Sample records for biliary duct dilatation

  1. Intrahepatic Stones from Congenital Biliary Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Jhamb, Satvik; Decker, Christopher; Romero, Ricardo; Rivera, Ramon E.; Conway, W. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital or primary intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) dilatation is a rare disorder with symptoms of abdominal pain and hepatomegaly that usually presents in childhood and adolescence. Recurrent cholangitis, liver abscesses, septicemia, and biliary cirrhosis may result secondary to biliary sludge and hepatolithiasis. Case Report We present a case of IHBD dilatation with hepatolithiasis cured with surgical resection and discuss the management of this disease. Conclusion IHBD dilatation should be treated, as chronic biliary stasis and hepatolithiasis can lead to infection and recurrent cholangitis that can progress to cholangiocarcinoma. Treatment for IHBD dilatation usually involves multiple modalities including medical therapy, but ultimately resection of the diseased segments or lobes is required given the increased risk of malignancy. PMID:25829890

  2. A case of biliary atresia with cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct and polysplenia syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Shiono; Iwao Yamagiwa; Kazuya Obata; Naoki Okuyama; Takayuki Ouchi; Yasuhisa Shimazaki

    2000-01-01

    A 79-day-old girl presented with jaundice and acholia. Laboratory findings disclosed elevated levels of bilirubin, transaminases,\\u000a and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A chest X-ray film showed dextrocardia. A computed tomographic scan revealed a cystic mass\\u000a at the porta hepatis, multiple spleens in the right side of the abdomen, and absence of the inferior vena cava. Under the\\u000a diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA)

  3. Diagnostics of Biliary Dilatation by Means of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Szalacha-Tara?a, Ewa; Ramotowski, Rados?aw; Guz, Wies?aw; Samojedny, Antoni; Dziurzy?ska-Bia?ek, Ewa; Jadczak, Przemys?aw

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is a relatively noninvasive technique of biliary and pancreatic duct imaging. MRCP technique utilizes T2-weighted sequences, in which bile is characterized by high signal intensity, whilst signal intensity of surrounding tissues is reduced. The purpose of this publication was to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnostics of biliary dilatation. Material/Methods MRCP examinations of 148 patients (48 men and 100 women; the average age was 56) performed on a 1.5T Achieva Philips device in the Provincial Hospital in Rzeszow between November 2011 and April 2013 were included in retrospective analysis. Examined group was divided into three subgroups: patients after cholecystectomy, patients with cholecystolithiasis and patients without gallbladder concretions. The definitive cause of biliary dilatation was determined mainly on the basis of MRCP and ECPW examinations, and, in individual cases, during intraoperative cholangiography and laparatomy. Results Signal loss corresponding to probable concretions was identified in 34 cases. In the group of patients with cholecystolithiasis the cause of biliary dilatation was usually (45%) cholelithiasis. MRCP image was typical in 4 out of 9 malignant cases. The cause of biliary dilatation was usually (20%) a neoplasm in the group of patients without gallstones. Benign causes of biliary dilatation, apart from cholelithiasis, were identified in 16 individuals, including 4 cases in which the diagnosis was identified using MRCP, whereas in the remaining 12 cases ECPW examination proved conclusive to the final diagnosis. Conclusions Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography enables reliable diagnosis of causes of biliary dilatation as long as they involve presence of gallbladder deposits and tumors. In benign causes of biliary dilatation, apart from cholelithiasis, MRCP picture is often atypical and therefore, the final identification of the cause of biliary dilatation is possible when this imagining method is combined with ERCP and additional tests. PMID:25243036

  4. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for large common bile duct stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Attam; Martin L. Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) involves endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) followed by balloon dilation\\u000a using a 12–20-mm balloon to remove large or difficult stones from the common bile duct. The complications and limitations\\u000a of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) are well known. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) with a smaller diameter\\u000a balloon but without sphincterotomy is widely used in a

  5. Persistent biliary dilatation and stenosis in postoperative congenital choledochal cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsugumichi Koshinaga; Mikiya Inoue; Kensuke Ohashi; Kiminobu Sugito; Tarou Ikeda; Noritsugu Hagiwara; Ryouichi Tomita

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/purpose  Cholangitis and intrahepatic stones occur long after total cyst excision in patients with congenital choledochal cyst (CCC).\\u000a Our study aimed to characterize morphological features of intrahepatic biliary dilatation and stenosis before and after total\\u000a cyst excision, based on long-term follow-up data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pre- and postoperative morphological features of intrahepatic biliary dilatation were determined in 63 patients with CCC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Postoperatively, hepatic ductal

  6. Choledochoscopy of the cystic duct as a new approach to the biliary tree.

    PubMed

    Reid, B A

    1989-07-01

    Operative biliary endoscopy is traditionally performed through a common duct incision, through a very dilated cystic duct lumen. The development of the new ultra thin biliary scopes makes visual examination of the biliary tree possible through a normal cystic duct lumen. The operative approach to the gallbladder is unchanged. The indications for choledochoscopy of the cystic duct are the same as for operative cholangiogram. This examination can be of better quality and is less expensive than an operative roentgenogram. Unlike an operative cholangiogram, which at best visualized the bile ducts, the ultra thin scope gives the surgeon additional information concerning the ampulla of Vater, differentiating ductal spasm from stricture by its tactile feedback through the Bakes-like probe. When disease is present, it is possible for the scope to become a therapeutic instrument without the need for choledochotomy and its associated morbidity and cost. The high incidence of choledocholithiasis in this small series may be attributed to the sample size. It is also possible that more occult stones were found. If this is the case, most of these stones are being passed spontaneously and are never clinically apparent. It is those few patients who have small, occult stones that do not pass who benefit most from this new technology. This study was undertaken to develop and investigate the potential uses of a new biliary scope. These scopes require a learning period before the entire biliary tract can be visualized, but have the potential to be of significant value in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract disease. PMID:2740972

  7. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-05-28

    We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

  8. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming; Wu, Ganqiu

    2015-06-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  9. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after limited sphincterotomy for difficult biliary stones

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Ana; Ribeiro, Pedro Moutinho; Correia, António Pinto; Cotter, José

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after biliary sphincterotomy for difficult bile duct stones retrieval. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients submitted to the technique during 18 mo. The main outcomes considered were: efficacy of the procedure (complete stone clearance; number of sessions; need of lithotripsy) and complications. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with a mean age of 68 ± 10 years, 23 female (77%) and 7 male (23%) were enrolled. In 10 patients, a single stone was found in the common bile duct (33%) and in 20 patients multiple stones (67%) were found. The median diameter of the stones was 17 mm (12-30 mm). Dilations were performed with progressive diameter Through-The-Scope balloons (up to 12, 15) or 18 mm. Complete retrieval of stones was achieved in a single session in 25 patients (84%) and in two sessions in 4 patients (13%). Failure occurred in 1 case (6%). Mechanical lithotripsy was performed in 6 cases (20%). No severe complications occurred. One patient (3%) had mild-grade post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic balloon dilatation with a large balloon after endoscopic sphincterotomy is a safe and effective technique that could be considered an alternative choice in therapeutic ERCP. PMID:22624069

  10. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluation of unexplained common bile duct dilatation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Background Dilated common bile duct (CBD) without obvious cause is a not uncommon finding on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. Methods Patients referred for EUS evaluation of a dilated CBD were retrospectively analyzed with respect to serum alkaline phosphatase prior to EUS and subsequent outcome after EUS. Results Over a 3-year period, 40 patients (24 males; mean age 38.9±9.9 years) with dilated CBD were retrospectively identified. Ten patients had elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. The diagnosis reached after EUS examination was: CBD stones in 15 (37.5%) with largest size of CBD stone being 9 mm, mass in CBD in 2 (5%), benign biliary stricture in 2 (5%), biliary stricture with underlying chronic pancreatitis in 1 (2.5%) patient respectively. EUS examination revealed normal CBD in 20 (50%) patients and two of these patients had periampullary diverticulum. All the patients with abnormal liver function tests had a detectable CBD pathology whereas 20/30 (66.6%) patients with normal liver biochemistry had normal EUS findings. There was no significant difference in the mean CBD diameter between the groups with demonstrable pathology compared with those without (P=0.64). Conclusion EUS is a useful investigational modality for patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. The mean CBD diameter and the presence of normal liver function tests are not predictive of underlying pathology. PMID:24714761

  11. Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis undergoing liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Esfeh, Jamak Modaresi; Eghtesad, Bijan; Hodgkinson, Peter; Diago, Teresa; Fujiki, Masato; Hashimoto, Koji; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico; Kelly, Dympna; Winans, Charles; Vogt, David; Miller, Charles; Zein, Nizar; Fung, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of biliary drainage after liver transplantation (LTx) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been a matter of controversy. Over recent years, the traditional method of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RY) has been challenged by duct-to-duct (DD) biliary reconstruction. Methods This study represents a retrospective review of biliary complications, patient and graft survival after LTx in PSC patients based on type of biliary reconstruction. Outcomes of DD reconstruction in this group of patients and non-PSC patients are compared. Results A total of 53 primary LTx procedures were performed for PSC between August 2005 and July 2010. Seven patients were excluded because unexpected cholangiocarcinoma was found in the explants (n = 3) or because they received partial livers (n = 4). Biliary reconstruction was performed as DD in 18 patients and RY in 28 patients. There were no bile leaks. Anastomotic stricture occurred in two (11%) patients in the DD group and one (4%) in the RY group. Two (7%) patients in the RY group developed non-PSC intrahepatic strictures and one had recurrence of PSC. Rates of 1- and 3-year patient and graft survival in the RY and DD groups were 96.7% and 96.7%, and 100% and 94.5%, respectively. In a group of 34 randomly selected patients transplanted for a non-PSC diagnosis with DD reconstruction during the same period, the anastomotic stricture rate was 9% and 1- and 3-year patient and graft survival rates were 97.0% and 88.5%; differences were not significant. Conclusions Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction at the time of LTx in selected PSC patients is both effective and safe, and shows outcomes comparable with those of RY reconstruction in these patients and those of DD reconstruction in non-PSC patients. PMID:21843266

  12. Biliary sphincterotomy is not required for bile duct stent placement

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, C. Mel; Kim, Hwasoon; Ramesh, Jayapal; Trevino, Jessica; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to assess the success and outcome of bile duct stent placement without the use of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS). Patients and Methods Over a period of 10 years and 9 months, all patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were prospectively identified. Bile duct stent placement was routinely done without EBS unless additional therapy (stone removal, multiple stenting) was anticipated. Results Of 5020 patients who underwent ERCP, bile duct stents were placed in 1668 patients. After excluding those requiring additional endoscopic therapy, 1112 patients (89.5%) had ERCP and stent placement without a sphincterotomy and 130 patients (10.5%) had ERCP and stent placement with a sphincterotomy. Deployed endoprostheses were self-expandable metallic stents in 15.7% and plastic in 77.5%. Caliber of plastic stents was 10 Fr in 78.9% and <10 Fr in 21.1%. All stents were successfully placed in these 1112 patients without the need for EBS. Comparing patients undergoing bile duct stenting with and without sphincterotomy, no difference was seen in rates of pancreatitis (1.54% vs 2.07%, P > 0.9999). Conclusion Single bile duct stents, both plastic and metal, can be deployed without EBS. PMID:23517140

  13. The Efficacy of Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for Patients with Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Chih; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lin, Kung-Hung; Wang, Kai-Ming; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chiang, Po-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Li, Yun-Da; Wang, E-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background. No study investigated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for the treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). Method. We retrospectively reviewed the effects of EPBD on patients with ABP from February 2003 to December 2012. The general data, findings of image studies, details of the procedure, and outcomes after EPBD were analyzed. Result. Total 183 patients (male/female: 110/73) were enrolled. The mean age was 65.9 years. Among them, 155 patients had mild pancreatitis. The meantime from admission to EPBD was 3.3 days. Cholangiogram revealed filling defects inside the common bile duct (CBD) in 149 patients. The mean dilating balloon size was 10.5?mm and mean duration of the dilating procedure was 4.3 minutes. Overall, 124 patients had gross stones retrieved from CBD. Four (2.2%) adverse events and 2 (1.1%) intraprocedure bleeding incidents but no procedure-related mortality were noted. Bilirubin and amylase levels significantly decreased after EPBD. On average, patients resumed oral intake within 1.4 days. The clinical parameters and outcomes were similar in patients with different severity of pancreatitis. Conclusion. EPBD can be effective and safe for the treatment of ABP, even in patients presenting with severe disease. PMID:25949236

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct dilatation with normal liver enzymes

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Claudio; Marietti, Milena; Bruno, Mauro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Rizzetto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the description of isolated bile duct dilatation has been increasingly observed in subjects with normal liver function tests and nonspecific abdominal symptoms, probably due to the widespread use of high-resolution imaging techniques. However, there is scant literature about the evolution of this condition and the impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnostic work up. When noninvasive imaging tests (transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) fail to identify the cause of dilatation and clinical or biochemical alarm signs are absent, the probability of having biliary disease is considered low. In this setting, using EUS, the presence of pathologic findings (choledocholithiasis, strictures, chronic pancreatitis, ampullary or pancreatic tumors, cholangiocarcinoma), not always with a benign course, has been observed. The aim of this review has been to evaluate the prevalence of disease among non-jaundiced patients without signs of cytolysis and/or cholestasis and the assessment of EUS yield. Data point out to a promising role of EUS in the identification of a potential biliary pathology. EUS is a low invasive technique, with high accuracy, that could play a double cost-effective role: identifying pathologic conditions with dismal prognosis, in asymptomatic patients with negative prior imaging tests, and excluding pathologic conditions and further follow-up in healthy subjects. PMID:26191344

  15. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, Guido, E-mail: guido.cozzi@istitutotumori.mi.it; Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Pulvirenti, Andrea [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy); Salvetti, Monica [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Romito, Raffaele [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy); Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

  16. [Temporary replacement of the common biliary duct by a silicone tube as an urgent repair of iatrogenic injury. Experimental study in pigs].

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Daniel A; Rodríguez Bertola, Xavier; Sambuelli, Gabriela M; Vial, Luis H; Torrecillas, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Surgery of the biliary tract is complex, and its volume has increased with iatrogenic injuries and living donor transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze if the common duct can be temporarily replaced. We used nine 18-20 kg pigs. They were operated on, and their bile duct was replaced by a 100% silicone tube. All pigs underwent laboratory tests, magnetic resonance imaging, intraoperative ultrasound, cholangiography and biliar manometry with pathological biopsy examination within 60 days from the initial surgery. All pigs survived the first surgery over 60 days without laboratory evidence of evident cholestasis. Nine pigs were re-operated on at 60 days showing dilated common bile duct and hepatic ducts doubling its original size without dilating the intrahepatic bile ducts. There were no clinical, relevant laboratory or biopsy signs showing cholestasis. This experience represents the initial intention to find an optimal situation and prosthesis for replacement of the thin biliary tract, in surgical emergencies or palliative situations. The silicon tube, is a positive answer that remains permeable. A non-fibrotic reaction was found that allows a posterior definitive procedure, maintaining a good nutritional status. PMID:25194225

  17. Clonal chromosomal abnormalities in congenital bile duct dilatation (Caroli's disease)

    PubMed Central

    Parada, L; Hallen, M; Hagerstrand, I; Tranberg, K; Johansson, B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Caroli's disease is a rare congenital disorder characterised by cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts and an increased risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma. The cause is unknown, but occasional familial clustering suggests that some cases are inherited, in particular when occurring in association with polycystic kidney disease and germline PKD1 gene mutations. To date, no gene responsible for familial isolated Caroli's disease has been identified, and no genetic investigations of liver tissue from patients with Caroli's disease have been reported.?PATIENT/METHOD—A liver biopsy specimen from a patient with isolated Caroli's disease, without any signs of cholangiocellular carcinoma, was short term cultured and cytogenetically investigated after G banding with Wright's stain.?RESULT—Cytogenetic analysis disclosed the karyotype 45-47,XX,der(3)t(3;8)(p23;q13), +2mar[cp6]/46,XX[18].?CONCLUSIONS—The finding of an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 3 and 8 suggests that loss of distal 3p and/or gain of 8q is of pathogenetic importance in Caroli's disease. Alternatively, structural rearrangements of genes located in 3p23 and 8q13 may be of the essence. These chromosomal breakpoints may also pinpoint the location of genes involved in inherited forms of Caroli's disease not associated with polycystic kidney disease.???Keywords: Caroli's disease; bile duct; cytogenetics PMID:10517920

  18. Cholangiographic characteristics of common bile duct dilatation in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seak Hee; Chang, Soo-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Jin Min; Hwang, Ji-Hee; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Kim, Dae Yeon; Cho, Young-Ah; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether children with congenital common bile duct dilatation (CBDD) differ from children with obstructive CBDD in cholangiographic characteristics. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the baseline data and the results of imaging analyses were reviewed among children who had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) due to CBDD. ERCP was performed on all pediatric patients by experienced pediatric endoscopists. The maximal transverse diameter of the common bile duct (CBD) was measured on ERCP. To assess whether age-adjusted CBDD could be used for differential diagnosis, a CBDD severity index (SI) was calculated by dividing the measured CBD diameter by the age-corrected maximal diameter of a normal CBD. RESULTS: A retrospective medical chart review revealed that 85 consecutive children under 16 years of age with hepatobiliary disease and CBDD were referred to Seoul Asan Medical Center. Fifty-five (64.7%) children had congenital CBDD and 30 (35.3%) had obstructive CBDD. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of clinical characteristics except for sex. The congenital and obstructive CBDD groups did not differ significantly in terms of mean CBD diameter (19.3 ± 9.6 mm vs 12.2 ± 4.1 mm, P > 0.05). However, congenital CBDD cases had a significantly higher mean SI than obstructive CBDD cases (3.62 ± 1.64 vs 1.98 ± 0.71, P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, an SI value ? 2.32 and comorbidity with anomalous union of pancreaticobiliary duct (APBDU) in ERCP independently predicted congenital CBDD. CONCLUSION: Measuring the CBD may aid the differential diagnosis of both CBDD and APBDU in children. PMID:26034357

  19. Increased biliary secretion of cysteinyl-leukotrienes in human bile duct obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lothar Richter; Norbert Hesselbarth; Klaus Eitner; Klaus Schubert; Hans Bosseckert; Herbert Krell

    1996-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The pathophysiological role of leukotrienes in liver disease is not well understood. Redistribution or enhanced formation in cholestatic states may result in increased hepatic concentrations that are expected to contribute to liver injury. To disclose the potential role of cysteinyl-leukotrienes in chronic liver diseases, we studied biliary and urinary secretion in the model situation of relief of bile duct

  20. Balloon dilatation of a benign biliary stricture through a T-tube tract

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Kalra, Naveen; Kumar, Ajay; Kochhar, Rakesh; Gupta, Vikas; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangioplasty is a commonly performed procedure for both benign and malignant diseases. The most common route for accessing the biliary tree is transhepatic, following ultrasound or fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous puncture. There are situations when alternative routes can be utilized to access the common bile duct (CBD). We accessed the CBD via T-tube placed surgically in a 57-year-old man who had obstructive jaundice of obscure etiology which was likely inflammatory. PMID:25709161

  1. Which Is the Better Treatment for the Removal of Large Biliary Stones? Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilation versus Endoscopic Sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Woo Hyun; Ryu, Ji Kon; Park, Jin Myung; Song, Byeong Jun; Kim, Jaihwan; Park, Joo Kyung; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) for large common bile duct (CBD) stone removal compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Methods A total of 1,580 patients who underwent endoscopic CBD stone extraction between January 2001 and July 2010 were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were applied: choledocholithiasis treated by EPLBD with minor EST or EST with mechanical lithotripsy; and follow-up >9 months after treatment. Results Forty-nine patients with EPLBD and 41 with EST were compared. There was no significant difference in the complication rates and stone recurrence rates between the two groups. However, significantly more endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sessions were required in the EST group to achieve the complete removal of stones (1.7 times vs 1.3 times; p=0.03). The mean cost required for complete stone removal per patient was significantly higher in the EST group compared to the EPLBD group (USD $1,644 vs $1,225, respectively; p=0.04). Dilated CBD was the only significant factor associated with recurrent biliary stones (relative risk, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.17; p=0.02). Conclusions EPLBD is the better treatment (compared to EST) for removing large CBD stones because EPLBD requires fewer ERCP sessions and is less expensive. PMID:25071911

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention. PMID:25400865

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions.

    PubMed

    Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-11-16

    When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention. PMID:25400865

  4. Prognostic Factors for Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones after Endoscopic Treatment by Sphincter Dilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Ueno; Yoshifumi Ozawa; Toshiyuki Aizawa

    2003-01-01

    Background:The long-term outcome for patients after endoscopic sphincter of Oddi dilation is poorly documented. This study investigates the recurrence rate for bile duct stones in patients followed for 1 year or more after endoscopic sphincter dilation and stone extraction, and assessed prognostic factors associated with recurrence of ductal calculi.

  5. Efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and endoscopic dilation of major duct stenoses in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolf Stiehl; Gerda Rudolph; Peter Sauer; Christine Benz; Wolfgang Stremmel; Siegfried Walker; Lorenz Theilmann

    1997-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is characterized by progressive fibrotic inflammation and obliteration of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment leads to improvement of biochemical parameters of cholestasis and in part also of liver histology. During treatment, obstruction of major ducts may lead to deterioration of liver function, which may be prevented by endoscopic dilation of the stenoses. Controlled

  6. A comparative study of one minute versus five seconds endoscopic biliary balloon dilation after small sphincterotomy in choleducolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Minakari, Mohammad; Ardestani, Mohammad Hadi Shafigh; Sadeghizadeh, Atefeh; Shavakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a low-risk method for the treatment of choleducolithiasis. Traditionally one minute ballooning time (BT) is applied; however, the effective BT is not clear. In this study, we compare five seconds and one minute ballooning time. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind, randomized, clinical trial 60 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones documented in ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), with no severe hepatic, biliary or systemic diseases, enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive EPBD with either five seconds (n = 31) or one minute (n = 29) ballooning time (BT) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and small sphincterotomy. Then stones were retrieved with an extractor balloon. The patients were followed for 48 hours to check the possible complications. Results: Successful CBD stone removal was the same in the five-second and one-minute BT groups (93.5% vs. 96.6%; P = 0.594). Pancreatitis occurred in three (9.7%) patients in the five-second BT group and in six (20.7%) patients in the one-minute BT group (P = 0.233). No hemorrhage or perforation was noted. Conclusions: After a small sphincterotomy, EPBD in the five-second and one-minute BT groups had a similar efficacy. Small sphincterotomy combined with very short BT is a safe and effective method for CBD stone removal. PMID:25709993

  7. Pancreatic duct guidewire placement for biliary cannulation in a single-session therapeutic ERCP

    PubMed Central

    Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Bassioukas, Stefanos P; Kypreos, Dimitrios; Korkolis, Dimitrios; Scorilas, Andreas; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Dimitroulopoulos, Dimitrios; Paraskevas, Emmanouil

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the technical success and clinical complication rate of a cannulated pancreatic duct with guidewire for biliary access. METHODS: During a five-year study period, a total of 2843 patients were included in this retrospective analysis. Initial biliary cannulation method consisted of single-guidewire technique (SGT) for up to 5 attempts, followed by double-guidewire technique (DGT) when repeated unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation had taken place. Pre-cut papillotomy technique was reserved for when DGT had failed or no pancreatic duct cannulation had been previously achieved. Main outcome measurements were defined as biliary cannulation success and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complication rate. RESULTS: SGT (92.3% success rate) was characterized by statistically significant enhanced patient outcome compared to either the DGT (43.8%, P < 0.001), pre-cut failed DGT (73%, P < 0.001) or pre-cut as first step method (80.6%, P = 0.002). Pre-cut as first step method offered a statistically significantly more favorable outcome compared to the DGT (P < 0.001). The incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis did not differ in a statistically significant manner between either method (SGT: 5.3%, DGT: 6.1%, Pre-cut failed DGT: 7.9%, Pre-cut as first step: 7.5%) or with patients’ gender. CONCLUSION: Although DGT success rate proved not to be superior to SGT or pre-cut papillotomy, it is considered highly satisfactory in terms of safety in order to avoid the risk of a pre-cut when biliary therapy is necessary in difficult-to-cannulate cases. PMID:21528077

  8. [Apropos of a case of acute pancreatitis revealing cystic dilatation of the common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Kabbaj, N; Ababou, A; el Fakir, Y; Amarouch, N; Dafiri, R; Sbihi, A; Imani, F

    1998-11-01

    Dilatation of the common bile duct is rarely caused by cystic formations. Though the pathogenesis is uncertain, congenital disorders have been suggested. Most cases are observed in small children (80% female predominance) with only 20% of the cases reported in adults. Clinical signs vary. Recurrent acute pancreatitis has been reported but is rare. New imaging techniques using CT-scan cholangiography and sometimes MR cholangiography have greatly improved the diagnostic approach. MR of the bile ducts is a recent noninvasive technique enabling an analysis of the biliopancreatic ducts without contrast injection into the bile. To our knowledge, cystic dilatation of the common bile duct has not been previously reported in the literature. We report an interesting case in a 25-year-old woman who developed an episode of acute pancreatitis during the post partum period. We describe the clinical aspects and the different imaging findings, including magnetic resonance cholangiography results. PMID:9846293

  9. Management of common bile duct stones with a biliary endoprosthesis. Report on 40 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, R; Macmathuna, P; Lombard, M; Karani, J; Westaby, D

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of a biliary endoprosthesis has been proposed for the management of choledocholithiasis when stone extraction is difficult or considered hazardous. Over a two year period this approach was used in 40 such patients. There were 24 women and 16 men with a median age of 76 years. In seven patients with severe cholangitis no attempt was made to extract the stones. Twenty three (57.5%) patients underwent a sphincterotomy and four (10%) needle knife papillotomy. The endoprosthesis insertion was considered a temporary measure in 13 (32.5%) patients and definitive treatment in 27 (67.5%). Bile duct drainage was established in all patients. Early complications occurred in six patients (15%), but were without sequelae. Late complications developed in eight (20%) of the patients and included biliary colic (four), cholangitis (three), and cholecystitis (one). Two patients (one cholangitis and one cholecystitis) died as a consequence of the complication. Only patients without a sphincterotomy developed cholangitis. A total of eight patients (20%) underwent surgery (one as an emergency) and nine a repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (two as an emergency) to clear the duct. The remaining 23 patients are asymptomatic at a median of 13 months (range five to 24 months). Biliary endoprosthesis insertion for choledocholithiasis is an important alternative means of establishing drainage in selected cases, and is probably the optimum method of management for the elderly and or debilitated patients with previous cholecystectomy. Caution must be exercised, however, in patients with an in situ gall bladder. PMID:1446871

  10. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for removal of bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Kitamura, Katsuya; Mikami, Shigeru; Fujimoto, Tatsuya; Ijima, Masashi; Kurihara, Eishin; Oana, Shuhei; Nishino, Takayoshi; Tamura, Ryo; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Nishikawa, Takao; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Mine, Tetsuya; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and outcomes of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) for bile duct stones in a multicenter prospective study. METHODS: Lithotomy by EPLBD was conducted in 124 patients with bile duct stones ? 13 mm in size or with three or more bile duct stones ? 10 mm. After endoscopic sphincterotomy, the papilla was dilated using balloons 12-20 mm in diameter fitting the bile duct diameter. RESULTS: The success rate of first-time lithotomy was 86.3% (107/124) and the final lithotomy success rate was 100% (124/124). Lithotripsy was needed in 10 of the 124 (13.6%) patients. Adverse events due to the treatment procedure occurred in 6 (4.8%) patients, all of which were mild. Performing large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with large stones or multiple stones in the bile duct is considered to ensure the safety of treatment and to reduce the need for lithotripsy. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that treatment by EPLBD for large bile duct stones may be safe and useful. PMID:25493029

  11. Balloon Catheter Dilation and Nasolacrimal Intubation for Treatment of Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Following a Failed Probing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal intubation as treatments for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) after a failed probing in children less than 4 years of age Methods We conducted a prospective, non-randomized multicenter study which enrolled 159 children aged 6 to <48 months who had a history of a single failed nasolacrimal duct probing and had at least one of the following clinical signs of NLDO present: epiphora, mucous discharge and/or increased tear lake. One hundred ninety-nine eyes underwent either balloon catheter nasolacrimal duct dilation or nasolacrimal duct intubation. Treatment success was defined as no epiphora, mucous discharge or increased tear lake present at the outcome visit six months after surgery. Results Treatment success was reported in 65 of 84 eyes (77%, 95% CI = 65% to 85%) in the balloon group compared with 72 of 88 eyes (84%, 95% CI = 74% to 91%) eyes in the intubation group (risk ratio for success for intubation vs. balloon = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusions Balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal duct intubation each alleviate the clinical signs of persistent nasolacrimal duct obstruction in a similar proportion of patients. PMID:19433712

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage for right hepatic bile duct obstruction: novel technical tips.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takeshi; Sano, Tatsushi; Onda, Saori; Imoto, Akira; Masuda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is not normally indicated for an obstructed right intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD). The technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of a novel technique of EUS-BD for right IHBD obstruction were evaluated. A total of 11 patients underwent drainage using either a left or a right biliary access route. The causes of obstructive jaundice were cholangiocarcinoma (n?=?6), pancreatic cancer (n?=?3), gastric cancer (n?=?1), and colon cancer (n?=?1). After placement of an uncovered metal stent to bridge the obstruction, a hepaticogastrostomy was completed using a covered stent. Mean procedure time was 33.9?±?10.0 minutes. Technical and functional success were achieved in all patients, and no adverse events occurred. This novel method appears to be safe and effective for right IHBD obstruction. PMID:25264761

  13. [Combined analysis by echography and biology in bile duct dilatation. Value in etiologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Brauner, M; Gastinne, R; Hassan, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-five consecutive case-reports of patients with evidence of confirmed biliary tract dilatation on ultrasound imaging were reviewed retrospectively to assess value of combined indirect ultrasound signs and simple biologic data in determining etiologic diagnosis. The diagnostic value of certain groups of signs representing indicators of tumoral or nontumoral lesions was equal or superior to that of direct visualization of the occlusion. PMID:3912497

  14. Loss of interleukin-12 modifies the pro-inflammatory response but does not prevent duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujit Kumar Mohanty; Pranavkumar Shivakumar; Gregg Sabla; Jorge A Bezerra

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Livers of infants with biliary atresia and of neonatal mice infected with rotavirus (RRV) have increased expression of interferon-gamma (IFN?) and interleukin (IL)-12. While the expression of IFN? regulates the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts by lymphocytes, the role of IL-12 in the pathogenesis of biliary obstruction is unknown. Based on the role of IL-12 as a key proinflammatory

  15. Clues to the Etiology of Bile Duct Injury in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Cara L.; Feldman, Amy G.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile obstructive cholangiopathy of unknown etiology with suboptimal therapy, which is responsible for 40 to 50% of all pediatric liver transplants. Although the etiology of bile duct injury in BA in unknown, it is postulated that a pre- or perinatal viral infection initiates cholangiocyte apoptosis and release of antigens that trigger a Th1 immune response that leads to further bile duct injury, inflammation, and obstructive fibrosis. Humoral immunity and activation of the innate immune system may also play key roles in this process. Moreover, recent investigations from the murine BA model and human data suggest that regulatory T cells and genetic susceptibility factors may orchestrate autoimmune mechanisms. What controls the coordination of these events, why the disease only occurs in the first few months of life, and why a minority of infants with perinatal viral infections develop BA are remaining questions to be answered. PMID:23397531

  16. Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-02-16

    Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

  17. Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-01-01

    Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

  18. Gene expression profiling of extrahepatic ducts in children with biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiang; Wang, Wei; Dong, Rui; Zhao, Rui; Jin, Zhu; Shen, Wenjun; Zheng, Shan

    2015-01-01

    As an inflammatory obliterative cholangiopathy of neonates, biliary atresia (BA) affects both intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Its etiology has remained largely unknown. Gene expression profiling was conduced for extrahepatic bile duct tissues (including porta hepatis & common bile duct) to identify novel targets for further studies of BA. Among these tissues, porta hepatis was regarded as fibrosis group while common bile duct as self-control group. The analysis of gene expression profile in these tissues was performed with Affymetrix human microarray. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to confirm these results. The differential expressions of genes were identified through fold-change filtering. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed using standard enrichment computation method. It was found that a total of 140 genes were differentially expressed between porta hepatis and common bile duct tissues, 19 genes up-regulated and 121 genes down-regulated. Moreover, GO analysis found that cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix formation, protein digestion & absorption functions may be involved in the pathogenesis of porta hepatis fibrosis. Lastly the qRT-PCR data confirmed that IL7 and CLDN2 were significantly up-regulated and both might be involved in the etiology of BA, the expression level of VCAM1 was positively correlated with severity of liver fibrosis in the BA infants. Our results demonstrated that the expressions of these aberrant genes responding to fibrosis in porta hepatis of patients with BA. Further studies of these genes may provide useful insights into the pathological mechanisms of BA.

  19. Late Complications and Stone Recurrence Rates after Bile Duct Stone Removal by Endoscopic Sphincterotomy and Large Balloon Dilation are Similar to Those after Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ka Young; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Byeong Suk; Jung, Jin Tae; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Between endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) alone and combined endoscopic sphincterotomy and large balloon dilation (ES-LBD) groups, efficacy and long-term complications, difference in biliary stone recurrence rate, and risk factors of stone recurrence were compared. Methods Medical records of 222 patients who underwent ERCP for biliary stone removal were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with dilated CBD ?11 mm and follow-up longer than 6 months were included. Results There were 101 patients in ES-LBD group and 121 patients in ES group. Mean follow-up duration was 25.0 (6-48) months and 13.0 (6-43) months, respectively (p=0.001). There was no difference in number of ERCP sessions, brown pigment stones, angle between mid and distal common bile duct (CBD angle) <135°, and lithotripsy rate. Complete retrieval success rate was excellent in both groups (100% vs. 99%). Early complication rate of ES-LBD and ES alone group was 4 and 4.1%, respectively (p=1.000). One patient in ES-LBD group died from delayed bleeding. Late complication rate was 5.9 and 3.3%, respectively (p=1.000). Stone recurrence rate was 6.9% and 5.8%, respectively (p=0.984). The only Independent risk factor of stone recurrence was presence of periampullary diverticulum. Conclusions Late complication and stone recurrence rates were similar between ES-LBD and ES alone groups. PMID:24340257

  20. Improving patient and user safety during endoscopic investigation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, John E.; Melville, C. David; Lee, Cameron M.; Saunders, Michael D.; Burkhardt, Matthew R.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Endoscopic investigation of the main pancreatic duct and biliary ducts is called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and carries a risk of pancreatitis for the patient. During ERCP, a metal guidewire is inserted into the pancreatobiliary duct from a side-viewing large endoscope within the duodenum. To verify correct placement of the ERCP guidewire, an injection of radiopaque dye is required for fluoroscopic imaging, which exposes the patient and clinical team to x-ray radiation. A safer and more effective means to access the pancreatobiliary system can use direct optical imaging, although the endoscope diameter and stiffness will be significantly larger than a guidewire's. To quantify this invasiveness before human testing, a synthetic force-sensing pancreas was fabricated and attached to an ERCP training model. The invasiveness of a new, 1.7-mm diameter, steerable scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) was compared to the standard ERCP guidewire of 0.89-mm (0.035") diameter that is not steerable. Although twice as large and significantly stiffer than the ERCP guidewire, the SFE generated lower or significantly less average force during insertion at all 4 sensor locations (P<0.05) within the main pancreatic duct. Therefore, the addition of steering and forward visualization at the tip of the endoscope reduced the invasiveness of the in vitro ERCP procedure. Since fluoroscopy is not required, risks associated with dye injection and x-ray exposure can be eliminated when using direct optical visualization. Finally, the SFE provides wide-field high resolution imaging for image-guided interventions, laser-based fluorescence biomarker imaging, and spot spectral analysis for future optical biopsy.

  1. Biliary stricture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bile duct Damage and scarring due to a gallstone in the bile duct Pancreatitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis Risk factors include: Gallstones Injury to the intestines Pancreatitis Previous biliary surgery

  2. Immune-mediated bile duct injury: The case of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, Carlo; Affronti, Andrea; Ferrari, Laura; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune cholangitis would be the appropriate name to define the immune-mediated bile duct injury following the breakdown of tolerance to mitochondrial proteins and the appearance of serum autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Nevertheless, the condition is universally named primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The disease etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown despite the proposed lines of evidence. One twin study and numerous epidemiology reports suggest that both a susceptible genetic background and environmental factors determine disease onset while a recent genome-wide association study proposed highly significant associations with several common genetic polymorphisms in subgroups of patients. Specific infectious agents and chemicals may contribute to the disease onset and perpetuation in a genetically susceptible host, possibly through molecular mimicry. Importantly, several murine models have been proposed and include strains in which PBC is genetically determined or induced by immunization with chemicals and bacteria. From a pathogenetic standpoint, new exciting data have demonstrated the unique apoptotic features of bile duct cells that allow the mitochondrial autoantigens to be taken up in their intact form within apoptotic blebs. We are convinced that the application of the most recent molecular techniques will soon provide developments in PBC etiology and pathogenesis with likely implications in diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:21607152

  3. Management of post-surgical biliary leakage with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and occlusion balloon (OB) in patients without dilatation of the biliary tree: preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Pedicini; Dario Poretti; Giovanni Mauri; Manuela Trimboli; Giorgio Brambilla; Luca Maria Sconfienza; Gianpaolo Cornalba; Francesco Sardanelli

    2010-01-01

    Objective  To compare the outcome of patients affected by biliary leak after major biliary surgery and treated with percutaneous transhepatic\\u000a biliary drainage (PTBD) alone with that of similar patients treated with PTBD and concurrent positioning of an occlusion balloon\\u000a (PTBD-OB).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the results of the use of PTBD or PTBD-OB performed at our institution from 2004 to 2008 in

  4. Effect of Biliary Stenting Combined With Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Terpene Treatment on Retained Common Bile Duct Stones in Elderly Patients: A Multicenter Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimin Han; Jong Ho Moon; Hyun Cheol Koo; Jee Heon Kang; Joon Hyuck Choi; Seok Jeong; Don Haeng Lee; Moon Sung Lee; Ho Gak Kim

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:For frail, elderly patients with large impacted common bile duct (CBD) stones, long-term treatment with biliary stenting provides palliation. Biliary stenting with choleretic agents such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and terpene preparations may promote CBD stone size reduction. We studied the effectiveness of biliary stenting combined with UDCA and a terpene preparation as a medical treatment for difficult-to-remove CBD stones

  5. A comparison of common bile duct pressures after botulinum toxin injection into the sphincter of Oddi versus biliary stenting in a canine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M Marks; Andrew L Bower; Marlene Goormastic; Janis L Malycky; Jeffrey L Ponsky

    2001-01-01

    Background: Botulinum toxin A (Botox) functionally paralyzes the sphincter of Oddi in both animals and humans, resulting in reduced pressures. No study, however, has specifically addressed common bile duct (CBD) pressures after Botox injection into the sphincter of Oddi with regard to treating biliary leaks and fistulae. The goals of this present study are to compare, versus biliary stenting, the

  6. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of bile duct cells in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thucydides L. Salunga; Zheng-Guo Cui; Shinji Shimoda; Hua-Chuan Zheng; Kazuhiro Nomoto; Takashi Kondo; Yasuo Takano; Carlo Selmi; Gianfranco Alpini; M. Eric Gershwin; Koichi Tsuneyama

    2007-01-01

    There has been a relative paucity of effort at defining effector mechanisms of biliary damage in PBC. We hypothesize that biliary cells are destroyed secondary to the immunologic relationships of inflammation and biliary epithelial apoptosis and, in particular, that biliary damage is a result of reduced levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and its association with

  7. Large balloon dilatation following endoscopic sphincterotomy using a balloon enteroscope for the bile duct stone extractions in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Itoi; Kentaro Ishii; Atsushi Sofuni; Fumihide Itokawa; Toshio Kurihara; Takayoshi Tsuchiya; Shujiro Tsuji; Nobuhito Ikeuchi; Junko Umeda; Rena Tanaka; Fuminori Moriyasu

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundExtraction of bile duct stones in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y anastomosis can be challenging. Recently, large balloon dilation following endoscopic sphincterotomy has been shown to be useful for the removal of bile duct stones.

  8. Duct-to-Duct Biliary Anastomosis Yields Similar Outcomes to Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy in Liver Transplantation for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Judaibi, Bandar; Hernandez Alejandro, Roberto; Uhanova, Julia; Marotta, Paul; Mosli, Mahmoud; Chandok, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYH) is the common anastomotic technique for liver transplantation (LT) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), duct-to-duct (DD) reconstruction may be used if the recipient common bile duct is normal. There are conflicting observational data on the rate of success of DD reconstruction versus RYH, in PSC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of DD anastomosis, compared to RYH reconstruction, among adults transplanted for PSC. Patients and Methods: All adult patients, who underwent primary LT for PSC between 1990 and 2012, were evaluated, according to type of biliary reconstruction. Recipient and graft survival, postoperative medical and surgical complications, and postoperative resource utilization rates were compared between the two groups. Results: Totally, 73 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of them, 58 had RYH and 15 had DD reconstruction. A total of 53 subjects (73%) were male, with the mean age ± standard deviation at LT of 43.3 ± 14.4 years. Rates of recipient mortality, graft failure, biliary complications, acute cellular rejection, and reoperation were similar in both groups. Postoperative cholangiography was used more frequently in patients with DD reconstruction (33.3% vs. 8.6%, P = 0.026). Conclusions: In selected recipients with PSC, DD reconstruction is a safe and efficacious technique, with long-term clinical outcomes comparable to RYH.

  9. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation alone without sphincterotomy for the treatment of large common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethal pancreatitis has been reported after treatment for common bile duct stones using small endoscopic papillary balloon dilation. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of using large balloon dilation alone without the use of sphincterotomy for the treatment of large common bile duct stones in Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital. Success rate of stone clearance, procedure-related adverse events and incidents, frequency of mechanical lithotripsy use, and recurrent stones were recorded. Results A total of 247 patients were reviewed in the current study. The mean age of the patients was 71.2 years. Most of them had comorbidities. Mean stone size was 16.4 mm. Among the patients, 132 (53.4%) had an intact gallbladder and 121 (49%) had a juxtapapillary diverticulum. The mean size of dilating balloon used was 13.2 mm. The mean duration of the dilating procedure was 4.7 min. There were 39 (15.8%) patients required the help of mechanical lithotripsy while retrieving the stones. The final success rate of complete retrieval of stones was 92.7%. The rate of pancreatic duct enhancement was 26.7% (66/247). There were 3 (1.2%) adverse events and 6 (2.4%) intra-procedure bleeding incidents. All patients recovered completely after conservative and endoscopic treatment respectively, and no procedure-related mortality was noted. 172 patients had a follow-up duration of more than 6 months and among these, 25 patients had recurrent common bile duct stones. It was significantly correlated to the common bile duct size (p = 0.036) Conclusions Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation alone is simple, safe, and effective in dealing with large common bile duct stones in relatively aged and debilitated patients. PMID:21668994

  10. Balloon dilation of intrahepatic biliary strictures for percutaneous extraction of residual intrahepatic stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Lee; Byung Hee Lee; Jae Hyung Park; Chang Hae Suh

    1991-01-01

    Intrahepatic ductal strictures in cholangiohepatitis present an obstacle to successful removal of retained ductal stones via\\u000a T-tube tracts. We studied the effectiveness of stricture dilatation for stone removal.\\u000a \\u000a Fifteen patients with intrahepatic gallstones retained behind strictures underwent balloon dilatation of their strictures\\u000a to allow stone extraction. All had prior surfical T-tube placement allowing percutaneous access. Balloon dilatation was successful\\u000a in

  11. Screening of targeted genes in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    You, Zhen; Wen, Jing; Cheng, Liping; Ye, Hui; Li, Bei

    2015-09-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile disease resulting from a severe cholangiopathy, which can obstruct extrahepatic bile ducts, disrupt bile flow and lead to end?stage cirrhosis. The current study aimed to develop a genetic method to investigate the pathogenesis of BA. The gene expression profile of BA (GSE46967) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and included 18 samples from newborn mice. These samples were collected at three time points following the induction of BA with rhesus rotavirus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in mice with BA were identified using the limma package in R language, followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. Gene ontology functional analysis and Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of the selected common DEGs was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. In total, 306 DEGs were identified in the samples from the 3 day time point, 721 at 7 days and 370 at 14 days. A total of 74 common DEGs were identified in these three sample groups, which are reported to function in multiple immune biological processes, including the defense response, leukocyte migration, cell chemotaxis and leukocyte chemotaxis. In addition, 'cytokine?cytokine receptor interaction' and 'chemokine signaling pathway' were observed to be significantly enriched in BA. A total of six common DEGs (CCL3, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCR2, CCL5 and CCL6) were identified that were involved in the significantly enriched functions and the significantly enriched pathways. The data from the current study suggested that the immune response is a critical biological process in the development of BA. The six critical hub genes identified (CCL3, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCR2, CCL5 and CCL6) may be used as specific target genes in the treatment of BA. PMID:26059850

  12. Changes in biliary lipid concentrations in bile duct obstruction: an experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G R; Kirk, C J; Goode, A W

    1986-01-01

    Changes in biliary concentrations of bile acids, phospholipids and cholesterol and biliary pressures were measured in dogs. These parameters were studied during 7-day periods of partial biliary obstruction, of varying degrees, and after 24-hour and 48-hour periods of complete obstruction. The sample were obtained via an exteriorized but intact enterohepatic circulation allowing the introduction of varying degrees of obstruction and bile sampling. Biliary obstruction reduced the concentration of all biliary lipids especially when the obstruction produced pressures in excess of 75% of the maximum biliary secretion pressure. Only immediately after the release of a 48-hour period of complete obstruction did the risk of cholesterol supersaturation of bile occur. However, at that time there was a greatly reduced concentration of lipids in the bile and the amount of cholesterol that could potentially have precipitated was very small. It is suggested that this supersaturation would not play a significant role in the formation of gallstones. PMID:3772943

  13. Precut sphincterotomy for selective biliary duct cannulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    DaVee, Tomas; Garcia, Jairo A.; Baron, Todd H.

    2012-01-01

    Selective biliary cannulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is required to perform all therapeutic biliary procedures. Despite major advances in imaging, guidewires and sphincterotome catheter designs, the success rate for biliary cannulation by experienced endoscopists during ERCP is approximately 85% when standard cannulation techniques are applied. Precut sphincterotomy, also known as access sphincterotomy, is performed when standard techniques fail to achieve selective biliary cannulation. Precut sphincterotomy significantly increases the rate of biliary cannulation up to 98%. However, precut sphincterotomy has traditionally been considered a risk factor for adverse events following ERCP, especially concerning is post-ERCP pancreatitis which results in significant morbidity and financial burden. Recent evidence suggests that precut sphincterotomy alone may not be a risk factor for pancreatitis; rather repeated attempts (?10) at biliary cannulation prior to precut sphincterotomy may be the actual cause of post-ERCP pancreatitis. In this paper, we review the different variations of the precut sphincterotomy technique and their corresponding rates of success and adverse events. PMID:24714256

  14. Biliary cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Miguel A Hernandez; Ruiz, Sagrario Fuerte; Romero, Israel Manzanedo; Lojo, Beatriz Ramos; Prieto, Ignacio Rodriguez; Alvira, Luis Gimenez; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Esteban, Manuel Limones

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of cystadenoma is rare, even more so when located in the extrahepatic bile duct. Unspecific clinical signs may lead this pathology to be misdiagnosed. The need for pathological anatomy in order to distinguish cystadenomas from simple biliary cysts is crucial. The most usual treatment nowadays is resection of the bile duct, together with cholecystectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction. PMID:19630118

  15. Association of Endoscopic Sphincterotomy or Papillary Balloon Dilatation and Biliary Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Wan-Yun; Chow, Wai-Keung; Lee, Show-Wu; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) have become the main therapeutic procedures in the treatment of biliary and pancreas disease. The risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is not well investigated among post-EST/EPBD patients with benign diseases, particularly in Asia population.A retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2010) was conducted. Among patients with history of biliary stone with cholangitis, there were 17,503 patients in the EST/EPBD cohort and 69,998 subjects in the comparison. The incidence rate ratio was calculated using the Poisson regression model. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounding factors, were used to assess the risk of developing CCA associated with endoscopic EST/EPBD. The cumulative incidences of CCA in the 2 cohorts were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analyses, and differences between the survival curves of the 2 cohorts were analyzed using a log-rank test.The overall incidence of CCA in the EST/EPBD cohort was higher than in the controls (1.36 vs 7.37 per 1000 person-years, IRR?=?5.40, 95% CI?=?5.15-5.67), with an adjusted HR of 4.41 (95% CI?=?3.86-5.04). There were no CCA occurrences among patients receiving EST over the follow-up period 3 year after EST performed. The cumulative incidence of extrahepatic CCA seemed to be little growing in patients receiving EPBD. The cumulative incidence of intrahepatic CCA was also steady increasing in patients treated with EPBD and was more than patients receiving EST 10 years after EPBD by Kaplan-Meier analysis.In the population-based cohort study, EST is not associated with a long-term risk of intrahepatic and extrahepatic CCA. The risk of CCA for EPBD needs further investigation. PMID:26061315

  16. Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy of Evolving Spontaneous Biliary Leak.

