antibiotic treatment and percutaneous drainage. The differential diagnosis was local tumor recurrence or post radiation fibrosis causing outflow obstruction centrally in the liver hilum. During the admission the serum bilirubin values kept rising. During surgery surgeons decided to perform a hepatotomy and connect a loop of the jejunum directly on the liver parenchyma, in order to allow better drainage. Intra operatively, after the hepatotomy, we encountered green-brownisch putty-like material. By traction a 'cast' of a large part of the biliary tree was removed. PMID:24696838

Clermonts, Stefan Hem; van Dam, Ronald M

2014-02-01

95

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: Managing the patient with chronic biliary pain  

PubMed Central

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a syndrome of chronic biliary pain or recurrent pancreatitis due to functional obstruction of pancreaticobiliary flow at the level of the sphincter of Oddi. The Milwaukee classification stratifies patients according to their clinical picture based on elevated liver enzymes, dilated common bile duct and presence of abdominal pain. Type I patients have pain as well as abnormal liver enzymes and a dilated common bile duct. Type II SOD consists of pain and only one objective finding, and Type III consists of biliary pain only. This classification is useful to guide diagnosis and management of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. The current gold standard for diagnosis is manometry to detect elevated sphincter pressure, which correlates with outcome to sphincterotomy. However, manometry is not widely available and is an invasive procedure with a risk of pancreatitis. Non-invasive testing methods, including fatty meal ultrasonography and scintigraphy, have shown limited correlation with manometric findings but may be useful in predicting outcome to sphincterotomy. Endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin appears to predict subsequent outcome to sphincterotomy, and could be useful in selection of patients for therapy, especially in the setting where manometry is unavailable. PMID:16804961

Bistritz, Lana; Bain, Vincent G

2006-01-01

96

Percutaneous Transhepatic Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Intrahepatic and Choledochal Biliary Stones  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-{mu}m holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. Results: All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive 'balloon push' (n = 4) and 'rendezvous' (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Conclusion: Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Kleinmann, Nir [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Urology, Section of Endourology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Winkler, Harry [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Urology, Section of Endourology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel)

2011-12-15

97

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and sonography in early biliary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined 139 patients thought to have early, partial, or intermittent biliary obstruction, using sonography, hepatobiliary scintigraphy, and in selected cases contrast cholangiography. Of 125 patients with a well-established final diagnosis, sonography and scintigraphy disagreed in 29 (23%). Scintigraphy revealed early or low-grade obstruction in 13 patients who had no evidence of dilated ductules, while 7 patients with dilatation from prior stone passage or biliary surgery showed normal clearance. The authors conclude that in a preselected population in whom early or low-grade biliary obstruction may be present, disagreement between sonography and scintigraphy is not rare, and the absence of sonographically detectable dilation does not exclude obstruction.

Zeman, R.K.; Lee, C.; Jaffe, M.H.; Burrell, M.I.

1984-12-01

98

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

1981-01-01

99

Melatonin regulation of biliary functions  

PubMed Central

The intrahepatic biliary epithelium is a three-dimensional tubular system lined by cholangiocytes, epithelial cells that in addition to modify ductal bile are also the targets of vanishing bile duct syndromes (i.e., cholangiopathies) such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) that are characterized by the damage/proliferation of cholangiocytes. Cholangiocyte proliferation is critical for the maintenance of the biliary mass and secretory function during the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies. Proliferating cholangiocytes serve as a neuroendocrine compartment during the progression of cholangiopathies, and as such secrete and respond to hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides contributing to the autocrine and paracrine pathways that regulate biliary homeostasis. The focus of this review is to summarize the recent findings related to the role of melatonin in the modulation of biliary functions and liver damage in response to a number of insults. We first provide a general background on the general function of cholangiocytes including their anatomic characteristics, their innervation and vascularization as well the role of these cells on secretory and proliferation events. After a background on the synthesis and regulation of melatonin and its role on the maintenance of circadian rhythm, we will describe the specific effects of melatonin on biliary functions and liver damage. After a summary of the topics discussed, we provide a paragraph on the future perspectives related to melatonin and liver functions. PMID:24696836

Glaser, Shannon; Han, Yuyan; Francis, Heather

2014-01-01

100

Newly Designed Y-configured Single-Catheter Stenting for the Treatment of Hilar-Type Nonanastomotic Biliary Strictures After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to introduce our novel technique of percutaneous single catheter placement into the hilar bile ducts strictures while fulfilling the purpose of bilateral biliary drainage and stenting. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the technique for the treatment of hilar nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Methods: Ten patients who were post-orthotopic liver transplantation between July 2000 and July 2010 were enrolled in this study. Percutaneous Y-configured single-catheter stenting for bilateral bile ducts combined with balloon dilation was designed as the main treatment approach. Technical success rate, clinical indicators, complications, and recurrent rate were analyzed. Results: Technical success rate was 100%. Nine of the ten patients had biochemical normalization, cholangiographic improvement, and clinical symptoms relief. None of them experienced recurrence in a median follow-up of 26 months after completion of therapy and removal of all catheters. Complications were minor and limited to two patients. The one treatment failure underwent a second liver transplantation but died of multiple system organ failure. Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic Y-configured single-catheter stenting into the hilar bile ducts is technically feasible. The preliminary trial of this technique combined with traditional PTCD or choledochoscopy for the treatment of hilar biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation appeared to be effective and safe. Yet, further investigation is needed.

Wang Changming; Li Xuan, E-mail: lixuanbysy@163.com [Peking University Third Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery (China); Song Shibing [Peking University Third Hospital, Department of General Surgery (China); Lv Xianjun; Luan Jingyuan; Dong Guoxiang [Peking University Third Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery (China)

2012-02-15

101

Section 9. Technical details of microsurgical biliary reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Small size and multiple ducts, particularly in right lobe liver grafts, are major factors that contribute to biliary complications in living donor liver transplantation. To improve the outcome of biliary reconstruction, further investigation and refinement of reconstruction techniques and management strategies are necessary. From March 2006 to June 2012, routine MBR was performed in 584 grafts in 581 consecutive LDLT (including 3 dual graft transplants). All biliary reconstructions were performed using microsurgical technique by a single microsurgeon. The classification of biliary reconstruction was based according to the number of ducts in the graft, the manner in which these ducts were reconstructed (with or without ductoplasty), and the conduit used (recipient duct or jejunum) to reconstruct the biliary tree. In duct-to-duct reconstruction, posterior wall first technique by using interrupted suture and continuous running and interrupted tie technique (combined method) for the anterior wall were performed. Recipient reduction ductoplasty was done, if necessary. In duct-to-jejunum reconstruction, enterotomy was performed first under microscope; then, the serosal and mucosal layers were sutured together using 8-0 prolene to facilitate the anastomosis. Posterior wall first by using interrupted suture technique and combined method for the anterior wall were also performed. Overall, there were 397 right and 184 left lobe grafts. Single duct opening was noted in 440 (75.34%), two duct openings in 135(23.12%), and three duct openings in 9 (1.54%) grafts. Duct-to-duct anastomosis was performed in 473 (81%) and duct-to-jejunum Roux limb in 111 (19%) biliary reconstructions. Size discrepancy in the graft and recipient ducts was noted in 394 (83.3%) reconstructions. The overall biliary complication was 7.9%. These included 19 (3.3%) bile leaks and 27 (4.6%) biliary strictures. The routine use of MBR capably surmounts the difficulties brought about by the anatomic variations and the size discrepancies between the graft and recipient hepatic ducts with excellent outcome. PMID:24849831

Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Chen, Chao-Long; Concejero, Allan M; Yap, Anthony Q; Lin, Yu-Hung; Liu, Chun-Yi; Chiang, Yuan-Cheng; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Chih-Che; Yong, Chee-Chien; Cheng, Yu-Fan

2014-04-27

102

Common bile duct obstruction due to a duodenal gastrinoma in a dog.  

PubMed

In dogs gastrinomas are rare endocrine neoplasms that have always been reported to arise from the pancreas. We report here what we believe to be the first case of a duodenal gastrinoma in a dog. A nine-year-old, male, Pekinese dog was presented with a three-day history of anorexia, vomiting and mucous diarrhoea. Clinical examination and laboratory findings suggested the presence of a severe hepatobiliary disorder. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a diffuse increase in echogenicity of the liver, with severe gallbladder dilation and marked dilation of the cystic duct, common bile duct and extrahepatic bile ducts. Based on these findings, an extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EBTO) of unknown cause was suspected. At laparotomy, the gallbladder and the extrahepatic bile ducts appeared severely dilated. The gallbladder was tense and could not be compressed suggesting an outflow obstruction. The duodenum at the level of the common duct orifice appeared slightly thickened and severely hardened for a length of 1 cm. Biopsies from the duodenum and liver were obtained and a cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. The duodenal biopsy revealed severe fibrosis of the submucosa and a infiltrate of small pockets and cords of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm. Based on this appearance the differential diagnoses included neuroendocrine tumours and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Despite surgery and supportive therapy the dog continued to be anorexic and to vomit 3-6 times daily. After euthanasia and necropsy, histopathology showed the presence of a neuroendocrine neoplasia involving the duodenal wall with focal invasion of the adjacent pancreas and small liver metastases. On immunohistochemistry, the cytoplasm of approximately 90% of neoplastic cells intensely expressed neuron specific enolase and gastrin. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of gastrinoma. PMID:15993800

Vergine, Marzia; Pozzo, Sergio; Pogliani, Elena; Rondena, Marco; Roccabianca, Paola; Bertazzolo, Walter

2005-07-01

103

Physiologic considerations in radionuclide imaging of the extrahepatic biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Scintigraphy of the biliary system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals enables the clinician to assess kinetics of bile flow through the gallbladder, common bile duct, and sphincter of Oddi. We review some aspects of biliary tract physiology and imaging which may be of interest to the physicians ordering and performing these studies. 56 references.

Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.

1988-01-01

104

Biliary atresia: Current concepts and research directions. Summary of a symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary atresia (BA) is the end result of a destructive, inflammatory process that affects intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and obliteration of the biliary tract with the development of biliary cirrhosis. It is the commonest cause of chronic cholestasis in infants and children, and therefore is the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in this age group.

WF Balistreri; R Grand; JH Hoofnagle; FJ Suchy; FC Ryckman; DH Perlmutter; RJ Sokol

1996-01-01

105

Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

2014-06-11

106

Filling Defect on ERCP: Biliary Cystadenoma, a Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Biliary cystadenomas are rare tumors of the bile ducts most commonly presenting as large right liver lobe lesions. These are usually slow-growing and mostly benign. They commonly present with abdominal pain. On physical exam an abdominal mass can be identified occasionally. Walls of biliary cystadenomas appear thicker than simple cysts, with soft tissue nodules and enhancing septations on CT or MRI. Radiographic images can vary with the amount of protein content in the fluid on CT or MRI. Due to the risk of malignant transformation, complete surgical resection is advised. Hereby, we describe a 37-year-old lady who presented to the outpatient clinic with bloating and abdominal discomfort with intermittent elevated liver enzymes and hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts followed by CT scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts. It was seen as a filling defect of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts (common hepatic duct) on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Involvement of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts simultaneously is a rare presentation of this tumor. She later on underwent exploratory laparotomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, left hepatic lobe resection and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. Pathology confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma with ovarian-like stroma. She had recovered uneventfully from the surgery when seen 2 weeks later in the clinic. Biliary cystadenoma is a rare, mostly benign neoplasm of the biliary tract that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the biliary tract. PMID:23467382

Rayapudi, Krishna; Schmitt, Timothy; Olyaee, Mojtaba

2013-01-01

107

Biliary Atresia: Cellular Dynamics and Immune Dysregulation  

PubMed Central

The cause of biliary atresia (BA) is unknown and in the past few decades the majority of investigations related to pathogenesis have centered on virus infections and immunity. The acquired or perinatal form of BA entails a progressive, inflammatory injury of bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and obliteration of both the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Theories of pathogenesis include viral infection, chronic inflammatory or autoimmune-mediated bile duct injury and abnormalities in bile duct development. This review will focus solely on human studies pertaining to a potential viral trigger of bile duct injury at diagnosis and provide insight into the interplay of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:22800972

Feldman, Amy; Mack, Cara L.

2012-01-01

108

Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.  

PubMed

Abstract Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

2014-12-01

109

Successful Treatment with a Covered Stent and 6-Year Follow-Up of Biliary Complication After Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

The role of covered stent in the management of biliary complications is not yet defined in liver transplant recipients. This Case Report presents a patient with anastomotic stricture and leakage with biloma treated with a covered stent 32 months following liver transplantation. Signs of in-stent restenosis developed 52 months following covered stent placement, which was resolved by balloon dilation. There were no complications during the interventions. The latest follow-up, at 69 months following primary and 19 months following secondary percutaneous intervention, shows a patent covered stent without any clinical or morphological sign of further restenosis. The clinical success with long-term follow-up data suggests that covered stent implantation can be a rational, minimally invasive option for simultaneous treatment of bile duct stenosis and bile leak following liver transplantation in selected cases.

Doros, Attila, E-mail: dorattila@yahoo.com; Nemeth, Andrea; Deak, Akos Pal; Hartmann, Erika; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Fazakas, Janos; Kobori, Laszlo [Semmelweis University, Department of Transplantation and Surgery (Hungary)

2010-04-15

110

Biliary Strictures: Classification Based on the Principles of Surgical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The classification of biliary strictures used at Hôpital Paul Brousse is based on the lowest level at which healthy biliary\\u000a mucosa is available for anastomosis. The classification is intended to help the surgeon choose the appropriate technique for\\u000a the repair. Type I strictures, with a common duct stump longer than 2 cm, can be repaired without opening the left

Henri Bismuth; Pietro E. Majno

2001-01-01

111

Biliary cystadenoma revealed by obstructive jaundice.  

PubMed

Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic tumour of the liver that can be difficult to differentiate from other types of benign hepatic cysts. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice due to a large cystic lesion of the left hepatic lobe. Resection of the mass revealed a mucinous cystadenoma with protrusion of a pedunculated extension into the left hepatic duct and the common bile duct. We describe the clinical features, the radiological findings, the surgical management and the pathology of this rare entity. PMID:18316254

Gonzalez, M; Majno, P; Terraz, S; Morel, P; Rubbia-Brandt, L; Mentha, G

2009-07-01

112

Rupture of Right Hepatic Duct into Hydatid Cyst  

PubMed Central

Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T.

2012-01-01

113

Pregnancy Complicated by Portal Hypertension Secondary to Biliary Atresia  

PubMed Central

Biliary atresia is a rare idiopathic neonatal cholestatic disease characterized by the destruction of both the intra- and extrahepatic biliary ducts. As the disease is progressive all cases will develop portal fibrosis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with the sequelae of varices, jaundice, and eventually liver failure requiring a transplant. Survival rates have improved considerably with many females living well in to be childbearing age. Due to the complexity of the disease these pregnancies are considered, high risk. We report the antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum managements of a pregnancy complicated by biliary atresia. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in optimizing obstetric care for this high risk group. PMID:24459595

O'Sullivan, O. E.; Crosby, D.; Byrne, B.; Regan, C.

2013-01-01

114

Biliary tract obstruction in chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Bile duct strictures are a common complication in patients with advanced chronic pancreatitis and have a variable clinical presentation ranging from an incidental finding to overt jaundice and cholangitis. The diagnosis is mostly made during investigations for abdominal pain but jaundice may be the initial clinical presentation. The jaundice is typically transient but may be recurrent with a small risk of secondary biliary cirrhosis in longstanding cases. The management of a bile duct stricture is conservative in patients in whom it is an incidental finding as the risk of secondary biliary cirrhosis is negligible. Initial conservative treatment is advised in patients who present with jaundice as most will resolve once the acute on chronic attack has subsided. A surgical biliary drainage is indicated when there is persistent jaundice for more than one month or if complicated by secondary gallstones or cholangitis. The biliary drainage procedure of choice is a choledocho-jejunostomy which may be combined with a pancreaticojejunostomy in patients who have associated pain. Since many patients with chronic pancreatitis have an inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas, a Frey procedure is indicated but a resection should be performed when there is concern about a malignancy. Temporary endoscopic stenting is reserved for cholangitis while an expandable metal stent may be indicated in patients with severe co-morbid disease. PMID:18345288

Abdallah, Abdul A; Krige, Jake E J; Bornman, Philippus C

2007-01-01

115

Biliary tract obstruction in chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Bile duct strictures are a common complication in patients with advanced chronic pancreatitis and have a variable clinical presentation ranging from an incidental finding to overt jaundice and cholangitis. The diagnosis is mostly made during investigations for abdominal pain but jaundice may be the initial clinical presentation. The jaundice is typically transient but may be recurrent with a small risk of secondary biliary cirrhosis in longstanding cases. The management of a bile duct stricture is conservative in patients in whom it is an incidental finding as the risk of secondary biliary cirrhosis is negligible. Initial conservative treatment is advised in patients who present with jaundice as most will resolve once the acute on chronic attack has subsided. A surgical biliary drainage is indicated when there is persistent jaundice for more than one month or if complicated by secondary gallstones or cholangitis. The biliary drainage procedure of choice is a choledocho-jejunostomy which may be combined with a pancreaticojejunostomy in patients who have associated pain. Since many patients with chronic pancreatitis have an inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas, a Frey procedure is indicated but a resection should be performed when there is concern about a malignancy. Temporary endoscopic stenting is reserved for cholangitis while an expandable metal stent may be indicated in patients with severe co-morbid disease. PMID:18345288

Abdallah, Abdul A.; Krige, Jake E. J.

2007-01-01

116

Histological features of precancerous and early cancerous lesions of biliary tract carcinoma.  

PubMed

Biliary tract carcinoma develops within the intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary tree and gallbladder. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, hepatolithiasis, congenital choledochal cyst, liver fluke infection, pancreatobiliary maljunction, toxic exposures and hepatitis virus infection are risk factors for the development of human biliary carcinoma. The precise molecular abnormalities of biliary carcinogenesis are still unknown, but chronic inflammatory conditions induce the production of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species leading to DNA damage. Recent studies indicate that cholangiocarcinoma of the large bile duct may arise in premalignant lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). BilIN and IPNB are generally confined to the large and septal-sized bile duct. BilINs are occasionally observed in non-biliary liver cirrhosis as well as chronic biliary disease. In contrast, the precursor lesion of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma of the small bile duct type remains unclear. We herein demonstrated the histological characteristics of different tumor development pathways from premalignant lesion to carcinoma in different sites of the biliary tree. PMID:24446428

Aishima, Shinichi; Kubo, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Oda, Yoshinao

2014-07-01

117

Early and long-term results of routine microsurgical biliary reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

We describe our early and long-term experience with routine biliary reconstruction via a microsurgical technique in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). One hundred seventy-seven grafts (including 3 dual grafts) were primarily transplanted into 174 recipients. The minimum follow-up was 44 months. Biliary reconstructions were based on biliary anatomical variations in graft and recipient ducts. The recipient demographics, graft characteristics, types of biliary reconstruction, biliary complications (BCs), and outcomes were evaluated. There were 130 right lobe grafts and 47 left lobe grafts. There were single ducts in 71.8%, 2 ducts in 26.0%, and 3 ducts in 2.3% of the grafts. The complications were not significantly related to the size and number of ducts, the discrepancy between recipient and donor ducts, the recipient age, the ischemia time, or the type of graft. The overall BC rate was 9.6%. The majority of the complications occurred within the first year, and only 1 patient developed a stricture at 20 months. No new complications were noted after 2 years. When the learning-curve phase of the first 15 cases was excluded, the overall BC rate was 6.79%, and the rate of complications requiring interventions was 2.5%. In conclusion, the routine use of microsurgical biliary reconstruction decreases the number of early and long-term anastomotic BCs in LDLT. PMID:23197399

Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Chen, Chao-Long; Concejero, Allan M; Yap, Anthony Q; Lin, Yu-Hung; Liu, Chun-Yi; Chiang, Yuan-Cheng; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Chih-Che; Yong, Chee-Chien; Cheng, Yu-Fan

2013-02-01

118

Update in Biliary Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary endoscopy has seen the development of several new techniques in the last few years. Its current role includes direct diagnostic imaging, tissue sampling, early diagnosis and palliation of biliary tumors. Relatively new methods for biliary stones management are electrohydraulic lithotripsy combined with choledochoscope guidance and laser lithotripsy. Intraductal ultrasound, confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography are emerging, purely

Guido Costamagna; Ivo Boškoski; Pietro Familiari; Andrea Tringali; Paola Cesaro; Vincenzo Perri

2011-01-01

119

Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction and Erosive Disruption by Cavitating Porta Hepatis Nodal Metastasis, Treated by Uncovered Wallstent  

SciTech Connect

A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.

Trambert, Jonathan J., E-mail: jtrambert@pol.net; Frost, Andrei [J. D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Malasky, Charlotte [J. D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (United States)

2004-08-15

120

Biliary cast syndrome in an opium inhaler.  

PubMed

Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon complication which is mostly described in orthotopic liver transplantation. However, BCS has also been reported rarely in non-liver transplant patients. We describe a male long-term opium inhaler with BCS who underwent successful endoscopic cast removal by balloon enteroscopy-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A 52-year-old man, who was a known case of opium addiction, presented with the chief complaint of epigastric pain for 1 week prior to admission. Routine laboratory evaluation revealed cholestatic liver enzyme elevation. A cholestatic pattern was seen in radiographic modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a linear filling defect in the intra- and extrahepatic duct. A long biliary cast was successfully removed using an extractor balloon. After removal of the biliary cast the patient is receiving ursodeoxycholic acid and does not report any problem 4 months after treatment. It seems that biliary dyskinesia due to long-term opium use can be a predisposing factor for biliary cast formation. PMID:24163648

Dabiri, Reza; Aghdae, Hamid Asadzadeh; Rajabalinia, Hasan; Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang

2013-01-01

121

Biliary Cast Syndrome in an Opium Inhaler  

PubMed Central

Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon complication which is mostly described in orthotopic liver transplantation. However, BCS has also been reported rarely in non-liver transplant patients. We describe a male long-term opium inhaler with BCS who underwent successful endoscopic cast removal by balloon enteroscopy-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A 52-year-old man, who was a known case of opium addiction, presented with the chief complaint of epigastric pain for 1 week prior to admission. Routine laboratory evaluation revealed cholestatic liver enzyme elevation. A cholestatic pattern was seen in radiographic modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a linear filling defect in the intra- and extrahepatic duct. A long biliary cast was successfully removed using an extractor balloon. After removal of the biliary cast the patient is receiving ursodeoxycholic acid and does not report any problem 4 months after treatment. It seems that biliary dyskinesia due to long-term opium use can be a predisposing factor for biliary cast formation. PMID:24163648

Dabiri, Reza; Aghdae, Hamid Asadzadeh; Rajabalinia, Hasan; Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang

2013-01-01

122

Linkage of persistent cholangitis after bilioenterostomy with biliary carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

Biliary carcinoma occurring after bilioenterostomy has been reported as a late complication of this surgical procedure. The present study was designed to determine if bilioenterostomy promotes biliary carcinogenesis, and also to clarify the relationship between biliary inflammation and biliary carcinogenesis in hamsters. Syrian hamsters underwent a simple laparotomy (SL), choledochoduodenostomy (CD) or choledochojejunostomy (CJ). All hamsters received subcutaneous injections of the chemical carcinogen, N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine (BOP), and were sacrificed 20 weeks after surgery. Neoplastic lesions in the biliary tree were histologically examined, and the presence and degree of cholangitis was also evaluated with special reference to biliary carcinogenesis. The incidence of bile duct carcinoma was not significantly different among the three groups. Numerous bile duct carcinomas, however, were recognized in the bilioenterostomized animals, especially in the CJ group. Moreover, significant correlations between biliary carcinogenesis and the presence of cholangitis were noted in both the CD and CJ groups, but not in the SL control group. Severe cholangitis was evident in the CJ group, and the number of biliary carcinomas was well correlated with the degree of cholangitis. In conclusion, the risk of carcinoma in the biliary tract may increase when persistent cholangitis is present after biliary reconstruction. PMID:11277322

Kitajima, T; Tajima, Y; Onizuka, S; Matsuzaki, S; Matsuo, K; Kanematsu, T

2000-12-01

123

Isolated segmental, sectoral and right hepatic bile duct injuries  

PubMed Central

The treatment of isolated segmental, sectoral and right hepatic bile duct injuries is controversial. Nineteen patients were treated over a 26-year period. Group one was comprised of 4 patients in whom the injury was primarily repaired during the original surgery; 3 over a T-tube, 1 with a Roux-en-Y. These patients had an uneventful recovery. The second group consisted of 5 patients in whom the duct was ligated; 4 developed infection, 3 of which required drainage and biliary repair. Two patients had good long-term outcomes; the third developed a late anastomotic stricture requiring further surgery. The fourth patient developed a small bile leak and pain which resolved spontaneously. The fifth patient developed complications from which he died. The third group was comprised of 4 patients referred with biliary peritonitis; all underwent drainage and lavage, and developed biliary fistulae, 3 of which resolved spontaneously, 1 required Roux-en-Y repair, with favorable outcomes. The fourth group consisted of 6 patients with biliary fistulae. Two patients, both with an 8-wk history of a fistula, underwent Roux-en-Y repair. Two others also underwent a Roux-en-Y repair, as their fistulae showed no signs of closure. The remaining 2 patients had spontaneous closure of their biliary fistulae. A primary repair is a reasonable alternative to ligature of injured duct. Patients with ligated ducts may develop complications. Infected ducts require further surgery. Patients with biliary peritonitis must be treated with drainage and lavage. There is a 50% chance that a biliary fistula will close spontaneously. In cases where the biliary fistula does not close within 6 to 8 wk, a Roux-en-Y anastomosis should be considered. PMID:19322912

Colovic, Radoje B

2009-01-01

124

Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis. PMID:23272363

Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

2012-12-01

125

Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

1983-12-01

126

Discordance of sonography and cholescintigraphy in acute biliary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Animal studies have shown that there is a brief interval of several hours after acute biliary obstruction during which sonography will demonstrate only normal-sized bile ducts while /sup 99m/Tc cholescintigraphy will document total obstruction. Serial studies documented this phenomenon in a patient whose case is reported and reviewed.

Floyd, J.L.; Collins, T.L.

1983-03-01

127

Fluorescent imaging of the biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with increased incidences of bile duct injury. The primary cause appears to be misidentification of the biliary anatomy. Routine intra-operative cholangiography has been recommended to reduce accidental duct injury, although in practice it is more often reserved for selected cases. There has been interest in the use of fluorescent agents excreted via the biliary system to enable real-time intra-operative imaging, to aid the laparoscopic surgeon in correctly interpreting the anatomy. The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the ability of fluorescent cholangiography to identify important biliary anatomy intra-operatively. Secondary aims are to investigate its ability to detect important intra-operative pathology such as bile leaks, identify potential alternative fluorophores, and evaluate the evidence regarding patient outcomes. PMID:25317203

2014-01-01

128

Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B. [Department of Interventional Endoscopy, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

1996-03-15

129

Prognosis of extrahepatic biliary atresia.  

PubMed Central

We carried out a retrospective investigation of the 89 patients with extrahepatic biliary atresia born in The Netherlands during a 10 year period. Of these 89 patients 10 had a diagnostic laparotomy only. Eight patients had an anastomosis between the proximal bile duct and the intestine, and the remaining 71 had hepatic portoenterostomies. Bile drainage was re-established in 46 (65%). After successful hepatic portoenterostomy the development of cholangitis was the most important determinant of long term survival; five year survival was 54% in the 19 patients who had cholangitis and 91% in the 27 who did not. In the whole group of 71 patients the five year survival was 47%. Seventeen patients were at least 5 years of age at the time of writing, three of whom had had liver transplantation. Three patients have cirrhosis and hyperbilirubinaemia, and the other 11 have normal bilirubin concentrations and normal or slightly raised transaminase activities. To improve these results early surgical intervention in all children with extrahepatic biliary atresia is necessary, as are better methods of prophylaxis and treatment of cholangitis. PMID:2930227

Houwen, R H; Zwierstra, R P; Severijnen, R S; Bouquet, J; Madern, G; Vos, A; Bax, N M; Heymans, H S; Bijleveld, C M

1989-01-01

130

Duct closure  

DOEpatents

A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

Vowell, Kennison L. (Canoga Park, CA)

1987-01-01

131

Biliary repair and carcinogenesis are mediated by IL-33-dependent cholangiocyte proliferation.  

PubMed

Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers inflammation and fibrosis, which can result in severe liver diseases and may progress to malignancy. Development of a type 1 immune response has been linked to biliary injury pathogenesis; however, a subset of patients with biliary atresia, the most common childhood cholangiopathy, exhibit increased levels of Th2-promoting cytokines. The relationship among different inflammatory drivers, epithelial repair, and carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we determined that the Th2-activating cytokine IL-33 is elevated in biliary atresia patient serum and in the livers and bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia. Administration of IL-33 to WT mice markedly increased cholangiocyte proliferation and promoted sustained cell growth, resulting in dramatic and rapid enlargement of extrahepatic bile ducts. The IL-33-dependent proliferative response was mediated by an increase in the number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which released high levels of IL-13 that in turn promoted cholangiocyte hyperplasia. Induction of the IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 circuit in a murine biliary injury model promoted epithelial repair; however, induction of this circuit in mice with constitutive activation of AKT and YAP in bile ducts induced cholangiocarcinoma with liver metastases. These findings reveal that IL-33 mediates epithelial proliferation and suggest that activation of IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 may improve biliary repair and disruption of the circuit may block progression of carcinogenesis. PMID:24892809

Li, Jun; Razumilava, Nataliya; Gores, Gregory J; Walters, Stephanie; Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Mourya, Reena; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Glaser, Shannon S; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Bezerra, Jorge A

2014-07-01

132

Prolonged exposure of cholestatic rats to complete dark inhibits biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

Biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are common features in cholestatic liver disease. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland as well as the liver. Melatonin inhibits biliary hyperplasia of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Since melatonin synthesis (by the enzyme serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) from the pineal gland increases after dark exposure, we hypothesized that biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are diminished by continuous darkness via increased melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland. Normal or BDL rats (immediately after surgery) were housed with light-dark cycles or complete dark for 1 wk before evaluation of 1) the expression of AANAT in the pineal gland and melatonin levels in pineal gland tissue supernatants and serum; 2) biliary proliferation and intrahepatic bile duct mass, liver histology, and serum chemistry; 3) secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (functional index of biliary growth); 4) collagen deposition, liver fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver, and cholangiocytes; and 5) expression of clock genes in cholangiocytes. In BDL rats exposed to dark there was 1) enhanced AANAT expression/melatonin secretion in pineal gland and melatonin serum levels; 2) improved liver morphology, serum chemistry and decreased biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated choleresis; and 4) decreased fibrosis and expression of fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver and cholangiocytes and reduced biliary expression of the clock genes PER1, BMAL1, CLOCK, and Cry1. Thus prolonged dark exposure may be a beneficial noninvasive therapeutic approach for the management of biliary disorders. PMID:25214401

Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Meng, Fanyin; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Franchitto, Antonio; Ray, Debolina; Kennedy, Lindsey; Greene, John; Renzi, Anastasia; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

2014-11-01

133

Pneumatic dilatation in achalasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the value of pneumatic dilatation of the cardia, 63 patients with achalasia have undergone a total of 107 Rider-Moeller dilatations over the last six years. There was a marked improvement in swallowing immediately after dilatation in all but two patients, there were no deaths attributable to the procedure and serious complications were rare (1.6% of patients). The first

I W Fellows; A L Ogilvie; M Atkinson

1983-01-01

134

Apotopes and the Biliary Specificity of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), directed to the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2). Notwithstanding the presence of mitochondria in virtually all nucleated cells, the destruction in PBC is limited to small intrahepatic bile ducts. The reasons for this tissue specificity remain unknown, although biliary epithelial cells (BEC) uniquely preserve the PDC-E2 epitope following apoptosis. Notably, PBC recurs in an allogeneic transplanted liver, suggesting generic rather than host-PBC-specific susceptibility of BEC. We used cultured human intrahepatic BEC (HIBEC) and other well-characterized cell lines, including, HeLa, CaCo-2 cells, and non transformed human keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells (BrEpC), to determine the integrity and specific localization of PDC-E2 during induced apoptosis. All cell lines, both before and after apoptosis, were tested with sera from patients with PBC (n=30), other autoimmune liver and rheumatic diseases (n=20), and healthy individuals (n=20), a mouse monoclonal antibody against PDC-E2, and AMA with an IgA isotype. PDC-E2 was found to localize unmodified within apoptotic blebs of HIBEC, but not within blebs of various other cell lineages studied. The fact that AMA- containing sera reacted with PDC-E2 on apoptotic BEC without a requirement for permeabilization suggests that the autoantigen is accessible to the immune system during apoptosis. In conclusion, our data indicate that the tissue (cholangiocyte) specificity of the autoimmune injury in PBC is a consequence of the unique characteristics of HIBEC during apoptosis and can be explained by exposure to the immune system of intact immunoreactive PDC-E2 within apoptotic blebs. PMID:19185000

Lleo, Ana; Selmi, Carlo; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Coppel, Ross L.; Mackay, Ian R.; Gores, Gregory J.; Ansari, Aftab A.; Van de Water, Judy; Gershwin, M. Eric

2009-01-01

135

History of biliary surgery.  

