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Sample records for biliary duct dilatation

  1. Peripheral portal vein-oriented non-dilated bile duct puncture for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kato, Atsushi; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of peripheral portal vein (PV)-oriented non-dilated bile duct (BD) puncture for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with non-dilated BDs underwent PTBD for the management of various biliary disorders, including benign bilioenteric anastomotic stricture (n = 24), BD stricture (n = 5) associated with iatrogenic BD injury, and postoperative biliary leakage (n = 6). Under ultrasonographic guidance, percutaneous transhepatic puncture using a 21-G needle was performed along the running course of the peripheral targeted non-dilated BD (preferably B6 for right-sided approach, and B3 for left-sided approach) or along the accompanying PV when the BD was not well visualized. This technique could provide an appropriate insertion angle of less than 30° between the puncture needle and BD running course. The puncture needle was then advanced slightly beyond the accompanying PV. The needle tip was moved slightly backward while injecting a small amount of contrast agent to obtain the BD image, followed by insertion of a 0.018-inch guide wire (GW). A drainage catheter was then placed using a two-step GW method. RESULTS: PTBD was successful in 33 (94.3%) of the 35 patients with non-dilated intrahepatic BDs. A right-sided approach was performed in 25 cases, while a left-sided approach was performed in 10 cases. In 31 patients, the first PTBD attempt proved successful. Four cases required a second attempt a few days later to place a drainage catheter. PTBD was successful in two cases, but the second attempt also failed in the other two cases, probably due to poor breath-holding ability. Although most patients (n = 26) had been experiencing cholangitis with fever (including septic condition in 8 cases) before PTBD, only 5 (14.3%) patients encountered PTBD procedure-related complications, such as transient hemobilia and cholangitis. No major complications such as bilioarterial fistula or portal thrombosis were observed. There was no mortality in our series. CONCLUSION: Peripheral PV-oriented BD puncture for PTBD in patients with non-dilated BDs is a safe and effective procedure for BD stricture and postoperative bile leakage. PMID:26640339

  2. Intrahepatic Stones from Congenital Biliary Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Jhamb, Satvik; Decker, Christopher; Romero, Ricardo; Rivera, Ramon E.; Conway, W. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital or primary intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) dilatation is a rare disorder with symptoms of abdominal pain and hepatomegaly that usually presents in childhood and adolescence. Recurrent cholangitis, liver abscesses, septicemia, and biliary cirrhosis may result secondary to biliary sludge and hepatolithiasis. Case Report We present a case of IHBD dilatation with hepatolithiasis cured with surgical resection and discuss the management of this disease. Conclusion IHBD dilatation should be treated, as chronic biliary stasis and hepatolithiasis can lead to infection and recurrent cholangitis that can progress to cholangiocarcinoma. Treatment for IHBD dilatation usually involves multiple modalities including medical therapy, but ultimately resection of the diseased segments or lobes is required given the increased risk of malignancy. PMID:25829890

  3. Bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation in a 16-year-old female: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hideki; Yazawa, Naoki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Masuoka, Yoshihito; Yamada, Misuzu; Mashiko, Taro; Kawashima, Yohei; Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Mine, Tetsuya; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Nakagohri, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    We encountered a very rare case of bile duct carcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) in a 16-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of right upper abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the common bile duct measuring 7 cm in diameter and two enhanced tumors 4 cm in diameter located in the inferior bile duct and middle bile duct. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography clearly demonstrated a cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct (Todani's CBD classification: type 4-A). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also revealed two tumors. Biopsy results of one of the tumors confirmed adenocarcinoma. Excision of the perihilar bile duct and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with dissection of the major lymph nodes were performed. A postoperative histopathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, which remained within the mucosal layer, and no lymph node metastasis was found. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 10 days after surgery and has remained disease-free for 21 months. PMID:26943681

  4. [Dilatation of bile ducts in polycystic kidney disease in adults].

    PubMed

    Grateau, G; Hospitel, S; Charbonneau, R; Abeille, J F; Franco, D; Guillodo, M P; Cledes, J; Grunfeld, J P

    1990-11-01

    We report the cases of 4 adult patients with polycystic kidney disease and dilatation of bile ducts. Dilatation involved the extra-hepatic bile ducts in all 4 cases and also affected the intra-hepatic bile ducts in 3 cases. A prospective ultrasonographic study in search of biliary tract abnormalities was undertaken in 40 patients with dominant polycystic kidney disease. No bile duct dilatation was found in this series, which indicates that the lesion is rare. The 4 cases reported here increase the collection of hepatobiliary lesions associated with polycystic kidney disease of adults. PMID:2147269

  5. Anomalous pancreatico-biliary junction--a non-dilated biliary system and gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Toufeeq Khan, T F; Hayat, F Z; Muniandy, S