    PubMed

    Flynt, Lesley; Grant, Paul; Seitz, John P; Qing, Feng

    2015-07-01

    The patient is a 44-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, who presented to the ED with abdominal pain. Initial imaging by CT and US showed mild biliary tree dilatation, mild gallbladder distension, and pericholecystic fluid. The cystic and common bile ducts were patent without bile leak on cholescintigraphy. The next day, MRCP revealed free fluid extending from the gallbladder fossa to the right lower quadrant. Subsequently, a repeat cholescintigraphy was performed which was positive for bile leak. This case highlights the use of multiple imaging modalities in assessing abdominal pain, pre-and post-biliary leak. PMID:25899598

  17. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hong; Yang, Min Jae; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) has been widely used as the alternative to EST along with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (EML) for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones. Furthermore, EPLBD without EST was recently introduced as its simplified alternative technique. Thus, we systematically searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE, and analyzed all gathered data of EPLBD with and without EST, respectively, by using a single standardized definition, reviewing relevant literatures, published between 2003 and June 2013, where it was performed with large-diameter balloons (12-20 mm). The outcomes, including the initial success rate, the rate of needs for EML, and the overall success rate, and adverse events were assessed in each and compared between both of two procedures: “EPLBD with EST” and “EPLBD without EST”. A total of 2511 procedures from 30 published articles were included in EPLBD with EST, while a total of 413 procedures from 3 published articles were included in EPLBD without EST. In the results of outcomes, the overall success rate was 96.5% in EPLBD with EST and 97.2% in EPLBD without EST, showing no significant difference between both of them. The initial success rate (84.0% vs 76.2%, P < 0.001) and the success rate of EPLBD without EML (83.2% vs 76.7%, P = 0.001) was significantly higher, while the rate of use of EML was significantly lower (14.1% vs 21.6%, P < 0.001), in EPLBD with EST. The rate of overall adverse events, pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, other adverse events, surgery for adverse events, and fatal adverse events were 8.3%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 0.6%, 1.7%, 0.2% and 0.2% in EPLBD with EST and 7.0%, 3.9%, 1.9%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0% and 0% in EPLBD without EST, respectively, showing no significant difference between both of them. In conclusion, recent accumulated results of EPLBD with or even without EST suggest that it is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones without any additional risk of severe adverse events, when performed under appropriate guidelines. PMID:24379575

  18. Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilation for the Retrieval of Bile Duct Stones After Prior Billroth II Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Nyeun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic retrieval of large common bile duct (CBD) stones is often difficult in patients who have undergone Billroth II gastrectomy, as anatomic alterations may present technical barriers to successful cannulation and increase procedure-related complications. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can be an alternative technique for the removal of difficult stones. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of EPLBD for CBD stone extraction in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. Materials and Methods: From July 2006 to November 2011, 30 patients who underwent EPLBD with limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EPLBD + ES) or EPLBD alone for the treatment of large CBD stones (?10 mm) after Billroth II gastrectomy were retrospectively reviewed. A large balloon dilator (12-18 mm) was used to dilate the ampullary orifice. Results: Selective cannulation was successful in 25 patients (83.3%) with a standard catheter. Of the 30 subjects, EPLBD + ES was performed in 19 and EPLBD alone in 11. The mean bile duct diameter was 17.7 ± 4.3 mm (range, 11-31 mm), and mean size of balloon dilation was 14.5 ± 2.6 mm (range, 12-18 mm). Stone removal was successfully completed in 29 patients (96.7%). Successful stone retrieval during the first session was achieved in 27 patients (90.0%). Two cases (6.7%) of mild pancreatitis responded to conservative treatment, and no perforation or mortality was encountered. Conclusions: EPLBD with or without needle knife (NK) sphincterotomy seems to be a safe and feasible modality for CBD stone retrieval in patients with prior Billroth II gastrectomy. PMID:24705151

  19. Biliary ascariasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma: ultrasonographic and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dinç; M. K. Arslan; Ö. Say?l; H. R. Gümele

    1998-01-01

    .   The combination of biliary ascariasis and cholangiocarcinoma is rare. A 56-year-old female presented with progressive jaundice.\\u000a Ultrasonography revealed a curvilinear structure with anechoic center consistent with ascariasis within the dilated common\\u000a bile duct. Ultrasonography also demonstrated that a slightly echogenic soft tissue mass projecting into the mid segment of\\u000a the common bile duct proved to be coexistent cholangiocarcinoma. Percutaneous

  20. Large balloon dilation post endoscopic sphincterotomy in removal of difficult common bile duct stones: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Olivier; Bommelaer, Gilles; Abergel, Armando; Poincloux, Laurent

    2014-06-28

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the standard therapy in common bile duct (CBD) stones extraction. Large stones (? 12 mm) or multiple stones extraction may be challenging after ES alone. Endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation (ESLBD) has been described as an alternative to ES in these indications. Efficacy, safety, cost-effectiveness and technical aspects of the procedure have been here reviewed. PubMed and Google Scholar search resulted in forty-one articles dealing with CBD stone extraction with 12 mm or more dilation balloons after ES. ESLBD is at least as effective as ES, and reduces the need for additional mechanical lithotripsy. Adverse events rates are not statistically different after ESLBD compared to ES for pancreatitis, bleeding and perforation. However, particular attention should be paid in patients with CBD strictures, which is identified as a risk factor of perforation. ESLBD is slightly cost-effective compared to ES. A small sphincterotomy is usually performed, and may reduce bleeding rates compared to full sphincterotomy. Dilation is performed with 12-20 mm enteral balloons. Optimal inflation time is yet to be determined. The procedure can be performed safely even in patients with peri-ampullary diverticula and surgically altered anatomy. ESLBD is effective and safe in the removal of large CBD stones, however, small sphincterotomy might be preferred and CBD strictures should be considered as a relative contraindication. PMID:24976713

  1. CT and MR cholangiography: advantages and pitfalls in perioperative evaluation of biliary tree

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, T; Kumano, S; Kushihata, F; Okada, M; Hirata, M; Tsuda, T; Takada, Y; Mochizuki, T; Murakami, T

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in imaging technology have enabled CT and MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to provide minimally invasive alternatives to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the pre- and post-operative assessment of biliary disease. This article describes anatomical variants of the biliary tree with surgical significance, followed by comparison of CT and MR cholangiographies. Drip infusion cholangiography with CT (DIC-CT) enables high-resolution three-dimensional anatomical representation of very small bile ducts (e.g. aberrant branches, the caudate branch and the cystic duct), which are potential causes of surgical complications. The disadvantages of DIC-CT include the possibility of adverse reactions to biliary contrast media and insufficient depiction of bile ducts caused by liver dysfunction or obstructive jaundice. Conventional MRCP is a standard, non-invasive method for evaluating the biliary tree. MRCP provides useful information, especially regarding the extrahepatic bile ducts and dilated intrahepatic bile ducts. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MRCP may facilitate the evaluation of biliary structure and excretory function. Understanding the characteristics of each type of cholangiography is important to ensure sufficient perioperative evaluation of the biliary system. PMID:22422383

  2. Combined transhepatic and endoscopic procedures in the biliary system.

    PubMed

    Verstandig, A G; Goldin, E; Sasson, T; Weinberger, G; Wengrower, D; Fich, A; Lax, E

    1993-05-01

    Endoscopic biliary procedures are 89-97% successful in skilled hands. The commonest causes of failure are inability to cannulate the papilla of Vater due to difficult anatomy or tortuosity of the distal common bile duct and failure to cross a rigid biliary stricture. In nearly all of these cases, successful endoscopic procedures can be completed after percutaneous antegrade placement of a small catheter or guidewire to the duodenum. In 44 such combined procedures on 42 patients, the success rate was 43 (98%). There were two severe and eight mild complications. Combined procedures overcome the difficulties caused by tortuous biliary ducts and rigid strictures while obviating the need for more extensive percutaneous procedures and transhepatic tract dilatation. PMID:8346135

  3. Combined transhepatic and endoscopic procedures in the biliary system.

    PubMed Central

    Verstandig, A. G.; Goldin, E.; Sasson, T.; Weinberger, G.; Wengrower, D.; Fich, A.; Lax, E.

    1993-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary procedures are 89-97% successful in skilled hands. The commonest causes of failure are inability to cannulate the papilla of Vater due to difficult anatomy or tortuosity of the distal common bile duct and failure to cross a rigid biliary stricture. In nearly all of these cases, successful endoscopic procedures can be completed after percutaneous antegrade placement of a small catheter or guidewire to the duodenum. In 44 such combined procedures on 42 patients, the success rate was 43 (98%). There were two severe and eight mild complications. Combined procedures overcome the difficulties caused by tortuous biliary ducts and rigid strictures while obviating the need for more extensive percutaneous procedures and transhepatic tract dilatation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8346135

  4. Intrahepatic bile duct dilatation secondary to hepatocellular carcinoma: CT features in 10 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Soyer; A. Sibert; J. P. Laissy

    1995-01-01

    Background:\\u000a  To determine the computed tomographic (CT) features of bile duct obstruction secondary to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).\\u000aMethods:\\u000a  CT examinations of 10 patients (mean age, 58 years) with bile duct obstruction secondary to HCC were retrospectively reviewed.\\u000aResults:\\u000a  All tumors were intrahepatic. Eight tumors were well-delineated and two were ill-defined. The largest diameters of tumor ranged from 1.5–6.0 cm (mean,

  5. Advances in the endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa A; Attam, Rajeev; Freeman, Martin L

    2014-09-01

    Extraction of common bile duct stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography generally involves biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation or a combination of both. Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation after sphincterotomy has increased the safety of large stone extraction. Cholangioscopically directed electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy using single-operator mother-daughter systems or direct peroral cholangioscopy using ultraslim endoscopes are increasingly utilized for the management of refractory stones. In this Review, we focus on advances in endoscopic approaches and techniques, with a special emphasis on management strategies for 'difficult' common bile duct stones. PMID:24860928

  6. Is biliary lithiasis associated with pancreatographic changes?

    PubMed Central

    Barthet, M; Affriat, C; Bernard, J P; Berthezene, P; Dagorn, J C; Sahel, J

    1995-01-01

    The aetiological role of biliary lithiasis for chronic pancreatitis remains controversial. Previous studies based on pancreatographic studies reported changes in the pancreatic duct system caused by biliary lithiasis. This study analysed retrospectively the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography of 165 patients presenting with biliary lithiasis and of 53 controls. Among the 165 patients, 113 had choledochal stones (53 with gall bladder stones, 50 had had a cholecystectomy, 10 with a normal gall bladder), 35 had gall bladder stones without choledochal stones, 17 had cholecystectomy for gall bladder stones. Pancreatograms were analysed by measuring the diameter of the pancreatic duct in the head, the body, and the tail of the pancreas, and evaluating the regularity of the main pancreatic duct and the presence of stenosis, the regularity or the dilatation of secondary ducts, and the presence of cysts. In addition, we established a score, based on the above parameters, by which pancreatograms were classified as normal or with mild, intermediate, moderate or severe abnormalities. A multivariate analysis (stepwise multiple discriminant analysis) was performed for age, sex, presence of gall stones, presence of choledochal stones. Patients were comparable with controls for sex, alcohol consumption but were younger (55 v 68 years, p < 0.01). In patients and in controls, the frequency of pancreatographic abnormalities increased significantly with age. The pancreatographic features of patients and controls were not significantly different. In the multivariate analysis, age was the only factor with significant predicting value for pancreatographic abnormalities. In conclusion, biliary lithiasis in itself is not an aetiological factor for chronic pancreatitis, older age being responsible for the abnormalities seen by pancreatography of patients with biliary lithiasis. PMID:7797128

  7. Less invasive causal treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation: a case report, literature review and suggestion of a CT- or MRI-guided intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Ole; Osmonov, Daniar; Harde, Jonas; Girolami, Guido; Wedel, Thilo; Schäfer, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Uni- or bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is a rare but correctable cause of infertility, chronic pelvic pain and postejaculatory pain. EDO is a congenital or acquired condition, it is the underlying cause of infertility in approximately 5% of infertile men. If acquired, the etiology often remains unresolved, but prostatitis or urethritis with post-inflammatory adhesion of the duct walls seems to be a common underlying pathomechanism. Although a certain constellation of physicochemical semen parameters may lead to correct diagnosis, EDO often resembles a diagnosis by exclusion. Imaging of acquired EDO remains a challenge and the established surgical therapy, transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts (TURED), leads to a low rate of natural conception and a high rate of complications such as reflux of urine and epididymitis. We present a case of a male with suspected EDO who underwent a combined approach to both, semi-invasive diagnosis and therapy by transrectal puncture of the seminal vesicles and antegrade balloon-dilation of the ejaculatory ducts. Possibilities and pitfalls of this procedure are described and the literature is reviewed. Furthermore, we suggest a CT- or MRI-guided, percutaneous intervention for treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation and demonstrate initial steps of this procedure with a body donor. We call this new procedure PTED (percutaneous transgluteal ejaculatory ductoplasty). PMID:22557939

  8. Double-balloon enteroscopy for ERCP in patients with Billroth II anatomy: results of a large series of papillary large-balloon dilation for biliary stone removal

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Liang; Liu, Nai-Jen; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Chin; Tsui, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ching-Song; Lin, Cheng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Data on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrphy (ERCP) in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and the use of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) for the removal of common bile duct stones in Billroth II anatomy are limited. The aims of the study were to evaluate the success of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and examine the efficacy of EPLBD (???10?mm) for the removal of common bile duct stones. Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy in whom standard ERCP had failed underwent DBE-assisted ERCP. DBE success was defined as visualizing the papilla and ERCP success as completing the intended intervention. The clinical results of EPLBD for the removal of common bile duct stones were analyzed. Results: DBE was successful in 73 of 77 patients (95?%), and ERCP success was achieved in 67 of these 73 (92?%). Therefore, the rate of successful DBE-assisted ERCP was 87?% (67 of a total of 77 patients). The reasons for ERCP failure (n?=?10) included tumor obstruction (n?=?2), adhesion obstruction (n?=?2), failed cannulation (n?=?3), failed stone removal (n?=?2), and bowel perforation (n?=?1). Overall DBE-assisted ERCP complications occurred in 5 of 77 patients (6.5?%). A total of 48 patients (34 male, mean age 75.5 years) with common bile duct stones underwent EPLBD. Complete stone removal in the first session was accomplished in 36 patients (75?%); mechanical lithotripsy was required in 1 patient. EPLBD-related mild perforation occurred in 2 patients (4?%). No acute pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions: DBE permits therapeutic ERCP in patients who have a difficult Billroth II gastrectomy with a high success rate and acceptable complication rates. EPLBD is effective and safe for the removal of common bile duct stones in patients with Billroth II anatomy. PMID:26171434

  9. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carry the bile to your small intestine. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a ... liver failure. A rare form of bile duct disease called biliary atresia occurs in infants. It is ...

  10. Biliary cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, P D

    1975-01-01

    This review brings the total number of biliary cysts reported in the world literature to 955. Eighty-one per cent of patients are females and 61% were discovered before age ten. The classical triad of right upper quadrant pain, right upper quandrant mass, and juandice is present in 38% of cases. The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged from less than one week to more than 40 years. The etiology is multifaceted and evidence of the existence of both acquired and congenital cysts is presented. The most useful diagnostic tool is fiberoptic endoscopy with retrograde contrast injection of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. The incidence of biliary carcinoma in patients with biliary cysts is found to be 2.5%; 24 cases have been reported. Considerable controversy has existed concerning the best operative procedure for biliary cysts; no treatment or medical treatment yielding a 97% mortality rate. In an analysis of 235 patients presented since 1968 with an average followup of 5.2 years, the best procedure appears to be excision with either choledochocholedocostomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The operative mortality for all procedures is now 3 to 4%. PMID:1103760

  11. Endoscopic Sphincterotomy with Large Balloon Dilation versus Endoscopic Sphincterotomy for Bile Duct Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Kyaw, Moe Htet; Tse, Yee Kit; Lau, James Yun Wong

    2015-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of endoscopic sphincterotomy with large balloon dilation (EPLBD) are unclear. This study compares the safety and efficacy between EPLBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Patients and Methods. Literatures were searched for randomized controlled trials in PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Outcome measurements included adverse events; stone removal rate; requirement of mechanical lithotripsy. Results. Four RCTs with a total of 596 patients were included. Three RCTs compared EPLBD versus EST alone for stone removal; one RCT compared EPLBD versus EST plus mechanical lithotripsy for stone removal. Pooled data from three RCTs showed that there was no significant difference in the adverse event of ERCP. A significantly higher cholangitis rate was seen in patients who received EST plus mechanical lithotripsy, compared to those treated with EPLBD (13.3% versus 0.0, P = 0.026). No statistical difference was found between EPLBD and EST for stone removal rate. Significant differences in requirement of mechanical lithotripsy were seen with removal of large stones (>15 mm), with EPLBD reducing the use of mechanical lithotripsy (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54–0.99). Conclusions. EPLBD and EST have similar efficacy and safety for bile duct stones clearance. With larger stones, EPLBD can reduce requirement of mechanical lithotripsy. PMID:25756050

  12. How can portal vein cavernous transformation cause chronic incomplete biliary obstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Harmanci, Ozgur; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Biliary disease in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal vein thrombosis (and similarly in portal vein cavernous transformation) can become a serious problem during the evolution of disease. This is mostly due to portal biliary ductopathy. There are several mechanisms that play a role in the development of portal biliary ductopathy, such as induction of fibrosis in the biliary tract (due to direct action of dilated peribiliary collaterals and/or recurrent cholangitis), loss of biliary motility, chronic cholestasis (due to fibrosis or choledocholithiasis) and increased formation of cholelithiasis (due to various factors). The management of cholelithiasis in cases with portal vein cavernous transformation merits special attention. Because of a heterogeneous clinical presentation and concomitant pathophysiological changes that take place in biliary anatomy, diagnosis and therapy can become very complicated. Due to increased incidence and complications of cholelithiasis, standard treatment modalities like sphincterotomy or balloon sweeping of bile ducts can cause serious problems. Cholangitis, biliary strictures and hemobilia are the most common complications that occur during management of these patients. In this review, we specifically discuss important issues about bile stones related to bile duct obstruction in non-cirrhotic portal vein thrombosis and present evidence in the current literature. PMID:22807606

  13. Small sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation vs sphincterotomy alone for removal of common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shi-Bin; Meng, Hua; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary large diameter balloon dilation (EPLBD) following limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and EST alone for removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: We retrospectively compared EST + EPLBD (group A, n = 64) with EST alone (group B, n = 89) for the treatment of large or multiple bile duct stones. The success rate of stone clearance, procedure-related complications and incidents, frequency of mechanical lithotripsy use, and recurrent stones were recorded. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding periampullary diverticula (35.9% vs 34.8%, P > 0.05), pre-cut sphincterotomy (6.3% vs 6.7%, P > 0.05), size (12.1 ± 2.0 mm vs 12.9 ± 2.6 mm, P > 0.05) and number (2.2 ± 1.9 vs 2.4 ± 2.1, P > 0.05) of stones or the diameters of CBD (15.1 ± 3.3 mm vs 15.4 ± 3.6 mm, P > 0.05). The rates of overall stone removal and stone removal in the first session were not significantly different between the two groups [62/64 (96.9%) vs 84/89 (94.4%), P > 0.05; and 58/64 (90.6%) vs 79/89 (88.8%), P > 0.05, respectively]. The rates of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia were not significantly different between the two groups [3/64 (4.7%) vs 4/89 (4.5%), P > 0.05; 7/64 (10.9%) vs 9/89 (10.1%), P > 0.05, respectively]. There were no cases of perforation, acute cholangitis, or cholecystitis in the two groups. The rate of bleeding and the recurrence of CBD stones were significantly lower in group A than in group B [1/64 (1.6%) vs 5/89 (5.6%), P < 0.05; 1/64 (1.6%) vs 6/89 (6.7%), P < 0.05, respectively]. CONCLUSION: EST + EPLBD is an effective and safe endoscopic approach for removing large or multiple CBD stones. PMID:25548495

  14. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-14

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  15. Fight-or-flight: murine unilateral ureteral obstruction causes extensive proximal tubular degeneration, collecting duct dilatation, and minimal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Michael S; Thornhill, Barbara A; Minor, Jordan J; Gordon, Katherine A; Galarreta, Carolina I; Chevalier, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is the most widely used animal model of progressive renal disease. Although renal interstitial fibrosis is commonly used as an end point, recent studies reveal that obstructive injury to the glomerulotubular junction leads to the formation of atubular glomeruli. To quantitate the effects of UUO on the remainder of the nephron, renal tubular and interstitial responses were characterized in mice 7 and 14 days after UUO or sham operation under anesthesia. Fractional proximal tubular mass, cell proliferation, and cell death were measured by morphometry. Superoxide formation was identified by nitro blue tetrazolium, and oxidant injury was localized by 4-hydroxynonenol and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Fractional areas of renal vasculature, interstitial collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin were also measured. After 14 days of UUO, the obstructed kidney loses 19% of parenchymal mass, with a 65% reduction in proximal tubular mass. Superoxide formation is localized to proximal tubules, which undergo oxidant injury, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, with widespread mitochondrial loss, resulting in tubular collapse. In contrast, mitosis and apoptosis increase in dilated collecting ducts, which remain patent through epithelial cell remodeling. Relative vascular volume fraction does not change, and interstitial matrix components do not exceed 15% of total volume fraction of the obstructed kidney. These unique proximal and distal nephron cellular responses reflect differential "fight-or-flight" responses to obstructive injury and provide earlier indexes of renal injury than do interstitial compartment responses. Therapies to prevent or retard progression of renal disease should include targeting proximal tubule injury as well as interstitial fibrosis. PMID:22535799

  16. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: resect, dilate, or transplant?

    PubMed Central

    Ahrendt, S A; Pitt, H A; Kalloo, A N; Venbrux, A C; Klein, A S; Herlong, H F; Coleman, J; Lillemoe, K D; Cameron, J L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study examines the results of extrahepatic biliary resection, nonoperative endoscopic biliary dilation with or without percutaneous stenting, and liver transplantation in the management of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a progressive inflammatory disease leading to secondary biliary cirrhosis. The most effective management of sclerosing cholangitis before the onset of cirrhosis remains unclear. METHODS: From 1980 to 1994, 146 patients with PSC were managed with either resection of the extrahepatic bile ducts and long-term transhepatic stenting (50 patients), nonoperative endoscopic biliary dilation with or without percutaneous stenting (54 patients), medical therapy (28 patients), and/or liver transplantation (21 patients). RESULTS: Procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates were similar between surgically resected and nonoperatively managed patients. In noncirrhotic patients, the serum bilirubin level was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from preoperative levels (8.3+/-1.5 mg/dL) 1 (1.7+/-0.4 mg/dL) and 3 (2.7+/-0.9 mg/ dL) years after resection, but not after endoscopic or percutaneous management. For noncirrhotic PSC patients, overall 5-year survival (85% vs. 59%) and survival until death or transplantation (82% vs. 46%) were significantly longer (p < 0.05) after resection than after nonoperative dilation with or without stenting. For cirrhotic patients, survival after liver transplantation was longer than after resection or nonoperative dilation with or without stenting. Five patients developed cholangiocarcinoma, including three (6%) of the nonoperatively managed patients but none of the resected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In carefully selected noncirrhotic patients with PSC, resection and long-term stenting remains a good option. Patients with cirrhosis should undergo liver transplantation. PMID:9527065

  17. Portal Biliopathy Causing Recurrent Biliary Obstruction and Hemobilia

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, John A.; Bakis, Gene; Naugler, Willscott E.

    2013-01-01

    A 63-year-old man with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis presented with biliary obstruction and hemobilia after a liver biopsy. Balloon sweep of the common bile duct removed clotted blood, and cholangiogram showed a common bile duct narrowing, treated with biliary stenting. A percutaneous biliary catheter was later required for recurrent biliary obstruction and hemobilia, and repeat cholangiogram confirmed portal biliopathy—a large peri-biliary varix was compressing the common bile duct, causing biliary obstruction and intermittent portal hypertensive hemobilia. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was inserted, followed by embolization of the peri-biliary varix. Delayed diagnosis of portal biliopathy may lead to significant patient morbidity.

  18. Percutaneous papillary large balloon dilation during percutaneous cholangioscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large bile-duct stones: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Young; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng

    2015-03-01

    When access to a major duodenal papilla or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has failed, percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy (PTCS-L) may be useful for removing common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, the feasibility and usefulness of percutaneous transhepatic papillary large-balloon dilation (PPLBD) during PTCS-L for the removal of large CBD stones has not been established. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of PPLBD for the treatment of large CBD stones. Eleven patients with large CBD stones in whom the access to the major papilla or bile duct had failed were enrolled prospectively. Papillary dilation was performed using a large (12-20 mm) dilation balloon catheter via the percutaneous transhepatic route. Post-procedure adverse events and efficacy of the stone retrieval were measured. The initial success rate of PPLBD was 100%. No patient required a basket to remove a stone after PPLBD. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy was required in 2 (18.2%) patients. The median time to complete stone removal after PPLBD was 17.8 min and no adverse events occurred after PPLBD. Asymptomatic hyperamylasemia was not encountered in any patients. This study indicates that PPLBD is safe and effective for removal of large CBD stones. PMID:25729250

  19. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-In; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month.

  20. Twenty-Second versus Sixty-Second Dilation Duration in Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for the Treatment of Small Common Bile Duct Stones: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Byoung Wook; Lee, Tae Hoon; Song, Tae Jun; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Kwon, Chang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) has been advocated as an alternative therapy to endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, there is no established consensus on the optimal balloon dilation duration (BDD). We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complications between the 20- and 60-second EPBD groups. Methods A total of 228 patients with small CBD stones (?12 mm) were randomly assigned to undergo EPBD with a 20- or 60-second duration at six institutions. We evaluated baseline patient characteristics, endoscopic data, clinical outcomes, and procedure-related complications. In addition, we analyzed risk factors for postprocedural pancreatitis. Results CBD stones were removed successfully in 107 of 109 patients (98.1%) in the 20-second group and in 112 of 119 patients (94.1%) in the 60-second group (p=0.146). Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in seven patients (6.4%) in the 20-second group and nine patients (7.5%) in the 60-second group (p=0.408). In multivariate analysis, contrast dye injection into the pancreatic duct is a significant risk factor for post-EPBD pancreatitis. Conclusions Based on the data showing that there were no significant differences in safety and efficacy between the two BDD groups, 20 seconds of BDD may be adequate for treatment of small CBD stones with EPBD. PMID:25674528

  1. Mucin-hypersecreting bile duct neoplasm characterized by clinicopathological resemblance to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Fukuzawa, Kengo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Aishima, Shinichi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Tsujita, Eiji; Harimoto, Norifumi; Harada, Noboru; Wakasugi, Kenzo; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is acceptable as a distinct disease entity, the concept of mucin-secreting biliary tumors has not been fully established. Case presentation We describe herein a case of mucin secreting biliary neoplasm. Imaging revealed a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter at the left lateral segment of the liver. Duodenal endoscopy revealed mucin secretion through an enlarged papilla of Vater. On the cholangiogram, the cystic lesion communicated with bile duct, and large filling defects caused by mucin were observed in the dilated common bile duct. This lesion was diagnosed as a mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. Left and caudate lobectomy of the liver with extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction was performed according to the possibility of the tumor's malignant behavior. Histological examination of the specimen revealed biliary cystic wall was covered by micropapillary neoplastic epithelium with mucin secretion lacking stromal invasion nor ovarian-like stroma. The patient has remained well with no evidence of recurrence for 38 months since her operation. Conclusion It is only recently that the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)," which is accepted as a distinct disease entity of the pancreas, has begun to be used for mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. This case also seemed to be intraductal papillary neoplasm with prominent cystic dilatation of the bile duct. PMID:17725824

  2. Effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on intrahepatic biliary calculi developing after choledochal cyst surgery: A case report.

    PubMed

    ?enyüz, Osman Faruk; Gül?en, Fatih; Gökhan, Okan; Emre, ?enol; Ero?lu, Egemen

    2015-05-01

    The development of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones has been reported as one of the most serious complications after choledochal cyst excision with biliary-enteric reconstruction through Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). Here, we report our experience with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in a case of giant intrahepatic stones developing after choledochal cyst surgery. ESWL is an excellent therapeutic modality for large intrahepatic biliary calculi, and after dilating the HJ anastomosis percutaneously, it can be offered as first-line therapy to these patients. PMID:26006206

  3. Iatrogenic Biliary Injuries: Multidisciplinary Management in a Major Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Ibrahim Abdelkader; Shoreem, Hany Abdelmeged; Saleh, Sherif Mohamed; Hegazy, Osama; Housseni, Mohamed; Abbasy, Mohamed; Badra, Gamal; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iatrogenic biliary injuries are considered as the most serious complications during cholecystectomy. Better outcomes of such injuries have been shown in cases managed in a specialized center. Objective. To evaluate biliary injuries management in major referral hepatobiliary center. Patients & Methods. Four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy biliary injuries were managed with multidisciplinary team (hepatobiliary surgeon, gastroenterologist, and radiologist) at major Hepatobiliary Center in Egypt over 10-year period using endoscopy in 232 patients, percutaneous techniques in 42 patients, and surgery in 198 patients. Results. Endoscopy was very successful initial treatment of 232 patients (49%) with mild/moderate biliary leakage (68%) and biliary stricture (47%) with increased success by addition of percutaneous (Rendezvous technique) in 18 patients (3.8%). However, surgery was needed in 198 patients (42%) for major duct transection, ligation, major leakage, and massive stricture. Surgery was urgent in 62 patients and elective in 136 patients. Hepaticojejunostomy was done in most of cases with transanastomotic stents. There was one mortality after surgery due to biliary sepsis and postoperative stricture in 3 cases (1.5%) treated with percutaneous dilation and stenting. Conclusion. Management of biliary injuries was much better with multidisciplinary care team with initial minimal invasive technique to major surgery in major complex injury encouraging early referral to highly specialized hepatobiliary center. PMID:25435672

  4. Endoscopic therapy for biliary obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nib Soehendra; Kenneth F. Binmoeller; Horst Grimm

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic management of biliary obstruction is feasible in most patients and has emerged as standard treatment. Aside from the removal of bile duct stones, placement of a biliary stent is the most commonly employed modality of management. In experienced hands, this is successful in over 90% of patients. Lower procedure-related complications and the relative non-invasive nature of endoscopic treatment has

  5. Torsed hepaticoileostomy-an unusual complication of Bile Duct injury repair.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David R; Ballard, David H; Vea, Romulo; Zibari, Gazi B; Shokouh-Amiri, Hosein M; D'Agostino, Horacio B

    2015-01-01

    We present a 42-year-old male with strictured bilioenteric anastomosis after bile duct injury repair. The patient improved after percutaneous biliary drainage and balloon dilation of the stricture. Persistent bile reflux around the catheter insertion site prompted a cholangiogram that suggested an error in the enteric limb. Surgical exploration revealed that a torsed ileal loop was used for bilioenteric anastomosis. This error was repaired surgically. The patient had immediate and long-term resolution of symptoms. PMID:25676260

  6. Long-term outcome of ischemic type biliary stricture after interventional treatment in liver living donors: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong-Hwan; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Jung, Bo-Hyun; Kwang, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The wall of normal proximal bile duct is occasionally thin with close approximation to the right hepatic artery. Thus, isolation of this hepatic artery can result in excessive weakening of the remnant proximal bile duct wall during hemiliver graft harvest. This type of injury can induce ischemic stricture of the donor common bile duct. This study aimed to review the clinical sequences of such ischemic type donor bile duct injuries primarily managed with endoscopic and radiological interventional treatments. A retrospective review of medical records was performed for two living donors who suffered from ischemic type donor bile duct injury. They were followed up for more than 10 years. The right and left liver grafts were harvested from these two donors. Bile duct anatomy was normal bifurcation in one and anomalous branching in the other. Bile duct stenosis was detected in them at 2 weeks and 1 week after liver donation. They underwent endoscopic balloon dilatation and temporary stent (endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage tube) insertion. After keeping the tube for 2 months, the tube was successfully removed in one donor. However, endoscopic treatment was not successful, thus additional radiological intervention was necessary in the other donor. On follow-up over 10 years, they are doing well so far with no recurrence of biliary stricture. Based on our limited experience, interventional treatment with subsequent long-term follow-up appears to be an essential and choice treatment for ischemic type biliary stricture occurring in liver living donors.

  7. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred.

  8. Endoscopic management of post-liver transplant biliary complications

    PubMed Central

    Girotra, Mohit; Soota, Kaartik; Klair, Jagpal S; Dang, Shyam M; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Biliary complications are being increasingly encountered in post liver transplant patients because of increased volume of transplants and longer survival of these recipients. Overall management of these complications may be challenging, but with advances in endoscopic techniques, majority of such patients are being dealt with by endoscopists rather than the surgeons. Our review article discusses the recent advances in endoscopic tools and techniques that have proved endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with various interventions, like sphincterotomy, bile duct dilatation, and stent placement, to be the mainstay for management of most of these complications. We also discuss the management dilemmas in patients with surgically altered anatomy, where accessing the bile duct is challenging, and the recent strides towards making this prospect a reality. PMID:25992185

  9. Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: Report of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Cai, Yun-Qiang; Chen, Yong-Hua; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To gain a better understanding of biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BT-IPMN). METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2013, 19 cases of BT-IPMN were retrospectively identified from a total of 343 biliary tract tumors resected in our single institution. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, pathology, surgical strategies, and long-term follow-up were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the 19 BT-IPMN cases was 53.8 years (range: 25-74 years). The most common symptom was abdominal pain (15/19; 78.9%), followed by jaundice (7/19; 36.8%). Cholangitis was associated with most (16/19; 84.2%) of the BT-IPMN cases. Macroscopically visible mucin was detected in all 19 patients, based on original surgical reports. The most common abnormal preoperative imaging findings for BT-IPMN were bile duct dilation (19/19; 100%) and intraluminal masses (10/19; 52.6%). Thirteen (68.4%) cases involved the intrahepatic bile duct and hilum. We performed left hepatectomy in 11/19 (57.9%), right hepatectomy in 2/19 (10.5%), bile duct resection in 4/19 (21.1%), and pancreatoduodenectomy in 1/19 (5.3%) patients. One (5.3%) patient was biopsied and received a choledochojejunostomy because of multiple tumors involving the right extrahepatic and left intrahepatic bile ducts. Histology showed malignancy in 10/19 (52.6%) patients. The overall median survival was 68 mo. The benign cases showed a non-significant trend towards improved survival compared to malignant cases (68 mo vs 48 mo, P = 0.347). The patient without tumor resection died of liver failure 22 mo after palliative surgery. CONCLUSION: BT-IPMN is a rare biliary entity. Complete resection of the tumor is associated with good survival, even in patients with malignant disease. PMID:25892877

  10. CT of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts: Wall Thickness and Contrast Enhancement in Normal and Abnormal Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Schulte; Richard L. Baron; Sharlene A. Teefey; Charles A. Rohrmann; Patrick C. Freeny; William P. Shuman; Michael A. Foster

    duct wall on CT, and to develop a differential diagnosis for thickening of the duct wall. Routine CT examinations of 100 patients without biliary disease were evaluated pro- spectively. The common hepatic duct and common bile duct could be visualized in 66% and 82% of cases, respectively; the walls of these ducts could be separately discerned in 59% and 52%.

  11. Hepatic echinococcosis ruptured into the biliary tract. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features during five episodes of spontaneous biliary rupture in three patients with hepatic hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Van Steenbergen, W; Fevery, J; Broeckaert, L; Ponette, E; Marchal, G; Baert, A; Penninckx, F; Kerremans, R; De Groote, J

    1987-02-01

    Three patients are described with hepatic involvement by Echinococcus granulosus, complicated by spontaneous rupture into the biliary tract. Clinical features consisted of upper abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, anorexia, and vomiting. Hepatomegaly and marked epigastric tenderness were consistently observed. Laboratory findings included obstructive liver function tests, leucocytosis, eosinophilia, and hyperamylasemia. Abdominal computed tomography, showing the cystic wall, the presence of wall calcifications, daughter cysts and wall enhancement, provided a correct diagnosis of hepatic hydatidosis in all patients. Dilatation of the bile ducts with the presence of intraluminal material was clearly shown by sonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. These abnormalities were most frequently found in the common bile duct and in the left hepatic duct. On sonography, the intraluminal material appeared as amorphous, sludge-like hydatid sand, and as daughter cysts. On ERCP, the intrabiliary parasitic material appeared as non-homogeneous, irregularly shaped and mobile filling defects. Other findings at ERCP were displacement and distortion of intrahepatic bile ducts by the hepatic cysts and a mild dilatation of the pancreatic duct. In one occasion, evacuation of a daughter cyst through the papilla was observed. The therapeutic value of mebendazole and endoscopic sphincterotomy in our patients is discussed. PMID:3553314

  12. Deep Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes Revealed GNAS Mutations to Be Associated with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Its Main Pancreatic Duct Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Maekawa, Shinya; Kadokura, Makoto; Miura, Mika; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues. Methods Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer. Results Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n?=?3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p?=?0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN. Conclusions The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion. PMID:24897499

  13. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation reduces the need for mechanical lithotripsy in patients with large bile duct stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Madhoun, Mohammad F; Wani, Sachin; Hong, Sam; Tierney, William M; Maple, John T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Removal of large stones can be challenging and frequently requires the use of mechanical lithotripsy (ML). Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) following endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is a technique that appears to be safe and effective. However, data comparing ES + EPLBD with ES alone have not conclusively shown superiority of either technique. Objective. To assess comparative efficacies and rate of adverse events of these methods. Method. Studies were identified by searching nine medical databases for reports published between 1994 and 2013, using a reproducible search strategy. Only studies comparing ES and ES + EPLBD with regard to large bile duct stone extraction were included. Pooling was conducted by both fixed-effects and random-effects models. Risk ratio (RR) estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results. Seven studies (involving 902 patients) met the inclusion criteria; 3 of 7 studies were prospective trials. Of the 902 patients, 463 were in the ES + EPLBD group, whereas 439 underwent ES alone. There were no differences noted between the groups with regard to overall stone clearance (98% versus 95%, RR ? = ? 1.01 [0.97, 1.05]; P? = 0.60) and stone clearance at the 1st session (87% versus 79%, RR = 1.11 [0.98, 1.25]; P? = 0.11). ES + EPLBD was associated with a reduced need for ML compared to ES alone (15% versus 32%; RR ? = ? 0.49 [0.32, 0.74]; P? = ?0.0008) and was also associated with a reduction in the overall rate of adverse events (11% versus 18%; RR = 0.58 [0.41, 0.81]; P? = 0.001). Conclusions. ES + EPLBD has similar efficacy to ES alone while significantly reducing the need for ML. Further, ES + EPLBD appears to be safe, with a lower rate of adverse events than traditional ES. ES + EPLBD should be considered as a first-line technique in the management of large bile duct stones. PMID:24729674

  14. Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilation Reduces the Need for Mechanical Lithotripsy in Patients with Large Bile Duct Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Madhoun, Mohammad F.; Wani, Sachin; Hong, Sam; Tierney, William M.; Maple, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Removal of large stones can be challenging and frequently requires the use of mechanical lithotripsy (ML). Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) following endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is a technique that appears to be safe and effective. However, data comparing ES + EPLBD with ES alone have not conclusively shown superiority of either technique. Objective. To assess comparative efficacies and rate of adverse events of these methods. Method. Studies were identified by searching nine medical databases for reports published between 1994 and 2013, using a reproducible search strategy. Only studies comparing ES and ES + EPLBD with regard to large bile duct stone extraction were included. Pooling was conducted by both fixed-effects and random-effects models. Risk ratio (RR) estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results. Seven studies (involving 902 patients) met the inclusion criteria; 3 of 7 studies were prospective trials. Of the 902 patients, 463 were in the ES + EPLBD group, whereas 439 underwent ES alone. There were no differences noted between the groups with regard to overall stone clearance (98% versus 95%, RR ?= ?1.01 [0.97, 1.05]; P? = 0.60) and stone clearance at the 1st session (87% versus 79%, RR = 1.11 [0.98, 1.25]; P? = 0.11). ES + EPLBD was associated with a reduced need for ML compared to ES alone (15% versus 32%; RR? =? 0.49 [0.32, 0.74]; P? = ?0.0008) and was also associated with a reduction in the overall rate of adverse events (11% versus 18%; RR = 0.58 [0.41, 0.81]; P? = 0.001). Conclusions. ES + EPLBD has similar efficacy to ES alone while significantly reducing the need for ML. Further, ES + EPLBD appears to be safe, with a lower rate of adverse events than traditional ES. ES + EPLBD should be considered as a first-line technique in the management of large bile duct stones. PMID:24729674

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided anterograde treatment of biliary stones following gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Weilert, F; Binmoeller, K F; Marson, F; Bhat, Y; Shah, J N

    2011-12-01

    Endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones in gastric bypass patients is challenging. We describe a novel method involving endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided anterograde interventions. After prior experience with EUS-guided rendezvous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and direct EUS-guided anterograde stenting for malignant biliary obstruction, we have attempted EUS-guided treatment of biliary stones as first-line therapy following gastric bypass. Our approach involves: (i) EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) puncture into an intrahepatic bile duct; (ii) EUS-guided cholangiography; (iii) guide wire advancement across the ampulla; (iv) catheter dilation of the transhepatic-transgastric access tract; (v) anterograde balloon sphincteroplasty; and (vi) anterograde advancement of stones across the ampulla using a balloon catheter. We reviewed outcomes and complications of this technique. Six patients with previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were referred for treatment of symptomatic choledocholithiasis. EUS-guided transhepatic puncture and cholangiography was successful in 100 %, and revealed choledocholithiasis in all patients. Tract dilation, anterograde balloon sphincteroplasty, and stone extraction were successful in four (67 %). Anterograde sphincteroplasty failed in two patients due to inability to advance the transhepatic dilation catheters. In both cases, wires were advanced down the afferent limb, and rendezvous ERCP using double-balloon enteroscopy was successful. Five patients experienced no complications. One patient in whom EUS anterograde therapy failed due to difficulty in advancing the transhepatic dilation catheter, developed a subcapsular hepatic hematoma. This was managed conservatively. Direct EUS-guided treatment of biliary stones after gastric bypass appears safe and feasible. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this technique. PMID:22057823

  16. Adult bile duct strictures: role of MR imaging and MR cholangiopancreatography in characterization.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Dasyam, Anil K; Dasyam, Navya; Hosseinzadeh, Keyanoosh

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct strictures in adults are secondary to a wide spectrum of benign and malignant pathologic conditions. Benign causes of bile duct strictures include iatrogenic causes, acute or chronic pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, liver transplantation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, Mirizzi syndrome, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Malignant causes include cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and periampullary carcinomas. Rare causes include biliary inflammatory pseudotumor, gallbladder carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases to bile ducts, and extrinsic bile duct compression secondary to periportal or peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiopancreatography is extremely helpful in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice, an obstructive pattern of liver function, or incidentally detected biliary duct dilatation. Some of these conditions may show characteristic findings at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography that help in making a definitive diagnosis. Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with tissue biopsy or surgery is needed for the definitive diagnosis of many of these strictures, certain MR imaging characteristics of the narrowed segment (eg, thickened wall, long-segment involvement, asymmetry, indistinct outer margin, luminal irregularity, hyperenhancement relative to the liver parenchyma) may favor a malignant cause. Awareness of the various causes of bile duct strictures in adults and familiarity with their appearances at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography are important for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management. PMID:24819781

  17. In Vivo Study of Polyurethane-Coated Gianturco-Rosch Biliary Z-Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Severini, Aldo [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mantero, Sara [Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Cigada, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica Chimica Applicata, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Addis, Flaminio [Clinica Chirurgica Veterinaria, Universita di Milano, Via Ponzio 7, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Cozzi, Guido; Salvetti, Monica [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Andreola, Salvatore [Divisione di Anatomia Patologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Motta, Antonella [Stazione Sperimentale per la Seta, Via G. Colombo 81, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Regalia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea [Divisione di Chirurgia dell'Apparato Digerente, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); De Pedri, Enrico [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Doci, Roberto [Divisione di Chirurgia dell'Apparato Digerente, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Prototypes of Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents coated with polycarbonate urethane (PCU) were placed in the biliary tree of pigs, in order to test their biomechanical behavior, stability, and biocompatibility. Methods: The stents were surgically implanted in the common bile duct of three pairs of pigs, which were killed after 1, 3, and 6 months respectively. Explanted livers from pigs of the same race, age, and size were used to provide comparative data. The bile ducts were radiologically and histopathologically examined; the stents were processed and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: No complications occurred and the animals showed a normal weight gain. The main bile duct appeared radiologically and macroscopically dilated, but the stents proved to be in place. Histologically, the bile duct epithelium was destroyed, but neither hyperplastic nor inflammatory fibrotic reactions of the wall were evident. Both the metallic structure and the polymeric coating of the stents were intact. A layer of organic material with a maximum thickness of approximately 3 {mu}m was evident on the inner surface of the stents. Conclusion: The present in vivo study demonstrates the biocompatibility, efficacy, and stability of PCU-coated Gianturco-Rosch stents in the biliary environment.

  18. Pneumoperitoneum Caused by Transhepatic Air Leak After Metallic Biliary Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jei Hee; Lee, Deok Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Joon [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Ki Whang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    A self-expanding metallic biliary stent was placed for palliation of a common bile duct obstruction in a 68-year-old male with unresectable pancreatic head cancer 3 days after initial percutaneous right transhepatic catheter decompression. The stent crossed the ampulla of Vater. Three days later, the stent was balloon-dilated and the percutaneous access was removed. At removal, a small contrast leak from the transhepatic tract was seen. Three days later, pneumoperitoneum was found with symptoms of peritoneal irritation and fever. A widely open sphincter of Oddi caused by the metallic stent, accompanied by delayed sealing of the transhepatic tract, may have caused the air and bile leakage into the peritoneal space. This case shows that pneumoperitoneum may occur without ductal tear or bowel injury, with a biliary stent crossing the ampulla of Vater.

  19. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Intrahepatic and Choledochal Biliary Stones

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Kleinmann, Nir [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Urology, Section of Endourology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Winkler, Harry [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Urology, Section of Endourology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-{mu}m holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. Results: All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive 'balloon push' (n = 4) and 'rendezvous' (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Conclusion: Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

  20. Colloid Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary Tract with Metastatic Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Cystic Neoplasm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Han, Na Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Jeong Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    The patient is a previously healthy 52-year-old woman who presented with dyspepsia for two months. Multiple imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bile duct dilatation with an obstructive lesion of the distal extrahepatic biliary duct (EHD) as well as two masses in the peripancreatic area. The peripancreatic masses appeared cystic with posterior acoustic enhancement on ultrasound, low density on CT imaging, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. The lesion in the distal EHD exhibited similar characteristics on CT and MRI. A Whipple procedure was performed and histological specimens showed malignant cells with large mucin pools that was consistent with a diagnosis of colloid carcinoma of the EHD with metastatic lymphadenopathies. Colloid carcinoma, also called mucinous carcinoma, is classified as a histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Because the colloid carcinoma of the biliary tree is exceedingly rare, the imaging characteristics and the clinical features of colloid carcinoma remain relatively unknown. We report a case of colloid carcinoma of the common bile duct and its accompanied metastatic lymphadenopathies with characteristic imaging findings reflecting abundant intratumoral mucin pools. PMID:24046786

  1. Biliary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghe, L; Ponette, E; Van Steenbergen, W; Eyben, J; Marchal, G

    1989-08-01

    A patient with biliary ascariasis was observed. The diagnosis was strongly suggested on endoscopic cholangiography. X-ray examination of the small bowel confirmed intestinal infestation and the stools were positive for ascaris lumbricoides. The incidence, symptomatology, diagnostic features, complications and therapy of biliary ascariasis are briefly discussed. PMID:2793823

  2. LaserGuided Repair of Complex Bile Duct Strictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas van Gulik; Johan Beek; Philip de Reuver; Daniel Aronson; Otto van Delden; Olivier Busch; Dirk Gouma

    2009-01-01

    Background: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. Aim: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile duct using the sentinel light of a laser fiber passed through the catheter after percutaneous transhepatic biliary

  3. Biliary secretion of endotoxin and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sakisaka, S.; Koga, H.; Sasatomi, K.; Mimura, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Tanikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested endotoxin, derived from the intestine through the portal blood to the liver, was predominantly metabolized by Kupffer cells. In the present study, fluorescent-labeled endotoxin injected into the rat portal vein was demonstrated not only in Kupffer cells but also in hepatocytes. Furthermore a great amount of labeled endotoxin was recovered in bile. In the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), immunohistochemistry demonstrated significant retention of endotoxin in the biliary epithelial cells, and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid significantly reduced the retention in those cells. The study for detection of apoptosis demonstrated increased rates of apoptosis in hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in PBC liver, and the rate of apoptosis in biliary epithelial cells was significantly reduced after treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Immunohistochemistry in PBC liver demonstrated significant reduction of fluorescence intensity for a 7H6 antigen in biliary epithelial cells, indicating the increased paracellular permeability of bile ducts, because cellular immunolocalization of that antigen has been shown to be inversely correlated with the paracellular permeability of the tight junction. These results suggest that, in biliary epithelial cells, retention of endotoxin, increased apoptosis, and increased permeability of tight junctions may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626760

  4. Biliary fascioliasis – an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: Report of a case and brief review

    PubMed Central

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report. PMID:22566787

  5. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for bile duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi-Hong; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Qi-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). METHODS: The imaging findings of five cases of IPMN-B which were pathologically confirmed at our hospital between March 2012 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Three of these cases were diagnosed by duodenal endoscopy and biopsy pathology, and two cases were diagnosed by surgical pathology. All five patients underwent enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI; one case underwent both Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography-CT. The clinical data and imaging results for these cases were compared and are presented. RESULTS: Conventional imaging showed diffuse dilatation of bile ducts and multiple intraductal polypoid and papillary neoplasms or serrated changes along the bile ducts. In two cases, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed dilated biliary ducts and intraductal tumors, as well as filling defects caused by mucin in the dilated bile ducts in the hepatobiliary phase. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in one case clearly showed a low-signal tumor in the hepatobiliary phase, similar to what was seen by positron emission tomography-CT. In two patients, routine inspection was unable to discern whether the lesions were inflammation or tumors. However, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI revealed a pattern of gradual enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, and the signal intensity of the lesions was lower than the surrounding liver parenchyma, suggesting tissue inflammation in both cases, which were confirmed by surgical pathology. CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI reveals the intraductal mucin component of IPMN-B in some cases and the extent of tumor infiltration beyond the bile ducts in invasive cases.

  6. [Biliary atresia: a severe illness].

    PubMed

    Ramonet, Margarita; Ciocca, Mirta; Alvarez, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Biliary atresia is a serious disease of unknown cause, affecting newborns. An inflammation and progressive destruction of the bile ducts lead to jaundice, dark urines, and acholia, between the second and sixth weeks of life. Neonatal cholestasis could be due to several different diseases, thus a diagnosis of biliary atresia and early derivation for surgical treatment are necessary to allow a restoration of the bile flow. Eighty percent of the children normalize serum bilirubin after the portoenterostomy (Kasai operation), if they are operated before their 45 days of life. When Kasai operation fails, a liver transplantation is the only possibility. Biliary atresia must be diagnosed before the first month of life and must be considered as a surgical emergency. PMID:25362914

  7. Endoscopic stent for palliating malignant and benign biliary obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Miao; Zhi-ning Fan; Guo-zhong Ji; Wei Wen; Guo-bin Jiang; Ping Wu; Zheng Liu; Guang-ming Huang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the techniques of placement of memory alloy plating gold biliary stent and plastic stent for palliation\\u000a of malignant and benign biliary obstruction, and to assess its clinical effectiveness. Methods: The patients in plastic stent\\u000a group included paplilla of duodenum inflamational strictures (n=24), common bile duct inflammational inferior segment strictures\\u000a (n=4), choledocholithiasis (n=5), bile leak (n=11), bile duct

  8. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    García-Cano, Jesús

    2013-08-01

    The majority of recent studies of benign biliary strictures (BBSs) have reported on treatment of stenotic injuries following cholecystectomy, orthotopic liver transplantation, living donor liver transplantation, chronic pancreatitis, and different inflammatory conditions such as common bile-duct-related strictures. Information about previous surgical procedures is very important for making a BBS diagnosis. Diagnostic tools for indeterminate strictures have increased to include (1) highly specialized cytological techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, (2) cholangioscopy, and (3) endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and intraductal ultrasound. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) usually provides an adequate map to plan the endoscopic therapy. After traversing the stricture with a guidewire and, occasionally, performing balloon dilatation, plastic stents continue to be the basic endotherapy, trying to insert the maximum possible number, with an exchange every 3 months during a 12-month period. Progressive stenting requires a median number of five ERCPs; therefore, it is technically demanding and burdensome but has an average of 80% long-term durable stricture dilation. For not-hilar BBS, fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) are emerging as a promising therapy needing fewer of the endoscopist's technical skills and reducing ERCP procedures and, probably, costs. To equal a 10-mm diameter provided by a single FCSEMS, about three plastic stents placed side-by-side are needed. Manufacturers are working to improve FCSEMS designs to reduce migration rate and to allow an easy extraction after several months in place. Many studies have tried to show reproducible protocols for the duration of FCSEMS therapy and the results in different types of BBSs. PMID:23857116

  9. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F. [Department of Radiology, South ManchesterUniversity Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  10. The effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on stone size or fragmentation after long-term treatment with biliary stenting for large stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Katsinelos; I. Galanis; I. Pilpilidis; G. Paroutoglou; P. Tsolkas; B. Papaziogas; S. Dimiropoulos; E. Kamperis; D. Katsiba; M. Kalomenopoulou; A. Papagiannis

    2003-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic biliary stenting is often used for large or difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones, but the effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on size or fragmentation of stones after long-term treatment with biliary stenting has not been formally established. We compared the stone size or fragmentation of common bile duct stones after a long period of biliary stenting. Methods: Endoscopic

  11. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  12. Biliary Ascariasis on Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Mohammad A; De, Jevan K

    2009-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented with features of biliary obstruction. Magnetic resonance cholangi-pancreatography revealed typical linear signals in common bile duct, which appears like Ascaris lumbricoides. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic removal of the worm. PMID:20300405

  13. [Juxta-papillary duodenal diverticula in patients with primary common duct stones].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Kawaguchi, H; Hasegawa, S; Muto, T

    1985-09-01

    Incidence of juxta papillary duodenal diverticula (JPDD) was studied in 182 patients with benign biliary diseases. Incidences of JPDD were 11.1% in cholecystolithiasis, 23.4% in cholecystocholedocholithiasis and 54.5% in choledocholithiasis. Concerning to the patients with common duct stones, average of age was significantly higher in the group with diverticulum than in the group without diverticulum (65.9 +/- 7.6 vs 55.9 +/- 13.7, p less than 0.01). Diameter of the common duct was also significantly larger in the group with diverticulum. To exclude the effect of aging, the same comparison was performed in patients older than 60 years. Here again, the group with diverticulum showed significantly greater dilatation of the common duct. Incidences of JPDD in the primary and secondary common duct stones were 73.1% and 19.7%, respectively. The difference was highly significant. JPDD seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cholestasis in the aged patients which may result in formation of primary common duct stones. PMID:3937042

  14. Spontaneous Bile Duct Rupture in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Joseph J.; Liechty, R. Dale

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous bile duct rupture occurred in a 23-year-old who required emergency Cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition has not been reported in association with pregnancy. Only forty cases of spontaneous bile duct perforation in adults have been previously reported. Seventy percent of these perforations were related to biliary calculi. Sites of perforation were evenly distributed between common hepatic duct and common bile duct. Recommended treatment includes cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration, T-tube placement, and Roux-En-Y ductal anastomosis if disruption is extensive. PMID:2152327

  15. Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stones: A Population-based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chang, Shih-Chen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Danforth, Kim N.; Althuis, Michelle D.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are rare, but highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the predominant risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. As part of a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we examined the associations of serum lipid levels with biliary stones and cancers. We included 460 biliary cancer cases (264 gallbladder, 141 extrahepatic bile duct, and 55 ampulla of Vater), 981 biliary stone cases, and 858 healthy individuals randomly selected from the population. Participants completed an in-person interview and gave overnight fasting blood samples. Participants in the highest quintile of triglycerides (? 160 mg/dl) had a 1.4-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=1.1-1.9), a 1.9-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=1.3-2.8), and a 4.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=2.8-8.1), compared to the reference group (third quintile: 90-124 mg/dl). Participants in the lowest quintile of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 30 mg/dl) had a 4.2-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=3.0-6.0), an 11.6-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=7.3-18.5), and a 16.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=9.1-30.9), relative to the reference group (third quintile: 40-49 mg/dl). In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein A (apo A) were inversely associated with biliary stones; whereas low levels as well as high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, apo A, and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were associated with excess risks of biliary tract cancers. Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis. PMID:18076041

  16. Biliary fascioliasis--an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: report of a case and brief review.

    PubMed

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report. PMID:22566787

  17. Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Nanda, Mohit; Singh, Kartar

    2007-04-01

    Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in tropical countries and can lead to such serious complications as cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Endoscopic therapy has helped in the management of biliary complications caused by these parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides organisms, which normally reside in the jejunum, are actively motile and can invade the papilla, thus migrating into the bile duct and causing biliary obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a useful diagnostic tool with potential for therapeutic management of biliary ascariasis. Infestation with Clonorchis sinensis organisms can cause such complications as intrahepatic stones, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, cirrhosis, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, and cholangiocarcinoma. Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum are closely related to C. sinensis and can also cause serious biliary complications. Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, is a zoonotic helminthiasis that can present as acute hepatic or chronic biliary tract infection. CT, MRI, and ultrasound guidance are useful imaging tools for identifying these parasites and their complications. PMID:17418062

  18. Morphologic factors of biliary trees are associated with gallstone-related biliary events

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Lim, Jun Hyeok; Jeong, Seok; Jeon, Young Sun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors for gallstone-related biliary events. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography images from 141 symptomatic and 39 asymptomatic gallstone patients who presented at a single tertiary hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with gallstones in relation to the number of gallstones, the angle between the long axis of the gallbladder and the cystic duct, and the cystic duct diameter. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of gallstones (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.03-1.57; P = 0.026), the angle between the long axis of the gallbladder and the cystic duct (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.03; P = 0.015), and the diameter of the cystic duct (OR = 0.819, 95%CI: 0.69-0.97; P = 0.018) were significantly associated with biliary events. The incidence of biliary events was significantly elevated in patients who had the presence of more than two gallstones, an angle of > 92° between the gallbladder and the cystic duct, and a cystic duct diameter < 6 mm. CONCLUSION: These findings will help guide the treatment of patients with asymptomatic gallstones. Clinicians should closely monitor patients with asymptomatic gallstones who exhibit these characteristics. PMID:25574102

  19. Curative Chemoradiotherapy of Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma with Vertebral Metastasis: Palliation of Persistent Biliary Stricture by Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Güven, Koray; Ozden, Ilgin; Do?an, Oner; Gök, Kaan; Demir, Cumhur; Emre, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare tumor that usually presents with the clinical picture of advanced adenocarcinoma but has a much better prognosis. A 38-year-old man was referred after percutaneous transhepatic external biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography had revealed a 5-cm pancreatic head mass that caused biliary tract dilation. Computed tomography angiography showed that the mass encased the celiac trunk as well as the common hepatic and splenic arteries. MRI also revealed a metastatic lesion at the third lumbar vertebra. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were within normal range. The initial diagnosis was inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, Tru-Cut pancreatic biopsy showed a large B cell lymphoma. After 6 sessions of chemotherapy and 21 sessions of radiotherapy, both the pancreatic mass and the vertebral metastasis had disappeared. However, he had persistent distal common bile duct stricture that could not be negotiated by either the endoscopic or percutaneous route. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The patient stayed alive without recurrence for 52 months after the initial diagnosis and 45 months after completion of oncologic treatment. In conclusion, a large pancreatic mass with grossly involved peripancreatic lymph nodes, without ascites, liver or splenic metastasis, should alert the clinician to the possibility of PPL. Cure is possible by chemoradiotherapy even in the presence of vertebral metastasis. Persistent stricture in the distal common bile duct may require a biliodigestive anastomosis. PMID:22171216

  20. Long-Term Placement of Subcutaneous Ruesch-Type Stents for Double Biliary Stenosis in a Living-Donor Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi, E-mail: adanigl@hotmail.com; Baccarani, Umberto; Lorenzin, Dario; Risaliti, Andrea [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Como, Giuseppe [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Italy); Gasparini, Daniele; Sponza, Massimo [AOSMM-Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Bresadola, Vittorio; Bresadola, Fabrizio [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Biliary reconstruction continues to be a major source of morbidity following liver transplantation. The spectrum of biliary complications is evolving due to the increasing number of split-liver and living-donor liver transplantation, which are even associated with a higher incidence of biliary complications. Bile duct strictures are the most common cause of late biliary complications and account for up to 40% of all biliary complications. Optimal therapy for posttransplantation anastomotic biliary strictures remains uncertain and requires a multidisciplinary approach. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male affected by hepatocarcinoma and hepatitis C-related cirrhosis who underwent right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation from his son complicated by double anastomotic stenosis of the main right hepatic duct and of an accessory biliary duct draining segments 6 and 7 of the graft that was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with long-term subcutaneous placement of two internal Ruesch-type biliary stents.