PubMed

Since ancient times biliary surgery has been one of the major interests of doctors and other scientists around the world. From the ancient Greeks and Egyptians to the greatest scientists of modern times biliary surgery has advanced remarkably. Especially during the last century huge progress has been made in this field. Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been developed and combined with general anesthesia and antisepsis that have made biliary surgery particularly safe for every patient and have made cholecystectomy one of the most common operations in the world today. PMID:23430002

Spirou, Yannos; Yannos, Spirou; Petrou, Athanasios; Athanasios, Petrou; Christoforides, Christos; Christos, Christoforides; Felekouras, Evangelos; Evangelos, Felekouras

2013-05-01

136

On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system. Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system, and finally the future challenges in the area. PMID:17457970

Luo, Xiaoyu; Li, Wenguang; Bird, Nigel; Chin, Swee Boon; Hill, NA; Johnson, Alan G

2007-01-01

137

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: A useful tool in the evaluation of pancreatic and biliary disorders  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is being used with increasing frequency as a noninvasive alternative to diagnostic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The aim of this pictorial review is to demonstrate the usefulness of MRCP in the evaluation of pancreatic and biliary system disorders. Because the recently developed techniques allows improved spatial resolution and permits imaging of the entire pancreaticobiliary tract during a single breath hold, MRCP is of proven utility in a variety of pancreatic and biliary disorders. It uses MR imaging to visualize fluid in the biliary and pancreatic ducts as high signal intensity on T2 weighted sequences and is the newest modality for pancreatic and biliary duct imaging. Herein, we present the clinical applications of MRCP in a variety of pancreaticobiliary system disorders and conclude that it is an important diagnostic tool in terms of imaging of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system. PMID:17551999

Halefoglu, Ahmet Mesrur

2007-01-01

138

Accepted by ASME J. of Biomechanical Engineering on 03/10/2006 One-Dimensional Models of the Human Biliary  

E-print Network

these models, the effects of the biliary system geometry, elastic property of the cystic duct, and bile; a 1% decrease in the diameter increases the pressure drop by up to 4.3%. The effects of the baffle change the equivalent diameter and length of the cystic duct. The effect of the Young's modulus

139

Bile duct stenosis due to portal cavernomas: MR portography and MR cholangiopancreatography demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two cases of bile duct stenosis due to portal cavernomas. Smooth stenoses were seen arising from both walls of the common bile duct on magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography. On contrast-enhanced MR portography, peribiliary tortuous vessels were evident, indicating portal cavernomas. MR imaging can evaluate the biliary tree and portal systems noninvasively and was useful for evaluating this condition.

S. Akaki; H. Kobayashi; N. Sasai; M. Tsunoda; M. Kuroda; S. Kanazawa; I. Togami; Y. Hiraki

2002-01-01

140

Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Mechanism of injury, prevention, and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies have shown a low incidence of bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, concerns remain because of the sustained increase in the number of referrals for biliary reconstruction after the procedure. Twenty-one patients have been referred to our institution because of major bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The injury was recognized during the laparoscopic procedure in only

Horacio J. Asbun; Ricardo L. Rossi; Jeffrey A. Lowell; J. Lawrence Munson

1993-01-01

141

Establishment and characterisation of six human biliary tract cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cell lines established from biliary tract cancers are rare, and only five have been reported previously. We report the characterisation of six new six biliary tract cancer cell lines (designated SNU-245, SNU-308, SNU-478, SNU-869, SNU-1079 and SNU-1196) established from primary tumour samples of Korean patients. The cell lines were isolated from two extrahepatic bile duct cancers (one adenocarcinoma of

J-L Ku; K-A Yoon; I-J Kim; W-H Kim; J-Y Jang; K-S Suh; S-W Kim; Y-H Park; J-H Hwang; Y-B Yoon; J-G Park

2002-01-01

142

Bile duct reconstruction by a young surgeon in living donor liver transplantation using right liver graft.  

PubMed

Biliary strictures and bile leaks account for the majority of biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study was to examine differences in biliary complications after adult LDLTs were performed by an experienced senior surgeon and an inexperienced junior surgeon. Surgeries included bile duct reconstruction after adult LDLT using a right liver graft, and risk factors for biliary stricture were identified.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 136 patients who underwent LDLT in order to identify patients who developed biliary complications.The senior surgeon performed 102 surgeries and the junior surgeon performed 34 surgeries. The proportion of patients with biliary stricture was similar between the senior and the junior surgeons (27.5% vs 26.5%; P?=?0.911). However, the incidence of biliary leakage was higher in patients of the junior surgeon than in those of the senior surgeon (23.5% vs 2.9%; P?=?0.001). The frequency of percutaneous drainage was also higher for the junior surgeon than the senior surgeon because of the junior surgeon's high leakage rate of the drainage. When the junior surgeon performed bile duct anastomosis, biliary leakage occurred in 7 patients between the 11th and 20th cases. However, biliary leakage occurred in only 1 case thereafter.Bile duct reconstruction performed by beginner surgeons in LDLT using right lobe grafts should be cautiously monitored and observed by a senior surgeon until an inexperienced junior surgeon has performed at least 20 cases, because of the high incidence of biliary leakage related to surgeon's inexperience in bile duct reconstructions in LDLT. PMID:25255023

Kim, Jong Man; Cho, Wontae; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Park, Jae Berm; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Gwak, Mi Sook; Kim, Gaab Soo; Kim, Sung Joo; Lee, Suk-Koo

2014-09-01

143

Gallstone-Induced Perforation of the Common Bile Duct in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of ductal stones. We report the case of a twenty-year-old woman presenting at term with biliary peritonitis caused by common bile duct (CBD) perforation due to an impacted stone in the distal common bile duct. The patient had suffered a single herald episode of acute gallstone pancreatitis during the third trimester. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, bile duct exploration, and removal of the ductal stone. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:18604299

Dabbas, N.; Abdelaziz, M.; Hamdan, K.; Stedman, B.; Abu Hilal, M.

2008-01-01

144

Role of Cholangiocytes in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2); characteristics of the disease are also the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. Recent evidence suggests that cholangiocytes show specific immunobiological features that are responsible for the selective targeting of those cells by the immune system. The immune reaction in PBC selectively targets small sized, intrahepatic bile ducts; although a specific reason for that has not been defined yet, it has been established that the biliary epithelium displays a unique heterogeneity, for which the physiological and pathophysiological features of small and large cholangiocytes significantly differ. In this review article, the authors provide a critical overview of the current evidence on the role of cholangiocytes in the immune-mediated destruction of the biliary tree that characterizes PBC. PMID:25057951

Lleo, Ana; Maroni, Luca; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

2014-01-01

145

Functional units in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) liver: II. The biliary system.  

PubMed

The intrahepatic biliary system was studied in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), a teleost known to form liver neoplasms after exposure to various carcinogens. Normal adults (N = 25) were examined using light microscopic, enzyme histochemical, and transmission and scanning electron microscopic methods. In light micrographs, longitudinal arrays of hepatocytes appeared as double rows incompletely divided by elongated darkly stained cells. Electron micrographs showed tubules of five to nine pyramidally shaped hepatocytes with their apices directed toward a central biliary passageway and their bases directed toward sinusoids. Sequentially, beginning with hepatocytes, biliary passageways included canaliculi, preductules, ductules, and ducts. Canaliculi were short and joined transitional passageways (preductules) formed by junctional complexes between plasma membranes of hepatocytes and small, electron-dense cells with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio. Ductules, completely lined by biliary epithelial cells, occupied central regions of hepatic tubules. Relatively elongated, ductular cells were intimately associated with surrounding hepatocytes, separated from them by only a thin extracellular space devoid of a basal lamina. Epithelium of bile ducts included cuboidal through mucus-laden columnar cells, surrounded by basal lamina and, in larger ducts, by fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and a capillary plexus. Bile ducts and hepatic arterioles, but not venules, were distributed together. The ultrastructure of biliary epithelium, periductular, and periductal cells is presented. PMID:2970812

Hampton, J A; Lantz, R C; Goldblatt, P J; Lauren, D J; Hinton, D E

1988-06-01

146

Percutaneous trans-hepatic bilateral biliary stenting in Bismuth IV malignant obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the clinical efficiency of percutaneous trans-hepatic bilateral biliary metallic stenting for the management of Bismuth IV malignant obstructive disease. METHODS: Our hospital’s database was searched for all patients suffering from the inoperable malignant biliary obstruction Bismuth IV, and treated with percutaneous bilateral trans-hepatic placement of self-expandable nitinol stents. The indication for percutaneous stenting was an inoperable, malignant, symptomatic, biliary obstruction. An un-correctable coagulation disorder was the only absolute contra-indication for treatment. Bismuth grading was performed using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Computed tomography evaluation of the lesion and the dilatation status of the biliary tree was always performed prior to the procedure. All procedures were performed under conscious sedation. A single trans-hepatic track technique was preferred (T-configuration stenting) and a second, contra-lateral trans-hepatic track (Y-configuration stenting) was used only in cases of inability to access the contra-lateral lobe using a single track technique. The study’s primary endpoints were clinical success, defined as a decrease in bilirubin levels within 10 d and patient survival rates. Secondary endpoints included peri-procedural complications, primary and secondary patency rates. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (18 female, 51.4%) with a mean age 69 ± 13 years (range 33-88) were included in the study. The procedures were performed between March 2000 and June 2008 and mean time follow-up was 13.5 ± 22.0 mo (range 0-96). The underlying malignant disease was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 9), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 5), gastric cancer (n = 2), bile duct tumor (n = 2), colorectal cancer (n = 2), gallbladder carcinoma (n = 2), lung cancer (n = 1), breast cancer (n = 1) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). In all cases, various self-expandable bare metal stents with diameters ranging from 7 to 10 mm were used. Stents were placed in Y-configuration in 24/35 cases (68.6%) using two stents in 12/24 patients and three stents in 12/24 cases (50%). A T-configuration stent placement was performed in 11/35 patients (31.4%), using two stents in 4/11 cases (36.4%) and three stents in 7/11 cases (63.6%). Follow-up was available in all patients (35/35). Patient survival ranged from 0 to 1763 d and the mean survival time was 168 d. Clinical success rate was 77.1% (27/35 cases), and peri-procedural mortality rate was 5.7% (2/35 patients). Biliary re-obstruction due to stent occlusion occurred in 25.7% of the cases (9/35 patients), while in 7/11 (63.6%) one additional percutaneous re-intervention due to stent occlusion resulting in clinical relapse of symptomatology was successfully performed. In the remaining 4/11 patients (36.4%) more than 1 additional reintervention was performed. The median decrease of total serum bilirubin was 60.5% and occurred in 81.8% of the cases (27/33 patients). The median primary and secondary patency was 105 (range 0-719) and 181 d (range 5-1763), respectively. According to the Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, the estimated survival rate was 73.5%, 47.1% and 26.1% at 1, 6 and 12 mo respectively, while the 8-year survival rate was 4.9%. Major and minor complication rates were 5.7% (2/35 patients) and 17.1% (6/35 patients), respectively. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous bilateral biliary stenting is a safe and clinically effective palliative approach in patients suffering from Bismuth IV malignant obstruction. PMID:23556043

Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Katsakiori, Paraskevi; Romanos, Odissefs; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Siablis, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

147

Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula  

SciTech Connect

A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech [University of Michigan Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: cwikiel@med.umich.edu

2006-12-15

148

Use of Amplatzer Vascular Plug to Treat a Biliary Cutaneous Fistula  

PubMed Central

Several substances have been used in an attempt to sclerose biliary ducts associated with persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula (BCF). The AMPLATZER Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, USA) system is a recently developed endovascular occlusion device, introduced as an alternative to permanent embolic materials (metallic coils or acrylic glue), in the occlusion of large and medium-calibre arteries and veins. We report a successful use of the AVP to embolize BCF, developed after the removal of an internal-external biliary drainage. PMID:24043976

Ierardi, Anna Maria; Fontana, Federico; Mangini, Monica; Piacentino, Filippo; Cocozza, Eugenio; Frankowska, Emila; Floridi, Chiara

2013-01-01

149

Prospective observational multicenter study to define a diagnostic algorithm for biliary candidiasis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop an algorithm to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with biliary candidiasis. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 127 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, for various biliary disorders, at 3 tertiary referral centers in Germany from July 2011 through July 2012 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01109550). Bile, buccal, and stool samples were collected. When indicated, endoscopic transpapillary bile duct biopsies were performed to clarify the etiology of bile duct strictures and to prove invasive fungal infections. RESULTS: Candida species were detected in 38 of the 127 bile samples (29.9%). By multivariate analysis patients’ age and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy were independent risk factors for biliary candidiasis (P < 0.05). Patients with immunosuppression (P = 0.058) and recent long-term antibiotic therapy (> 7 d) (P = 0.089) tend to be at risk for biliary candidiasis. One patient was negative in mycological culture of bile fluid but invasive biliary candidiasis was diagnosed histologically. Of Candida subspecies detected, 36.7% were azole-resistant, such as C glabrata. Eight patients received anti-mycotic therapy, based on our algorithm. Of these, 3 had cancer with biliary tract involvement, 2 had secondary sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had retroperitoneal fibrosis, and 5 had septicemia. In all patients contamination was ruled out by smears of the endoscope channel. CONCLUSION: Gastroenterologists should be aware of frequent candida colonization in patients with cholangitis and biliary disorders. Our suggested algorithm facilitates the further clinical management.

Lenz, Philipp; Eckelskemper, Franziska; Erichsen, Thomas; Lankisch, Tim; Dechene, Alexander; Lubritz, Gabriele; Lenze, Frank; Beyna, Torsten; Ullerich, Hansjorg; Schmedt, Andre; Domagk, Dirk

2014-01-01

150

Ultrasonographic findings of type IIIa biliary atresia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe the ultrasonographic (US) findings of type IIIa biliary atresia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a medical database of patients pathologically confirmed to have biliary atresia, Kasai type IIIa, between January 2002 and May 2013 (n=18). We evaluated US findings including the visible common bile duct (CBD), triangular cord thickness, gallbladder size and shape, and subcapsular flow on color Doppler US; laboratory data; and pathological hepatic fibrosis grades. We divided them into two groups-those with visible (group A) and invisible (group B) CBD on US-and compared all parameters between the two groups. Results: CBD was visible on US in five cases (27.8%; group A) and invisible in 13 cases (72.2%; group B). US was performed at an earlier age in group A than in group B (median, 27 days vs. 60 days; P=0.027) with the maximal age of 51 days. A comparison of the US findings revealed that the triangular cord thickness was smaller (4.1 mm vs. 4.9 mm; P=0.004) and the gallbladder length was larger (20.0 mm vs. 11.7 mm; P=0.021) in group A. The gallbladder shape did not differ between the two groups, and the subcapsular flow was positive in all cases of both groups. There was no significant difference in the laboratory data between the two groups. Upon pathological analysis, group A showed low-grade and group B showed low- to high-grade hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: When CBD is visible on US in patients diagnosed with type IIIa biliary atresia, other US features could have a false negative status. A subcapsular flow on the color Doppler US would be noted in the type IIIa biliary atresia patients. PMID:25036753

2014-01-01

151

Percutaneous Transhepatic Cutting Balloon Papillotomy for Removal of Common Bile Duct Stones  

SciTech Connect

We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with jaundice secondary to recurrent adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and several common bile duct stones. Percutaneous papillary dilatation was planned to remove the common bile duct stones. Papilla was dilated through the percutaneous approach with an 8-mm peripheral cutting balloon instead of a standard balloon. All the stones were pushed successfully into the duodenum with a saline flush. No complications were encountered. Use of a peripheral cutting balloon for dilatation of the papilla seems to be safe and effective because it has the advantage of controlled incision and dilatation of the target at low pressures.

Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Ozkan, Ugur; Gumus, Burcak [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2009-09-15

152

Outcomes in biliary malignancy.  

PubMed

The biliary malignancies that are reviewed here are gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC), and perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). The focus is on outcomes after potentially curative resection of biliary malignancies. Key outcomes are postoperative mortality, median and 5-year overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival, and recurrence patterns. Poor prognostic factors for recurrence and survival as well as prognostic models are also discussed. The incidence of biliary malignancies in the United States is about 5 in 100,000. Postoperative mortality for resection of GBC and IHC is similar to that of liver resections for other indications. However, 90 day postoperative mortality after liver resection for PHC is about 10%. For GBC, median OS depends strongly on the T-stage and ranges from 8 months (pT3) to 79 months (pT1b). Median OS after resection for IHC is about 30 months, and for PHC about 38 months. The majority of patients with biliary malignancies develop a recurrence after resection. Patients with GBC recur early with a median time to recurrence of 12 months, versus about 20 months for IHC and PHC. In patients with resected IHC or PHC locoregional recurrence was the only site of recurrence in about 60% of patients, versus 15% in patients with GBC. Poor prognostic factors after resection of all biliary malignancies include the presence of lymph node metastasis, a positive surgical resection margin, and moderate or poor tumor differentiation. Several prognostic nomograms have been developed to predict long-term outcomes of biliary cancer resection. J. Surg. Oncol. 2014 110:585-591. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25250887

Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Fong, Yuman

2014-10-01

153

Lithospheric Dilation on Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithospheric dilation on Europa has occurred at ridges, bands, and various hybrid lineaments on a global scale over a large part of the geological age of the surface. Dilational ridges (Class 2 in the R. Greenberg et al. (1998, Icarus135, 64–78) taxonomy) are elevated, are usually a few kilometers across, and may have a lineated or hummocky interior and a

B. Randall Tufts; Richard Greenberg; Gregory Hoppa; Paul Geissler

2000-01-01

154

Surgical Management of Bile Duct Injuries Sustained During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: A single institution retrospective analysis of 200 patients with major bile duct injuries was completed. Three patients died without surgery due to uncontrolled sepsis. One hundred seventy-five patients underwent surgical repair, with a 1.7% postoperative mortality and a complication rate of 42.9%. Summary Background Data: The widespread application of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has led to a rise in the incidence of major bile duct injuries (BDI). Despite the frequency of these injuries and their complex management, the published literature contains few substantial reports regarding the perioperative management of BDI. Methods: From January 1990 to April 2003, a prospective database of all patients with a BDI following LC was maintained. Patients’ charts were retrospectively reviewed to analyze perioperative surgical management. Results: Over 13 years, 200 patients were treated for a major BDI following LC. Patient demographics were notable for 150 women (75%) with a mean age of 45.5 years (median 44 years). One hundred eighty-eight sustained their BDI at an outside hospital. The mean interval from the time of BDI to referral was 29.1 weeks (median 3 weeks). One hundred nine patients (58%) were referred within 1 month of their injury for acute complications including bile leak, biloma, or jaundice. Twenty-five patients did not undergo a surgical repair at our institution. Three patients (1.5%) died after delayed referral before an attempt at repair due to uncontrolled sepsis. Twenty-two patients, having intact biliary-enteric continuity, underwent successful balloon dilatation of an anastomotic stricture. A total of 175 patients underwent definitive biliary reconstruction, including 172 hepaticojejunostomies (98%) and 3 end-to-end repairs. There were 3 deaths in the postoperative period (1.7%). Seventy-five patients (42.9%) sustained at least 1 postoperative complication. The most common complications were wound infection (8%), cholangitis (5.7%), and intraabdominal abscess/biloma (2.9%). Minor biliary stent complications occurred in 5.7% of patients. Early postoperative cholangiography revealed an anastomotic leak in 4.6% of patients and extravasation at the liver dome-stent exit site in 10.3% of patients. Postoperative interventions included percutaneous abscess drainage in 9 patients (5.1%) and new percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and stent placement in 4 patients (2.3%). No patient required reoperation in the postoperative period. The mean postoperative length of stay was 9.5 days (median 9 days). The timing of operation (early, intermediate, delayed), presenting symptoms, and history of prior repair did not affect the incidence of the most common perioperative complications or length of postoperative hospital stay. Conclusions: This series represents the largest single institution experience reporting the perioperative management of BDI following LC. Although perioperative complications are frequent, nearly all can be managed nonoperatively. Early referral to a tertiary care center with experienced hepatobiliary surgeons and skilled interventional radiologists would appear to be necessary to assure optimal results. PMID:15849514

Sicklick, Jason K.; Camp, Melissa S.; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Yeo, Charles J.; Campbell, Kurtis A.; Talamini, Mark A.; Pitt, Henry A.; Coleman, JoAnn; Sauter, Patricia A.; Cameron, John L.

2005-01-01

155

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications.  

PubMed

Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging investigation for biliary diseases. However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases. The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has reached the field of bile duct disease in recent years and promising results have been achieved. In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for CEUS in the biliary system are summarized. CEUS may be indicated in the biliary system under the following circumstances: (1) Where there is a need to make a characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); (2) For differentiation diagnosis between ICC and other tumors (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastasis) or infectious diseases; (3) For differentiation diagnosis between biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma; (4) To detect malignant change in Caroli's disease; (5) To depict the extent of Klatskin's tumor with greater clarity; (6) To make a distinction between gallbladder cholesterol polyp, adenoma and polypoid cancer; (7) To make a distinction between chronic cholecystitis with thickened wall and gallbladder cancer; (8) For differentiation diagnosis between motionless sludge and gallbladder cancer; (9) For differentiation diagnosis between common bile duct cancer and sludge or stone without acoustic shadowing; and (10) In patients who are suspected of having a drop of their percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage tube, US contrast agent can be administered to through the tube detect the site of the tube. PMID:21160719

Xu, Hui-Xiong

2009-12-31

156

Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction  

SciTech Connect

/sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

Taylor, A. Jr. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Diego); Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

1982-07-01

157

Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction  

SciTech Connect

/sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

1982-07-01

158

Is there a serological difference between men and women with primary biliary cirrhosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease affecting small intrahepatic bile ducts of the liver, causing destruction of the epithelium that results in eventual fibrosis and scarring. We still lack a complete epidemiological description of this disease, although interesting geographic differences in prevalence have been described. One consistent feature has been the relative scarcity of men with PBC. In

Greg Nalbandian B. A; Judy Van de Water; Robert Gish; Michael Manns; Ross L. Coppel; Steve M. Rudich; Thomas Prindiville; M. Eric Gershwin

1999-01-01

159

Jaundice in non-cirrhotic primary biliary cirrhosis: the premature ductopenic variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical and pathological findings of four females with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with an unusual and hitherto not well recognised course are reported. Patients suffered severe pruritus and weight loss with progressive icteric cholestasis which did not respond to such treatments as ursodeoxycholic acid and immunosuppressives. In all cases liver histology revealed marked bile duct loss without however significant

F. P. Vleggaar; H R van Buuren; P. E. Zondervan; F J W ten Kate; W. C. J. Hop

2001-01-01

160

Mouse strain differences in susceptibility to sporidesmin-induced biliary tract injury.  

PubMed

Biliary tract injury was examined in four inbred strains of mice orally dosed with 500 micrograms of the fungal toxin sporidesmin. Semiquantitative histological analysis was used to assess the grade of necroinflammatory changes in the gall bladder, intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree and lobular parenchyma. Injury was greatest in the C57BL/6 and C3H strain mice and was least in SJL/J mice. In these strains injury was greatest at 4 days and had regressed by 10 days. In BALB/c mice the damage, although similar to that in SJL/J mice at 4 days, persisted at the same severity at day 10 and was accompanied by periductal fibrosis and occasionally by obliteration of ducts typical of sclerosing cholangitis. Analysis of the time-course of development of the lesions in C57BL/6 mice showed that the primary target for the toxin is the biliary epithelium. The severity of the lesions within the liver increased centripetally and the worst affected ducts were found at the confluence of the lobar ducts with the common bile duct. The variation in the degree of damage and rate of healing between strains may be due to differences in sporidesmin excretion in bile or interactions with biliary epithelial cells and/or efficacy of protective cellular repair mechanisms. PMID:2215091

Bhathal, P S; Jordan, T W; Mackay, I R

1990-08-01

161

Primary Malt Lymphoma of the Common Bile Duct  

PubMed Central

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma arising in the common bile duct (CBD) is extremely rare. In our case of MALT lymphoma, CT and MRI showed long, segmental, irregular wall thickening of the CBD and minimal dilatation of the upstream bile duct. A preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma was made, but histologic evaluation confirmed MALT lymphoma of the CBD. We herein present a rare case of MALT lymphoma of the CBD with CT and MRI findings. PMID:24043969

Cho, Young Hoon; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

2013-01-01

162

Clinicopathological subclassification of biliary cystic tumors: Report of 4 cases with a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary Biliary cystic tumors are rare hepatic neoplasms, and knowledge regarding the origin and pathology of these tumors remains vague. They should be analyzed in more detail. In our institution, 4 biliary cystic tumor surgeries were performed between December 1999 and March 2010. Pathological evaluation of resected specimens was performed to evaluate the characteristics of the intracystic epithelium and to determine the presence or absence of interstitial infiltrate, ovarian mesenchymal stroma (OMS), luminal communication between the cystic tumor and the bile duct, and mucin (MUC) protein expression. We evaluated the following 4 cases: case 1, a 21-year-old woman with a biliary cystadenoma who underwent extended right hepatectomy; case 2, a 39-year-old woman with a biliary cystadenoma who underwent left hepatectomy; case 3, an 80-year-old man with a biliary cystadenoma who underwent left hepatectomy; and case 4, a 61-year-old man with a biliary cystadenocarcinoma revealing papillary proliferation of atypical epithelium and interstitial infiltrates who underwent left hepatectomy. Case 3 had papillary proliferation of the intracystic atypical epithelium but showed interstitial infiltrates. Luminal communication with the bile duct, centrally or peripherally, was found in all 4 cases. Only case 2 showed OMS. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the following findings: cases 1 and 2, MUC1?/MUC2?; case 3, MUC1+/MUC2?; and case 4, MUC1+/MUC2+. It is important to gather information on more cases of biliary cystic tumors because atypical cases were observed, where both OMS and luminal communication with the bile duct were present or absent. PMID:25343105

Yamashita, Suguru; Tanaka, Nobutaka; Takahashi, Michiro; Hata, Shojiro; Nomura, Yukihiro; Ooe, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshio

2013-01-01

163

Cholangiocyte anion exchange and biliary bicarbonate excretion  

PubMed Central

Primary canalicular bile undergoes a process of fluidization and alkalinization along the biliary tract that is influenced by several factors including hormones, innervation/neuropeptides, and biliary constituents. The excretion of bicarbonate at both the canaliculi and the bile ducts is an important contributor to the generation of the so-called bile-salt independent flow. Bicarbonate is secreted from hepatocytes and cholangiocytes through parallel mechanisms which involve chloride efflux through activation of Cl- channels, and further bicarbonate secretion via AE2/SLC4A2-mediated Cl-/HCO3- exchange. Glucagon and secretin are two relevant hormones which seem to act very similarly in their target cells (hepatocytes for the former and cholangiocytes for the latter). These hormones interact with their specific G protein-coupled receptors, causing increases in intracellular levels of cAMP and activation of cAMP-dependent Cl- and HCO3- secretory mechanisms. Both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes appear to have cAMP-responsive intracellular vesicles in which AE2/SLC4A2 colocalizes with cell specific Cl- channels (CFTR in cholangiocytes and not yet determined in hepatocytes) and aquaporins (AQP8 in hepatocytes and AQP1 in cholangiocytes). cAMP-induced coordinated trafficking of these vesicles to either canalicular or cholangiocyte lumenal membranes and further exocytosis results in increased osmotic forces and passive movement of water with net bicarbonate-rich hydrocholeresis. PMID:16773707

Banales, Jesús M; Prieto, Jesús; Medina, Juan F

2006-01-01

164

Should preoperative biliary drainage be routinely performed for obstructive jaundice with resectable tumor?  

PubMed Central

Obstructive jaundice is a common clinical manifestation of malignant lesions adjacent to extrahepatic bile duct, ampulla or pancreatic head. Animal experiments and some clinical observations have demonstrated that preoperative biliary drainage could improve liver function as well as reduce endotoxemia, thereby reducing the incidence of perioperative complications. However, a number of randomized, controlled studies have found that preoperative biliary drainage failed to improve prognosis or reduce the incidence of perioperative complications; in contrast, it might increase the incidence of complications and cause extra financial burden on patients. Thus, whether preoperative biliary drainage should be performed or not is controversial. Since clinical randomized controlled studies are more relevant in clinical setting, we believe that preoperative biliary drainage should not be routinely performed for obstructive jaundice with resectable tumors. More randomized, controlled, prospective studies should be conducted for further exploration. PMID:24570957

Wang, Chu; Xu, Yiyao

2013-01-01

165

Spontaneous Choledochoduodenal Fistula after Metallic Biliary Stent Placement in a Patient with Ampulla of Vater Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Biliary stent-related enteric perforations are very rare complications that are caused by the sharp end of a metallic stent, stent migration, or tumor invasion. Moreover, the choledochoduodenal fistula resulting from metallic biliary stent-induced perforation is extremely rare. Here, we report a case in which a spontaneous choledochoduodenal fistula occurred after biliary metallic stent placement in a patient with an Ampulla of Vater carcinoma but was successfully managed by supportive treatments, including nasobiliary drainage. This case might have occurred as the result of a rupture of the bile duct following pressure necrosis and inflammation caused by impacted calculi and food materials over the tumor ingrowth in the uncovered biliary stent. PMID:20431778

Lee, Tae Hoon; Kim, Sang Pil; Lee, Sae Hwan; Lee, Chang-Kyun; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Sun-Joo

2009-01-01

166

Future developments in biliary stenting  

PubMed Central

Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting. PMID:23837001

Hair, Clark D; Sejpal, Divyesh V

2013-01-01

167

Biliary Atresia Is Associated with CD4+ Th1 Cell-Mediated Portal Tract Inflammation  

PubMed Central

A proposed mechanism in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia involves an initial virus-induced, progressive T cell–mediated inflammatory obliteration of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to characterize the inflammatory environment present within the liver of infants with biliary atresia to gain insight into the role of a primary immune-mediated process versus a nonspecific secondary response to biliary obstruction. Frozen liver tissue obtained from patients with biliary atresia, neonatal giant cell hepatitis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN)–related cholestasis, choledochal cysts, and normal control subjects was used for fluorescent immunohistochemistry studies of cellular infiltrates, cytokine mRNA expression, and in situ hybridization for localization of cytokine-producing cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed increases in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and Kupffer cells (CD68+) in the portal tracts of biliary atresia. Reverse transcription–PCR analysis of biliary atresia tissue showed a Th1-type cytokine profile with expression of IL-2, interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-12. This profile was not seen in normal, neonatal hepatitis or choledochal cyst livers but was present in TPN-related cholestasis. In situ hybridization revealed that the Th1 cytokine–producing cells were located in the portal tracts in biliary atresia and in the parenchyma of TPN-related cholestasis. A distinctive portal tract inflammatory environment is present in biliary atresia, involving CD4+ Th1 cell–mediated immunity. The absence of similar inflammation in other pediatric cholestatic conditions suggests that the portal tract inflammation in biliary atresia is not a secondary response to cholestasis but rather indicates a specific immune response involved in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia. PMID:15128911

MACK, CARA L.; TUCKER, REBECCA M.; SOKOL, RONALD J.; KARRER, FREDERICK M.; KOTZIN, BRIAN L.; WHITINGTON, PETER F.; MILLER, STEPHEN D.