    1998-01-01

    Anomalous pancreatico-biliary junction (APBJ) is commonly associated with cystic dilatation of the bile ducts but recently, several cases without the cystic dilatation have been reported. We treated a young female patient with intractable back and epigastric pain of three months duration. The spine was normal on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but several lymph nodes were seen around the coeliac axis. An APBJ, a non-cystic biliary system, non-filling of the gallbladder and an irregular right margin of the bile duct were evident on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERCP), which was highly suggestive of gallbladder (GB) malignancy. At surgery, the GB was hard with local infiltration of the bile duct. Numerous large para-aortic and supraduodenal lymph nodes were present and only a biopsy was possible. Details of the case are presented and the growing etiological importance of an APBJ, especially without cystic biliary dilatation in gallbladder carcinogenesis is discussed. PMID:9557100

  6. Congenital dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts with cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, P. J.; Millis, R. R.; Mitchinson, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were found at necropsy in two previously reported cases of congenital dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. The nature of the developmental abnormality is discussed and compared with other forms of biliary dilatation. Slow-flowing bile for many years probably leads to cholangiocarcinoma. Images PMID:4343747

  7. Asymptomatic Bile Duct Dilatation in Children: Is It a Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yeo Ju; Lee, Mi Jung; Koh, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bile duct dilatation is a relatively common sonographic finding; nevertheless, its clinical significance in children is controversial because little research has been done in the area. Therefore, we investigated the natural course and clinical significance of biliary duct dilatation in children. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 181 children (range, 1-day-old to 17-year-old) in whom dilatation of the intrahepatic duct and/or common hepatic duct and/or common bile duct was detected by abdominal ultrasonography at the Severance Children's Hospital between November 2005 and March 2014. We reviewed and analyzed laboratory test results, clinical manifestations, and clinical course in these patients. Results Pediatric patients (n=181) were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups. The first group included 59 subjects, without definitive cause of bile duct dilatation, who did not require treatment; the second group included 122 subjects, with definitive cause of bile duct dilatation or underlying biliary disease, who did require treatment. In the first group, 24 patients (40.7%) showed spontaneous resolution of bile duct dilatation, 20 patients (33.9%) showed no change, and 15 patients (25.4%) were lost to follow-up. In the second group, 31 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cysts, and 91 patients presented with biliary tract dilatations due to secondary causes, such as gallbladder or liver disease, post-operative complications, or malignancy. Conclusion Biliary dilatation in pediatric patients without symptoms, and without laboratory and other sonographic abnormalities, showed a benign clinical course. No pathologic conditions were noted on follow-up ultrasonography. PMID:26473138

  8. Computed tomography of localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Itai Y.; Tasaka, A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-nine patients showed localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts on computed tomography, usually unaccompanied by jaundice. Congenital dilatation was diagnosed when associated with a choledochal cyst, while cholangiographic contrast material was helpful in differentiating such dilatation from a simple cyst by showing its communication with the biliary tract when no choledochal cyst was present. Obstructive dilatation was associated with intrahepatic calculi in 4 cases, hepatoma in 9, cholangioma in 5, metastatic tumor in 5, and polycystic disease in 2. Cholangioma and intrahepatic calculi had a greater tendency to accompany such localized dilatation; in 2 cases, the dilatation was the only clue to the underlying disorder.

  9. "Mustache sign" due to Stensen duct dilation.

    PubMed

    Yoruk, O; K?l?c, K; Kantarc?, M

    2013-12-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of painless swellings of the left and right cheeks. The degree of swelling did not change with mastication. On palpation, the cheeks were soft, well defined, and movable. Compression and massage of the swollen areas caused increased salivary discharge from the orifices of the Stensen ducts. Three-dimensional computed tomography showed well-bordered, 15- to 20-mm wide, bilateral, tube-like dilatations of the ducts. The ductal origin of the swellings was explained to the patient, but she refused invasive procedures, thus no sialogram or surgical procedure was performed. We describe the clinical and radiographic features of a case of bilateral, congenital Stensen duct dilatation with bilateral swelling of the cheeks. PMID:24209996

  10. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; and smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  11. Biliary cirrhosis secondary to obstruction of the common bile duct by ectopic pancreas in a cow.