  1. Magnetic resonance evaluations of biliary malignancy and condition at high-risk for biliary malignancy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Reiji

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the biliary tree are relatively rare; but their incidence is rising worldwide. There are several known risk factors for bile duct cancers, and these are seem to be associated with chronic inflammation of the biliary epithelium. Herein, 2 risk factors have been discussed, primary sclerosing cholangitis and reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct, as seen in such as an abnormal union of the pancreatic-biliary junction because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used widely and effectively in the diagnosis of these diseases. When biliary disease is suspected, MRI can often help differentiate between benignity and malignancy, stage tumors, select surgical candidates and guide surgical planning. MRI has many advantages over other modalities. Therefore, MRI is a reliable noninvasive imaging tool for diagnosis and pre-surgical evaluation of bile duct tumors. Nowadays remarkable technical advances in magnetic resonance technology have expanded the clinical applications of MRI in case of biliary diseases. In this article, it is also discussed how recent developments in MRI contributes to the diagnosis of the bile duct cancer and the evaluation of patients with risk factors affecting bile duct cancer. PMID:24432183

  2. [Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of an acute biliary pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Vasylyuk, S M; Ivanyna, V V

    2015-02-01

    In 126 patients, suffering an acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), clinical examination was conducted. In 65 patients (1-st group) the isolated cholecystolithiasis was noted; in 35 (2-nd group)--cholelithiasis, which did not cause obturation of common biliary duct; in 26 (3-rd group)--cholelithiasis, which caused the biliary ways obturation (including calculi, which were incorporated into the duodenal papilla magna ostium). Clinical course of an ABP have differed depending on localization of calculi of extrahepatic biliary ducts. In patients, suffering ABP, a biochemical signs of hepatocytes functional disorders were observed, impacting the need for hepatoprotector preparations inclusion into complex of perioperative conservative therapy. Determination of activity of pancreatic ?-amylase in the blood serum and conduction of the ACTIM Pancreatitis test con- stitute the most sensitive and specific methods of the ABP biochemical diagnosis. PMID:25985693

  3. Profiling Circulating and Urinary Bile Acids in Patients with Biliary Obstruction before and after Biliary Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Patrick; Straka, Robert J.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Barbier, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Bile acids are considered as extremely toxic at the high concentrations reached during bile duct obstruction, but each acid displays variable cytotoxic properties. This study investigates how biliary obstruction and restoration of bile flow interferes with urinary and circulating levels of 17 common bile acids. Bile acids (conjugated and unconjugated) were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in serum and urine samples from 17 patients (8 men and 9 women) with biliary obstruction, before and after biliary stenting. Results were compared with serum concentrations measured in 40 age- and sex-paired control donors (20 men and 20 women). The total circulating bile acid concentration increases from 2.7 µM in control donors to 156.9 µM in untreated patients with biliary stenosis. Serum taurocholic and glycocholic acids exhibit 304- and 241-fold accumulations in patients with biliary obstruction compared to controls. The enrichment in chenodeoxycholic acid species reached a maximum of only 39-fold, while all secondary and 6?-hydroxylated species –except taurolithocholic acids – were either unchanged or significantly reduced. Stenting was efficient in restoring an almost normal circulating profile and in reducing urinary bile acids. Conclusion These results demonstrate that biliary obstruction affects differentially the circulating and/or urinary levels of the various bile acids. The observation that the most drastically affected acids correspond to the less toxic species supports the activation of self-protecting mechanisms aimed at limiting the inherent toxicity of bile acids in face of biliary obstruction. PMID:21760958

  4. Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

    2014-12-01

    Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

  5. Biliary parasites: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Niraj; Shaw, Joanna; Jain, Mamta K

    2008-04-01

    Parasitic infections of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in endemic areas. This article focuses on primary biliary parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica. Tropical and subtropical countries have the highest incidence and prevalence of these infections. Diagnosis is made primarily through direct microscopic examination of eggs in the stool, duodenal, or bile contents. Radiologic imaging may show intrahepatic ductal dilatation, whereas endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can be used diagnostically and therapeutically. However, oral treatment is inexpensive and effective for most of these parasites and can prevent untoward consequences. Primary and alternative treatments are available and are reviewed in this article. PMID:18321435

  6. Burdick's Technique for Biliary Access Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The precut sphincterotomy is used to facilitate selective biliary access in cases of difficult biliary cannulation. Needle-knife precut papillotomy is the standard of care but is associated with a high rate of complications such as pancreatitis, duodenal perforation, bleeding, etc. Sometimes during bowing of the sphincterotome/cannula and the use of guide wire to facilitate biliary cannulation, inadvertent formation of a false passage occurs in the 10 to 11 o'clock direction. Use of this step to access the bile duct by the intramucosal incision technique was first described by Burdick et al., and since then two more studies have also substantiated the safety and efficacy of this non-needle type of precut sphincterotomy. In this review, we discuss this non-needle technique of precut sphincterotomy and also share our experience using this "Burdick's technique." PMID:25674522

  7. Burdick's Technique for Biliary Access Revisited.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Rai, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The precut sphincterotomy is used to facilitate selective biliary access in cases of difficult biliary cannulation. Needle-knife precut papillotomy is the standard of care but is associated with a high rate of complications such as pancreatitis, duodenal perforation, bleeding, etc. Sometimes during bowing of the sphincterotome/cannula and the use of guide wire to facilitate biliary cannulation, inadvertent formation of a false passage occurs in the 10 to 11 o'clock direction. Use of this step to access the bile duct by the intramucosal incision technique was first described by Burdick et al., and since then two more studies have also substantiated the safety and efficacy of this non-needle type of precut sphincterotomy. In this review, we discuss this non-needle technique of precut sphincterotomy and also share our experience using this "Burdick's technique." PMID:25674522

  8. Evaluating Biliary Anatomy and Variations in Living Liver Donors by a New Technique: Three-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonic Cholangiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-qin Zheng; Gui-hua Chen; Er-jiao Xu; Ren Mao; Min-qiang Lu; Mei Liao; Jie Ren; Li Kai; Shu-hong Yi

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the biliary anatomy is important for the safety of liver donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We evaluated the biliary anatomy and variations of 12 living liver donors with 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasonic cholangiography (3-D CEUSC) by injecting microbubble contrast agents into the common hepatic ducts intraoperatively. Two radiologists assessed the diagnostically adequate, delineation of biliary branch

  9. Management of malignant hilar biliary obstruction by endoscopy results and prognostic factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ducreux; Cl. Liguory; J. F. Lefebvre; O. Ink; A. Choury; J. Fritsch; D. Bonnel; S. Derhy; J. P. Etienne

    1992-01-01

    Between January 1983 and December 1987, 103 patients who had hilar biliary obstruction (59 men, 44 women, median age 73 years) were referred to our institution. The causes of hilar biliary obstruction were carcinoma of the bile ducts (55), hepatic metastases or hepatocellular carcinoma (30), and carcinoma of the gallbladder (18). When endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was performed, the stricture was

  10. Late-Onset Autoimmunity: The Paradigm of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis – A Mini-Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel M. Siegel; Carlo Selmi; Lorenzo Dottorini; Magda Antelmi; Massimo Zuin; Mario Lanfredini; M. Eric Gershwin

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases appears to be increasing in virtually every population. This is well illustrated by primary biliary cirrhosis, a disease characterized by an immune response to small bile ducts and an incidence increasing with age. The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis remains enigmatic, although there is clearly an interplay of genetics and environment with a possible role

  11. Bile Duct Strictures Caused by Solid Masses: MR in Differential Diagnosis and as a Prognostic Tool to Plan the Endoscopic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Studniarek, Micha?

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess how realiable is differential diagnosis and prognosis for endoscopic treatment with MR signal characteristics as the qualitative parameter and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images in cases of bile duct obstructions caused by solid masses. Material and Methods. Retrospective study of MR and MRCP images in 80 patients (mean age 58?ys) was conducted. Mean signal intensity ratio (SIR) from planar MR images and MRCP linear measurements were compared between benign and malignant lesions and in groups including the size and number of stents placed during ERCP?(biliary duct dilatation (r = 0,0024). High significance for predicting ERCP conditions was found with mean SIR in STIR T2W images and stricture length. Conclusion. Probability of malignancy of solid lesions obstructing biliary duct increased with higher SIR in T2W images and with longer strictures. Passing the stricture during ERCP treatment was easier and more probable in cases of shorter strictures caused by lesions with higher SIR in STIR T2W images. PMID:24302932

  12. [Treatment of biliary tract carcinoma with metal endoprosthesis].

    PubMed

    Alawneh, I

    1979-08-01

    The application of endoprosthesis in the surgery of biliary tract carcinoma is a very valuable method to prolong the life of cancer patients. The metalendoprosthesis with drain for continuously rinsing the bile duct to avoid incrusation showed good results in 9 patients for short survival time of 5-26 months. Two patients were treated with bifurcated Y-shape prosthesis after resection of bile duct carcinoma. PMID:489415

  13. Late biliary complications in human alveolar echinococcosis are associated with high mortality

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Pascal; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Prakash, Meher K; Schoepfer, Alain M; Prinz Vavricka, Bettina M; Müllhaupt, Beat; Fried, Michael; Lehmann, Kuno; Ammann, Rudolf W; Vavricka, Stephan R

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the incidence of late biliary complications in non-resectable alveolar echinococcosis (AE) under long-term chemotherapy with benzimidazoles. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of AE patients with biliary complications occurring more than three years after the diagnosis of AE. We compared characteristics of patients with and without biliary complications, analyzed potential risk factor for biliary complications and performed survival analyses. RESULTS: Ninety four of 148 patients with AE in Zurich had non-resectable AE requiring long-term benzimidazole chemotherapy, of which 26 (28%) patients developed late biliary complications. These patients had a median age of 55.5 (35.5-65) years at diagnosis of AE and developed biliary complications after 15 (8.25-19) years of chemotherapy. The most common biliary complications during long-term chemotherapy were late-onset cholangitis (n = 14), sclerosing cholangitis-like lesions (n = 8), hepatolithiasis (n = 5), affection of the common bile duct (n = 7) and secondary biliary cirrhosis (n = 7). Thirteen of the 26 patients had undergone surgery (including 12 resections) before chemotherapy. Previous surgery was a risk factor for late biliary complications in linear regression analysis (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Late biliary complications can be observed in nearly one third of patients with non-resectable AE, with previous surgery being a potential risk factor. After the occurrence of late biliary complications, the median survival is only 3 years, suggesting that late biliary complications indicate a poor prognostic outcome. PMID:24914349

  14. Common Bile Duct Duplication: The more the murkier

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ankur; Sureka, Binit; Kasana, Vivek; Patidar, Yashwant; Bansal, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Congenital duplication of the common bile duct is an extremely rare anomaly of the biliary tract, which putatively represents failure of regression of the embryological double biliary system. Depending on the morphology of the duplicated bile duct, the anomaly can be classified into five distinct subtypes as per the modified classification (proposed by Choi et al). Among the five subtypes of bile duct duplication, type V duplication is considered to be the least common with only two previous cases of type Va variant reported in medical literature prior to the current report. PMID:25672240

  15. Biliary Obstruction After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement in a Patient With Budd-Chiari Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Korrapati, Praneet; Komanduri, Srinadh

    2015-01-01

    A 20-year-old male presented with 2 months of progressive abdominal distension due to ascites and Budd-Chiari syndrome. He underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement, but soon after had elevated liver enzymes. MRCP revealed mild left intrahepatic biliary dilatation without stones or obvious stricture. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated a focal stricture due to compression by the TIPS. The stricture was dilated and a 10 Fr x 15-cm plastic stent was placed with excellent biliary drainage. The patient's symptoms and liver tests normalized within 1 week. This is the first case of biliary obstruction due to TIPS placement effectively managed by ERCP.

  16. Biliary Obstruction After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement in a Patient With Budd-Chiari Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Korrapati, Praneet; Bidari, Kiran; Komanduri, Srinadh

    2015-01-01

    A 20-year-old male presented with 2 months of progressive abdominal distension due to ascites and Budd-Chiari syndrome. He underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement, but soon after had elevated liver enzymes. MRCP revealed mild left intrahepatic biliary dilatation without stones or obvious stricture. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated a focal stricture due to compression by the TIPS. The stricture was dilated and a 10 Fr x 15-cm plastic stent was placed with excellent biliary drainage. The patient's symptoms and liver tests normalized within 1 week. This is the first case of biliary obstruction due to TIPS placement effectively managed by ERCP. PMID:26157927

  17. Endoscopic retrograde drainage for bile duct cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nib Soehendra; Horst Grimm

    1988-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary drainage is a palliative measure. It is mainly indicated for inoperable malignant jaundice. Extrahepatic obstructions are suitable for the transpapillary decompression, which may be successful in 80–90% of patients. Morbidity and mortality rates are approximately 5% and 1–2%, respectively. Tumors of the hilum region, which usually already involve the intrahepatic ducts, are less eligible for drainage treatment. In

  18. Biliary excretion of [C]penicillic acid by rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Park; Emilio Brouwer; James L. Heath

    1978-01-01

    Adult male rats were given [C]penicillic acid by oral intubation, and the biliary excretion of the compound was monitored. The significance of bile as an excretory route was confirmed and compared by using open and recycle cannulation of the bile duct. The biological half?retention life of [C]penicillic acid in the bile was 3.63 h.

  19. Fluorescent imaging of the biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with increased incidences of bile duct injury. The primary cause appears to be misidentification of the biliary anatomy. Routine intra-operative cholangiography has been recommended to reduce accidental duct injury, although in practice it is more often reserved for selected cases. There has been interest in the use of fluorescent agents excreted via the biliary system to enable real-time intra-operative imaging, to aid the laparoscopic surgeon in correctly interpreting the anatomy. The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the ability of fluorescent cholangiography to identify important biliary anatomy intra-operatively. Secondary aims are to investigate its ability to detect important intra-operative pathology such as bile leaks, identify potential alternative fluorophores, and evaluate the evidence regarding patient outcomes. PMID:25317203

  20. Biliary Infection May Exacerbate Biliary Cystogenesis Through the Induction of VEGF in Cholangiocytes of the Polycystic Kidney (PCK) Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiang Shan; Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Yoneda, Norihide; Lin, Zhen Hua; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2011-01-01

    Cholangitis arising from biliary infection dominates the prognosis in Caroli's disease. To clarify the influences of bacterial infection on the biliary cystogenesis, in vivo and in vitro studies were performed using the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat as an animal model of Caroli's disease. Cholangitis became a frequent histological finding in aged PCK rats, and neovascularization around the bile ducts also increased in aged PCK rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in PCK rat biliary epithelium. In vitro, PCK cholangiocytes overexpressed VEGF, and the supernatant of cultured PCK cholangiocytes significantly increased the proliferative activity, migration, and tube formation of cultured rat vascular endothelial cells. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) further induced VEGF expression in PCK cholangiocytes, which might be mediated by signaling pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Both LPS and VEGF increased cell proliferative activity in PCK cholangiocytes, and siRNA against VEGF significantly reduced LPS-induced cell proliferation. Thus, LPS-induced overexpression of VEGF in the biliary epithelium may lead to hypervascularity around the bile ducts; concurrently, LPS and VEGF act as cell proliferation factors for cholangiocytes. Biliary infection may thus exacerbate biliary cystogenesis in PCK rats. PMID:22015458

  1. Transformations - Dilation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    In this interactive simulation, students are able to visualize and manipulate objects to understand dilation transformations. Students are able to adjust the center of dilation, rotate and move figures, change the scale factor to see what effect it has on the figures, add their own figures, and more. Across the top of the page, visitors will find links to activities to guide students as they explore the site, and more advanced activities involving computation are available in the Parent/Teacher section. The Instructions sections has detailed information for students and teachers alike on how to use the manipulative.

  2. MR imaging of benign and malignant biliary conditions.

    PubMed

    Costello, James R; Kalb, Bobby; Chundru, Surya; Arif, Hina; Petkovska, Iva; Martin, Diego R

    2014-08-01

    MR imaging is a noninvasive, radiation-free imaging method for evaluation of the biliary system. Continued advancements in MR imaging system hardware and sequence design, coupled with novel gadolinium chelate agents, allow for a detailed evaluation of the bile ducts and surrounding soft tissues. New hepatocyte-specific contrast agents may hold utility in the anatomic and functional evaluation of bile duct injury. MR imaging is also the imaging method of choice for bile duct tumor diagnosis, staging, and presurgical planning. Familiarity with the proper methodology of MR image acquisition and interpretation is critical for optimized diagnostic assessment. PMID:25086940

  3. Cholescintigraphy in extrahepatic biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Kuni, C.C.; Fritzberg, A.R.

    1982-07-01

    The effect of etiology on findings in cholescintigraphy in patients with extrahepatic obstruction was retrospectively evaluated in 29 patients. Of 11 patients with obstruction secondary to cancer, seven (78%) of nine had complete obstruction (delayed images were not obtained in two) and nine (82%) of 11 had a moderate to severe decreases in hepatocyte clearance. Of 12 patients with obstruction secondary to cholelithiasis, only four (36%) had complete obstruction (delayed images were not obtained in one) (p less than 0.05) and all 11 had normal or only midly decreased hepatocyte clearance (p less than 0.05). All five patients with obstruction secondary to pancreatitis had mild partial obstruction and normal or mildly decreased hepatocyte clearance. One patient had partial obstruction secondary to an abscess adjacent to the common bile duct; hepatocyte clearance was mildly decreased. Cancerous and noncancerous causes of biliary tract obstruction produce significantly different findings in hepatobiliary imaging.

  4. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation after sphincterotomy for difficult choledocholithiasis: A case-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruno; Moutinho Ribeiro, Pedro; Rebelo, Ana; Pinto Correia, António; Cotter, José

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) + endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) vs isolated EST. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single center study over two years, from February 2010 to January 2012. Patients with large (? 10 mm), single or multiple bile duct stones (BDS), submitted to endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) were included. Patients in Group A underwent papillary large balloon dilation after limited sphincterotomy (EST+EPLBD), using a through-the-scope balloon catheter gradually inflated to 12-18 mm according to the size of the largest stone and the maximal diameter of the distal bile duct on the cholangiogram. Patients in Group B (control group) underwent isolated sphincterotomy. Stones were removed using a retrieval balloon catheter and/or a dormia basket. When necessary, mechanical lithotripsy was performed. Complete clearance of the bile duct was documented with a balloon catheter cholangiogram at the end of the procedure. In case of residual lithiasis, a double pigtail plastic stent was placed and a second ERCP was planned within 4-6 wk. Some patients were sent for extracorporeal lithotripsy prior to subsequent ERCP. Outcomes of EST+EPLBD (Group A) vs isolated EST (Group B) were compared regarding efficacy (complete stone clearance, number of therapeutic sessions, mechanical and/or extracorporeal lithotripsy, biliary stent placement) and safety (frequency, type and grade of complications). Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 or Fisher’s exact tests for the analysis of categorical parameters and Student’s t test for continuous variables. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were included, 68 (61.3%) in Group A and 43 (38.7%) in Group B. The mean diameter of the stones was similar in the two groups (16.8 ± 4.4 and 16.0 ± 6.7 in Groups A and B, respectively). Forty-eight (70.6%) patients in Group A and 21 (48.8%) in Group B had multiple BDS (P = 0.005). Overall, balloon dilation was performed up to 12 mm in 10 (14.7%) patients, 13.5 mm in 17 (25.0%), 15 mm in 33 (48.6%), 16.5 mm in 2 (2.9%) and 18 mm in 6 (8.8%) patients, taking into account the diameter of the largest stone and that of the bile duct. Complete stone clearance was achieved in sixty-five (95.6%) patients in Group A vs 30 (69.8%) patients in Group B, and was attained within the first therapeutic session in 82.4% of patients in Group A vs 44.2% in Group B (P < 0.001). Patients submitted to EST+EPLBD underwent fewer therapeutic sessions (1.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.8 ± 1.1, P < 0.001), and fewer required mechanical (14.7% vs 37.2%, P = 0.007) or extracorporeal (0 vs 18.6%, P < 0.001) lithotripsy, as well as biliary stenting (17.6% vs 60.5%, P < 0.001). The rate of complications was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: EST+EPLBD is a safe and effective technique for treatment of difficult BDS, leading to high rates of complete stone clearance and reducing the need for lithotripsy and biliary stenting. PMID:23678373

  5. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.

    1994-04-26

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding is described. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic. 3 figures.

  6. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA), Benett

    1994-01-01

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic.

  7. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagi, Teru; Heathcote, E Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology characterized by injury of the intrahepatic bile ducts that may eventually lead to liver failure. Affected individuals are usually in their fifth to seventh decades of life at time of diagnosis, and 90% are women. Annual incidence is estimated between 0.7 and 49 cases per million-population and prevalence between 6.7 and 940 cases per million-population (depending on age and sex). The majority of patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis, however, some patients present with symptoms of fatigue and/or pruritus. Patients may even present with ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and/or esophageal variceal hemorrhage. PBC is associated with other autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, Raynaud's phenomenon and CREST syndrome and is regarded as an organ specific autoimmune disease. Genetic susceptibility as a predisposing factor for PBC has been suggested. Environmental factors may have potential causative role (infection, chemicals, smoking). Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, abnormal liver biochemical pattern in a cholestatic picture persisting for more than six months and presence of detectable antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in serum. All AMA negative patients with cholestatic liver disease should be carefully evaluated with cholangiography and liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only currently known medication that can slow the disease progression. Patients, particularly those who start UDCA treatment at early-stage disease and who respond in terms of improvement of the liver biochemistry, have a good prognosis. Liver transplantation is usually an option for patients with liver failure and the outcome is 70% survival at 7 years. Recently, animal models have been discovered that may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and facilitate appreciation for novel treatment in PBC. PMID:18215315

  8. Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

  9. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation for management of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2014-11-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are the current standard of care for the palliative management of malignant biliary strictures. Recently, endoscopic ablative techniques with direct affect to local tumor have been developed to improve SEMS patency. Several reports have demonstrated the technical feasibility and safety of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA), by both endoscopic and percutaneous approaches, in palliation of malignant strictures of the bile duct. Intraductal RFA has also been used in the treatment of occlusion of both covered and uncovered SEMS occlusion from tumor ingrowth or overgrowth. This article provides a comprehensive review of intraductal RFA in the management of malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:24906696

  10. On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoyu; Li, Wenguang; Bird, Nigel; Chin, Swee Boon; Hill, NA; Johnson, Alan G

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system. Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system, and finally the future challenges in the area. PMID:17457970

  11. CT of the extrahepatic bile ducts: wall thickness and contrast enhancement in normal and abnormal ducts.

    PubMed

    Schulte, S J; Baron, R L; Teefey, S A; Rohrmann, C A; Freeny, P C; Shuman, W P; Foster, M A

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have described thickening and enhancement of the extrahepatic bile duct wall on CT scans obtained after administration of IV contrast material. We undertook this study to establish parameters for the normal thickness and enhancement of the bile duct wall on CT, and to develop a differential diagnosis for thickening of the duct wall. Routine CT examinations of 100 patients without biliary disease were evaluated prospectively. The common hepatic duct and common bile duct could be visualized in 66% and 82% of cases, respectively; the walls of these ducts could be separately discerned in 59% and 52%. The mean thickness of the duct wall was 1 mm, with a maximal thickness of 1.5 mm. Wall enhancement was similar to (51%), slightly greater than (44%), or markedly greater than (5%) the enhancement of adjacent pancreatic parenchyma. A review of records covering a 5-year period identified 52 patients in whom CT showed thickening of the bile duct wall (greater than or equal to 2 mm). These patients could be categorized by seven underlying diseases, and analysis of the CT scans revealed four general patterns of thickening. Focal, concentric wall thickening in the distal common bile duct was associated with pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and common bile duct stones; focal, eccentric thickening tended to occur with cholangiocarcinoma and sclerosing cholangitis. Diffuse, concentric thickening was seen with acute cholangitis; diffuse, eccentric thickening was associated with oriental cholangiohepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis. Thickening of greater than 5 mm was seen only with cholangiocarcinoma. Enhancement of the duct wall in these groups varied and was of no predictive value. In summary, the extrahepatic bile ducts can be visualized in the majority of patients, and the normal duct wall should be 1.5 mm or less in thickness. Contrast enhancement of the duct wall occurs in patients without biliary tract disease and alone is predictive not predictive of pathology. Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, common bile duct stones, cholangiocarcinoma, sclerosing cholangitis, acute cholangitis, and oriental cholangiohepatitis are associated with thickening of the duct wall. PMID:2104731

  12. Extrahepatic Biliary Cystadenoma: A Rare Cause of Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Metussin, Adli; Telisinghe, Pemasari; Kok, Kenneth; Chong, Vui

    2015-01-01

    Biliary cystadenoma is a rare tumor of the biliary tree and a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Most are intrahepatic, and pure extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma is less common. Cases are more common in women. Unless suspected, diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma is often delayed. Here, we report the case of a young woman with extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma who presented at Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital with obstructive jaundice initially thought to be due to a large biliary stone based on the endoscopic cholangiogram image. She was successfully managed with resection of the cystadenoma. PMID:25830005

  13. Extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma: a rare cause of biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Metussin, Adli; Telisinghe, Pemasari; Kok, Kenneth; Chong, Vui

    2015-01-01

    Biliary cystadenoma is a rare tumor of the biliary tree and a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Most are intrahepatic, and pure extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma is less common. Cases are more common in women. Unless suspected, diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma is often delayed. Here, we report the case of a young woman with extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma who presented at Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital with obstructive jaundice initially thought to be due to a large biliary stone based on the endoscopic cholangiogram image. She was successfully managed with resection of the cystadenoma. PMID:25830005

  14. Role of Cholangiocytes in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lleo, Ana; Maroni, Luca; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2); characteristics of the disease are also the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. Recent evidence suggests that cholangiocytes show specific immunobiological features that are responsible for the selective targeting of those cells by the immune system. The immune reaction in PBC selectively targets small sized, intrahepatic bile ducts; although a specific reason for that has not been defined yet, it has been established that the biliary epithelium displays a unique heterogeneity, for which the physiological and pathophysiological features of small and large cholangiocytes significantly differ. In this review article, the authors provide a critical overview of the current evidence on the role of cholangiocytes in the immune-mediated destruction of the biliary tree that characterizes PBC. PMID:25057951

  15. Pancreaticobiliary reflux as a high-risk factor for biliary malignancy: Clinical features and diagnostic advancements

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Reiji

    2015-01-01

    Pancreaticobiliary junction is composed of complex structure with which biliary duct and pancreatic duct assemble and go out into the ampulla of Vater during duodenum wall surrounding the sphincter of Oddi. Although the sphincter of Oddi functionally prevents the reflux of pancreatic juice, pancreaticobiliary reflux (PBR) occurs when function of the sphincter of Oddi halt. The anatomically abnormal junction is termed pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) and is characterized by pancreatic and bile ducts joining outside of the duodenal wall. PBM is an important anatomical finding because many studies have revealed that biliary malignancies are related due to the carcinogenetic effect of the pancreatic back flow on the biliary mucosa. On the other hand, several studies have been published on the reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct without morphological PBM, and the correlation of such cases with biliary diseases, especially biliary malignancies, is drawing considerable attention. Although it has long been possible to diagnose PBM by various imaging modalities, PBR without PBM has remained difficult to assess. Therefore, the pathological features of PBR without PBM have not been yet fully elucidated. Lately, a new method of diagnosing PBR without PBM has appeared, and the features of PBR without PBM should soon be better understood.

  16. Sonographic diagnosis of intraluminal bile duct neoplasm: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Marchal, G; Gelin, J; Van Steenbergen, W; Fevery, J; Vanneste, A; Geboes, K; Kerremans, R; Ponette, E; Baert, A L

    1984-01-01

    Intraluminal growing tumors of the bile duct are uncommon causes of jaundice. The sonographic appearance of 2 hilar cholangiocarcinomas or Klatskin tumors and a benign extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma is described. Compared to contrast studies of the bile ducts, sonography better defined the intraductal character of the neoplasms. However, the ultrasound appearance did not allow differentiation between the adenocarcinomas and the benign cystadenoma. PMID:6094297

  17. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Is a Generalized Autoimmune Epithelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Bingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by highly specific antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and the specific immune-mediated injury of small intrahepatic bile ducts. Unique apoptotic feature of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) may contribute to apotope presentation to the immune system, causing unique tissue damage in PBC. Perpetuation of inflammation may result in senescence of BECs, contributing to irreversible loss of bile duct. In addition to the classic liver manifestations, focal inflammation and tissue damage are also seen in salivary glands and urinary tract in a significant proportion of PBC patients. These findings provide potent support to the idea that molecular mimicry may be involved in the breakdown of autoimmune tolerance and mucosal immunity may lead to a systematic epithelitis in PBC patients. Thus, PBC is considered a generalized epithelitis in clinical practice. PMID:25803105

  18. Use of Amplatzer Vascular Plug to Treat a Biliary Cutaneous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Fontana, Federico; Mangini, Monica; Piacentino, Filippo; Cocozza, Eugenio; Frankowska, Emila; Floridi, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Several substances have been used in an attempt to sclerose biliary ducts associated with persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula (BCF). The AMPLATZER Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, USA) system is a recently developed endovascular occlusion device, introduced as an alternative to permanent embolic materials (metallic coils or acrylic glue), in the occlusion of large and medium-calibre arteries and veins. We report a successful use of the AVP to embolize BCF, developed after the removal of an internal-external biliary drainage. PMID:24043976

  19. Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech [University of Michigan Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: cwikiel@med.umich.edu

    2006-12-15

    A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

  20. Prospective observational multicenter study to define a diagnostic algorithm for biliary candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Philipp; Eckelskemper, Franziska; Erichsen, Thomas; Lankisch, Tim; Dechêne, Alexander; Lubritz, Gabriele; Lenze, Frank; Beyna, Torsten; Ullerich, Hansjörg; Schmedt, Andre; Domagk, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop an algorithm to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with biliary candidiasis. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 127 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, for various biliary disorders, at 3 tertiary referral centers in Germany from July 2011 through July 2012 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01109550). Bile, buccal, and stool samples were collected. When indicated, endoscopic transpapillary bile duct biopsies were performed to clarify the etiology of bile duct strictures and to prove invasive fungal infections. RESULTS: Candida species were detected in 38 of the 127 bile samples (29.9%). By multivariate analysis patients’ age and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy were independent risk factors for biliary candidiasis (P < 0.05). Patients with immunosuppression (P = 0.058) and recent long-term antibiotic therapy (> 7 d) (P = 0.089) tend to be at risk for biliary candidiasis. One patient was negative in mycological culture of bile fluid but invasive biliary candidiasis was diagnosed histologically. Of Candida subspecies detected, 36.7% were azole-resistant, such as C glabrata. Eight patients received anti-mycotic therapy, based on our algorithm. Of these, 3 had cancer with biliary tract involvement, 2 had secondary sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had retroperitoneal fibrosis, and 5 had septicemia. In all patients contamination was ruled out by smears of the endoscope channel. CONCLUSION: Gastroenterologists should be aware of frequent candida colonization in patients with cholangitis and biliary disorders. Our suggested algorithm facilitates the further clinical management. PMID:25232260

  1. Pathophysiology and Diseases of the Proximal Pathways of the Biliary System.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yukihiro; Saxena, Romil

    2015-07-01

    Context .- Diseases of the proximal pathways of the biliary system can be divided into those that affect the interlobular bile ducts and those that affect the bile canaliculi. The former include primary biliary cirrhosis, small-duct variant of primary sclerosing cholangitis, graft-versus-host disease, and drug-induced liver injury, whereas the latter include progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and drug-induced liver injury. Objective .- To summarize the current state of knowledge of diseases of the proximal pathways of the biliary system, with special emphasis on clinical presentation, pathological features, and differential diagnosis. Data Sources .- Clinicopathological information was extracted from pertinent published literature. Conclusions .- Care of the patient with cholestasis hinges on identifying the etiology. Diagnostic steps in cholestatic conditions comprise a thorough patient history, abdominal imaging, distinct serological studies, and liver biopsy. Primary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by distinctive serological and histological findings. The small-duct variant of primary sclerosing cholangitis is very rare and difficult to diagnose; imaging of the bile ducts is not helpful. Graft-versus-host disease is characterized by damage and loss of intrahepatic bile ducts. Drugs can cause injury variably at the level of bile canaliculus or the interlobular bile duct. Loss of bile ducts may be seen with primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, graft-versus-host disease, and drug-induced liver injury. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis represent 2 extreme ends of the spectrum of abnormalities in transporters responsible for bile formation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has a variable incidence in different parts of the world and may be due to abnormalities in transporter molecules. PMID:26125426

  2. Cholangiographically-enhanced CT of the pancreas and biliary tree.

    PubMed

    Nessi, R; Gattoni, F; Boioli, F; Tagliaferri, B; Baldini, U; Uslenghi, C

    1988-01-01

    Cholangiographically-enhanced CT scans were performed on nine patients with biliary obstruction or suspected pancreatic masses. The opacification of the biliary tree was obtained by slow infusion of 25 ml of cholangiographic contrast medium diluted in 75 ml of saline and administered 45 mins before the CT examination. Two separate CT sequences were obtained, one with cholangiographic contrast alone, the other with associated parenchymal enhancement. The tolerability of the overall procedure was very good. The measurement of the HU values of the biliary ducts showed a marked increase in bile density. These structures could easily be appreciated within the liver and in the porta hepatis; the pancreatic head and its relationships with the main bile duct were evident. The densitometric measurement of the liver parenchyma before and after contrast enhancement did not show any variation with respect to the standard HU values. Cholangiographically-enhanced CT proved to be useful for the diagnosis of biliary obstruction; it may also be a promising diagnostic tool for the evaluation of pancreatic masses. PMID:3360575

  3. Optimal line of hepatotomy for left lateral living donor liver transplantation according to the anatomical variations of left hepatic duct system.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Mátyás; Deshpande, Rahul R; Nemeskéri, Ágnes; Nguyen, Tien T; Kürti, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Sándor; Pápai, Zsolt; Németh, Károly; Szuák, András; Dudás, Ibolyka; Kóbori, László

    2015-08-01

    Multiple duct anastomoses during LLS transplantation increase the incidence of biliary complications. The optimal plane of hepatotomy that results in the least number of bile ducts at the surface was investigated according to LHD variations. Ducts of 30 human livers were injected with resin and LHD branching on 3D-CT reconstructions were analyzed. Ducts on the virtual hepatotomy surface were estimated in three splitting lines. Variations with subtypes were described. Ia (66.7%): ducts from segments (S.) II-III form a common trunk and S.IV duct joins it. Ib (10%): common trunk formed by ducts from S.II-S.III while S.IV duct joins the common hepatic duct. IIa (16.67%): S.IV duct drains into S.III duct. IIc (3.33%): S.IV duct drains into both S.II and S.III ducts. III (3.33%): trifurcation of S.II, S.III and S.IV ducts. When the virtual hepatotomy line was on the FL, there was a single duct for the anastomosis in 30% of cases but two, three, or four ducts in 53.3%, 10%, and 3.3%, respectively. Division 1 cm to the right of the FL resulted in one duct (70%), but S.IV duct injury may occur. LLS hepatotomy should not necessarily be performed along the FL. Variations must be taken into consideration to minimize the number of biliary anastomoses during liver implantation. PMID:25907302

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of type IIIa biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the ultrasonographic (US) findings of type IIIa biliary atresia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a medical database of patients pathologically confirmed to have biliary atresia, Kasai type IIIa, between January 2002 and May 2013 (n=18). We evaluated US findings including the visible common bile duct (CBD), triangular cord thickness, gallbladder size and shape, and subcapsular flow on color Doppler US; laboratory data; and pathological hepatic fibrosis grades. We divided them into two groups-those with visible (group A) and invisible (group B) CBD on US-and compared all parameters between the two groups. Results: CBD was visible on US in five cases (27.8%; group A) and invisible in 13 cases (72.2%; group B). US was performed at an earlier age in group A than in group B (median, 27 days vs. 60 days; P=0.027) with the maximal age of 51 days. A comparison of the US findings revealed that the triangular cord thickness was smaller (4.1 mm vs. 4.9 mm; P=0.004) and the gallbladder length was larger (20.0 mm vs. 11.7 mm; P=0.021) in group A. The gallbladder shape did not differ between the two groups, and the subcapsular flow was positive in all cases of both groups. There was no significant difference in the laboratory data between the two groups. Upon pathological analysis, group A showed low-grade and group B showed low- to high-grade hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: When CBD is visible on US in patients diagnosed with type IIIa biliary atresia, other US features could have a false negative status. A subcapsular flow on the color Doppler US would be noted in the type IIIa biliary atresia patients. PMID:25036753

  5. Intra-operative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Siegel, Cory; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Background Accidental injury to the common bile duct is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Accurate visualization of the biliary ducts may prevent or detect injuries early. Conventional X-Ray cholangiography is often used and can reduce the severity of injury when correctly interpreted. However, it may be useful to have an imaging method that could provide real-time extra-hepatic bile duct visualization without changing the field of view from the laparoscope. The purpose of this study was to use a new NIR fluorescent agent that is rapidly excreted via the biliary route in pre-clinical models to evaluate intra-operative real time near infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC). Methods To investigate probe function and excretion, a lipophilic near infrared fluorescent agent with hepatobiliary excretion was injected intravenously into one group of C57/BL6 control mice and four groups of C57/BL6 mice with the following experimentally-induced conditions: a) chronic biliary obstruction, b) acute biliary obstruction c) bile duct perforation and e) choledocholithiasis, respectively. The biliary system was imaged intravitally for one hour using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) with an intra-operative small animal imaging system (excitation 649 nm, emission 675 nm). Results The extra hepatic ducts and extra-luminal bile were clearly visible due to the robust fluorescence of the excreted fluorochrome. Twenty-five minutes after intravenous injection, the target-to-background ratio peaked at 6.40 ± 0.83 but was clearly visible for ~ sixty minutes. The agent facilitated rapid identification of biliary obstruction and bile duct perforation. Implanted beads simulating choledocholithiasis were promptly identifiable within the common bile duct lumen. Conclusions NIRF agents with hepatobiliary excretion may be used intra-operatively to visualize extra hepatic biliary anatomy and physiology. Used in conjunction with laparoscopic imaging technologies this should enhance hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:20033407

  6. Tolerance of bile duct to intraoperative irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.

    1982-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications.

  7. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of Photofrin ® in human bile duct cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Pahernik; M. Dellian; F. Berr; A. Tannapfel; Ch. Wittekind; A. E. Goetz

    1998-01-01

    Prognosis of patients with bile duct tumors is mostly poor due to late diagnosis and a lack of adequate curative and palliative treatment modalities. To evaluate the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a novel and alternative treatment approach, we have investigated the uptake and tumor-specific localization of the photosensitizer Photofrin® in human biliary tract neoplasms. We have quantified the

  8. Percutaneous Cholangioscopy in the Management of Biliary Disease: Experience in 25 Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam A. Hatzidakis; George Alexandrakis; Helias Kouroumalis; Nicholas C. Gourtsoyiannis

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To present our experience performing percutaneous cholangioscopy in the management of 25 patients with biliary disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: During the last 3 years, 26 percutaneous cholangioscopies were performed in 25 patients with common bile duct disease (n = 16), intrahepatic ducts disease (n = 6), and gallbladder disease (n = 4). Our patient population group included seven with common bile

  9. A Rare Case of Biliary Leakage After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy–Diagnostic Evaluation and Nonsurgical Treatment: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehmedovic, Zlatan; Mehmedovic, Majda; Hasanovic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a gold standard in treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis, it is associated with higher risk of intraoperative lesions and primarily lesions of biliary ducts. In small percentage of cases biliary fistulas occur, most commonly after leakage from cystic duct stump or accessory bile ducts – Luschka’s duct. We report of a patient who had episodes of abdominal pain following routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous gallbladder. Results of conducted diagnostics verify the presence of biliary fistula caused by obstruction of bile pathways by stagnant pus and microcalculi of common bile duct, with development of biloma presumably caused by pressure injection of contrast material during ERCP procedure. Endoscopic sphincterectomy via ERCP enabled healing of formed biliary fistula, whilst continuous percutaneous ultrasound guided drainage of biloma was method of choice in later treatment of our patient. It is important to note that diagnostic evaluation of biliary fistula is very challenging and that timely nonsurgical treatment is of great benefit for patient. PMID:26005280

  10. A rare case of biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy-diagnostic evaluation and nonsurgical treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mehmedovic, Zlatan; Mehmedovic, Majda; Hasanovic, Jasmin

    2015-04-01

    Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a gold standard in treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis, it is associated with higher risk of intraoperative lesions and primarily lesions of biliary ducts. In small percentage of cases biliary fistulas occur, most commonly after leakage from cystic duct stump or accessory bile ducts - Luschka's duct. We report of a patient who had episodes of abdominal pain following routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous gallbladder. Results of conducted diagnostics verify the presence of biliary fistula caused by obstruction of bile pathways by stagnant pus and microcalculi of common bile duct, with development of biloma presumably caused by pressure injection of contrast material during ERCP procedure. Endoscopic sphincterectomy via ERCP enabled healing of formed biliary fistula, whilst continuous percutaneous ultrasound guided drainage of biloma was method of choice in later treatment of our patient. It is important to note that diagnostic evaluation of biliary fistula is very challenging and that timely nonsurgical treatment is of great benefit for patient. PMID:26005280

  11. Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Marks, W M; Freeny, P C; Ball, T J; Gannan, R M

    1984-08-01

    Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) was completed in 30 of 34 attempts (88.2%). Sixteen patients are alive with functioning stents one to 14 months following insertion of the catheters. Eight patients died with functioning stents two weeks to four months following placement. Six stents were replaced due to sepsis or rising bilirubin one to eight months following initial insertion. The only immediate complication was sepsis, which developed in one patient. Since ERBD circumvents many of the complications associated with percutaneous transhepatic drainage, it has replaced this technique in our institution as the primary non-operative modality for biliary decompression. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage is now reserved for ERBD failures. PMID:6739799

  12. Biomarkers in bile-complementing advanced endoscopic imaging in the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; Tharian, Benjamin; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

    2015-04-16

    Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge and a conundrum, particularly when an initial work up including abdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography based sampling are non-diagnostic. Advances in endoscopic imaging have helped us diagnose these strictures better. However, even with modern technology, some strictures remain a diagnostic challenge. The proximity of bile fluid to the bile duct epithelia makes it an attractive option to investigate for bio-markers, which might be representative of the functions/abnormal changes taking place in the biliary system. A number of biomarkers in bile have been discovered recently in approaching biliary strictures with their potential future diagnostic utility, further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tissue specimens. Novel biliary biomarkers especially carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seem promising in differentiating malignant from benign biliary strictures. Recent developments in lipidomic profiling of bile are also very promising. Biliary biomarkers appear to complement endoscopic imaging in diagnosing malignant etiologies of biliary stricture. Future studies addressing these biomarkers need to be incorporated to the current endoscopic techniques to determine the best approach in determining the etiology of biliary strictures. PMID:25901209

  13. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of liver cancer every 6 to 12 months. Health care providers use blood tests, ultrasound, or both to check for signs of ... make the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. A health care provider uses the test selectively when he or she is concerned that ...

  14. Endoscopic Retrograde Biliary Drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Freeny; Robert M. Gannon; Terrence J. Ball

    Percutaneous transhepatic drainage has been found to be a satisfactory alternative to surgical biliary-entenic by- pass in patients with obstructive jaundice due to advanced malignant disease (1 -3). However, the procedure may be difficult to perform in patients with ascites, coagulopathies, or cirrhosis, is associated with complications in 10%-20% of cases, and carries a small but definite mortality rate

  15. Successful surgical treatment of extrahepatic biliary papillomatosis diagnosed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Biliary papillomatosis is a condition characterized by multiple papillary tumors of variable distribution and extent within the biliary tract. Papillary carcinoma can develop in these lesions. It is a rare biliary pathological entity and its clinical features and outcome are not well known. Case presentation We experienced a case of biliary papillomatosis in a 51-year-old North African man who presented with obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests showed elevated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Imaging (ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) was suggestive of Klatskin tumor associated to common bile duct stones. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a balloon sweep retrieved friable tissue from his bile ducts. Histology demonstrated papillary adenomatous proliferation showing high-grade dysplasia and he was referred for surgical management. Conclusions Although biliary papillomatosis is rare, it is a premalignant condition that should be well known and considered in all diagnoses of obstructive jaundice. We report a new case of biliary papillomatosis and highlight the contribution of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:24885726

  16. A severe case of hemobilia and biliary fistula following an open urgent cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cholecystectomy has been the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones, but remains the greatest source of post-operative biliary injuries. Laparoscopic approach has been recently preferred because of short hospitalisation and low morbidity but has an higher incidence of biliary leakages and bile duct injuries than open one due to a technical error or misinterpretation of the anatomy. Even open cholecystectomy presents a small number of complications especially if it was performed in urgency. Hemobilia is one of the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the biliary ducts into the gastrointestinal tract due to trauma, advent of invasive procedures such as percutaneous liver biopsy, transhepatic cholangiography, and biliary drainage. Methods We report here a case of massive hemobilia in a 60-year-old man who underwent an urgent open cholecystectomy and a subsequent placement of a transhepatic biliary drainage. Conclusion The management of these complications enclose endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical therapies. After a diagnosis of biliary fistula, it's most important to assess the adequacy of bile drainage to determine a controlled fistula and to avoid bile collection and peritonitis. Transarterial embolization is the first line of intervention to stop hemobilia while surgical intervention should be considered if embolization fails or is contraindicated. PMID:19903347

  17. The autoimmunity of primary biliary cirrhosis and the clonal selection theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Selmi; Ian R Mackay; M Eric Gershwin

    2011-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease in which an immune-mediated injury targets the small intrahepatic bile ducts. PBC is further characterized by highly specific serum antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive T cells, a striking female predominance, a strong genetic susceptibility and a plethora of candidate environmental factors to trigger the disease onset. For these reasons, PBC

  18. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography in the Preoperative Assessment of Patients with Biliary Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. De Waele; B. Op de Beeck; B. De Waele; G. Delvaux

    2007-01-01

    Background: The ultimate treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is undoubtedly laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but controversy remains about the optimal imaging method in the preoperative assessment of these patients. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting common bile duct (CBD) stones and associated pathologies in patients with ABP. At the same time, we tried

  19. Recent advances in the morphological and functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuyan; Glaser, Shannon; Meng, Fanyin; Francis, Heather; Marzioni, Marco; McDaniel, Kelly; Alvaro, Domenico; Venter, Julie; Carpino, Guido; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent advances related to the heterogeneity of different-sized bile ducts with regard to the morphological and phenotypical characteristics, and the differential secretory, apoptotic and proliferative responses of small and large cholangiocytes to gastrointestinal hormones/peptides, neuropeptides and toxins. We describe several in vivo and in vitro models used for evaluating biliary heterogeneity. Subsequently, we discuss the heterogeneous proliferative and apoptotic responses of small and large cholangiocytes to liver injury and the mechanisms regulating the differentiation of small into large (more differentiated) cholangiocytes. Following a discussion on the heterogeneity of stem/progenitor cells in the biliary epithelium, we outline the heterogeneity of bile ducts in human cholangiopathies. After a summary section, we discuss the future perspectives that will further advance the field of the functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium. PMID:23856906

  20. Hedgehog Activity, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions, and Biliary Dysmorphogenesis in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Omenetti, Alessia; Bass, Lee M; Anders, Robert A.; Clemente, Maria G; Francis, Heather; Guy, Cinthya D; McCall, Shannon; Choi, Steve S; Alpini, Gianfranco; Schwarz, Kathleen B; Diehl, Anna Mae; Whitington, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Background Biliary Atresia (BA) is notable for marked ductular reaction and rapid development of fibrosis. Activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway promotes the expansion of populations of immature epithelial cells that co-express mesenchymal markers and may be pro-fibrogenic. We examined the hypothesis that in BA excessive Hh activation impedes ductular morphogenesis and enhances fibrogenesis by promoting accumulation of immature ductular cells with a mesenchymal phenotype. Methods Livers and remnant extrahepatic ducts from BA patients were evaluated by QRT-PCR and immunostaining for Hh ligands, target genes, and markers of mesenchymal cells or ductular progenitors. Findings were compared to children with genetic cholestatic disease, age-matched deceased donor controls, and adult controls. Ductular cells isolated from adult rats with and without bile duct ligation were incubated with Hh ligand-enriched medium ± Hh-neutralizing antibody to determine direct effects of Hh ligands on EMT marker expression. Results Livers from pediatric controls showed greater innate Hh activation than adult controls. In children with BA, both intra- and extra-hepatic ductular cells demonstrated striking up-regulation of Hh ligand production, and increased expression of Hh target genes. Excessive accumulation of Hh-producing cells and Hh-responsive cells also occurred in other infantile cholestatic diseases. Further analysis of the BA samples demonstrated that immature ductular cells with a mesenchymal phenotype were Hh-responsive. Treating immature ductular cells with Hh ligand-enriched medium induced mesenchymal genes; neutralizing Hh ligands inhibited this. Conclusions BA is characterized by excessive Hh pathway activity, which stimulates biliary EMT and may contribute to biliary dysmorphogenesis. Other cholestatic diseases show similar activation, suggesting this is a common response to cholestatic injury in infancy. PMID:21480329

  1. Positive predictive value of cholescintigraphy in common bile duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Austin, A.R.; Benedetto, A.R.; Growcock, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Technetium-99m DISIDA imaging was employed in 400 patients to differentiate obstruction of the common bile duct from medical and other surgical causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Sequential anterior images demonstrated variable degrees of liver uptake, yet there was no evidence of intrabiliary or extrabiliary radioactivity for at least 4 hr after injection in 25 patients. Twenty-three patients were surgically documented to have complete obstruction of the common bile duct. One patient had hepatitis, and another had sickle cell crisis without bile duct obstruction. The remaining patients had either partial or no obstruction of the common bile duct. We conclude that the presence of liver uptake without evident biliary excretion by 4 hr on cholescintigraphy is highly sensitive and predictive of total obstruction of the common bile duct.