2007-01-01

168

Primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an immune-mediated chronic cholestatic liver disease with a slowly progressive course.\\u000a Without treatment, most patients eventually develop fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver and may need liver transplantation\\u000a in the late stage of disease. PBC primarily affects women (female preponderance 9–10:1) with a prevalence of up to 1 in 1,000\\u000a women over 40 years of age.

Simon Hohenester; Ronald P. J. Oude-Elferink; Ulrich Beuers

2009-01-01

169

Primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an immune-mediated chronic cholestatic liver disease with a slowly progressive course. Without treatment, most patients eventually develop fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver and may need liver transplantation in the late stage of disease. PBC primarily affects women (female preponderance 9-10:1) with a prevalence of up to 1 in 1,000 women over 40 years of

S. Hohenester; R. P. J. Oude-Elferink; U. Beuers

2009-01-01

170

[Shape-memory nitinol alloy endoprosthesis for malignant biliary strictures].  

PubMed

A new design of endoprosthesis, made of shape-memory nitinol alloy, was used to replace the currently used one, which was soon clogged with bile mud. After nitinol wire coil stent was slenderized in ice water, it was inserted into the strictured bile duct by endoscopy or operation. When nitinol wire coil was positioned in a narrowed biliary segment, normal saline heated to 39 degrees C was rapidly hand-injected into the lumen of the inner transport catheter to make the alloy coil to resume its original shape with a length of 3 to 10cm, and a diameter of 5 to 10mm. Since June 1991, 13 patients with malignant biliary strictures were treated with nitinol endoprosthesis. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 16 months (average 6 months). Biliary sludge was not found in the endoprosthesis during the period. The results suggested that shape-memory nitinol alloy endoprosthesis could maintain long term patency without severe infection or obstruction due to biliary sludge. PMID:8112151

Gu, W Q

1993-05-01

171

Improved biliary detection and diagnosis through intelligent machine analysis.  

PubMed

This paper reports on work undertaken to improve automated detection of bile ducts in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images, with the objective of conducting preliminary classification of the images for diagnosis. The proposed I-BDeDIMA (Improved Biliary Detection and Diagnosis through Intelligent Machine Analysis) scheme is a multi-stage framework consisting of successive phases of image normalization, denoising, structure identification, object labeling, feature selection and disease classification. A combination of multiresolution wavelet, dynamic intensity thresholding, segment-based region growing, region elimination, statistical analysis and neural networks, is used in this framework to achieve good structure detection and preliminary diagnosis. Tests conducted on over 200 clinical images with known diagnosis have shown promising results of over 90% accuracy. The scheme outperforms related work in the literature, making it a viable framework for computer-aided diagnosis of biliary diseases. PMID:21194781

Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

2012-09-01

172

[Genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy].  

PubMed

Dilated cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of heart failure and a primary cause for heart transplantation in patients below the age of 40 years. Despite major advances in diagnostic procedures such as examination of myocardial biopsies, the etiology remains unknown in many patients. Chronic inflammation or myocarditis and chronic alcohol abuse are considered two main etiologic factors in dilated cardiomyopathy. A third causal factor, namely genetic transmission of the disease, is at least as common as myocardial inflammation or toxic damage. Several prospective studies of relatives of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy proved that about 25-30% of all cases are of familial etiology. The most common mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant. Less frequently is the disease inherited as an X-chromosomal trait. Autosomal recessive and mitochondrial transmission is rare. The penetrance is highly variable and age dependent. Many relatives of patients with DCM show only minor cardiac abnormalities and it is unknown whether they progress to full cardiomyopathy in later life. Examination of families has identified so far eight disease genes, namely the dystrophin, tafazzin, cardiac actin, desmin, lamin A/C, delta- sarcoglycan, cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain, and cardiac troponin T gene. Certain mutations in lamin A/C cause conduction system disease and dilated cardiomyopathy, whereas other mutations cause in addition skeletal muscle myopathy. Dystrophin mutations are the cause of the rare X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy without skeletal muscle involvement and a progressive course in young men. Other mutations in the dystrophin gene, mainly deletions, are the cause of the muscular dystrophy Becker and Duchenne which also present with dilated cardiomyopathy. Mutations of the desmin, delta-sarcoglycan, the cardiac actin and beta-myosin heavy chain as well as the troponin T gene are known to cause autosomal dominant-dilated cardiomyopathy without other abnormalities. The infantile X-linked DCM is caused by mutations of the tafazzin gene. The onset of the disease is typically within the first year of life and death occurs usually in childhood. Most patients may in addition be characterized by skeletal myopathy, short stature, neutropenia and abnormal mitochondria, also referred to as Barth syndrome. Knowledge of the DCM disease genes led to the new hypothesis that dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of the myocardial force generation or force transmission. Many more disease loci are known but the responsible disease genes are not yet identified. Better understanding of the expression and function of disease genes may eventually result in new diagnostic and therapeutic tools in order to improve the prognosis of this severe disorder. PMID:11515275

Osterziel, K J; Scheffold, T; Perrot, A; Dietz, R

2001-07-01

173

On Local Dilatation Invariance  

E-print Network

The relationship between local Weyl scaling invariant models and local dilatation invariant actions is critically scrutinized. While actions invariant under local Weyl scalings can be constructed in a straightforward manner, actions invariant under local dilatation transformations can only be achieved in a very restrictive case. The invariant couplings of matter fields to an Abelian vector field carrying a non-trivial scaling weight can be easily built, but an invariant Abelian vector kinetic term can only be realized when the local scale symmetry is spontaneously broken.

T. E. Clark; S. T. Love

2012-05-10

174

Continuous controllable balloon dilation: a novel approach for cervix dilation  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical dilation using mechanical dilators is associated with various complications, such as uterine perforation, cervical laceration, infections and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. To achieve safe and painless cervical dilation, we constructed a new medical device to achieve confident mechanical cervical dilation: a continuous controllable balloon dilator (CCBD). Methods Controlled pumping of incompressible fluid into the CCBD increases the pressure and outer diameter of the CCBD, continuously dilating the cervical canal. The reliability of the CCBD was confirmed in vitro (testing for consistency and endurance, with no detected risk for breakage) and in vivo. A multi-center clinical study was conducted,with 120 pregnant women randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group I,control group, no dilation;Group II,mechanical dilation, Hegar dilator (HeD); and Group III,CCBD. The tissue material for histological evaluation was obtained from the endocervical mucosa before and after dilation using the HeD or CCBD. Results The CCBD dilations were successful and had no complications in all 40 patients of Group III. The cervical tissue was markedly less damaged after CCBD dilation compared with HeD dilation (epithelium damage: 95% (HeD) vs. 45% (CCBD), P <0.001; basal membrane damage: 82.5% (HeD) vs. 27.5% (CCBD), P <0.001; stromal damage: 62.5% (HeD) vs. 37.5% (CCBD), P <0.01). Cervical hemorrhagia was observed in 90% of the patients after HeD dilation versus in 32.5% of the patients after CCBD dilation. Conclusions The CCBD should be used as a replacement for mechanical dilators to prevent uterine and cervical injury during cervical dilation. Trial registration ISRCTN54007498 PMID:23088906

2012-01-01

175

Mechanism of benign biliary stricture: A morphological and immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the mechanism of benign biliary stricture. METHODS: A model of trauma of bile duct was established in 28 dogs. The anastomosed tissues were resected and examined by light and electron microscopes on day 3, in wk 1, 3 and mo 3, 6 after operation. CD68, TGF-?1 and ?-SMA were examined by immunohistochemical staining, respectively. RESULTS: The mucosal epithelium of the bile duct was slowly recovered, chronic inflammation lasted for a long time, fibroblasts proliferated actively, extracellular matrix was over-deposited. Myofibroblasts functioned actively and lasted through the whole process. The expression of macrophages in lamina propria under mucosa, TGF-?1 in granulation tissue, fibroblasts and endothelial cells of blood vessels, ?-SMA in myofiroblasts were rather strong from the 1st wk to the 6th mo after operation. CONCLUSION: The type of healing occurring in bile duct belongs to overhealing. Myofibroblasts are the main cause for scar contracture and stricture of bile duct. High expressions of CD68, TGF-?1 and ?-SMA are closely related to the active proliferation of fibroblasts, extracellular matrix over-deposition and scar contracture of bile duct. PMID:15633235

Geng, Zhi-Min; Yao, Ying-Min; Liu, Qing-Guang; Niu, Xin-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Gong

2005-01-01

176

Pancreatic bladder or double gallbladder draining into pancreatic duct?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We report a case of pancreatic bladder which could also be interpreted as double gallbladder draining into the pancreatic\\u000a duct. A 6-year-old Japanese boy underwent a cholecystectomy of the smaller bladder under the diagnosis of duplication of the\\u000a gallbladder, leaving the normal gallbladder and an unremarkable biliary ductal system. The smaller bladder was histologically\\u000a similar to the gallbladder tissue.

Toshimitsu Ishibashi; Hideo Nagai; Toshihiko Yasuda; Yoshikazu Yasuda; Kogoro Kasahara; Kyotaro Kanazawa

1999-01-01

177

Antifibrotic effect of silymarin in rat secondary biliary fibrosis is mediated by downregulation of procollagen ?1(I) and TIMP-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Silymarin reduces hepatic collagen accumulation by 35% in rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to explore its antifibrotic mechanism.Methods: Thirty female adult Wistar rats were allocated to (1) bile duct occlusion, (2) bile duct occlusion and oral silymarin at 50 mg\\/kg per day, and (3) sham operation and oral silymarin at 50 mg\\/kg

Ji-Dong Jia; Michael Bauer; Jae Jin Cho; Martin Ruehl; Stefano Milani; Gabriele Boigk; Ernst Otto Riecken; Detlef Schuppan

2001-01-01

178

Of cholescintigraphy, sonography, and great bears. A view on modern biliary imaging  

SciTech Connect

We review the discrepancies and the reasons for them, to conclude that clinical findings hold the key to selection of the proper imaging test in biliary obstruction. Cholescintigraphy is a more rewarding approach in detecting low grade obstruction, as by common duct stones, whereas in the patient with prolonged painless jaundice, and the high likelihood of a malignancy, computed tomography or ultrasound will yield the best results. Because of the potential for noninvasive imaging to miss choledocholithiasis and because of ever increasing therapeutic options, direct cholangiography will continue to be the mainstay in definition evaluation of the biliary tract. 12 references.

Burrell, M.I.; Zeman, R.K.

1988-04-01

179

Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function  

PubMed Central

Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

2013-01-01

180

Postoperative Bile Duct Strictures: Management and Outcome in the 1990s  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the management and outcome after surgical reconstruction of 156 patients with postoperative bile duct strictures managed in the 1990s. Summary Background Data The management of postoperative bile duct strictures and major bile duct injuries remains a challenge for even the most skilled biliary tract surgeon. The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the incidence of bile duct strictures and injuries from the introduction and widespread use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the management of these injuries and short-term outcome have been reported, long-term follow-up is limited. Methods Data were collected prospectively on 156 patients treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with major bile duct injuries or postoperative bile duct strictures between January 1990 and December 1999. With the exception of bile duct injuries discovered and repaired during surgery, all patients underwent preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and placement of transhepatic biliary catheters before surgical repair. Follow-up was conducted by medical record review or telephone interview during January 2000. Results Of the 156 patients undergoing surgical reconstruction, 142 had completed treatment with a mean follow-up of 57.5 months. Two patients died of reasons unrelated to biliary tract disease before the completion of treatment. Twelve patients (7.9%) had not completed treatment and still had biliary stents in place at the time of this report. Of patients who had completed treatment, 90.8% were considered to have a successful outcome without the need for follow-up invasive, diagnos tic, or therapeutic interventional procedures. Patients with reconstruction after injury or stricture after laparoscopic cholecystectomy had a better overall outcome than patients whose postoperative stricture developed after other types of surgery. Presenting symptoms, number of stents, interval to referral, prior repair, and length of postoperative stenting were not significant predictors of outcome. Overall, a successful outcome, without the need for biliary stents, was obtained in 98% of patients, including those requiring a secondary procedure for recurrent stricture. Conclusions Major bile duct injuries and postoperative bile duct strictures remain a considerable surgical challenge. Management with preoperative cholangiography to delineate the anatomy and placement of percutaneous biliary catheters, followed by surgical reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, is associated with a successful outcome in up to 98% of patients. PMID:10973393

Lillemoe, Keith D.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Cameron, John L.; Pitt, Henry A.; Campbell, Kurtis A.; Talamini, Mark A.; Sauter, Patricia A.; Coleman, JoAnn; Yeo, Charles J.

2000-01-01

181

What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... función de Escuchar . What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ... seeing your best. What does a comprehensive dilated eye exam include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , ...

182

Sodium cholate dissolution of retained biliary stones: mortality rate following intrahepatic infusion.  

PubMed

The reported complication rate from T-tube infusion of sodium cholate for dissolution of retained biliary stones is low. Among 84 patients reported in the English-language literature, and 10 additional cases of our own, there have been no deaths, an incidence of liver enzyme elevation in 7%, fever in 5%, cholangitis in 2%, and pancreatitis in 2%. Recently, we have infused 100mM sodium cholate at 30 cc/hr into patients through transhepatic biliary stents in an effort to rid the intrahepatic biliary tree of retained stones and biliary sludge. Appropriate precautions were taken to prevent increased biliary pressures by the insetion of a 30 cm manometer into the perfusion system. During four transhepatic infusions in three patients, all experienced nausea and vomiting, and two of the three patients developed diarrhea and abdominal pain. Liver enzymes became elevated during all four infusions, and two of the three patients became septic and died shortly after their infusions. Experimental work in animals suggests that intrahepatic sodium cholate infusion results in injury to the ductal epithelium and predisposes patients to bactermia and sepsis. Even though T-tube infusion of sodium cholate into the common bile duct is well tolerated, direct infusion into the intrahepatic biliary tree through a transhepatic tube is not and carries a high risk of sepsis and death. PMID:432806

Pitt, H A; Cameron, J L

1979-04-01

183

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for the assessment of biliary strictures after pediatric liver transplantation.  

PubMed

HBS is used in the management of liver transplantation, a significant complication of which is biliary stricture. Strictures may be intraparenchymal within segments and main duct (non-anastomotic) or at the biliary-enteric anastomosis (anastomotic). Strictures are definitively diagnosed, and often managed, by PTC. This is invasive, technically challenging, and requires general anesthesia in young children. HBS may allow early detection of these complications and is non-invasive. The aim of this study was to review the scintigraphic pattern of biliary strictures using (99m)TcDISIDA HBS following pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation, and to assess its role in the diagnostic algorithm of suspected biliary strictures. All available hepatobiliary studies performed post-transplant in 101 episodes of liver transplantation in 92 pediatric patients were reviewed. Twenty-three (23%) patients had known biliary strictures. Twenty-two patients had adequate studies available for review; five had intrahepatic (non-anastomotic) strictures alone, nine had a stricture of the anastomosis alone, and eight had both intrahepatic and anastomotic strictures. HBS patterns (either segmental or global changes) correlated very highly with clinically significant biliary strictures. All patients with known strictures had abnormal HBS; hence, in patients with abnormal liver function tests post-liver transplant, a normal HBS makes strictures very unlikely. We propose that HBS can thus be used to determine if further investigation is required. PMID:19032415

Concannon, Rebecca C; Howman-Giles, Robert; Shun, Albert; Stormon, Michael O

2009-12-01

184

A randomized trial of endoscopic drainage methods for inoperable malignant strictures of the common bile duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although metallic stents remain patent longer than plastic stents, the optimal palliation of inoperable malignant biliary strictures remains controversial because of the high cost of metallic stents and short patient survival. Methods: A total of 101 patients (mean age 72.5 ± 12.9 years) with malignant strictures of the common bile duct were included in this study, after three exclusions for

Frederic Prat; Olivier Chapat; Beatrice Ducot; Thierry Ponchon; Gilles Pelletier; Jacques Fritsch; Andre Daniel Choury; Catherine Buffet

1998-01-01

185

Dilatant aqueous polymer solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dilatant aqueous solution of minor amounts of a high molecular weight polymer of ethylene oxide and petroleum sulfonate is useful in enhanced oil recovery. The polymer, having an average molecular weight of about 600,000 or greater, is employed with a concentration between about 0.02 and 1.5 percent by weight. A molecular weight in the range of about 400 to

Ahearn

1972-01-01

186

Bile Duct Injury During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether surgical residency training has influenced the occurrence of common bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and to asses the anatomic and technical details of bile duct injuries from the practices of surgeons trained in laparoscopic cholecystectomy after residency versus surgeons trained in laparoscopic cholecystectomy during residency. Summary Background Data Shortly after the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the rate of injury to the common bile duct increased to 0.5%, and injuries were more commonly reported early in each surgeon’s experience. It is not known whether learning laparoscopic cholecystectomy during surgery residency influences this pattern. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to 3,657 surgeons across the United States who completed an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved residency between 1980 and 1990 (group A) or 1992 and 1998 (group B). All surgeons in group A learned laparoscopic cholecystectomy after residency, and all those in group B learned laparoscopic cholecystectomy during residency. Information obtained included practice description, number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies completed since residency, postgraduate training in laparoscopy, and annual volume of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the surgeon’s hospital. In addition, technical details queried included the completion of a cholangiogram, the interval between injury and identification, the method of repair, and the site of definitive treatment. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a major bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (bile leaks without a major bile duct injury were not tabulated). Results Forty-five percent (n = 1,661) of the questionnaires were completed and returned. Mean practice experience was 13.6 years for group A and 5.4 years for group B. At least one injury occurrence was reported by 422 surgeons (37.6%) in group A and 143 surgeons (26.5%) in group B. Forty percent of the injuries in group A occurred during the first 50 cases compared with 22% in group B. Thirty percent of bile duct injuries in group A and 32.9% of all injuries in group B occurred after a surgeon had performed more than 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Independent of the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies completed since residency, group A surgeons were 39% more likely to report one or more biliary injuries and 58% more likely to report two or more injuries than their counterparts in group B. Bile duct injuries were more likely to be discovered during surgery if a cholangiogram was completed than if cholangiography was omitted (80.9% vs. 45.1%). Sixty-four percent of all major bile duct injuries required biliary reconstruction, and most injuries were definitively treated at the hospital where the injury occurred. Only 14.7% of injuries were referred to another center for repair. Conclusions Accepting that the survey bias underestimates the true frequency of bile duct injuries, residency training decreases the likelihood of injuring a bile duct, but only by decreasing the frequency of early “learning curve” injuries. If one accepts a liberal definition of the learning curve (200 cases), it appears that at least one third of injuries are not related to inexperience but may reflect fundamental errors in the technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as practiced by a broad population of surgeons in the United States. Intraoperative cholangiography is helpful for intraoperative discovery of injuries when they occur. Most injuries are repaired in the hospital where they occur and are not universally referred to tertiary care centers. PMID:11573048

Archer, Stephen B.; Brown, David W.; Smith, C. Daniel; Branum, Gene D.; Hunter, John G.

2001-01-01

187

Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Riva, Silvia [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Pediatric Hepatology (Italy); Spada, Marco [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy); Luca, Angelo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Gridelli, Bruno [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy)

2008-09-15

188

The Radiological Management of Biliary Complications Following Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Biliary complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in the liver transplant recipient. Surgery has been the mainstay of therapy, but interventional radiological techniques have made significant progress. Methods: Diagnostic percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed in 12 patients; percutaneous transhepatic drainage (PTD) was performed in 10 patients. Additional interventional procedures included laser lithotripsy, biopsy, dilatation, and stent implantation. Results: In 6 patients PTC revealed anastomotic, and in 6 patients nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Four patients had intrahepatic stones. Biliary strictures were treated by implantation of Palmaz stents in 5 of 6 patients with anastomotic strictures, and in 3 of 6 patients with nonanastomotic strictures. The intrahepatic stones were fragmented with dye laser lithotripsy under cholangioscopic control in 3 of 4 patients. One spontaneous stent migration after 24 months and one stent occlusion were observed; the remaining stents are still patent. Patients with anastomotic strictures had a more favorable outcome: 5 of 6 of these patients are still alive and symptom-free after an average of 27.4 months, but only 3 of 6 patients with nonanastomotic strictures are alive after an average of 9.8 months. Conclusion: The different outcomes in patients with anastomotic versus nonanastomotic strictures may be explained by the different causes of these types of stricture.

Rieber, Andrea; Brambs, Hans-Juergen [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm, Robert-Koch-Strasse 8, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Lauchart, Werner [Section of Transplantation Surgery, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

1996-04-15

189

[External biliary fistulas selectively managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with sphincterotomy and/or stent placement].  

PubMed

External bile duct fistulas are inherent postoperative complications that usually appear after biliary tract surgery, traumatic bile duct injuries and liver surgery for hepatic hydatid disease or liver transplant. The management is highly individualized, while the success and long-term results of endoscopic and surgical techniques are conflicting. The study included 32 cases with external bile duct fistulas managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with sphincterotomy and/or stent placement, including "rendez-vous" procedures in 2 cases. The causes of the external fistula were represented by cholecystectomy with/without retained common bile duct stones or strictures (22 cases), cholecystectomy and drainage of a subphrenic abscess caused by severe acute pancreatitis (1 case) and surgical interventions for hepatic hydatid disease (9 cases). Due to the prospective protocol of the study we were able to apply an individualized endoscopic treatment: sphincterotomy with proper relief of the bile duct obstruction (stone extraction) or sphincterotomy with large-size (10 Fr) stent placement for large-sized bile duct defects. The results consisted in closure of the fistula in 3.5 +/- 1.7 days for the subgroup of patients with sphincterotomy alone. Among the patients with stent insertion, fistulas healed slower in 14 +/- 3.5 days. There were no complications after endoscopic treatment; however the stent could not be passed in one patient that required subsequent surgery. In conclusion, endoscopic intervention is the treatment of choice for small external biliary fistulas complicating biliary tract surgery or liver surgery for hepatic hydatid disease. When the fistula is large, the placement of a 10 Fr endoprosthesis becomes necessary, while failure of endoscopic treatment leads to surgery with hepatico-jejunal anastomosis. PMID:16927917

S?ftoiu, A; Gheonea, D I; Surlin, V; Ciurea, M E; Georgescu, A; Andrei, E; Blendea, A; Georgescu, C C; Georgescu, I; Ciurea, T

2006-01-01

190

Intraluminal radiation therapy in the management of malignant biliary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction from carcinoma of the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas (Group I) or metastatic disease (Group II) were treated with intraluminal radiation therapy (ILRT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In 11 cases ILRT was used as a central boost in combination with 3000 cGy external beam radiation therapy (ERT). No significant treatment toxicity was observed. Cholangiographic response was observed in 2 of 12 evaluable patients. In no patient was long-term relief of jaundice without indwelling biliary stent achieved. Survival from treatment in eight Group I patients treated with ILRT +/- ERT was 3 to 13 months (median, 4.5). Survival in seven similarly treated Group II patients was 0.5 to 8 months (median, 4.0). Additional data for ten similar patients referred for ILRT but treated with ERT alone are presented. Analysis of this and other reports indicate the need for prospective controlled trials of the role of this regimen in the management of malignant biliary obstruction before wider application can be recommended.

Molt, P.; Hopfan, S.; Watson, R.C.; Botet, J.F.; Brennan, M.F.

1986-02-01

191

Comparison of thymidine phosphorylase expression and prognostic factors in gallbladder and bile duct cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Biliary tract cancers have limitations in information about different location-related pathogenesis and clinico-pathological characteristics. The goal of this study was to investigate anatomical site-related similarities and differences in biliary tract cancers and to assess the expression and clinical significance of functional proteins such as p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1. Methods One hundred and sixty-one patients with biliary tract adenocarcinomas, who underwent curative or palliative surgery in a single institution between October 1994 and December 2003 were evaluated, retrospectively. The level of protein expression of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results With respect to clinico-pathological characteristics, gallbladder cancer was more frequent in women, and bile duct cancer was more common in men. Perineural invasion was more common in bile duct cancer. Recurrence as a distant metastasis was more common in gallbladder cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that thymidine phosphorylase expression was significantly higher in gallbladder cancer than in bile duct cancer. Positive thymidine phosphorylase and p53 staining were associated with an advanced stage. Differentiation, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage independently predicted poor prognosis in biliary tract cancer. These correlations were seen more clearly in gallbladder cancer. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 showed no prognostic significance in biliary tract cancers. Conclusions We concluded that gallbladder and bile duct cancers are considered to be separate diseases with different clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors. In addition, we hypothesize that high expression of thymidine phosphorylase by gallbladder cancer results in a higher response rate to capecitabine by gallbladder cancer than bile duct cancer. PMID:20955617

2010-01-01

192

A simple method for long-term biliary access in large animals.  

PubMed

A simple method to obtain long-term access to the biliary tree in dogs and pigs is presented. In ten dogs and four pigs, a cholecystectomy was performed, the cystic duct isolated, and a catheter inserted into the cut end of the cystic duct. The catheter was connected to a subcutaneous infusion port, producing a closed, internal system to allow long-term access. The catheter placement was successful in three of the pigs and all of the dogs. Thirty-five cholangiograms were obtained in the 13 subjects by accessing the port with a 20 gauge Huber needle and injecting small amounts (4-10 mL) of contrast under fluoroscopic control. Cholangiograms were obtained up to four months after catheter placement without evidence for catheter failure or surgically induced changes in the biliary tree. This model provides a simple, reliable means to obtain serial cholangiograms in a research setting. PMID:3170141

Andrews, J C; Knutsen, C; Smith, P; Prieskorn, D; Crudip, J; Klevering, J; Ensminger, W D

1988-07-01

193

Tamoxifen decreases the myofibroblast count in the healing bile duct tissue of pigs  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral tamoxifen treatment on the number of myofibroblasts present during the healing process after experimental bile duct injury. METHODS: The sample consisted of 16 pigs that were divided into two groups (the control and study groups). Incisions and suturing of the bile ducts were performed in the two groups. Tamoxifen (20 mg/day) was administered only to the study group. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days. Quantification of myofibroblasts in the biliary ducts was made through immunohistochemistry analysis using anti-alpha smooth muscle actin of the smooth muscle antibody. Immunohistochemical quantification was performed using a digital image system. RESULTS: In the animals treated with tamoxifen (20 mg/day), there was a significant reduction in immunostaining for alpha smooth muscle actin compared with the control group (0.1155 vs. 0.2021, p?=?0.046). CONCLUSION: Tamoxifen reduced the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin in the healing tissue after bile duct injury, suggesting a decrease in myofibroblasts in the scarred area of the pig biliary tract. These data suggest that tamoxifen could be used in the prevention of biliary tract stenosis after bile duct surgeries. PMID:23420165

Siqueira, Orlando Hiroshi Kiono; Filho, Benedito Herani; de Paula, Rafael Erthal; Ascoli, Fabio Otero; da Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Carvalho, Angela Cristina Gouvea; Pires, Andrea Rodrigues Cordovil; Gaglionone, Nicolle Cavalcante; Cunha, Karin Soares Goncalves; Granjeiro, Jose Mauro

2013-01-01

194

Time Dilation Equation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. The article, which offers a simple demonstration of Einstein's Time Dilation Equation, is part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar. It uses the example of a light beam bouncing between two mirrors in a rocket to illustrate the theory, and includes a step-by-step look at the math involved in calculating the quantitative solution.

195

Sequential algorithm analysis to facilitate selective biliary access for difficult biliary cannulation in ERCP: a prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous clinical trials to improve the success rate of biliary access in difficult biliary cannulation (DBC) during ERCP have been reported. However, standard guidelines or sequential protocol analysis according to different methods are limited in place. We planned to investigate a sequential protocol to facilitate selective biliary access for DBC during ERCP. Methods This prospective clinical study enrolled 711 patients with naďve papillae at a tertiary referral center. If wire-guided cannulation was deemed to have failed due to the DBC criteria, then according to the cannulation algorithm early precut fistulotomy (EPF; cannulation time?>?5 min, papillary contacts?>?5 times, or hook-nose-shaped papilla), double-guidewire cannulation (DGC; unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation???3 times), and precut after placement of a pancreatic stent (PPS; if DGC was difficult or failed) were performed sequentially. The main outcome measurements were the technical success, procedure outcomes, and complications. Results Initially, a total of 140 (19.7%) patients with DBC underwent EPF (n?=?71) and DGC (n?=?69). Then, in DGC group 36 patients switched to PPS due to difficulty criteria. The successful biliary cannulation rate was 97.1% (136/140; 94.4% [67/71] with EPF, 47.8% [33/69] with DGC, and 100% [36/36] with PPS; P?duct cannulations, and PPS in failed or difficult DGC may facilitate successful biliary cannulation. PMID:24529239

2014-01-01

196

Erdosteine treatment attenuates oxidative stress and fibrosis in experimental biliary obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress, in particular lipid peroxidation, induces collagen synthesis and causes fibrosis. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess the antioxidant and antifibrotic effects of erdosteine on liver fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats.\\u000a Liver fibrosis was induced in Wistar albino rats by bile duct ligation (BDL). Erdosteine (10 mg\\/kg, orally) or saline was\\u000a administered for 28 days. Serum aspartate

Göksel ?ener; A. Ozer Sehirli; Hale Z. Toklu; Meral Yuksel; Feriha Ercan; Nursal Gedik

2007-01-01

197

Zonula Occludens-1, Occludin, and E-cadherin Protein Expression in Biliary Tract Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of cholangiocarcinomas originating from intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as of gallbladder\\u000a carcinoma is increasing worldwide. The malignant transformation of biliary epithelia involves profound alterations of proteins\\u000a in the intercellular junctions, among others zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin. Each plays important role\\u000a in the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity and regulation of cell growth and

Zsuzsanna Németh; Attila Marcell Szász; Áron Somorácz; Péter Tátrai; Júlia Németh; Hajnalka Gy?rffy; Attila Szíjártó; Péter Kupcsulik; András Kiss; Zsuzsa Schaff

2009-01-01

198

Fracture of Self-Expandable Metal Stent during Endoscopic Removal in Benign Biliary Stricture  

PubMed Central

The endoscopic insertion of the self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) in benign biliary stricture has become an alternative to surgery. Fracture or migration of SEMS can occur rarely as complications. We report a case of fracture of SEMS during endoscopic retrieval in patients with chronic pancreatitis. In this case, broken stent was successfully removed with endoscopic ballooning of bile duct and with a snare device. PMID:23423882

Joo, Kyu Re; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin Mo

2013-01-01

199

Hepatic fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats is prevented by Ginkgo biloba treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To assess the antioxidant and antifibrotic effects of long-term Ginkgo biloba administration on liver fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Wistar albino rats by bile duct ligation and scission (BDL). Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761, 50 mg\\/kg·per d) or saline was administered for 28 d. At the

Göksel Ţener; Levent Kabasakal; Meral Yüksel; Nursal Gedik; Ýnci Alican

2005-01-01

200

Ejaculatory duct obstruction.  