    PubMed

    Shimada, A; Iwata, K; Morita, T; Umemura, T; Yamaga, Y; Kagota, K

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year-old Japanese Black cow showed icterus with gradual emaciation for a period of 3 months. Ultrasonography demonstrated increased "echogenicity" of the entire liver, with marked dilatation of the gall-bladder. At necropsy, the common bile duct was found to be obstructed by focally thickened fibrous tissue adjacent to a flesh-like mass (9 x 4 x 4 mm) attached to the wall of the duct. The mass consisted of normal pancreatic tissue. The liver showed moderate fibrosis, with nodular regeneration of the hepatic tissue and bile duct hyperplasia. A diagnosis of biliary cirrhosis secondary to ectopic pancreas in the common bile duct was made. PMID:9500240

  12. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; the smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. The dilatation of the central intrahepatic bile ducts was moderate in two patients and massive in one patient. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  13. A rare cause of dilated bile duct incidentally detected on imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kah Poh; Nautsch, Deborah; Desilets, David; Mehendiratta, Vaibhav

    2014-01-01

    Adenomas involving the extrahepatic bile ducts are rare benign tumours of the biliary tract. Given the asymptomatic nature of these tumours and the natural progression of biliary adenoma to carcinoma including cholangiocarcinoma, early detection is challenging. We present a case of an octogenarian woman with a remote history of gallstones who initially presented to the gastroenterology office for an incidental finding of biliary dilation, and whose subsequent imagings and biopsy suggested common bile adenoma. However, the patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate for pancreaticoduodenectomy, and unfortunately represented 5 months later with findings suggesting cholangiocarcinoma. This case provides a unique opportunity to study the natural progression of biliary adenoma to cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:24859557

  14. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  15. A Rare Anomaly of Biliary System: MRCP Evidence of a Cystic Duct Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Cemil; Arslan, Mehmet Serif; Hamidi, Cihad; Kuday, Suzan; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin

    2014-01-01

    Cystic duct cysts are a rare congenital anomaly. While the other bile duct cysts (choledochus and the intrahepatic bile ducts) are classified according to the classification described by Tadoni, there is no classification method described by the cystic duct cysts, although it is claimed that the cystic duct cysts may constitute a new “Type 6” category. Only a limited number of patients with cystic duct cysts have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis is usually made in the neonatal period or during childhood. The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and usually include pain in the right upper quadrant and jaundice. The condition may also present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholelithiasis, or pancreatitis. In our case, the abdominal ultrasonography (US) performed on a 6-year-old female patient who presented with pain in the right upper quadrant pointed out an anechoic cyst at the neck of the gall bladder. Based on the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) results, a cystic dilatation was diagnosed in the cystic duct. The aim of this case-report presentation was to discuss the US and MRCP findings of the cystic dilatation of cystic duct, which is an extremely rare condition, in the light of the literature information. PMID:24987540

  16. Laparoscopic transcystic duct balloon dilatation of the sphincter of Oddi.

    PubMed

    Carroll, B J; Phillips, E H; Chandra, M; Fallas, M

    1993-01-01

    Balloon dilatation of the sphincter of Oddi has been performed via a laparoscopic transcystic duct technique. Small common duct stones and stone debris have been successfully lavaged into the duodenum in 17 of 20 cases (85%) by this method. Postoperative hyperamylasemia was noted in four patients. Mild clinical pancreatitis was observed in three patients (15%). Further evaluation of this technique as an adjunct to laparoscopic common bile duct stone extraction is warranted. PMID:8272998

  17. Techniques of biliary reconstruction following bile duct resection (with video).

    PubMed

    Hirano, Satoshi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Joe; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kato, Kentaro

    2012-05-01

    In several clinical situations, including resection of malignant or benign biliary lesions, reconstruction of the biliary system using the Roux-en-Y jejunum limb has been adopted as the standard procedure. The basic technique and the procedural knowledge essential for most gastroenterological surgeons are described in this article, along with a video supplement. Low complication rates involving anastomotic insufficiency or stricture can be achieved by using proper surgical techniques, even following small bile duct reconstruction. Using the ropeway method to stabilize the bile duct and jejunal limb allows precise mucosa-to-mucosa anastomosis with interrupted sutures of the posterior row of the anastomosis. Placement of a transanastomotic stent tube is the second step. The final step involves suturing the anterior row of the anastomosis. In contrast to the lower extrahepatic bile duct, the wall of the hilar or intrahepatic bile duct can be recognized within the fibrous connective tissue in the Glissonean pedicle. The portal side of the duct should be selected for the posterior wall during anastomosis owing to its thickness. Meticulous inspection to avoid overlooking small bile ducts could decrease the chance of postoperative intractable bile leakage. In reconstruction of small or fragile branches, a transanastomotic stent tube could work as an anchor for the anastomosis. PMID:22081253

  18. DILATE: a 2-d structural program for the dilation response of hexagonal ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, D.P.

    1980-02-01

    An analytical method is introduced for determining the dilation of hexagonal ducts in fast reactors. The method, which is valid for temperatures where creep is linearly dependent on stress, was implemented in a fast-running computer called DILATE. A bench-mark program is presented, which shows the results of the DILATE program in close agreement with the results of the finite element program MARC-CDC. User instructions for the DILATE program are described in detail and a listing of the program is included.