  2. Repair of bile duct defect with degradable stent and autologous tissue in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue-Long; Yu, Yi-Chen; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei-Jia; Ying, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Yi-Fan; Cai, Xiu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To introduce and evaluate a new method to repair bile duct defect with a degradable stent and autologous tissues. METHODS: Eight Ba-Ma mini-pigs were used in this study. Experimental models with common bile duct (CBD) defect (0.5-1.0 cm segment of CBD resected) were established and then CBD was reconstructed by duct to duct anastomosis with a novel degradable stent made of poly [sebacic acid-co-(1,3-propanediol)-co-(1,2-propanediol)]. In addition, a vascularized greater omentum was placed around the stent and both ends of CBD. Cholangiography via gall bladder was performed for each pig at postoperative months 1 and 3 to rule out stent translocation and bile duct stricture. Complete blood count was examined pre- and post-operatively to estimate the inflammatory reaction. Liver enzymes and serum bilirubin were examined pre- and post-operatively to evaluate the liver function. Five pigs were sacrificed at month 3 to evaluate the healing of anastomosis. The other three pigs were raised for one year for long-term observation. RESULTS: All the animals underwent surgery successfully. There was no intraoperative mortality and no bile leakage during the observation period. The white blood cell counts were only slightly increased on day 14 and month 3 postoperatively compared with that before operation, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.652). The plasma level of alanine aminotransferase on day 14 and month 3 postoperatively was also not significantly elevated compared with that before operation (P = 0.810). Nevertheless, the plasma level of ?-glutamyl transferase was increased after operation in both groups (P = 0.004), especially 2 wk after operation. The level of serum total bilirubin after operation was not significantly elevated compared with that before operation (P = 0.227), so did the serum direct bilirubin (P = 0.759). By cholangiography via gall bladder, we found that the stent maintained its integrity of shape and was still in situ at month 1, and it disappeared completely at month 3. No severe CBD dilation and stricture were observed at both months 1 and 3. No pig died during the 3-mo postoperative observation period. No sign of necrosis, bile duct stricture, bile leakage or abdominal abscess was found at reoperation at month 3 postoperatively. Pigs had neither fragments of stent nor stones formed in the CBD. Collagen deposit was observed in the anastomosis by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson’s trichrome stains. No severe cholestasis was observed in liver parenchyma by HE staining. Intestinal obstruction was found in a pig 4 mo after operation, and no bile leakage, bile duct stricture or biliary obstruction were observed in laparotomy. No sign of bile duct stricture or bile leakage was observed in the other two pigs. CONCLUSION: The novel method for repairing bile duct defect yielded a good short-term effect without postoperative bile duct stricture. However, the long-term effect should be further studied. PMID:23066314

  3. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involvethe common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bileduct. PMID:25932083

  4. Does Pharmaconutrition with L-Arginine and\\/or ?-Tocopherol Improve the Gut Barrier in Bile Duct Ligated Rats?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tuncyurek; M. Sari; O. Firat; I. Mutaf; C. Gulter; A. Tünger; G. Yuce; M. Yilmaz; O. Makay; M. Dayangac; S. Ersin

    2006-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Nitric oxide supplementation and antioxidant therapy modulate gut barrier function, but the relationships between enhanced nitric oxide production, antioxidant administration, and biliary obstruction remain unclear. We evaluated the role of nitric oxide and ?-tocopherol supplementation in bile duct ligated rats. Methods: Fifty male Wistar albino rats underwent sham operation (group I; control animals) or bile duct ligation (groups II,

  5. Linear echoendoscope-guided ERCP for the diagnosis of occult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Less than 67% of patients with intermediate risk for common bile duct (CBD) stones require therapeutic intervention. It is important to have an accurate, safe, and reliable method for the definitive diagnosis of CBD stones before initiating therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Few publications detail the diagnostic efficacy of linear echoendoscopy (EUS) for CBD stones. Methods 30 patients with biliary colic, pancreatitis, unexplained derangement of liver function tests, and/or dilated CBD without an identifiable cause were enrolled in the study. When a CBD stone was disclosed by linear EUS, ERCP with stone extraction was performed. Patients who failed ERCP were referred for surgical intervention. If no stone was found by EUS, ERCP would not be performed and patients were followed-up for possible biliary symptoms for up to three months. Results The major reason for enrollment was acute pancreatitis. The mean predicted risk for CBD stones was 47% (28–61). Of the 12 patients who were positive for CBD stones by EUS, nine had successful ERCP, one failed ERCP (later treated successfully by surgical intervention) and two were false-positive cases. No procedure-related adverse events were noted. For those 18 patients without evidence of CBD stones by EUS, no false-negative case was noted during the three-month follow-up period. Linear EUS had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted values for the detection of CBD stones of 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 1, respectively. Conclusion Linear EUS is safe and efficacious for the diagnosis of occult CBD stones in patients with intermediate risk for the disease. PMID:23497328

  6. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  7. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Diego); Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  8. Endoscopic treatment of malignant biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic stenting is a widely accepted strategy for providing effective drainage in both extrahepatic and intrahepatic malignant strictures. In patients with extrahepatic malignancies, uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) provide excellent palliation. Hilar malignancies are probably best palliated by placement of uncovered SEMS although some disagreement exists among experts regarding the type and number of stents for optimal palliation. Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) is commonly performed although a higher risk of complications and the lack of clear benefit raise questions about this practice. Certain groups of patients such as those with markedly elevated bilirubin levels, and in those in whom neoadjuvant therapy is planned, are good candidates for PBD. Considerable controversy exists regarding the optimal method as well as type of stent for PBD in patients with hilar malignancies. Novel endoscopic therapies, including photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation, have emerged as potential adjuvant therapies in the management of malignant bile duct strictures but need further long-term evaluation to establish survival benefit. This review focuses on the current status of endoscopic therapies for malignant biliary obstructions. PMID:25613178

  9. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-05-16

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  10. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  11. Future developments in biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Clark D; Sejpal, Divyesh V

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting. PMID:23837001

  12. Bile duct obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and small intestine. Related topics include: Acute cholecystitis Choledocholithiasis Gallstones ... duct Enlarged lymph nodes in the porta hepatis Gallstones Inflammation of the bile ducts Narrowing of the ...

  13. Intraductal Ultrasonography without Radiocontrast Cholangiogram in Patients with Extrahepatic Biliary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Uk; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kee, Won-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Rew, Soo-Jung; Park, Seon-Young; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) has been performed as an adjunct to endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) during radiocontrast cholangiography (RC). Radiation exposure during RC poses a health risk to both patients and examiners. We evaluated the feasibility of IDUS without RC in various extrahepatic biliary diseases. Methods IDUS was performed with the insertion of an IDUS probe from the papilla of Vater to the confluent portion of the common hepatic duct without fluoroscopy. The technical success rate and procedure-related complications were evaluated retrospectively. Results Wire-guided IDUS without RC was performed in 105 patients. The mean age was 66.5 years, and 50 (47.6%) were male. The IDUS diagnoses included choledocholithiasis (73, 69.5%), benign biliary stricture (11, 10.5%), choledocholithiasis with biliary pancreatitis (9, 8.6%), bile duct cancer (5, 4.8%), pancreatic cancer (1, 0.9%), and others (6, 5.7%). After IDUS, 66 (62.8%) underwent stone removal, 19 (18.1%) underwent biliary drainage, and 7 (6.6%) underwent brush cytology and biopsy. No significant complications such as perforation or severe pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions IDUS without RC was a feasible and safe approach in patients with various extrahepatic biliary diseases. We anticipate a potentially important role of IDUS in various ERC procedures because it lacks the hazards of RC. PMID:25963077

  14. Vitamin D Nuclear Receptor Deficiency Promotes Cholestatic Liver Injury by Disruption of Biliary Epithelial Cell Junctions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Firrincieli, Delphine; Zúñiga, Silvia; Rey, Colette; Wendum, Dominique; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Rainteau, Dominique; Braescu, Thomas; Falguières, Thomas; Boissan, Mathieu; Cadoret, Axelle; Housset, Chantal; Chignard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in apical junctional complexes (AJCs) have been reported in genetic or acquired biliary diseases. The vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR), predominantly expressed in biliary epithelial cells in the liver, has been shown to regulate AJCs. The aim of our study was thus to investigate the role of VDR in the maintenance of bile duct integrity in mice challenged with biliary-type liver injury. Vdr?/? mice subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) displayed increased liver damage compared to wildtype BDL mice. Adaptation to cholestasis, ascertained by expression of genes involved in bile acid metabolism and tissue repair, was limited in Vdr?/? BDL mice. Furthermore, evaluation of Vdr?/? BDL mouse liver tissue sections indicated altered E-cadherin staining associated with increased bile duct rupture. Total liver protein analysis revealed that a truncated form of E-cadherin was present in higher amounts in Vdr?/? mice subjected to BDL compared to wildtype BDL mice. Truncated E-cadherin was also associated with loss of cell adhesion in biliary epithelial cells silenced for VDR. In these cells, E-cadherin cleavage occurred together with calpain 1 activation and was prevented by the silencing of calpain 1. Furthermore, VDR deficiency led to the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, while EGFR activation by EGF induced both calpain 1 activation and E-cadherin cleavage in these cells. Finally, truncation of E-cadherin was blunted when EGFR signaling was inhibited in VDR-silenced cells. Conclusion: Biliary-type liver injury is exacerbated in Vdr?/? mice by limited adaptive response and increased bile duct rupture. These results indicate that loss of VDR restricts the adaptation to cholestasis and diminishes bile duct integrity in the setting of biliary-type liver injury. (Hepatology 2013;58:1401–1412) PMID:23696511

  15. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    ?urlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-11-28

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

  16. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Surlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

  17. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For decades, the standard technique for tracheostomy was the open, surgical technique. However, during the past 20 years, the use of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy has been increased and shown to be a feasible and safe procedure in critically ill patients. The purpose of this report is to review the percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy technique, describe the role of bronchoscopy as guidance for the procedure, and identify the available evidences comparing percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy to surgical tracheostomy. PMID:23227066

  18. Notch signaling regulates tubular morphogenesis during repair from biliary damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiorotto, Romina; Raizner, Aileen; Morell, Carola M.; Torsello, Barbara; Scirpo, Roberto; Fabris, Luca; Spirli, Carlo; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Repair from biliary damages requires the biliary specification of hepatic progenitor cells and the remodeling of ductular reactive structures into branching biliary tubules. We hypothesized that the morphogenetic role of Notch signaling is maintained during the repair process and have addressed this hypothesis using pharmacologic and genetic models of defective Notch signaling. Methods Treatment with DDC (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine) or ANIT (alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate) was used to induce biliary damage in wild type mice and in mice with a liver specific defect in the Notch-2 receptor (Notch-2-cKO) or in RPB-Jk. Hepatic progenitor cells, ductular reaction, and mature ductules were quantified using K19 and SOX-9. Results In DDC treated wild type mice, pharmacologic Notch inhibition with dibenzazepine decreased the number of both ductular reaction and hepatic progenitor cells. Notch-2-cKO mice treated with DDC or ANIT accumulated hepatic progenitor cells that failed to progress into mature ducts. In RBP-Jk-cKO mice, mature ducts and hepatic progenitor cells were both significantly reduced with respect to similarly treated wild type mice. The mouse progenitor cell line BMOL cultured on matrigel, formed a tubular network allowing the study of tubule formation in vitro; ?-secretase inhibitor treatment and siRNAs silencing of Notch-1, Notch-2 or Jagged-1 significantly reduced both the length and number of tubular branches. Conclusions These data demonstrate that Notch signaling plays an essential role in biliary repair. Lack of Notch-2 prevents biliary tubule formation, both in vivo and in vitro. Lack of RBP-Jk inhibits the generation of biliary-committed precursors and tubule formation. PMID:23500150

  19. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xue-Shuai; Xu, Yi-Yao; Qian, Jun-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, An-Qiang; He, Lian; Zhao, Hai-Tao; Sang, Xin-Ting

    2013-12-14

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a variant of bile duct carcinoma that is characterized by intraductal growth and better outcomes compared with common cholangiocarcinoma. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. According to the immunohistochemical profiles of the mucin core proteins, IPNBs are classified into four types: pancreaticobiliary, intestinal, gastric, and oncocytic. Approximately 40%-80% of IPNBs contain a component of invasive carcinoma or tubular or mucinous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that IPNB is a disease with high potential for malignancy. It is difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis because of IPNB's low incidence and the lack of specificity in its clinical manifestation. The most common abnormal preoperative imaging findings of IPNB are intraductal masses and the involvement of bile duct dilation. Simultaneous proximal and distal bile duct dilation can be detected in some cases, which has diagnostic significance. Cholangiography and cholangioscopy are needed to confirm the pathology and demonstrate the extent of the lesions. However, pathologic diagnosis by biopsy cannot reflect the actual stage in many cases because different foci may be of different stages and because mixed pathologic findings may exist in the same lesion. Surgical resection is the major treatment. Systematic cholangioscopy with staged biopsies and frozen sections is recommended during resection to ensure that no minor tumors are left and that curative resection is achieved. Staging, histologic subtype, curative resection and lymph node metastasis are factors affecting long-term survival. PMID:24379576

  20. Cholangiopathy with Respect to Biliary Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2012-01-01

    Biliary innate immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies in cases of biliary disease. Cholangiocytes possess Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play a pivotal role in the innate immune response. Tolerance to bacterial PAMPs such as lipopolysaccharides is also important to maintain homeostasis in the biliary tree, but tolerance to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is not found. Moreover, in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and biliary atresia, biliary innate immunity is closely associated with the dysregulation of the periductal cytokine milieu and the induction of biliary apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), forming in disease-specific cholangiopathy. Biliary innate immunity is associated with the pathogenesis of various cholangiopathies in biliary diseases as well as biliary defense systems. PMID:21994888

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis concurrent with biliary stricture after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yong-Zhen; Sun, Xiao-Ye; Liu, Yi-He; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Although the development of de novo autoimmune liver disease after liver transplantation (LT) has been described in both children and adults, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) overlap syndrome has rarely been seen in liver transplant recipients. Here, we report a 50-year-old man who underwent LT for decompensated liver disease secondary to alcoholic steatohepatitis. His liver function tests became markedly abnormal 8 years after LT. Standard autoimmune serological tests were positive for anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies, and a marked biochemical response was observed to a regimen consisting of prednisone and ursodeoxycholic acid added to maintain immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Liver biopsy showed moderate bile duct lesions and periportal lymphocytes infiltrating along with light fibrosis, which confirmed the diagnosis of AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. We believe that this may be a case of post-LT de novo AIH-PBC overlap syndrome; a novel type of autoimmune overlap syndrome. PMID:25717264

  2. Reconstruction of a common bile duct injury by venous bypass.

    PubMed

    Biglari, M; Van den Bussche, D; Vanlangenhove, P

    2013-01-01

    Hepaticojejunostomy is the standard technique for the reconstruction of severe iatrogenic lesions of the common bile duct (CBD), although the technique itself is major surgery with a complication rate up to 30%. We report a case of a male patient with a iatrogenic complete transsection of the CBD. Due to multiple previous operations and the present inflammation a standard reconstruction technique was not possible to perform. A neo-bile duct was created using a segment of the Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) synchronously with an external biliary drainage by PTCA and biliary stenting (after 4 weeks). The stent was removed 8 months later. Cholangiography showed normal bile flow without occlusion. Blood tests normalised. We believe that using an autologous vein graft in combination with a removable or biodegradable stent is the right track for the reconstruction of the CBD in the future. PMID:24224445

  3. Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescent Cholangiography (NIRFC) in Mouse Models of Bile Duct Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose-Luiz Figueiredo; Cory Siegel; Matthias Nahrendorf; Ralph Weissleder

    2010-01-01

    Background  Accidental injury to the common bile duct is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Accurate visualization\\u000a of the biliary ducts may prevent injury or allow its early detection. Conventional X-ray cholangiography is often used and\\u000a can mitigate the severity of injury when correctly interpreted. However, it may be useful to have an imaging method that could\\u000a provide real-time

  4. Removal of a large stone growing around and encasing a plastic biliary stent: respect the ductal axis.

    PubMed

    Dokas, S; Kalampakas, A; Delivorias, P; Sion, M; Tsitouridis, I

    2009-04-01

    Plastic biliary stents are commonly used during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP). The main indication for biliary stenting is benign or malignant obstruction. Plastic stents, among others, can be used as an escape route in patients with large common bile duct stones, or in cases of acute cholangitis with or without sphincterotomy to provide drainage until definitive treatment. Stent occlusion is the main disadvantage, limiting their patency to around 3 months, after which replacement is recommended. We present a case of a large, close to 2cm, stone developing around and encasing the proximal end of a plastic biliary stent. The stent/stone complex was successfully removed en bloc. The stent was placed in the common bile duct without sphincterotomy, and remained in situ for 2 years. The presented case highlights the importance of definitive treatment for common bile duct stones, the need to respect the ductal axis especially when dealing with large stones and the significance of biliary sphincterotomy during endoscopic interventions in the bile duct. PMID:18083076

  5. Papillomatosis Confined to the Distal Biliary Tract — A Rare Cause of Obstructive Jaundice: Report of a Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios C. Sotiropoulos; Hauke Lang; Silvio Nadalin; Gerald Holtmann; Olaf Dirsch; Christoph E. Broelsch

    2003-01-01

    Based on the findings of a patient with recurrent obstructive jaundice due to papillomatosis of the distal bile duct, we herein describe the diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic options in this very rare disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and, in particular, cholangioscopy are the imaging procedures of choice if biliary papillomatosis is suspected. Due to the tendency of such patients to demonstrate

  6. Primary biliary cirrhosis and bile acids.

    PubMed

    Corpechot, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    The dihydroxylated bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has now been regarded for 20 years as the standard treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a chronic cholestatic immune-mediated condition marked by progressive destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, impaired biliary secretion, hepatocellular retention of toxic endogenous bile acids and, ultimately, the development of fibrosis leading to cirrhosis that commonly requires liver transplantation. At first sight, it seems intriguing that a bile acid could be considered for use as a therapeutic agent in a bile-acid secretion disorder. Yet, in addition to its inherently greater hydrophilic nature and competitive effect on endogenous bileacid recycling, UDCA has indeed been demonstrated to be a potent post-transcriptional secretagogue as well as a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic agent. While the combined glucocorticoid receptor/pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonist budesonide, in combinaison with UDCA, has been shown to exert additional beneficial effects in PBC, significant progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved in bile-acid homeostasis has led to the identification of nuclear [farnesoid X receptor (FXR), PXR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?)] and membrane (the membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor TGR5) receptors as critical pharmacological targets for future therapeutic approaches. Encouraging data from recent experimental and phase-II studies tend to confirm that the FXR agonist obeticholic acid and the PPAR? agonists bezafibrate and fenofibrate may be used as add-on therapies in PBC patients with inadequate responses to UDCA or even as alternative first-line agents. These results could mark the beginning of a new therapeutic era for PBC. PMID:23141888

  7. Conclusive evidence of endotoxaemia in biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clements, W; Erwin, P; McCaigue, M; Halliday, I; Barclay, G; Rowlands, B

    1998-01-01

    Background—Endotoxaemia is implicated in the pathophysiology of obstructive jaundice. The EndoCab enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a novel assay which measures endogenous antibody (IgG) to the inner core region of circulating endotoxins (ACGA). ?Aims—To investigate the significance of endotoxaemia in biliary obstruction using the EndoCab assay and assess the specificity of the humoral response to endotoxin compared with an exogenous antigenic challenge (tetanus toxoid, TT). ?Methods—Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied: no operation, sham operation, and bile duct ligation for 21 days (BDL). In the second study, rats rats received prior immunisation with TT. ?Results—In the preliminary experiment, plasma ACGA was significantly increased in the BDL group (306.6 (18.3)% versus 119.9(6.7)% and 105.2 (4.6)% in the sham and no operation groups, respectively; p<0.001). Although the mean endotoxin concentration in the BDL group was greater than that in the control groups this was not significant. There was a strong positive correlation between ACGA and endotoxin concentrations (p=0.0021). In the second study mean ACGA after 21 days of BDL was significantly elevated (267.1 (31.2)% versus 101.6 (21.2)% at baseline, p<0.0001). ACGA was unaffected in the other two groups. TT antibody concentrations fell in all three groups; only in the BDL group was the fall significant (97.6(5.3)% versus 78.8 (4.2)% at baseline, p<0.05). ?Conclusions—The specific rise in ACGA supports the hypothesis that endotoxin has an integral role in the pathophysiology of obstructive jaundice. The production of anticore glycolipid antibodies specifically reflects systemic endotoxaemia in this model. The EndoCab assay provides a novel, sensitive, and specific method for endotoxin detection. ?? Keywords: biliary obstruction; endotoxaemia; EndoCab assay PMID:9536958

  8. Duct Joining System

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P. (Fairfax, CA)

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  9. Cholangiocarcinoma and malignant bile duct obstruction: A review of last decades advances in therapeutic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mangiafico, Santi; Caruso, Angelo; Manno, Mauro; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Pigò, Flavia; Barbera, Carmelo; Manta, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades many advances have been achieved in endoscopy, in the diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma, however blood test, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan may fail to detect neoplastic disease at early stage, thus the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is achieved usually at unresectable stage. In the last decades the role of endoscopy has moved from a diagnostic role to an invaluable therapeutic tool for patients affected by malignant bile duct obstruction. One of the major issues for cholangiocarcinoma is bile ducts occlusion, leading to jaundice, cholangitis and hepatic failure. Currently, endoscopy has a key role in the work up of cholangiocarcinoma, both in patients amenable to surgical intervention as well as in those unfit for surgery or not amenable to immediate surgical curative resection owing to locally advanced or advanced disease, with palliative intention. Endoscopy allows successful biliary drainage and stenting in more than 90% of patients with malignant bile duct obstruction, and allows rapid reduction of jaundice decreasing the risk of biliary sepsis. When biliary drainage and stenting cannot be achieved with endoscopy alone, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage represents an effective alternative method affording successful biliary drainage in more than 80% of cases. The purpose of this review is to focus on the currently available endoscopic management options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26078827

  10. [External biliary fistulas selectively managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with sphincterotomy and/or stent placement].

    PubMed

    S?ftoiu, A; Gheonea, D I; Surlin, V; Ciurea, M E; Georgescu, A; Andrei, E; Blendea, A; Georgescu, C C; Georgescu, I; Ciurea, T

    2006-01-01

    External bile duct fistulas are inherent postoperative complications that usually appear after biliary tract surgery, traumatic bile duct injuries and liver surgery for hepatic hydatid disease or liver transplant. The management is highly individualized, while the success and long-term results of endoscopic and surgical techniques are conflicting. The study included 32 cases with external bile duct fistulas managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with sphincterotomy and/or stent placement, including "rendez-vous" procedures in 2 cases. The causes of the external fistula were represented by cholecystectomy with/without retained common bile duct stones or strictures (22 cases), cholecystectomy and drainage of a subphrenic abscess caused by severe acute pancreatitis (1 case) and surgical interventions for hepatic hydatid disease (9 cases). Due to the prospective protocol of the study we were able to apply an individualized endoscopic treatment: sphincterotomy with proper relief of the bile duct obstruction (stone extraction) or sphincterotomy with large-size (10 Fr) stent placement for large-sized bile duct defects. The results consisted in closure of the fistula in 3.5 +/- 1.7 days for the subgroup of patients with sphincterotomy alone. Among the patients with stent insertion, fistulas healed slower in 14 +/- 3.5 days. There were no complications after endoscopic treatment; however the stent could not be passed in one patient that required subsequent surgery. In conclusion, endoscopic intervention is the treatment of choice for small external biliary fistulas complicating biliary tract surgery or liver surgery for hepatic hydatid disease. When the fistula is large, the placement of a 10 Fr endoprosthesis becomes necessary, while failure of endoscopic treatment leads to surgery with hepatico-jejunal anastomosis. PMID:16927917

  11. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  12. Chronic biloma after right hepatectomy for stage IV hepatoblastoma managed with roux-en-Y biliary cystenterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew J.; Rauth, Thomas P.; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2012-01-01

    We report the complex case of a 12-month-old female with stage IV hepatoblastoma accompanied by thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, she underwent right hepatectomy, which was complicated by iatrogenic injury of her left hepatic duct, and subsequently developed a postoperative biloma and chronic biliocutaneous fistula. Concomitant with multiple percutaneous interventions to manage the biloma nonoperatively while the child completed her adjuvant chemotherapy, she progressed to develop chronic malnutrition, jaundice, and failure to thrive. Once therapy was completed and the child was deemed free of disease she underwent exploratory laparotomy with roux-en-Y biliary cyst-enterostomy for definitive management, resulting in resolution of her biliary fistula, jaundice, and marked improvement in her nutritional status. Roux-en-Y biliary cyst-enterostomy is a unique and efficacious management option in the highly selected patient population with chronic biliary leak refractory to minimally invasive management. PMID:23164033

  13. Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic bile duct following portal vein embolization in a patient with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: a case of successful curative resection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Young-Il; Kang, Cheol-Min; Ko, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong-Il; Lee, Sung-Koo

    2013-01-01

    We herein present a case of spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic bile duct in a patient with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which were successfully treated by curative resection. A 60-year-old male patient with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma was decompressed with single percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Two days after right portal vein embolization, the patient suffered from paralytic ileus with marked abdominal distension. Imaging study revealed that marked fluid collection around the liver and whole abdomen, suggesting intrahepatic bile duct rupture. With abdominal drainage and biliary decompression for 2 weeks, the biliary rupture was controlled. To enhance the safety of right hepatectomy, additional right hepatic vein embolization was performed. The patient underwent routine surgical procedures for right hepatectomy, caudate lobectomy and bile duct resection, and recovered uneventfully and discharged 18 days after surgery. This is the first report of a case of spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic bile duct in a patient with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  14. Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Riva, Silvia [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Pediatric Hepatology (Italy); Spada, Marco [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy); Luca, Angelo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Gridelli, Bruno [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy)

    2008-09-15

    We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

  15. Hepatic segmentectomy with caudate lobe resection for bile duct carcinoma of the hepatic hilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Nimura; Naokazu Hayakawa; Junichi Kamiya; Satoshi Kondo; Shigehiko Shionoya

    1990-01-01

    From 1979 through 1989, surgical resection was performed in 55 of 66 patients with carcinoma of the hepatic hilus after improving jaundice by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Selective cholangiography through PTBD was done to define precisely the anatomical location—extent of the obstructing lesion in each segmental hepatic duct. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy was performed through the sinus tract of PTBD

  16. Journal of Biomechanics 37 (2004) 19131922 The flow of bile in the human cystic duct

    E-print Network

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    2004-01-01

    in the biliary system may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis, but little is known of cholelithiasis are believed to be: 1. super-saturation of bile with cholesterol, 2. presence of calculi functions of cystic duct and its contribution to the genesis of cholelithiasis have been discussed

  17. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. The importance of preserving hepatic blood flow to prevent biliary fistula.

    PubMed

    Traverso, L W; Freeny, P C

    1989-07-01

    The arterial blood supply to the common bile duct must be preserved during pancreaticoduodenectomy to avoid ischemic breakdown of the biliary-enteric anastomosis. Interruption of this blood supply can occur during operation because of inadvertent division of the common hepatic artery or a hepatic artery variation. Approximately 17 per cent of patients have a hepatic artery variation that could contribute to devascularization of the common bile duct during surgical resection of the pancreatic head. This report discusses these hepatic artery variations and the value of angiography in defining hepatic arterial anatomy prior to surgery. Two cases are presented in which biliary-enteric anastomoses became ischemic and dehisced secondary to interruption of hepatic arterial blood flow. PMID:2742226

  18. Confocal Endomicroscopic Examination of Malignant Biliary Strictures and Histologic Correlation With Lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Loeser, Caroline S.; Robert, Marie E.; Mennone, Albert; Nathanson, Michael H.; Jamidar, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Current methods to diagnose malignant biliary strictures are of low sensitivity. Confocal endomicroscopy is a new approach that may improve the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate indeterminate biliary strictures using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy and to understand the histologic basis for the confocal images. Methods Fourteen patients with indeterminate biliary strictures underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with examination of their common bile duct with fluorescein-aided probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy. Standard brushings and biopsies were performed. In parallel, rat bile ducts were examined either with conventional staining and light microscopy or with multiphoton microscopy. Results Earlier published criteria were used to evaluate possible malignancy in the confocal images obtained in the 14 patients. None of the individual criteria were found to be specific enough for malignancy, but a normal-appearing reticular pattern without other putative markers of malignancy was observed in all normal patients. Multiphoton reconstructions of intact rat bile ducts revealed that the reticular pattern seen in normal tissue was in the same focal plane but was smaller than blood vessels. Special stains identified the smaller structures in this network as lymphatics. Conclusions Our limited series suggests that a negative confocal imaging study of the biliary tree can be used to rule out carcinoma, but there are frequent false positives using individual earlier published criteria. An abnormal reticular network, which may reflect changes in lymphatics, was never seen in benign strictures. Better correlation with known histologic structures may lead to improved accuracy of diagnoses. PMID:21063210

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the liver and biliary tract without jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jae-Min; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Hyun, Chang-Lim; Han, Kyoung-Hee; Rhee, Ji-Young; Kwon, Jung-Mi; Kim, Woo-Kun; Han, Sang-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presenting with chest pain was found to have a large, lobulated soft tissue mass in the liver and nearby tissues on abdominal computed tomography (CT). The tumor had invaded the common hepatic artery and main portal vein. Jaundice developed 4 wk later, at which point, a pancreas and biliary CT scan revealed a large mass in the right lobe of the liver and a hilar duct obstruction, which was found to be a small cell carcinoma. Despite its rarity, liver and bile duct small cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical chest pain without jaundice. PMID:24307811

  20. Phase II and pharmacokinetic trial of rebeccamycin analog in advanced biliary cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afshin Dowlati; James Posey; Ramesh K. Ramanathan; Linda Rath; Pingfu Fu; Amitabh Chak; Smitha Krishnamurthi; Joanna Brell; Stephen Ingalls; Charles L. Hoppel; Percy Ivy; Scot C. Remick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Advanced cancers of the bile duct and gallbladder carry an ominous prognosis. Rebeccamycin analogue (RA) is a novel antitumor\\u000a antibiotic where phase I trials suggested clinical efficacy in patients with biliary cancers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The primary objective was to determine the response rate to RA in patients with advanced gallbladder and bile duct tumors.\\u000a Secondary endpoints were survival and pharmacokinetic characterization. RA

  1. Sequential algorithm analysis to facilitate selective biliary access for difficult biliary cannulation in ERCP: a prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous clinical trials to improve the success rate of biliary access in difficult biliary cannulation (DBC) during ERCP have been reported. However, standard guidelines or sequential protocol analysis according to different methods are limited in place. We planned to investigate a sequential protocol to facilitate selective biliary access for DBC during ERCP. Methods This prospective clinical study enrolled 711 patients with naïve papillae at a tertiary referral center. If wire-guided cannulation was deemed to have failed due to the DBC criteria, then according to the cannulation algorithm early precut fistulotomy (EPF; cannulation time?>?5 min, papillary contacts?>?5 times, or hook-nose-shaped papilla), double-guidewire cannulation (DGC; unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation???3 times), and precut after placement of a pancreatic stent (PPS; if DGC was difficult or failed) were performed sequentially. The main outcome measurements were the technical success, procedure outcomes, and complications. Results Initially, a total of 140 (19.7%) patients with DBC underwent EPF (n?=?71) and DGC (n?=?69). Then, in DGC group 36 patients switched to PPS due to difficulty criteria. The successful biliary cannulation rate was 97.1% (136/140; 94.4% [67/71] with EPF, 47.8% [33/69] with DGC, and 100% [36/36] with PPS; P?duct cannulations, and PPS in failed or difficult DGC may facilitate successful biliary cannulation. PMID:24529239

  2. Radiation therapy and photodynamic therapy for biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroya Saito; Tadahiro Takada; Masaru Miyazaki; Shuichi Miyakawa; Kazuhiro Tsukada; Masato Nagino; Satoshi Kondo; Junji Furuse; Toshio Tsuyuguchi; Fumio Kimura; Hideyuki Yoshitomi; Satoshi Nozawa; Masahiro Yoshida; Keita Wada; Hodaka Amano; Fumihiko Miura

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiation therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer is to prolong survival or prolong stent patency, and\\u000a to provide palliation of pain. For unresectable bile duct cancer, there are a number of studies showing that radiation therapy\\u000a is superior to the best supportive care. Although radiation therapy is used in many institutions, no large randomized controlled\\u000a trials (RCTs)

  3. Erdosteine treatment attenuates oxidative stress and fibrosis in experimental biliary obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göksel ?ener; A. Ozer Sehirli; Hale Z. Toklu; Meral Yuksel; Feriha Ercan; Nursal Gedik

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress, in particular lipid peroxidation, induces collagen synthesis and causes fibrosis. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess the antioxidant and antifibrotic effects of erdosteine on liver fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats.\\u000a Liver fibrosis was induced in Wistar albino rats by bile duct ligation (BDL). Erdosteine (10 mg\\/kg, orally) or saline was\\u000a administered for 28 days. Serum aspartate

  4. Percutaneous Embolization of Transhepatic Tracks for Biliary Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Stuart M.; Terhaar, Olaf; Given, Mark F.; O'Dwyer, Helena M.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J. [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology (Ireland)], E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie

    2006-12-15

    Significant pain can occur after removing transhepatic catheters from biliary access tracks, after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) or stenting. We undertook a randomized prospective study to ascertain whether track embolization decreases the amount of pain or analgesic requirement after PBD. Fifty consecutive patients (M:F, 22:28; age range:29-85 years; mean age: 66.3 years) undergoing PBD were randomized to receive track embolization or no track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters. A combination of Lipoidol and n-butyl cyanoacrylate were used to embolize transhepatic tracks using an 8F dilator. The patients who did not have track embolization performed had biliary drainage catheters removed over a guide wire. A visual analog scoring (VAS) system was used to grade pain associated with catheter removal, 24 h afterward. A required analgesic score (RAS) was devised to tabulate the analgesia required. No analgesia had a score of 0, oral or rectal nonopiate analgesics had a score of 1, oral opiates had a score of 2, and parenteral opiates had a score of 3. The average VAS and RAS for both groups were calculated and compared.Seven patients were excluded for various reasons, leaving 43 patients in the study group. Twenty-one patients comprised the embolization group and 22 patients comprised the nonembolization group. The mean biliary catheter dwell time was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the embolization group and nonembolization (mean: 5.4 days vs 6.9 days, respectively). In the nonembolization group, the mean VAS was 3.4. Eight patients required parenteral opiates, three patients required oral opiates, and five patients required oral or rectal analgesics, yielding a mean RAS of 1.6. In the embolization group, the mean VAS was 0.9. No patient required parenteral opiates, six patients required oral opiates, and two patients had oral analgesia. The average RAS was 0.6. Both the VAS and the RAS were significantly lower in the embolization group compared with the nonembolization group (p < 0.0023 and p < 0.002, respectively). No complications were seen related to track embolization. Percutaneous track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters decreases patient's perception of pain and decreases the amount of required analgesia. In particular, the amount of opiate analgesia required is considerably less.

  5. Hepatic and biliary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup K

    2014-04-01

    Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA) is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number. PMID:24926166

  6. Inflammatory Polyp in the Common Bile Duct with Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yuichiro; Ome, Yusuke; Shimata, Keita; Nagahisa, Yoshio; Okabe, Michio; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki; Park, Tae Bum; Itoh, Tadashi; Ogasahara, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman was admitted because of epigastric pain and obstructive jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and intraductal ultrasonography revealed a 25-mm papillary nodule in the middle to inferior portion of the common bile duct (CBD). Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) was also identified. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography also showed an enhanced nodule in the CBD, and we suspected intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. We performed pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Postoperative pathological examination revealed an inflammatory polyp in the middle CBD. Inflammatory polyp in the bile duct is rare and there are no previous reports accompanied by PBM. PBM is a major risk factor for biliary tract cancer. Preoperative diagnosis of a benign disorder was difficult in this case. PMID:25969675

  7. The Diagnosis of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowlus, Christopher L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by the immune mediated destruction of small intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. The autoimmune basis of PBC is supported by the highly specific anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and autoreactive T cells, the former being the basis for diagnosis in the vast majority of cases. Although a rare disease, the incidence rates of PBC have been increasing, possibly due to increased testing and diagnosis as opposed to a true increase in disease incidence. Presently, most cases are asymptomatic and only suspected based upon routine liver tests. Those with symptoms typically complain of pruritus and fatigue. The diagnosis of PBC is based on the presence of at least 2 of 3 key criteria including a persistently elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, the presence of serum AMA, and liver histology consistent with PBC. Anti-nuclear antibodies specific to PBC are useful in cases in which AMA are not detected and may indicate a more aggressive course. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the only proven therapy for PBC and in most cases can delay or prevent disease progression. However, a subgroup of patients does not adequately respond to ursodeoxycholic acid and for whom new therapies are needed. PMID:24424173

  8. Intrahepatic Biliary Cystadenoma With Intracystic Gallstone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shize; Domenico, Don R.

    1994-01-01

    Biliary cystadenoma is a rare tumor of the liver. We describe a biliary cystadenoma of the left lobe of the liver with intracystic gallstone formation. This is the first report of stone formation in biliary cystadenoma of the liver. PMID:8155592

  9. Surveillance method and imaging characteristics of recurrent biliary cancer after surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the diagnostic imaging techniques and findings of recurrent biliary cancer after surgical resection of the extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder. Radiological examination plays an important role in diagnosing postoperative recurrence of biliary cancers. Early detection and diagnosis of recurrent cancer is critical in obtaining proper treatment and improves the prognosis. In the surveillance of recurrent biliary cancer, several diagnostic imaging modalities are currently used. Usually CT is the most common method for surveillance of postoperative patients, but MRI and PET/CT scans are also widely used. Recurrent biliary cancer can manifest as local recurrence, liver metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and peritoneal metastasis. Imaging findings of a locally recurrent tumor or metastatic lymph node enlargement overlaps with benign postoperative changes, thus radiologists commonly overlook subtle CT findings or misinterpret them as benign postoperative changes. There are several reports that FDG-PET scan is more effective in the diagnosis of recurrent biliary tract cancer than CT. Multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches using CT, MRI, and FDG-PET as well as clinical information seem to be essential for the precise diagnosis of recurrent tumors.

  10. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary diseases

    PubMed Central

    García-Cano, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Biliary fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) are now being used to treat several benign biliary conditions. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters in addition to an easy insertion technique. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. In benign biliary strictures that usually require multiple procedures, despite the substantially higher cost of FCSEMS compared with plastic stents, the use of FCSEMS is offset by the reduced number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography interventions required to achieve stricture resolution. In the same way, FCSEMS have also been employed to treat complex bile leaks, perforation and bleeding after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and as an aid to maintain permanent drainage tracts obtained by means of Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided biliary drainage. Good success rates have been achieved in all these conditions with an acceptable number of complications. FCSEMS were successfully removed in all patients. Comparative studies of FCSEMS and plastic stents are needed to demonstrate efficacy and cost-effectiveness PMID:22523615

  11. Endoscopic management of biliary complications after liver transplantation: An evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Gómez, Carlos; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Biliary tract diseases are the most common complications following liver transplantation (LT) and usually include biliary leaks, strictures, and stone disease. Compared to deceased donor liver transplantation in adults, living donor liver transplantation is plagued by a higher rate of biliary complications. These may be promoted by multiple risk factors related to recipient, graft, operative factors and post-operative course. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is the first-choice examination when a biliary complication is suspected following LT, in order to diagnose and to plan the optimal therapy; its limitations include a low sensitivity for the detection of biliary sludge. For treating anastomotic strictures, balloon dilatation complemented with the temporary placement of multiple simultaneous plastic stents has become the standard of care and results in stricture resolution with no relapse in > 90% of cases. Temporary placement of fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) has not been demonstrated to be superior (except in a pilot randomized controlled trial that used a special design of FCSEMSs), mostly because of the high migration rate of current FCSEMSs models. The endoscopic approach of non-anastomotic strictures is technically more difficult than that of anastomotic strictures due to the intrahepatic and/or hilar location of strictures, and the results are less satisfactory. For treating biliary leaks, biliary sphincterotomy and transpapillary stenting is the standard approach and results in leak resolution in more than 85% of patients. Deep enteroscopy is a rapidly evolving technique that has allowed successful treatment of patients who were not previously amenable to endoscopic therapy. As a result, the percutaneous and surgical approaches are currently required in a minority of patients. PMID:26078829

  12. Endoscopic management of biliary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Pfau, P R; Kochman, M L

    1999-09-01

    Endoscopic management of biliary tract disease continues to be influenced by new advances in technology and shaped by further examination of old controversies. This review covers and highlights recent world literature concerning biliary endoscopy and its effect on the management of biliary disorders. In particular, we examine the role and consequence of the endoscopic management of choledocholithiasis and the continuing controversy over endoscopic treatment of pancreatic disease. The increasing impact of endoscopic ultrasound in the biliary tree is explored, as well as the latest developments in biliary stent technology. PMID:17023988

  13. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae Woong, E-mail: cooljay@korea.ac.kr; Lu, David S. K., E-mail: dlu@mednet.ucla.edu; Osuagwu, Ferdnand, E-mail: fosuagwu@mednet.ucla.edu; Raman, Steven, E-mail: sraman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States); Lassman, Charles, E-mail: classman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Pathology (United States)

    2013-11-07

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (?2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ?50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

  14. Fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghulam Abbas; Roberta A. Jorgensen; Keith D. Lindor

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, autoimmune, cholestatic liver disease with a slowly progressive course. Without treatment, most patients eventually develop fibrosis of the liver and may need liver transplantation in the late stage of disease. Fatigue and pruritus are the most common symptoms of PBC, but the majority of patients are asymptomatic at first presentation. There is no

  15. Biliary excretion of marker solutes by rats with 1,1-dichloroethylene-induced bile canalicular injury.

    PubMed

    Moslen, M T; Kanz, M F

    1993-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize the effects of 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE, 50 mg/kg) on bile formation by freely moving rats. This toxicant provides a new tool to study structure-function associations because it selectively injures zone 3 bile canaliculi of fed rats. Ultrastructural changes included loss of microvilli from the canalicular membrane and membrane fragments within the dilated canalicular lumens. Function studies compared biliary excretion of a battery of endogenous and exogenous marker solutes during a basal period versus that at 1 and 3 hr after toxicant treatment. DCE treatment had the following effects on biliary functions in fed rats: a slowing of organic anion transport into bile; a decrease in biliary total protein content; a striking increase in biliary leucine aminopeptidase, a canalicular membrane protein; and an accentuation of the early entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile without a change in the total amount of this large protein recovered in bile. In contrast, bile flow and bile salt excretion were not altered, Pi continued to be excluded from bile, and D-glucose continued to be reabsorbed from bile. The observed alterations in biliary functions and canalicular structure may ensue from the metabolism of DCE to semistable glutathione conjugates that congregate near the canaliculi en route to biliary excretion. PMID:8378926

  16. Repression of Farnesoid X receptor contributes to biliary injuries of liver grafts through disturbing cholangiocyte bile acid transport.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Tian, F; Tian, F; Tang, L; Chen, G; Luo, Z; Ren, J; Wang, S

    2013-12-01

    Biliary epithelial damage is the critical point in the development of nonanastomotic strictures, a serious biliary complication after liver transplantation (LT). Current study focuses on the roles and mechanisms of unbalanced bile acid (BA) transporting of cholangiocytes in biliary epithelial damages following LT. Using rat LT models, we observed that biliary transit time (BTT) of BA was prolonged, and the degree and duration of BTT prolongation were related to the cold ischemia time of donor liver. Moreover, prolonged BTT was correlated with bile duct injury severity. The expression of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) underwent a dramatic decrease after transplantation, and the decrease in FXR was related to cold ischemic time of donor liver. Negative correlation was observed between FXR expression and BTT. With in vitro cultured human biliary epithelial cells, it was observed that FXR expressions and DNA binding activities were repressed under hypoxic conditions. FXR repression by hypoxia mediated unparallel expressions of BA transporters and intracellular accumulation of BAs, which induced higher cell apoptosis rates and enhanced profibrotic factor expression in cholangiocytes. These findings indicated that FXR repression under ischemic/hypoxic conditions contributed to biliary epithelial damages by disturbing BA transporting of cholangiocytes after LT. PMID:24266967

  17. Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

  18. Double-duct sign: do not forget the gallstones.

    PubMed

    Oterdoom, Leendert H; van Weyenberg, Stijn J B; de Boer, Nanne K H

    2013-12-01

    A double-duct sign is the combined dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct, often caused by cancer of the pancreas. We present a patient with colicky pain in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. On radiological imaging and endosonography, she had a double-duct sign due to choledocholithiasis and no mass in the pancreatic head. A literature search was performed, which indicated that in selected patients with a higher likelihood of pancreas cancer (for example jaundice or pancreatic mass on radiological imaging) up to 85% of patients do indeed have a pancreatic cancer. In an unselected population, regardless of presenting symptoms, a double-duct sign on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was caused by a pancreas malignancy in 58% of patients. In selected patients without jaundice but with a double duct sign, pancreas cancer was only seen in 6% of patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the double-duct sign observed by ERCP for pancreatic cancer varies between 50-76% and 63-80%, respectively. Our patient with symptomatic choledocholithiasis underwent an uncomplicated ERCP with stone extraction and papillotomy and was referred for a cholecystectomy. PMID:24369328

  19. [Biliary dysfunction in obese children].

    PubMed

    Aleshina, E I; Gubonina, I V; Novikova, V P; Vigurskaia, M Iu

    2014-01-01

    To examine the state of the biliary system, a study of properties of bile "case-control") 100 children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years, held checkup in consultative and diagnostic center for chronic gastroduodenitis. BMI children were divided into 2 groups: group 1-60 children with obesity (BMI of 30 to 40) and group 2-40 children with normal anthropometric indices. Survey methods included clinical examination pediatrician, endocrinologist, biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase level, total protein, bilirubin, lipidogram, glucose, insulin, HOMA-index), ultrasound of the abdomen and retroperitoneum, EGD with aspiration of gallbladder bile. Crystallography bile produced by crystallization of biological substrates micromethods modification Prima AV, 1992. Obese children with chronic gastroduodenita more likely than children of normal weight, had complaints and objective laboratory and instrumental evidence of insulin resistance and motor disorders of the upper gastrointestinal and biliary tract, liver enlargement and biliary "sludge". Biochemical parameters of obese children indicate initial metabolic changes in carbohydrate and fat metabolism and cholestasis, as compared to control children. Colloidal properties of bile in obese children with chronic gastroduodenita reduced, as indicated by the nature of the crystallographic pattern. Conclusions: Obese children with chronic gastroduodenitis often identified enlarged liver, cholestasis and biliary dysfunction, including with the presence of sludge in the gallbladder; most often--hypertonic bile dysfunction. Biochemical features of carbohydrate and fat metabolism reflect the features of the metabolic profile of obese children. Crystallography bile in obese children reveals the instability of the colloidal structure of bile, predisposing children to biliary sludge, which is a risk factor for gallstones. PMID:25911906

  20. Fast Arbitration in Dilated Routers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Becker; Thomas F. Knight Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We present a technique, dynamic dilation, which reduces latency in dilated routing components without greatly affecting flexibility. Initially in order to achieve lower latency we limit dilation flexibility, extract parallelism from the arbitration process and pipeline the process into two cycles [ALM90].

  1. Cystadenoma of the common bile duct demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography: an uncommon cause of extrahepatic obstruction.

    PubMed

    Van Steenbergen, W; Ponette, E; Marchal, G; Vanneste, A; Geboes, K; Van Rijkel, J P; Fevery, J; De Groote, J

    1984-06-01

    Obstructive jaundice may rarely be caused by a benign tumor of the biliary tract. We describe a patient in whom the diagnosis of cystadenoma of the common bile duct was established. Complete resection of the tumor could be carried out. The clinical, radiological, and histological features of this neoplasm are reviewed. PMID:6731421

  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates biliary proliferation by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debolina; Han, Yuyan; Franchitto, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon; Meng, Fanyin; Venter, Julie; McMillin, Matthew; Kennedy, Lindsey; Francis, Heather; Onori, Paolo; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S

    2015-04-01

    During cholestatic liver disease, there is dysregulation in the balance between biliary growth and loss in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats modulated by neuroendocrine peptides via autocrine/paracrine pathways. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a trophic peptide hormone that modulates reproductive function and proliferation in many cell types. We evaluated the autocrine role of GnRH in the regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation. The expression of GnRH receptors was assessed in a normal mouse cholangiocyte cell line (NMC), sham, and BDL rats. The effect of GnRH administration was evaluated in normal rats and in NMC. GnRH-induced biliary proliferation was evaluated by changes in intrahepatic bile duct mass and the expression of proliferation and function markers. The expression and secretion of GnRH in NMC and isolated cholangiocytes was assessed. GnRH receptor subtypes GnRHR1 and GnRHR2 were expressed in cholangiocytes. Treatment with GnRH increased intrahepatic bile duct mass as well as proliferation and function markers in cholangiocytes. Transient knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of GnRHR1 in NMC decreased proliferation. BDL cholangiocytes had increased expression of GnRH compared with normal rats, accompanied by increased GnRH secretion. In vivo and in vitro knockdown of GnRH decreased intrahepatic bile duct mass/cholangiocyte proliferation and fibrosis. GnRH secreted by cholangiocytes promotes biliary proliferation via an autocrine pathway. Disruption of GnRH/GnRHR signaling may be important for the management of cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:25794706

  3. Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected weekly. The baking test specimens were visually inspected weekly, and the durability was judged by the observed deterioration in terms of brittleness, cracking, flaking and blistering (the terminology used in the UL 181B-FX test procedure).