PubMed

Ejaculatory duct obstruction presents with infertility, pain, or hematospermia. Partial or functional forms of ejaculatory duct obstruction can be difficult to diagnose. Transrectal ultrasound has replaced formal vasography as the first-line diagnostic test but is not specific. Adjunctive procedures such as seminal vesicle aspiration, seminal vesiculography, and chromotubation further delineate the diagnosis. Using an evidence-based approach, this article reviews how best to approach the diagnosis and treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction. PMID:18423242

Smith, James F; Walsh, Thomas J; Turek, Paul J

2008-05-01

201

Hepaticocholecystoenterostomy as an alternative to hepaticojejunostomy for biliary bypass  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Hepaticojejunostomy is the standard biliary bypass technique for periampullary cancer when trial dissection reveals unresectable disease or endoscopic stent placement is not possible. This anastomosis can be technically demanding and potentially difficult. The simpler technique of hepaticocholecystoenterostomy (HCE) has only previously been reported in very limited numbers and without outcome data. METHODS All patients undergoing HCE for the management of periampullary cancer were identified from a prospectively maintained computerised database of a single surgeon and were reviewed retrospectively. The HCE technique achieves a biliary bypass by two anastomoses, using the gallbladder as a conduit. It involves an anastomosis of the infundibulum of the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct followed by a second anastomosis of the gallbladder fundus to the proximal small bowel. RESULTS From 1996 to 2010, 30 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma required a biliary bypass after a failed trial of Whipple procedure (80%) or failed endoscopic stenting (20%). There were 19 men and 11 women with a mean age of 64.5 years. The mean operative time for HCE alone was 92 minutes. The mean length of hospital stay was nine days. There was a single grade 2 complication (readmission with gastric emptying delay) and a single grade 3 complication (bile leak requiring reoperation). Thirty-day mortality was zero and the mean survival was 12 months (with one patient still alive at the time of writing). There were no readmissions with recurrent biliary obstruction or cholangitis. One patient had developed an incisional hernia by the 24 month follow-up appointment. CONCLUSIONS HCE in periampullary cancer is safe and effective in selected patients. It involves two simple anastomoses with good access rather than one more demanding anastomosis. Morbidity, patency and overall survival are comparable with contemporary published series of hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:23031763

Gani, J; Lewis, K

2012-01-01

202

Hepatic and Biliary Ascariasis  

PubMed Central

Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA) is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number. PMID:24926166

Das, Anup K

2014-01-01

203

Hepatic and biliary ascariasis.  

PubMed

Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA) is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number. PMID:24926166

Das, Anup K

2014-04-01

204

Percutaneous Cholangioscopy in the Management of Biliary Disease: Experience in 25 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present our experience performing percutaneous cholangioscopy in the management of 25 patients with biliary disease.Methods: During the last 3 years, 26 percutaneous cholangioscopies were performed in 25 patients with common bile duct disease (n = 16), intrahepatic ducts disease (n = 6), and gallbladder disease (n = 4). Our patient population group included seven with common bile duct stones, three with intrahepatic lithiasis, and eight with benign strictures (six iatrogenic and two postinflammatory). In four patients malignancy was to be excluded, in two the tumor extent was to be evaluated, whereas in one case the correct placement of a metallic stent needed to be controlled. A 9.9 Fr flexible endoscope URF-P (Olympus, 1.2 mm working channel, 70-cm length) was used.Results: In total, percutaneous cholangioscopy answered 30 diagnostic questions, was technically helpful in 19 cases (performing lithotripsy or biopsy or guiding a wire), and of therapeutic help in 12 (performing stone retrieval). In 24 of 26 cases the therapeutic decision and the patient management changed because of the findings or because of the help of the method. In two cases biliary intervention failed to treat the cause of the disease. No major complication due to the use of the endoscopy was noted.Conclusions: Percutaneous cholangioscopy is a very useful tool in the management of patients with biliary disease. The method can help in diagnosis, in performing complex interventional procedures, and in making or changing therapeutic decisions.

Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Alexandrakis, George; Kouroumalis, Helias; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C. [Department of Radiology and Gastroenterology Clinic, University Hospital Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, G-71500 Heraklion-Stavrakia, Crete (Greece)

2000-11-15

205

Partial response to laser-induced thermotherapy: incidence of biliary structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty VX2 tumors were grafted on 10 rabbit livers. The animals were randomized in two groups when tumor size reached 8 mm. Thermotherapy was performed by delivering the 830 nm output of a diode laser in the center of the tumor using a 300 micrometers fiber. Irradiation conditions were 1.5 W over 900 s. On day 7 or day 14 tumors were removed, stained using hematoxylin eosin and picrosirius red F3BA. Electronic microscopy examination was also preformed. Among the treated tumors, recurrences were found both at the periphery and within the tumors. All recurrences were located near biliary structures. The thermal damage was evaluated by the picrosirius red F3BA stain. Electronic microscopy indicated the thermal resistance of the biliary ducts in the vicinity of coagulative necrosis. The biliary ducts themselves or the vasculature surroundings the ducts lead to a heat sink, thus limiting the tissue temperature elevation. Thermal dosimetry as MRI using thermo sequences should be developed to insure efficient thermotherapy.

Prudhomme, Michel; Rouy, Simone; Tang, Jing; Godlewski, Guilhem; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Schoenenberger, Klaus; Rink, Klaus

1996-12-01

206

End-to-end ductal anastomosis in biliary reconstruction: indications and limitations  

PubMed Central

End-to-end ductal anastomosis is a physiologic biliary reconstruction that is commonly used in liver transplantation and less frequently in the surgical treatment of iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Currently, end-to-end ductal anastomosis is the biliary reconstruction of choice for liver transplantation in most adult patients. In recent years, it has also been performed for liver transplantation in children and in select patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The procedure is also performed in some patients with iatrogenic bile duct injuries, as it establishes physiologic bile flow. Proper digestion and absorption as well as postoperative endoscopic access are possible in patients who undergo end-to-end ductal anastomosis. It allows endoscopic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients following surgery. This anastomosis is technically simple and associated with fewer early postoperative complications than the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy; however, end-to-end ductal anastomosis is not possible to perform in all patients. This review discusses the indications for and limitations of this biliary reconstruction, the technique used in liver transplantation and surgical repair of injured bile ducts, suture types and use of a T-tube. PMID:25078933

Jablonska, Beata

2014-01-01

207

Advanced Duct Sealing Testing  

SciTech Connect

Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected weekly. The baking test specimens were visually inspected weekly, and the durability was judged by the observed deterioration in terms of brittleness, cracking, flaking and blistering (the terminology used in the UL 181B-FX test procedure).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2003-08-01

208

Duct Tape Durability Testing  

SciTech Connect

Duct leakage is a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums, or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections, a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that taped seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been testing sealant durability for several years using accelerated test methods and found that typical duct tape (i.e., cloth-backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) fails more rapidly than other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing over two years for four UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (two cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The tests involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars. Periodic air leakage tests and visual inspection were used to document changes in sealant performance. After two years of testing, the flex-to-collar connections showed little change in air leakage, but substantial visual degradation from some products. A surprising experimental result was failure of most of the clamps used to mechanically fasten the connections. This indicates that the durability of clamps also need to be addressed ensure longevity of the duct connection. An accelerated test method developed during this study has been used as the basis for an ASTM standard (E2342-03).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2004-04-01

209

Biliary complications after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a The incidence of biliary complications after liver transplant is estimated to be 8% to 20%. Post-liver transplant biliary\\u000a complications may lead to acute and chronic liver injury. The early recognition and prompt treatment of such complications\\u000a improves the long-term survival of the patient and graft.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a An understanding of the type of biliary reconstruction, the rationale for

Sanjay Jagannath; Anthony N. Kalloo

2002-01-01

210

Liver metastasis of rectal cancer with intraluminal growth in the extrahepatic bile duct.  

PubMed

Metastatic liver tumors are considered to have a tendency for expansive growth and rarely invade the bile duct. We recently encountered a resected case of liver metastasis from rectal cancer with intraluminal growth in the extrahepatic bile duct with a successful left trisegmentectomy of the liver. A 54-year-old woman underwent a posterior total pelvic exenteration for advanced rectal cancer. Ultrasonography and computed tomography four months after the first operation demonstrated a solitary occupied lesion in the liver with dilation of the left hepatic duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography disclosed a filling defect in the intra- to extrahepatic bile duct. Liver metastasis from rectal cancer with intraluminal growth in the bile duct was suspected despite a consideration of primary bile duct cancer. A left trisegmentectomy of the liver and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct with a right hepatojejunostomy were performed. The tumor had invaded the intrahepatic bile duct and had developed intraluminally in the extrahepatic bile duct. Tumor thrombi were microscopically found in the bile duct of the left caudal lobe. Liver metastasis arising from colorectal cancer with intraluminal growth in the bile duct is rare, however we encountered such a case with a successful resection involving a left trisegmentectomy of the liver. PMID:14571800

Tomizawa, Naoki; Ohwada, Susumu; Tanahashi, Yoshifumi; Ikeya, Toshiro; Ito, Hideaki; Takeyoshi, Izumi; Morishita, Yasuo

2003-01-01

211

Ducted auroral kilometric radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain discrete, intense wave signals attributed to auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) were observed with ISEE-l while it was within the plasmaspheric shadow zone for direct propagation. It is believed that wave ducting by thin depletions of the plasma density aligned with the magnetic field accounts for such signals, and that their discrete nature is caused by the satellite intercepting individual ducts. These ducts, which were also observed as coincident decreases of the upper hybrid resonance frequency, appeared to be twenty-percent depletions roughly one hundred kilometers across. The AKR, which is emitted approximately perpendicular to the magnetic field, apparently entered these ducts equatorward of the source after the waves had been refracted parallel to the duct axis. A diffuse background was also observed which is consistent with the leakage from similar ducts at lower L-values. These observations establish the existence of ducted AKR, its signature on the satellite wave spectrograms, and new evidence for depletion ducts within the plasmasphere.

Calvert, W.

1982-01-01

212

Acute pancreatitis: pancreas divisum with ventral duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.  

PubMed

Acute recurrent pancreatitis occurs rarely in individuals with pancreas divisum. A 39-year-old woman with no significant history presented with pancreatitis. CT scan and MRI suggested acute on chronic pancreatitis with calcifications and pancreatic divisum. An endoscopic ultrasound demonstrated complete pancreas divisum. A large calcification measuring 12?mm × 6?mm was seen in the head of the pancreas with associated dilation of the ventral pancreatic duct. Fine-needle aspiration of the dilated ventral pancreatic duct showed an amylase level of 36?923?U/L and a carcinoembryonic antigen of 194. A ventral duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm was suspected and a pancreaticoduodenectomy procedure was recommended. After the procedure, pathology demonstrated an intraductal papillary lesion in the main duct with moderate dysplasia. A pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 2 was also present. Margins of resection were clear. This case represents the importance of assessing for secondary causes of pancreatitis in pancreas divisum. PMID:25293684

Gurram, Krishna C; Czapla, Agata; Thakkar, Shyam

2014-01-01

213

A novel endoscopic treatment of major bile duct leak?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Bile leak is a serious complication of hepatobiliary surgery. The incidence has remained the same over the last decade despite significant improvement in the results of liver surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 21-year-old man was a passenger in a motor vehicle and sustained a blunt abdominal trauma in a high-speed collision leading to major liver laceration. He had right lobe hepatectomy complicated by major bile leak. He was not fit for further surgery and he, therefore, had ERCP and obliteration of the leaking bile duct using a combination of metallic coil and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. DISCUSSION Endoscopic therapy has become the modality of choice in the treatment of biliary tract injuries. Different modalities of management of persistent bile leak such as sphincterotomy, plastic biliary stents, and nasobiliary drainage have been described. Obliteration of bile duct leak using N-butyl cyanoacrylate and coil embolization has been described but most of these reports used the percutaneous transhepatic approach. CONCLUSION In this paper, we describe the second reported case in English literature of a novel endoscopic technique using a combination of metallic coil embolization and N-butyl cyanoacrylate in a patient with major bile leak who was not a candidate for surgery as well as a third report of the late complication of coil migration to the common bile duct. PMID:24636979

Wahaibi, Aiman Al; AlNaamani, Khalid; Alkindi, Ahmed; Qarshoubi, Issa Al

2014-01-01

214

Spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct in children  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe radiologic findings in five patients with spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct (a rare disorder). The patients were 5 weeks, 9 weeks, 3 months, 11 months, and 2 1/2 years old at presentation. The most common presenting complaints were jaundice and abdominal distention (due to ascites). Sonographic findings included ascites in three patients, a loculated fluid collection around the gallbladder in two patients, and both in one patient. The biliary tree was undilated in all patients. Results of hepatobiliary scintigraphy definitely demonstrated that intraperitoneal fluid originated from the biliary tract. Intraoperative cholangiography was used to confirm the diagnosis at surgery. All children were successfully treated with surgery. Recognition of these findings on sonograms and subsequent confirmation with scintigraphy are important to prevent delays in diagnosis of a potentially fatal condition.

Haller, J.O.; Condon, V.R.; Berdon, W.E.; Oh, K.S.; Price, A.P.; Bowen, A.; Cohen, H.L. (State Univ. of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (USA))

1989-09-01

215

Genetics Home Reference: Familial dilated cardiomyopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... studies OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Familial dilated cardiomyopathy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed December 2013 What is familial dilated cardiomyopathy? Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of ...

216

Intrahepatic bile duct injury and nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although involvement of the hepatic vasculture in patients with polyarteritis nodosa is not unusual, biliary manifestations are very rare. We describe a patient with polyarteritis nodosa presenting with a febrile cholestatic anicteric syndrome. Histological examination of the liver revealed necrotizing arteritis of small hepatic arteries associated with significant lesions of intrahepatic bile ducts of the sclerosing cholangitis type, i.e. fibrous

Constantin P. Goritsas; Maria Repanti; Eleni Papadaki; Nikolaos Lazarou; Andrew P. Andonopoulos

1997-01-01

217

Squamoid Cystosis of Pancreatic Ducts: A Variant of a Newly-Described Cystic Lesion, with Evidence for an Obstructive Etiology  

PubMed Central

We describe a 40-year-old man who was found to have a cystic mass in the pancreatic tail during workup for weight loss and abdominal discomfort. Although computed tomography scan showed a single cyst associated with dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, gross and histologic examination of the distal pancreatectomy specimen actually revealed a central cyst that was surrounded by multiple smaller cystic spaces. This distinctive appearance was formed from extensive cystic dilatation and squamous metaplasia of the native pancreatic duct system. Further, a traumatic neuroma was discovered near the junction between normal and abnormal parenchyma. We believe that this case represents a variant of the newly-described squamoid cyst of pancreatic ducts which we term squamoid cystosis of pancreatic ducts. The presence of chronic pancreatitis and a traumatic neuroma supports the hypothesis that squamoid cysts are non-neoplastic lesions arising from prior duct obstruction.

Foo, Wai Chin; Wang, Huamin; Prieto, Victor G.; Fleming, Jason B.; Abraham, Susan C.

2014-01-01

218

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DUCT LEAKAGE TEST EXISTING DUCT SYSTEM  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DUCT LEAKAGE TEST ­ EXISTING DUCT SYSTEM CEC-CF-6R-MECH-21-HERS (Revised 03 System (Page 1 of 4) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: Registration Number 2010 Enter the Duct System Name or Identification/Tag: Enter the Duct System Location or Area Served

219

Robotic-Assisted Surgery Approach in a Biliary Rhabdomyosarcoma Misdiagnosed as Choledochal Cyst  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue malignant tumor affecting 1% of children from 0 to 14 years. Preoperative imaging may not always be diagnostic for hepatobiliary rhabdomyosarcoma and differential diagnosis with choledochal cyst (CC) could be difficult. We report a case of 2-years-old girl with a strange CC pattern of presentation. A grapelike lesion involving the choledochal and biliary ducts was easily and completely resected by robotic assisted surgery. Since no previous reports were available about oncologic safety of robotic approach, the porto-enterostomy was performed in open surgery. On histologic examination, the specimen revealed a botryoidembryonal rhabdomyosarcoma affecting both the common bile duct and the common hepatic duct. One year postoperatively the child is safe of tumor relapse. Robotic approach seems to be safe and advantageous to obtain a radical excision of the tumor at the porta hepatis, even in case of misdiagnosed malignant lesion mimicking a CC. PMID:24711907

Nakib, Ghassan; Calcaterra, Valeria; Goruppi, Ilaria; Romano, Piero; Raffaele, Alessandro; Schleef, Jurgen; Pelizzo, Gloria

2014-01-01

220

Computer Aided Duct Design  

E-print Network

The circular slide rule is the industry standard for duct design. It is the simplest, most convenient way to take into account the many variables of ductwork analysis. The slide rule, however, is also relatively inaccurate. This means the ductwork...

Clark, W. H.

1994-01-01

221

How to access photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment option for local control of remnant cancer after surgical resection or biliary stenosis by the unresectable tumor in patients with bile duct carcinomas (BDC). To achieve effective tumor necrosis, an appropriate approach to laser irradiation is necessary. Methods The efficacy of endoscopy-guided PDT using porfimer (n=12) or talaporfin sodium (n=13) was investigated by evaluating the transhepatic biliary routes and endoscopic retrograde biliary (ERB) routes in 25 patients with BDC. Results Diseases included perihilar intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in four patients, extrahepatic BDCs in 19 and ampular carcinoma (AC) in two patients. Adjuvant PDT after surgical resection was performed in 18 patients, and PDT for tumor biliary stenosis was performed in seven. In patients undergoing surgical resections, the mean period between the operation and PDT was 87±42 days. In patients who underwent prior surgical resections, the transhepatic route was used in five (28%), the jejunal loop was used in 11 (61%), the T-tube route was used in one, and the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) route via papilla Vater was used in one. In unresectable BDC, the ERC route was used in four patients (57%), and the transhepatic biliary route was used in three (43%). Endoscopic-guided PDT could not be performed in one patient because of a technical failure. Except for the complication of photosensitivity, endoscopy-related complications were not observed in any patients. Patients undergoing PDT with porfimer sodium had a significantly longer admission period compared to patients undergoing PDT with talaporfin sodium (36 vs. 5 days, respectively) (P<0.01). Conclusions PDT was safely and definitively performed using the endoscopy-guided approach via the transhepatic or ERC route. By considering the disadvantages of both routes, PDT must be adequately achieved for local control of BDC.

Isomoto, Hajime; Abo, Takafumi; Nonaka, Takashi; Morisaki, Tomohito; Arai, Junichi; Takagi, Katsunori; Ohnita, Ken; Shoji, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Senoo, Takemasa; Murakami, Goshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

2014-01-01

222

Balloon dilatation of cricopharyngeal achalasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-month-old male infant with difficulty swallowing, recurrent aspiration pneumonia and failure to thrive was diagnosed with cricopharyngeal achalasia. Normal oral feeding and no further aspirations followed a single catheter balloon dilatation.

T. Mihailovic; V. N. Perisic

1992-01-01

223

Post-earthquake dilatancy recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geodetic measurements of the 1964 Niigata, Japan earthquake and of three other examples are briefly examined. They show exponentially decaying subsidence for a year after the quakes. The observations confirm the dilatancy-fluid diffusion model of earthquake precursors and clarify the extent and properties of the dilatant zone. An analysis using one-dimensional consolidation theory is included which agrees well with this interpretation.

Scholz, C. H.

1974-01-01

224

Dilatational band formation in bone  

PubMed Central

Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

2012-01-01

225

Primary biliary cirrhosis: What do autoantibodies tell us?  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, progressive, cholestatic, organ-specific autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly affects middle-aged women, and is characterized by autoimmune-mediated destruction of small- and medium-size intrahepatic bile ducts, portal inflammation and progressive scarring, which without proper treatment can ultimately lead to fibrosis and hepatic failure. Serum autoantibodies are crucial tools for differential diagnosis of PBC. While it is currently accepted that antimitochondrial antibodies are the most important serological markers of PBC, during the last five decades more than sixty autoantibodies have been explored in these patients, some of which had previously been thought to be specific for other autoimmune diseases. PMID:20677333

Hu, Chao-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Li, Yong-Zhe; Zhang, Xuan

2010-01-01

226

Suppression of proliferative cholangitis in a rat model with direct adenovirus-mediated retinoblastoma gene transfer to the biliary tract.  

PubMed

Proliferative cholangitis (PC) associated with hepatolithiasis develops the stricture of main bile ducts, and is the main cause of residual and/or recurrent stones after repeated treatments for hepatolithiasis. The aim of this study was to inhibit PC using the cytostatic gene therapy with direct adenovirus-mediated retinoblastoma (Rb) gene transfer to the biliary tract. PC was induced by introducing a fine nylon thread into the bile duct in a rat model. The adenovirus vector encoding a nonphosphorylatable, constitutively active form of retinoblastoma gene product (AdRb) was administered directly into the biliary tract. The adenovirus vector encoding beta-galactosidase (AdlacZ) was also given as a control. The bile duct wall thickness and 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index were compared among uninfected, AdlacZ-infected, and AdRb-infected PC rats. The Rb expression in the bile duct was detected using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical study. AdRb-infected bile ducts showed inhibition of the epithelial and fibrous tissue proliferation and the peribiliary gland hyperplasia, resulting in a significant reduction of wall thickness compared with uninfected and AdlacZ-infected ones. The BrdU labeling index was 4.87% +/- 3.06% in the AdRb-infected bile ducts, while those of uninfected and AdlacZ-infected ones were 15.48% +/- 4.61% and 11.72% +/- 1.23%, respectively (P < .05). In conclusion, our cytostatic gene therapy approach using direct Rb gene transfer into the biliary tract suppressed PC in a rat model and may offer an effective therapeutic option for reducing recurrences following treatments against hepatolithiasis. PMID:9731547

Terao, R; Honda, K; Hatano, E; Uehara, T; Yamamoto, M; Yamaoka, Y

1998-09-01

227

Modulation of the biliary expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase alters the autocrine proliferative responses of cholangiocytes  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Secretin stimulates ductal secretion by interacting with secretin receptor (SR) activating cAMP?CFTR?Cl?/HCO3? AE2 signaling that is elevated by biliary hyperplasia. Cholangiocytes secrete several neuroendocrine factors regulating biliary functions by autocrine mechanisms. Melatonin inhibits biliary growth and secretin-stimulated choleresis in cholestatic bile duct ligated (BDL) rats by interaction with melatonin type 1 (MT1) receptor via downregulation of cAMP-dependent signaling. No data exists regarding the role of melatonin synthesized locally by cholangiocytes in the autocrine regulation of biliary growth and function. Methods In this study, we evaluated: (i) the expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT, the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis from serotonin) in cholangiocytes; and (ii) the effect of local modulation of biliary AANAT expression on the autocrine proliferative/secretory responses of cholangiocytes. Results In the liver, cholangiocytes (and to lower extent BDL hepatocytes) expressed AANAT. AANAT expression and melatonin secretion: (i) increased in BDL compared to normal rats and BDL rats treated with melatonin; and (ii) decreased in normal and BDL rats treated with AANAT Vivo-Morpholino compared to controls. The decrease in AANAT expression and subsequent lower melatonin secretion by cholangiocytes was associated with increased biliary proliferation and increased SR, CFTR, and Cl?/HCO3? AE2 expression. Overexpression of AANAT in cholangiocyte cell lines decreased the basal proliferative rate and expression of SR, CFTR, and Cl?/HCO3? AE2 and ablated secretin-stimulated biliary secretion in these cells. Conclusion Local modulation of melatonin synthesis may be important for the management of the balance between biliary proliferation/damage that is typical of cholangiopathies. PMID:23080076

Renzi, Anastasia; DeMorrow, Sharon; Onori, Paolo; Carpino, Guido; Mancinelli, Romina; Meng, Fanyin; Venter, Julie; White, Mellanie; Franchitto, Antonio; Francis, Heather; Han, Yuyan; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Dusio, Giuseppina; Jensen, Kendal J; Greene, John J; Glaser, Shannon; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco

2012-01-01

228

The dynamic biliary epithelia: Molecules, pathways, and disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Cholangiocytes, the cells lining bile ducts, are a heterogenous, highly dynamic population of epithelial cells. While these cells comprise a small fraction of the total cellular component of the liver, they perform the essential role of bile modification and transport of biliary and blood constituents. From a pathophysiological standpoint, cholangiocytes are the target of a diverse group of biliary disorders, collectively referred to as the cholangiopathies. To date, the cause of most cholangiopathies remains obscure. It is known, however, that cholangiocytes exist in an environment rich in potential mediators of cellular injury, express receptors that recognize potential injurious insults, and participate in portal tract repair processes following hepatic injury. As such, cholangiocytes may not be only a passive target, but are likely directly and actively involved in the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies. Here, we briefly summarize the characteristics of the reactive cholangiocyte and cholangiocyte responses to potentially injurious endogenous and exogenous molecules, and in addition, present emerging concepts in our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of several cholangiopathies. PMID:23085249

O'Hara, Steven P.; Tabibian, James H.; Splinter, Patrick L.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

2013-01-01

229

Influence of biliary cirrhosis on the detoxification and elimination of a food derived carcinogen  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: The liver is the central organ for the detoxification of numerous xenobiotics, including carcinogens. We studied the influence of cholestasis and biliary cirrhosis on the detoxification, elimination, and tissue distribution of a model compound and food derived carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Methods: Wistar rats were injected with 14C-PhIP into the portal vein one or six weeks after common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Bile flow was reconstituted, bile and urine were collected over 120 minutes, and metabolites were analysed using high performance liquid chromatograpy. Total tissue radioactivity levels in several organs as well as tissue bound (ethanol insoluble tissue fraction) radioactivity levels were determined. Results: Significant downregulation of the transport proteins multidrug resistance associated protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein was observed in biliary cirrhosis. Biliary excretion of radioactivity was significantly reduced in cholestasis and biliary cirrhosis compared with controls (15 (2.9)% and 3.2 (1)% of the dose v 36.5 (2)%, respectively). Phase II metabolism was severely reduced in cirrhotic rats, resulting in a twofold increase in tissue radioactivity levels in the liver, kidney, and colon. Biliary cirrhosis increased tissue binding of reactive metabolites, as expressed in cpm/100 mg tissue in the liver and the colon (3267 (1218) v 1191 (429) in the liver, 3044 (1913) v 453 (253) in the colon). Conclusions: Biliary cirrhosis induced by CBDL causes impaired metabolism and elimination of PhIP, and leads to higher tissue levels of potentially genotoxic metabolites in the liver and colon of rats. These data may explain the increased incidence of hepatic and extrahepatic cancers in cholestasis and liver cirrhosis. PMID:15542527

Dietrich, C G; Geier, A; Wasmuth, H E; Matern, S; Gartung, C; de Waart, D R; Elferink, R P J O

2004-01-01

230

Radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary system. An analysis of 63 cases  

SciTech Connect

From 1976 to 1988, 63 patients received radiation therapy for primary cancers of the extrahepatic biliary system (eight gallbladder and 55 extrahepatic biliary duct). Twelve patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Chemotherapy was administered to 13 patients. Three patients underwent intraluminal brachytherapy alone (range, 28 to 55 Gy). Sixty patients received megavoltage external-beam radiation therapy (range, 5.4 to 61.6 Gy; median, 45 Gy), of whom nine received additional intraluminal brachytherapy (range, 14 to 45 Gy; median, 30 Gy). The median survival of all patients was 7 months. Sixty patients died, all within 39 months of radiation therapy. One patient is alive 11 months after irradiation without surgical resection, and two are alive 50 months after liver transplantation and irradiation. Symptomatic duodenal ulcers developed after radiation therapy in seven patients but were not significantly related to any clinical variable tested. Extrahepatic biliary duct cancers, the absence of metastases, increasing calendar year of treatment, and liver transplantation with postoperative radiation therapy were factors significantly associated with improved survival.

Flickinger, J.C.; Epstein, A.H.; Iwatsuki, S.; Carr, B.I.; Starzl, T.E. (Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

1991-07-15

231

Risk factors for early and late biliary complications in pediatric liver transplantation.  

PubMed

BC are a common source of morbidity after pediatric LT. Knowledge about risk factors may help to reduce their incidence. Retrospective analysis of BC in 116 pediatric patients (123 LT) (single institution, 05/1990-12/2011, medium follow-up 7.9 yr). One-, five-, and 10-yr survival was 91.1%, no patient died of BC. Prevalence and risk factors for anastomotic and intrahepatic BC were examined. There were 29 BC in 123 LT (23.6%), with three main categories: 10 (8.1%) primary anastomotic strictures, eight (6.5%) anastomotic leaks, and three (2.4%) intrahepatic strictures. Significant risk factors for anastomotic leaks were total operation time (increase 1.26-fold) and early HAT (<30 days post-LT; increase 5.87-fold). Risk factor for primary anastomotic stricture was duct-to-duct choledochal anastomosis (increase 5.96-fold when compared to biliary-enteric anastomosis). Risk factors for intrahepatic strictures were donor age >48 yr (increase 1.09-fold) and MELD score >30 (increase 1.2-fold). To avoid morbidity from anastomotic BC in pediatric LT, the preferred biliary anastomosis appears to be biliary-enteric. Operation time should be kept to a minimum, and HAT must by all means be prevented. Children with a high MELD score or receiving livers from older donors are at increased risk for intrahepatic strictures. PMID:25263826

Lüthold, Samuel C; Kaseje, Neema; Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Mentha, Gilles; Majno, Pietro; Toso, Christian; Belli, Dominique C; McLin, Valérie A; Wildhaber, Barbara E

2014-12-01

232

Biliary Complications in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Imaging Findings and the Roles of Interventional Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To describe the incidence, types, and findings of biliary complications in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine the roles of interventional procedures. Materials and methods. Twenty-four biliary complications among 161 LDLT patients (24/161, 14.9%) were identified. These complications were divided into two groups according to the initial manifestation time, i.e., 'early' (<60 days) or 'late'. The CT and cholangiographic findings were reviewed regarding the presence of a stricture or leak and the location, and length, shape, and degree of the stricture. Both groups were categorized into three subgroups: leak, stricture, and both. The type of interventional procedures used and their roles were determined. Results. Early complications were identified in 14 of the 24 patients (58%) and late complications in 11 (46%). One patient showed both early and late complications. Biliary stricture was detected in 10 patients, leak in 10, and both in 5. By cholangiography, all strictures were irregular and short (mean length 15 {+-} 6 mm) at the anastomotic site and complete obstruction was observed in 2 patients with late stricture. Twenty-three of the 24 patients were treated using percutaneous and/or endoscopic drainage procedures with or without balloon dilatation. Seventeen (74%) showed a good response, but reoperations were inevitable in 6 (26%). All patients except those with complete obstruction showed a favorable outcome after interventional management. Conclusion. Biliary leaks and strictures are predominant complications in LDLT. Most show good responses to interventional treatment. However, complete obstruction needs additional operative management.

Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Suh, Kyung Suk; Yi, Nam Joon; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo, E-mail: hanjk@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

2005-12-15

233

Sanguineous normothermic machine perfusion improves hemodynamics and biliary epithelial regeneration in donation after cardiac death porcine livers.  

PubMed

The effects of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) on the postreperfusion hemodynamics and extrahepatic biliary duct histology of donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers after transplantation have not been addressed thoroughly and represent the objective of this study. Ten livers (5 per group) with 60 minutes of warm ischemia were preserved via cold storage (CS) or sanguineous NMP for 10 hours, and then they were reperfused for 24 hours with whole blood in an isolated perfusion system to simulate transplantation. In our experiment, the arterial and portal vein flows were stable in the NMP group during the entire reperfusion simulation, whereas they decreased dramatically in the CS group after 16 hours of reperfusion (P < 0.05); these findings were consistent with severe parenchymal injury. Similarly, significant differences existed between the CS and NMP groups with respect to the release of hepatocellular enzymes, the volume of bile produced, and the levels of enzymes released into bile (P < 0.05). According to histology, CS livers presented with diffuse hepatocyte congestion, necrosis, intraparenchymal hemorrhaging, denudated biliary epithelium, and submucosal bile duct necrosis, whereas NMP livers showed very mild injury to the liver parenchyma and biliary architecture. Most importantly, Ki-67 staining in extrahepatic bile ducts showed biliary epithelial regeneration. In conclusion, our findings advance the knowledge of the postreperfusion events that characterize DCD livers and suggest NMP as a beneficial preservation modality that is able to improve biliary regeneration after a major ischemic event and may prevent the development of ischemic cholangiopathy in the setting of clinical transplantation. PMID:24805852

Liu, Qiang; Nassar, Ahmed; Farias, Kevin; Buccini, Laura; Baldwin, William; Mangino, Martin; Bennett, Ana; O'Rourke, Colin; Okamoto, Toshiro; Uso, Teresa Diago; Fung, John; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Miller, Charles; Quintini, Cristiano

2014-08-01

234

CD8+ T lymphocyte response against extrahepatic biliary epithelium is activated by epitopes within NSP4 in experimental biliary atresia.  