  19. The Efficacy of Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for Patients with Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Chih; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lin, Kung-Hung; Wang, Kai-Ming; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chiang, Po-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Li, Yun-Da; Wang, E-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background. No study investigated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for the treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). Method. We retrospectively reviewed the effects of EPBD on patients with ABP from February 2003 to December 2012. The general data, findings of image studies, details of the procedure, and outcomes after EPBD were analyzed. Result. Total 183 patients (male/female: 110/73) were enrolled. The mean age was 65.9 years. Among them, 155 patients had mild pancreatitis. The meantime from admission to EPBD was 3.3 days. Cholangiogram revealed filling defects inside the common bile duct (CBD) in 149 patients. The mean dilating balloon size was 10.5?mm and mean duration of the dilating procedure was 4.3 minutes. Overall, 124 patients had gross stones retrieved from CBD. Four (2.2%) adverse events and 2 (1.1%) intraprocedure bleeding incidents but no procedure-related mortality were noted. Bilirubin and amylase levels significantly decreased after EPBD. On average, patients resumed oral intake within 1.4 days. The clinical parameters and outcomes were similar in patients with different severity of pancreatitis. Conclusion. EPBD can be effective and safe for the treatment of ABP, even in patients presenting with severe disease. PMID:25949236

  20. Paclitaxel-eluting balloon dilation of biliary anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Anna; Reinecke, Holger; Cicinnati, Vito R; Beckebaum, Susanne; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut H; Kabar, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic therapy with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) for biliary anastomotic stricture (AS) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: This prospective pilot study enrolled 13 consecutive eligible patients treated for symptomatic AS after LT at the University Hospital of Mnster between January 2011 and March 2014. The patients were treated by endoscopic therapy with a PEB and followed up every 8 wk by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In cases of re-stenosis, further balloon dilation with a PEB was performed. Follow-up was continued until 24 mo after the last intervention. RESULTS: Initial technical feasibility, defined as successful balloon dilation with a PEB during the initial ERCP procedure, was achieved in 100% of cases. Long-term clinical success (LTCS), defined as no need for further endoscopic intervention for at least 24 mo, was achieved in 12 of the 13 patients (92.3%). The mean number of endoscopic interventions required to achieve LTCS was only 1.7 1.1. Treatment failure, defined as the need for definitive alternative treatment, occurred in only one patient, who developed recurrent stenosis with increasing bile duct dilatation that required stent placement. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic therapy with a PEB is very effective for the treatment of AS after LT, and seems to significantly shorten the overall duration of endoscopic treatment by reducing the number of interventions needed to achieve LTCS. PMID:25624733

  1. Operative ultrasound of the liver and biliary ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Bismuth, H.; Castaing, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the intraoperative use of sonography of the liver and biliary ducts which opens up new perspectives for the surgeon. The diagnosis of tumors becomes much more sensitive and efficient with intraoperative ultrasound than with preoperative transcutaneous sonography of intraoperative palpation. Sonographically aimed puncture and balloon-tipped catheter occlusion of segments or subsegment branches of the portal vein allow on the one hand local blue marking, and on the other hand local bloodlessness during the operation. Surgery of liver tumors thus becomes much more precise.

  2. Paucity of biliary ducts: A rare etiology of neonatal cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Figiel, Steven Cornell; Franco, Arie; Pucar, Darko; Lewis, Kristopher Neal; Lee, Jeffrey Roberts

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a newborn with cholestasis that was diagnosed as nonsyndromic Alagille syndrome. The main feature of the disease is a paucity of biliary ducts. There are two known types of the disease: the syndromic type which is associated with other congenital defects and the nonsyndromic type without other anomalies detected at birth. We describe the case and discuss its clinical and radiologic findings. We also discuss the various etiologies of cholestasis that are included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22690284

  3. Paucity of biliary ducts: A rare etiology of neonatal cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Steven Cornell; Franco, Arie; Pucar, Darko; Lewis, Kristopher Neal; Lee, Jeffrey Roberts

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a newborn with cholestasis that was diagnosed as nonsyndromic Alagille syndrome. The main feature of the disease is a paucity of biliary ducts. There are two known types of the disease: the syndromic type which is associated with other congenital defects and the nonsyndromic type without other anomalies detected at birth. We describe the case and discuss its clinical and radiologic findings. We also discuss the various etiologies of cholestasis that are included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22690284

  4. Congenital dilatation of the large and segmental intrahepatic bile ducts (Caroli's disease) in two Golden retriever littermates.