  4. The dynamic biliary epithelia: Molecules, pathways, and disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Steven P.; Tabibian, James H.; Splinter, Patrick L.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cholangiocytes, the cells lining bile ducts, are a heterogenous, highly dynamic population of epithelial cells. While these cells comprise a small fraction of the total cellular component of the liver, they perform the essential role of bile modification and transport of biliary and blood constituents. From a pathophysiological standpoint, cholangiocytes are the target of a diverse group of biliary disorders, collectively referred to as the cholangiopathies. To date, the cause of most cholangiopathies remains obscure. It is known, however, that cholangiocytes exist in an environment rich in potential mediators of cellular injury, express receptors that recognize potential injurious insults, and participate in portal tract repair processes following hepatic injury. As such, cholangiocytes may not be only a passive target, but are likely directly and actively involved in the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies. Here, we briefly summarize the characteristics of the reactive cholangiocyte and cholangiocyte responses to potentially injurious endogenous and exogenous molecules, and in addition, present emerging concepts in our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of several cholangiopathies. PMID:23085249

  5. The Sea Lamprey as an Etiological Model for Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, inflammatory, and fibrosclerosing cholangiopathy in infants that results in obstruction of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. It is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult with steatohepatitis and fibrosis in the liver. In this paper, we present new histological evidence and compare the sea lamprey to existing animal models to highlight the advantages and possible limitations of using the sea lamprey to study the etiology and compensatory mechanisms of BA and other liver diseases. Understanding the signaling factors and genetic networks underlying lamprey BA can provide insights into BA etiology and possible targets to prevent biliary degeneration and to clear fibrosis. In addition, information from lamprey BA can be used to develop adjunct treatments for patients awaiting or receiving surgical treatments. Furthermore, the cholestatic adult lamprey has unique adaptive mechanisms that can be used to explore potential treatments for cholestasis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

  6. Prolonged administration of secretin to normal rats increases biliary proliferation and secretin-induced ductal secretory activity

    PubMed Central

    Guerrier, Micheleine; Attili, Fabia; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Cholangiocyte proliferation is coordinately regulated by a number of gastrointestinal hormones/peptides, some of which display stimulatory effects and some have inhibitory actions on cholangiocyte proliferation. Enhanced biliary proliferation [for example after bile duct ligation (BDL) and partial hepatectomy] is associated with increased expression of secretin receptor (SR), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Cl–/HCO3– anion exchanger 2 and secretin-stimulated ductal secretion, whereas loss/damage of bile ducts [for example after acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration] is associated with reduced secretin-stimulated ductal secretory activity. There is growing information regarding the role of gastrointestinal hormones the regulation of biliary growth. For example, while gastrin, somatostatin and serotonin inhibit bile duct hyperplasia of cholestatic rats by downregulation of cAMP signaling, secretin has been shown to stimulate the proliferation of normal mice by activation of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling. However, no information exists regarding the stimulatory effects of secretin on biliary proliferation of normal rats. Thus, we evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effect of secretin on biliary proliferation, the expression of markers key of ductal secretion and secretin-stimulated ductal secretion. Methods Normal male rats were treated with saline or secretin (2.5 nmoles/kg BW/day by osmotic minipumps for one week). We evaluated: (I) intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) in liver sections and PCNA expression in purified cholangiocytes; (II) SR and CFTR mRNA expression and secretin-stimulated cAMP levels in purified cholangiocytes; and (III) secretin-stimulated bile and bicarbonate secretion in bile fistula rats. In vitro, normal rat intrahepatic cholangiocyte lines (NRIC) were treated with BSA (basal) or secretin (100 nM) for 24 to 72 hours in the absence/presence of a PKA or a MEK inhibitor before evaluating proliferation by MTS assays. Results Prolonged administration of secretin to normal rats increased IBDM and PCNA expression in purified cholangiocytes compared to saline-treated normal rats. Also, secretin increased the expression of proteins (SR and CFTR) that are key in the regulating ductal secretion and enhanced secretin-stimulated cAMP levels and bile and bicarbonate secretion. In vitro, secretin increased the proliferation of NRIC, increase that was prevented by PKA and MAPK inhibitors. Conclusions We have demonstrated that secretin stimulates both in vivo and in vitro biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated ductal secretory activity in normal rats. We suggest that the stimulatory effect of secretin on biliary proliferation and secretion may be important for preventing biliary dysfunction during ductopenic disorders. PMID:25019073

  7. Cholestatic Liver Injury After Biliary Reconstruction Impairs Transplanted Islet Viability and Function.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Sakata, N; Yoshimatsu, G; Tsuchiya, H; Fukase, M; Ishida, M; Aoki, T; Katayose, Y; Egawa, S; Unno, M

    2015-08-01

    Islet autotransplantation following total pancreatectomy differs from allograft transplantation with respect to the requirement of biliary reconstruction. Although it is known that careful consideration should be given to postoperative cholestatic liver injury after biliary reconstruction, its direct effects on transplanted islets have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we developed a murine model of postoperative cholestatic liver injury after biliary reconstruction with islet autotransplantation that involved syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation into chemically induced diabetic mice and common bile duct ligation. We assessed the viability and function of the transplanted islets. The impaired viability of transplanted islets and increased blood glucose levels indicated restoration of the diabetic state after common bile duct ligation in this murine model. Furthermore, impaired islet viability and function occurred earlier in the transplanted islets than in the surrounding liver tissues, which was consistent with the faster and higher expression of oxidative stress markers in the transplanted islets. Transplanted islets may be more vulnerable to oxidative stress caused by cholestatic liver injury than the surrounding liver tissue. Therefore, patients should be intensively managed after total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation to preserve viability and function of the transplanted islets. PMID:25908212

  8. Argon Plasma Coagulation for Extraction of an Impacted Trapezoid Basket in the Pancreatic Duct

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Treta; Garg, Mrinal; Kulkarni, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    We performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy for pancreatic stent placement on a 55-year-old woman with a dilated pancreatic duct, pancreatic duct stone, and chronic pancreatitis. During follow-up ERCP, the lithotripter traction wire fractured during electrohydraulic lithotripsy and mechanical lithotripsy. Multiple attempts using standard techniques to clear the lithotripter and stone failed. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) was used to ablate 2 of the lithotripter wires, and the lithotripter was disengaged from the stone and removed. PMID:26157943

  9. Sanguineous normothermic machine perfusion improves hemodynamics and biliary epithelial regeneration in donation after cardiac death porcine livers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Nassar, Ahmed; Farias, Kevin; Buccini, Laura; Baldwin, William; Mangino, Martin; Bennett, Ana; O'Rourke, Colin; Okamoto, Toshiro; Uso, Teresa Diago; Fung, John; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Miller, Charles; Quintini, Cristiano

    2014-08-01

    The effects of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) on the postreperfusion hemodynamics and extrahepatic biliary duct histology of donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers after transplantation have not been addressed thoroughly and represent the objective of this study. Ten livers (5 per group) with 60 minutes of warm ischemia were preserved via cold storage (CS) or sanguineous NMP for 10 hours, and then they were reperfused for 24 hours with whole blood in an isolated perfusion system to simulate transplantation. In our experiment, the arterial and portal vein flows were stable in the NMP group during the entire reperfusion simulation, whereas they decreased dramatically in the CS group after 16 hours of reperfusion (P < 0.05); these findings were consistent with severe parenchymal injury. Similarly, significant differences existed between the CS and NMP groups with respect to the release of hepatocellular enzymes, the volume of bile produced, and the levels of enzymes released into bile (P < 0.05). According to histology, CS livers presented with diffuse hepatocyte congestion, necrosis, intraparenchymal hemorrhaging, denudated biliary epithelium, and submucosal bile duct necrosis, whereas NMP livers showed very mild injury to the liver parenchyma and biliary architecture. Most importantly, Ki-67 staining in extrahepatic bile ducts showed biliary epithelial regeneration. In conclusion, our findings advance the knowledge of the postreperfusion events that characterize DCD livers and suggest NMP as a beneficial preservation modality that is able to improve biliary regeneration after a major ischemic event and may prevent the development of ischemic cholangiopathy in the setting of clinical transplantation. PMID:24805852

  10. Biliary Complications of Pancreatic Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Adarsh; Sachdev, Ajay; Negi, Sanjay

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis has the potential to cause avariety of locoregional complications (1). This isbecause of the propensity of the necrotic tissue tospread far beyond the confines of the pancreas. Theproximity of the biliary tract to the pancreas makesit particularly vulnerable to damage by the inflammatory process, and though likely, there are only isolated case reports of involvement of the biliarytract through the necrotic process (2-5). This papershares our experience in managing six patients withbiliary complications of pancreatic necrosis. PMID:12754382

  11. Cystic duct patency in malignant obstructive jaundice. An ERCP-based study relevant to the role of laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy.

    PubMed Central

    Tarnasky, P R; England, R E; Lail, L M; Pappas, T N; Cotton, P B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-(ERCP)based study estimates the potential role of laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy for palliation of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Traditional treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice has used a standard bilioenteric anastomosis. Laparoscopic biliary bypass via a gallbladder conduit currently is an established technique; it provides a low initial morbidity alternative to open procedures, similar to endoscopic stenting. No study has specifically addressed anatomic factors relevant to cholecystojejunostomy, such as prior cholecystectomy, stricture location in reference to the hepatocystic junction, and cystic duct patency in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Retrograde cholangiograms were reviewed from consecutive patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and a control group without biliary disease who underwent ERCP during a 2-year period. Patients with either prior biliary surgery or hilar tumors were excluded. The presence of gallbladder or cystic duct filling was assessed. In patients with patent cystic ducts, the distance from obstruction to the cystic duct takeoff was classified as either greater or less than 1 cm. RESULTS: Nearly half the patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were ineligible for cholecystojejunostomies because of prior biliary surgery (29%) or hilar tumors (17%). Half (50 of 101) of the remaining potential candidates had patent hepatocystic junctions. Patients with ampullary carcinoma and patent hepatocystic junctions (5 of 9) were all ideal candidates for cholecystojejunostomies, having biliary obstruction more than 1 cm from the cystic duct takeoff. Two thirds of the remaining eligible patients (28 of 45) had obstructions less than 1 cm from patent hepatocystic junctions. CONCLUSIONS: Palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice by laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy should only be attempted after direct cholangiography demonstrates a patent hepatocystic junction that is well separated from the malignant stricture. The majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice are ineligible for cholecystojejunostomies because of prior cholecystectomies, hilar obstructions, or tumor involvement of the hepatocystic junction. Nonoperative treatments will continue to be indicated for the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:7536405

  12. [The history of gallbladder and bile duct diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Van Steen, A; Heylen, Y; Ponette, E

    1995-10-01

    In the first period (1896-1910), investigation was made through plain abdominal film with description and differential diagnosis of the different calcifications in the right hypochondrium. Second period (1911-1924): indirect signs of liver and gallbladder pathology were described. Via pneumoperitoneum and gastro-intestinal opacification the pathology in the right hypochondrium was delineated and interpreted. Third period (1924 until now): due to the development of contrast agents for the gallbladder and biliary tree, these organs could be directly visualized either by intravenous injection, or by peroral administration; sometimes direct injection of contrast in the bile ducts was used. PMID:8550392

  13. The usefulness of SpyGlass™ choledochoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary disorders.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J B; Draganov, P V

    2012-12-01

    Peroral choledochoscopy was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation choledochoscopes was significantly limited by complex equipment setup and fragility resulting in high repair costs. In late 2006, the SpyGlass Direct Visualization System (Boston Scientific Corp, Natick, MA, USA) was introduced to the market. It is a single-operator cholangioscopy platform and improves upon many shortcomings of the dual-operator systems. Currently, the two main indications for its use are evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures and lithotripsy for difficult-to-remove biliary stones. Recently published prospective data reconfirm that the overall success rates for adequate tissue sampling and bile duct stone clearance are around 90 %, with an acceptable safety profile. The sensitivity for detecting cancer in intrinsic biliary strictures (e.g., cholangiocarcinoma) is superior to that of standard ERCP sampling modalities, but a limited yield has been noted when sampling extrinsic malignant biliary strictures (e.g., pancreatic cancer). The two main limitations of the SpyGlass system are image quality that is impeded by the use of fiberoptic technology and a relatively small accessory channel providing passage only for dedicated miniaccessories. Nevertheless, the SpyGlass platform has made single-operator cholangioscopy feasible and refined the technique in a number of important ways. This innovation has significantly expanded our diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP armamentarium. An upgraded digital imaging version is currently in development. PMID:23065376

  14. Value of MR cholangiography in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the biliary tree: a study of 58 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel-Henry Mendler; Philippe Bouillet; Denis Sautereau; Pierre Chaumerliac; François Cessot; Anne Le Sidaner; Bernard Pillegand

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in the diagnosis of biliary tree obstruction. Methods: Fifty-eight consecutive patients underwent MRC (GYROSCAN ACS II 1.5 Tesla, TSE T2 axial\\/coronal-MIP sequences) for clinical and biochemical signs of main bile duct obstruction. MRC images were interpreted by two radiologists and consensus was established according to presence or

  15. Value of MR cholangiography in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the biliary tree: a study of 58 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel-Henry Mendler; Philippe Bouillet; Denis Sautereau; Pierre Chaumerliac; François Cessot; Anne Le Sidaner; Bernard Pillegand

    1998-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in the diagnosis of biliary tree obstruction.Methods:Fifty-eight consecutive patients underwent MRC (GYROSCAN ACS II 1.5 Tesla, TSE T2 axial\\/coronal-MIP sequences) for clinical and biochemical signs of main bile duct obstruction. MRC images were interpreted by two radiologists and consensus was established according to presence or absence of main

  16. Natural Killer Cells Promote Long-Term Hepatobiliary Inflammation in a Low-Dose Rotavirus Model of Experimental Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Squires, James E.; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Mourya, Reena; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Walters, Stephanie; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rapidly progressive obstructive cholangiopathy of infants. Mechanistic studies in the mouse model of Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced biliary atresia have linked the importance of effector lymphocytes to the pathogenesis of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) injury and obstruction in experimental biliary atresia; however, studies of the progressive liver injury have been limited by early death of newborn mice. Here, we aimed to determine 1) if a lower inoculum of RRV induces obstruction of EHBDs while allowing for ongoing liver inflammation, and 2) if NK cells regulate intrahepatic injury. The administration of 0.25x106 fluorescence forming units of RRV induced an obstructive extrahepatic cholangiopathy, but allowed for restoration of the duct epithelium, increased survival, and the development of a progressive intrahepatic inflammatory injury with molecular and cellular signatures equivalent to the traditional infectious model. Investigating the mechanisms of liver injury, we found that NK cell depletion at the onset of jaundice decreased liver inflammation, suppressed the expression of fibrosis and inflammation/immunity genes, lowered plasma ALT and bilirubin and improved survival. Conclusions Lower inoculation of RRV-induced progressive liver injury and fibrosis via NK cells. These findings point to the potential use of NK cell-depleting strategies to block progression of liver disease in biliary atresia. PMID:25992581

  17. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max H. Sherman; Iain S. Walker; Darryl J. Dickerhoff

    2000-01-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field

  18. Non-Newtonian bile flow in elastic cystic duct: one- and three-dimensional modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, W G; Luo, X Y; Chin, S B; Hill, N A; Johnson, A G; Bird, N C

    2008-11-01

    Bile flow is thought to play an essential role in the pathophysiological genesis of cholelithiasis (gallstone formation) and in gallbladder pain. In this paper, we extend our previous study of the human biliary system (Li et al., 2007, J. Biomech. Eng., 129:164-173) to include two important factors: the non-Newtonian properties of bile, and elastic deformation of the cystic duct. A one-dimensional (1D) model is analyzed and compared with three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction simulations. It is found that non-Newtonian bile raises resistance to the flow of bile, which can be augmented significantly by the elastic deformation (collapse) of the cystic duct. We also show that the 1D model predicts the pressure drop of the cystic duct flow well for all cases considered (Newtonian or non-Newtonian flow, rigid or elastic ducts), when compared with the full 3D simulations. PMID:18791826

  19. Development of automated extraction method of biliary tract from abdominal CT volumes based on local intensity structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kusuto; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Hirose, Tomoaki; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Nagino, Masato; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated biliary tract extraction method from abdominal CT volumes. The biliary tract is the path by which bile is transported from liver to the duodenum. No extraction method have been reported for the automated extraction of the biliary tract from common contrast CT volumes. Our method consists of three steps including: (1) extraction of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) candidate regions, (2) extraction of intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) candidate regions, and (3) combination of these candidate regions. The IHBD has linear structures and intensities of the IHBD are low in CT volumes. We use a dark linear structure enhancement (DLSE) filter based on a local intensity structure analysis method using the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix for the IHBD candidate region extraction. The EHBD region is extracted using a thresholding process and a connected component analysis. In the combination process, we connect the IHBD candidate regions to each EHBD candidate region and select a bile duct region from the connected candidate regions. We applied the proposed method to 22 cases of CT volumes. An average Dice coefficient of extraction result was 66.7%.

  20. [Bronchobiliary fistula in carcinoma of the hepatic duct bifurcation].

    PubMed

    Junga, G; Caduff, B; Christen, B; Kistler, H J

    1992-12-11

    Carcinoma of the hepatic duct bifurcation was diagnosed in a 67-year-old women with obstructive jaundice. As metastatic spread could not be demonstrated the carcinoma was removed with a view of achieving a cure (hemihepatectomy, resection of the hepatic duct and the bifurcation, cholecystectomy and hepatojejunostomy). Histological examination indicated adenocarcinoma of the biliary tract. Seven months postoperatively the patient was found to be cachectic and cough up greenish liquid sputum. Bilirubin concentration in sputum was 500 mumol/l. There was no jaundice and total bilirubin concentration was 33 mumol/l. Alkaline phosphatase was 508 U/l, but GOT and GPT were normal (23 U/l and 21 U/l). Computed tomography confirmed the clinical diagnosis of a biliobronchial fistula. The patient died 9 days after renewed hospitalization of tumour cachexia. The biliobronchial fistula was found at necropsy. PMID:1459022

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with the Chiba needle in patients with biliary calculi

    SciTech Connect

    Juttijudata, P.; Palavatana, C.; Chiemchaisri, C.; Churnratanakul, S.

    1983-03-01

    In a prospective study, 276 consecutive patients were evaluated using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) with a Chiba needle prior to surgery for cholestasis. Biliary calculi were diagnosed in 109 patients. The success rate was 92.4% overall, 93.6% among patients with biliary calculi, 83.3% in those with cholelithiasis, 97.3% in those with choledocholithiasis, and 100.0% in those with intrahepatic stones. The overall morbidity rate was 4.6%, including hemoperitoneum in 1.8% and bile leakage in 2.8%. There were no deaths. This technique offers a more definitive diagnosis than noninvasive procedures, especially with small calculi, but is also more traumatic. PTC may play an important role when noninvasive methods are inconclusive or in difficult cases, particularly following surgery on the common bile duct.

  2. Time Dilation Equation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. The article, which offers a simple demonstration of Einstein's Time Dilation Equation, is part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar. It uses the example of a light beam bouncing between two mirrors in a rocket to illustrate the theory, and includes a step-by-step look at the math involved in calculating the quantitative solution.

  3. CT evaluation of the bile ducts in patients with fatty liver

    SciTech Connect

    Quint, L.E.; Glazer, G.M.

    1984-12-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of the bile ducts in the fatty liver can be difficult, since hepatic attenuation decreases with increased triglyceride content, and liver parenchyma may become isodense with bile. Forty-seven patients with fatty infiltration of the liver were retrospectively identified. In 7 of these patients, attenuation of liver and bile differed by less than 10 HU. In 2 patients, dilated intrahepatic ducts were invisible using CT, because bile was isodense with fatty liver parenchyma. Thus, the fatty liver presents a potential pitfall in CT evaluation of the bile ducts. For maximal accuracy scans should be obtained both before and after administration of intravenous urographic contrast material.

  4. [Thoracic duct cyst].

    PubMed

    Manasterski, J; Szmeja, Z; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Turczuk-Bier?a, I

    1999-01-01

    Patient aged 48 with the cyst of the cervical part of thoracic duct was described. Cyst appeared as the result of inflammation. Histopathological examination excluded the cystic lymphangioma. PMID:10689924

  5. Computer Aided Duct Design 

    E-print Network

    Clark, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    The circular slide rule is the industry standard for duct design. It is the simplest, most convenient way to take into account the many variables of ductwork analysis. The slide rule, however, is also relatively inaccurate. This means the ductwork...

  6. The Wavelet Dimension Function for Real Dilations and Dilations Admitting

    E-print Network

    Bownik, Marcin

    The Wavelet Dimension Function for Real Dilations and Dilations Admitting non-MSF Wavelets Marcin Bownik and Darrin Speegle Abstract. The wavelet dimension function for arbitrary real dila- tions is defined and used to address several questions involving the existence of MRA wavelets and well

  7. Pancreatic duct abnormalities in gall stone disease: an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S P; Gulati, P; Choudhary, V; Anand, B S

    1990-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess pancreatic duct abnormalities in gall stone disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograms of 50 patients with gall stone disease were analysed and the results compared with those obtained in 33 patients investigated for cholestatic jaundice who were found to have a normal biliary tree (control group). Abnormal pancreatograms were obtained in 24 (48%) patients with gall stone disease and in only two (6%) in the control group; the differences were statistically significant (chi 2 = 14.3; p less than 0.001). The patients in the control group showed mild abnormalities as did those in the gall stone group. The frequency of various abnormalities were: mild 16 (32%), moderate five (10%), and severe three (6%). Pancreatic duct abnormalities were more severe and occurred more frequently in patients with gall stones who had stones in the biliary tree than in patients with a normal biliary tree (postcholecystectomy patients, 55% v 25%) but the difference between the two groups just failed to be significant (chi 2 = 3.34). In conclusion, nearly half of all patients with gall stone disease have pancreatic duct abnormalities and in 16% these were severe enough to be labelled as chronic pancreatitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2210455

  8. Biliary Peritonitis after Radiofrequency Ablation Diagnosed by Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Koyama, Takashi; Todo, Giro; Osaki, Yukio; Togashi, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the first case of biliary peritonitis after radiofrequency ablation diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA), a hepatocyte-specific MR imaging contrast agent. The image acquired 300 minutes after the administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA was useful to make a definite diagnosis and to identify the pathway of bile leakage. It is important to decide on the acquisition timing with consideration of the predicted location of bile duct injury. PMID:24265566

  9. Biliary tract cancers in Cote-d'Or (France): incidence and natural history.

    PubMed Central

    Renard, P; Boutron, M C; Faivre, J; Milan, C; Bedenne, L; Hillon, P; Klepping, C

    1987-01-01

    The registry of digestive tract tumours established for the department of Cote-d'Or (France) was used to study the epidemiological characteristics and the natural history of biliary tract cancers. Age standardised incidence rates for gallbladder cancers were 2.7/100,000 for women and 0.9/100,000 for men. The corresponding rates for extrahepatic bile duct cancers were 0.5/100,000 and 1.7/100,000, and for ampulla of Vater cancer 0.3/100,000 and 0.3/100,000. The three cancers differ in their descriptive epidemiology and should be considered separately in epidemiological analytical investigations. The incidence of each of the three diseases increased with age, and cancers of known histological type were mainly adenocarcinomas. Some gallbladder cancers were undifferentiated or squamous cell carcinomas. There was no significant variation in incidence for gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer over the eight years of the study. The association with gallstones was frequent in gallbladder cancer: 70.5% compared to 13.0% in other biliary tract cancers (less than 0.001). Although the association of gallbladder cancer with gallstones is frequent, few patients with cholelithiasis experience development of a gallbladder cancer. It is necessary to identify among patients with gallstones a subgroup at high risk of gallbladder cancer in whom prophylactic surgery might be justified. Biliary tract cancers are seldom diagnosed early: lymph nodes or visceral metastases were present in 77% of gallbladder cancers, in 83% of extrahepatic bile duct cancers, and in 55% of ampulla of Vater cancers at the time of diagnosis. The corresponding resectability rates were 46.1%, 11.9%, and 38.9%. The five-year overall survival rates were 2.9% for gallbladder cancer, 0% for extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 18.3% for ampulla of Vater cancer. The corresponding five-year survival rates after surgery for cure were 10.3%, 0%, and 35.7%. Biliary tract cancer still represent a great therapeutic challenge. PMID:3455429

  10. Effects of Methylenedianiline on Tight Junction Permeability of Biliary Epithelial Cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Santa Cruz, Vicente; Liu, Hanlin; Kaphalia, Lata; Kanz, Mary F.

    2007-01-01

    Methylenedianiline (DAPM) is considered a cholangiodestructive toxicant in vivo. Increases in biliary inorganic phosphate (Pi) and glucose occur prior to biliary epithelial cell (BEC) injury, which could be due to increased paracellular permeability and/or impairment of Pi and glucose uptake by BEC. To evaluate these possibilities, we induced mild injury [loss of BEC from major bile ducts (6 h), ultrastructural alterations in BEC mitochondria and Golgi cisternae (3 h), and striking increases in biliary Pi and glucose (3–6 h)] with 25 mg DAPM/kg and then assessed temporal alterations in tight junction (TJ) permeability by measuring bile to plasma (B:P) ratios of [3H]-inulin. Parameters maintained by hepatocytes in bile were unchanged (bile flow, bile acids, bilirubin) or only transiently perturbed (protein, glutathione). Minimal elevations in B:P ratios of inulin occurred temporally later (4 h) in DAPM-treated rats than increases in biliary Pi and glucose. To confirm a direct effect of DAPM on BEC TJs, we measured transepithelial resistance (TER) and bi-ionic potentials of BEC monolayers prior to and after exposure to pooled (4 to 6) bile samples collected from untreated rats (Basal Bile) or rats treated with 50 mg DAPM/ kg (DAPM-Bile). BEC TJs were found to be cation selective. Exposure to DAPM-Bile for 1 h decreased TERs by ~35% and decreased charge selectivity of BEC TJs while exposure to Basal Bile had no effects. These observations indicate that DAPM-Bile impairs paracellular permeability of BEC in vitro. Further, our in vivo model suggests that increases in paracellular permeability induced by DAPM are localized to BEC because bile flow and constituents excreted by hepatocytes were unchanged; BEC damage was temporally correlated with increases in biliary Pi and glucose; and elevations in B:P ratios of inulin were delayed and minimal. PMID:17178199

  11. [Balloon dilatation in esophageal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Muminhodzi?, Kasim; Zildzi?, Muharem; Pavlovi?-Cali?, Nada; Zerem, Enver; Smaji?, Midhat; Gegi?, Adnan; Muminhodzi?, Alan; Alibegovi?, Ervin

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent causes of the stenosis are as follows: Schatzki rings, structures as the complications of GERB', postcorrosive and postoperative at nosis. The Balloon dilatation is one from the therapeutic procedures of stenosis of the esophagus. By the clinic research is included 12 patients with the stenoses of the esophagus of the various cause. It is used the balloon dilatator (Olympus) of the diameter 16 and 18 mm, and the analysis 40 mm. In 11 patients the balloon dilatation was successful and led to the walking of the esophagus for endoscope. Only in one patient the dilatation was unsuccesful, because was applied two years after the occurrence of the stenosis caused by the corrosive esophagisitis. It is concluded that the balloon dilatation of the therapeutic procedures of the choice in stenosis of the esophagus. PMID:12827967

  12. Fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Cauch-Dudek, K; Abbey, S; Stewart, D; Heathcote, E

    1998-01-01

    Background—Fatigue is a frequent and debilitating symptom in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). ?Aims—To study fatigue in relation to sleep, depression, and liver disease severity. ?Methods—Patients with PBC completed validated self report questionnaires measuring fatigue, sleep quality, depression, and functional capacity. Verbally reported fatigue and observer rated measure of depression and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) use were recorded. Liver biochemistry and tests to rule out metabolic causes of fatigue were performed. ?Results—Mean age of the 88 patients enrolled was 57 years; 86% were female and mean duration of disease was 6.6 years. Median bilirubin was 13 µmol/l (mean 18.6). Verbally reported fatigue (for more than six months) was present in 60 patients (68%). The self rated Fatigue Severity Score (FSS) correlated well with verbally reported fatigue (p=0.0001). The FSS did not correlate with age, duration of disease, serum bilirubin, Mayo Risk Score, or UDCA use, but correlation was seen with sleep quality. Fatigued patients had more sleep problems and higher depression scores than non-fatigued patients. Self rated depression was present in 28% (17/60) of fatigued compared with 4% (1/28) of non-fatigued patients. ?Conclusions—Long term fatigue affected 68% of the patients with PBC but it was not related to the severity of their liver disease. Poor sleep quality and depression were commonly associated with fatigue. ?? Keywords: primary biliary cirrhosis; fatigue; depression; sleep PMID:9824355

  13. [The significance of the duodenal papilla within the framework of diseases of gallbladder and bile ducts].

    PubMed

    Kricke, E; Alnor, P C

    1978-10-01

    On the basis of 3185 biliary tract operations performed at the city hospitals of Braunschweig and Lüneburg, 12% of which included papillotomies, the frequency and pathogenesis of Vater's papilla stenosis is discussed. About 5% of all stenoses of Vater's papilla do not appear in connection with lithiasis in the biliary tract; these are defined as primary stenoses. 95% of Vater's papilla stenoses occur with lithiasis and inflammatory diseases of biliary tract. Stenosis of Vater's papilla is most often seen in connection with severe cholecystitis and pericholecystitis. There exists in most cases a purely inflammatory swelling of papillas mucosa which decreases following sanitation of the biliary tract. Intraoperative findings show good dilatation through catheterization and Vater's papilla should therefore not be discised. In opposite the concommitant stenoses of Vater's papilla caused by choledocholithiasis, chiefly in case of calculus near the papilla, are signed by severe deforming alterations even concerning deeper layers of papilla wall. The high grade destruction of muscle tissue leads to a not retrogressive stenosis, even after sanitation of biliary tract, which principally should be discised. 211 biopsies of papilla were taken and histologically analyzed. A specific pathologic-anatomic substrate of stenosis of Vater's papilla could not be found. PMID:710218

  14. CORNICE DUCT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd; TC Howard

    2002-12-01

    SYNERGETICS, INC., is in the process of designing, developing, and testing an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building. Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. A patent has been submitted, refined based on feedback from the patent office, and resubmitted. Additional refinements to the design will lead to additional claims being added to the patent in the near future. Designs are being finalized for a refined version that will be fabricated and tested in the same residential laboratory house. Work is expected to be complete on this project in April of 2003.

  15. Variants in motilin, somatostatin and their receptor genes and risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Li; Hsing, Ann W; Koshiol, Jill; Chu, Lisa W; Cheng, Jia-Rong; Gao, Jing; Tan, Yu-Ting; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Shen, Ming-Chang; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2014-12-01

    Altered motility of the gallbladder can result in gallstone and cholecystitis, which are important risk factor for biliary tract cancer. Motilin (MLN) and somatostatin (SST) are known important modulators of gallbladder motility. To determine whether genetic variants in motilin, somatostatin, and their receptor genes are associated with the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones, nine tag-SNPs were determined in 439 biliary tract cancer cases (253 gallbladder, 133 extrahepatic bile duct and 53 ampulla of Vater cancer cases), 429 biliary stone cases, and 447 population controls in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. We found that subjects with the MLNR rs9568169 AA genotype and SSTR5 rs169068 CC genotype were significantly associated with risk of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (OR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.89; OR =2.40, 95% CI: 1.13-5.13) compared to the major genotypes. MLN rs2281820 CT and rs3793079 AT genotypes had significantly increased risks of gallstones (OR =1.52, 95% CI: 1.06-2.18; OR =1.64, 95% CI: 1.20-2.25) compared to TT genotypes. Besides, Haplotype analysis showed that MLN T-T-T haplotype (rs2281820-rs3793079-rs2281819) had a non-significantly elevated risk of gallstone (OR =1.30, 95% CI: 0.91-1.86) compared with C-A-A haplotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between genetic polymorphisms in MLN, MLNR and their receptor genes and risk of biliary tract cancers and stones. PMID:24999450

  16. Variants in motilin, somatostatin and their receptor genes and risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Li; Hsing, Ann W.; Koshiol, Jill; Chu, Lisa W.; Cheng, Jia-Rong; Gao, Jing; Tan, Yu-Ting; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Shen, Ming-Chang; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Altered motility of the gallbladder can result in gallstone and cholecystitis, which are important risk factors for biliary tract cancer. Motilin (MLN) and somatostatin (SST) are known important modulators of gallbladder motility. To determine whether genetic variants in motilin, somatostatin, and their receptor genes are associated with the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones, nine tag-SNPs were determined in 439 biliary tract cancer cases (253 gallbladder, 133 extrahepatic bile duct and 53 ampulla of Vater cancer cases), 429 biliary stone cases, and 447 population controls in a population-based case–control study in Shanghai, China. We found that subjects with the MLNR rs9568169 AA genotype and SSTR5 rs169068 CC genotype were significantly associated with risk of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.27–0.89; OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.13–5.13) compared to the major genotypes. MLN rs2281820 CT and rs3793079 AT genotypes had significantly increased risks of gallstones (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.06–2.18; OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.20–2.25) compared to TT genotypes. Besides, haplotype analysis showed that MLN T-T-T haplotype (rs2281820–rs3793079–rs2281819) had a non-significantly elevated risk of gallstone (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.91–1.86) compared with C-A-A haplotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between genetic polymorphisms in MLN, MLNR and their receptor genes and risk of biliary tract cancers and stones. PMID:24999450

  17. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  18. Jaundice in non-cirrhotic primary biliary cirrhosis: the premature ductopenic variant

    PubMed Central

    Vleggaar, F; van Buuren, H R; Zondervan, P; ten, K; Hop, W; the, D

    2001-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings of four females with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with an unusual and hitherto not well recognised course are reported. Patients suffered severe pruritus and weight loss with progressive icteric cholestasis which did not respond to such treatments as ursodeoxycholic acid and immunosuppressives. In all cases liver histology revealed marked bile duct loss without however significant fibrosis or cirrhosis. Further diagnostic studies and repeat biopsies confirmed the absence of liver cirrhosis as well as other potential causes of hyperbilirubinaemia. Comparison of the fibrosis-ductopenia relationship for our cases with that for a group of 101 non-cirrhotic PBC patients indicated that in the former the severity of bile duct loss relative to the amount of fibrosis was significantly higher. The proportion of portal triads containing an interlobular bile duct was 3%, 4%, 6%, and 10% compared with 45% (median; range 8.3-100%) for controls (p<0.001). Three patients received a liver transplant 6-7 years after the first manifestation of PBC because of progressive cholestasis, refractory pruritus, and weight loss, while the fourth patient is considering this option. In one case cirrhosis had developed at the time of transplantation while the others still had non-cirrhotic disease. These cases suggest that cholestatic jaundice in non-cirrhotic PBC may be secondary to extensive "premature" or accelerated intrahepatic bile duct loss. Although the extent of fibrosis may be limited initially, progression to cirrhosis appears to be inevitable in the long run. Despite intact protein synthesis and absence of cirrhotic complications, liver transplantation in the pre-cirrhotic stage for preventing malnutrition and to improve quality of life should be considered for these patients.???Keywords: primary biliary cirrhosis; jaundice; ductopenia; portal tract; cholestasis; liver biopsy PMID:11454806

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information About Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare disease ... life . Stages of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points After extrahepatic bile duct cancer has been diagnosed, ...

  20. General Information about Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information About Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare disease ... life . Stages of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points After extrahepatic bile duct cancer has been diagnosed, ...

  1. Turbofan Duct Propagation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

  2. What Is Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bile duct cancer. The rest of this document refers only to cholangiocarcinomas. Benign bile duct tumors ... tumors, which aren’t discussed further in this document. Other cancers in the liver The most common ...

  3. Pharmacotherapy of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Spinarova, Lenka; Spinar, Jindrich

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy overlaps with the treatment of heart failure. The primary objective of this treatment is to slow the progression of disease and improve quality and length of life. All patients, including those with asymptomatic dysfunction of the left ventricle, ought to receive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, (in the case of intolerance, angiotensin receptor blockers), and beta blockers. The results of studies involving aliskiren have been, so far, disappointing. In symptomatic heart failure NYHA II-IV diuretics and mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists should be added to treatment. Digoxin is recommended in the event of atrial fibrillation, and otherwise only in the event of NYHA III and IV. Ivabradine is recommended for patients with sinus rhythm and pulse rate of > 70/min. In decompensation of heart failure, dobutamine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors or levosimendan are administered over the short-term. Of the recent treatment options, the vasopressin blocker and adenosine A1 receptor antagonist (rolofylline) were disappointing. One treatment with potential for the future is omecamtiv mecarbil, a heart myosin activator. PMID:25483945

  4. Colonic strictures: dilation and stents.

    PubMed

    Adler, Douglas G

    2015-04-01

    Colonic strictures, both benign and malignant, are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Benign strictures are most commonly treated by balloon dilation and less frequently with stents. Balloon dilation can help forestall or obviate surgery in some patients. Colonic strictures of malignant etiology generally need to be managed by stents and/or surgery. This article reviews endoscopic approaches to the management of colonic strictures. PMID:25839690

  5. A case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yuichi; Nakamichi, Rei; Kamata, Noriko; Miyake, Hideo; Fujino, Masahiko; Itoh, Shigeki

    2015-03-01

    We report here a rare case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. In an 80-year-old woman, an approximately 8-mm papillary mass was incidentally detected at the downstream edge of a dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen on CT and MRI. Main pancreatic duct dilatation in the pancreatic body and tail and parenchymal atrophy were observed in the upstream of the mass. Histopathologically, the tumor protruded into the downstream edge of the dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen in the pancreatic body. The tumor cells had highly atypical nuclei and abundant polymorphic structures, and showed positive staining for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which led to the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma. A total of 13 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with intraductal tumor growth have been reported to date. The case report by Bergmann et al. has been the smallest in histopathological specimen, and the present case is the smallest in size detected by radiological images. Since early undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas can resemble those of main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in cross-sectional images, we have to consider undifferentiated carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of the solitary and papillary mass with low contrast enhancement in early phase in the main pancreatic duct. PMID:25526684

  6. Admission mixing duct assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, Robert J. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A variable cycle jet engine is provided with a mixing duct assembly which mixes core engine exhaust gas with bypass air when the engine is operating in a turbofan mode and which blocks flow from the core engine and isolates the core engine from the bypass flow when the engine is operating as a ramjet.

  7. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePLUS

    A blocked tear duct is a partial or complete blockage in the pathway that carries tears from the surface of the eye into the ... Tears are constantly being made to help protect the surface of your eye. They drain into a ...

  8. Biliary strictures: diagnostic considerations and approach

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajaypal; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

    2015-01-01

    Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge, especially when no etiology can be ascertained after laboratory evaluation, abdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sampling. These strictures were traditionally classified as indeterminate strictures, although with advances in endoscopic techniques and better understanding of hepato-biliary pathology, more are being correctly diagnosed. The implications of missing a malignancy in patients with biliary strictures—and hence delaying surgery—are grave but a significant number of patients (up to 20%) undergoing surgery for suspected biliary malignancy can have benign pathology. The diagnostic approach to these patients involves detailed history and physical examination and depends on the presence or absence of jaundice, level of obstruction, and presence or absence of a mass lesion. While abdominal imaging helps to find the level of obstruction and provides a ‘road map' for further endoscopic investigations, tissue diagnosis is usually needed to make decisions on management. Initially ERCP was the only modality to investigate these strictures but now, with the development of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration and the availability of newer techniques such as intraductal ultrasound, single-operator cholangioscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy, the diagnostic approach to biliary strictures has changed significantly. In this review, we will focus on the decision-making process for patients with biliary strictures and discuss the key decision points that should dictate further diagnostic investigations at each step. PMID:25355800

  9. The inflammatory phenotype of the fibrous plate is distinct from the liver and correlates with clinical outcome in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Arva, Nicoleta C; Russo, Pierre A; Erlichman, Jessi; Hancock, Wayne W; Haber, Barbara A; Bhatti, Tricia R

    2015-03-01

    Biliary atresia is an inflammatory cholangiopathy of still undetermined etiology. Correlations between histologic findings and clinical outcome in this disease have largely been based on evaluation of liver parenchyma. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of inflammation within the biliary remnant and identify associations between the type and degree of inflammation and clinical outcome as reflected by the transplant-free interval. The inflammation within the fibrous plates and livers of 41 patients with biliary atresia was characterized using immunohistochemical markers and the cell populations were digitally quantified. The type and quantity of cells within the infiltrate were then correlated with length of time from Kasai portoenterostomy until transplant. Histologic and immunohistochemical features of the biliary remnant allowed stratification of patients into "inflammatory plate" and "fibrotic plate" groups. Overall there was no significant difference in transplant-free interval between the two cohorts; however, there was a trend towards a longer time to transplant among patients in the "fibrotic plate" group. In addition, the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in the fibrous plate was distinctly different from that present in the liver and only the characteristics of the inflammation in the fibrous plate, in particular the number of Foxp3+ T regulatory lymphocytes correlated with clinical outcome. The results of this study support the view of the extra-hepatic biliary tree as the primary site of injury in BA with the changes seen in the liver as secondary manifestations of outflow obstruction. The association between specific inflammatory cell subtypes within the fibrous plate and the length of transplant-free interval also supports the role of the immune system in the initial process of bile duct damage in biliary atresia. PMID:25624184

  10. A Phase II Trial of the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib in Patients with Advanced Biliary Tract Cancers*

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Meropol, Neal J.; Li, Tianyu; Lewis, Nancy L.; Engstrom, Paul F.; Weiner, Louis M.; Cheng, Jonathan D.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cooper, Harry; Wright, John J.; Cohen, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced biliary tract cancers have limited therapeutic options. Preclinical data suggest proteasome inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy. We thus evaluated the clinical efficacy of bortezomib in advanced biliary tract cancers. Patients and Methods Patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma or gallbladder adenocarcinoma who had received 0–2 prior therapies received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. A Simon two-stage design was employed (null response rate of < 5% and response rate of ? 20% of interest). Results Twenty patients enrolled: bile duct/gallbladder cancer (14/6), prior treatments 0/1/2 (10/6/3). The trial was discontinued early due to lack of confirmed partial responses. No unanticipated adverse events were noted. There was one unconfirmed partial response. Ten patients achieved stable disease as best response. Median time to progression was 5.8 months (95% CI 0.7–77.6 months). Median survival was 9 months (95% CI 4.6–18.5 months). The 6-month and 1-year survival rates were 70% and 38%. There was no difference in survival based on primary disease site. Conclusions Single agent bortezomib does not result in objective responses in biliary tract cancers. However, the rate of stable disease and time to progression benchmark is encouraging. Further development of bortezomib in combination with other therapies in this disease setting should be considered. PMID:24512954

  11. A novel use for myocardial perfusion scans: diagnosis of bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Laura; Barnes, David C; Alwayn, Ian

    2013-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to a tertiary care centre after suffering from an iatrogenic bile duct injury, diagnosed by the unexpected leakage of bile during laparotomy for a colectomy. On initial assessment the patient was clinically stable, although she remained intubated after her surgery. In order to diagnose whether or not she sustained a complete or partial bile duct injury, a finding that would determine if she underwent conservative management or surgical repair, a technetium-99m-hepatobiliary scan was requested. Owing to a shortage in technetium-99m-iminodiacetic acids, the radiopharmaceutical (tracer) for this imaging test, a decision was made to employ technetium-99m-tetrofosmin, the tracer for cardiac scans (traditionally used for diagnosis of myocardial perfusion) as it has been established that this tracer is excreted in the biliary tract. The imaging showed flow of bile into the bowel, thereby establishing bile duct continuity and permitting conservative management. PMID:23925677

  12. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  13. Navigation liver surgery for complex hydatid cyst with biliary tree communication

    PubMed Central

    Panaro, Fabrizio; Habibeh, Hussein; Pessaux, Patrick; Navarro, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Today, liver surgery navigation is utilized only in high-specialized centers for patients affected by malignant diseases. However, navigated surgery may also be of great interest for benign diseases such as hydatidosis in particular if the hydatid cyst is communicating with the biliary tree. With navigation we know exactly in each moment during the surgery the relationship of the cyst with the vascular/biliary structures around it. Presentation of case Herein, we report a case of a 20-year-old W/M affected by hepatic hydatid cyst communicating with the right bile duct, causing recurrent cholangitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The liver cystectomy was easily performed using a navigation system incorporating instrument tracking and three-dimensional CT-reconstruction, thus permitting a selective suture of the bile duct communicating with the cyst. Conclusions The navigated system may guide the surgeon in patients with severe and complicated hydatid cysts. PMID:26057992

  14. Transjejunal biliary interventions: going back to a road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Jorge E; Ramsey, Gregory R

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions are not without risk and potential complications. In patients with bilioenteric anastomosis in whom repeat biliary interventions are expected, percutaneous transjejunal access is a very useful approach that is not frequently used nowadays. We provide a brief review of the history, indications, and current status of transjejunal biliary interventions. Transjejunal biliary access provides a relatively atraumatic pathway to the biliary system in patients that need repeat interventions. Multiple studies have provided convincing data that in appropriately chosen patients receiving a bilioenteric anastomosis, an antecolic limb of jejunum should be placed for subsequent access in biliary intervention. PMID:24316661

  15. Remains of the day: Biliary complications related to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Allemann, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assesse the rate of bile duct injuries (BDI) and overall biliary complications during single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) compared to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). METHODS: SPLC has recently been proposed as an innovative surgical approach for gallbladder surgery. So far, its safety with respect to bile duct injuries has not been specifically evaluated. A systematic review of the literature published between January 1990 and November 2012 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing SPLC versus CLC reporting BDI rate and overall biliary complications were included. The quality of RCT was assessed using the Jadad score. Analysis was made by performing a meta-analysis, using Review Manager 5.2. This study was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A retrospective study including all retrospective reports on SPLC was also performed alongside. RESULTS: From 496 publications, 11 RCT including 898 patients were selected for meta-analysis. No studies were rated as high quality (Jadad score ? 4). Operative indications included benign gallbladder disease operated in an elective setting in all studies, excluding all emergency cases and acute cholecystitis. The median follow-up was 1 mo (range 0.03-18 mo). The incidence of BDI was 0.4% for SPLC and 0% for CLC; the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.36). The incidence of overall biliary complication was 1.6% for SPLC and 0.5% for CLC, the difference did not reached statistically significance (P = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.66-15). Sixty non-randomized trials including 3599 patients were also analysed. The incidence of BDI reported then was 0.7%. CONCLUSION: The safety of SPLC cannot be assumed, based on the current evidence. Hence, this new technology cannot be recommended as standard technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24574757

  16. Soft-Tissue-Anchored Transcutaneous Port for Long-Term Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Rickard, E-mail: rickard.nyman@akademiska.se; Ekloef, Hampus; Eriksson, Lars-Gunnar [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Sweden); Karlsson, Britt-Marie; Rasmussen, Ib [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Sweden); Lundgren, Dan; Thomsen, Peter [Goeteborg University, Biomaterials/Cell Biology (Sweden)

    2005-01-15

    Purpose. A transcutaneous port (T-port) has been developed allowing easy exchange of a catheter, which was fixed inside the device, using the Seldinger technique. The objective of the study was to test the T-port in patients who had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Methods. The T-port, made of titanium, was implanted using local anesthesia in 11 patients (mean age 65 years, range 52-85 years) with biliary duct obstruction (7 malignant and 4 benign strictures). The subcutaneous part of the T-port consisted of a flange with several perforations allowing ingrowth of connective tissue. The T-port allowed catheter sizes of 10 and 12 Fr. Results. All wounds healed uneventfully and were followed by a stable period without signs of pronounced inflammation or infection. It was easy to open the port and to exchange the drainage tube. The patient's quality of life was considerably improved even though several patients had problems with repeated bile leakage due to frequent recurrent obstructions of the tubes. The ports were implanted for a mean time of 9 months (range 2-21 months). Histologic examination in four cases showed that the port was well integrated into the soft tissue. Tilting of the T-port in two cases led to perforation of the skin by the subcutaneous part of the ports, which were removed after 7 and 8 months. Conclusion. The T-port served as an excellent external access to the biliary ducts. The drainage tubes were well fixed within the ports. The quality of life of the patients was considerably improved. Together with improved aesthetic appearance they found it easier to conduct normal daily activities and personal care. However, the problem of recurrent catheter obstruction remained unsolved.

  17. An animal model of benign bile-duct stricture, sclerosing cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma and the role of epidermal growth factor receptor in ductal proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cheifetz, Rona E.; Davis, Noelle L.; Owen, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective To adapt an animal model of benign bile-duct stricture, sclerosing cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma in order to determine if the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) could be used to differentiate these lesions. Design A prospective control study with blinded interpretation of liver biopsy histology and immunohistochemical staining as the criterion standards. Setting A university-affiliated research centre. Subjects Male Syrian Golden hamsters (40 for benign duct stricture, 29 for sclerosing cholangitis and 27 for cholangiocarcinoma). Interventions Ligation of the common bile duct with 6-0 catgut for benign duct stricture; injection of the biliary tree with 0.15 mL of formalin for sclerosing cholangitis; and weekly subcutaneous injections of 500 mg/kg of di-isopropanolnitrosamine for 10 weeks followed by ligation of the common bile duct with 6-0 catgut for cholangiocarcinoma. Routine histologic preparation of liver biopsies obtained at autopsy 10 weeks postoperatively then immunohistochemical staining of specimens for EGFr. Main Outcome Measures The development of benign or atypical biliary ductal proliferation, including adenoma and carcinoma formation. The presence or absence of immunohistochemical staining for EGFr. Results Benign ductal proliferation without atypia was seen in 15 of 21 animals in the bile-duct-stricture group that were sacrificed, in 15 of 24 animals in the sclerosing cholangitis group and in 17 of 18 animals in the cholangiocarcinoma group. Atypical proliferation was seen in 13 of 18 animals with cholangiocarcinoma but not in the other two groups. The differential occurrence of atypical ductal proliferation was statistically significant (p < 0.00001) for both groups. No evidence of EGFr expression was found in any group. Conclusion Although the animal model was valid histologically for comparing benign and malignant biliary disease, EGFr does not play a role in biliary ductal proliferation and so cannot be used to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. PMID:8640617

  18. Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Sadao, E-mail: hayashi@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

  19. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pancreatic and biliary tract disease in Korean children

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Joo Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the indications, findings, therapeutic procedures, safety, and complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed in Korean children. METHODS: The demographic characteristics, indications for ERCP, findings, therapeutic procedures, and complications of 122 pediatric patients who underwent 245 ERCPs in the Asan Medical Center between June 1994 and March 2008 were investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the 122 patients was 8.0 ± 4.2 years. Indications were biliary pathology in 78 (64.0%), pancreatic pathology in 43 (35.2%), and chronic abdominal pain in one. Biliary indications included choledochal cysts in 40, choledocholithiasis in 24, suspected sclerosing cholangitis in 8, trauma in 2, and other conditions in 4. Pancreatic indications included acute pancreatitis in 7, acute recurrent pancreatitis in 11, chronic pancreatitis in 20, trauma in 3, and pancreatic mass in 2. Of the 245 ERCPs, success rate was 98.4% and 190 (77.6%) were for therapeutic purposes, including endoscopic nasal drainage (51.8%), biliary sphincterotomy (38.0%), pancreatic sphincterotomy (23.3%), stent insertion (15.1%), stone extraction (18.8%), and balloon dilatation (11.0%). Complications were post-ERCP pancreatitis in 16 (6.5%), ileus in 23 (9.4%), hemorrhage in 2 (0.8%), perforation in 2 (0.8%), sepsis in 1 (0.4%), and impacted basket in 1 (0.4%). There were no procedure-related deaths, and most complications improved under supportive care. CONCLUSION: This study showed that there is a high incidence of choledochal cyst and diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP for the management of various biliary and pancreatic diseases was safe and effective in Korean children. PMID:20101777

  20. Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and postoperatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Results: Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:19660213

  1. Retrospective evaluation of endoscopic stenting of combined malignant common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum obstructions

    PubMed Central

    YU, JIANFENG; HAO, JIANYU; WU, DONGFANG; LANG, HAIBO

    2014-01-01

    Malignant dual obstruction in the common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum can cause difficulties in palliative treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize our successful experience with the endoscopic stenting procedure for the palliative treatment of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenum obstruction. Seventeen patients who underwent dual stenting procedures for the common bile duct and duodenum were retrospectively reviewed. The success rate of placement, palliative effect for biliary and duodenal obstruction, incidence of complication and restricture and stent patency were analyzed. Stent placement achieved a 100% success rate. Total bilirubin decreased from 263.4±62.5 to 157.6±25.1 ?mol/l, direct bilirubin decreased from 233.2±66.5 to 130.9±27.7 ?mol/l and alkaline phosphatase from 534.2±78.7 to 216.3±23.3 IU/l. The differences between the preoperative and postoperative results were statistically significant (P<0.01). The gastric outlet obstruction score increased significantly from 0.9±1.1 to 2.1±0.7 points (P<0.01). The general nutritional status of the patients was improved. No serious complications occurred in any of the patients, and the survival time of patients following stenting ranged between 70 and 332 days with a mean survival time of 192 days. In conclusion, our methodology for combined biliary and enteral stenting is highly effective for the palliation of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenal obstruction. PMID:25187819

  2. Transcatheter thoracic duct embolization in the dog. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A D; Bright, R M; Walker, M A; Patton, C S

    1989-01-01

    Thoracic duct embolization was created by injecting an isobutyl 2-cyanoacrylate/iophendylate (IBCA) mixture through a cannulated mesenteric lymphatic vessel in eight normal dogs. Aqueous contrast lymphangiography was repeated at minute 10 and week 6. Six dogs were euthanatized at week 6 and two dogs at month 6. Embolization with 1.5 to 3.9 ml of the mixture resulted in complete obstruction of the thoracic duct in all eight dogs. Results of lymphangiography in six dogs at week 6 showed a persistent, complete obstruction of the thoracic duct in six dogs and alternate lymphaticovenous anastomoses in four dogs. Histologically, there were a sclerosing granulomatous response surrounding the lymphatic embolus, mild congestive changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes, and mild lacteal dilatation in the jejunum. The procedure was well tolerated with only a few complications. One dog suffered partial thrombosis of the cranial vena cava by the injected material with later dislodgement and embolization of a pulmonary artery branch. Modifications have been made in the injection procedure to avoid this complication. This technique for occlusion of the thoracic duct shows potential for clinical use in the management of canine chylothorax. The obstruction appears to be complete and permanent, and surgical/anesthetic time is decreased greatly from previously described procedures. PMID:2773291

  3. Inlets, ducts, and nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, James R.; Abbott, John M.

    1991-03-01

    The internal fluid mechanics research program in inlets, ducts, and nozzles is a balanced effort between the development and application of computational tools and the conduct of experimental research. The computational effort involves the development and validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes through comparison with data, the modification of existing codes to extend their range and accuracy, and the application of codes to practical problems to demonstrate their value in design. The experimental research involves both simplified and realistic complex geometries and is used for developing flow physics understanding, for validating advanced numerical analysis codes, and for developing physical models of flow phenomena. The inlet, duct, and nozzle research program is described according to three major classifications of flow phenomena: highly three-dimensional flow fields; shock and high-speed-mixing flow fields; and shear flow control. Specific examples of current and future elements of the research program are described for each of these phenomena. In particular, the highly three-dimensional flow field phenomenon is highlighted by describing the experimental and computational research program in transition ducts having a round-to-rectangular area variation. In the case of shock and high-speed-mixing flow fields, both experimental and computational results are presented for the mixing of a high-speed stream injected into a second high-speed stream. For shear flow control, research in the use of aerodynamic excitation to enhance the jet mixing process is described. In addition, results that stem from using small tabs protruding into a nozzle exit flow stream to enhance mixing are also presented. A three-dimensional, unsteady viscous code development effort that will provide a well-documented, user-friendly flow solver for computing inlet, duct, and nozzle flow fields in the future is described.