PubMed

Interferon (IFN)-?-driven and CD8+ T cell-dependent inflammatory injury to extrahepatic biliary epithelium (EHBE) is likely to be involved in the development of biliary atresia (BA). We previously showed that viral protein NSP4 is the pathogenic immunogen that causes biliary injury in BA. In this study, NSP4 or four synthetic NSP4 (NSP4(157-170), NSP4(144-152), NSP4(93-110), NSP4(24-32)) identified by computer analysis as candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes were injected into neonatal mice. The pathogenic NSP4 epitopes were confirmed by studying extrahepatic bile duct injury, IFN-? release and CD8+ T cell response against EHBE. The results revealed, at 7 days postinjection, inoculation of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-NSP4 caused EHBE injury and BA in neonatal mice. At 7 or 14 days postinject, inoculation of GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) increased IFN-? release by CD8+ T cells, elevated the population of hepatic memory CD8+ T cells, and augmented cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells to rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-infected or naive EHBE cells. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ T cells in mice abrogated the elevation of GST-NSP4-induced serum IFN-?. Lastly, parenteral immunization of mouse dams with GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) decreased the incidence of RRV-induced BA in their offspring. Overall, this study reports the CD8+ T cell response against EHBE is activated by epitopes within rotavirus NSP4 in experimental BA. Neonatal passive immunization by maternal vaccination against NSP4(144-152) or NSP4(157-170) is effective in protecting neonates from developing RRV-related BA. PMID:24875101

Zheng, Shuaiyu; Zhang, Hongyi; Zhang, Xiaojin; Peng, Fei; Chen, Xuyong; Yang, Jixin; Brigstock, David; Feng, Jiexiong

2014-07-15

235

The treatment of acute cholangitis. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage before definitive therapy.  

PubMed Central

Forty-two patients with acute cholangitis, as evidenced by fever (95%), jaundice (86%), and right upper quadrant pain (67%), were treated with fluid and electrolyte resuscitation, broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, and initial percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTD). Despite a 17% incidence of nondilated ductal systems, drainage was established in all patients using a 22-gauge "skinny" needle and "accordion" catheter. No attempt was made at definitive cholangiogram; only 1-2 mL of contrast were injected to confirm placement of the catheter. Sepsis began to resolve in all patients within 24 hours of PTD, after which definitive cholangiogram was performed. PTD was accompanied by a 7% (3/42) complication rate, none of which contributed to subsequent morbidity and mortality. Two patients in severe septic shock had PTD but died within 8 hours of admission, constituting a 5% mortality rate. Definitive therapy after resolution of sepsis included: surgical (16 patients), internal/external drainage (14 patients), balloon dilatation (10 patients), mono-octanoin infusion (1 patient), and ampullary dilatation (1 patient). The surgical morbidity rate was 18%. There was no mortality. PTD is effective in providing decompression as initial therapy for acute cholangitis with minimal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis provided by the definitive cholangiogram obviates the need for multiple surgical procedures. PTD provides a portal to the biliary tract for alternative procedures (i.e., internal/external drainage, balloon dilatation), especially in patients with medical contraindications to surgery. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3566375

Pessa, M E; Hawkins, I F; Vogel, S B

1987-01-01

236

MR imaging of the biliary system.  

PubMed

Although ultrasound, computed tomography, and cholescintigraphy play essential roles in the evaluation of suspected biliary abnormalities, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR cholangiopancreatography can be used to evaluate inconclusive findings and provide a comprehensive noninvasive assessment of the biliary tract and gallbladder. This article reviews standard MR and MR cholangiopancreatography techniques, clinical applications, and pitfalls. Normal biliary anatomy and variants are discussed, particularly as they pertain to preoperative planning. A spectrum of benign and malignant biliary processes is reviewed, emphasizing MR findings that aid in characterization. PMID:24889169

Yam, Benjamin L; Siegelman, Evan S

2014-07-01

237

Laparoscopic treatment of biliary peritonitis following nonoperative management of blunt liver trauma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nonoperative management (NOM) of hemodynamically stable patients with blunt hepatic injuries is considered the current standard of care. However, it is associated with several in-hospital complications. In selected cases laparoscopy could be proposed as diagnostic and therapeutic means. Case report A 28 years-old male was admitted in the Emergency Unit following a motor vehicle crash. CT-scan showed an isolated stade II hepatic injury at the level of the segment IV. Firstly a NOM was decided. Laparoscopic exploration was then performed at day 4 due to a biliary peritonitis. Intraoperative trans-cystic duct cholangiography showed a biliary leaks of left hepatic biliary tract, involving sectioral pedicle to segment III. Cholecystectomy, trans-cystic biliary drainage, application of surgical tissue sealing patch and abdominal drainage were performed. Postoperative outcome was uneventful, with fast patient recovery. Conclusion Laparoscopy has gained a role as diagnostic and therapeutic means in treatment of complications following NOM of blunt liver trauma. This approach seems feasible and safety, with satisfactory postoperative outcome. PMID:20843350

2010-01-01

238

Achalasia - balloon dilation or surgery?  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal therapeutic schedule in patients with achalasia is still under discussion. The aim of this study was to review our institution’s experience with myotomy and dilation in patients with achalasia. Material/Methods Clinical data were available for 59 patients who had ever had myotomy (n=38), dilation (n=21), or both procedures (n=8) between 2000 and 2007. Patients were followed prospectively with objective (a barium esophagogram) and subjective (a simple survey that scored dysphagia and overall patient satisfaction with the procedure) diagnostic tools. In the group of patients after pneumatic dilatations, frequency of interventions was higher (1, 2) than in the myotomy group (0, 2) at 2-year follow-up. Patients after myotomy with recurrence of dysphagia were treated with dilations. Results Mean time of dysphagia occurrence was similar in both groups (10 months). The statistically significant differences in treatment outcomes in both groups were in favor of myotomy during 2-year follow-up. Conclusions The data indicates that both methods of treatment might be useful in dysphagia control, but better results are obtained after myotomy. Repeat interventions are more frequent after endoscopic dilation. One method of treatment does not exclude the other. A short period of symptom relief after myotomy may suggest the myotomy was incomplete. PMID:24296693

Tabola, Renata; Grabowski, Krzysztof; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Augoff, Katarzyna; Markocka-Maczka, Krystyna

2013-01-01

239

Trimming of a Broken Migrated Biliary Metal Stent with the Nd:YAG Laser  

PubMed Central

Biliary metal stents are a permanent solution for bile duct stenosis. Complications can arise when the stent migrates, breaks or is overgrown by tumour. The following case demonstrates how a Nd:YAG laser can be used to solve these problems. A 93-year-old man presented with jaundice and fever. Two years earlier a 6-cm metal stent had been implanted into a postinflammatory stenosis of the common bile duct after recurrent cholangitis and repetitive plastic stenting. Duodenoscopy showed that the stent was broken. It had migrated about 3 cm into the duodenum, leading to kinking of the stent and breaking of the wires. The stent was also occluded. It was necessary to purge the common bile duct and to introduce a second stent. However, the only way to reach the papilla was through the broken wires. Placing a second stent this way was impossible. Thus we trimmed the stent with a Nd:YAG laser. The piece that had migrated into the duodenum was retrieved. Now the papilla could be reached. The rest of the metal stent was purged with NaCl 0.9%. A second metal stent was placed. Since an Nd:YAG laser is part of the equipment of most endoscopy units, it can be used to trim a broken or migrated biliary metal stent. PMID:20651959

Zuber-Jerger, I.; Kullmann, F.

2009-01-01

240

Development of automated extraction method of biliary tract from abdominal CT volumes based on local intensity structure analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an automated biliary tract extraction method from abdominal CT volumes. The biliary tract is the path by which bile is transported from liver to the duodenum. No extraction method have been reported for the automated extraction of the biliary tract from common contrast CT volumes. Our method consists of three steps including: (1) extraction of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) candidate regions, (2) extraction of intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) candidate regions, and (3) combination of these candidate regions. The IHBD has linear structures and intensities of the IHBD are low in CT volumes. We use a dark linear structure enhancement (DLSE) filter based on a local intensity structure analysis method using the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix for the IHBD candidate region extraction. The EHBD region is extracted using a thresholding process and a connected component analysis. In the combination process, we connect the IHBD candidate regions to each EHBD candidate region and select a bile duct region from the connected candidate regions. We applied the proposed method to 22 cases of CT volumes. An average Dice coefficient of extraction result was 66.7%.

Koga, Kusuto; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Hirose, Tomoaki; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Nagino, Masato; Mori, Kensaku

2014-03-01

241

Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid  

E-print Network

Dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a sever shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, instantaneous hardening upon external impact. Analysis of the model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits {\\it the shear thickening oscillation}, i.e. the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states. Results of numerical simulations are presented for one and two-dimensional systems.

Hiizu Nakanishi; Shin-ichiro Nagahiro; Namiko Mitarai

2011-12-20

242

Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluids.  

PubMed

A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two-dimensional systems. PMID:22400567

Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

2012-01-01

243

Choledochal cyst and biliary atresia in the neonate: Imaging findings in five cases  

SciTech Connect

The radiologic findings in five neonates with choledochal cyst associated with extra-hepatic biliary atresia are described. All five patients (age range, 13-72 days) presented with jaundice and acholic stools. In all four patients who underwent sonographic examination, a cystic structure separate from the gallbladder representing the choledochal cyst was shown. The diagnosis of atresia of the distal common bile duct was made preoperatively in all cases by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and was demonstrated by intraoperative cholangiography in four cases. All patients were successfully treated with surgical intervention within 1 month from the time of diagnosis. Early detection of this rare disorder, which may be distinct from choledochal cyst found in children and adults, is important to prevent fatal complications of biliary obstruction. The combined use of sonography and hepatobiliary scintigraphy can correctly identify this subset of patients with persistent neonatal jaundice and provide valuable information for prompt surgical management.

Torrisi, J.M.; Haller, J.O.; Velcek, F.T. (SUNY Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (USA))

1990-12-01

244

Technetium-99m BIDA biliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of the jaundiced patient  

SciTech Connect

Biliary scintigraphy using 99mTc p-butyl acetanilidiminodiacetic acid (BIDA) was performed as part of the diagnostic evaluation on 96 patients with jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 2 mg/dl) to assess its value in this group of patients. The results of scintigraphy revealed no obstruction to the flow of the scintigraphic agent into the duodenum in 54 patients, delayed appearance of the agent (normal upper limit 60 min) in the duodenum indicating partial obstruction in 22 patients, and complete obstruction of the duct demonstrated by absence of agent in the duodenum in 20 patients. The findings were correlated with the final diagnosis and the overall results show accuracy of 92.7%, sensitivity of 97.3%, and specificity of 89.8%. Biliary scintigraphy was thus found to be useful in differentiating nonobstructive, partially obstructive, and completely obstructive causes of jaundice.

Lee, A.W.; Ram, M.D.; Shih, W.J.; Murphy, K.

1986-09-01

245

Turbofan Duct Propagation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

246

Spontaneous thoracic duct cyst.  

PubMed

Spontaneous and asymptomatic supraclavicular thoracic duct cysts (lymphoceles ) are rare. Only five cases have been reported so far. They are more common after surgery or trauma and have been reported in the abdomen, mediastinum, pelvis and neck. They must be differentiated from other neck cysts as failure to recognise their attachment may result in the disastrous consequence of chylothorax. A high index of suspicion is necessary, and diagnosis usually can be established by fine-needle aspiration and suitable imaging. This case is reported along with a review of the literature and management options, including that of inadvertent damage to the thoracic duct. PMID:12750920

Ray, J; Braithwaite, D; Patel, P J

2003-05-01

247

Isolated Right Segmental Hepatic Duct Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones. There is an increased incidence of bile duct injuries in LC compared with the open technique. Isolated right segmental hepatic duct injury (IRSHDI) represents a challenge not only for management but also for diagnosis. We present our experience in the management of IRSHDI, with long-term follow-up after treatment by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods. Twelve consecutive patients (9 women, mean age 48 years) were identified as having IRSHDI. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were collected for analysis. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range 2-90 months). Results. Three patients had the LC immediately converted to open surgery without repair of the biliary injury before referral. Treatments before referral included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage and surgery, isolated or in combination. The median interval from LC to referral was 32 days. Eleven patients presented with biliary leak and biloma, one with obstruction of an isolated right hepatic segment. Post-referral management of the biliary lesion used a combination of ERCP stenting, percutaneous drainage and stent placement and surgery. In 6 of 12 patients ERCP was the first procedure, and in only one case was IRSHDI identified. In 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed first and an isolated right hepatic segment was demonstrated in all. The final treatment modality was endoscopic management and/or percutaneous drainage and stenting in 6 patients, and surgery in 6. The mean follow-up was 44 months. No mortality or significant morbidity was observed. Conclusion. Successful management of IRSHDI after LC requires adequate identification of the lesion, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary. Half of the patients can be treated successfully by nonsurgical procedures.

Perini, Rafael F. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Gastroenterology (United States); Uflacker, Renan [University of South Carolina, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail: uflacker@musc.edu; Cunningham, John T. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Gastroenterology (United States); Selby, J. Bayne [University of South Carolina, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Adams, David [University of South Carolina, Division of GI Surgery (United States)

2005-04-15

248

The Etiology Mystery in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis remains largely unknown despite numerous lines of evidence that have been recently proposed or supported. Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease for which an autoimmune pathogenesis is widely accepted, mostly based on the presence of autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Cumulatively, association and twin studies suggest that both a susceptible genetic

Carlo Selmi; M. Eric Gershwin

2010-01-01

249

Paravertebral Block: An Improved Method of Pain Control in Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage  

SciTech Connect

Background and Purpose. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage remains a painful procedure in many cases despite the routine use of large amounts of intravenous sedation. We present a feasibility study of thoracic paravertebral blocks in an effort to reduce pain during and following the procedure and reduce requirements for intravenous sedation. Methods. Ten consecutive patients undergoing biliary drainage procedures received fluoroscopically guided paravertebral blocks and then had supplemental intravenous sedation as required to maintain patient comfort. Levels T8-T9 and T9-T10 on the right were targeted with 10-20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sedation requirements and pain levels were recorded. Results. Ten biliary drainage procedures in 8 patients were performed for malignancy in 8 cases and for stones in 2. The mean midazolam use was 1.13 mg IV, and the mean fentanyl requirement was 60.0 {mu}g IV in the block patients. Two episodes of hypotension, which responded promptly to volume replacement, may have been related to the block. No serious complications were encountered. The mean pain score when traversing the chest wall, liver capsule, and upon entering the bile ducts was 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 1 patient reporting a pain level of 1 and 9 reporting 0. The mean peak pain score, encountered when manipulating at the common bile duct level or when addressing stones there, was 5.4 and ranged from 0 to 10. Conclusions. Thoracic paravertebral block with intravenous sedation supplementation appears to be a feasible method of pain control during biliary interventions.

Culp, William C., E-mail: culpwilliamc@uams.edu; McCowan, Timothy C. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States); DeValdenebro, Miguel [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Wright, Lonnie B.; Workman, James L. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States); Culp, William C. [Scott and White Clinic and Memorial Hospital, The Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology (United States)

2006-12-15

250

Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 {+-} 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 {+-} 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil <10 mg/dl, four (80%) showed good response,while in nine patients with T-bil > 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function.

Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo [Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-06-15

251

A Comparative Study of CT Fluoroscopy Combined with Fluoroscopy Versus Fluoroscopy Alone for Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We compared CT fluoroscopy (CTF) for the initial puncture of bile ducts with conventional fluoroscopic guidance in patients with malignant jaundice in whom percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was planned.Methods: Forty consecutive patients were randomized to two study groups: group A underwent PTBD under CTF and fluoroscopic guidance, group B underwent PTBD under fluoroscopic guidance alone. CTF-guided PTBD was performed using a combination of a helical CT scanner of the latest generation and a mobile C-arm; conventional PTBD was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in the angiographic unit. End points of the study were the success (a puncture that enabled safe placement of a guidewire in a suitable bile duct) and the complication rate (hemobilia, bile fistula, biliary peritonitis), the number of punctures required, the time needed for successful puncture of a suitable bile duct, and the patient's radiation exposure.Results: CTF-guided puncture of peripheral bile ducts suitable for PTBD was successful at the first attempt in 16 cases, under conventional fluoroscopic guidance, in only two cases. We found a significantly different number of punctures (1.2 in group A vs 2.9 in group B), a significantly shorter time for puncture in group A (mean 39 sec), but also a significantly higher skin exposure dosage in group A (mean 49.5 mSv surface dosage). There was no significant difference regarding the total procedure time. Only one complication occurred in group B (portobiliary fistula).Conclusion: CTF-guided initial puncture of bile ducts allowed a significantly reduced number of punctures and puncture times compared with puncture under conventional fluoroscopic guidance for placement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage catheters.

Laufer, Ulf; Kirchner, Johannes; Kickuth, Ralph; Adams, Stephan; Jendreck, Martin; Liermann, Dieter [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Marienhospital Herne, Medizinische Universitaetsklinik der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany)

2001-07-15

252

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree  

SciTech Connect

The new 99mTc biliary scintigraphy agents are highly sensitive and specific in detecting biliary tract disease and use of them is the initial procedure of choice in evaluating patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Other clinically useful indications are evaluation of biliary kinetics; evaluation of patients with suspected traumatic bile leakage, gallbladder perforation, or postsurgical biliary tract complications; and evaluation of patients with suspected biliary obstruction. In 99mTc we have a simple radiopharmaceutical of low radiation for evaluating congenital abnormalities and neonatal jaundice. In the Orient 99mTc cholescintigraphy is extremely important in evaluating patients with suspected intrahepatic stones. The overall advantages of this technique include availability, safety, simplicity, and accuracy. In addition, it may be performed in those patients who are allergic to iodinated contrast agents.

Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.

1981-08-01

253

Cornice Duct System  

SciTech Connect

SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

2004-10-29

254

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2013-04-01

255

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2013-04-01

256

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2012-04-01

257

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2010-04-01

258

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2014-04-01

259

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2013-04-01

260

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2012-04-01

261

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2014-04-01

262

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2010-04-01

263

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2012-04-01

264

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2014-04-01

265

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2011-04-01

267

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2011-04-01

268

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2011-04-01

269

Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

Cho, Y. C.

1979-01-01

270

U.S. Food and Drug Administration and off-label use of expandable metal biliary stents within the peripheral vasculature.  

PubMed

Expandable metal stents are used to maintain the patency of compromised ducts, lumens, and vessels. As medical devices, there products are regulated by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). During the past several years, the FDA has become aware of the increasing prevalence of off-label use of expandable metal stents cleared for biliary use within the peripheral vasculature. The authors provide an overview of how the FDA regulates medical devices and expandable stents and summarize safety issues reported to the Agency with regard to the off-label use of these biliary stents. PMID:18672491

Yustein, Aron S; Schultz, Daniel; Neuland, Carolyn; Buckles, David S; Nipper, Joshua C; Stephenson, Rebecca A; Gonzalez, Gema

2008-07-01

271

Placement of an internal-external biliary drain through a bilio-enteric fistula in a neonate to re-establish antegrade bile flow after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Three-month-old baby girl with history of post-liver transplant hepatic artery dissection treated with ligation after take down of the biliary anastomosis and placement of a surgical external common bile duct drain. There was persistent malfunction of this drain. A bilio-enteric fistula was noted during the later placement of an image guided percutaneous external drain. Subsequently, an internal-external biliary drain was successfully placed through this fistula. An excellent clinical and functional result was achieved. PMID:25135526

Parra, Dimitri A; Fecteau, Annie; Connolly, Bairbre L

2014-11-01

272

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas  

PubMed Central

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into two neighboring organs of the stomach and duodenum presenting with abdominal pain and jaundice. Endoscopy showed thick mucin extruding from two openings of the fistulas. Endoscopic suction of thick mucin using direct peroral cholangioscopy with ultra-slim endoscope through choledochoduodenal fistula was very difficult and ineffective because of very thick mucin and next endoscopic suction through the stent after prior insertion of biliary metal stent into choledochogastric fistula also failed. Pathologic specimen obtained from the proximal portion of the choledochogastric fistula near left intrahepatic bile duct through the metal stent showed a low grade adenoma. The patient declined the surgical treatment due to her old age and her abdominal pain with jaundice was improved after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with the irrigation of N-acetylcysteine three times daily for 10 d. PMID:25031793

Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

2014-01-01

273

Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, Tarceva &/or Cisplatin in HCC & Biliary Tree Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Bile Duct Cancer; Periampullary Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

2014-05-19

274

Cosmology and the fate of dilatation symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the cosmological constant problem in the light of dilatation symmetry and its possible anomaly. For dilatation symmetric quantum theories realistic asymptotic cosmology is obtained provided the effective potential has a nontrivial minimum. For theories with dilatation anomaly one needs as a nontrivial ``cosmon condition'' that the energy-momentum tensor in the vacuum is purely anomalous. Such a condition is

C. Wetterich

1988-01-01

275

Polymorphisms of estrogen receptors and risk of biliary tract cancers and gallstones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Biliary tract cancer encompasses tumors of the gallbladder, bile duct and ampulla of Vater. Gallbladder cancer is more common in women, whereas bile duct cancer is more common in men, suggesting that sex hormones may play a role in the etiology of these cancers. The intracellular action of estrogens is regulated by the estrogen receptor (ESR); thus, we examined the role of common genetic variants in ESR genes on the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in a population-based case–control study in Shanghai, China (411 cancer cases, 895 stone cases and 786 controls). We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four in ESR1 (rs2234693, rs3841686, rs2228480 and rs1801132) and two in ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938). In all participants, the ESR1 rs1801132 (P325P) G allele was associated with excess risks of bile duct [odds ratio (OR)?=?1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8] and ampulla of Vater cancers (OR?=?2.1, 95% CI 0.9–4.9) compared with the CC genotype. The association with bile duct cancer was apparent among men (OR?=?2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.7) but not among women (P-heterogeneity?=?0.01). Also, the ESR2 rs4986938 (38 bp 3? of STP) GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of bile duct cancer (OR?=?3.3, 95% CI 1.3–8.7) compared with the AA genotype, although this estimate was based on a small number of subjects. None of the other SNPs examined was associated with biliary tract cancers or stones. False discovery rate-adjusted P-values were not significant (P?>?0.1). No association was found for ESR1 haplotype based on four SNPs. These preliminary results suggest that variants in ESR genes could play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers, especially bile duct cancer in men. PMID:20172949

Andreotti, Gabriella; Rashid, Asif; Chen, Jinbo; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Yu, Kai; Olsen, Jennifer; Gao, Yu-Tang; Deng, Jie; Sakoda, Lori C.; Zhang, Mingdong; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hsing, Ann W.

2010-01-01

276

Cholecystokinin cholescintigraphic findings in the cystic duct syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen patients with a cystic duct syndrome (CDS) underwent cholecystokinin (CCK) cholescintigraphy. All patients presented with persistent postprandial right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic. None of the patients had an abnormal oral cholecystography, gallbladder (GB) ultrasound exam or upper GI series. Each patient received 5 mCi of technetium-99m disofenin. When the GB maximally filled, 0.02 microgram/kg CCK was administered (3 min) intravenously. Background corrected gallbladder ejection fractions (GBEFs) were determined every 5 min X 4 by rationing the pre-CCK GB counts minus post-CCK GB counts to pre-CCK GB counts. GBEFs were: 12% (3 patients), 17% (2), 0%, 1.3%, 3%, 4%, 6%, 11%, 14%, 18.5%, and 22% (1 each). All patients underwent a surgical exploration and all had macro- or microscopically abnormal cystic ducts with (12 patients) or without (2 patients) concomitant chronic cholecystitis. No patient with a partially occluded cystic duct with or without concomitant chronic cholecystitis had an ejection fraction that exceeded 22%. In an appropriate clinical setting, a low EF response to CCK should alert the physician to the presence of either chronic acalculous cholecystitis, CDS, or the combination of both.

Fink-Bennett, D.; DeRidder, P.; Kolozsi, W.; Gordon, R.; Rapp, J.

1985-10-01

277

Association Between Cholecystectomy With vs Without Intraoperative Cholangiography and Risk of Common Duct Injury  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Significant controversy exists regarding routine intraoperative cholangiography in preventing common duct injury during cholecystectomy. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy and common duct injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of all Texas Medicare claims data from 2000 through 2009. We identified Medicare beneficiaries 66 years or older who underwent inpatient or outpatient cholecystectomy for biliary colic or biliary dyskinesia, acute cholecystitis, or chronic cholecystitis. We compared results from multilevel logistic regression models to the instrumental variable analyses. INTERVENTIONS Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), hospitals (percentage intraoperative cholangiography use for all cholecystectomies at the hospital), and surgeons (percentage use for all cholecystectomies performed by the surgeon). Percentage of use at the hospital and percentage of use by surgeon were the instrumental variables. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Patients with claims for common duct repair operations within 1 year of cholecystectomy were considered as having major common duct injury. RESULTS Of 92 932 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, 37 533 (40.4%) underwent concurrent intraoperative cholangiography and 280 (0.30%) had a common duct injury. The common duct injury rate was 0.21% among patients with intraoperative cholangiography and 0.36% among patients without it. In a logistic regression model controlling for patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics, the odds of common duct injury for cholecystectomies performed without intraoperative cholangiography were increased compared with those performed with it (OR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.35–2.36]; P < .001). When confounding was controlled with instrumental variable analysis, the association between cholecystectomy performed without intraoperative cholangiography and duct injury was no longer significant (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.81–1.96]; P = .31). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE When confounders were controlled with instrumental variable analysis, there was no statistically significant association between intraoperative cholangiography and common duct injury. Intraoperative cholangiography is not effective as a preventive strategy against common duct injury during cholecystectomy. PMID:23982367

Sheffield, Kristin M.; Riall, Taylor S.; Han, Yimei; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Townsend, Courtney M.; Goodwin, James S.

2014-01-01

278

[Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with pericardial effusion].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of primary biliary cirrhosis, associated with moderate pericardial effusion, in a patient with antiphospholipid antibodies. The pericardial effusion resolved, and did not recur, in response to treatment with Colchicine and ursodesoxycholic acid. PMID:9809142

Agraou, B; Le Tourneau, T; Agraou, H; Leroy, F; Asseman, P; Dujardin, J J

1998-10-01

279

Endoscopic management of biliary hydatid disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of biliary hydatid disease. Design A case study between January 1992 and December 1994. Setting A university-affiliated hospital in Adana, Turkey. Patients Five patients with biliary hydatid disease, in which the cyst had ruptured into the biliary tree. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. Intervention Endoscopic sphincterotomy. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results All patients underwent successful endoscopic sphincterotomy, including removal of daughter cysts. During the follow-up period, ultrasonography and laboratory investigations showed complete cure in all patients. There were no complications due to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Conclusion Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for the management of hydatid cysts that have ruptured into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. PMID:8697318

Akkiz, Hikmet; Akinoglu, Alper; Colakoglu, Salih; Demiryurek, Haluk; Yagmur, Ozgur

1996-01-01

280

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Materials and Methods Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. Results EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Conclusion Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions. PMID:22563291

Ferreira, Flavio C.; Sakai, Paulo

2012-01-01

281

Biliary issues in the bariatric population.  

PubMed

Biliary disease is common in the obese population and increases after bariatric surgery. This article reviews management of the gallbladder at the time of bariatric surgery, as well as imaging modalities in the bariatric surgery population and prevention of lithogenesis in the rapid weight loss phase. In addition, diagnosis and treatment options for biliary diseases are discussed, including laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the patient having bariatric surgery. PMID:24679429

Grover, Brandon T; Kothari, Shanu N

2014-04-01

282

Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct  

PubMed Central

Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6?cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive) surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient's poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas. PMID:24804133

Agarwal, Rishi; Nguyen, Jeremy; Weidenhaft, Mandy Crause; Shores, Nathan; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.

2014-01-01

283

Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia  

SciTech Connect

We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

Hayashi, Sadao, E-mail: hayashi@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-07-15

284

Dynamic expression of desmin, ?-SMA and TGF-?1 during hepatic fibrogenesis induced by selective bile duct ligation in young rats  

PubMed Central

We previously described a selective bile duct ligation model to elucidate the process of hepatic fibrogenesis in children with biliary atresia or intrahepatic biliary stenosis. Using this model, we identified changes in the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) both in the obstructed parenchyma and in the hepatic parenchyma adjacent to the obstruction. However, the expression profiles of desmin and TGF-?1, molecules known to be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis, were unchanged when analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thus, the molecular mechanisms involved in the modulation of liver fibrosis in this experimental model are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular changes in an experimental model of selective bile duct ligation and to compare the gene expression changes observed in RT-PCR and in real-time quantitative PCR (qRT?PCR). Twenty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes and weaning age (21-23 days old) were used. The rats were separated into groups that were assessed 7 or 60 days after selective biliary duct ligation. The expression of desmin, ?-SMA and TGF-?1 was examined in tissue from hepatic parenchyma with biliary obstruction (BO) and in hepatic parenchyma without biliary obstruction (WBO), using RT-PCR and qRT?PCR. The results obtained in this study using these two methods were significantly different. The BO parenchyma had a more severe fibrogenic reaction, with increased ?-SMA and TGF-?1 expression after 7 days. The WBO parenchyma presented a later, fibrotic response, with increased desmin expression 7 days after surgery and increased ?-SMA 60 days after surgery. The qRT?PCR technique was more sensitive to expression changes than the semiquantitative method. PMID:25140817

Gonçalves, J.O.; Tannuri, A.C.A.; Coelho, M.C.M.; Bendit, I.; Tannuri, U.

2014-01-01

285

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. ...unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary...resulting from the entry of hot gases. The...

2013-01-01

286

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. ...unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary...resulting from the entry of hot gases. The...

2010-01-01

287

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. ...unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary...resulting from the entry of hot gases. The...

2012-01-01

288

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2013-01-01

289

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2012-01-01

290

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2010-01-01

291

Can pigment gallstones be induced by biliary stricture and prevented by medicine in Guinea pigs?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the relationship between biliary stricture and pigment gallstone formation, and the prevention of pigment gallstones with medicine. METHODS: One hundred and eighteen male guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups: stricture group (S, n = 30) underwent partial ligation of common bile duct, and fed on regular chow; S plus medicine group (S+M, n = 27) underwent the same operation but fed on medicinal chow (0.3 g chenodeoxycholic acid, 0.5 g glucurolactone, and 0.5 g aspirin were mixed up in 1.2 kg regular chow); medicinal control group (C+M, n = 30) was free of operation, and fed on medicinal chow; and control group (C, n = 31) was free of operation and fed on regular chow. One week later, laparotomy was performed, and the bile of gallbladder was collected, measured, and cultured. RESULTS: Gallstones were identified. Pigment gallstones were induced by biliary stricture in 95% (22/23) of S group. In the S+M group, the incidence of gallstone was reduced to 55% (11/20, vs S group, P < 0.01). The changes of indirect bilirubin and ionized calcium in the bile were consistent with gallstone incidences. CONCLUSION: Biliary stricture can cause pigment gallstone formation in guinea pigs, and the medicines used can lower the incidence of gallstones. The bilirubin and ionized calcium play important roles in pigment gallstone formation. PMID:17569139

Xu, Zhi; Ling, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Wan-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Si

2007-01-01

292

Inhibition of mast cell-derived histamine secretion by cromolyn sodium treatment decreases biliary hyperplasia in cholestatic rodents.  