    PubMed

    Last, R D; Hill, J M; Roach, M; Kaldenberg, T

    2006-12-01

    Two, sibling, male Golden retriever puppies, 13 weeks of age, were presented with congenital biliary cysts of the liver involving both hepatic and segmental bile ducts, as well as bilateral polycystic kidney disease. Ultrasonography of the livers of both pups demonstrated segmental cystic lesions that were contiguous with the bile ducts. Histopathology revealed cystic ectatic bile duct hyperplasia and dysplasia with variable portal fibrosis in the liver, while in the kidneys there were radially arranged, cylindrically dilated cysts of the collecting ducts, which extended through the medulla and cortex. This pathology was compatible with that of congenital dilatation of the large and segmental bile ducts (Caroli's disease) described in humans, dogs and rats. In humans Caroli's disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, while in rats activation of the MEK5/ERK cascade initiates the biliary dysgenesis of Caroli's disease in this species. However, the exact mode of inheritance and pathogenesis of Caroli's disease in dogs is as yet unknown. Previous reports on congenital hepatic cystic diseases of the dog have described Caroli's disease like lesions in various breeds, but these are believed to be the 1st reported cases in the Golden retriever breed. PMID:17458347

  5. Successful treatment of biliary intraepithelial neoplasia in the common bile duct via local excision: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; CHEN, WEI; LI, KEWEI; WANG, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN), a precursor lesion of bile duct adenocarcinomas, rarely occurs in the extrahepatic bile duct, and therefore uniform treatment guidelines are lacking. The present study reports a case of BilIN in the common bile duct (CBD) in a 77-year-old man, who presented with upper abdominal malaise without jaundice. Imaging modalities revealed a CBD luminal tumor and dilated intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. To the best of our knowledge, local excision of the lesion was performed for the first time for this type of tumor in the present study. Pathological examination gave a definite diagnosis of high-grade BilIN in the CBD. No evidence of recurrence was observed during a 3-year follow-up period. This case report suggests that local excision is able to successfully treat BilIN in the CBD. PMID:27123079

  6. Regulation of intrahepatic biliary duct morphogenesis by Claudin 15-like b

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Isla D.; Bagnat, Michel; Ma, Taylur P.; Datta, Anirban; Evason, Kimberley; Moore, John C.; Lawson, Nathan; Mostov, Keith E.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2011-01-01

    The intrahepatic biliary ducts transport bile produced by the hepatocytes out of the liver. Defects in biliary cell differentiation and biliary duct remodeling cause a variety of congenital diseases including Alagille Syndrome and polycystic liver disease. While the molecular pathways regulating biliary cell differentiation have received increasing attention (Lemaigre, 2010), less is known about the cellular behavior underlying biliary duct remodeling. Here, we have identified a novel gene, claudin 15-like b (cldn15lb), which exhibits a unique and dynamic expression pattern in the hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in zebrafish. Claudins are tight junction proteins that have been implicated in maintaining epithelial polarity, regulating paracellular transport, and providing barrier function. In zebrafish cldn15lb mutant livers, tight junctions are observed between hepatocytes, but these cells show polarization defects as well as canalicular malformations. Furthermore, cldn15lb mutants show abnormalities in biliary duct morphogenesis whereby biliary epithelial cells remain clustered together and form a disorganized network. Our data suggest that Cldn15lb plays an important role in the remodeling process during biliary duct morphogenesis. Thus, cldn15lb mutants provide a novel in vivo model to study the role of tight junction proteins in the remodeling of the biliary network and hereditary cholestasis. PMID:22020048

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct dilatation with normal liver enzymes

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Claudio; Marietti, Milena; Bruno, Mauro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Rizzetto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the description of isolated bile duct dilatation has been increasingly observed in subjects with normal liver function tests and nonspecific abdominal symptoms, probably due to the widespread use of high-resolution imaging techniques. However, there is scant literature about the evolution of this condition and the impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnostic work up. When noninvasive imaging tests (transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) fail to identify the cause of dilatation and clinical or biochemical alarm signs are absent, the probability of having biliary disease is considered low. In this setting, using EUS, the presence of pathologic findings (choledocholithiasis, strictures, chronic pancreatitis, ampullary or pancreatic tumors, cholangiocarcinoma), not always with a benign course, has been observed. The aim of this review has been to evaluate the prevalence of disease among non-jaundiced patients without signs of cytolysis and/or cholestasis and the assessment of EUS yield. Data point out to a promising role of EUS in the identification of a potential biliary pathology. EUS is a low invasive technique, with high accuracy, that could play a double cost-effective role: identifying pathologic conditions with dismal prognosis, in asymptomatic patients with negative prior imaging tests, and excluding pathologic conditions and further follow-up in healthy subjects. PMID:26191344

  8. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, Guido Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Salvetti, Monica; Romito, Raffaele; Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