  4. Duct type charge eliminator

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    1984-09-18

    At least one planar type plasma ion source is positioned in a main duct through which charged materials pass in a manner whereby its active surface producing plasma faces the flow channel of charged materials inside the duct. The plasma ion source has at least one dielectric sheet, at least one corona electrode in operative proximity with one surface of the dielectric sheet and at least one planar type exciting electrode affixed to the opposite surface of the dielectric sheet and covering the entire area facing the corona electrode. A high voltage AC power supply energizes the plasma ion source by producing a high AC voltage and being connected to apply the voltage between the corona and the exciting electrode across the dielectric sheet whereby AC surface coronas serving as an active planar type plasma containing copious positive and negative ions are produced by the corona electrode along the one surface of the dielectric sheet and charged materials entering the flow channel inside the duct are bombarded by ions of opposite polarity from the plasma and are rapidly neutralized in charge during passage through the flow channel.

  5. Natural history and management of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harthy, Nadya; Kumagi, Teru

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that mainly targets the cholangiocytes of the interlobular bile ducts in the liver. It is a rare disease with prevalence of less than one in 2000. Its prevalence in developing countries is increasing presumably because of growth in recognition and knowledge of the disease. PBC is thought to result from a combination of multiple genetic factors and superimposed environmental triggers. The contribution of the genetic predisposition is evidenced by familial clustering. Several risk factors, including exposure to infectious agents and chemical xenobiotics, have been suggested. Common symptoms of the disease are fatigue and pruritus, but most patients are asymptomatic at first presentation. The prognosis of PBC has improved because of early diagnosis and use of ursodeoxycholic acid, the only established medical treatment for this disorder. When administered at adequate doses of 13–15 mg/kg/day, up to two out of three patients with PBC may have a normal life expectancy without additional therapeutic measures. However, some patients do not respond adequately to ursodeoxycholic acid and might need alternative therapeutic approaches. PMID:24367233

  6. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Clinical and laboratory criteria for its diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich

    2015-07-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic granulomatous, and destructive inflammatory lesion of small intralobular and septal bile ducts, which is likely to be caused by an autoimmune mechanism with a the presence of serum antimitochondrial antibodies and a potential tendency to progress to cirrhosis. Despite the fact that the etiology of this disease has been unknown so far, there has been a considerable body of scientific evidence that can reveal the clinical and laboratory signs of PBC and the individual components of its pathogenesis and elaborate diagnostic criteria for the disease and its symptomatic therapy. Deficiencies in autoimmune tolerance are critical factors for the initiation and perpetuation of the disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data available in the literature and the author's findings on clinical and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of PBC. This review describes the major clinical manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms of its development. It presents the immunological, biochemical, and morphological signs of PBC and their significance for its diagnosis. A great deal of novel scientific evidence for the problem of PBC has been accumulated. However, the inadequate efficiency of therapy for the disease lends impetus to the quest for its etiological factors and to further investigations of its pathogenetic mechanisms and, on this basis, to searches for new methods for its early diagnosis. PMID:26167070

  7. Metabonomics reveals metabolite changes in biliary atresia infants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kejun; Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Aihua; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Mingming; Ni, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Weihua; Che, Yanran; Zhang, Ting; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Wen, Jie; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare neonatal cholestatic disorder caused by obstruction of extra- and intra-hepatic bile ducts. If untreated, progressive liver cirrhosis will lead to death within 2 years. Early diagnosis and operation improve the outcome significantly. Infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) present similar symptoms, confounding the early diagnosis of BA. The lack of noninvasive diagnostic methods to differentiate BA from NHS greatly delays the surgery of BA infants, thus deteriorating the outcome. Here we performed a metabolomics study in plasma of BA, NHS, and healthy infants using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scores plots of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated BA from NHS and healthy infants. Eighteen metabolites were found to be differentially expressed between BA and NHS, among which seven (l-glutamic acid, l-ornithine, l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-valine, l-tryptophan, and l-serine) were amino acids. The altered amino acids were quantitatively verified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the network of "Cellular Function and Maintenance, Hepatic System Development and Function, Neurological Disease" was altered most significantly. This study suggests that plasma metabolic profiling has great potential in differentiating BA from NHS, and amino acid metabolism is significantly different between the two diseases. PMID:25899098

  8. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Clinical and laboratory criteria for its diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic granulomatous, and destructive inflammatory lesion of small intralobular and septal bile ducts, which is likely to be caused by an autoimmune mechanism with a the presence of serum antimitochondrial antibodies and a potential tendency to progress to cirrhosis. Despite the fact that the etiology of this disease has been unknown so far, there has been a considerable body of scientific evidence that can reveal the clinical and laboratory signs of PBC and the individual components of its pathogenesis and elaborate diagnostic criteria for the disease and its symptomatic therapy. Deficiencies in autoimmune tolerance are critical factors for the initiation and perpetuation of the disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data available in the literature and the author’s findings on clinical and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of PBC. This review describes the major clinical manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms of its development. It presents the immunological, biochemical, and morphological signs of PBC and their significance for its diagnosis. A great deal of novel scientific evidence for the problem of PBC has been accumulated. However, the inadequate efficiency of therapy for the disease lends impetus to the quest for its etiological factors and to further investigations of its pathogenetic mechanisms and, on this basis, to searches for new methods for its early diagnosis.

  9. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E., E-mail: jloper@lsuhsc.edu; Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong [Louisiana State University, Department of Radiology (United States); Ruiz, Bernardo [Louisiana State University, Department of Pathology (United States); Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido [Louisiana State University, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  10. Relationship Between Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangioscopy Findings and Pattern of Carcinomatous Spread in the Bile Duct

    PubMed Central

    Maetani, I.; Ohashi, S.; Ogawa, S.; Anzai, T.; Hoshi, H.; Yoshioka, H.; Igarashi, Y.; Sakai, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic findings such as papillogranular surface and vascular dilation, which are reportedly characteristic of carcinoma, and the pattern of spread for bile duct carcinomas, we compared endoscopic photographs with histological features of biopsy specimens in 57 regions of specimens from 35 patients with malignant stenosis of the bile duct. Regions with a papillogranular surface were associated with noninvasive mucosal carcinomas and papillary proliferation of superficial epithelia significantly more often than regions without such a surface (P<0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of the papillogranular surface to noninvasive mucosal carcinoma was 79 and 95%, respectively, that of papillary proliferation of superficial epithelia was 100 and 98%, respectively. Regions with vascular dilation were associated with invasive carcinoma significantly more often than regions without vascular dilation (P<0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of vascular dilation to invasive carcinoma were 90 and 86%, respectively. Results indicate that a papillogranular surface is related to noninvasive mucosal carcinomas while vascular dilation is related to invasive carcinomas. However, a papillogranular surface was even more closely related to papillary proliferation of superficial epithelia. PMID:18493340

  11. Diameter of the Bony Lacrimal Canal: Normal Values and Values Related to Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction: Assessment with CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred G. Janssen; Khaled Mansour; Johanna J. Bos; Jonas A. Castelijns

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epiphora, or tearing due to primary acquired nasolacri- mal duct obstruction (PANDO), is increasingly being treated with balloon dilatation. The cause of PANDO is unknown, but a small diameter of the bony nasolacrimal canal might be one of the etiologic factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of diameters of the bony

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10?cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. PMID:25430551

  13. Techniques of Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Better Delineation of the Bile Duct Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available.In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5?mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies.FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD-CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD-CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90?min; range, 15-165?min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47?min; range, 21-205?min; P?duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker.FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the "critical view of safety" during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of laparoscope close and vertically to Calot's triangle. PMID:26107666

  14. Congenital Malformations of the Gallbladder and Cystic Duct Diagnosed by Laparoscopy: High Surgical Risk

    PubMed Central

    Martín del Omo, Juan C.; Blanco, Jose I.; Cuesta, Carmen; Martín, Fernando; Toledano, Miguel; Atienza, Ramon; Vaquero, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the gallbladder are rare and can be accompanied by other malformations of the biliary or vascular tree. Being difficult to diagnose during routine preoperative studies, these anomalies can provide surgeons with an unusual surprise during laparoscopic surgery. The presence of any congenital anomaly or the mere suspicion of its existence demands that we exercise surgical prudence, limit the use of electrocoagulation, and ensure that no structure be divided until a clear picture of the bile ducts and blood vessels is obtained. If necessary, perform intraoperative cholangiography to further define the biliary system. However, if the case remains unclear, or if laparoscopy does not provide enough information, open surgery should be considered before undesirable complications occur. PMID:10694079

  15. Comparison of ultrasound and E.R.C.P. in the detection of the cause of obstructive biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Rigauts, H; Marchal, G; Van Steenbergen, W; Ponette, E

    1992-03-01

    The value of ultrasound (US) in determining the cause and site of biliary obstruction was critically evaluated and compared to endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), in a prospective study performed on 120 consecutive patients. The final diagnosis was based on surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or a combination of other examinations. Ultrasound successfully differentiated obstructive from non obstructive jaundice in 96% of the patients, comparing well with the results ERCP. US correctly defined the cause of obstruction in 71% of the patients with ductal stones, in 90% of the patients with tumoural bile duct obstruction, but only in 59% of the patients with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:1550923

  16. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

  11. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2000-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that these seals tend to fail over time periods ranging from days to years. We have used several test methods over the last few years to evaluate the longevity of duct sealants when subjected to temperatures and pressures representative of those found in the field. Traditional cloth duct tapes have been found to significantly under-perform other sealants and have been banned from receiving duct tightness credits in California's energy code (California Energy Commission 1998). Our accelerated testing apparatus has been redesigned since its first usage for improved performance. The methodology is currently under consideration by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a potential new test method. This report will summarize the set of measurements to date, review the status of the test apparatus and test method, and summarize the applications of these results to codes and standards.

  12. Th2 signals induce epithelial injury in mice and are compatible with the biliary atresia phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Mourya, Reena; Mohanty, Sujit Kumar; dos Santos, Jorge L.; Miura, Irene K.; Porta, Gilda; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2011-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a destructive cholangiopathy of childhood in which Th1 immunity has been mechanistically linked to the bile duct inflammation and obstruction that culminate in liver injury. Based on reports of decreased Th1 cytokines in some patients and the development of BA in mice lacking CD4+ T cells, we hypothesized that Th1-independent mechanisms can also activate effector cells and induce BA. Here, we tested this hypothesis using Stat1–/– mice, which lack the ability to mount Th1 immune responses. Infection of Stat1–/– mice with rhesus rotavirus type A (RRV) on postnatal day 1 induced a prominent Th2 response, duct epithelial injury and obstruction within 7 days, and atresia shortly thereafter. A high degree of phosphorylation of the Th2 transcription factor Stat6 was observed; however, concurrent inactivation of Stat1 and Stat6 in mice did not prevent BA after RRV infection. In contrast, depletion of macrophages or combined loss of Il13 and Stat1 reduced tissue infiltration by lymphocytes and myeloid cells, maintained epithelial integrity, and prevented duct obstruction. In concordance with our mouse model, humans at the time of BA diagnosis exhibited differential hepatic expression of Th2 genes and serum Th2 cytokines. These findings demonstrate compatibility between Th2 commitment and the pathogenesis of BA, and suggest that patient subgrouping in future clinical trials should account for differences in Th2 status. PMID:22005305

  13. Primary duct closure versus T-tube drainage following exploration of the common bile duct.

    PubMed

    Williams, J A; Treacy, P J; Sidey, P; Worthley, C S; Townsend, N C; Russell, E A

    1994-12-01

    T-tube drainage of the common bile duct (CBD) following duct exploration has become standard surgical practice. This randomized prospective study has compared primary closure versus T-tube drainage of the CBD following exploration for calculous disease. Thirty-seven patients underwent primary closure and 26 underwent closure over T-tube. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, indications for surgery, associated illnesses, pre-operative bilirubin, amylase and white cell count. Forty-three per cent of operations were performed by a consultant in the primary closure group and 65% in the T-tube group. There was no significant difference in the duration of operation, incidence of wound infection, surgical or other complications following operation between the two groups. However, the postoperative stay was significantly prolonged in the T-tube group, to a median of 11 days, compared to 8 days in the primary closure group (P = 0.0001). This prolongation in stay was unrelated to whether admission was as an emergency or elective. T-tube drainage of the bile continued for a median of 7 days postoperative, whereas the bile drained via a wound drain in only 13 (35%) of the primary closure group, for a median of 5 days in these 13 patients. Long-term follow up was achieved in 48 patients, by a questionnaire sent at a median of 2.8 years following operation. Abdominal pains following recovery from the operation were experienced by 18% of the primary closure group and 20% of the T-tube group. No patient developed jaundice or pancreatitis, nor needed further biliary surgery following operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7980254

  14. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  15. De-novo cholangiocarcinoma in native common bile duct remnant following OLT for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Landaverde, Carmen; Ng, Vivian; Sato, Alisa; Tabibian, James; Durazo, Francisco; Busuttil, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory and obstructive disease of the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts of unknown etiology. Currently, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only definitive treatment for PSC-related end-stage liver disease. However, PSC has been known to recur in the grafted liver. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is more commonly performed than choledochocholedochostomy for PSC, although choledochocholedochostomy has been found to be safe and efficacious for PSC if the distal common bile duct is uninvolved at the time of OLT. Our case is unique in that it describes a patient who developed de-novo cholangiocarcinoma in the remnant portion of the native common bile duct six years after OLT with choledochocholedochostomy for PSC-associated end-stage liver disease without having PSC recurrence. In conclusion, our case report indicates that choledochocholedochostomy may not be desirable in PSC due to an increased risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma in the native common bile duct. This risk exists as well with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in the remaining intra-duodenal and intra-pancreatic biliary epithelium, although in theory to a lesser extent. Therefore, the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma in the recipient common bile duct can only be completely eliminated by performing a Whipple procedure at the time of OLT. PMID:20009140

  16. Clinical application of plasma shock wave lithotripsy in treating impacted stones in the bile duct system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi; Wang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Neng-Wei; Hou, Chun-Sheng; Ling, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yao; Zhou, Xiao-Si

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To verify the safety and efficacy of plasma shock wave lithotripsy (PSWL) in fragmenting impacted stones in the bile duct system. METHODS: From September 1988 to April 2005, 67 patients (26 men and 41 women) with impacted stones underwent various biliary operations with tube (or T-tube) drainage. Remnant and impacted stones in the bile duct system found by cholangiography after the operation were fragmented by PSWL and choledochofiberscopy. A total of 201 impacted stones were fragmented by PSWL setting the voltage at 2.5-3.5 kV, and the energy output at 2-3 J for each pulse of PSWL. Then the fragmented stones were extracted by choledochofiberscopy. The safety and efficacy of PSWL were observed during and after the procedure. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-nine of 201 impacted stones (99.0%) in the bile duct system were successfully fragmented using PSWL and extracted by choledochofiberscopy. The stone clearance rate for patients was 97% (65/67). Ten patients felt mild pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, and could tolerate it well. Eleven patients had a small amount of bleeding from the mucosa of the bile duct. The bleeding was transient and stopped spontaneously within 2 min of normal saline irrigation. There were no significant complications during and after the procedure. CONCLUSION:PSWL is a safe and effective method for fragmenting impacted stones in the bile duct system. PMID:16440432

  17. Treatment of Common Bile Duct Obstruction by Pancreatic Cancer Using Various Stents: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Toshifumi; Hirai, Ritsuko; Kitagawa, Mutsuo; Takehira, Yasunori; Yamada, Masami [Department of Gastroenterology, Hamamatsu Medical Center, 328 Tomitsuka-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Tamakoshi, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Hirotoshi [SecondDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School ofMedicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Kanamori, Masao [Department of Public Health, HamamatsuUniversity School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of various means of stenting in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer in a retrospective analysis. Methods: Sixty-two patients with biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent biliary stenting. On the basis of the findings obtained by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(10 patients) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (52 patients),the site of obstruction was distal to the hilar confluence,predominantly especially in the middle to lower third of the common bile duct. Polyurethane-covered Wallstents (9 mm in diameter) we reinserted in 13 patients, while uncovered Wallstents (10 mm in diameter)were used in 10 patients and plastic stents (10 Fr and 12 Fr) were used in 39 patients. Results: Stenting was successful in 34 patients (87.2%) treated with plastic stents and in 22 patients(95.7%) treated with Wallstents. Effective biliary drainage was achieved in 32 out of 34 patients (94.1%) treated with plastic stents and in 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) treated with Wallstents. The cumulative patency rate was significantly higher for the uncovered and covered Wallstents compared to plastic stents, but was not significantly higher for covered than for uncovered Wallstents. Stentocclusion occurred in 23 patients (70%; all by clogging) from the plastic stent group, in two patients (22%; by tumor ingrowth) from the uncovered Wallstent group, and in one patient (9%; by clogging) from the covered Wallstent group. The survival rate showed no significant difference among the three stent groups. Conclusion: The Wallstent is effective for long-term palliation in patients with obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer invading the middle to lower part of the common bile duct. The covered Wallstent can prevent tumor ingrowth, a problem with the uncovered Wallstent. However, it may be necessary to take measures to prevent the migration or clogging of covered Wallstents.

  18. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Eversman

    1992-01-01

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular

  19. Management of pancreatic duct stone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Li; Sheng-Ning Zhang

    2008-01-01

    ancreatic duct stone is a rare disease. With the advancement of radiological techniques in diagnosis and in-depth study the incidence of the disease has appeared to be rising in recent years, especially in the Western world. Defined as stone or calcification in the pancreatic duct, the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, but many theories are available for its formation.

  20. Mucin gene expression in biliary epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedicte Vandenhaute; Marie-Pierre Buisine; Virginie Debailleul; Bruno Clément; Nicolas Moniaux; Marie-Claire Dieu; Pierre Degand; Nicole Porchet; Jean-Pierre Aubert

    1997-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: In recent years considerable advances have been made in our knowledge of human mucin genes. Although analysis of their genomic organization is still in progress, the pattern of their expression in different human mucosae is now fairly well established. However, little is known about their expression in the biliary tree. In this study we determined the pattern of expression

  1. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mittal; M. Deutsch; S. Iwatsuki

    1985-01-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction.

  2. Bile reflux index after therapeutic biliary procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kuran, Sedef; Parlak, Erkan; Aydog, Gulden; Kacar, Sabite; Sasmaz, Nurgul; Ozden, Ali; Sahin, Burhan

    2008-01-01

    Background Therapeutic biliary procedures disrupt the function of the sphincter of Oddi. Patients are potential "bile refluxers". The aim of this study was to assess how these procedures affect the histology-based bile reflux index (BRI), which can be used to reflect duodenogastric reflux (DGR). Methods Gastric antrum and corpus biopsies were collected from 131 subjects (56 men, 75 women; mean age, 55.9 ± 15.6 years). Group 1 (Biliary group-BG; n = 66) had undergone endoscopic sphincterotomy, endoscopic stenting, or choledochoduodenostomy for benign pathology; Group 2 (n = 20) had undergone cholecystectomy alone; and Group 3 (n = 6) Billroth II gastroenterostomy. Group 4 (no cholecystectomy; n = 39) had upper endoscopy with normal findings and served as controls. BRI > 14 indicated DGR (BRI [+]). To eliminate confounding effects of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, comparisons were made according to Hp colonization. Results Fifty-nine subjects (45%) were Hp (+). The frequencies of BRI (+) status in antrum and corpus specimens from Hp (-) BG patients were 74.3% and 71.4%, respectively (85.7% for both antrum and corpus for choledochoduodenostomy). Corresponding results were 60% and 60% for Group 2, 100% (only corpus) for Group 3, and 57.1% and 38.1% for controls (BG, Group 2, and Group 3 vs controls – p > 0.05 antrum, p < 0.05 corpus). Fifty-four BG patients had previously undergone cholecystectomy. Excluding those, the rates of BRI (+) in Hp (-) BG patients were 75% antrum and 62.5% corpus (p > 0.05 for both vs. Group 2). Conclusion Patients who had undergone biliary procedures showed similar bile-related histological changes in both corpus and antrum biopsies, but the changes seen in controls were more prominent in the antrum than corpus. Therapeutic biliary procedures increase the rate of BRI (+) especially in the case of choledochoduodenostomy. Therapeutic biliary procedures without cholecystectomy also increase the rate of BRI (+) similar to that observed in patients with cholecystectomy. PMID:18267026

  3. Accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiography compared to operative endoscopy in detecting biliary stones, a single center experience and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Polistina, Francesco A; Frego, Mauro; Bisello, Marco; Manzi, Emy; Vardanega, Antonella; Perin, Bortolo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) without contrast medium and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)/endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for biliary calculi. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, two-hundred-sixty-three patients underwent MRCP at our institution, all MRCP procedure were performed with the same machinery. In two-hundred MRCP was done for pure hepatobiliary symptoms and these patients are the subjects of this study. Among these two-hundred patients, one-hundred-eleven (55.5%) underwent ERCP after MRCP. The retrospective study design consisted in the systematic revision of all images from MRCP and EUS/ERCP performed by two radiologist with a long experience in biliary imaging, an experienced endoscopist and a senior consultant in Hepatobiliopancreatic surgery. A false positive was defined an MRCP showing calculi with no findings at EUS/ERCP; a true positive was defined as a concordance between MRCP and EUS/ERCP findings; a false negative was defined as the absence of images suggesting calculi at MRCP with calculi localization/extraction at EUS/ERCP and a true negative was defined as a patient with no calculi at MRCP ad at least 6 mo of asymptomatic follow-up. Biliary tree dilatation was defined as a common bile duct diameter larger than 6 mm in a patient who had an in situ gallbladder. A third blinded radiologist who examined the MRCP and ERCP data reviewed misdiagnosed cases. Once obtained overall data on sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) we divided patients in two groups composed of those having concordant MRCP and EUS/ERCP (Group A, 72 patients) and those having discordant MRCP and EUS/ERCP (Group B, 20 patients). Dataset comparisons had been made by the Student’s t-test and ?2 when appropriate. RESULTS: Two-hundred patients (91 men, 109 women, mean age 67.6 years, and range 25-98 years) underwent MRCP. All patients attended regular follow-up for at least 6 mo. Morbidity and mortality related to MRCP were null. MRCP was the only exam performed in 89 patients because it did show only calculi into the gallbladder with no signs of the presence of calculi into the bile duct and symptoms resolved within a few days or after colecistectomy. The patients remained asymptomatic for at least 6 mo, and we assumed they were true negatives. One hundred eleven (53 men, 58 women, mean age 69 years, range 25-98 years) underwent ERCP following MRCP. We did not find any difference between the two groups in terms of race, age, and sex. The overall median interval between MRCP and ERCP was 9 d. In detecting biliary stones MRCP Sensitivity was 77.4%, Specificity 100% and Accuracy 80.5% with a PPV of 100% and NPV of 85%; EUS showed 95% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 95.5% accuracy with 100% PPV and 57.1% NPV. The association of EUS with ERCP performed at 100% in all the evaluated parameters. When comparing the two groups, we did not find any statistically significant difference regarding age, sex, and race. Similarly, we did not find any differences regarding the number of extracted stones: 116 stones in Group A (median 2, range 1 to 9) and 27 in Group B (median 2, range 1 to 4). When we compared the size of the extracted stones we found that the patients in Group B had significantly smaller stones: 14.16 ± 8.11 mm in Group A and 5.15 ± 2.09 mm in Group B; 95% confidence interval = 5.89-12.13, standard error = 1.577; P < 0.05. We also found that in Group B there was a significantly higher incidence of stones smaller than 5 mm: 36 in Group A and 18 in Group B, P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Major finding of the present study is that choledocholithiasis is still under-diagnosed in MRCP. Smaller stones (< 5 mm diameter) are hardly visualized on MRCP. PMID:25918584

  4. Cholangitis Secondary to Food Material Impaction in the Common Bile Duct through a Choledochoduodenal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Koo; Park, Sung Min; Kim, Joon Sung; Kim, Ji Hee; Ji, Jeong-Seon; Choi, Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Biliary-enteric communications caused by duodenal ulcers are uncommon, and choledochoduodenal fistula (CDF) is by far the most common type. Usually in this situation, food material does not enter the common bile duct because the duodenal lumen is intact. Here, we report a case in which cholangitis occurred due to food materials impacted through a CDF. Duodenal obstruction secondary to duodenal ulcer prevented food passage into the duodenum in this case. Surgical management was recommended; however, the patient refused surgery because of poor general condition. Consequently, the patient expired with sepsis secondary to ascending cholangitis. PMID:26064830

  5. Different techniques for management of common bile duct stones: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    El Wakil, Mohamed Reda M; Abdelkader, Nadia A; Salem, Hossam El-Deen M; Halima Abo, Ahmed Samir

    2014-12-01

    Local experience on the combined technique of endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by endo: scopic balloon dilation is scarce. This study clarified whether this crombined technique will offer any advantages, with respect to therapeutic outcome and complications rate, as compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) alone for the extraction of large and/or multiple common bile duct stones. For a total of 76 patients, extraction of large and/or multiple common bile duct (CBD) stones during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed. According to the used technique, they were categorized into 3 groups; Endoscopic sphincterotomy, endoscopic balloon dilatation or combined technique. The success rate of complete stone removal and the incidence of procedure-related complications were compared among the three groups. Success rate after one session was recorded to be comparable among the three groups. Relative Risk Ratio assessment of success rate after single session among the three groups showed no statistically significant difference. Regarding bleeding, only 3 (10%) cases were recorded in the ES group with no cases in the, other 2 groups. No significant difference was noted among the three groups regarding other complication. The combined technique of ES followed by EBD is an effective and safe technique enables extraction of multiple and/or relatively large stones. It could be a reasonable alternative option when standard techniques are inadequate to remove bile duct stones. PMID:25643496

  6. Pancreatic duct strictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jawad Ahmad; John Martin

    2000-01-01

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a The treatment of pancreatic duct strictures is based on an accurate assessment of the etiology of the disease, and then the\\u000a degree of symptomatology. Our outline for therapy is as follows:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Exclude a diagnosis of malignancy by using radiologic, endoscopic, histologic, and molecular biologic modalities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Once a benign stricture has been demonstrated, we favor a

  7. Recent advances in endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic treatment is now recognized worldwide as the first-line treatment for bile duct stones. Endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with basket and/or balloon catheter is generally carried out for stone extraction. However, some stones are refractory to treatment under certain circumstances, necessitating additional/other therapeutic modalities. Large bile duct stones are typically treated by mechanical lithotripsy. However, if this fails, laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) is carried out under the guidance of conventional mother-baby cholangioscopy. More recently, direct cholangioscopy using an ultrathin gastroscope and the newly developed single-use cholangioscope system - the SpyGlass direct visualization system - are also used. In addition, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has also been used for stone fragmentation. Such fragmentation techniques are effective in cases with impacted stones, including Mirizzi syndrome. Most recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilationhas been introduced as an easy and effective technique for treating large and multiple stones. In cases of altered anatomy, it is often difficult to reach the papilla; in such cases, a percutaneous transhepatic approach, such as EHL or laser lithotripsy under percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy, can be a treatment option. Moreover, enteroscopy has recently been used to reach the papilla. Furthermore, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided procedure has been attempted most recently. In elderly patients and those with very poor general condition, biliary stenting only is sometimes carried out with or without giving subsequent dissolution agents. PMID:23650878

  8. Sealing ducts to save energy

    SciTech Connect

    Siuru, B.

    1996-07-01

    Large amounts of energy are wasted when heat leaks through ductwork located in uninsulated spaces. The Electric Power Research INstitute recently did a study that accurately measured these losses, then substantially reduced them by sealing the leaky ductwork. Six homes in the Pacific Northwest with significant duct leakage to the outside were selected for the study. The homes had electric resistance or heat pump, forced-air heating systems with a major portion of the supply and return ductwork in crawl spaces, attics, garages, etc. Measurements of duct leakage and heating system efficiency were done on all the homes before starting the duct sealing. Retrofitting included finding holes, gaps, cracks and disconnected joints in supply and return ducts as well as in plenums. When necessary, plenums were cut open for repairs. Leaks were sealed with Latex mastic and fiberglass tape. Outside ducts were covered or wrapped with insulation. Unducted returns were sealed with duct board. In some cases, leakage was corrected by merely reconnecting ducts and boots.

  9. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation in patients with periampullary diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) for bile duct stone extraction in patients with periampullary diverticula. METHODS: The records of 223 patients with large common bile duct stones (? 10 mm) who underwent EPLBD (12-20 mm balloon diameter) with or without limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) from July 2006 to April 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 93 (41.7%) had periampullary diverticula (PAD), which was categorized into three types. The clinical variables of EPLBD with limited ES (EPLBD + ES) and EPLBD alone were analyzed according to the presence of PAD. RESULTS: Patients with PAD were significantly older than those without (75.2 ± 8.8 years vs 69.7 ± 10.9 years, P = 0.000). The rates of overall stone removal and complete stone removal in the first session were not significantly different between the PAD and non-PAD groups, however, there was significantly less need for mechanical lithotripsy in the PAD group (3.2% vs 11.5%, P = 0.026). Overall stone removal rates, complete stone removal rates in the first session and the use of mechanical lithotripsy were not significantly different between EPLBD + ES and EPLBD alone in patients with PAD (96.6% vs 97.1%; 72.9% vs 88.2%; and 5.1% vs 0%, respectively). No significant differences with respect to the rates of pancreatitis, perforation, and bleeding were observed between EPLBD + ES and EPLBD alone in the PAD group (3.4% vs 14.7%, P = 0.095; 0% vs 0%; and 3.4% vs 8.8%, P = 0.351, respectively). CONCLUSION: EPLBD with limited ES and EPLBD alone are safe and effective modalities for common bile duct stone removal in patients with PAD, regardless of PAD subtypes. PMID:24222962

  10. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  11. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Left Hepatic Duct: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H.; Shaikh, Taher A.; Borisa, Ashok D.; Palep, Jaydeep H.; Patil, Arun S.; Manke, Aditya A.

    2012-01-01

    Primary Biliary Tract Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are extremely rare tumors with only 77 cases been reported in the literature till now. We describe a case of a left hepatic duct NET and review the literature for this rare malignancy. To the best of our knowledge the present case is the first reported case of a left hepatic duct NET in the literature. In spite of availability of advanced diagnostic tools like Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreaticography (ERCP) a definitive diagnosis of these tumors is possible only after an accurate histopathologic diagnosis of operative specimens with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Though surgical excision remains the gold standard treatment for such tumors, patients with unresectable tumors have good survival with newer biologic agents like Octreotride. PMID:23213596

  12. Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma with Compression of the Main Pancreatic Duct: An Unusual Entity

    PubMed Central

    Truant, Stéphanie; Izgarevic, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Buob, David; Bulois, Philippe; Ernst, Olivier; Huet, Guillemette; Zerbib, Philippe; Pruvot, François-René

    2011-01-01

    Serous cystadenoma is a common benign neoplasm that can be managed without surgery in asymptomatic patients provided that the diagnosis is certain. We describe a patient, whose pancreatic cyst exhibited a radiological appearance distinct from that of typical serous cystadenoma, resulting in diagnostic difficulties. CT and MRI showed a 10?cm-polycystic tumor with upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). Ultrasonographic aspect and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration gave arguments for serous cystadenoma. ERCP showed a communication between cysts and the dilated MPD, compatible with IPMT. The patient underwent left pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Pathological examination concluded in a serous cystadenoma, with only a ductal obstruction causing proximal dilatation. PMID:21436987

  13. Pancreatic serous cystadenoma with compression of the main pancreatic duct: an unusual entity.

    PubMed

    Truant, Stéphanie; Izgarevic, D; Maunoury, Vincent; Buob, David; Bulois, Philippe; Ernst, Olivier; Huet, Guillemette; Zerbib, Philippe; Pruvot, François-René

    2011-01-01

    Serous cystadenoma is a common benign neoplasm that can be managed without surgery in asymptomatic patients provided that the diagnosis is certain. We describe a patient, whose pancreatic cyst exhibited a radiological appearance distinct from that of typical serous cystadenoma, resulting in diagnostic difficulties. CT and MRI showed a 10?cm-polycystic tumor with upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). Ultrasonographic aspect and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration gave arguments for serous cystadenoma. ERCP showed a communication between cysts and the dilated MPD, compatible with IPMT. The patient underwent left pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Pathological examination concluded in a serous cystadenoma, with only a ductal obstruction causing proximal dilatation. PMID:21436987

  14. Measurements of Smoke Characteristics in HVAC Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Wolin; Noah L. Ryder; Frederic Leprince; James A. Milke; Frederick W. Mowrer; Jose L. Torero

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of smoke traveling in an HVAC duct have been observed along with the response of selected duct smoke detectors. The simulated HVAC system consists of a 9 m long duct, 0.45 m in diameter. An exhaust fan is placed at one end of the duct and is capable of inducing airflow rates that range from 0 to 1.5

  15. Heritable disorders of the bile ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binita M. Kamath; David A. Piccoli

    2003-01-01

    Diseases of the bile ducts encompass a wide range of disorders. These include those disorders primarily affecting extra and intrahepatic bile ducts and those that may be classified as panbiliary. A simple classification of bile duct disorders is represented in Box 1. This discussion focuses on heritable disorders of the bile ducts. For a discussion of so-called ''isolated'' or ''sporadic''

  16. Early versus delayed laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for common bile duct stone-related nonsevere acute cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Li, Dan; Ren, Yu; Li, Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Kai; Amin, Buhe; Gong, Ke; Lu, Yiping; Song, Ming; Zhang, Nengwei

    2015-01-01

    It is undetermined when and how laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) should be used in patients with common bile duct (CBD) stone-related nonsevere acute cholangitis. We aimed to evaluate the effect of LCBDE on the clinical outcome of those patients within (early) or beyond (delayed) 72?hours of emergent admission. Surgery-related complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), and total cost, as well as demographic and clinical parameters were compared between the two groups. Finally, 3 and 5 patients in early and delayed LCBDE group, respectively, had retained stones, which were removed by choledochoscopy before T-tube was removed. Each group had 3 patients who developed biliary leak, which was conservatively cured by the drainage. Shorter LOS and less total cost were observed in early group compared to the late one (13.34?±?4.48 vs. 18.32?±?9.13, p?

  17. Streptococcus bovis group and biliary tract infections: an analysis of 51 cases.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, J; Alonso, M P; García-Garrote, F; García-Pais, M J; Coira, A; Rabuñal, R; Gonzalez-Ramirez, A; Pita, J; Matesanz, M; Velasco, D; López-Álvarez, M J; Varela, J

    2014-05-01

    Streptococcus bovis is a well-known cause of endocarditis, but its role in other infections has not been well described. We analysed prospectively all patients with biliary tract infections caused by S. bovis group during the period 1988-2011. We selected those cases associated with cholangitis and cholecystitis, defined according to Tokyo guidelines. Identification of the strains was performed using the API 20 Strep and the GP card of the Vitek 2 system, and was confirmed by molecular methods. Our series included 51 cases (30 cholangitis and 21 cholecystitis). The associated microorganisms were: Streptococcus infantarius (biotype II/1) 29 cases (57%), Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (biotype II/2) 20 cases (39%) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (biotype I) two cases (4%). The only difference found between S. infantarius and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus was a greater association of the first with malignant strictures of the bile ducts: 48% (14/29) versus 5% (1/20), p <0.001. Thirty-seven of the cases also had bacteraemia, causing 20% (37/185) of all S. bovis bacteraemia, with differences between S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (2/112; 2%) and the other two microorganisms: S. infantarius and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (35/73; 48%; p <0.001). The vast majority of biliary tract infections due to S. bovis group are caused by S. infantarius and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (S. bovis biotype II), and nearly half of the bacteraemia due to these two species has a biliary source (43% of the S. infantarius and 56% of S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus). PMID:24033711

  18. A new self-expandable and removable metal stent for biliary obstruction--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Goldin, E; Beyar, M; Safra, T; Globerman, O; Verstandig, A; Wengrower, D; Fich, A

    1993-11-01

    We report our experience with a new self expandable metallic stent, a coil spring made from a nickel-titanium alloy. The super elastic characteristic of this metal offers a very strong radial force and previous dilatation of biliary strictures is not necessary. The stent is endoscopically inserted constricted over an introducing catheter, expanding spontaneously after release to its original 8 mm diameter. During the last six months, eleven stents were inserted in nine patients with pancreatic carcinoma to relieve jaundice. Another stent was percutaneously implanted treating a benign stricture in a patient with a choledochojejunostomy after a Whipple operation. Clinical improvement was achieved in all the patients except in one who died from liver metastases 5 weeks later. In two patients, although stents were obstructed after 2 and 4 months from insertion, they were easily removed by pulling their distal end through the endoscopic working channel. After a mean follow up of 4.5 months, patients had no evidence of biliary reobstruction. Although follow-up is short, these results are encouraging, and this new metallic stent seems to have several advantages over the current commercially available ones. PMID:8119211

  19. IgG4 Levels in Bile for Distinguishing IgG4-Associated Cholangiopathy from Other Biliary Disorders: A Single Blinded Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Gutierrez, Norma G.; Jegadeesan, Ramprasad; Venkatesh, Preethi GK; Poptic, Earl; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R.; Vargo, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-associated cholangiopathy (IAC) is an inflammatory disease and may mimic primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), or pancreatic cancer on cholangiography. We investigated whether IgG4 levels in bile aspirated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can distinguish IAC from PSC, CCA, and pancreatic cancer. Methods Bile was aspirated directly from the common bile duct during ERCP in patients with IAC prior to steroid therapy. For control purposes, bile was obtained from patients with PSC, CCA, pancreatic cancer, and benign biliary conditions (sphincter of oddi dysfunction/choledocholithiasis). Results Biliary IgG4 levels were measured in 54 patients. The median bile IgG4 levels were markedly elevated in patients with IAC (5.5 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], 5.1 to 15.6) as compared to patients with benign biliary conditions (0 mg/dL; IQR, 0 to 0.1; p=0.003). The median biliary IgG4 levels in PSC, CCA, and pancreatic cancer were 1.2 (IQR, 0.2 to 3.8), 0.9 (IQR, 0.2 to 3.4), and 0.2 mg/dL (IQR, 0.1 to 0.8), respectively. A cutoff value of 3.8 mg/dL distinguished IAC from PSC and CCA patients with 100% and 76.9% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that measurement of biliary IgG4 levels may have clinical value in distinguishing patients with IAC from biliary disorders that can mimic IAC. PMID:25505722

  20. Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Indeterminate Biliary Strictures: Refinement of the Image Interpretation Classification

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc; Jamidar, Priya; Gan, S. Ian; Cesaro, Paola; Caillol, Fabrice; Filoche, Bernard; Karia, Kunal; Smith, Ioana; Slivka, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accurate diagnosis and clinical management of indeterminate biliary strictures are often a challenge. Tissue confirmation modalities during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suffer from low sensitivity and poor diagnostic accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) has been shown to be sensitive for malignant strictures characterization (98%) but lacks specificity (67%) due to inflammatory conditions inducing false positives. Methods. Six pCLE experts validated the Paris Classification, designed for diagnosing inflammatory biliary strictures, using a set of 40 pCLE sequences obtained during the prospective registry (19 inflammatory, 6 benign, and 15 malignant). The 4 criteria used included (1) multiple thin white bands, (2) dark granular pattern with scales, (3) increased space between scales, and (4) thickened reticular structures. Interobserver agreement was further calculated on a separate set of 18 pCLE sequences. Results. Overall accuracy was 82.5% (n = 40 retrospectively diagnosed) versus 81% (n = 89 prospectively collected) for the registry, resulting in a sensitivity of 81.2% (versus 98% for the prospective study) and a specificity of 83.3% (versus 67% for the prospective study). The corresponding interobserver agreement for 18 pCLE clips was fair (k = 0.37). Conclusion. Specificity of pCLE using the Paris Classification for the characterization of indeterminate bile duct stricture was increased, without impacting the overall accuracy. PMID:25866506

  1. Role of follicle-stimulating hormone on biliary cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Onori, Paolo; Mancinelli, Romina; Franchitto, Antonio; Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Brozzetti, Stefania; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Jefferson, Douglas M.; Alpini, Gianfranco; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disorder characterized by the progressive development of renal and hepatic cysts. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has been demonstrated to be a trophic factor for biliary cells in normal rats and experimental cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Aims To assess the effect of FSH on cholangiocyte proliferation during ADPKD using both in vivo and in vitro models. Methods Evaluation of FSH receptor (FSHR), FSH, phospho-extracellular-regulated kinase (pERK) and c-myc expression in liver fragments from normal patients and patients with ADPKD. In vitro, we studied proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cAMP levels in a human immortalized, non-malignant cholangiocyte cell line (H69) and in an immortalized cell line obtained from the epithelium lining the hepatic cysts from the patients with ADPKD (LCDE) with or without transient silencing of the FSH gene. Results Follicle-stimulating hormone is linked to the active proliferation of the cystic wall and to the localization of p-ERK and c-myc. This hormone sustains the biliary growth by activation of the cAMP/ERK signalling pathway. Conclusion These results showed that FSH has an important function in cystic growth acting on the cAMP pathway, demonstrating that it provides a target for medical therapy of hepatic cysts during ADPKD. PMID:23617956

  2. Diagnosis of hydatid cyto-biliary disease by intraductal ultrasound (with video).

    PubMed

    Akel, Randa; Faraj, Walid; Haydar, Ali; Masri, Omar; El-Majzoub, Nadim; Khalife, Mohamad J; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A

    2013-10-01

    Hydatid disease is one of the relatively common infections in the Middle Eastern countries. It is seen in areas where dogs are used to raise livestock. In humans, the majority of Echinococcus cysts tends to develop in the liver (70%) and is asymptomatic. The two most common complications of hydatid cysts are abscess formation and rupture. Furthermore, in 5-25% of patients, rupture occurs into the biliary tract and patients may present with cholangitis, jaundice, abscess, or bilio-cutaneous fistula after surgery. Intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) is reportedly superior to conventional endoscopic ultrasound for the depiction of bile duct obstruction owing to its additional capability of providing higher resolution images due to the use of higher frequency transducers. Unfortunately IDUS is rarely used, possibly due to the limited availability of appropriate IDUS equipment, cost of the procedure and interventional endoscopists trained in its interpretation. IDUS with wire-guided, thin-caliber, high-frequency probes is a promising imaging modality, yet no previous reports discuss its usefulness in hydatid disease investigation. We hereby present the first report of biliary hydatid disease being diagnosed by IDUS. PMID:24949401

  3. Diagnosis of Hydatid Cyto-Biliary Disease by Intraductal Ultrasound (With Video)

    PubMed Central

    Akel, Randa; Faraj, Walid; Haydar, Ali; Masri, Omar; El-Majzoub, Nadim; Khalife, Mohamad J.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is one of the relatively common infections in the Middle Eastern countries. It is seen in areas where dogs are used to raise livestock. In humans, the majority of Echinococcus cysts tends to develop in the liver (70%) and is asymptomatic. The two most common complications of hydatid cysts are abscess formation and rupture. Furthermore, in 5-25% of patients, rupture occurs into the biliary tract and patients may present with cholangitis, jaundice, abscess, or bilio-cutaneous fistula after surgery. Intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) is reportedly superior to conventional endoscopic ultrasound for the depiction of bile duct obstruction owing to its additional capability of providing higher resolution images due to the use of higher frequency transducers. Unfortunately IDUS is rarely used, possibly due to the limited availability of appropriate IDUS equipment, cost of the procedure and interventional endoscopists trained in its interpretation. IDUS with wire-guided, thin-caliber, high-frequency probes is a promising imaging modality, yet no previous reports discuss its usefulness in hydatid disease investigation. We hereby present the first report of biliary hydatid disease being diagnosed by IDUS. PMID:24949401

  4. Nervous and Neuroendocrine regulation of the pathophysiology of cholestasis and of biliary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marzioni, Marco; Fava, Giammarco; Benedetti, Antonio

    2006-06-14

    Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the biliary ducts, are the target cells in several liver diseases. Cholangiopathies and cholangiocarcinoma generate interest in many scientists since the genesis. The developing mechanisms, and the therapeutic tools of these diseases are still undefined. Several studies demonstrate that many hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters regulate malignant and non-malignant cholangiocyte pathophysiology in the course of chronic biliary diseases. The aim of this review is to present the findings of several studies published in the recent years that contributed to clarifying the role of nervous and neuroendocrine regulation of the pathophysiologic events associated with cholestasis and cholangiocarcinoma development. This manuscript is organized into two parts. The first part offers an overview of the innervation of the liver and the origin of neuroendocrine hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides affecting cholangiocyte function and metabolism. The first section also reviews the effects played by several neuroendocrine hormones and nervous system on cholangiocyte growth, survival and functional activity in the course of cholestasis. In the second section, we summarize the results of some studies describing the role of nervous system and neuroendocrine hormones in the regulation of malignant cholangiocyte growth. PMID:16773704

  5. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Pathophysiology, clinical presentation and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Treta; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune, slowly progressive, cholestatic, liver disease characterized by a triad of chronic cholestasis, circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), and characteristic liver biopsy findings of nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis and interlobular bile duct destruction. About 10% of PBC patients, however, lack AMA. A variant, called PBC-autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) overlap, is characterized by the above findings of PBC together with findings of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, elevated serum immunoglobulin G, and circulating anti-smooth muscle antibodies, with liver biopsy demonstrating periportal or periseptal, lymphocytic, piecemeal necrosis. PBC is hypothesized to be related to environmental exposure in genetically vulnerable individuals. It typically occurs in middle-aged females. Prominent clinical features include fatigue, pruritis, jaundice, xanthomas, osteoporosis, and dyslipidemia. The Mayo Risk score is the most widely used and best prognostic system. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the primary therapy. It works partly by reducing the concentration and injury from relatively toxic bile acids. PBC-AIH overlap syndrome is treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and corticosteroids, especially budesonide. Obeticholic acid and fibrate are promising new, but incompletely tested, therapies. Liver transplantation is the definitive therapy for advanced disease, with about 70% 10-year survival after transplantation. Management of pruritis includes local skin care, dermatologist referral, avoiding potential pruritogens, cholestyramine, and possibly opioid antagonists, sertraline, or rifaximin. Management of osteoporosis includes life-style modifications, administration of calcium and vitamin D, and alendronate. Statins are relatively safe to treat the osteopenia associated with PBC. Associated Sjogren’s syndrome is treated by artificial tears, cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion to stimulate tear production; and saliva substitutes, cholinergic agents, and scrupulous oral and dental care. Complications of cirrhosis from advanced PBC include esophageal varices, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatoma formation. PMID:25954476

  6. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Pathophysiology, clinical presentation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Treta; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-05-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune, slowly progressive, cholestatic, liver disease characterized by a triad of chronic cholestasis, circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), and characteristic liver biopsy findings of nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis and interlobular bile duct destruction. About 10% of PBC patients, however, lack AMA. A variant, called PBC-autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) overlap, is characterized by the above findings of PBC together with findings of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, elevated serum immunoglobulin G, and circulating anti-smooth muscle antibodies, with liver biopsy demonstrating periportal or periseptal, lymphocytic, piecemeal necrosis. PBC is hypothesized to be related to environmental exposure in genetically vulnerable individuals. It typically occurs in middle-aged females. Prominent clinical features include fatigue, pruritis, jaundice, xanthomas, osteoporosis, and dyslipidemia. The Mayo Risk score is the most widely used and best prognostic system. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the primary therapy. It works partly by reducing the concentration and injury from relatively toxic bile acids. PBC-AIH overlap syndrome is treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and corticosteroids, especially budesonide. Obeticholic acid and fibrate are promising new, but incompletely tested, therapies. Liver transplantation is the definitive therapy for advanced disease, with about 70% 10-year survival after transplantation. Management of pruritis includes local skin care, dermatologist referral, avoiding potential pruritogens, cholestyramine, and possibly opioid antagonists, sertraline, or rifaximin. Management of osteoporosis includes life-style modifications, administration of calcium and vitamin D, and alendronate. Statins are relatively safe to treat the osteopenia associated with PBC. Associated Sjogren's syndrome is treated by artificial tears, cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion to stimulate tear production; and saliva substitutes, cholinergic agents, and scrupulous oral and dental care. Complications of cirrhosis from advanced PBC include esophageal varices, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatoma formation. PMID:25954476

  7. Image-guided intervention in the human bile duct using scanning fiber endoscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.; Jo, Javier A.; Melville, C. David; Johnston, Richard S.; Naumann, Christopher R.; Saunders, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are increasing in frequency while being difficult to diagnose. Currently available endoscopic imaging devices used in the biliary tree are low resolution with poor image quality, leading to inadequate evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures. However, a new ultrathin and flexible cholangioscope system has been successfully demonstrated in a human subject. This mini-cholangioscope system uses a scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) as a forward-imaging guidewire, dimensions of 1.2-mm diameter and 3-m length. Full color video (500-line resolution at 30Hz) is the standard SFE imaging mode using spiral scanning of red, green, and blue laser light at low power. Image-guided operation of the biopsy forceps was demonstrated in healthy human bile ducts with and without saline flushing. The laser-based video imaging can be switched to various modes to enhance tissue markers of disease, such as widefield fluorescence and enhanced spectral imaging. In parallel work, biochemical discrimination of tissue health in pig bile duct has been accomplished using fiberoptic delivery of pulsed UV illumination and time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopic measurements. Implementation of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for biochemical assessment of the bile duct wall is being done through a secondary endoscopic channel. Preliminary results indicate that adequate SNR levels (> 30 dB) can be achieved through a 50 micron fiber, which could serve as an optical biopsy probe. The SFE is an ideal mini-cholangioscope for integration of both tissue and molecular specific image contrast in the future. This will provide the physician with unprecedented abilities to target biopsy locations and perform endoscopically-guided therapies.