PubMed

Cholangiopathies are characterized by dysregulation of the balance between biliary growth and loss. We have shown that histamine (HA) stimulates biliary growth via autocrine mechanisms. To evaluate the paracrine effects of mast cell (MC) stabilization on biliary proliferation, sham or BDL rats were treated by IP-implanted osmotic pumps filled with saline or cromolyn sodium (24?mg/kg BW/day (inhibits MC histamine release)) for 1 week. Serum, liver blocks and cholangiocytes were collected. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression was measured using real-time PCR in cholangiocytes. Intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) was evaluated by IHC for CK-19. MC number was determined using toluidine blue staining and correlated to IBDM. Proliferation was evaluated by PCNA expression in liver sections and purified cholangiocytes. We assessed apoptosis using real-time PCR and IHC for BAX. Expression of MC stem factor receptor, c-kit, and the proteases chymase and tryptase were measured by real-time PCR. HA levels were measured in serum by EIA. In vitro, MCs and cholangiocytes were treated with 0.1% BSA (basal) or cromolyn (25??M) for up to 48?h prior to assessing HDC expression, HA levels and chymase and tryptase expression. Supernatants from MCs treated with or without cromolyn were added to cholangiocytes before measuring (i) proliferation by MTT assays, (ii) HDC gene expression by real-time PCR and (iii) HA release by EIA. In vivo, cromolyn treatment decreased BDL-induced: (i) IBDM, MC number, and biliary proliferation; (ii) HDC and MC marker expression; and (iii) HA levels. Cromolyn treatment increased cholangiocyte apoptosis. In vitro, cromolyn decreased HA release and chymase and tryptase expression in MCs but not in cholangiocytes. Cromolyn-treated MC supernatants decreased biliary proliferation and HA release. These studies provide evidence that MC histamine is key to biliary proliferation and may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cholangiopathies. PMID:25365204

Kennedy, Lindsey L; Hargrove, Laura A; Graf, Allyson B; Francis, Taylor C; Hodges, Kyle M; Nguyen, Quy P; Ueno, Yoshi; Greene, John F; Meng, Fanyin; Huynh, Victoria D; Francis, Heather L

2014-12-01

293

The Role of Perioperative Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Biliary Drainage in Large Liver Hydatid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background. The best surgical technique for large liver hydatid cysts (LHCs) has not yet been agreed on. Objectives. The objective of this study was to examine the role of perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and biliary drainage in patients with large LHCs. Methods. A 20-year retrospective study of patients with LHCs treated surgically at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK). We divided patients into 2 groups based on treatment period: 1981–1990 (Group I) and 2001–2010 (Group II). Demographic characteristics (sex, age), the surgical procedure performed, complications rate, and outcomes were compared. Results. Of the 340 patients in our study, 218 (64.1%) were female with median age of 37 years (range, 17 to 81 years). 71% of patients underwent endocystectomy with partial pericystectomy and omentoplication, 8% total pericystectomy, 18% endocystectomy with capitonnage, and 3% external drainage. In Group I, 10 patients underwent bile duct exploration and T-tube placement; in Group II, 39 patients underwent bile duct exploration and T-tube placement. In addition, 9 patients in Group II underwent perioperative ERCP with papillotomy. The complication rate was 14.32% versus 6.37%, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Perioperative ERCP and biliary drainage significantly decreased the complication rate and improved outcomes in patients with large LHCs.

Bicaj, B.; Limani, D.; Maxhuni, M.; Rrusta, A.; Hoxha, F.; Sada, F.; Hashani, S.; Musa, R.; Latifi, R.

2014-01-01

294

Intraductal mono-octanoin for the direct dissolution of bile duct stones: experience in 343 patients.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy and safety of mono-octanoin, a cholesterol solvent for the direct dissolution of stones in the biliary tract, was assessed by collating case reports on 343 patients provided by 222 physicians who used the material between 1977 and 1983. Most patients had previously undergone cholecystectomy, with common duct exploration, the majority within the preceding six weeks. In most, sphincterotomy was impossible or if carried out, had not induced stone passage. Stone dissolution was considered preferable to surgery, especially in patients who were frail, elderly, or had multiple medical problems. Treatment was unequivocally successful in 88 patients (26%) and was a valuable adjunct to interventional treatment in another 29 subjects (8%). In 70 patients (20%), calculi became smaller, but remained within the biliary tree. Thus, mono-octanoin was judged to have been useful in 54% of patients. Treatment was ineffective in 124 cases (36%). In the remaining 32 patients (9%), treatment was aborted because of side effects. Such side effects were common, occurring in 67% of cases, and in 41% of patients they were multiple. Abdominal pain was the most common complication. Other side effects reported were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Side effects were usually dose related and responded to reduction in infusion rate. Side effects were life threatening in 12 patients (5%), but there were no permanent sequelae and no deaths occurred. These data indicate that mono-octanoin is moderately effective, generally second line, but sometimes first line, treatment for retained biliary duct calculi. PMID:3949248

Palmer, K R; Hofmann, A F

1986-01-01

295

Transjejunal biliary interventions: going back to a road less traveled.  

PubMed

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions are not without risk and potential complications. In patients with bilioenteric anastomosis in whom repeat biliary interventions are expected, percutaneous transjejunal access is a very useful approach that is not frequently used nowadays. We provide a brief review of the history, indications, and current status of transjejunal biliary interventions. Transjejunal biliary access provides a relatively atraumatic pathway to the biliary system in patients that need repeat interventions. Multiple studies have provided convincing data that in appropriately chosen patients receiving a bilioenteric anastomosis, an antecolic limb of jejunum should be placed for subsequent access in biliary intervention. PMID:24316661

Lopera, Jorge E; Ramsey, Gregory R

2014-12-01

296

Upregulation of mir-506 Leads to Decreased AE2 Expression in Biliary Epithelium of Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Cl?/HCO3?anion exchanger 2 (AE2) participates in intracellular pH homeostasis and secretin-stimulated biliary bicarbonate secretion. AE2/SLC4A2 gene expression is reduced in liver and blood mononuclear cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Our previous findings of hepatic and immunological features mimicking PBC in Ae2-deficient mice strongly suggest that decreased AE2 expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Here we tested the potential role of hsa-microRNA 506 (miR-506) – predicted as candidate to target AE2 mRNA – for the decreased expression of AE2 in PBC. Real-time qPCR showed that miR-506 expression is increased in PBC livers versus normal liver specimens. In situ hybridization in liver sections confirmed that miR-506 is upregulated in the intrahepatic bile ducts of PBC livers compared with normal and primary-sclerosing-cholangitis livers. Precursor-mediated overexpression of miR-506 in SV40-immortalized normal human cholangiocytes (H69 cells) led to decreased AE2 protein expression and activity, as indicated by immunoblotting and microfluorimetry, respectively. Moreover, miR-506 overexpression in 3D-cultured H69 cholangiocytes blocked the secretin-stimulated expansion of cystic structures developed under the three-dimensional conditions. Luciferase assays and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that miR-506 specifically may bind the 3’UTR region of AE2 mRNA and prevent protein translation. Finally, cultured PBC cholangiocytes showed decreased AE2 activity together with miR-506 overexpression compared to normal human cholangiocytes, and, transfection of PBC cholangiocytes with anti-miR-506 was able to improve their AE2 activity. Conclusion miR-506 is upregulated in cholangiocytes from PBC patients, binds the 3’UTR region of AE2 mRNA and prevents protein translation, leading to diminished AE2 activity and impaired biliary secretory functions. In view of the putative pathogenic role of decreased AE2 in PBC, miR-506 may constitute a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:22383162

Banales, Jesus M.; Saez, Elena; Uriz, Miriam; Sarvide, Sarai; Urribarri, Aura D.; Splinter, Patrick; Tietz Bogert, Pamela S.; Bujanda, Luis; Prieto, Jesus; Medina, Juan F.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

2012-01-01

297

Endoscopy after radiology: two-step combined therapy for biliary stricture after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.  

PubMed

Benign postoperative anastomotic strictures after hepaticojejunostomy are difficult to manage. Before interventional techniques were developed, surgical intervention was the only option for treatment. A 28-year-old man underwent Whipple procedure with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy for abdominal trauma. Two years later, a late anastomotic biliary stricture was diagnosed. A percutaneous cholangiography showed a severe stricture in the hepaticojejunostomy. Because of the severity and length of the stricture, and the failure of repeated percutaneous balloon-dilations, we percutaneously placed a self-expandable metal stent, a nitinol polytetrafluoroethylene fully covered flared-type stent, 3 cm in length, with 10 mm of diameter. The patient was soon discharged home in good general condition that remained stable in the 6 months of follow up. To remove the biliary stent, we carried out single-balloon enteroscopy. The stent was captured with a standard polypectomy snare. To avoid injury to the mucosa, the stent was removed through the overtube, which remained in situ. Cholangiogram showed a normal biliary tree, with resolution of the anastomotic stenosis. The patient remained stable throughout the 8 months of follow up, and required no further biliary procedures. In cases of failure of standard procedures, this new two-step, combined percutaneous and endoscopic approach can be useful and feasible, avoiding surgery-related morbidity and mortality. However, the fact that these procedures should be carried out only by highly experienced endoscopists and interventional radiologists familiar with these specialized procedures cannot be overstressed. PMID:22725114

Curcio, Gabriele; Traina, Mario; Miraglia, Roberto; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Granata, Antonino; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

2012-07-01

298

[A case of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas arising from pancreas divisum without ventral pancreatic duct of Wirsung].  

PubMed

Most reported cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) originate from Wirsung's duct or their branches. IPMNs arising from Santorini's duct and its branches have rarely been reported. Eight cases of IPMN arising from Santorini's duct have been published worldwide. However, these cases are associated with incomplete type of pancreas divisum. Recently, one report of IPMN with complete absence of Wirsung's duct has been reported. This patient was a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital due to progressive jaundice. On endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, there was a severely bulging ampulla of Vater and patulous minor papilla draining mucinous material and a cystic lesion communicating with the dilated Santorini's duct without any communication with Wirsung's duct. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and the pathologic examination of resected specimen showed no evidence of Wirsung's duct, but an IPMN arising from Santorini's duct with peripancreatic lymph node metastasis. Herein, we report a case of invasive IPMN arising from pancreatic head without ventral pancreatic duct with a review of the relevant literatures. PMID:16554676

Kim, Sung Cheol; Kim, Seong Hwan; Myung, Suk Jin; Choi, Jin Woo; Song, Moon Hee; Jo, Yoon Ju; Park, Young Sook; Joo, Jong Eun; Park, Sung Won

2006-03-01

299

The role of proton therapy in the treatment of large irradiation volumes: a comparative planning study of pancreatic and biliary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the potential benefit of proton therapy for abdominal tumors. Extensive comparative planning was conducted investigating the most up-to-date photon and proton irradiation technologies.Methods and Materials: A number of rival plans were generated for four patients: two inoperable pancreatic tumors, one inoperable and one postoperative biliary duct tumor. The dose prescription goal

Alfredo Zurlo; Antony Lomax; Angelika Hoess; Thomas Bortfeld; Mariateresa Russo; Gudrun Goitein; Vincenzo Valentini; Laura Marucci; Roberto Capparella; Armando Loasses

2000-01-01

300

Dilated cardiomyopathy due to a phospholamban duplication.  

PubMed

Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by dilation and impaired systolic function. We present the case of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a 624 kb duplication of 6q22.31, which includes the phospholamban gene. The patient also has failure to thrive and developmental delay due to complex cytogenetic abnormalities including a 5p15 deletion associated with Cri du Chat and an 11p15 duplication associated with Russell-Silver syndrome. PMID:24451198

Lee, Teresa M; Addonizio, Linda J; Chung, Wendy K

2014-10-01

301

Radiated noise of ducted fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular

Walter Eversman

1992-01-01

302

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2011-04-01

303

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2013-04-01

304

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2012-04-01

305

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2010-04-01

306

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2014-04-01

307

Improvized pneumatic dilator for achalasia cardia.  

PubMed

The indigenous pneumatic dilator for achalasia cardia reported previously by the authors was being placed alongside the endoscope to perform dilatation under direct vision. It has now been improvised to make the procedure wire-guided and fluoroscopy-assisted as well. The improvization includes insertion of a central Teflon tube for passage of a guidewire and presence of three radio-opaque markers, which define the proximal, central and distal ends of the dilator and help in precise positioning under fluoroscopy. Dilatation for achalasia cardia using the improvized pneumatic dilator with fluoroscopic guidance was performed successfully on 10 patients at our center. All patients had clinical response with greater than 50% improvement in total symptom score. Barium swallow examination after dilatation showed improvement in esophageal transit in all patients. None of the patients developed any complication. Cost of the dilator is approximately 50 times less than that of commercially available dilators. The dilator can be re-used by sterilizing it, which further reduces the cost. PMID:12962438

Nijhawan, S; Shimpi, L; Mathur, V; Rai, R R

2003-01-01

308

Brain abscess after esophageal dilatation: case report.  

PubMed

Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation. PMID:17710371

Gaďni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

2008-02-01

309

Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and postoperatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Results: Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:19660213

Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter

2009-01-01

310

Cholangiocarcinoma: preoperative biliary drainage (Con)  

PubMed Central

Aim. In patients with malignant hilar obstruction, liver resection is associated with an increased risk of postoperative liver failure attributed to the need for major liver resection in a context of obstructive jaundice. To overcome this issue, most authors recommend preoperative biliary drainage (PBD). However, PBD carries risks of its own, including, primarily, sepsis and, more rarely, tumor seeding, bile peritonitis, and hemobilia. We, unlike most authors, have not used routine PBD before liver resection in jaundiced patients. Material and methods. Our series includes 62 patients who underwent major liver resection for cholangiocarcinoma; 33 of these had elevated bilurubin (60–470 µmol/l) and were operated without PBD. There were 43 extended right hepatectomies and 18 extended left hepatectomies. Results. Hospital deaths occurred in 5 patients (8%) including 3 of 33 jaundiced patients (9%, ns). All deaths occurred after extended right hepatectomy (12%), including 3 patients with a serum bilirubin level above 300 µmol/l and 2 with normal bilirubin. There were no deaths after left-sided resections, whatever the level of bilirubin. Conclusions. PBD can be omitted in the following situations: recent onset jaundice (<2–3 weeks), total bilirubin <200 µmol/l, no previous endoscopic or transhepatic cholangiography, absence of sepsis, future liver remnant >40%. These criteria include most patients requiring left-sided resections and selected patients requiring right-sided resections. In other cases, PBD is required, associated with portal vein embolization in the event of a small future liver remnant. PMID:18773089

Laurent, A.; Tayar, C.

2008-01-01

311

Hepatectomy for bile duct injuries: When is it necessary?  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI) are still a challenge for surgeons. The most frequently, they are caused by laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is one of the commonest surgical procedure in the world. Endoscopic techniques are recommended as initial treatment of IBDI. When endoscopic treatment is not effective, surgery is considered. Different surgical biliary reconstructions are performed in most patients in IBDI. Roux-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the commonest biliary reconstruction for IBDI. In some patients with complex IBDI, hepatectomy is required. Recently, Li et al analyzed the factors that had led to hepatectomy for patients with IBDI after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Authors concluded that hepatectomy might be necessary to manage early or late complications after LC. The study showed that proximal IBDI (involving hepatic confluence) and IBDI associated with vascular injuries were the two independent risk factors of hepatectomy in this series. Authors distinguished two main groups of patients that require liver resection in IBDI: those with an injury-induced liver necrosis necessitating early intervention, and those in whom liver resection is indicated for treatment of liver atrophy following long-term cholangitis. In this commentary, indications for hepatectomy in patients with IBDI are discussed. Complex biliovascular injuries as indications for hepatectomy are presented. Short- and long-term results in patients following liver resection for IBDI are also discussed. Hepatectomy is not a standard procedure in surgical treatment of IBDI, but in some complex injuries it should be considered. PMID:24151352

Jablonska, Beata

2013-01-01

312

Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial)  

PubMed Central

Background Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the general condition and thus reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early studies showed a reduction in morbidity. However, more recently the focus has shifted towards the negative effects of drainage, such as an increase of infectious complications. Whether biliary drainage should always be performed in jaundiced patients remains controversial. The randomized controlled multicenter DROP-trial (DRainage vs. Operation) was conceived to compare the outcome of a 'preoperative biliary drainage strategy' (standard strategy) with that of an 'early-surgery' strategy, with respect to the incidence of severe complications (primary-outcome measure), hospital stay, number of invasive diagnostic tests, costs, and quality of life. Methods/design Patients with obstructive jaundice due to a periampullary tumor, eligible for exploration after staging with CT scan, and scheduled to undergo a "curative" resection, will be randomized to either "early surgical treatment" (within one week) or "preoperative biliary drainage" (for 4 weeks) and subsequent surgical treatment (standard treatment). Primary outcome measure is the percentage of severe complications up to 90 days after surgery. The sample size calculation is based on the equivalence design for the primary outcome measure. If equivalence is found, the comparison of the secondary outcomes will be essential in selecting the preferred strategy. Based on a 40% complication rate for early surgical treatment and 48% for preoperative drainage, equivalence is taken to be demonstrated if the percentage of severe complications with early surgical treatment is not more than 10% higher compared to standard treatment: preoperative biliary drainage. Accounting for a 10% dropout, 105 patients are needed in each arm resulting in a study population of 210 (alpha = 0.95, beta = 0.8). Discussion The DROP-trial is a randomized controlled multicenter trial that will provide evidence whether or not preoperative biliary drainage is to be performed in patients with obstructive jaundice due to a periampullary tumor. PMID:17352805

van der Gaag, Niels A; de Castro, Steve MM; Rauws, Erik AJ; Bruno, Marco J; van Eijck, Casper HJ; Kuipers, Ernst J; Gerritsen, Josephus JGM; Rutten, Jan-Paul; Greve, Jan Willem; Hesselink, Erik J; Klinkenbijl, Jean HG; Rinkes, Inne HM Borel; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A; van Laarhoven, Cees J; Kubben, Frank JGM; van der Harst, Erwin; Sosef, Meindert N; Bosscha, Koop; de Hingh, Ignace HJT; Th de Wit, Laurens; van Delden, Otto M; Busch, Olivier RC; van Gulik, Thomas M; Bossuyt, Patrick MM; Gouma, Dirk J

2007-01-01

313

Computed-tomographic cholangiography: a new technique for evaluating the head of the pancreas and distal biliary tree  

SciTech Connect

Computed-tomographic cholangiography was used to evaluate the abdomen of 97 patients. The gallbladder and/or biliary tree was visualized well in 84 patients (87%); the distal common bile duct (CBD) was visualized well in 68 patients (70%). For 26 patients (30%) from the latter group, visualization of the opacified CBD was essential in order to differentiate the pancreatic head from the duodenum. Measurements of the distal CBD showed a significant difference between patients with gallbladders (mean, 4.7 +/- 1.2 mm) and those without gallbladders (mean, 6.8 +/- 1.1 mm). By visualizing the CBD and the superior mesenteric vein, exact dimensions of the uncinate process can be obtained. Also, the pancreatic head can be assessed more accurately, and the distal biliary tree can be evaluated.

Greenberg, M. (Univ. of Chicago Hospitals, IL); Greenberg, B.M.; Rubin, J.M.; Greenberg, I.M.

1982-07-01

314

A case of liver cirrhosis with chylous ascites and multiple cystic dilatation of the abdominal lymphatic system.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old male suffering from abdominal distension and diagnosed by laparoscopic and histological examination as a liver cirrhosis patient, had a chylous ascites with a negative Gordon test. The content of chylomicron in ascites decreased by restriction of dietary fat, although the ascites retention was resistant to salt restriction, diuretics and intravenous re-infusion of ascites. Lymphangiography revealed dysplasia of the retroperitoneal lymphatic system and dilatation of the thoracic duct. Main autopsy findings were liver cirrhosis (post-necrotic type) without malignancy and marked cystic dilatations of the lymphatic duct. The lymph congestion in the intestine was more remarkable in the subserosal space and the leakage of the chyle into the abdominal cavity was also proved by histological examination. PMID:7203372

Watanabe, M; Taketa, K; Yonei, J; Kubota, M; Nagashima, H; Akamutsu, K; Awai, M

1980-10-01

315

Common bile duct schwannoma: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Schwannoma is a myelin sheath tumor complicated with neurofibroma, neurofibromatosis and neurogenic sarcoma. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors represent 2%-6% of gastrointestinal tract stromal tumors (GIST), but there are deficient data about location of neurogenic tumors in the biliary system and only nine cases of schwannoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract have been reported. These tumors are clinically non-specific. They are usually symptomatic by compressing the close or adjacent structures when being retroperitoneal, and their preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. This paper reviews the literature data and describes a case of schwannoma of the common bile duct associated with cholestasis in a healthy young woman, diagnosed and treated in our department. This case is of interest on account of the complexity of its diagnosis and the atypical macroscopic growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:17451214

Fenoglio, Luigi; Severini, Sara; Cena, Paola; Migliore, Elena; Bracco, Christian; Pomero, Fulvio; Panzone, Sergio; Cavallero, Giovan Battista; Silvestri, Alberto; Brizio, Rodolfo; Borghi, Felice

2007-01-01

316

Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

Lopera, Jorge E., E-mail: jloper@lsuhsc.edu; Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong [Louisiana State University, Department of Radiology (United States); Ruiz, Bernardo [Louisiana State University, Department of Pathology (United States); Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido [Louisiana State University, Department of Radiology (United States)

2005-05-15

317

Does hepatic vagus nerve modulate the progression of biliary fibrosis in rats?  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that vagus nerve activation inhibits cytokine production in a variety of non-neural cells though activation of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAChR). Since chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in liver fibrosis, this study was designed to investigate the role of hepatic vagus nerve in the progression of hepatic fibrosis in rats. Cirrhosis was induced by chronic ligation of the bile duct. Hepatic hydroxyproline level, portal pressure, serum transaminase level, hepatic TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1) expression were measured in order to assess the progression of liver cirrhosis. ?7nAChR expression was assessed using RT-PCR as well as immunostaining. RT-PCR analysis of the liver showed that ?7nAChR mRNA is expressed in rat liver. Immunostaining study demonstrated that hepatic ?7nAChR is mainly expressed in the hepatocytes of cirrhotic liver with minimum ?7nAChR expression in biliary epithelium or myofibroblasts. Bile duct ligation was associated with portal hypertension, increased hepatic hydroxyproline level as well as TIMP-1 and MCP-1 expression in the liver. However neither selective hepatic vagotomy nor methyllycaconitine (an ?7nAChR antagonist) could significantly affect development of portal hypertension or hepatic fibrosis in rats. Selective hepatic vagotomy could only attenuate serum aspartate aminotransferase level in bile duct ligated rats but did not have a significant effect on hepatic inflammation as assessed by MCP-1 mRNA expression. Our study provides evidence against a crucial role for the hepatic vagus nerve as an intrinsic protective mechanism in modulation of hepatic fibrosis in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. PMID:25088816

Hajiasgharzadeh, Khalil; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Javan, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad R; Mani, Ali R

2014-10-01

318

Biliary Tract Complications after Liver Transplantation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary complications continue to be a major cause of morbidity in liver transplant recipients with an incidence of 10–30% following whole-organ transplantation and a mortality rate of up to 10%. Biliary leaks and strictures are most common but sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, hemobilia, and biliary obstruction are also observed. Biliary complications may be related to various factors such as hepatic

Maciej Wojcicki; Piotr Milkiewicz; Michael Silva

2008-01-01

319

Treatment of Common Bile Duct Obstruction by Pancreatic Cancer Using Various Stents: Single-Center Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of various means of stenting in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer in a retrospective analysis. Methods: Sixty-two patients with biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent biliary stenting. On the basis of the findings obtained by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(10 patients) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (52 patients),the site of obstruction was distal to the hilar confluence,predominantly especially in the middle to lower third of the common bile duct. Polyurethane-covered Wallstents (9 mm in diameter) we reinserted in 13 patients, while uncovered Wallstents (10 mm in diameter)were used in 10 patients and plastic stents (10 Fr and 12 Fr) were used in 39 patients. Results: Stenting was successful in 34 patients (87.2%) treated with plastic stents and in 22 patients(95.7%) treated with Wallstents. Effective biliary drainage was achieved in 32 out of 34 patients (94.1%) treated with plastic stents and in 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) treated with Wallstents. The cumulative patency rate was significantly higher for the uncovered and covered Wallstents compared to plastic stents, but was not significantly higher for covered than for uncovered Wallstents. Stentocclusion occurred in 23 patients (70%; all by clogging) from the plastic stent group, in two patients (22%; by tumor ingrowth) from the uncovered Wallstent group, and in one patient (9%; by clogging) from the covered Wallstent group. The survival rate showed no significant difference among the three stent groups. Conclusion: The Wallstent is effective for long-term palliation in patients with obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer invading the middle to lower part of the common bile duct. The covered Wallstent can prevent tumor ingrowth, a problem with the uncovered Wallstent. However, it may be necessary to take measures to prevent the migration or clogging of covered Wallstents.

Nakamura, Toshifumi; Hirai, Ritsuko; Kitagawa, Mutsuo; Takehira, Yasunori; Yamada, Masami [Department of Gastroenterology, Hamamatsu Medical Center, 328 Tomitsuka-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Tamakoshi, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Hirotoshi [SecondDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School ofMedicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Kanamori, Masao [Department of Public Health, HamamatsuUniversity School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

2002-10-15

320

Introduction Dilated cardiomyopathy, one of the  

E-print Network

Introduction Dilated cardiomyopathy, one of the leading causes of heart failure in the United data have demonstrated that several hered- itary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy are related to defects of the extrasar- comeric myocyte cytoskeleton (2) and imply that familial cardiomyopathy can result from defective

Campbell, Kevin P.

321

Treatment of achalasia with pneumatic dilatations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 13 years 264 unselected patients with achalasia have been treated solely by the technique of pneumatic dilatation. The principle of the method was to continue the series of consecutive dilatations until the result was satisfactory. This paper reports the late results in 138 patients who were treated more than three years ago (3-13 years; mean 6·6 years).

G. Vantrappen; J. Hellemans; W. Deloof; P. Valembois; J. Vandenbroucke

1971-01-01

322

PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

1989-01-01

323

A radially expanding sheath for urethral dilation.  

PubMed

Urethral trauma caused by urethral dilation often leads to complications including gross hemorrhage and inflammation. The injury of the urethral mucosa is, in a large part, due to the shearing forces imposed on it during the introduction of dilation devices. In this article, a radially expanding sheath for urethral dilation is hypothesized by the authors. This device aims to reduce the axial forces during the insertion of dilators, thereby protecting the urethral mucosa from friction. When performing the endoscopy, the device could act as a barrier between urethral mucosa and the endoscope. Moreover, in the situation of encountering difficulties in catheterization, the sheath could also be used as a guide-wire to lead the catheter through its lumen course. Thus, it is proposed that this radially expanding sheath could be a potential powerful approach for reducing the risks and complications of urethral dilation. PMID:19589646

Hu, Zheng; Ma, Xin; Li, Hong-zhao; Wang, Chao; Ye, Da-wei; Gong, Dao-jing; Zhang, Xu

2009-10-01

324

The use of double balloon enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of strictures of hepaticojejunal anastomoses after primary correction of bile duct injuries  

PubMed Central

Introduction Development of strictures of hepaticojejunal anastomoses (HJA) is observed in 6–30% of patients and mortality after repeated reconstructive interventions ranges from 13% to 25%. Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) allows one to visualize the zone of Roux-en-Y anastomosis after reconstructive operations on the bile ducts for differentiation between stricture of HJA and recurrent cholangitis. Aim Report on the first experience of DBE of jejunal loop studies after reconstructive operations on the biliary tract. Material and methods During the period 2002–2012 we performed in our centre 86 hepaticojejunostomies after iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Mean age was 51 ±6 years. Patients with Roux-en-Y HJA and jejunum loop with Braun's bypass anastomosis who underwent DBE with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (DBE-RChG) in our unit between February 2009 and December 2012 were enrolled in this study. A total of 33 procedures were performed during this period. All of them involved examination of HJA through a jejunum loop by DBE with capture of bile for bacteriology, Roux loop wall for biopsy and miniinvasive procedures. Results The DBE-RChG after visualization of the HJA zone was performed in 21 cases: 3 of them had the jejunum loop to Braun's bypass, 18 – HJA on the Roux loop. In 13 cases stricture of HJA was confirmed: at 6 reoperations were performed, in 7 – miniinvasive procedures (3 – laser vaporizations, 2 – stone extraction, 1 – lithotripsy, 1 – at the first stage stone extraction was carried out, then laser vaporization). The DBE-RChG was performed in 13 (61.9%) patients. The overall diagnostic success with Braun's bypass was 100%, after Roux-en-Y reconstruction in 10 of 13 cases (55.6%). In connection with accumulation of experience, in 2012 diagnostic success in DBE-RChG of HJA on Roux loop increased to 81.3%. Conclusions The MRI-ChG in our series frequently (10.3%) shows a false-positive result in favor of HJA strictures. The DBE examination of HJA with additional cholangiography is a modern and precise method of detection of HJA strictures. Their DBE-balloon dilation and argon-laser vaporization or DBE lithoextraction are new ways of miniinvasive treatment. PMID:25097690

Arlouski, Yury; Vizhinis, Egi; Shuleika, Anatoli; Lagodich, Natalia; Derkacheva, Natalia

2014-01-01

325

Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma with Compression of the Main Pancreatic Duct: An Unusual Entity  

PubMed Central

Serous cystadenoma is a common benign neoplasm that can be managed without surgery in asymptomatic patients provided that the diagnosis is certain. We describe a patient, whose pancreatic cyst exhibited a radiological appearance distinct from that of typical serous cystadenoma, resulting in diagnostic difficulties. CT and MRI showed a 10?cm-polycystic tumor with upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). Ultrasonographic aspect and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration gave arguments for serous cystadenoma. ERCP showed a communication between cysts and the dilated MPD, compatible with IPMT. The patient underwent left pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Pathological examination concluded in a serous cystadenoma, with only a ductal obstruction causing proximal dilatation. PMID:21436987

Truant, Stephanie; Izgarevic, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Buob, David; Bulois, Philippe; Ernst, Olivier; Huet, Guillemette; Zerbib, Philippe; Pruvot, Francois-Rene

2011-01-01

326

Truncations of Titin Causing Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy arise from mutations in many genes. TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomere protein titin, has been insufficiently analyzed for cardiomyopathy mutations because of its enormous size. METHODS We analyzed TTN in 312 subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy, 231 subjects with hyper-trophic cardiomyopathy, and 249 controls by using next-generation or dideoxy sequencing. We evaluated deleterious variants for cosegregation in families and assessed clinical characteristics. RESULTS We identified 72 unique mutations (25 nonsense, 23 frameshift, 23 splicing, and 1 large tandem insertion) that altered full-length titin. Among subjects studied by means of next-generation sequencing, the frequency of TTN mutations was significantly higher among subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy (54 of 203 [27%]) than among subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (3 of 231 [1%], P = 3×10?16) or controls (7 of 249 [3%], P = 9×10?14). TTN mutations cosegregated with dilated cardiomyopathy in families (combined lod score, 11.1) with high (>95%) observed penetrance after the age of 40 years. Mutations associated with dilated cardiomyopathy were overrepresented in the titin A-band but were absent from the Z-disk and M-band regions of titin (P?0.01 for all comparisons). Overall, the rates of cardiac outcomes were similar in subjects with and those without TTN mutations, but adverse events occurred earlier in male mutation carriers than in female carriers (P = 4×10?5). CONCLUSIONS TTN truncating mutations are a common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, occurring in approximately 25% of familial cases of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and in 18% of sporadic cases. Incorporation of sequencing approaches that detect TTN truncations into genetic testing for dilated cardiomyopathy should substantially increase test sensitivity, thereby allowing earlier diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for many patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Defining the functional effects of TTN truncating mutations should improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. (Funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and others.) PMID:22335739

Herman, Daniel S.; Lam, Lien; Taylor, Matthew R.G.; Wang, Libin; Teekakirikul, Polakit; Christodoulou, Danos; Conner, Lauren; DePalma, Steven R.; McDonough, Barbara; Sparks, Elizabeth; Teodorescu, Debbie Lin; Cirino, Allison L.; Banner, Nicholas R.; Pennell, Dudley J.; Graw, Sharon; Merlo, Marco; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Bos, J. Martijn; Ackerman, Michael J.; Mitchell, Richard N.; Murry, Charles E.; Lakdawala, Neal K.; Ho, Carolyn Y.; Barton, Paul J.R.; Cook, Stuart A.; Mestroni, Luisa; Seidman, J.G.; Seidman, Christine E.