  9. Clonal chromosomal abnormalities in congenital bile duct dilatation (Caroli's disease)

    PubMed Central

    Parada, L; Hallen, M; Hagerstrand, I; Tranberg, K; Johansson, B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Caroli's disease is a rare congenital disorder characterised by cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts and an increased risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma. The cause is unknown, but occasional familial clustering suggests that some cases are inherited, in particular when occurring in association with polycystic kidney disease and germline PKD1 gene mutations. To date, no gene responsible for familial isolated Caroli's disease has been identified, and no genetic investigations of liver tissue from patients with Caroli's disease have been reported.
PATIENT/METHOD—A liver biopsy specimen from a patient with isolated Caroli's disease, without any signs of cholangiocellular carcinoma, was short term cultured and cytogenetically investigated after G banding with Wright's stain.
RESULT—Cytogenetic analysis disclosed the karyotype 45-47,XX,der(3)t(3;8)(p23;q13), +2mar[cp6]/46,XX[18].
CONCLUSIONS—The finding of an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 3 and 8 suggests that loss of distal 3p and/or gain of 8q is of pathogenetic importance in Caroli's disease. Alternatively, structural rearrangements of genes located in 3p23 and 8q13 may be of the essence. These chromosomal breakpoints may also pinpoint the location of genes involved in inherited forms of Caroli's disease not associated with polycystic kidney disease.


Keywords: Caroli's disease; bile duct; cytogenetics PMID:10517920

  10. Cholangiographic characteristics of common bile duct dilatation in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seak Hee; Chang, Soo-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Jin Min; Hwang, Ji-Hee; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Kim, Dae Yeon; Cho, Young-Ah; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether children with congenital common bile duct dilatation (CBDD) differ from children with obstructive CBDD in cholangiographic characteristics. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the baseline data and the results of imaging analyses were reviewed among children who had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) due to CBDD. ERCP was performed on all pediatric patients by experienced pediatric endoscopists. The maximal transverse diameter of the common bile duct (CBD) was measured on ERCP. To assess whether age-adjusted CBDD could be used for differential diagnosis, a CBDD severity index (SI) was calculated by dividing the measured CBD diameter by the age-corrected maximal diameter of a normal CBD. RESULTS: A retrospective medical chart review revealed that 85 consecutive children under 16 years of age with hepatobiliary disease and CBDD were referred to Seoul Asan Medical Center. Fifty-five (64.7%) children had congenital CBDD and 30 (35.3%) had obstructive CBDD. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of clinical characteristics except for sex. The congenital and obstructive CBDD groups did not differ significantly in terms of mean CBD diameter (19.3 ± 9.6 mm vs 12.2 ± 4.1 mm, P > 0.05). However, congenital CBDD cases had a significantly higher mean SI than obstructive CBDD cases (3.62 ± 1.64 vs 1.98 ± 0.71, P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, an SI value ≥ 2.32 and comorbidity with anomalous union of pancreaticobiliary duct (APBDU) in ERCP independently predicted congenital CBDD. CONCLUSION: Measuring the CBD may aid the differential diagnosis of both CBDD and APBDU in children. PMID:26034357

  11. Early experience of robotic surgery for type I congenital dilatation of the bile duct.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Takeshi; Morikawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoki, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Okada, Takaho; Sakata, Naoaki; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Nakagawa, Kei; Hayashi, Hiroki; Musha, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Katayose, Yu; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for this disease is not widely spread due to difficulties in its procedure. We started a laparoscopic procedure for this disease since 2011, and the robotic surgery since 2012. The aim of this study is to assess early results of these procedures. We have operated seven cases from September 2011 through December 2013. First two cases were performed by laparoscopic procedure, and following cases were done by robotically assisted surgery. Of these cases, the perioperative outcome and short-term postoperative morbidity were evaluated. Their average age was 43.6 years old (20-64 years old), and male-female ratio was 2:5. Todani classification was type 1 in all cases. The operation time was 321 min in laparoscopic cases, while 489 min in robotic surgery cases. One case of robotic surgery developed postoperative intestinal obstruction of the biliary limb, requiring laparoscopic adhesiolysis. Pancreatic fistula and anastomotic leakage have not been observed. The robotic surgery for the congenital dilatation of the bile duct is feasible and is a theoretically useful option, especially for hepatico-jejunostomy. On the other hand, the limitation of energy devices, high running cost, and time consumption remain questionable. PMID:26531115

  12. Advanced Imaging Technology in Biliary Tract Diseases:Narrow-Band Imaging of the Bile Duct.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah

    2015-11-01

    Newly introduced direct peroral cholangioscopy and the development of video choledochoscopes have enabled more defined observation of bile duct mucosal lesions with clearer images. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a unique endoscopic imaging technology that provides enhanced endoscopic images of surface mucosal structures and its superficial microvessels. Advanced cholangioscopy and NBI are expected to be useful for precise evaluation and correct diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. However, the diagnostic value of advanced bile duct imaging with cholangioscopy requires further evaluation. PMID:26668795

  13. Computed tomography of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Furui, S.; Yashiro, N.; Ohtomo, K.; Iio, M.