  8. Endoscopic management of hilar biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajiv Ranjan; Singh, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Hilar biliary strictures are caused by various benign and malignant conditions. It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignant strictures. Postcholecystectomy benign biliary strictures are frequently encountered. Endoscopic management of these strictures is challenging. An endoscopic method has been advocated that involves placement of increasing number of stents at regular intervals to resolve the stricture. Malignant hilar strictures are mostly unresectable at the time of diagnosis and only palliation is possible.Endoscopic palliation is preferred over surgery or radiological intervention. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography is quite important in the management of these strictures. Metal stents are superior to plastic stents. The opinion is divided over the issue of unilateral or bilateral stenting.Minimal contrast or no contrast technique has been advocated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography of these patients. The role of intraluminal brachytherapy, intraductal ablation devices, photodynamic therapy, and endoscopic ultrasound still remains to be defined.

  9. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2015-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures are a common indication for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Endoscopic management has evolved over the last 2 decades as the current standard of care. The most common etiologies of strictures encountered are following surgery and those related to chronic pancreatitis. High-quality cross-sectional imaging provides a road map for endoscopic management. Currently, sequential placement of multiple plastic biliary stents represents the preferred approach. There is an increasing role for the treatment of these strictures using covered metal stents, but due to conflicting reports of efficacies as well as cost and complications, this approach should only be entertained following careful consideration. Optimal management of strictures is best achieved using a team approach with the surgeon and interventional radiologist playing an important role. PMID:25613176

  10. The natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Imam, Mohamad H; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-08-01

    Our understanding of the natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been evolving especially following the introduction of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). A clearer understanding of disease pathophysiology and earlier diagnosis with increased prevalence of the disease worldwide has led to increased interest and improved outcomes in patients with PBC. In this article, the authors touch briefly on features of the disease and describe the natural history of PBC prior to and after the introduction of UDCA. PMID:25057955

  11. Bile duct ligation in the rat causes upregulation of ZO-2 and decreased colocalization of claudins with ZO-1 and occludin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Piotr Maly; Lukas Landmann

    2008-01-01

    As the only barrier between blood and bile compartments hepatocellular tight junctions play a crucial role in cholestasis-induced\\u000a increase of biliary permeability. The molecular basis of this reversible defect is not known. We, therefore, examined expression,\\u000a phosphorylation, distribution and colocalization of the junctional proteins occludin, claudin-1-3, ZO-1 and ZO-2 in rats after\\u000a bile duct ligation and release of ligation. In

  12. TWO NEW DUCT LEAKAGE TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  13. Whole genome {RNA} expression profiling of endoscopic biliary brushings provides data suitable for biomarker discovery in cholangiocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Chapman; Robert Tidswell; James S. Dooley; Neomal S. Sandanayake; Virginie Cerec; Maesha Deheragoda; Alvin J.X. Lee; Charles Swanton; Fausto Andreola; Stephen P. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Molecular analyses of biliary brushings using microarray and qPCR have the potential to provide valuable information on the biology of biliary diseases. Microarray analysis of biliary strictures has rarely been applied to endoscopic biliary brushings. Methods Biliary brushings were obtained from patients with benign and malignant biliary disease at the time of ERCP. Microarray analysis of mRNA

  14. Novel therapeutic targets in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Jessica K; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Adams, David H; Beuers, Ulrich; Mann, Derek A; Lindor, Keith D; Jones, David E J

    2015-03-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic immune-mediated liver disease characterized by progressive cholestasis, biliary fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. It results in characteristic symptoms with marked effects on life quality. The advent of large patient cohorts has challenged the view of PBC as a benign condition treated effectively by the single licensed therapy-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). UDCA nonresponse or under-response has a major bearing on outcome, substantially increasing the likelihood that liver transplantation will be required or that patients will die of the disease. In patients with high-risk, treatment-unresponsive or highly symptomatic disease the need for new treatment approaches is clear. Evolution in our understanding of disease mechanisms is rapidly leading to the advent of new and re-purposed therapeutic agents targeting key processes. Notable opportunities are offered by targeting what could be considered as the 'upstream' immune response, 'midstream' biliary injury and 'downstream' fibrotic processes. Combination therapy targeting several pathways or the development of novel agents addressing multiple components of the disease pathway might be required. Ultimately, PBC therapeutics will require a stratified approach to be adopted in practice. This Review provides a current perspective on potential approaches to PBC treatment, and highlights the challenges faced in evaluating and implementing those treatments. PMID:25645973

  15. LMNA-related dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Vaikhanskaya, Tatiyana; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Davydenko, Oleg; Kurushka, Tatsiyana; Sidorenko, Irina

    2014-09-01

    A case of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) that is likely to be associated with LMNA mutation Arg190Pro in a heterozygote is described. The features of DCM in the patient were conduction disorders, cardiac arrhythmias, progressive heart failure and minor musculoskeletal disturbances. We consider that the mutation Arg190Pro contributes to the formation of a weak nuclear lamina and diminishes muscle mechanical stability which is critical during cardiac contraction. The case report illustrates in detail the phenotypic manifestations of the novel LMNA mutation and difficulties in management related to it. PMID:25988045

  16. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  1. Customized left-sided hepatectomy and bile duct resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma in a patient with left-sided gallbladder and multiple combined anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Almodhaiberi, Helayel; Cho, Yoo-Jeong; Kwon, Yongjae; Jung, Bo-Hyun; Kim, Myeong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Left-sided gallbladder (LSGB) is a rare anomaly, but it is often associated with multiple combined variations of the liver anatomy. We present the case of a patient with LSGB who underwent successful resection of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. The patient was a 67-year-old male who presented with upper abdominal pain and obstructive jaundice. Initial imaging studies led to the diagnosis of Bismuth-Corlette type IIIB perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Due to the unique location of the gallbladder and combined multiple hepatic anomalies, LSGB was highly suspected. During surgery after hilar dissection, we recognized that the tumor was located at the imaginary hilar bile duct bifurcation, but its actual location was corresponding to the biliary confluence of the left median and lateral sections. The extent of resection included extended left lateral sectionectomy, caudate lobe resection, and bile duct resection. Since some of the umbilical portion of the portal vein was invaded, it was resected and repaired with a portal vein branch patch. Due to anatomical variation of the biliary system, only one right-sided duct was reconstructed. The patient recovered uneventfully without any complication. LSGB should be recognized as a constellation of multiple hepatic anomalies, and therefore, thorough investigations are necessary to enable the performance of safe hepatic and biliary resections.

  2. Management of biliary ascariasis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Omar Javed; Robanni, Irfan; Khan, Fayaz; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Javid, Gul

    2005-10-01

    Ascariasis is a helminthic infection of humans caused by the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Biliary ascariasis is one of the most common and well described entities caused by ascaris. In endemic areas pregnant women are prone to develop biliary ascariasis. Its management poses a great challenge to both the attending surgeon and the endoscopist. Between January 1993 and March 2003, 15 cases of biliary ascariasis were seen in pregnant patients in our institution. Ultrasonography was used as the main investigative tool. Treatment involved management by conservative, endoscopic, and surgical methods, taking due care of both the mother and the fetus. Ten patients (66.6%) were in the third trimester of pregnancy, and 10 (66.6%) patients were in their third pregnancy. Ultrasonography proved to be the best tool for diagnosing and monitoring worms inside the biliary ductal system. Nine (60%) patients responded to the conservative treatment; endoscopic extraction was successful in 4 (66.6%) patients. Surgical treatment was required in 2 (13.3%) patients. One (6.6%) patient had had spontaneous abortion at 12 weeks gestation, and one (6.6%) patient had a premature labor. The remaining patients had normal pregnancies. Management of biliary ascariasis in pregnancy is a challenge for both the attending surgeon and the endoscopist. Safe and effective management requires special attention to the gestational age and accurate recognition of the specific pathology in the patient. The majority of patients respond to conservative treatment, but endoscopic extraction may be needed in nonresponsive cases. Lead shielding of the fetus and limitation of the total fluoroscopic exposure during therapeutic endoscopy can minimize the teratogenic risk of ionizing radiation. Failures of endoscopic extraction may lead to surgical intervention, which carries risks of fetal wastage and premature labor. Routine worming of women in the child-bearing years is recommended in endemic areas of ascariasis. Though ascariasis is a problem in developing countries, because of increased travel and population migration, clinicians elsewhere should be aware of the problems associated with ascariasis. PMID:16142431

  3. Management of liver transplantation biliary stricture: Results from a tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Fernanda Prata; Kahaleh, Michel; Ferrari, Angelo P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review results of endoscopic treatment for anastomotic biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) during an 8-year period. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographys (ERCPs) performed between May 2006 and June 2014 in deceased OLT recipients with anastomotic stricture at a tertiary care hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the type of stent used (multiple plastic or covered self-expandable metal stents), which was chose on a case-by-case basis and their characteristics. The primary outcome was anastomotic stricture resolution rate determined if there was no more than a minimum waist at cholangiography and a 10 mm balloon could easily pass through the anastomosis with no need for further intervention after final stent removal. Secondary outcomes were technical success rate, number or ERCPs required per patient, number of stents placed, stent indwelling, stricture recurrence rate and therapy for recurrent anastomotic biliary stricture (AS). Stricture recurrence was defined as clinical laboratorial and/or imaging evidence of obstruction at the anastomosis level, after it was considered completely treated, requiring subsequent interventional procedure. RESULTS: A total of 195 post-OLT patients were assessed for eligibility. One hundred and sixty-four (164) patients were diagnosed with anastomotic biliary stricture. ERCP was successfully performed in 157/164 (95.7%) patients with AS, that were treated with either multiple plastic (n = 109) or metallic billiary stents (n = 48). Mean treatment duration, number of procedures and stents required were lower in the metal stent group. Acute pancreatitis was the most common procedure related complication, occurring in 17.1% in the covered self-expandable metal stents (cSEMS) and 4.1% in the multiple plastic stent (MPS) group. Migration was the most frequent stent related complication, observed in 4.3% and 5.5% (cSEMS and MPS respectively). Stricture resolution was achieved in 86.8% in the cSEMS group and in 91% in MPS group. Stricture recurrence after a median follow up of 20 mo was observed in 10 (30.3%) patients in the cSEMS and 7 (7.7%) in the plastic stent group, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0017). Successful stricture resolution after secondary treatment was achieved in 66.6% and 62.5% of patients respectively in the cSEMS and plastic stents groups. CONCLUSION: Multiple plastic stents are currently the first treatment option for AS in patients with duct-to-duct anastomosis. cSEMS was associated with increased pancreatitis risk and higher recurrence rate. PMID:26140103

  4. Common bile duct injury by fibrin glue: report of a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Wu, Ping; Ma, Yue-Feng; Lin, Mei-Ju; Shi, Li-Jun; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Fibrin glue is widely used in clinical practice and plays an important role in reducing postoperative complications. We report a case of a 65-year-old man, whose common bile duct was injured by fibrin glue, with a history of failed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open operation for uncontrolled laparoscopic bleeding. In view of the persistent liver dysfunction, xanthochromia and skin itching, the patient was admitted to us for further management. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed multiple stones in the common bile duct, and liver function tests confirmed the presence of obstructive jaundice and liver damage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was unsuccessfully performed to remove choledocholithiasis, but a small amount of tissue was removed and pathologically confirmed as calcified biliary mucosa. This was followed by open surgery for suspicious cholangiocarcinoma. There was no evidence of cholangiocarcinoma, but the common bile duct wall had a defect of 8 mm × 10 mm at Calot's triangle. A hard, grid-like foreign body was removed, which proved to be solid fibrin glue. Subsequently, the residual choledocholithiasis was removed by a choledochoscopic procedure, and the common bile duct deletion was repaired by liver round ligament with T-tube drainage. Six months later, endoscopy was performed through the T-tube fistula and showed a well-repaired bile duct wall. Eight months later, MRCP confirmed no bile duct stenosis. A review of reported cases showed that fibrin glue is widely used in surgery, but it can also cause organ damage. Its mechanism may be related to discharge reactions. PMID:25759561

  5. The wavelet dimension function for real dilations and dilations admitting non-MSF wavelets

    E-print Network

    Speegle, Darrin

    The wavelet dimension function for real dilations and dilations admitting non-MSF wavelets Marcin Bownik and Darrin Speegle Abstract. The wavelet dimension function for arbitrary real dilations is defined and used to address several questions involving the existence of MRA wavelets and well

  6. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage With Postoperative Outcome Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Karpeh, Martin S.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Summary Background Data Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. Conclusions Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. This suggests that preoperative biliary drainage should be avoided whenever possible in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Such a change in current preoperative management may improve patient outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:10450725

  7. Identification of parasite DNA in common bile duct stones by PCR and DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Sun; Kim, Kyung Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2007-01-01

    We attempted to identify parasite DNA in the biliary stones of humans via PCR and DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from each of 15 common bile duct (CBD) stones and 5 gallbladder (GB) stones. The patients who had the CBD stones suffered from cholangitis, and the patients with GB stones showed acute cholecystitis, respectively. The 28S and 18S rDNA genes were amplified successfully from 3 and/or 1 common bile duct stone samples, and then cloned and sequenced. The 28S and 18S rDNA sequences were highly conserved among isolates. Identity of the obtained 28S D1 rDNA with that of Clonorchis sinensis was higher than 97.6%, and identity of the 18S rDNA with that of other Ascarididae was 97.9%. Almost no intra-specific variations were detected in the 28S and 18S rDNA with the exception of a few nucleotide variations, i.e., substitution and deletion. These findings suggest that C. sinensis and Ascaris lumbricoides may be related with the biliary stone formation and development. PMID:18165713

  8. Balloon dilation itself may not be a major determinant of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ill; Yun, Gak Won; Lee, Dong Ki

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the essential first modality for common bile duct (CBD) stone therapy. The conventional endoscopic treatment for CBD stones is stone removal after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Stone removal after papillary stretching using balloon dilation instead of the conventional method has been widely adopted. There are many reports regarding endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) utilizing a small balloon (< 10 mm) instead of EST for the removal of small CBD stones. In contrast, two cases of mortality due to post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) were reported after an EPBD clinical trial in the Western world, and the psychological barrier caused by these incidences hinders the use of this technique in Western countries. Endoscopic papillar large balloon dilation (EPLBD), which is used to treat large CBD stones, was not widely adopted when first introduced due to concerns about perforation and severe pancreatitis from the use of a large balloon (12-20 mm). However, as experience with this procedure accumulates, the occurrence of PEP with EPLBD is confirmed to be much lower than with EPBD. This report reviews whether EPBD and EPLBD, two procedures that use balloon dilation but differ in terms of indications and concept, contribute to the occurrence of PEP. PMID:25493004

  9. Hepatocellular Hypoxia-Induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Angiogenesis in Experimental Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Rosmorduc, Olivier; Wendum, Dominique; Corpechot, Christophe; Galy, Bruno; Sebbagh, Nicole; Raleigh, James; Housset, Chantal; Poupon, Raoul

    1999-01-01

    We tested the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the angiogenesis associated with experimental liver fibrogenesis induced by common bile duct ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal rats, VEGF and FGF-2 immunoreactivities were restricted to less than 3% of hepatocytes. One week after bile duct ligation, hypoxia was demonstrated by the immunodetection of pimonidazole adducts unevenly distributed throughout the lobule. After 2 weeks, hypoxia and VEGF expression were detected in >95% of hepatocytes and coexisted with an increase in periportal vascular endothelial cell proliferation, as ascertained by Ki67 immunolabeling. Subsequently, at 3 weeks the density of von Willebrand-labeled vascular section in fibrotic areas significantly increased. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that VEGF120 and VEGF164 transcripts, that correspond to secreted isoforms, increased within 2 weeks, while VEGF188 transcripts remained unchanged. FGF-2 mainly consisting of a 22-kd isoform, according to Western blot, was identified by immunohistochemistry in 49% and 100% of hepatocytes at 3 and 7 weeks, respectively. Our data provide evidence that in biliary-type liver fibrogenesis, angiogenesis is stimulated primarily by VEGF in response to hepatocellular hypoxia while FGF-2 likely contributes to the maintenance of angiogenesis at later stages. PMID:10514389

  10. Management of post-cholecystectomy biliary fistula according to type of cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Ahmad M.; Elnakeeb, Ayman M.; Elshobary, Mohamed M.; El-Geidi, Ahmed A.; Salah, Tarek; El-hanafy, Ehab A.; Atif, Ehab; Hamdy, Emad; Elebiedy, Gamal K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: A study was undertaken to describe the management of post-cholecystectomy biliary fistula according to the type of cholecystectomy. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 111 patients was undertaken. They were divided into open cholecystectomy (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) groups. Results: Of the 111 patients, 38 (34.2?%) underwent LC and 73 (65.8?%) underwent OC. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) diagnosed major bile duct injury (BDI) in 27 patients (38.6?%) in the OC group and in 3 patients (7.9?%) in the LC group (P?=?0.001). Endoscopic management was not feasible in 15 patients (13.5?%) because of failed cannulation (n?=?3) or complete ligation of the common bile duct (n?=?12). Endoscopic therapy stopped leakage in 35 patients (92.1?%) and 58 patients (82.9?%) following LC and OC, respectively, after the exclusion of 3 patients in whom cannulation failed (P?=?0 0.150). Major BDI was more commonly detected after OC (P?

  11. Low doses of CMV induce autoimmune-mediated and inflammatory responses in bile duct epithelia of regulatory T cell-depleted neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jie; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Jun; Pan, Weihua; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Wenbin; Chen, Yingwei; Zhou, Kejun; Wang, Yang; Shi, Bisheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Yuan, Zhenghong; Cai, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have indicated that perinatal infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) may promote bile duct damage in biliary atresia (BA) and that the decreased regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage associated with BA may further amplify the bile duct damage. Although a majority of BA patients have had previous CMV infections and lower percentages of Tregs, it is unknown whether an initial exposure to a low dose of CMV could induce exaggerated and progressive biliary injury. A Treg-depleted neonatal mouse was infected with low-dose CMV (LD-CMV) as a model to study BA patients. LD-CMV infection in Treg-depleted mice induced extensive inflammation in both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, accompanied with injury to and atresia of intrahepatic bile ducts and partial obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Serum total and direct bilirubin amounts were also elevated. Evidence for the involvement of cellular and humoral autoimmune responses in LD-CMV-infection of Treg-depleted mice was also obtained through detection of increased percentages of CD3 and CD8 mononuclear cells and serum autoantibodies reactive to bile duct epithelial proteins, one of which was identified as ?-enolase. Depletion of Tregs that can lead to the decreased inhibition of aberrantly activated hepatic T-lymphocytes and generation of autoantibodies may lead to further injury. Increased hepatic expression of Th1-related genes (TNF-?), IFN-?-activated genes (STAT-1) and Th1 cytokines (TNF-?, lymphotactin, IL-12p40 and MIP -1?) were also identified. In conclusion, autoimmune-mediated and inflammatory responses induced by LD-CMV infection in Treg-depleted mice results in increased intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct injury and contributed to disease progression. PMID:25531565

  12. Gallstone prevalence and biliary lipid composition in inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Marks; D. R. Conley; T. L. Capretta; G. G. Bonorris; A. Chung; M. J. Coyne; L. J. Schoenfield

    1977-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol saturation has been correlated with disease variables that might effect bile acid loss in ileitis patients with (N=9) or without (N=8) intestinal resection having a defined prevalence of gallstones. In addition, cholesterol saturation was determined in ulcerative colitis patients (N=7) and gallstone patients (N=18) as well as in 5 normal controls. Biliary cholestrol saturation in ileitis patients both

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma with sarcomatous change arising in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Komada; Minako Yamagata; Kazutaka Komura; Katsuhiro Hayashi; Toshihiro Maruyama; Hiroaki Kataoka; Masashi Koono; Hirohito Tsubouchi

    1997-01-01

    We report an autopsy case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with sarcomatous change arising in the context of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in a 79-year-old man. Primary biliary cirrhosis was diagnosed (stage I according to Scheuer's classification) by findings on blood biochemical analysis, laparoscopy, and liver biopsy at age 69 years. Five years later, (at age 74 years), a mass lesion

  14. Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A A Polydorou; S R Cairns; J F Dowsett; A R Hatfield; P R Salmon; P B Cotton; R C Russell

    1991-01-01

    For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification).

  15. Clinical pathway implementation improves outcomes for complex biliary surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry A. Pitt; Kevin P. Murray; Helen M. Bowman; JoAnn Coleman; Toby A. Gordon; Charles J. Yeo; Keith D. Lillemoe; John L. Cameron

    1999-01-01

    Background: Complex biliary surgery is associated with significant morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and high cost. Clinical pathway implementation has the potential to standardize treatment and improve outcomes. Therefore the aim of this analysis was to determine whether clinical pathway implementation and\\/or feedback of outcome data would alter hospital stay, charges, and mortality rates for complex biliary surgery at an academic

  16. Biliary tract anomalies in thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecka L. Meyers; Michael E. Matlak

    2002-01-01

    Thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins were separated urgently on the ninth day of life because of bowel obstruction and impending intestinal perforation. Preoperative studies clarified the cardiac, intestinal, and hepatic parenchymal anomalies, but the precise biliary anatomy remained obscure. Operative cholangiogram through the single gallbladder visualized only the extrahepatic biliary anatomy in twin A. At reoperation for abdominal patch removal, exploration in

  17. DILATION OF CONTRACTIVE TUPLES: A SURVEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIRTHANKAR BHATTACHARYYA

    In this survey article we start with the unitary dilation of a single contraction due to Sz.-Nagy and Foias (46). Ando gave a generaliza- tion to a pair of commuting contractions (2). He proved that such a pair has a simultaneous commuting dilation. Then came the startling revealation from Varopoulos (47), Parrott (37) and Crabb-Davie (19) that this phenomenon can

  18. Mechanical Properties of Dilated Human Ascending Aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth J. Okamoto; Jessica E. Wagenseil; William R. DeLong; Sara J. Peterson; Nicholas T. Kouchoukos; Thoralf M. Sundt; III

    2002-01-01

    Dilation of the ascending aorta, associated with Marfan Syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, or advanced age, may lead to aortic dissection and rupture. Mathematical models can be used to assess the relative importance of increased wall stresses and decreased strength in these mechanical failures. To obtain needed inputs for such models, mechanical properties of dilated human ascending aorta were measured in

  19. Vascular dysfunction in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago Roura; Antoni Bayes-Genis

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is defined as myocardial dilatation and dysfunction in the absence of overt coronary heart disease. Myocardial injury and genetic or environmental factors can lead to the development of IDCM, which was historically characterized by marked abnormalities in the function and integrity of cardiomyocytes. However, cardiac endothelial dysfunction has also been shown to be associated with progression

  20. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884...Surgical Devices § 884.4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two...

  1. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884...Surgical Devices § 884.4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two...

  2. What Are the Key Statistics about Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for bile duct cancer? What are the key statistics about bile duct cancer? Bile duct cancer is ... it is when it is found. For survival statistics, see the section “ Survival statistics for bile duct ...

  3. Endoscopic extraction of large common bile duct stones: A review article.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Gerasimos; Christodoulou, Christos; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Chuttani, Ram

    2012-05-16

    Since therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography replaced surgery as the first approach in cases of choledocolithiasis, a plethora of endoscopic techniques and devices appeared in order to facilitate rapid, safe and effective bile duct stones extraction. Nowadays, endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with balloon catheters and/or baskets is the routine endoscopic technique for stone extraction in the great majority of patients. Large common bile duct stones are treated conventionally with mechanical lithotripsy, while the most serious complication of the procedure is "basket and stone impaction" that is predominately resolved surgically. In cases of difficult, impacted, multiple or intrahepatic stones, more sophisticated procedures have been used. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy and laser lithotripsy are performed using conventional mother-baby scope systems, ultra-thin cholangioscopes, thin endoscopes and ultimately using the novel single use, single operator SpyGlass Direct Visualization System, in order to deliver intracorporeal shock wave energy to fragment the targeted stone, with very good outcomes. Recently, large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy confirmed its effectiveness in the extraction of large stones in a plethora of trials. When compared with mechanical lithotripsy or with balloon dilation alone, it proved to be superior. Moreover, dilation is an ideal alternative in cases of altered anatomy where access to the papilla is problematic. Endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation represents the onset of a new era in large bile duct stone extraction and the management of "impaction" because it seems that is an effective, inexpensive, less traumatic, safe and easy method that does not require sophisticated apparatus and can be performed widely by skillful endoscopists. When complete extraction of large stones is unsuccessful, the drainage of the common bile duct is mandatory either for bridging to the final therapy or as a curative therapy for very elderly patients with short life expectancy. Placing of more than one plastic endoprostheses is better while the administration of Ursodiol is ineffective. The great majority of patients with large stones can be treated endoscopically. In cases of unsuccessful stone extraction using balloons, baskets, mechanical lithotripsy, electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy and large balloon dilation, the patient should be referred for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or a percutaneous approach and finally surgery. PMID:22624068

  4. Endoscopic extraction of large common bile duct stones: A review article

    PubMed Central

    Stefanidis, Gerasimos; Christodoulou, Christos; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Chuttani, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Since therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography replaced surgery as the first approach in cases of choledocolithiasis, a plethora of endoscopic techniques and devices appeared in order to facilitate rapid, safe and effective bile duct stones extraction. Nowadays, endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with balloon catheters and/or baskets is the routine endoscopic technique for stone extraction in the great majority of patients. Large common bile duct stones are treated conventionally with mechanical lithotripsy, while the most serious complication of the procedure is “basket and stone impaction” that is predominately resolved surgically. In cases of difficult, impacted, multiple or intrahepatic stones, more sophisticated procedures have been used. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy and laser lithotripsy are performed using conventional mother-baby scope systems, ultra-thin cholangioscopes, thin endoscopes and ultimately using the novel single use, single operator SpyGlass Direct Visualization System, in order to deliver intracorporeal shock wave energy to fragment the targeted stone, with very good outcomes. Recently, large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy confirmed its effectiveness in the extraction of large stones in a plethora of trials. When compared with mechanical lithotripsy or with balloon dilation alone, it proved to be superior. Moreover, dilation is an ideal alternative in cases of altered anatomy where access to the papilla is problematic. Endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation represents the onset of a new era in large bile duct stone extraction and the management of “impaction” because it seems that is an effective, inexpensive, less traumatic, safe and easy method that does not require sophisticated apparatus and can be performed widely by skillful endoscopists. When complete extraction of large stones is unsuccessful, the drainage of the common bile duct is mandatory either for bridging to the final therapy or as a curative therapy for very elderly patients with short life expectancy. Placing of more than one plastic endoprostheses is better while the administration of Ursodiol is ineffective. The great majority of patients with large stones can be treated endoscopically. In cases of unsuccessful stone extraction using balloons, baskets, mechanical lithotripsy, electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy and large balloon dilation, the patient should be referred for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or a percutaneous approach and finally surgery. PMID:22624068

  5. Flat Oval Spiral Duct Deflection 

    E-print Network

    Daugherty, Matthew

    2014-03-10

    . [18] Ducts can be used in many applications some; applications might be high temperature or even corrosive or abrasive. Ducts are generally used in industrial ventilation, air pollution, and dust collecting systems. Metals can corrode from chemicals... 3. A Blower System 4. A Data Acquisition and Control System 5. Fork Extenders 3.1 Truss Structure A 16x16 inch truss was constructed for the backbone of the structure. The struc- ture was built from 2x2x1/8 inch angle iron and 3/8 inch rod A36 steel...

  6. Performance Study of a Ducted Fan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel with the objective of determining the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The model was an annular duct with a 38-in diameter, 10-in chord, and a 5-bladed fixed-pitch fan. Model variations included duct angle of attack, exit vane flap length, flap deflection angle, and duct chord length. Duct performance data were obtained for axial and forward flight test conditions. Axial flow test data showed figure of merit decreases with increasing advance ratio. Forward flight data showed an increasing propulsive force with decreasing duct angle of attack. Exit vane flap deflection angle and flap chord length were shown to be an effective way of providing side force. Extending the duct chord did not effect the duct performance.

  7. Is endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation without endoscopic sphincterotomy effective?

    PubMed Central

    Omuta, Shigefumi; Maetani, Iruru; Saito, Michihiro; Shigoka, Hiroaki; Gon, Katsushige; Tokuhisa, Junya; Naruki, Mieko

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation (EPLBD) without endoscopic sphincterotomy in a prospective study. METHODS: From July 2011 to August 2013, we performed EPLBD on 41 patients with naïve papillae prospectively. For sphincteroplasty of EPLBD, endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) was not performed, and balloon diameter selection was based on the distal common bile duct diameter. The balloon was inflated to the desired pressure. If the balloon waist did not disappear, and the desired pressure was satisfied, we judged the dilatation as complete. We used a retrieval balloon catheter or mechanical lithotripter (ML) to remove stones and assessed the rates of complete stone removal, number of sessions, use of ML and adverse events. Furthermore, we compared the presence or absence of balloon waist disappearance with clinical characteristics and endoscopic outcome. RESULTS: The mean diameters of the distal and maximum common bile duct were 13.5 ± 2.4 mm and 16.4 ± 3.1 mm, respectively. The mean maximum transverse-diameter of the stones was 13.4 ± 3.4 mm, and the mean number of stones was 3.0 ± 2.4. Complete stone removal was achieved in 97.5% (40/41) of cases, and ML was used in 12.2% (5/41) of cases. The mean number of sessions required was 1.2 ± 0.62. Pancreatitis developed in two patients and perforation in one. The rate of balloon waist disappearance was 73.1% (30/41). No significant differences were noted in procedure time, rate of complete stone removal (100% vs 100%), number of sessions (1.1 vs 1.3, P = 0.22), application of ML (13% vs 9%, P = 0.71), or occurrence of pancreatitis (3.3% vs 9.1%, P = 0.45) between cases with and without balloon waist disappearance. CONCLUSION: EST before sphincteroplasty may be unnecessary in EPLBD. Further investigations are needed to verify the relationship between the presence or absence of balloon waist disappearance. PMID:26109817

  8. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor as a biomarker for predicting prognosis in biliary tract cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, HIDEO; ROA, JUAN C.; KAWAMOTO, TORU; ISHIGE, KAZUNORI; WISTUBA, IGNACIO I.; LI, DONGHUI; THOMAS, MELANIE B.; SHODA, JUNICHI

    2015-01-01

    Carcinomas of the gallbladder (GBCa) and bile ducts are aggressive tumors with poor survival and it is, therefore, essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the various signaling pathways in order to develop effective therapies. In this study, tumor specimens from 40 GBCa patients, 12 extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma patients and 26 intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma patients from the USA and Japan were investigated for insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma-1 (Raf-1) expression by immunohistochemistry; in addition, the correlations with histological type, pathological stage and patient outcome were analyzed. Positive expression of IGF-IR, mTOR and Raf-1 were identified in 68, 73 and 85% of the specimens, respectively. There was no association with histological type and pathological stage, although the positive expression rate of Raf-1 was higher in advanced-stage GBCa. Moreover, patients with positive expression of IGF-IR exhibited significantly reduced survival compared to those with negative IGF-IR expression. In conclusion, IGF-IR, mTOR and Raf-1 were highly expressed in biliary tract cancer and targeted therapy against IGF-IR may be an effective strategy. Among these molecules, IGF-IR expression was found to be a useful biomarker for identifying patients who may benefit from additional treatment.

  9. Bilateral mammary duct ectasia induced by sulpiride-associated hyperprolactinemia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CONG, YIZI; ZOU, HAIDONG; QIAO, GUANGDONG; LIN, JUN; WANG, XINGMIAO; LI, XIAOHUI; LI, YALUN; ZHU, SHIGUANG

    2015-01-01

    A 32 year old female diagnosed with schizophrenia was treated with sulpiride, trihexyphenidyl and alprazolam for 6 years. A physical examination revealed bilateral nipple retraction and a non-tender mass in the left breast, with little nipple discharge. Tests revealed high levels of carbohydrate antigen 125, serum prolactin and testosterone levels, and ultrasound revealed a number of masses in the bilateral breasts; the largest mass (2.2×1.3 cm) was located in the left breast. A rich blood flow signal was identified around the nodule. The ducts in the bilateral breasts exhibited cystic ectasia. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were found in the bilateral axillae. Mammography revealed thickened breast tissue without an evident mass, and calcification. A segmental mastectomy was performed and subsequent histological examination revealed multiple dilated ducts, the largest of which contained eosinophilic material. The pathological diagnosis was of breast duct dilatation. Bacterial culture and drug sensitivity analysis of the secretions from the cystic cavity revealed no bacterial growth, and an acid fast bacillus stain was negative. Extravasation of the surgical wound occurred 1 month later, and Staphylococcus epidermidis was observed using a bacterial culture. This was treated with moxifloxacin for 1 week. It was suggested that the patient should switch to a prolactin sparing antipsychotic in view of the hyperprolactinemia, however, the patient refused. After a clinical follow-up of 16 months, the wound had healed well and no palpable mass was found in the breast.

  10. LBNL -45423 Stopping Duct Quacks: Longevity of

    E-print Network

    of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics connections. Without these seals, duct systems would be extremely leaky and inefficient. Field studies (Jump that field studies (Walker at al. 1998) have shown that ducts located within the thermal envelope (e

  11. Surgical management of persistent müllerian duct syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Vandersteen; Amy K. Chaumeton; Karen Ireland; Edward S. Tank

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the optimal surgical management of the testes and müllerian duct structures in patients with persistent müllerian duct syndrome.Methods. We performed a comprehensive Medline literature search regarding the surgical management of persistent müllerian duct syndrome and extracted information regarding the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disorder. We specifically assessed the risks of retained müllerian structures versus surgical

  12. Double Duct Sign: Reassessed Significance in ERCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Plumley; C. A. Rohrman; P. C. Freeny; F. E. Silverstein

    The double duct sign, defined as an abnormality of both the pancreatic duct and the contiguous part of intrapancreatic common bile duct, was found in 52 of 1180 patients studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Thirty patients were proved to have pancreatic malignancy and 22, benign pancreatic disease. Specific ductal characteristics found to indicate a malignant process were ductal obstruction, especially

  13. Invasive biliary mucinous cystic neoplasm: a review

    PubMed Central

    Simo, Kerri A; Mckillop, Iain H; Ahrens, William A; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A; Sindram, David

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Biliary mucinous cystic neoplasms (BMCNs) are recently redefined rare liver tumours in which insufficient recognition frequently leads to an incorrect initial or delayed diagnosis. A concise review of the subtle, sometimes non-specific, clinical, serologic and radiographic features will allow for a heightened awareness and more comprehensive understanding of these entities. Methods Literature relating to the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, pathology and outcomes of BMCNs and published prior to March 2012 was reviewed. Results Biliary mucinous cystic neoplasms most commonly occur in females (?60%) in the fifth decade of life. Clinical symptoms, serologic markers and imaging modalities are unreliable for diagnosis of BMCNs, which leads to misdiagnosis in 55–100% of patients. Perioperative cyst aspiration is not recommended as invasive BMCNs can only be differentiated from non-invasive BMCNs by microscopic evaluation for the presence of ovarian-type stroma. Intraoperative biopsy and frozen section(s) are essential to differentiate BMCNs from other cystic liver lesions. The treatment of choice is complete excision and can result in excellent survival with initial correct diagnosis. Conclusions A low threshold for considering BMCN in the differential diagnosis of cystic liver lesions and increased attentiveness to its subtle diagnostic characteristics are imperative. The complete surgical resection of BMCNs and the use of appropriate nomenclature are necessary to improve outcomes and accurately define prognosis. PMID:23043661

  14. [Useful device for hepatectomy in patients with a surgical history of bile duct-GI tract anastomosis at the porta hepatis].

    PubMed

    Amikura, Katsumi; Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Takahashi, Amane; Ogura, Toshiro; Omichi, Kiyohiko; Ehara, Kazuhisa; Fukuda, Takashi; Yatsuoka, Toshimasa; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    We experienced three hepatectomies in patients with a history of bile duct-gastrointestinal (GI) tract anastomosis at the porta hepatis. Patient 1 had a history of pancreaticoduodenectomy for bile duct cancer. Because the third liver metastasis of cecal cancer postoperatively invaded the right kidney, after 5 courses of FOLFOX we performed partial resection of the liver (S6) and the right kidney using microwave pre-coagulation and a cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) without the Pringle method. Patient 2 had a history of splenectomy for congenital spherocytosis, cholecystectomy, choledocholithotomy, and bile duct duodenal anastomosis for hepatolithiasis. Partial (S5) liver resection was performed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Patient 3 had a history of bile duct resection and choledochojejunostomy for congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct. She had repeated episodes of cholangitis in the year following surgery. Extended liver segmental (S4) resection was performed to treat intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma. Bile duct jejunum anastomosis was performed, and the portal vein and the hepatic artery in the porta hepatis were exfoliated. Hepatectomy was performed using the Pringle method and a CUSA. Surgical procedures using various devices are necessary for hepatectomy in patients with a history of bile duct-GI tract anastomosis at the porta hepatis. PMID:25731231

  15. Ducted propeller design and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    The theory and implementation of the design of a ducted propeller blade are presented and discussed. Straightener (anti-torque) vane design is also discussed. Comparisons are made to an existing propeller design and the results and performance of two example propeller blades are given. The inflow velocity at the propeller plane is given special attention and two dimensionless parameters independent of

  16. Duct injection technology prototype development

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S.L. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. [Surgical treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, B A; Korotkov, A V; Belianko, I E; Sandrikov, V A; Dolotov V K; Ternovskaia, E A; Eremenko, A A; Kolpakov, P E

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of different variants of left ventricular geometrical reconstruction (LVGR) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DKMP) were studied in 2-stage clinical trial during 4 years. Results of left ventricle plication, "Myosplint" surgery and implantation of extracardial net framework (ECNF) complemented with mitral insufficiency correction (in case of need) have been evaluated on the first stage of the study. Based on this study, the implantation of ECNF and correction of mitral insufficiency are recognized as the most effective and safe method of DKMP surgical treatment. Short- and long-term results of these surgical procedures have been studied on the second stage of the study. Overall 30 surgeries of LVGR have been performed (18 on stage 1 and 12 on stage 2 of the study). Hospital lethality on stage 1 was 27%, 4-year actuarial survival rate (taking into account hospital lethality)--54+/-12%. Original protocols of surgical, anesthetic and intensive care management led to decrease of hospital lethality to 8% and an increase of 2-year actuarial survival rate to 91.6+/-7.9% (that significantly higher than in the control group treated with therapeutic methods only). PMID:17047625

  18. Spectrum of biliary complications following live donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, Priya; Kesar, Varun; Ahmad, Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with advanced liver disease, including decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and acute liver failure. Organ shortage is the main determinant of death on the waiting list and hence living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) assumes importance. Biliary complications are the most common post operative morbidity after LDLT and occur due to anatomical and technical reasons. They include biliary leaks, strictures and cast formation and occur in the recipient as well as the donor. The types of biliary complications after LDLT along with their etiology, presenting features, diagnosis and endoscopic and surgical management are discussed.

  19. Nemaline myopathy with dilated cardiomyopathy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gatayama, Ryohei; Ueno, Kentaro; Nakamura, Hideaki; Yanagi, Sadamitsu; Ueda, Hideaki; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Seiyo

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of a 9-year-old boy with nemaline myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. The combination of nemaline myopathy and cardiomyopathy is rare, and this is the first reported case of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with childhood-onset nemaline myopathy. A novel mutation, p.W358C, in ACTA1 was detected in this patient. An unusual feature of this case was that the patient's cardiac failure developed during early childhood with no delay of gross motor milestones. The use of a ?-blocker did not improve his clinical course, and the patient died 6 months after diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Congenital nonprogressive nemaline myopathy is not necessarily a benign disorder: deterioration can occur early in the course of dilated cardiomyopathy with neuromuscular disease, and careful clinical evaluation is therefore necessary. PMID:23650303

  20. Efficacy of endoscopic guided anterograde 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty with silicone intubation in treatment of acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstruction in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To report the outcomes of endoscopic guided anterograde 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty with silicone intubation in patients with acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions in adults. Methods Retrospective case series, included 21 eyes with partially obstructed nasolacrimal ducts of 12 patients. All the 21 ducts were initially probed and the probe confirmed with an endoscope in the inferior meatus. After confirming the presence of probe in the inferior meatus, a 3 mm balloon was used for dilating the distal and proximal portions of nasolacrimal duct, followed by stenting of ducts with Crawford tubes. Main outcome measures were anatomical patency of the passage and resolution of epiphora. Results Of the 12 patients, 9 had bilateral and 3 had unilateral acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions. All the patients underwent bicanalicular stenting under endoscopic guidance which were retained for a period of 12 weeks. A minimum follow up of 6 months following stent removal was considered for final analysis. 15 of the 21 ducts (71%) were freely patent on irrigation but 13 of the 21 reported improvement of epiphora. Two nasolacrimal ducts showed similar partial regurgitation and partial patency on syringing as before with no improvement of symptoms. Four nasolacrimal ducts were completely obstructed with complete regurgitation of fluid on syringing with worsening of the epiphora. Two eyes persisted with symptoms of epiphora despite patent nasolacrimal duct with grade 2 dye retention on dye disappearance test. Conclusions 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty is an alternative and safe way to manage partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions with an anatomical success in 71% and functional success in 62% of the patients. Further studies with a large sample size and longer follow-up are required to ascertain the long term benefits. PMID:24526857

  1. Simultaneous intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct and pancreas treated with chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Roberto; Capurso, Gabriele; Pierantognetti, Paola; Iannicelli, Elsa; Piciucchi, Matteo; Romiti, Adriana; Mercantini, Paolo; Larghi, Alberto; Federici, Giulia Francesca; Barucca, Viola; Osti, Maria Falchetto; Di Giulio, Emilio; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B) could be the the biliary counterpart of IPMN of the pancreas (IPMN-P) since they share several clinical-pathological features. These include prominent intraductal papillary proliferation pattern, a gastrointestinal phenotype, frequent mucin hyper-secretion and progression to mucinous carcinoma. To date there are just four reported cases of patients with synchronous IPMN-B and IPMN-P all of which were treated surgically. We hereby report the case of a 76-year-old woman who was incidentally diagnosed with both an asymptomatic 3 cm bulky fluid lesion obstructing the bile duct lumen, diagnosed as a malignant IPMN-B, and synchronous multiple pancreatic cystic lesions (10-13 mm) communicating with an irregular Wirsung, diagnosed as branch duct IPMN-P. Since surgery was ruled-out because of the patient’s age and preferences, she underwent a conservative management regimen comprising both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This was effective in decreasing the mass size and in resolving subsequent jaundice. This is also the first reported case of IPMN-B successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy. Clinicians should consider medical treatment as an option in this clinical scenario, in patients who may be unfit for surgery. PMID:22403738

  2. Simultaneous intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct and pancreas treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Roberto; Capurso, Gabriele; Pierantognetti, Paola; Iannicelli, Elsa; Piciucchi, Matteo; Romiti, Adriana; Mercantini, Paolo; Larghi, Alberto; Federici, Giulia Francesca; Barucca, Viola; Osti, Maria Falchetto; Di Giulio, Emilio; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2012-02-15

    Some authors have suggested that intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B) could be the the biliary counterpart of IPMN of the pancreas (IPMN-P) since they share several clinical-pathological features. These include prominent intraductal papillary proliferation pattern, a gastrointestinal phenotype, frequent mucin hyper-secretion and progression to mucinous carcinoma. To date there are just four reported cases of patients with synchronous IPMN-B and IPMN-P all of which were treated surgically. We hereby report the case of a 76-year-old woman who was incidentally diagnosed with both an asymptomatic 3 cm bulky fluid lesion obstructing the bile duct lumen, diagnosed as a malignant IPMN-B, and synchronous multiple pancreatic cystic lesions (10-13 mm) communicating with an irregular Wirsung, diagnosed as branch duct IPMN-P. Since surgery was ruled-out because of the patient's age and preferences, she underwent a conservative management regimen comprising both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This was effective in decreasing the mass size and in resolving subsequent jaundice. This is also the first reported case of IPMN-B successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy. Clinicians should consider medical treatment as an option in this clinical scenario, in patients who may be unfit for surgery. PMID:22403738

  3. Clinical application of percutaneous drainage in treating hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Wen, Feng; Liang, Hongyuan; Shan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study This study aimed to evaluate the effect of percutaneous interventional treatment on obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus. Material and methods A total of 16 patients with bile duct tumor thrombus were included in the current retrospective study. All the patients were subjected to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Treatment included permanent external drainage, internal drainage and routine tube adjustment, and covered stents according to the patients’ clinical manifestations. Results The success rate of PTBD was 100%. Among all the patients, two were treated with permanent external drainage, seven were treated with internal drainage and routine tube adjustment, and seven were treated with detaining covered stents. All the drainage tubes were successfully pulled out from the patients receiving covered stents. Among all the 16 patients, the clinical symptoms and life quality of 12 patients (12/16, 75%) were improved. The average survival time of all the patients was 203.7 days (ranging from 30 days to 391 days) with the median survival time of 199.5 days. Conclusions Percutaneous interventional therapy for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus is a good choice. It improves patients’ life quality. Permanent external drainage, internal drainage, and covered stents are alternative methods which should be chosen according to the patient's condition. PMID:23788987

  4. The effect of antidiuretic stimuli on the morphology of the lateral intercellular spaces in the medullary collecting duct of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Rowen, D; Law, R O

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out into the formation of dilated lateral intercellular spaces in the medullary collecting duct of the rat kidney following water deprivation or infusion of vasopressin. Dilation is conspicuous under these conditions, by comparison with normally hydrated controls, but its appearance is prevented by prior treatment of rats with antiserum raised against urinary (renal) hyaluronidase. Antiserum against testicular hyaluronidase is without effect. The presence or absence of dilatations in the lateral intercellular space correlates closely with previous findings on the ability or inability of rats to concentrate their urine under identical experimental conditions. It is concluded that urinary (renal) hyaluronidase plays an important role in the formation of such dilatations and that these facilitate the process of urinary concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7333949

  5. Neuropeptide Y inhibits biliary hyperplasia of cholestatic rats by paracrine and autocrine mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    DeMorrow, Sharon; Meng, Fanyin; Venter, Julie; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Francis, Heather; Frampton, Gabriel; Pae, Hae Yong; Quinn, Matthew; Onori, Paolo; Glaser, Shannon; McDaniel, Kelly; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) exerts its functions through six subtypes of receptors (Y1–Y6). Biliary homeostasis is regulated by several factors through autocrine/paracrine signaling. NPY inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth; however, no information exists regarding the autocrine/paracrine role of NPY on biliary hyperplasia during cholestasis. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the expression of NPY and Y1–Y5 in cholangiocytes and 2) the paracrine/autocrine effects of NPY on cholangiocyte proliferation. Normal or bile duct ligation (BDL) rats were treated with NPY, neutralizing anti-NPY antibody, or vehicle for 7 days. NPY and NPY receptor (NPYR) expression was assessed in liver sections and isolated cholangiocytes. NPY secretion was assessed in serum and bile from normal and BDL rats, as well as supernatants from normal and BDL cholangiocytes and normal rat cholangiocyte cell line [intrahepatic normal cholangiocyte culture (NRICC)]. We evaluated intrahepatic bile ductal mass (IBDM) in liver sections and proliferation in cholangiocytes. With the use of NRICC, the effects of NPY or anti-NPY antibody on cholangiocyte proliferation were determined. The expression of NPY and all NPYR were increased after BDL. NPY levels were lower in serum and cholangiocyte supernatant from BDL compared with normal rats. NPY secretion from NRICC was detected at both the basolateral and apical domains. Chronic NPY treatment decreased proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and IBDM in BDL rats. Administration of anti-NPY antibody to BDL rats increased cholangiocyte proliferation and IBDM. NPY treatment of NRICC decreased PCNA expression and increased the cell cycle arrest, whereas treatment with anti-NPY antibody increased proliferation. Therapies targeting NPY-mediated signaling may prove beneficial for the treatment of cholangiopathies. PMID:23703654

  6. [Role of opisthorchis felineus on induction of bile duct cancer].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, G A; Zhukova, N A; Kashina, E V; Lvova, M N; Katokhin, A V; Tolstikova, T G; Mordvinov, V A

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus (Trematoda) is widespread in the Russian Federation, especially in Siberia, and other countries of Europe. Infestation of endemic area population with O. felineus reaches 80%. On animal models of the infection of closely related Opisthorchis viverrini combined with the nitrosamines' intake it has been shown that the parasite induces cholangiocarcinoma. However carcinogenic potential of O. felineus is still poorly studied. The present study is aimed to investigate the role of O. felineus in cholangiocarcinoma carcinogenesis in hamster treated additionally by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Golden hamsters were divided into 4 groups (15 specimens in the control group and 20 for other groups): (I) untreated control, (II) 12.5 ppm DMN solution intake, (III) infected with 50 metacercariae of O. felineus and (IV) infected with 50 metacercariae of O. felineus and 12.5 ppm DMN solution intake. According to the histological data, in the. O. felineus-infested group significant hyperplastic and dysplastic biliary changes were found considered as a precancerogenic state. Such pathological changes of bile ducts were more severe in group treated with both factors, with cholangiocarcinoma being found out at 18th week in all the animals of this group. These results demonstrate that O. felineus could play promoting role in two-step model in cholangiocarcinoma carcinogenesis and may be used to define the O.felineus group in the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of agents, mixtures and exposures (IARC categories). PMID:26016330

  7. Numerical Simulations of Crater Formation with Dilatancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. S.; Melosh, H. J.; Wilson, C. R.; Wuennemann, K.

    2011-12-01

    The most characteristic geophysical signature of an impact crater is a circular negative gravity anomaly, centered over the crater. The cause of the gravity low is dilatancy: fracturing and brecciation, induced by the passage of the shock wave and comminution during crater formation, creates pore space between fragments and fractures, reducing the bulk density of the sub-crater material. Calculation of damage accumulation is routine in modern numerical impact simulations; accounting for dilatancy is not. As a result, most impact simulations do not correctly predict density changes beneath an impact crater, which limits the scope for comparison of model results with geophysical data. A simple approach to account for dilation during shear failure in impact simulations is to supplement the pressure computed by the equation of state with a "dilatancy pressure," representing the outward force of grains moving passed one another, in cells where shear failure has occurred (Johnson and Holmquist, 1994; doi:10.1063/1.46199). This additional pressure effectively shifts the pressure-density relationship for the dilatant material up (to a higher pressure) so that when the material unloads to atmospheric pressure the density drops to a (dilated) bulk density that is below the reference density of the pristine material. A limitation of this approach is that the bulk modulus of the dilated material is the same as that of the pristine material and, consequently, that an unrealistically large dilatancy pressure is required to achieve typical bulk densities of fractured rock. Here we propose an improvement to this approach where both the distension (porosity) and the pressure are modified during shear failure, which allows for the correct reduction in bulk modulus with increasing dilation. In our approach, shear failure leads to a prescribed decrease in the reference density of the dilatant material. The ratio of this reference density to the current density is used to compute a distension (porosity), which through the ?-? porosity model acts to increase the pressure by the amount required to shift the material from its current equation of state surface to that of the more distended, dilatant material. We show that simulations of crater formation using our dilatancy model are in good agreement with observed density and porosity variations beneath terrestrial simple craters and make predictions about the role of dilatancy in the formation of larger, complex craters. Our new dilatancy model will allow future numerical impact simulations to be directly compared with geophysical observations, such as gravity and seismic velocity anomalies, providing much greater observational constraint on simulation results. This is of particular significance for models of terrestrial craters where the surface expression has been removed by erosion and the geophysical signature is the only vestige of impact. Moreover, numerical simulations of cratering with dilatancy will aid in the interpretation of high-resolution gravity data soon to be collected over lunar craters by GRAIL.

  8. Pulmonary involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Roisin, R; Pares, A; Bruguera, M; Coll, J; Picado, C; Agusti-Vidal, A; Burgos, F; Rodes, J

    1981-01-01

    The association of pulmonary fibrosis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains controversial. To determine the frequency of pulmonary fibrosis in PBC, a carefully selected series of 14 PBC patients, seven patients with Sicca complex, and 14 control subjects have been studied. Seven of the 14 patients with PBC had Sjögren's syndrome, four of whom had some clinical evidence of pulmonary disease. Evaluation of ventilatory capacity, gas transfer factor, arterial blood gases, and lung mechanics were performed. Gas transfer was reduced in patients with PBC associated with Sjögen's syndrome and in patients with the Sicca complex. These results suggest that the respiratory, clinical, ad functional abnormalities found in PBC are related to the presence of an associated Sjögen's syndrome. PMID:7281088

  9. Role of stents and laser therapy in biliary strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennupati, Raja S.; Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    The most frequent primary cancers causing malignant obstructive jaundice were pancreatic cancer (57%), hilar biliary cancer (19% including metastatic disease), nonhilar biliary cancer (14%) and papillary cancer (10%). Endoscopic stenting has widely replaced palliative surgery for malignant biliary obstruction because of its lower risk and cost. Self-expandable metal stents are the preferred mode of palliation for hilar malignancies. Plastic stents have a major role in benign biliary strictures. Major complications and disadvantages associated with metallic stents include high cost, cholangitis. malposition, migration, unextractability, and breakage of the stents, pancreatitis and stent dysfunction. Dysfunction due to tumor ingrowth can be relieved by thermal methods (argon plasma coagulator therapy). We present a concise review of the efficacy of metallic stents for palliation of malignant strictures.