2013-01-01

327

ePTFE\\/FEP-Covered Metallic Stents for Palliation of MalignantBiliary Disease: Can Tumor Ingrowth Be Prevented?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the\\u000a application and clinical effectiveness of ePTFE\\/FEP-covered metallic stents for\\u000a palliation of malignant biliary disease, and to evaluate the efficiency of\\u000a stent coverage in preventing tumor ingrowth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  During a 3-year\\u000a period, 36 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were treated with\\u000a ePTFE\\/FEP-covered stents, with or without proximal side holes. The stricture\\u000a was located in the lower common bile duct

Adam Hatzidakis; Miltiadis Krokidis; Kostantinos Kalbakis; Jiannis Romanos; Ioannis Petrakis; Nicholas Gourtsoyiannis

2007-01-01

328

Genetics Home Reference: Dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic testing OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome On this page: Description Genetic ... Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2014 What is dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome? Dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia (DCMA) ...

329

Genetics Home Reference: DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed February 2012 What is DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy? DMD -associated dilated cardiomyopathy is a form of ...

330

Measurements of Smoke Characteristics in HVAC Ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of smoke traveling in an HVAC duct have been observed along with the response of selected duct smoke detectors. The simulated HVAC system consists of a 9 m long duct, 0.45 m in diameter. An exhaust fan is placed at one end of the duct and is capable of inducing airflow rates that range from 0 to 1.5

Steven D. Wolin; Noah L. Ryder; Frederic Leprince; James A. Milke; Frederick W. Mowrer; Jose L. Torero

2001-01-01

331

Using the Valeo dilatable stent in coarctation stenting for small children: expanding the inclusion criteria for coarctation stenting?  

PubMed

The application of coarctation stenting has grown in paediatric and adult practice in recent years. Stent and delivery sheath technology has improved; however, we remain technically limited when implanting small calibre stents through small sheaths in small children, which then have the potential to be dilated to adult size as time passes. We describe the first reported use of the Valeo Biliary Pre-mounted Re-dilatable Stent (Edwards Life Sciences, California, USA) in aortic coarctation with 1 year follow-up including cross-sectional imaging. This 14 kg 3-year-old girl presented following an intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to severe systemic hypertension. Despite implantation through a 7-French sheath, this stent can be postdilated up to 20 mm, and therefore provides an important new addition to the interventional armamentarium. PMID:24336586

Shepherd, Emma; Connolly, Georgia May; Morgan, Gareth

2013-01-01

332

A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

1983-01-01

333

Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation with Large Balloon after Limited Sphincterotomy for Retrieval of Choledocholithiasis  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EBD) for choledocholithiasis is known to be comparable to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) especially in cases of small stones. With larger stones, EBD with conventional balloon, which have a diameter of 6-8 mm, was reported as less effective for extraction of stones. We evaluated the efficacy and complications of EBD with large balloons (10-15 mm) after limited EST for retrieval of choledocholithiasis. From February 2005, we have performed EBD with limited EST for retrieval of common bile duct (CBD) stones. The patients who admitted with hyperamylasemia and gallstone pancreatitis were excluded. In cases without CBD dilation, EPBD with 12 mm for 40 seconds was performed. And in cases with CBD dilation, we dilated the sphincters with 15 mm sized balloon for 40 seconds. Total 22 patients (11 of male) were performed EBD with limited EST for retrieval of CBD stones. The median diameter of the stones was 10 mm (5-25 mm). Ten cases had multiple stones and 6 cases periampullary diverticuli. Successful stone removal in the initial session of ERCP with EBD was accomplished in 16 patients (72.7%). And complete retrieval of bile duct stones was achieved in all patients with repeated ERCP. In the aspect of complications, any episodes of perforation, bleeding was not developed. Only one case of mild grade of post-procedural pancreatitis was noted. However, post-procedural hyperamylasemia was developed in 16 cases (68.2%). EBD with larger balloon seems to be a feasible and safe alternative technique for conventional EST in CBD stone extraction. PMID:17191309

Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Myoung Hwan; Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

2006-01-01

334

Intrahepatic bile duct injury and nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa.  

PubMed

Although involvement of the hepatic vasculature in patients with polyarteritis nodosa is not unusual, biliary manifestations are very rare. We describe a patient with polyarteritis nodosa presenting with a febrile cholestatic anicteric syndrome. Histological examination of the liver revealed necrotizing arteritis of small hepatic arteries associated with significant lesions of intrahepatic bile ducts of the sclerosing cholangitis type, i.e. fibrous collar around the ducts, periductal inflammation and ductal proliferation. Concomitant nodular regenerative hyperplasia was found, a condition which has rarely been described in association with polyarteritis nodosa. We think that hepatic arteritis compromising arterial blood flow to the liver was responsible for the most likely ischemic nature of the bile duct injury and the nodular regenerative hyperplasia seen in our patient. PMID:9075683

Goritsas, C P; Repanti, M; Papadaki, E; Lazarou, N; Andonopoulos, A P

1997-03-01

335

Two New Duct Leakage Tests  

SciTech Connect

Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

Andrews, J.W.

1998-12-01

336

Flexible Borescope For Inspecting Ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Borescope and associated equipment developed specifically for use in optical inspection of inside of flexible joints in rocket-engine fuel duct. Apparatus includes assembly, characterized as "mouse/canoe," at sensing end of 10-ft borescope cable. Borescope tip rides in mouse/canoe. The mouse/canoe made laterally compressible, to facilitate movement past constrictions and provides fixed distance from inspection point permitting accurate description in duct inspected.

Shinozaki, Keith; Armstrong, Mike P.; Urquidi, Ron

1995-01-01

337

Small sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation versus sphincterotomy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare small sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (SES + ELBD) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for large bile duct stones. METHODS: We compared prospectively SES + ELBD (group A, n = 27) with conventional EST (group B, n = 28) for the treatment of large bile duct stones (? 15 mm). When the stone could not be removed with a normal basket, mechanical lithotripsy was performed. We compared the rates of complete stone removal with one session and application of mechanical lithotripsy. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the mean largest stone size (A: 20.8 mm, B: 21.3 mm), bile duct diameter (A: 21.4 mm, B: 20.5 mm), number of stones (A: 2.2, B: 2.3), or procedure time (A: 18 min, B: 19 min) between the two groups. The rates of complete stone removal with one session was 85% in group A and 86% in group B (P = 0.473). Mechanical lithotripsy was required for stone removal in nine of 27 patients (33%) in group A and nine of 28 patients (32%, P = 0.527) in group B. CONCLUSION: SES + ELBD did not show significant benefits compared to conventional EST, especially for the removal of large (? 15 mm) bile duct stones. PMID:19750573

Kim, Hyun Gun; Cheon, Young Koog; Cho, Young Deok; Moon, Jong Ho; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Choi, Hyun Jong; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Moon Sung

2009-01-01

338

Turbofan aft duct suppressor study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suppressions due to acoustic treatment in the annular exhaust duct of a model fan were theoretically predicted and compared with measured suppressions. The predictions are based on the modal analysis of sound propagation in a straight annular flow duct with segmented treatment. Modal distributions of the fan noise source (fan-stator interaction only) were measured using in-duct modal probes. The flow profiles were also measured in the vicinity of the modal probes. The acoustic impedance of the single degree of freedom treatment was measured in the presence of grazing flow. The measured values of mode distribution of the fan noise source, the flow velocity profile and the acoustic impedance of the treatment in the duct were used as input to the prediction program. The predicted suppressions, under the assumption of uniform flow in the duct, compared well with the suppressions measured in the duct for all test conditions. The interaction modes generated by the rotor-stator interaction spanned a cut-off ratio range from nearly 1 to 7.

Syed, A. A.; Motsinger, R. E.; Fiske, G. H.; Joshi, M. C.; Kraft, R. E.

1983-01-01

339

Biliary adenofibroma. A heretofore unrecognized benign biliary tumor of the liver.  

PubMed

Benign biliary tumors of the liver are uncommon. In this report, we describe a distinctive biliary tumor of 7-cm diameter occurring in the right lobe of the liver of a 74-year-old Chinese woman. The lesion, characterized by a complex tubulocystic nonmucin secreting biliary epithelial and an abundant fibroblastic stromal components, is distinct from other well-recognized biliary lesions. A number of unusual features are focally present, namely, intraluminal bile concretions, apocrine-like epithelial change, acute inflammation, and granuloma. The tumor shows a striking resemblance to Meyenburg's complex (MC), but the large size of the lesion and the absence of any typical MC in the background liver are exceptional for the latter. Its expansile growth, possession of mitoses, and foci of epithelial tufting and cellular atypia favor a neoplastic process. Previous reported cases of adenomatous neoplastic transformation of MC are dissimilar. We therefore conclude that this is a hitherto unrecognized biliary tumor that may be yet another neoplastic form of MC and propose the designation biliary adenofibroma. The course appears benign, but malignant epithelial transformation may supervene if the lesion is left untreated. PMID:8422113

Tsui, W M; Loo, K T; Chow, L T; Tse, C C

1993-02-01

340

Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile salts, impaired liver function and altered nutritional status due to obstructive jaundice have been characterized as factors for development of complications after surgery. Whereas PBD was to yield beneficial effects in the experimental setting, conflicting results have been observed in clinical studies. The meta-analysis from relative older studies as well as more importantly a recent clinical trial showed that PBD should not be performed routinely. PBD for patients with a distal biliary obstruction is leading to more serious complications compared with early surgery. Arguments for PBD have shifted from a potential therapeutic benefit towards a logistic problem such as patients suffering from cholangitis and severe jaundice at admission or patients who need extra diagnostic tests, or delay in surgery due to a referral pattern or waiting list for surgery as well as candidates for neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. If drainage is indicated in these patients it should be performed with a metal stent to reduce complications after the drainage procedure such as stent occlusion and cholangitis. Considering a change towards more neoadjuvant therapy regimes improvement of the quality of the biliary drainage concept is still important. PMID:24727874

Van Heek, N T; Busch, O R; Van Gulik, T M; Gouma, D J

2014-04-01

341

Biliary cystic disease: the risk of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital choledochal cysts carry a risk of cancer, probably as a result of a sequence of pancreatobiliary reflux, inflammation, dysplasia with or without intestinal metaplasia, and invasive carcinoma. A combination of biliary stasis due to poor drainage of a stagnant pool of bile and increased mutagenicity of the bile acids may be ultimately responsible. There is very frequently an anomalous

Irving S. Benjamin

2003-01-01

342

Cholangiocarcinoma of intrahepatic bile ducts with disseminated metastases in an African lion (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

A cholangiocarcinoma is reported in an 18-yr-old, female African lion (Panthera leo). The primary tumor consisted of multifocal to coalescing, hepatic, white-yellow masses distributed throughout the liver lobes. Metastases were present in regional lymph nodes, peritoneal surface, and lungs. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a tubular pattern with alcian- and periodic acid-Schiff-positive secretory material in cystic spaces. The neoplastic cells were positive to broad-spectrum cytokeratins. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains were consistent with bile duct carcinoma. Biliary tumors arising from the gallbladder have been reported in lions. However, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma reported in an African lion. PMID:23805578

Lepri, Elvio; Sforna, Monica; Brachelente, Chiara; Chiara, Brachelente; Vitellozzi, Giovanni; Giovanni, Vitellozzi

2013-06-01

343

Intrahepatic bile duct injury following bone marrow transplantation. Analysis of pathological features based on three-dimensional and histochemical observation.  

PubMed

A specific bile duct injury is frequently observed in the liver following bone marrow transplantation. The materials used for study consisted of liver specimens obtained from 7 autopsy cases and 2 biopsies. The pathological lesions were analyzed by reconstruction of serial sections and by immunohistochemical examination. Injury following bone marrow transplantation occurred most frequently in bile ducts right after the canalicular-ductular junction to ducts having an outer diameter of 50-60 mu, being especially prominent in those less than 30 mu in diameter. They preserved their continuity and there was neither complete destruction nor loss of bile ducts as seen in primary biliary cirrhosis. Immunohistochemical examination showed predominancy of suppressor T lymphocytes around ducts and they were frequently found adjacent to epithelial cells of bile ducts. C3 components and HLA-DR antigens were confirmed to be localized in ductular epithelia in the area where injury took place. Although their localization and site of injury did not necessarily coincide, the participation of an immunologic mechanism against injury cannot be denied. Evidence of a relation between ductular injury and cytomegalovirus infection could not be obtained. PMID:3548212

Tanaka, M; Umihara, J; Chiba, S; Ishikawa, E

1986-12-01

344

Genetic abnormalities responsible for dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a disorder in which left ventricular dilation and dysfunction leads to congestive heart failure,\\u000a is inherited in over 30% of cases. The underlying genetic mechanisms are slowly being unraveled, with multiple genes recently\\u000a identified as causing DCM in some patients. The genes identified to date appear to encode proteins that either support the\\u000a cytoskeleton or interact with

Jeffrey A. Towbin; Neil E. Bowles

2000-01-01

345

Acute Gastric Dilatation in Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Two patients with anorexia nervosa were treated on a general surgical unit for acute gastric dilatation. In both cases the dilatation rapidly followed an increase in the usual low dietary intake of the patients, and the ingestion of extra food may have initiated the acute episode. Conservative treatment with parenteral fluids, nasogastric intubation, and then a gradual return to a normal diet proved a satisfactory method of management. In one patient the anorexia itself was improved. PMID:4834098

Jennings, K. P.; Klidjian, A. M.

1974-01-01

346

A case report of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with remarkable intraductal tumor growth into the main pancreatic duct  

PubMed Central

We herein report a case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with remarkable intraductal tumor growth into the main pancreatic duct. A 76-year-old male was referred to our hospital for treatment of a pancreatic tumor. Preoperative examinations revealed a poorly defined tumor in the main pancreatic duct in the body of the pancreas, accompanied with severe dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, which was diagnosed as an intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm. We performed distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. The pathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of a mixture of anaplastic carcinoma (giant cell type) and adenocarcinoma in the pancreas. There was a papillary projecting tumor composed of anaplastic carcinoma in the dilated main pancreatic duct. The patient is now receiving chemotherapy because liver metastasis was detected 12 mo after surgery. In this case, we could observe a remarkable intraductal tumor growth into the main pancreatic duct. We also discuss the pathogenesis and characteristics of this rare tumor with specific tumor growth. PMID:24574758

Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Makino, Isamu; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

347

A case report of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with remarkable intraductal tumor growth into the main pancreatic duct.  

PubMed

We herein report a case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with remarkable intraductal tumor growth into the main pancreatic duct. A 76-year-old male was referred to our hospital for treatment of a pancreatic tumor. Preoperative examinations revealed a poorly defined tumor in the main pancreatic duct in the body of the pancreas, accompanied with severe dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, which was diagnosed as an intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm. We performed distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. The pathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of a mixture of anaplastic carcinoma (giant cell type) and adenocarcinoma in the pancreas. There was a papillary projecting tumor composed of anaplastic carcinoma in the dilated main pancreatic duct. The patient is now receiving chemotherapy because liver metastasis was detected 12 mo after surgery. In this case, we could observe a remarkable intraductal tumor growth into the main pancreatic duct. We also discuss the pathogenesis and characteristics of this rare tumor with specific tumor growth. PMID:24574758

Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Makino, Isamu; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Tetsuo

2014-01-21

348

Experimental Study of Poly-l-Lactic Acid Biodegradable Stents in Normal Canine Bile Ducts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to clarify the advantages of biodegradable stents in terms of mucosal reaction and biodegradation after placement. We designed a biodegradable stent and assessed stent degradation and changes in the normal bile ducts of dogs. Methods: The biodegradable stent is a balloon-expandable Z stent consisting of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a diameter of 6 mm and a length of 15 mm. We assessed four groups of three beagle dogs each at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of follow-up. After evaluating stent migration by radiography and stent and bile duct patency by cholangiography, the dogs were sacrificed to remove the bile duct together with the stent. The bile duct lumen was examined macroscopically and histologically, and the stent degradation was examined macroscopically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Bile duct obstruction was absent and none of the stents migrated. Macroscopic evaluation showed moderate endothelial proliferation in the bile ducts at the implant sites at 3 and 6 months and a slight change at 9 months. Slight mononuclear cell infiltration was histologically identified at all time points and epithelial hyperplasia that was moderate at 3 months was reduced to slight at 6 and 9 months. Stent degradation was macroscopically evident in all animals at 9 months and was proven by SEM in two dogs at 6 months and in all of them at 9 months. Conclusions: Our results suggest that PLLA bioabsorbable stents seems to be useful for implantation in the biliary system with further investigation.

Yamamoto, Kiyosei, E-mail: yamakiyo@zg7.so-net.ne.jp; Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Furuichi, Kinya; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Anai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Morimoto, Kengo [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Uchida, Hideo [Daiyukai General Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2011-06-15

349

MicroRNAs in the bile of patients with biliary strictures after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Biliary complications after liver transplantation remain a major cause of morbidity and reduced graft survival. Ischemic-type biliary lesions (ITBLs) are common and difficult to treat. The pathophysiology of ITBLs remains unclear, and diagnostic markers are still missing. The analysis of microRNA (miRNA) profiles is an evolving field in hepatology. Our aim was to identify specific miRNA patterns in the bile of patients with ITBLs after liver transplantation. Liver transplant patients with biliary complications were included in a cross-sectional study. Patients with ITBLs (n?=?37), anastomotic strictures (ASs; n?=?39), and bile duct stones (BDSs; n?=?12) were compared. Patients with ITBLs were categorized by disease severity. The miRNA concentrations in bile were determined with global miRNA profiling and subsequent miRNA-specific polymerase chain reaction-mediated validation. The concentrations of microRNA 517a (miR-517a), miR-892a, and miR-106a* in bile were increased for patients with ITBLs versus patients with ASs or BDSs (P??0.05). miR-210, miR-337-5p, miR-577, and miR-329 displayed no statistical differences. In conclusion, miR-517a, miR-892a, and miR-106a* are increased in the bile fluid of patients with ITBLs versus patients with ASs or BDSs. An analysis of miRNA profiles may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with ITBLs. Future studies are needed to prove the potential prognostic value of these miRNAs. PMID:24648209

Lankisch, Tim O; Voigtländer, Torsten; Manns, Michael P; Holzmann, Angelika; Dangwal, Seema; Thum, Thomas

2014-06-01

350

Streptococcus bovis group and biliary tract infections: an analysis of 51 cases.  

PubMed

Streptococcus bovis is a well-known cause of endocarditis, but its role in other infections has not been well described. We analysed prospectively all patients with biliary tract infections caused by S. bovis group during the period 1988-2011. We selected those cases associated with cholangitis and cholecystitis, defined according to Tokyo guidelines. Identification of the strains was performed using the API 20 Strep and the GP card of the Vitek 2 system, and was confirmed by molecular methods. Our series included 51 cases (30 cholangitis and 21 cholecystitis). The associated microorganisms were: Streptococcus infantarius (biotype II/1) 29 cases (57%), Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (biotype II/2) 20 cases (39%) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (biotype I) two cases (4%). The only difference found between S. infantarius and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus was a greater association of the first with malignant strictures of the bile ducts: 48% (14/29) versus 5% (1/20), p <0.001. Thirty-seven of the cases also had bacteraemia, causing 20% (37/185) of all S. bovis bacteraemia, with differences between S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (2/112; 2%) and the other two microorganisms: S. infantarius and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (35/73; 48%; p <0.001). The vast majority of biliary tract infections due to S. bovis group are caused by S. infantarius and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (S. bovis biotype II), and nearly half of the bacteraemia due to these two species has a biliary source (43% of the S. infantarius and 56% of S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus). PMID:24033711

Corredoira, J; Alonso, M P; García-Garrote, F; García-Pais, M J; Coira, A; Rabuńal, R; Gonzalez-Ramirez, A; Pita, J; Matesanz, M; Velasco, D; López-Álvarez, M J; Varela, J

2014-05-01

351

Further evidence that hepatic sources confer biliary antibody in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The notion that bile-dedicated antibody is made within the liver by migratory antibody-forming cells (AFC) was examined further in rats. Livers from immunized animals were removed to perfusion in isolation so that plasma influences on bile antibody would be obviated. Antibody was secreted for at least 5 hr by the livers of rats that had received intravenous (i.v.) or intra-Peyer's patch (IPP) immunization with horse erythrocytes. After initially declining, the titres stabilized at 5-8% of the starting value for IPP-immunized rats and at 0.8% for i.v.-immunized animals, levels that were then sustained. In other experiments, the biliary antibody output was measured in immunized rats in the period immediately following splenectomy, an expedient that would deny the liver any newly formed AFC. Splenectomy during spleen-based, IgM antibody responses led to bile titres falling, over about 12 hr, to 21% of initial values. This level was then maintained for at least another 12 hr. Serum titres over this period remained static. Lastly, the bile ducts of immunized rats were ligated to test whether locally made antibody that was destined for bile could be forced instead to reflux to blood. Biliary obstruction during IgM responses to horse erythrocytes and pneumococcal polysaccharide, type 3, was found to raise significantly serum antibody titres. For pneumococcal polysaccharide, the serum response was also noticeably prolonged. These findings are consistent with the biliary antibody of immunized rats being constituted, in part, from local sources and not from plasma alone. PMID:1526649

Jackson, G D; Hansen, P G; Underdown, B J

1992-01-01

352

Risk of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary drainage  

PubMed Central

Background: Pancreatitis is the most common and serious complication to occur after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). It is often associated with additional diagnostic modalities and/or treatment of obstructive jaundice. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis associated with pancreaticobiliary examination and endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD). Methods: A total of 740 consecutive ERCP procedures performed in 477 patients were analysed for the occurrence of pancreatitis. These included 470 EBD procedures and 167 procedures to further evaluate the pancreaticobiliary tract using brush cytology and/or biopsy, intraductal ultrasound and/or peroral cholangioscopy or peroral pancreatoscopy. The occurrence of post-ERCP pancreatitis was analysed retrospectively. Results: The overall incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis was 3.9% (29 of 740 procedures). The risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis were: being female (6.5%; odds ratio [OR] 2.5, P= 0.02); first EBD procedure without endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) (6.9%; OR 3.0, P= 0.003), and performing additional diagnostic procedures on the pancreatobiliary duct (9.6%; OR 4.6, P < 0.0001). Pancreatitis after subsequent draining procedures was rare (0.4%; OR for first-time drainage 16.6, P= 0.0003). Furthermore, pancreatitis was not recognized in 59 patients who underwent ES. Seven patients with post-EBD pancreatitis were treated with additional ES. Conclusions: Invasive diagnostic examinations of the pancreaticobiliary duct and first-time perampullary biliary drainage without ES were high-risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy may be of use to prevent post-EBD pancreatitis. PMID:19590651

Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Fukutomi, Akira; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Matsunaga, Kazuya; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Otake, Yosuke; Hasuike, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Takizawa, Kohei; Yamazaki, Kentaroh; Ono, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

353

Rhinosporidiosis of the Parotid Duct  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporidiosis is a benign chronic granulomatous infection caused by Rhinosporidiosis seeberi (R. seeberi). Rhinosporidiosis is endemic in South Asia, notably in Southern India and Sri Lanka. The common sites of involvement are the nose and nasopharynx followed by ocular tissue. Rhinosporidiosis is also known to involve many rare sites and may become disseminated to ocular in generalized form. Rhinosporidiosis of parotid duct is extremely rare. The case presented here is of 18-year-old male from the nonendemic zone of Nepal with a proliferative mass in the parotid duct. Although rhinosporidiosis was not taken into consideration in the clinical differential diagnosis, eventual histopathological diagnosis confirmed rhinosporidiosis. Thus clinicians should be flexible in the differential diagnosis of proliferative growth in the parotid duct, even in those cases which are from nonendemic areas. PMID:24592336

Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shrestha, Suraksha

2014-01-01

354

The Results of Vascular and Biliary Variations in Turks Liver Donors: Comparison with Others  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate liver anatomy with a view to access unerring surgery in liver donors. Summary Background Data. Liver transplantation, the unique curative treatment option for end-stage hepatic failure, has become routinely practicable, which was inconceivable in the past. But, the vascular and biliary anatomy of the liver has not been completely disclosed yet. Methods. From 1994 to 2009, we have done a research on 496 liver donors. The data were accumulated and categorized according to the most widely used classification systems. Results. Of 496 liver donors, 393 (79.1%) underwent the right donor hepatectomy, 98 (19.9%) were performed the left lateral segmentectomy, and 5 donors (1%) underwent the left donor hepatectomy surgery. Given the data regarding to 398 liver donors undergone right and left donor hepatectomy, arteries, bile ducts, and portal vein showed classical anatomy in 107 (21.6%) donors. Variations in all three systems were found in 16 donors (3.2%). In the remaining 275 donors (75.2%), anatomical variations were found at either of arterial, biliary, or portal system. Conclusions. Our study could come up to actual estimate in liver anatomy as any of donors have not been removed in our institute due to high hilar dissection technique. PMID:22084754

Ozsoy, Mustafa; Zeytunlu, Murat; Kilic, Murat; Alper, Mehmet; Sozbilen, Murat

2011-01-01

355

Nervous and Neuroendocrine regulation of the pathophysiology of cholestasis and of biliary carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the biliary ducts, are the target cells in several liver diseases. Cholangiopathies and cholangiocarcinoma generate interest in many scientists since the genesis. The developing mechanisms, and the therapeutic tools of these diseases are still undefined. Several studies demonstrate that many hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters regulate malignant and non-malignant cholangiocyte pathophysiology in the course of chronic biliary diseases. The aim of this review is to present the findings of several studies published in the recent years that contributed to clarifying the role of nervous and neuroendocrine regulation of the pathophysiologic events associated with cholestasis and cholangiocarcinoma development. This manuscript is organized into two parts. The first part offers an overview of the innervation of the liver and the origin of neuroendocrine hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides affecting cholangiocyte function and metabolism. The first section also reviews the effects played by several neuroendocrine hormones and nervous system on cholangiocyte growth, survival and functional activity in the course of cholestasis. In the second section, we summarize the results of some studies describing the role of nervous system and neuroendocrine hormones in the regulation of malignant cholangiocyte growth. PMID:16773704

Marzioni, Marco; Fava, Giammarco; Benedetti, Antonio

2006-06-14

356

Use of multislice helical computed tomography cholangiography in the diagnosis of biliary disease.  

PubMed

A recent advance in computed tomography (CT) technology, multislice helical CT, has enabled production of clearer three-dimensional (3D) images and has drawn interest. We report the usefulness of CT cholangiography using a multislice helical CT scanner for the diagnosis and preoperative imaging of the biliary duct in a case of peculiarly shaped gallbladder with cholecystitis. A 34-year-old woman admitted to our hospital presented with chronic hypochondralgia. A CT scan showed that the gallbladder was normal without wall thickening or stones. However, there appeared to be a tumor, containing a stone approximately 1 cm in diameter, attached under the gallbladder in front of the right kidney and extending up to its lower level. Magnetic resonance cholangiography also depicted a normal gallbladder without wall thickening or stones. Hence, gallbladder stones were not diagnosed by previously the mentioned investigations. In contrast, a 3D image produced by multislice helical CT cholangiography was very clear. From the bottom of the gallbladder, a narrow canal continued to a stone. We diagnosed that the wall of the lower part of the long gallbladder had become thick and elongated because of chronic cholecystitis caused by a gallbladder stone, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Macroscopically, the resected gallbladder showed an extremely thickened wall from the lower body to the fundus, in which a stone was located in the center. Multislice helical CT cholangiography has the potential to become one of the most significant examinations for diagnosis and anatomical analysis of biliary disease prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:12739129

Izuishi, K; Toyama, Y; Goda, F; Ishimura, K; Karasawa, Y; Usuki, H; Maeta, H

2003-08-01

357

Successful endoscopic procedures for intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A case report  

PubMed Central

Attention has recently been focused on biliary papillary tumors as the novel disease entity intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), which consists of papillary proliferation of dysplastic biliary epithelium. As even benign papillary tumors are considered as premalignant, some investigators recommend aggressive surgical therapy for IPNB, although no guidelines are available to manage this disease. Few reports have described long-term follow-up of patients with benign IPNB without radical resection. If patients with IPNB who are treated only with endoscopic procedures are noted, clinical profiles and alternative therapies other than resection may be recommended. We report the case of a patient who experienced repetitive cholangitis for 10 years and was finally diagnosed with IPNB. Radical resection could not be recommended because of the age of the patient, therefore, endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed. Although an endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage catheter was placed several times for repetitive cholangitis, the patient has done well during follow-up. Our case may offer insights into the natural course and management decisions for the novel disease entity of IPNB. PMID:20143472

Tsuchida, Kohei; Yamagata, Michiko; Saifuku, Yasuyuki; Ichikawa, Dan; Kanke, Kazunari; Murohisa, Toshimitsu; Tamano, Masaya; Iijima, Makoto; Nemoto, Yukiko; Shimoda, Wataru; Komori, Toshiaki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Ichikawa, Kazuhito; Sugaya, Hitoshi; Miyachi, Kazuhito; Fujimori, Takahiro; Hiraishi, Hideyuki

2010-01-01

358

Management of malignant biliary obstruction: technical and clinical results using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene fluorinated ethylene propylene (ePTFE/FEP)-covered metallic stent after 6-year experience.  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-fluorinated ethylene-propylene (ePTFE/FEP)-covered metallic stent in the management of malignant biliary obstruction. Eighty consecutive patients with malignant common bile duct strictures were treated by placement of 83 covered metallic stents. The stent-graft consists of an inner ePTFE/FEP lining and an outer supporting structure of nitinol wire. Clinical evaluation, assessment of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels were analyzed before biliary drainage, before stent-graft placement and during the follow-up period at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Technical success was obtained in all cases. After a mean follow-up of 6.9+/-4.63 months, the 30-day mortality rate was 14.2%. Survival rates were 40% and 20.2% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Stent-graft patency rates were 95.5%, 92.6% and 85.7% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Complications occurred in five patients (6.4%); among these, acute cholecystitis was observed in three patients (3.8%). A stent-graft occlusion rate of 9% was observed. The percentage of patients undergoing lifetime palliation (91%) and the midterm patency rate suggest that placement of this ePTFE/FEP-covered stent-graft is safe and highly effective in achieving biliary drainage in patients with malignant strictures of the common bile duct. PMID:18204844

Fanelli, Fabrizio; Orgera, Gianluigi; Bezzi, Mario; Rossi, Plinio; Allegritti, Massimiliano; Passariello, Roberto

2008-05-01

359

Intracatheter hyperthermia and iridium-192 radiotherapy in the treatment of bile duct carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of a patient with locally advanced bile duct carcinoma treated with 4500 cGy external beam radiotherapy, followed 3 weeks later by intracatheter 915 MHz microwave hyperthermia and radiotherapy delivered through a biliary U-tube placed at the time of surgery. Heating was to 43-45 degrees C for 1 hour followed immediately by intracatheter Iridium-192 seeds to deliver 5000 cGy over a 72 hour period. Prior to treatment, a thermal dosimetry study in phantom was conducted, using the same type of U-tube catheter tubing as in the patient. Orthogonal X rays of the patient's porta hepatis region were used to reconstruct the catheter geometry in the phantom. Proper insertion depth was determined thermographically to obtain maximum heating at the center of the tumor. The maximum SAR was 8.8 watts per kilogram per watt input. During the treatment, the average power applied was 30 W. Six months after therapy, the patient is asymptomatic. Although alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT have remained elevated, bilirubin has returned to normal and computerized tomographic scans and cholangiograms remain stable. A duodenal ulcer developed after therapy and is healing well with conservative medical management. This case demonstrates that hyperthermia applied through biliary drainage catheters is technically feasible and clinically tolerated. We believe the use of intracatheter hyperthermia in conjunction with external and/or intracatheter radiotherapy in selected patients with unresectable bile duct carcinomas warrants further study.

Wong, J.Y.; Vora, N.L.; Chou, C.K.; McDougall, J.A.; Chan, K.W.; Findley, D.O.; Forell, B.W.; Luk, K.H.; Philben, V.J.; Beatty, J.D.