    1983-05-01

    Fifteen patients with primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma in 13, biliary cystadenocarcinoma in two) were examined by computed tomography (CT). The CT features were classified into three types: (A) a well-defined round cystic mass with internal papillary projections, (B) a localized intrahepatic biliary dilatation without a definite mass lesion, and (C) miscellaneous low-density masses. Intraphepatic biliary dilatation was noted in all cases of Types A and B and half of those of Type C; dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred in 4/4, 1/3, and 0/8, respectively. CT patterns, such as a well-defined round cystic mass with papillary projections or dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic ducts, give important clues leading to a correct diagnosis of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy.

  14. Ectopic opening of cystic dilatation of the ejaculatory duct into enlarged prostatic utricle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Hong-Fei; Wang, Ji-Chen; Le, Mei-Zhao; Yu, Hong-Bo; Zhou, He-Tong

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old man was referred to our department for the management of recurrent hemospermia during the past 5 years. Genital examination and hormonal levels were normal. Semen analysis showed no change in volume and pH; however, hemospermia and asthenozoospermia were observed. Ultrasonography and computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a cystic lesion with calcification in the terminal part of seminal vesicles adjoining the prostate gland. The following vasography and endoscopic retrograde urethrography demonstrated 2 communicating cystic dilatations arising from the verumontanum. The diagnosis of cystic dilatation of the ejaculatory duct opening into an enlarged prostatic utricle was reached. Transurethral unroofing of the cyst was separately performed with a successful outcome. The characteristic of the 2 cystic dilatations was confirmed by pathologic examination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ectopic cystic dilatation of the ejaculatory duct opening into an enlarged prostatic utricle. PMID:22016352

  15. Overlapping of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Small Duct Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: First Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Elze Maria Gomes; Oliveira, Patricia Marinho; Becker, Vitoria; Dellavance, Alessandra; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho; Lanzoni, Valeria; Silva, Antonio Eduardo Benedito; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are both autoimmune cholestatic liver disease and the association of these two conditions in the same patient is very rare. We report the case of a female patient presenting with a cholestatic liver disease and a panel of autoantibodies specific for PBC, including antibodies to mitochondrial E2-pyruvate dehydrogenase, gp-210 and Sp-100. Beside these findings, the liver biopsy revealed concentric fibrosis of small biliary ducts and the magnetic resonance cholangiography presented no abnormal findings. Diagnosis of small duct PSC/PBC overlapping was done. No description of this association was found in the literature. Clinical and serological features of this unusual finding are discussed. PMID:23226177

  16. A comparative study of one minute versus five seconds endoscopic biliary balloon dilation after small sphincterotomy in choleducolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Minakari, Mohammad; Ardestani, Mohammad Hadi Shafigh; Sadeghizadeh, Atefeh; Shavakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a low-risk method for the treatment of choleducolithiasis. Traditionally one minute ballooning time (BT) is applied; however, the effective BT is not clear. In this study, we compare five seconds and one minute ballooning time. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind, randomized, clinical trial 60 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones documented in ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), with no severe hepatic, biliary or systemic diseases, enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive EPBD with either five seconds (n = 31) or one minute (n = 29) ballooning time (BT) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and small sphincterotomy. Then stones were retrieved with an extractor balloon. The patients were followed for 48 hours to check the possible complications. Results: Successful CBD stone removal was the same in the five-second and one-minute BT groups (93.5% vs. 96.6%; P = 0.594). Pancreatitis occurred in three (9.7%) patients in the five-second BT group and in six (20.7%) patients in the one-minute BT group (P = 0.233). No hemorrhage or perforation was noted. Conclusions: After a small sphincterotomy, EPBD in the five-second and one-minute BT groups had a similar efficacy. Small sphincterotomy combined with very short BT is a safe and effective method for CBD stone removal. PMID:25709993

  17. Balloon Catheter Dilation and Nasolacrimal Intubation for Treatment of Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Following a Failed Probing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal intubation as treatments for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) after a failed probing in children less than 4 years of age Methods We conducted a prospective, non-randomized multicenter study which enrolled 159 children aged 6 to <48 months who had a history of a single failed nasolacrimal duct probing and had at least one of the following clinical signs of NLDO present: epiphora, mucous discharge and/or increased tear lake. One hundred ninety-nine eyes underwent either balloon catheter nasolacrimal duct dilation or nasolacrimal duct intubation. Treatment success was defined as no epiphora, mucous discharge or increased tear lake present at the outcome visit six months after surgery. Results Treatment success was reported in 65 of 84 eyes (77%, 95% CI = 65% to 85%) in the balloon group compared with 72 of 88 eyes (84%, 95% CI = 74% to 91%) eyes in the intubation group (risk ratio for success for intubation vs. balloon = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusions Balloon catheter dilation and nasolacrimal duct intubation each alleviate the clinical signs of persistent nasolacrimal duct obstruction in a similar proportion of patients. PMID:19433712