  10. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  15. Imaging of gallbladder and biliary tract before laparoscopic cholecystectomy: comparison of intravenous cholangiography and the combined use of HASTE and single-shot RARE MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Vanbeckevoort, D; Van Hoe, L; Ponette, E; Marchal, G; Bosmans, H; De Clercq, B; Aerts, R; Baert, A L

    1997-02-01

    To compare intravenous cholangiography (i.v.c.) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as preoperative imaging techniques in patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twenty patients underwent i.v.c. and MRI, 40 axial 'localizer' images were first obtained with a half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence. Next, an extremely high T2-weighted rapid acquisition relaxation enhancement (RARE) acquisition (TE = 1100 msec) was used for MR cholangiography. All images obtained with i.v.c. and MRI were independently analyzed by two observers. The relative visibility of the (normal or abnormal) gallbladder (GB), cystic duct (CD), and bile ducts (BD) on both types of images was scored as follows: 1 = MRI better than i.v.c.; 2 = no difference; 3 = i.v.c. better than MRI. We observed 3 anatomic variants: 1 of the cystic duct and 2 of the intrahepatic bile ducts; 15 patients had gallstones; one had cholecystitis. Magnetic resonance images were considered more informative than i.v.c.-images for visualization of GB in 11 patients (55%), for CD in 9 patients (45%), and in 8 patients (40%) for visualization of the CBD. Intravenous cholangiography outperformed MRI in the evaluation of the CBD and CD in one patient (5%). The combined use of half-Fourier single-shot RARE and high T2-weighted RARE MR imaging is a valuable alternative to i.v.c. in the preoperative evaluation of gallbladder and biliary tract. PMID:9103705

  16. Tear-ducts in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John W. M.

    1999-11-01

    We examine the radial spoke pattern evident in the meniscus region in glasses of strong alcoholic beverages exhibiting the `tears-in-wine' phenomenon. We demonstrate that the pattern results from ridge-like elevations of the free surface which are supported by evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection in the meniscus region. Vortices associated with the convective motions are aligned in the radial direction by the surface tension gradient responsible for the generation of tears. The radial flow is focussed into the ridges, which thus serve as the principal conduits of fluid for the tears; consequently, we refer to the ridges as `tear-ducts'. The phenomenon is examined experimentally, and a numerical model of evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection is developed which reproduces the salient features of the tear-duct phenomenon.

  17. Neonatal prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Kumar, Hemant; Sinha, C K; Patricolo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    A case of a prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct (PVID) in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with vomiting and poor weight gain with partial intestinal obstruction and a flower like pink, prolapsing lesion at his umbilicus has been reported. A limited contrast study through the tubular structure confirmed it to be a PVID. He underwent transumbilical exploration and resection and anastomosis uneventfully. Persistence of the vitellointestinal duct as a whole or part of it leads to a wide variety of anomalies–Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest lesion and a PVID is the rarest. Umbilical cord clamping flush with the abdominal wall may convert a Meckel's diverticulum prolapsing in the base of umbilical ring into a PVID. Careful assessment should be made for associated anomalies. Transumbilical exploration gives the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23845681

  18. [A case of main-duct IPMN with multicentric invasive carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Eri; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Otsuka, Masayuki; Kato, Atsushi; Furukawa, Katsunori; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masayuki; Okamura, Daiki; Sakai, Nozomu; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-11-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas often contains multifocal lesions, and total pancreatectomy is sometimes needed for curative resection. We report here our experience with a case of IPMN with multiple invasive carcinoma foci that was successfully treated with total pancreatectomy. A 66-year-old man had jaundice, and a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a hypovascular mass in the pancreas head in conjunction with calcification and dilation of the entire main pancreatic duct. He was diagnosed with pancreas head cancer and chronic pancreatitis, and a pancreaticoduodenectomy was planned. Intraoperative pathological examination revealed papillary growth of high grade dysplasia in the main and branch duct epithelium and perineural invasion of the atypical glands. After 2 additional resections, we performed a total pancreatectomy. Pathological findings showed that the pancreas head tumor was an invasive carcinoma derived from main-duct IPMN of the pancreas. It was a mucinous carcinoma with calcification. Moreover, we found other multiple, discontinuous invasive foci in the body and tail of the pancreas which were undetectable by preoperative imaging. This case was highly suggestive for preoperative diagnosis for pancreas tumor and developmental pattern of main-duct IPMN. PMID:25731469

  19. Biliary drainage strategy of unresectable malignant hilar strictures by computed tomography volumetry

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ei; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Sato, Tadashi; Takano, Shinichi; Kadokura, Makoto; Shindo, Hiroko; Yokota, Yudai; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify criteria for predicting successful drainage of unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures (UMHBS) because no ideal strategy currently exists. METHODS: We examined 78 patients with UMHBS who underwent biliary drainage. Drainage was considered effective when the serum bilirubin level decreased by ? 50% from the value before stent placement within 2 wk after drainage, without additional intervention. Complications that occurred within 7 d after stent placement were considered as early complications. Before drainage, the liver volume of each section (lateral and medial sections of the left liver and anterior and posterior sections of the right liver) was measured using computed tomography (CT) volumetry. Drained liver volume was calculated based on the volume of each liver section and the type of bile duct stricture (according to the Bismuth classification). Tumor volume, which was calculated by using CT volumetry, was excluded from the volume of each section. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify the optimal cutoff values for drained liver volume. In addition, factors associated with the effectiveness of drainage and early complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that drained liver volume [odds ratio (OR) = 2.92, 95%CI: 1.648-5.197; P < 0.001] and impaired liver function (with decompensated liver cirrhosis) (OR = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.009-0.426; P = 0.005) were independent factors contributing to the effectiveness of drainage. ROC analysis for effective drainage showed cutoff values of 33% of liver volume for patients with preserved liver function (with normal liver or compensated liver cirrhosis) and 50% for patients with impaired liver function (with decompensated liver cirrhosis). The sensitivity and specificity of these cutoff values were 82% and 80% for preserved liver function, and 100% and 67% for impaired liver function, respectively. Among patients who met these criteria, the rate of effective drainage among those with preserved liver function and impaired liver function was 90% and 80%, respectively. The rates of effective drainage in both groups were significantly higher than in those who did not fulfill these criteria (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Drainage-associated cholangitis occurred in 9 patients (12%). A smaller drained liver volume was associated with drainage-associated cholangitis (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Liver volume drainage ? 33% in patients with preserved liver function and ? 50% in patients with impaired liver function correlates with effective biliary drainage in UMHBS. PMID:25945008

  20. Combustion characteristics of ducted rockets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kubota; K. Miyata; T. Kuwahara; M. Mitsuno; I. Nakagawa

    1991-01-01

    Since ducted rockets operate with the combustion of fuel-rich hot gas generated in a primary combustor and the ram-air induced from the atmosphere to a secondary combustor, the operational condition is strongly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the fuel-rich gas and the mixing\\/reaction process of the air flow in the secondary combustor. In order to obtain high energy fuel-rich

  1. In Vivo and In Situ Evaluation of a Wireless Magnetoelastic Sensor Array for Plastic Biliary Stent Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Green, Scott R.; Kwon, Richard S.; Elta, Grace H.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the in vivo and in situ evaluation of a system that wirelessly monitors the accumulation of biliary sludge in a plastic biliary stent. The sensing element, located within the stent, is a passive array of magnetoelastic resonators that is queried by a wireless electromagnetic signal. The in vivo and in situ testing uses commercially-available plastic biliary stents, each enhanced with an array of ribbon sensors (formed from Metglas™ 2826MB). The sensor array is approximately 70 mm long and contains individual resonators that are 1 mm in width and have lengths of 10 mm, 14 mm, and 20 mm. The array is anchored into the 2.8 mm inner-diameter stent using a thermal staking technique. For the in situ testing, an instrumented stent is placed in various locations within the abdominal cavity of a female domestic swine carcass to evaluate the wireless range of the system; these results show that a wireless signal can be obtained from a range of at least 7.5 cm from a sensor array covered in bile. The in vivo testing includes the endoscopic implantation of an instrumented stent into the bile duct of a swine. After implantation, the swine was housed for a period of 4 weeks, during which the animal showed no ill effects and followed the expected growth curve from 29 kg to 42 kg. At the conclusion of the in vivo test, the animal was euthanized, and the instrumented stent explanted and examined. The results presented in this paper indicate that the monitoring system does not adversely affect the health of the animal and can feasibly provide sufficient wireless range after implantation. PMID:23460136

  2. Percutaneous Transhepatic Removal of Bile Duct Stones: Results of 261 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Nevzat, E-mail: nevzatcan@yahoo.com; Kahriman, Guven, E-mail: guvenkahriman@hotmail.com; Mavili, Ertugrul, E-mail: ertmavili@yahoo.com [Erciyes University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic removal of bile duct stones when the procedure of endoscopic therapy fails for reasons of anatomical anomalies or is rejected by the patient. Methods: Between April 2001 and May 2010, 261 patients (138 male patients and 123 female patients; age range, 14-92 years; mean age, 64.6 years) with bile duct stones (common bile duct [CBD] stones = 248 patients and hepatolithiasis = 13 patients) were included in the study. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was performed, and stones were identified. Percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation of the papilla of Vater was performed. Then stones were pushed out into the duodenum with a Fogarty balloon catheter. If the stone diameter was larger than 15 mm, then basket lithotripsy was performed before balloon dilation. Results: Overall success rate was 95.7%. The procedure was successful in 97.5% of patients with CBD stones and in 61.5% of patients with hepatolithiasis. A total of 18 major complications (6.8%), including cholangitis (n = 7), subcapsular biloma (n = 4), subcapsular hematoma (n = 1), subcapsular abscess (n = 1), bile peritonitis (n = 1), duodenal perforation (n = 1), CBD perforation (n = 1), gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm (n = 1), and right hepatic artery transection (n = 1), were observed after the procedure. There was no mortality. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that percutaneous transhepatic stone expulsion into the duodenum through the papilla is an effective and safe approach in the nonoperative management of the bile duct stones. It is a feasible alternative to surgery when endoscopic extraction fails or is rejected by the patient.

  3. Imaging of malignancies of the biliary tract- an update.

    PubMed

    Hennedige, Tiffany Priyanthi; Neo, Wee Thong; Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur

    2014-01-01

    Malignancies of the biliary tract include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancers and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Biliary tract adenocarcinomas are the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer. Due to their slow growing nature, non-specific and late symptomatology, these malignancies are often diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis. Apart from incidental discovery of gall bladder carcinoma upon cholecystectomy, early stage biliary tract cancers are now detected with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Accurate characterization and staging of these indolent cancers will determine outcome as majority of the patients' are inoperable at the time of presentation. Ultrasound is useful for initial evaluation of the biliary tract and gallbladder masses and in determining the next suitable modality for further evaluation. Multimodality imaging plays an integral role in the management of the biliary tract malignancies. The imaging techniques most useful are MRI with MRCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In this review we will discuss epidemiology and the role of imaging in detection, characterization and management of the biliary tract malignancies under the three broad categories of cholangiocarcinomas (intra- and extrahepatic), gallbladder cancers and ampullary carcinomas. PMID:25608662

  4. Imaging of malignancies of the biliary tract- an update

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malignancies of the biliary tract include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancers and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Biliary tract adenocarcinomas are the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer. Due to their slow growing nature, non-specific and late symptomatology, these malignancies are often diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis. Apart from incidental discovery of gall bladder carcinoma upon cholecystectomy, early stage biliary tract cancers are now detected with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Accurate characterization and staging of these indolent cancers will determine outcome as majority of the patients’ are inoperable at the time of presentation. Ultrasound is useful for initial evaluation of the biliary tract and gallbladder masses and in determining the next suitable modality for further evaluation. Multimodality imaging plays an integral role in the management of the biliary tract malignancies. The imaging techniques most useful are MRI with MRCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In this review we will discuss epidemiology and the role of imaging in detection, characterization and management of the biliary tract malignancies under the three broad categories of cholangiocarcinomas (intra- and extrahepatic), gallbladder cancers and ampullary carcinomas. PMID:25608662

  5. Study of viral infections in infants with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Yaghobi, Ramin; Didari, Mahdi; Gramizadeh, Bita; Rahsaz, Marjan; Heidari, Tahereh; Banihashemi, Mehrzad; Kargar, Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Viral infections may have an important role in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia, and related clinical outcomes. In this research for determination of the possible role of HBV, HCV, HCMV, adenovirus, and BK virus infections in biliary atresia related clinical complications, the molecular and antigenic prevalence of these viral agents were studied. In this retrospective study, 34 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsy and autopsy liver tissue samples of neonates with biliary atresia were evaluated. The molecular prevalence of these viral infections was assayed by different PCR and RT-PCR methods. The antigenic prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HCMV infections was also studied in these liver tissue samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) method. HBV, HCV, and adenovirus genomes were detected in 9%, 6%, and 6% of liver autopsy and biopsy tissues of infants with biliary atresia, respectively. HBV and HCV co-infection was confirmed in 6% of FFPE samples. The genome of other investigated viruses was not detected in FFPE liver tissues. Detection of viral infection in FFPE liver tissue samples of newborns with biliary atresia, suggests the need for complete studies for the determination of accurate role of these viral infections in pathogenesis of biliary atresia. PMID:21165718

  6. Cytomegalovirus-specific T cell reactivity in biliary atresia at the time of diagnosis is associated with deficits in regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Stephen M.; Lanham, Allison M.; Karrer, Frederick M.; Tucker, Rebecca M.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Mack, Cara L.

    2011-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, inflammatory cholangiopathy that culminates in fibrosis of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. A leading theory on the pathogenesis of BA is that the bile duct damage is initiated by a virus infection, followed by a bile duct-targeted autoimmune response. One mechanism of autoimmunity entails diminished number or function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The aim of this study was to identify potential virus-specific liver T cells from infants with BA at the time of diagnosis, implicating the virus involved in early bile duct damage. A subaim was to determine if presence of virus infection was associated with quantitative changes in Tregs. Results: Liver T cells from BA and control patients were cultured with antigen presenting cells in the presence of a variety of viral or control proteins. 56% of BA patients had significant increases in IFN-?-producing liver T cells in response to cytomegalovirus (CMV), compared to minimal BA responses to other viruses or the control group CMV response. In addition, a positive correlation between BA plasma CMV IgM and liver T cell CMV reactivity was identified. Investigation of peripheral blood Tregs revealed significant deficits in Tregs frequencies in BA compared to controls, with marked deficits in those BA patients who were positive for CMV. Conclusions: Liver T cell responses to CMV were identified in the majority of BA patients at diagnosis, suggesting perinatal CMV infection as a plausible initiator of bile duct damage. Deficiency of Tregs in BA implies decreased inhibition of inflammation and autoreactivity, potentially allowing for exaggerated bile duct injury. PMID:22105891

  7. Improved liver tests and greater biliary enrichment with high dose ursodeoxycholic acid in early stage primary biliary cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Roda; F. Azzaroli; G. Nigro; F. Piazza; F. Jaboli; F. Ferrara; S. Liva; S. Giovanelli; A. Miracolo; A. Colecchia; D. Festi; C. Mazzeo; L. Bacchi; A. Roda; G. Mazzella

    2002-01-01

    Background. Ursodeoxycholic acid is currently used for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis at 13–15 mg\\/kg\\/day, but liver tests of some patients do not return to normal at this dose. Studies reported here were designed to test whether a higher dose of ursodeoxycholic acid than is currently used would induce still greater biliary enrichment of ursodeoxycholic acid and whether such

  8. Impairment of flow-mediated dilation correlates with aortic dilation in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takata, Munenori; Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Omori, Kazuko; Imai, Yasushi; Fujita, Daishi; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masayoshi; Morota, Tetsuro; Nawata, Kan; Ozeki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Aya; Kawarasaki, Shuichi; Hosoya, Yumiko; Nakao, Tomoko; Maemura, Koji; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by genetic abnormality of microfibrillar connective tissue proteins. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to cause aortic dilation in subjects with a bicuspid aortic valve; however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial damaging factors has not been elucidated in Marfan syndrome. Flow-mediated dilation, a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, was evaluated in 39 patients with Marfan syndrome. Aortic diameter was measured at the aortic annulus, aortic root at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta by echocardiography, and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). The mean value of flow-mediated dilation was 6.5 ± 2.4 %. Flow-mediated dilation had a negative correlation with the diameter of the ascending thoracic aorta (AscAd)/BSA (R = -0.39, p = 0.020) and multivariate analysis revealed that flow-mediated dilation was an independent factor predicting AscAd/BSA, whereas other segments of the aorta had no association. Furthermore, Brinkman index had a somewhat greater influence on flow-mediated dilation (R = -0.42, p = 0.008). Although subjects who smoked tended to have a larger AscAd compared with non-smokers (AscA/BSA: 17.3 ± 1.8 versus 15.2 ± 3.0 mm/m(2), p = 0.013), there was no significant change in flow-mediated dilation, suggesting that smoking might affect aortic dilation via an independent pathway. Common atherogenic risks, such as impairment of flow-mediated dilation and smoking status, affected aortic dilation in subjects with Marfan syndrome. PMID:23852405

  9. Failures of welded titanium aircraft ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Lynch; B. Hole; Timotius Pasang

    1995-01-01

    An in-service failure of a thin-walled titanium bleed-air duct from a wide-bodied commercial aircraft has been investigated. Cracking had occurred in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to a circumferential weld joining two sections of the duct which was manufactured from commercially pure (grade 3) titanium sheet. Specimens were cut from the duct to include an intact weld and tested under

  10. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Placement of an ePTFE/FEP-Covered Stent in the Common Bile Duct

    SciTech Connect

    Krokidis, Miltiadis E., E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.co [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology (Greece); Hatzidakis, Adam A. [Medical School of Crete (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    We report the case of a 78-year-old male patient with obstructive jaundice due to a pancreatic head neoplasm. The patient's general condition did not permit an endoscopic approach and the presence of diffuse liver metastases prohibited hepatic puncture for percutaneous biliary drainage, therefore the transcolecystic transperitoneal approach was decided to be the safest decompression route. Through a gallbladder access, a Viabil-covered stent with a mesh extension was placed in the distal common bile duct, without complications. The patient died 8 months later without signs of stent dysfunction or necessity of reintervention. Transcholecystic transperitoneal access is a safe option when diffuse liver metastases prohibit the transhepatic approach, even in cases where placement of a covered stent is considered necessary.

  11. Universal decoherence due to gravitational time dilation

    E-print Network

    Pikovski, Igor; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Caslav

    2013-01-01

    Phenomena inherent to quantum theory on curved space-time, such as Hawking radiation, are typically assumed to be only relevant at extreme physical conditions: at high energies and in strong gravitational fields. Here we consider low-energy quantum mechanics in the presence of weak gravitational time dilation and show that the latter leads to universal decoherence of quantum superpositions. Time dilation induces a universal coupling between internal degrees-of-freedom and the centre-of-mass of a composite particle and we show that the resulting entanglement causes the particle's position to decohere. We derive the decoherence timescale and show that the weak time dilation on Earth is already sufficient to decohere micro-scale objects. No coupling to an external environment is necessary, thus even completely isolated composite systems will decohere on curved space-time. In contrast to gravitational collapse models, no modification of quantum theory is assumed. General relativity therefore can account for the e...

  12. Universal decoherence due to gravitational time dilation

    E-print Network

    Igor Pikovski; Magdalena Zych; Fabio Costa; Caslav Brukner

    2015-06-23

    The physics of low-energy quantum systems is usually studied without explicit consideration of the background spacetime. Phenomena inherent to quantum theory on curved space-time, such as Hawking radiation, are typically assumed to be only relevant at extreme physical conditions: at high energies and in strong gravitational fields. Here we consider low-energy quantum mechanics in the presence of gravitational time dilation and show that the latter leads to decoherence of quantum superpositions. Time dilation induces a universal coupling between internal degrees of freedom and the centre-of-mass of a composite particle. The resulting correlations cause decoherence of the particle's position, even without any external environment. We also show that the weak time dilation on Earth is already sufficient to decohere micron scale objects. Gravity therefore can account for the emergence of classicality and the effect can in principle be tested in future matter wave experiments.

  13. Ocufen and pupillary dilation during cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Drews, R C; Katsev, D A

    1989-07-01

    A random, masked prospective study was performed on 100 patients having elective extracapsular cataract extraction to evaluate the ability of Ocufen (flurbiprofen) to maintain dilation of the pupil. All the patients received a standard dilating regimen; half also received Ocufen drops. Surgery was recorded with a video camera attached to the operating microscope. Magnification was kept constant. Pupil diameters were measured on a calibrated video screen at four different stages of the operation: at the beginning, post-capsulotomy, post-nucleus delivery, and at the end. The age, sex, and iris color of each patient were recorded. Preoperative pupillary diameters were not statistically different between the control and Ocufen groups. The Ocufen-treated group maintained pupillary dilation better on the average and had a much smaller incidence of pupil constriction greater than 2 mm. PMID:2778693

  14. Ectopic Opening of the Common Bile Duct into the Duodenal Bulb Accompanied with Cholangitis and Gallbladder Cancer: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Hong Jun; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae

    2015-05-01

    An ectopic opening of the common bile duct (CBD) into the duodenal bulb is a very rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system, which may cause recurrent duodenal ulcer or biliary diseases such as choledocholithiasis and cholangitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) plays a major role in the diagnosis of this anomaly. We report two such cases: one in a 61-year-old man and the other in a 57-year-old man. In the first case, this anomaly caused acute cholangitis with multiple CBD stones, which were successfully treated by ERCP. In the second case, abdominal computed tomography showed pneumobilia, which was further evaluated using ERCP. Besides, this patient was diagnosed with an ectopic opening of the CBD associated with gallbladder cancer. We report these unusual cases and review the relevant medical literature. PMID:26064829

  15. Ectopic Opening of the Common Bile Duct into the Duodenal Bulb Accompanied with Cholangitis and Gallbladder Cancer: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae

    2015-01-01

    An ectopic opening of the common bile duct (CBD) into the duodenal bulb is a very rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system, which may cause recurrent duodenal ulcer or biliary diseases such as choledocholithiasis and cholangitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) plays a major role in the diagnosis of this anomaly. We report two such cases: one in a 61-year-old man and the other in a 57-year-old man. In the first case, this anomaly caused acute cholangitis with multiple CBD stones, which were successfully treated by ERCP. In the second case, abdominal computed tomography showed pneumobilia, which was further evaluated using ERCP. Besides, this patient was diagnosed with an ectopic opening of the CBD associated with gallbladder cancer. We report these unusual cases and review the relevant medical literature.

  16. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Nöthlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjønneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quirós, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sánchez, M. J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. Patients and methods The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case–control subset. Results Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17–1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55–0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52–0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23–1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37–0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Conclusions Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk. PMID:23123507

  17. Reversible dilated cardiomyopathy due to subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Kostantinos; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Antonakopoulos, Athanasios; Vavetsi, Spiridoula; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Constantinou, Loizos L

    2010-01-01

    We present a patient without primary heart disease in whom subclinical hyperthyroidism was accompanied by manifestations of dilated cardiomyopathy, as evaluated by echocardiography, coronary angiography, and radionuclide ventriculography. His condition was reversed 6 months after conventional treatment (furosemide, carvedilol, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and thiamazole administration). This patient represents an exceptional case, as overt congestive heart failure with left ventricular dilatation and depressed ventricular ejection fraction is not a common finding in patients with hyperthyroidism, let alone patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism and no underlying heart disease. PMID:20118048

  18. Effects of double ligation of Stensen's duct on the rabbit parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Maria, O M; Maria, S M; Redman, R S; Maria, A M; Saad El-Din, T A; Soussa, E F; Tran, S D

    2014-04-01

    Salivary gland duct ligation is an alternative to gland excision for treating sialorrhea or reducing salivary gland size prior to tumor excision. Duct ligation also is used as an approach to study salivary gland aging, regeneration, radiotherapy, sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Reports conflict about the contribution of each salivary cell population to gland size reduction after ductal ligation. Certain cell populations, especially acini, reportedly undergo atrophy, apoptosis and proliferation during reduction of gland size. Acini also have been reported to de-differentiate into ducts. These contradictory results have been attributed to different animal or salivary gland models, or to methods of ligation. We report here a bilateral double ligature technique for rabbit parotid glands with histologic observations at 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 days after ligation. A large battery of special stains and immunohistochemical procedures was employed to define the cell populations. Four stages with overlapping features were observed that led to progressive shutdown of gland activities: 1) marked atrophy of the acinar cells occurred by 14 days, 2) response to and removal of the secretory material trapped in the acinar and ductal lumens mainly between 30 and 60 days, 3) reduction in the number of parenchymal (mostly acinar) cells by apoptosis that occurred mainly between 14-30 days, and 4) maintenance of steady-state at 60 days with a low rate of fluid, protein, and glycoprotein secretion, which greatly decreased the number of leukocytes engaged in the removal of the luminal contents. The main post- ligation characteristics were dilation of ductal and acinar lumens, massive transient infiltration of mostly heterophils (rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes), acinar atrophy, and apoptosis of both acinar and ductal cells. Proliferation was uncommon except in the larger ducts. By 30 days, the distribution of myoepithelial cells had spread from exclusively investing the intercalated ducts pre-ligation to surrounding a majority of the residual duct-like structures, many of which clearly were atrophic acini. Thus, both atrophy and apoptosis made major contributions to the post-ligation reduction in gland size. Structures also occurred with both ductal and acinar markers that suggested acini differentiating into ducts. Overall, the reaction to duct ligation proceeded at a considerably slower pace in the rabbit parotid glands than has been reported for the salivary glands of the rat. PMID:24053197

  19. Optimization of the mechanical performance of a two-duct semicircular duct system--part 1: dynamics and duct dimensions.

    PubMed

    Muller, M; Verhagen, J H G

    2002-06-21

    The classical representation of the semicircular duct system consists of three separate duct circuits. The ducts are, however, in reality, hydrodynamically interconnected. Muller & Verhagen (1988a,b) derived equations for the mechanical behaviour of an interconnected system with three ducts (anterior, posterior and horizontal). An analytical solution of these equations would, however, be too complex to provide surveyable formulae. A system of two interconnected ducts avoids this complexity whilst keeping the essentials of the coupling of ducts intact. The solution of the equation of motion leads to expressions for time constants and maximal endolymph excursions which are functions of morphological parameters, viz. the ratios of radii (gamma) and lengths (lambda) of the common vestibular part (crus commune or utriculus) and the ducts. The system possesses two short time constants which are shown to have similar values. The maximum endolymph displacements in the two ducts after a steplike stimulus are the products of the respective initial velocities and combinations of time constants. The initial velocities depend strongly on the position of the labyrinth with respect to the excitating rotation vector. Measured data of gamma and lambda are compared with the theoretical results. For gamma, excellent agreement was found. lambda is treated elsewhere. PMID:12151258

  20. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Additional resources for bile duct cancer What’s new in bile duct cancer research and treatment? Bile ... is tumor blood vessels. Bile duct tumors need new blood vessels to grow beyond a certain size. ...

  1. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  2. New therapies for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Franceschet, Irene; Perini, Lisa; Cazzagon, Nora; Gershwin, M Eric; Bowlus, Christopher L

    2015-06-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a rare inflammatory liver disease for which ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only therapy approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Patients with a biochemical response to UDCA therapy have a similar survival rate compared to the general population. However, up to 40% of PBC patients do not achieve a complete response to UDCA, have an increased risk of liver-related death and liver transplantation, and represent a persistent medical need for new therapies. Several novel drugs have recently been studied and show potential efficacy in PBC. Obeticholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, has been tested in phase II trials and initial results after 1 year in a phase III international trial suggest that it may be effective in achieving a biochemical response in approximately 40% of patients who do not completely respond to UDCA. Several small studies on fibrates have suggested that they may have efficacy, but larger studies are needed. Surprisingly, results of immunomodulators and biologics have not yet been able to demonstrate efficacy, but new approaches have shown promise in animal models and their translation to human clinical trials are awaited. PMID:25331740

  3. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  4. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed. PMID:3980281

  5. [Pancreas and biliary tract: recent developments].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease that is associated with significant morbidity and considerable mortality. In this article, developments relating to this disease that were presented in DDW 2014 are reviewed. Pancreatic steatosis could be a cause of recurrent AP. Patients with DM have an increased incidence of AP and pancreatic cancer. The use of anti-TNF drugs in inflammatory bowel disease may protect against the occurrence of AP. The presence of pancreas divisum protects against acute biliary pancreatitis. The PANCODE system for describing local complications of AP has good interobserver agreement, when the new definitions of the revised Atlanta classification are applied. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in early-stage AP predisposes the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections. Fluid sequestration in AP is linked with young age, alcoholism and indicators of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The most common cause of mortality in AP is early onset of multiple organ failure, not pancreatic necrosis infection. Patients with AP and vitamin D deficiency could benefit from taking vitamin D supplements. Moderate fluid administration in emergencies (500-1000 mL) could be associated with better AP development. PMID:25294273

  6. Primary biliary tract malignancies: MRI spectrum and mimics with histopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Pardeep K; Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Kalb, Bobby; Mittal, Ankush; Camacho, Juan C; Maddu, Kiran; Kitajima, Hiroumi D; Quigley, Brian C; Kokabi, Nima; Small, William C

    2014-11-22

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), due to their excellent soft tissue contrasts, have become first-line noninvasive tests in the characterization and detection of both hepatic and pancreaticobiliary pathologies. MRCP is also helpful in detecting the level and cause of obstruction in patients presenting with jaundice. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common primary malignant tumor arising from the bile duct epithelium, with extrahepatic tumors presenting more often than with intrahepatic ones. However, the diagnosis and management of CCA is made more complex by a variety of malignant and benign conditions that resemble CCA, including hepatocellular carcinoma variants such as the fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular carcinoma, biliary metastases, hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, confluent fibrosis, primary sclerosis cholangitis, and the secondary sclerosing cholangitis complex. Consequently, knowledge of the underlying risk factors and imaging characteristics of these conditions is important in differentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions in order to reach a definite diagnosis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be reserved for those patients who require intervention or biopsy for histopathological diagnosis. PMID:25416002

  7. Biliary iron excretion in rats following pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Cikrt, M; Ponka, P; Necas, E; Neuwirt, J

    1980-06-01

    Biliary excretion of iron after administration of pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH), a recently identified effective iron-chelating agent, was investigated in rats. PIH administered both intraperitoneally and orally was shown to increase significantly 59Fe excretion into bile of rats which had previously been injected with 59Fe-transferrin to label hepatic parenchymal cells. 59Fe-PIH appears in bile as early as 15 min after chelator administration and the peak of 59Fe-radioactivity in bile is seen 1--5 h following intraperitoneal PIH injection. PIH, administered intraperitoneally, 125--250 mg/kg, increased 24 h biliary radioiron excretion about 35 times and in addition increased urinary and faecal iron excretion. When PIH was given immediately before 59Fe-transferrin, 24 h cumulative biliary 59Fe excretion was even higher. PIH was also demonstrated to increase biliary excretion of radioiron released from 59Fe-haemoglobin catabolysed in reticuloendothelial cells. The effect of PIH was confirmed by estimation of biliary iron concentration using the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Repeated PIH administration to rats decreased 59Fe radioactivity in liver and kidney and increased urinary and faecal iron excretion. PMID:7437326

  8. Situs inversus totalis and secondary biliary cirrhosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis is is a congenital anomaly associated with various visceral abnormalities, but there is no data about the relationship between secondary biliary cirrhosis and that condition. We here present a case of a 58 year-old female with situs inversus totalis who was admitted to our clinic with extrahepatic cholestasis. After excluding all potential causes of biliary cirrhosis, secondary biliary cirrhosis was diagnosed based on the patient's history, imaging techniques, clinical and laboratory findings, besides histolopathological findings. After treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, all biochemical parameters, including total/direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gama glutamyl transferase, returned to normal ranges at the second month of the treatment. We think that this is the first case in literature that may indicate the development of secondary biliary cirrhosis in a patient with situs inversus totalis. In conclusion, situs inversus should be considered as a rare cause of biliary cirrhosis in patients with situs inversus totalis which is presented with extrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:21813017

  9. Biliary lipid secretion in chronic cholestatic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kesäniemi, Y A; Salaspuro, M P; Vuoristo, M; Miettinen, T A

    1982-01-01

    Biliary lipid secretion rates, faecal steroids, and serum lipids were studied in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease mainly primary biliary cirrhosis. The biliary secretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and phospholipids was markedly decreased as compared with those in the control group and in general correlated negatively with the serum cholesterol and triglyceride values. The molar percentage of cholesterol was increased in the hepatic bile. This suggests that, in cholestatic liver disease, in contrast with the normal state, the hapatic bile may be supersaturated postprandially. Faecal bile acids and neutral sterols of cholesterol origin were decreased proportionately to the corresponding biliary lipid secretion rates. In fact, both biliary and faecal steroid outputs were only about a half or less than those in the controls, indicating that the fractional absorption was not changed but absolute absorption and faecal steroid excretion were low in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease. Thus, despite low cholesterol and bile acid absorption, cholesterol and bile acid synthesis is low. A negative correlation between faecal steroids and serum cholesterol suggests that the high serum cholesterol level contributed to regulation of cholesterol synthesis. PMID:7129204

  10. Fabrication process of a high temperature polymer matrix engine duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, R. D.; Wilson, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The process that was used in the molding of an advanced composite outer by-pass duct planned for the F404 engine is discussed. This duct was developed as a potential replacement for the existing titanium duct in order to reduce both the weight and cost of the duct. The composite duct is now going into the manufacturing technology portion of the program. The duct is fabricated using graphite cloth impregnated with the PMR-15 matrix system.

  11. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter

    1992-01-01

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  12. Acoustic power balance in lined ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Eversman

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the two common definitions of acoustic energy density and intensity in uniform unlined ducts carrying uniform flow are compatible to the extent that both energy densities can be used in an appropriate variational principle to derive the convected wave equation. When the duct walls are lined both energy densities must be modified to account for the

  13. Topometry of normal intrahepatic bile ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Zlatos; R Moravec; J Gatial; V Palko; J Mentel

    1995-01-01

    Summary This paper focusses on pratical problems which may also prove to be of theoretical importance, by presenting a method of establishing an exact topometry of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Measurements were made on corrosive casts of the intrahepatic bile ducts from 13 human livers. On the basis of the topometric results presented it is possible to construct an adequate

  14. Achieving Airtight Ducts in Manufactured Housing 

    E-print Network

    McIlvaine, J.; Beal, D.; Moyer, N.; Chasar, D.; Chandra, S.

    2004-01-01

    measured total duct leakage (CFM25TOTAL and QnTOTAL) and/or measured leakage to the outside (CFM25OUT and QnOUT) in 190 manufactured home floors or home sections. All manufacturers were considering or actively working toward achieving duct leakage below 3...

  15. A selected history of duct mode synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Posey

    2005-01-01

    Attempts to attenuate noise propagating down a duct, with or without flow, must recognize that wall boundary conditions permit only certain spatial wave patterns (modes) to exist. The aircraft noise research community began building mode synthesizers at least thirty years ago in order to study duct propagation and radiation phenomena in a laboratory environment. Lockheed Georgia built a spinning mode

  16. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLOW IN RECTANGULAR DUCTS. II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. R. Hunt; K. Stewartson

    1965-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of laminar motion of a conducting liquid in a rectangular duct under a uniform transverse magnetic field. The effects of the duct having conducting walls are investigated. Exact solutions are obtained for two cases, (i) perfectly conducting walls perpendicular to the field and thin walls of arbitrary conductivity parallel to the field, and (ii) non-conducting

  17. Placing Fiber Optic Cables in Multioccupied Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Grimado; A. Colucci

    1986-01-01

    Placing fiber optic cable (FOC) in duct containing copper cable can save millions of construction dollars. This paper describes techniques used successfully in rodding duct over copper cables in actual field installations-a necessary and most critical step preparatory to the actual placement of the FOC. In addition, a mathematical model useful in planning and predicting expected FOC pulling tensions for

  18. Selecting fiber glass air duct insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the optimum insulation for HVAC systems helps provide a more productive work environment while reducing plant operating costs. Duct systems are insulated to reduce heat gain or loss, prevent water vapor condensation, reduce HVAC system noise, and ensure the comfort of occupants. Among the most common insulations used in industrial air duct systems is fiber glass. Any of several

  19. Practical application of an evaporation duct model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Paulus

    1985-01-01

    The application of an evaporation duct model in operational and climatological assessments of propagation and the sensitivity of the model to meteorological measurements are examined. The unexpectedly frequent occurrence of evaporation duct heights greater than 40 m is related to thermally stable conditions in the atmospheric surface layer. The existence of stable conditions over the ocean is analyzed in terms

  20. Unified analysis of ducted turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.; Lester, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The methodologies of Hanson and Zorumski are combined to yield a unified analysis of ducted turbomachinery noise. It is shown that the far-field broad-band and discrete noise spectral components can be expressed in terms of modal cross-spectral matrices and directivity vectors which are derivable from the duct analysis.

  1. Endoscopic treatment of biliary leakage with n-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Seewald; Stefan Groth; Parupudi V. J. Sriram; He Xikun; Thawatchai Akaraviputh; Gerardo Mendoza; Boris Brand; Uwe Seitz; Frank Thonke; Nib Soehendra

    2002-01-01

    Background: Biliary leakage is a problematic complication of hepatobiliary surgery. A novel alternative method is described that can obviate the need for reoperation for refractory biliary fistula. Methods: Nine patients with large biliary leaks unresponsive to endoscopic drainage underwent N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue occlusion at ERCP. Results: In 7 patients, occlusion was successful with prompt control of the fistula in a single

  2. Novel use of a T-tube access to perform an internal\\/external biliary drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Basile; Antonio Macrì; Antonio Bottari; Tommaso Lupattelli; Giuseppe Scuderi; Ciro Famulari; Antonio Certo

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of post-surgical temporary functional stenosis of the sphincter of Oddi and biliary leak in a patient with a previous Billroth II reconstruction who had undergone cholecystectomy, surgical choledocotomy and sphincterotomy for biliary calculi. The patient was treated by creation of an internal\\/external biliary drainage using the T-tube access with an unreported technique.

  3. The strength and dilatancy of sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Bolton

    1986-01-01

    Extensive data of the strength and dilatancy of 17 sands in axisymmetric or plane strain at different densities and confining pressures are collated. The critical state angle of shearing resistance of soil which is shearing at con- stant volume is principally a function of mineralogy and can readily be determined experimentally within a margin of about l\\

  4. Periodically correlated processes and their stationary dilations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    An explicit form for a stationary dilation for periodically correlated random processes is obtained. This is then used to give spectral conditions for a periodically correlated process to be non-deterministic, purely deterministic, minimal, and to have a positive angle between its past and future.

  5. Isolated dilatation of the inferior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Goo, Ja-Jun; Kim, Kyoung-Nyoun; Lee, Ja-Young; Kim, Seong-Man

    2014-01-01

    The diameter and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava (IVC) should be interpreted in consideration with other clinical and echocardiographic parameters before drawing definitive diagnostic conclusions. We report a case of a 46-year-old female with isolated IVC dilation and diminished inspiratory collapse without other abnormalities, and provide a brief review of the literature. PMID:24648809

  6. A Symmetry Approach to Time Dilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Outlines an approach to introduce students to special relativity using a discussion of stopclocks and measurement of the transmission of light pulses to produce a natural derivation of the time dilation factor. Aims at providing a frame of reference from which they can be tempted to explore special relativity at a more sophisticated level. (JRH)

  7. Scale (or Grid) Drawings and Dilations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Roberts

    2002-01-01

    This "simple activity to reinforce the concept of dilation is that of the scale (or grid) drawing" has students produce scale drawings of a given picture using grid paper to a scale of 2 and a scale of 1/2. The directions for the activity are given here as well as clear instructions for students.

  8. Dilation balloon rupture during percutaneous dilational tracheostomy: using Blue Dolphin kit.

    PubMed

    Odeleye, Adenike Grace; Tiley, Adam G; Sethuraman, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented to the high dependency unit following an elective incisional hernia repair. He was extubated in the immediate postoperative period. Following established type 2 respiratory failure (secondary to hospital-acquired pneumonia), he required tracheal intubation and was ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU). He failed extubation and subsequently had a percutaneous single-stage dilational tracheostomy fitted as indicated. During the tracheostomy, while inflating the dilation balloon (used to dilate the trachea), the balloon burst in the trachea, at a pressure of 3 atmospheres. Following this, the entire dilating unit and tracheostomy tube were removed; no debris was left inside the trachea as confirmed by bronchoscope (used throughout the procedure). He made good recovery and was discharged to a surgical ward. This case report summarises the indications for tracheostomy, and reports the rare event of balloon rupture and how to manage it within the ICU setting. PMID:25814025

  9. Hepatic biliary lipid secretion and gall bladder biliary lipid mass in gall stone patients: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lanzini, A; Northfield, T C

    1990-01-01

    We have carried out overnight measurements of hepatic secretion rate and duodenal output of biliary lipids using a duodenal perfusion technique. We correlated these measurements with the fasting state mass of biliary lipids within the gall bladder on the following morning using a combined nasoduodenal intubation and isotope scanning technique. We studied six gall stone subjects before and during treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid 675 mg/day. Lipid mass within the gall bladder correlated with the corresponding overnight hepatic secretion rate for all three biliary lipids. During ursodeoxycholic acid treatment, there was an increase in gall bladder bile acid mass without significant change in cholesterol or phospholipid mass. We conclude that the mass of individual biliary lipids within the fasting gall bladder is influenced by overnight hepatic biliary lipid secretion rate; and that the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (675 mg/day) on cholesterol saturation index of fasting gall bladder bile is mediated via an increase in bile acid mass rather than through a decrease in cholesterol mass within the gall bladder. PMID:2311984

  10. Anaesthesia for biliary atresia and hepatectomy in paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article precludes an ‘in depth’ description of all liver problems and I will limit this review to anaesthesia for biliary atresia — a common hepatic problem in the very young — and partial hepatectomy in older children. I will not be discussing the problems of anaesthetising children with hepatitis, cirrhosis, congenital storage diseases or liver failure. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction is an obliterative cholangiopathy of infancy which is fatal if untreated. Diagnosis involves exclusion of other causes of neonatal jaundice and treatment involves a hepatico portoenterostomy carried out at the earliest. This is a review of current concepts in anaesthesia and postoperative management of neonates with extrahepatic biliary atresia. Anaesthesia for hepatic resection has seen great changes in recent times with the improvement in surgical techniques, technology and a better understanding of the underlying physiology. These are reviewed along with the problems of postoperative pain management. PMID:23293387

  11. Endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Heyries; Jose Sahel

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of chronic pancreatitis has been exclusively surgical for a long time. Recently, endoscopic therapy has become widely used as a primary therapeutic option. Initially performed for drainage of pancreatic cysts and pseudocysts, endoscopic treatments were adapted to biliary and pancreatic ducts stenosis. Pancreatic sphincterotomy which allows access to pancreatic ducts was firstly reported. Secondly, endoscopic methods of stenting, dilatation,

  12. Functional disorders of the biliary tract and pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Corazziari, E; Shaffer, E; Hogan, W; Sherman, S; Toouli, J

    1999-01-01

    The term "dysfunction" defines the motor disorders of the gall bladder and the sphincter of Oddi (SO) without note of the potential etiologic factors for the difficulty to differentiate purely functional alterations from subtle structural changes. Dysfunction of the gall bladder and/or SO produces similar patterns of biliopancreatic pain and SO dysfunction may occur in the presence of the gall bladder. The symptom-based diagnostic criteria of gall bladder and SO dysfunction are episodes of severe steady pain located in the epigastrium and right upper abdominal quadrant which last at least 30 minutes. Gall bladder and SO dysfunctions can cause significant clinical symptoms but do not explain many instances of biliopancreatic type of pain. The syndrome of functional abdominal pain should be differentiated from gall bladder and SO dysfunction. In the diagnostic workup, invasive investigations should be performed only in the presence of compelling clinical evidence and after non-invasive testing has yielded negative findings. Gall bladder dysfunction is suspected when laboratory, ultrasonographic, and microscopic bile examination have excluded the presence of gallstones and other structural abnormalities. The finding of decreased gall bladder emptying at cholecystokinin-cholescintigraphy is the only objective characteristic of gall bladder dysfunction. Symptomatic manifestation of SO dysfunction may be accompanied by features of biliary obstruction (biliary-type SO dysfunction) or significant elevation of pancreatic enzymes and pancreatitis (pancreatic-type SO dysfunction). Biliary-type SO dysfunction occurs more frequently in postcholecystectomy patients who are categorized into three types. Types I and II, but not type III, have biochemical and cholangiographic features of biliary obstruction. Pancreatic-type SO dysfunction is less well classified into types. When non-invasive investigations and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopanreatography show no structural abnormality, manometry of both biliary and pancreatic sphincter may be considered.???Keywords: biliary tract disease; sphincter of Oddi dysfunction; gallstone disease; pancreatitis; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; cholescintigraphy; endoscopic ultrasonography; cholecystokinin; magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; Rome II PMID:10457045

  13. Secretory autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).

    PubMed

    Palmer, J M; Doshi, M; Kirby, J A; Yeaman, S J; Bassendine, M F; Jones, D E

    2000-12-01

    It is unclear how breakdown in immune tolerance to the ubiquitous self-antigen pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), seen in the autoimmune liver disease PBC, gives rise to tissue damage with such a limited distribution (restricted to the liver and salivary and lachrymal glands). One property shared by these tissues is the ability to export secretory IgA by the process of transcytosis. The aim of this study was to address whether active transcytosis of anti-PDC IgA occurs across epithelial surfaces in PBC, a finding that might implicate mucosal specific immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease. Parotid saliva was collected from PBC patients (n = 44), normal controls (n = 28) and PBC patients post-liver transplantation (n = 11). IgA and secretory component-positive antibodies specific for human PDC were quantified by ELISA and immunoblotting. PBC patients (but not control subjects) had anti-PDC IgA in their saliva. The strong correlation seen between titres detected using anti-IgA and anti-secretory component antibodies suggests that this is predominantly secretory IgA reaching the saliva by the active process of epithelial transcytosis. Titres of anti-PDC IgA remain high in PBC patients saliva post-liver transplant. Findings from studies of IgA in viral infection models raise the possibility that anti-PDC IgA could, whilst undergoing transcytosis, bind to newly translated PDC components in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells transporting them out of the cell and inducing metabolic damage. This model would, if correct, help to explain the mechanism and tropism of tissue damage in PBC and the aberrant pattern of expression of PDC on the apical surface of biliary and salivary epithelial cells reported in this disease. PMID:11122250

  14. Changes in Bacterial Concentration in the Liver Correlate withThat in the Hepaticojejunostomy after Bile Duct Reconstruction:Implication in the Pathogenesis of Postoperative Cholangitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

      Postoperative cholangitis is a frequent\\u000a and unpredictable complication of unknown etiology following bile duct\\u000a reconstruction (BDR), particularly for biliary atresia. This study was\\u000a undertaken to correlate the growth of bacteria in the\\u000a hepaticojejunostomy with that in the liver after BDR. Quantitative\\u000a bacterial culture was done on the specimens taken from the liver and\\u000a from the hepaticojejunostomy at 1 week (group

  15. [Biliary peritonitis after traumatic rupture of a choledochal cyst].

    PubMed

    Bouali, O; Trabanino, C; Abbo, O; Destombes, L; Baunin, C; Galinier, P

    2015-07-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare congenital malformations of the biliary tract. Traumatic rupture of a choledochal cyst can be misleading. An 11-year-old boy was admitted for peritonitis and intestinal occlusion after blunt abdominal trauma, evolving over 48 h. Laparotomy revealed bile ascites and a suspected duodenal perforation. After referral to our center, a CT scan showed a perforated choledochal cyst. Six months later, a complete excision of the cyst was successfully performed. This treatment is mandatory because of the risk of further complications such as lithiasis, pancreatitis, cholangitis, biliary cirrhosis, and malignant transformation (cholangiocarcinoma). PMID:26047751

  16. Primary biliary cirrhosis: new perspectives in diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prince, M.; Jones, D.

    2000-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by cholestatic liver function tests, antimitochondrial antibodies, and abnormal liver histology. Early descriptions of a rare rapidly progressive disease no longer reflect the more indolent progress often seen today. Many patients have significant long term morbidity through symptoms such as fatigue and itch with a minority progressing to liver failure and need for transplantation. The current data on the diagnosis, clinical progression, and treatment of PBC are reviewed.???Keywords: primary biliary cirrhosis; liver transplantation; pruritus PMID:10727561

  17. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for a 7-year-old girl with choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Murayama, Akitoshi; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2013-04-01

    A 7-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for severe abdominal pain and elevated serum levels of amylase and aminotransferase. Radiological examinations revealed choledocholithiasis. EPBD was performed under intravenous anesthesia using midazolam and ketamine chloride. After fluoroscopic confirmation of a bile duct stone, a dilation balloon (30 mm-long, 8 mm-diameter) was passed over the guidewire and placed across the papilla. The balloon was gradually inflated until the notch created by the papillary sphincter disappeared. At 4 atm, the notch disappeared and the pressure was maintained for 15 s. Stone extraction was performed by using a retrieval balloon catheter. Abdominal pain disappeared immediately after EPBD, and she resumed oral intake 2 days after EPBD. In conclusion, EPBD may be a safe and effective technique for the treatment of choledocholithiasis in pediatric patients. EPDB should be selected as a treatment for pediatric choledocholithiasis in view of its advantages of preserving papillary function. PMID:23679173

  18. A case of biliary stones and anastomotic biliary stricture after liver transplant treated with the rendez - vous technique and electrokinetic lithotritor

    PubMed Central

    Pisa, Marta Di; Traina, Mario; Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Volpes, Riccardo; Piazza, Salvatore; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the combined radiologic and endoscopic approach (rendez vous technique) to the treatment of the biliary complications following liver transplant. The “rendez-vous” technique was used with an electrokinetic lithotripter, in the treatment of a biliary anastomotic stricture with multiple biliary stones in a patient who underwent orthotopic liver transplant. In this patient, endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic management of the biliary complication failed. The combined approach, percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic treatment (rendez-vous technique) with the use of an electrokinetic lithotritor, was used to solve the biliary stenosis and to remove the stones. Technical success, defined as disappearance of the biliary stenosis and stone removal, was obtained in just one session, which definitively solved the complications. The combined approach of percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic (rendez-vous technique) treatment, in association with an electrokinetic lithotritor, is a safe and feasible alternative treatment, especially after the failure of endoscopic and/or percutaneous trans-hepatic isolated procedures. PMID:18473423

  19. Emphysematous Cholecystitis Resulting in Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis: A Rare Complication of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Aslanian, Harry R.; Pollak, Jeffrey; Reiner, Eric; Salem, Ronald R.; Taddei, Tamar H.; Emre, Sukru H.; Jamidar, Priya A.

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old female developed acute emphysematous cholecystitis after an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for evaluation of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Cholecystectomy was performed 2 days later. Cultures grew Clostridium perfringens. The patient received broad-spectrum antibiotics but developed recurrent cholangitic abscesses and intra- and extra-hepatic biliary necrosis. She was managed by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drains. For next 3 years, patient had recurrent episodes of biliary obstruction, cholangitis, and sepsis, resulting in secondary biliary cirrhosis requiring a liver transplantation. Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare complication of ERCP. Prompt diagnosis and surgical management can prevent further spread of infection to biliary tree.

  20. Reintervention for occluded biliary metal stent for patients with malignant distal biliary stricture.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kei; Ogawa, Takahisa; Horaguchi, Jun; Koshita, Shinsuke; Fujita, Naotaka

    2013-05-01

    A metal stent has a longer stent patency than a plastic stent in patients with unresectable malignant distal biliary stricture. However, treatment for stent dysfunction of a metal stent remains unresolved. A review of reported articles regarding reintervention for metal stent dysfunction showed that causes of stent dysfunction included tumor ingrowth/overgrowth, stone/sludge/food impaction, and stent migration. Cleaning of the stent is associated with an early relapse of stent dysfunction. Additional placement of a covered metal stent is expected to have a longer stent patency than that of other stents such as uncovered metal stents or plastic stents. It is recommended that occluded covered metal stents be removed if possible. Stent trimming with argon plasma coagulation is sometimes useful for the treatment of stent displacement. No strategy for occluded metal stents has been established yet. Further clinical trials regarding proper treatments are necessary. PMID:23617663