1988-02-01

360

Radiation Exposure in Biliary Procedures Performed to Manage Anastomotic Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients: Comparison Between Radiation Exposure Levels Using an Image Intensifier and a Flat-Panel Detector-Based System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate radiation exposure in pediatric liver transplants recipients who underwent biliary interventional procedures and to compare radiation exposure levels between biliary interventional procedures performed using an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS) and a flat panel detector-based interventional system (FPDS). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 34 consecutive pediatric liver transplant recipients with biliary strictures between January 2008 and March 2013 with a total of 170 image-guided procedures. The dose-area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time was recorded for each procedure. The mean age was 61 months (range 4-192), and mean weight was 17 kg (range 4-41). The procedures were classified into three categories: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary catheter placement (n = 40); cholangiography and balloon dilatation (n = 55); and cholangiography and biliary catheter change or removal (n = 75). Ninety-two procedures were performed using an IIDS. Seventy-eight procedures performed after July 2010 were performed using an FPDS. The difference in DAP between the two angiographic systems was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a multiple linear regression model. Results: Mean DAP in the three categories was significantly greater in the group of procedures performed using the IIDS compared with those performed using the FPDS. Statistical analysis showed a p value = 0.001 for the PTBD group, p = 0.0002 for the cholangiogram and balloon dilatation group, and p = 0.00001 for the group with cholangiogram and biliary catheter change or removal. Conclusion: In our selected cohort of patients, the use of an FPDS decreases radiation exposure.

Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)] [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Tuzzolino, Fabio [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Information Technology (Italy)] [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Information Technology (Italy); Indovina, Pietro Luigi [Medical Physic ISMETT Consultant, Fismeco (Italy)] [Medical Physic ISMETT Consultant, Fismeco (Italy); Luca, Angelo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)] [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)

2013-12-15

361

Bilateral stenting methods for hilar biliary obstructions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus regarding the most appropriate methods (i.e., the side-by-side versus the stent-in-stent technique) for placing bilateral stents for malignant hilar biliary obstructions. We aimed to perform a quantitative review of the published data regarding the clinical efficacy of the side-by-side and stent-in-stent bilateral drainage techniques for hilar biliary obstructions. METHODS: A comprehensive search of several databases was conducted and a fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to pool the data from all of the study end-points. RESULTS: Four clinical trials were identified. A comparison of the side-by-side and stent-in-stent groups revealed no significant differences with respect to the rates of successful placement, successful drainage, early complications, late complications and stent occlusions. There were also no significant inter-group differences in stent patency and patient survival and no publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the side-by-side technique appears to be similar to that of the stent-in-stent technique for bilateral drainage in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstructions. PMID:25318098

Hong, Wandong; Chen, Shanxi; Zhu, Qihuai; Chen, Huichun; Pan, Jingye; Huang, Qingke

2014-01-01

362

Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life.  

PubMed

In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

Macias, Rocio I R; Marin, Jose J G; Serrano, Maria A

2009-02-21

363

Biliary Atresia: 50 Years after the First Kasai  

PubMed Central

Biliary atresia is a rare neonatal disease of unknown etiology, where obstruction of the biliary tree causes severe cholestasis, leading to biliary cirrhosis and death in the first years of life, if the condition is left untreated. Biliary atresia is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in neonates and should be evoked whenever this clinical sign is associated with pale stools and hepatomegaly. The treatment of biliary atresia is surgical and currently recommended as a sequence of, eventually, two interventions. During the first months of life a hepatoportoenterostomy (a “Kasai,” modifications of which are discussed in this paper) should be performed, in order to restore the biliary flow to the intestine and lessen further damage to the liver. If this fails and/or the disease progresses towards biliary cirrhosis and life-threatening complications, then liver transplantation is indicated, for which biliary atresia represents the most frequent pediatric indication. Of importance, the earlier the Kasai is performed, the later a liver transplantation is usually needed. This warrants a great degree of awareness of biliary atresia, and the implementation of systematic screening for this life-threatening pathology. PMID:23304557

Wildhaber, Barbara E.

2012-01-01

364

Functional Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Biliary Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Biliary stents are widely used not only for palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction but also for benign biliary diseases. Each plastic stent or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has its own advantages, and a proper stent should be selected carefully for individual condition. To compensate and overcome several drawbacks of SEMS, functional self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS) has been developed with much progress so far. This article looks into the outcomes and defects of each stent type for benign biliary stricture and describes newly introduced FSEMSs according to their functional categories. PMID:24143314

Kwon, Chang-Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

2013-01-01

365

Biliary Adenofibroma with Carcinoma In Situ: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

This case report exhibits a rare biliary tumor within the liver of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman. This exophytic, multicystic, 6.5 × 5.0?cm mass was composed of complex tubulocystic structures lined by nonmucin-secreting, biliary epithelium embedded in fibrous stroma, consistent with biliary adenofibroma. This is the seventh case described in the literature. Multiple foci of high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma in situ were found with a microscopic focus of invasive carcinoma in review of the pathology, making this only the second case reporting malignant transformation. It is presented to illustrate the premalignant potential in a biliary epithelial tumor currently categorized as benign. PMID:25374710

Nguyen, N. Thao T.; Harring, Theresa R.; Holley, Laurie; Goss, John A.; O'Mahony, Christine A.

2012-01-01

366

What Are the Key Statistics about Bile Duct Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... for bile duct cancer? What are the key statistics about bile duct cancer? Bile duct cancer is ... it is when it is found. For survival statistics, see the section “ Survival statistics for bile duct ...

367

Flow Through Gas-Turbine Ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing computer program, Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct code (ADD code), modified to permit calculation of flows through small gas-turbine ducts with struts, guide vanes, and large degrees of turning. Code improvements include new coordinate generator, endwall loss model, and generalized geometry capability to describe struts and guide vanes in ducts that turn more than 90 degrees. Improved output format developed to provide solution on any arbitrary plane in duct.

Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

1986-01-01

368

Duct injection technology prototype development  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

Harper, S.L. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.)

1991-08-01

369

Arc Reflector For Welding Ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arc-light reflector for through-the-torch welding vision system designed expressly for use in welding ducts of small diameter. Cylindrical reflector positioned to reflect light diffusely from welding arc onto nearby surface of workpiece for most advantageous viewing along axis of welding torch.

Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

1990-01-01

370

Design and performance of duct acoustic treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedure for designing acoustic treatment panels used to line the walls of aircraft engine ducts and for estimating the resulting suppression of turbofan engine duct noise is discussed. This procedure is intended to be used for estimating noise suppression of existing designs or for designing new acoustic treatment panels and duct configurations to achieve desired suppression levels.

Motsinger, R. E.; Kraft, R. E.

1991-01-01

371

Transurethral incision for hematospermia caused by ejaculatory duct obstruction.  

PubMed

Hematospermia is supposed to be derived from pathological conditions in the seminal vesicle, prostate, testis, epididymis, or urethra. A recent advance in diagnostic procedures has demonstrated the seminal vesicle, the prostate, and midline cyst as potential sources of hematospermia. The authors describe a case of hematospermia caused by ejaculatory duct obstruction, in which a transurethral technique was successful. A 51-year-old male was referred to the authors' clinic with a chief complaint of hematospermia. Transurethral ultrasonography showed a cystic lesion surrounded with hyperechoic area in the middle of the prostate. Vasography demonstrated the distal dilation of the ejaculatory duct. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a high signal intensity area in the middle of the prostate. Urethrocystoscopy showed an enlarged cystic lesion with an orifice at the prostatic urethra, which was incised endoscopically. There was no complication observed postoperatively. Seven months after the technique, hematospermia resolved completely. A midline cyst should be considered a cause of hematospermia and the incidence of such cysts may be higher than that previously recognized. The transurethral technique is expected to be a successful treatment approach. PMID:14555325

Fuse, H; Nishio, R; Murakami, K; Okumura, A

2003-01-01

372

Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage With Postoperative Outcome Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Summary Background Data Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. Conclusions Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. This suggests that preoperative biliary drainage should be avoided whenever possible in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Such a change in current preoperative management may improve patient outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:10450725

Povoski, Stephen P.; Karpeh, Martin S.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Brennan, Murray F.

1999-01-01

373

Parallelized Dilate Algorithm for Remote Sensing Image  

PubMed Central

As an important algorithm, dilate algorithm can give us more connective view of a remote sensing image which has broken lines or objects. However, with the technological progress of satellite sensor, the resolution of remote sensing image has been increasing and its data quantities become very large. This would lead to the decrease of algorithm running speed or cannot obtain a result in limited memory or time. To solve this problem, our research proposed a parallelized dilate algorithm for remote sensing Image based on MPI and MP. Experiments show that our method runs faster than traditional single-process algorithm. PMID:24955392

Zhang, Suli; Hu, Haoran; Pan, Xin

2014-01-01

374

Parallelized dilate algorithm for remote sensing image.  

PubMed

As an important algorithm, dilate algorithm can give us more connective view of a remote sensing image which has broken lines or objects. However, with the technological progress of satellite sensor, the resolution of remote sensing image has been increasing and its data quantities become very large. This would lead to the decrease of algorithm running speed or cannot obtain a result in limited memory or time. To solve this problem, our research proposed a parallelized dilate algorithm for remote sensing Image based on MPI and MP. Experiments show that our method runs faster than traditional single-process algorithm. PMID:24955392

Zhang, Suli; Hu, Haoran; Pan, Xin

2014-01-01

375

Percutaneous balloon dilatation in congenital mitral stenosis.  

PubMed Central

A three year old girl with severe congenital mitral stenosis was successfully treated by percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Cardiac catheterisation and cross sectional and Doppler echocardiography indicated that the orifice of the mitral valve had doubled in area. A small atrial septal defect was found at follow up cardiac catheterisation and angiography. Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a reasonable alternative to surgical treatment for typical congenital mitral stenosis even in young children. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3593619

Alday, L E; Juaneda, E

1987-01-01

376

Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification).

A A Polydorou; S R Cairns; J F Dowsett; A R Hatfield; P R Salmon; P B Cotton; R C Russell

1991-01-01

377

Plasma transport in magnetic duct filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cathodic arc plasma source equipped with a curved magnetic duct to filter macro-particles was used to study plasma transport through the duct. The optimal duct bias, at which the magnetic duct produces the maximum plasma output, for titanium cathodic arc plasma at 50, 100 and 150 A arc current was determined and the parametric effects of the arc current and guiding magnetic field on the optimal duct bias were investigated. The optimal bias decreased as the guiding magnetic field increased from 100 to 400 G and was almost independent of the guiding magnetic field when it was between 400 and 600 G, the upper limit for our equipment. The optimal duct bias at 400 G guiding magnetic field decreased with increasing arc current. Our results indicate that the optimal duct bias is related not only to the structure of the plasma source, but is also influenced by many other factors including cathode material and other plasma properties.

Zhang, Tao; Chu, Paul K.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Brown, Ian G.

2002-12-01

378

Endoscopic dilation of colonic postoperative strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the use of surgical staplers had become widespread, the number of colonic postoperative stenoses was observed to have increased. Nevertheless, the clinical relevance of this observation is minimal since only 2–5% of the patients complain of chronic constipation or obstruction symptoms. In such cases medical therapy is somewhat troublesome, and surgical treatment always implies a major operation. Endoscopic dilation

V. Pietropaolo; L. Masoni; M. Ferrara; A. Montori

1990-01-01

379

Shear Thickening Oscillation in a Dilatant Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

By introducing a state variable, we construct a phenomenological fluid dynamical model of a dilatant fluid, i.e., a dense mixture of fluid and granules that shows severe shear thickening. We demonstrate that the fluid shows shear thickening oscillation, namely, the fluid flow oscillates owning to the coupling between the fluid dynamics and the internal dynamics of state. We also demonstrate

Hiizu Nakanishi

2011-01-01

380

Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with membranous glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of liver dysfunction and proteinuria. A liver biopsy specimen showed ductular proliferation and moderate portal fibrosis indicating stage II primary biliary cirrhosis. A renal biopsy specimen showed mild to moderate mesangial cell proliferation without crescent formation or interstitial nephritis. Immunofluorescent staining revealed deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG), third component of complement (C3), and Clq on glomerular basement membranes. The findings indicated stage I membranous glomerulonephritis. Administration of ursodesoxycholic acid together with prednisolone, azathioprine, and dipyridamole decreased proteinuria and improved cholestatic liver dysfunction. PMID:10052737

Goto, T; Komatsu, M; Fujii, T; Ohshima, S; Nakane, K; Yoneyama, K; Shibuya, T; Meng, X W; Masamune, O; Imai, H

1999-01-01

381

Polymyositis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The coexistence of polymyositis (PM) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is rare; only nine cases have been described in English literature. We report a case of a 46-year-old woman presenting with these two autoimmune diseases. The diagnosis of PM was based on the symmetrical, proximal limb muscle weakness, elevated muscle enzymes and was confirmed with the electromyography and muscle biopsy. The diagnosis of PBC was based on the increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, IgM immunoglobulin, the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies and diagnostic liver biopsy. PMID:7641520

Boki, K A; Dourakis, S P

1995-05-01

382

Designing insulation for cryogenic ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that the great temperature difference between the outside of a cryogenic duct and the liquified gas it carries can cause a high heat input unless blocked by a high thermal resistance. High thermal resistance for lines needing maximum insulation is provided by metal vacuum jackets. Low-density foam is satisfactory in cases in which higher heat input can be tolerated. Attention is given to the heat transfer through a duct vacuum jacket, the calculation of heat input and the exterior surface's steady-state temperature for various thicknesses of insulation, the calculation of the heat transfer through gimbal jackets, and design specifications regarding the allowable pressure rise in the jacket's annular space.

Love, C. C.

1984-03-01

383

Severe hypercholesterolemia and phytosterolemia with extensive xanthomas in primary biliary cirrhosis: role of biliary excretion on sterol homeostasis.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune, chronic, cholestatic liver disease that affects primarily women. PBC is commonly associated with hypercholesterolemia that has been associated with cholestasis. We report an exceptionally high blood cholesterol and phytosterols with just mild cholestasis indicating a selective defect in sterol biliary secretion in a patient with PBC. PMID:25234565

Baila-Rueda, Lucia; Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Lamiquiz-Moneo, Itziar; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando

2014-01-01

384

Efficacy of endoscopic guided anterograde 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty with silicone intubation in treatment of acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstruction in adults  

PubMed Central

Aim To report the outcomes of endoscopic guided anterograde 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty with silicone intubation in patients with acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions in adults. Methods Retrospective case series, included 21 eyes with partially obstructed nasolacrimal ducts of 12 patients. All the 21 ducts were initially probed and the probe confirmed with an endoscope in the inferior meatus. After confirming the presence of probe in the inferior meatus, a 3 mm balloon was used for dilating the distal and proximal portions of nasolacrimal duct, followed by stenting of ducts with Crawford tubes. Main outcome measures were anatomical patency of the passage and resolution of epiphora. Results Of the 12 patients, 9 had bilateral and 3 had unilateral acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions. All the patients underwent bicanalicular stenting under endoscopic guidance which were retained for a period of 12 weeks. A minimum follow up of 6 months following stent removal was considered for final analysis. 15 of the 21 ducts (71%) were freely patent on irrigation but 13 of the 21 reported improvement of epiphora. Two nasolacrimal ducts showed similar partial regurgitation and partial patency on syringing as before with no improvement of symptoms. Four nasolacrimal ducts were completely obstructed with complete regurgitation of fluid on syringing with worsening of the epiphora. Two eyes persisted with symptoms of epiphora despite patent nasolacrimal duct with grade 2 dye retention on dye disappearance test. Conclusions 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty is an alternative and safe way to manage partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions with an anatomical success in 71% and functional success in 62% of the patients. Further studies with a large sample size and longer follow-up are required to ascertain the long term benefits. PMID:24526857

Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.

2013-01-01

385

Idiopathic isolated annular dilatation causing congenital mitral regurgitation  

PubMed Central

Isolated annular dilatation is an extremely uncommon cause of congenital mitral regurgitation. We report a case of a 5-year-old child with idiopathic isolated annular dilatation causing severe congenital mitral regurgitation. PMID:23129915

Malik, Lalitaditya; Gupta, Anubhav; Nath, Ranjit Kumar; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2012-01-01

386

An innovative percutaneous technique for the removal and replacement of dysfunctioning plastic biliary endoprostheses (PBE) in the management of malignant billiary occlusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.  The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical impact of the percutaneous removal and replacement of\\u000a dysfunctioning plastic biliary endoprostheses (PBE).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods.  Over a period of 24 months, we observed eight patients (age 54–82 years; mean 65) with dysfunctioning PBE. After transhepatic\\u000a cholangiography and bile duct catheterisation, the endoprostheses were grasped with a gooseneck snare

D. Laganŕ; G. Carrafiello; M. Mangini; A. Giorgianni; G. Sturniolo; G. Dionigi; S. Cuffari; C. Fugazzola

2007-01-01

387

Comparison of biokinetics and biliary imaging parameters of four /sup 99m/Tc iminodiacetic acid derivatives in normal subjects  

SciTech Connect

The biokinetics (blood clearance, urinary excretion, hepatic peak time, uptake, and excretion t-1/2) and the imaging parameters (the time of appearance of the common bile duct, gallbladder, and duodenum) were determined in 34 normal subjects using /sup 99m/Tc diethyl (EIDA), /sup 99m/Tc dimethyl (HIDA), /sup 99m/Tc paraisopropyl (PIPIDA), and /sup 99m/Tc parabutyl (PBIDA) iminodiacetic acid derivatives. The blood and hepatic clearance of the four agents were significantly different (P less than 0.05) from each other. The 24-hour urinary excretion of PBIDA was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the urinary excretion of the other three agents. There was no difference among the four agents in the time of appearance of the gallbladder and duodenum. The time of appearance of the common bile duct was significantly delayed with PBIDA. The maximum intensity of the common bile duct usually occurred between 20 to 40 minutes with all four agents. However, gallbladder intensity continued to increase up to 3 hours. It is concluded that in the presence of normal liver function, all four /sup 99m/Tc IDA agents show definite differences in biokinetics but these differences do not have a major effect on biliary imaging parameters. If imaging alone is the primary goal, the selection of any one of the four agents will meet the clinican's need satisfactorily.

Bobba, V.V.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Kingston, E.; Brown, P.H.; Eklem, M.; Turner, F.E.

1983-02-01

388

Prospective randomised study of preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy versus surgery alone for common bile duct stones.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and twenty patients with known common bile duct stones were entered into a prospective randomised study of preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone clearance (group 1) versus surgery alone (group 2). Five patients were incorrectly entered; the 55 patients randomised to group 1 and the 60 randomised to group 2 were well matched with respect to clinical features and biochemical and medical risk factors. In group 1 endoscopic stone clearance was successful in 50 patients (91%); five of these patients refused elective surgery, though this was subsequently necessary in one. In group 2 common bile duct stones were cleared surgically in 54 of 59 patients (91.5%); one patient was treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy alone because of a myocardial infarct. The overall major complication rate in group 1 was 16.4% and included two deaths; in group 2 this was 8.5% and included one death. The minor complication rate in group 1 was 16.4% and that in group 2 13.6%. These differences in outcome were not significant. Despite a significant reduction in total hospital stay of patients in group 1, these results do not support the routine use of preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients having biliary surgery for stones in the common bile duct. PMID:3103731

Neoptolemos, J P; Carr-Locke, D L; Fossard, D P

1987-01-01

389

Simultaneous intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct and pancreas treated with chemoradiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Some authors have suggested that intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B) could be the the biliary counterpart of IPMN of the pancreas (IPMN-P) since they share several clinical-pathological features. These include prominent intraductal papillary proliferation pattern, a gastrointestinal phenotype, frequent mucin hyper-secretion and progression to mucinous carcinoma. To date there are just four reported cases of patients with synchronous IPMN-B and IPMN-P all of which were treated surgically. We hereby report the case of a 76-year-old woman who was incidentally diagnosed with both an asymptomatic 3 cm bulky fluid lesion obstructing the bile duct lumen, diagnosed as a malignant IPMN-B, and synchronous multiple pancreatic cystic lesions (10-13 mm) communicating with an irregular Wirsung, diagnosed as branch duct IPMN-P. Since surgery was ruled-out because of the patient’s age and preferences, she underwent a conservative management regimen comprising both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This was effective in decreasing the mass size and in resolving subsequent jaundice. This is also the first reported case of IPMN-B successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy. Clinicians should consider medical treatment as an option in this clinical scenario, in patients who may be unfit for surgery. PMID:22403738

Valente, Roberto; Capurso, Gabriele; Pierantognetti, Paola; Iannicelli, Elsa; Piciucchi, Matteo; Romiti, Adriana; Mercantini, Paolo; Larghi, Alberto; Federici, Giulia Francesca; Barucca, Viola; Osti, Maria Falchetto; Di Giulio, Emilio; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

2012-01-01

390

Simultaneous intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct and pancreas treated with chemoradiotherapy.  

PubMed

Some authors have suggested that intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B) could be the the biliary counterpart of IPMN of the pancreas (IPMN-P) since they share several clinical-pathological features. These include prominent intraductal papillary proliferation pattern, a gastrointestinal phenotype, frequent mucin hyper-secretion and progression to mucinous carcinoma. To date there are just four reported cases of patients with synchronous IPMN-B and IPMN-P all of which were treated surgically. We hereby report the case of a 76-year-old woman who was incidentally diagnosed with both an asymptomatic 3 cm bulky fluid lesion obstructing the bile duct lumen, diagnosed as a malignant IPMN-B, and synchronous multiple pancreatic cystic lesions (10-13 mm) communicating with an irregular Wirsung, diagnosed as branch duct IPMN-P. Since surgery was ruled-out because of the patient's age and preferences, she underwent a conservative management regimen comprising both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This was effective in decreasing the mass size and in resolving subsequent jaundice. This is also the first reported case of IPMN-B successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy. Clinicians should consider medical treatment as an option in this clinical scenario, in patients who may be unfit for surgery. PMID:22403738

Valente, Roberto; Capurso, Gabriele; Pierantognetti, Paola; Iannicelli, Elsa; Piciucchi, Matteo; Romiti, Adriana; Mercantini, Paolo; Larghi, Alberto; Federici, Giulia Francesca; Barucca, Viola; Osti, Maria Falchetto; Di Giulio, Emilio; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

2012-02-15

391

Percutaneous Transhepatic Removal of Bile Duct Stones: Results of 261 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic removal of bile duct stones when the procedure of endoscopic therapy fails for reasons of anatomical anomalies or is rejected by the patient. Methods: Between April 2001 and May 2010, 261 patients (138 male patients and 123 female patients; age range, 14-92 years; mean age, 64.6 years) with bile duct stones (common bile duct [CBD] stones = 248 patients and hepatolithiasis = 13 patients) were included in the study. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was performed, and stones were identified. Percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation of the papilla of Vater was performed. Then stones were pushed out into the duodenum with a Fogarty balloon catheter. If the stone diameter was larger than 15 mm, then basket lithotripsy was performed before balloon dilation. Results: Overall success rate was 95.7%. The procedure was successful in 97.5% of patients with CBD stones and in 61.5% of patients with hepatolithiasis. A total of 18 major complications (6.8%), including cholangitis (n = 7), subcapsular biloma (n = 4), subcapsular hematoma (n = 1), subcapsular abscess (n = 1), bile peritonitis (n = 1), duodenal perforation (n = 1), CBD perforation (n = 1), gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm (n = 1), and right hepatic artery transection (n = 1), were observed after the procedure. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that percutaneous transhepatic stone expulsion into the duodenum through the papilla is an effective and safe approach in the nonoperative management of the bile duct stones. It is a feasible alternative to surgery when endoscopic extraction fails or is rejected by the patient.

Ozcan, Nevzat, E-mail: nevzatcan@yahoo.com; Kahriman, Guven, E-mail: guvenkahriman@hotmail.com; Mavili, Ertugrul, E-mail: ertmavili@yahoo.com [Erciyes University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty (Turkey)

2012-08-15

392

Percutaneous Transhepatic Removal of Bile Duct Stones: Results of 261 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic removal of bile duct stones when the procedure of endoscopic therapy fails for reasons of anatomical anomalies or is rejected by the patient. Methods: Between April 2001 and May 2010, 261 patients (138 male patients and 123 female patients; age range, 14-92 years; mean age, 64.6 years) with bile duct stones (common bile duct [CBD] stones = 248 patients and hepatolithiasis = 13 patients) were included in the study. First, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was performed and stones were identified. Percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation of the papilla of Vater was performed. Then stones were pushed out into the duodenum with a Fogarty balloon catheter. If the stone diameter was larger than 15 mm, then basket lithotripsy was performed before balloon dilation. Results: Overall success rate was 95.7%. The procedure was successful in 97.5% of patients with CBD stones and in 61.5% of patients with hepatolithiasis. A total of 18 (6.8%) major complications, including cholangitis (n = 7), subcapsular biloma (n = 4), subcapsular hematoma (n = 1), subcapsular abscess (n = 1), bile peritonitis (n = 1), duodenal perforation (n = 1), CBD perforation (n = 1), gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm (n = 1), and right hepatic artery transection (n = 1), were seen after the procedure. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that percutaneous transhepatic stone expulsion into the duodenum through the papilla is an effective and safe approach in the nonoperative management of the bile duct stones. It is a feasible alternative to surgery when endoscopic extraction fails or is rejected by the patient.

Ozcan, Nevzat, E-mail: nevzatcan@yahoo.com; Kahriman, Guven, E-mail: guvenkahriman@hotmail.com; Mavili, Ertugrul, E-mail: ertmavili@yahoo.com [Erciyes University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Gevher Nesibe Hospital (Turkey)

2012-06-15

393

The Unfinished Business of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Summary In nearly every multifactorial human disease, there are three periods that characterize our understanding and definition. First, there is a period in which there is rapid accumulation of descriptive data. Second, there is a longer and slower period as information is obtained that redefines and expands basic and clinical knowledge that lacks the final and important area of understanding aetiology and therapeutic intervention. Third, which is much less common for most diseases, is the vigorous definition of pathobiology and treatment. These phases are well illustrated by our current understanding of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The term PBC was first used nearly 60 years ago and for the first 40 or so years, the primary research efforts were directed at clinical definitions and pathology. Subsequently, with the advent of molecular biology, there began a rigorous dissection of the immune response and, in particular, a better understanding of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. These efforts have greatly helped in our understanding of not only the effector mechanisms of disease, but also the uniqueness of the primary target tissue, biliary epithelium. However, this research has still not led to successful translation for specific therapy. PMID:18640737

Selmi, Carlo; Zuin, Massimo; Gershwin, M. Eric

2008-01-01

394

Metallic stents in malignant biliary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Retrospective analysis of our results with metallic stent placement for malignant biliary strictures. We sought to determine parameters that influence stent patency. Methods. A total of 95 Wallstents were implanted in 65 patients (38 men, 27 women; mean age, 65.1 years) with malignant biliary obstruction. Serum bilirubin levels were assessed in 48 patients; the mean value prior to intervention was 15.0 mg/dl. Results. In 12 patients (21%) complications occurred as a result of percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Stent implantation was complicated in 13 patients, but was possible in all patients. A significant decrease in bilirubin level was seen in 83.3% of patients following stent implantation. Approximately 30% of patients developed recurrent jaundice after a mean 97.1 days. In 9 patients (15%) the recurrent jaundice was caused by stent occlusion due to tumor growth. The mean follow-up was 141.8 days, the mean survival 118.7 days. Patients with cholangiocarcinomas and gallbladder carcinomas had the best results. Worse results were seen in patients with pancreatic tumors and with lymph node metastases of colon and gastric cancers. Conclusions. The main predictive factors for occlusion rate and survival are the type of primary tumor, tumor stage, the decrease in bilirubin level, and the general condition of the patient.

Rieber, Andrea; Brambs, Hans-Juergen [University of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

1997-01-15

395

Biliary lipids, water and cholesterol gallstones.  

PubMed

Cholesterol supersaturation, hydrophobic bile salts, pronucleating proteins and impaired gall-bladder motility may contribute to gallstone pathogenesis. We here show that both gallstone-susceptible C57L and gallstone-resistant AKR male inbred mice exhibit supersaturated gall-bladder biles during early lithogenesis, whereas bile-salt composition becomes hydrophobic only in susceptible C57L mice. In vitro, cholesterol crystallization occurs depending on relative amounts of lipids; excess cholesterol may exceed solubilizing capacity of mixed bile salt-phospholipid micelles, whereas excess bile salts compared with phospholipids leads to deficient cholesterol-storage capacity in vesicles. In vivo, bile lipid contents are mainly determined at the level of the hepatocyte canalicular membrane, where specific transport proteins enable lipid secretion [ABCG5/G8 (ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8) for cholesterol, MDR3 (multi-drug resistant 3) for phospholipid, BSEP (bile salt export pump)]. These transport proteins are regulated by farnesoid X and liver X nuclear receptors. After nascent bile formation, modulation of bile water contents in biliary tract and gall-bladder exerts critical effects on cholesterol crystallization. During progressive bile concentration (particularly in the fasting gall-bladder), cholesterol and, preferentially, phospholipid transfer occurs from cholesterol-unsaturated vesicles to emerging mixed micelles. The remaining unstable cholesterol-enriched vesicles may nucleate crystals. Various aquaporins have recently been discovered throughout the biliary tract, with potential relevance for gallstone formation. PMID:16232124

van Erpecum, Karel J

2005-11-01

396

Genetic Counseling and Screening Issues in Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), a treatable condition characterized by left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction of unknown cause, has only recently been recognized to have genetic etiologies. Although familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDC) was thought to be infrequent, it is now believed that 30-50% of cases of IDC may be familial. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic (ECG) screening of first-degree relatives of individuals

Emily L. Hanson; Ray E. Hershberger

2001-01-01

397

Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Biliary Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

2014-05-12

398

Effect of cobalt on biliary excretion of bilirubin and glutathione  

SciTech Connect

Adult male rats received cobaltous chloride (250 mol/kg, sc) at various times (1-72 h) prior to assessment of hepatic heme oxygenase activity, bile flow, biliary concentration of bilirubin-glucuronides, and hepatic and biliary glutathione concentrations. Hepatic heme oxygenase activity increased 360% 24 h after treatment but returned to control levels by 72 h. Total biliary concentrations of the mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin (BMG and BDG) were increased 47% at 24 h and returned to control levels more slowly than did heme oxygenase. Bile flow was not significantly changed at any time. Concentrations of hepatic reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) tended to increase after cobalt, but changes were not statistically significant. Biliary GSH and GSSG increased 1 h after cobalt treatment and were twice control values 3 h after treatment. These biliary glutathione concentrations declined to the control range by 6 h. These results demonstrate that increased liver heme oxygenase activity following cobalt treatment may be associated with elevated biliary excretion of bilirubin glucuronides. However, changes that occurred in biliary excretion of glutathione in response to cobalt treatment were not accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic glutathione levels.

Stelzer, K.J.; Klaassen, C.D.

1985-01-01

399

Cholesterol crystal binding of biliary immuno- globulin A: visualization by fluorescence light microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM To assess potential contributions of biliary IgA for crystal agglomeration into gallstones, we visualized cholesterol crystal binding of biliary IgA. METHODS Crystal binding biliary proteins were extracted from human gallbladder bile using lectin affinity chromatography. Biliary IgA was isolated from the bound protein fraction by immunoaffinity chromatography. Pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals were incubated with biliary IgA and fluoresceine isothiocyanate

Frank Lammert; Stefan Südfeld; Norbert Busch; Siegfried Matern

400

Ramjet bypass duct and preburner configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined turbofan and ramjet aircraft engine includes a forward bypass duct which allows the engine to operate more efficiently during the turbofan mode of operation. By mounting a ramjet preburner in the forward duct and isolating this duct from the turbofan bypass air, a transition from turbofan operation to ramjet operation can take place at lower flight Mach numbers without incurring pressure losses or blockage in the turbofan bypass air.

Orlando, Robert J. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

401

Computer simulation of sound propagation in ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code based on the transfer-matrix approach is advanced that can be used to theoretically analyze the acoustic properties of complicated flow ducts. The transfer-matrix approach is reviewed, and the Sound In Ducts (SID) program is described which provides both measurement and analysis functions. SID incorporates four separate programs, one of which is the a flow-duct element library containing