  18. DNA hypomethylation causes bile duct defects in zebrafish and is a distinguishing feature of infantile biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Randolph P.; EauClaire, Steven F.; Mugnier, Monica; Lorent, Kristin; Cui, Shuang; Ross, Megan M.; Zhang, Zhe; Russo, Pierre; Pack, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Summary Infantile cholestatic disorders arise in the context of progressively developing intrahepatic bile ducts. Biliary atresia (BA), a progressive fibroinflammatory disorder of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, is the most common identifiable cause of infantile cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation in children. The etiology of BA is unclear, and while there is some evidence for viral, toxic, and complex genetic causes, the exclusive occurrence of BA during a period of biliary growth and remodeling suggests an importance of developmental factors. Interestingly, interferon-γ (IFNγ) signaling is activated in patients and in the frequently utilized Rhesus rotavirus mouse model of BA, and is thought to play a key mechanistic role. Here we demonstrate intrahepatic biliary defects and upregulated hepatic expression of IFNγ pathway genes caused by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation in zebrafish larvae. Biliary defects elicited by inhibition of DNA methylation were reversed by treatment with glucocorticoid, suggesting that the activation of inflammatory pathways was critical. DNA methylation was significantly reduced in bile duct cells from BA patients compared to patients with other infantile cholestatic disorders, thereby establishing a possible etiologic link between decreased DNA methylation, activation of IFNγ signaling, and biliary defects in patients. Conclusion: Inhibition of DNA methylation leads to biliary defects and activation of IFNγ-responsive genes, thus sharing features with BA, which we determine to be associated with DNA hypomethylation. We propose epigenetic activation of IFNγ signaling as a common etiologic mechanism of intrahepatic bile duct defects in BA. PMID:21319190

  19. Covered Metal Stenting for Malignant Lower Biliary Stricture with Pancreatic Duct Obstruction: Is Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Needed?

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Kazunari; Okuse, Chiaki; Suetani, Keigo; Michikawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Otsubo, Takehito; Itoh, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the need for endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) before covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS) deployment for malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Methods. This study included 79 patients who underwent CSEMS deployment for unresectable malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Treatment outcomes and complications were compared between 38 patients with EST before CSEMS deployment (EST group) and 41 without EST (non-EST group). Results. The technical success rates were 100% in both the EST and the non-EST group. The incidence of pancreatitis was 2.6% in the EST, and 2.4% in the non-EST group (P = 0.51). The incidences of overall complications were 18.4% and 14.6%, respectively, (P = 0.65). Within the non-EST groups, the incidence of pancreatitis was 0% in patients with fully covered stent deployment and 3.6% in those with partially covered stent deployment (P = 0.69). In the multivariate analysis, younger age (P = 0.003, OR 12) and nonpancreatic cancer (P = 0.001, OR 24) were significant risk factors for overall complications after CSEMS deployment. EST was not identified as a risk factor. Conclusions. EST did not reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after CSEMS deployment in patients of unresectable distal malignant obstruction with pancreatic duct obstruction. PMID:24324486

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage for right hepatic bile duct obstruction: novel technical tips.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takeshi; Sano, Tatsushi; Onda, Saori; Imoto, Akira; Masuda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is not normally indicated for an obstructed right intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD). The technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of a novel technique of EUS-BD for right IHBD obstruction were evaluated. A total of 11 patients underwent drainage using either a left or a right biliary access route. The causes of obstructive jaundice were cholangiocarcinoma (n = 6), pancreatic cancer (n = 3), gastric cancer (n = 1), and colon cancer (n = 1). After placement of an uncovered metal stent to bridge the obstruction, a hepaticogastrostomy was completed using a covered stent. Mean procedure time was 33.9 ± 10.0 minutes. Technical and functional success were achieved in all patients, and no adverse events occurred. This novel method appears to be safe and effective for right IHBD obstruction. PMID:25264761

  1. Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-01-01

    Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

  2. Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-02-16

    Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

  3. Association of Endoscopic Sphincterotomy or Papillary Balloon Dilatation and Biliary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Wan-Yun; Chow, Wai-Keung; Lee, Show-Wu; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) have become the main therapeutic procedures in the treatment of biliary and pancreas disease. The risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is not well investigated among post-EST/EPBD patients with benign diseases, particularly in Asia population. A retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2010) was conducted. Among patients with history of biliary stone with cholangitis, there were 17,503 patients in the EST/EPBD cohort and 69,998 subjects in the comparison. The incidence rate ratio was calculated using the Poisson regression model. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounding factors, were used to assess the risk of developing CCA associated with endoscopic EST/EPBD. The cumulative incidences of CCA in the 2 cohorts were calculated using Kaplan–Meier analyses, and differences between the survival curves of the 2 cohorts were analyzed using a log-rank test. The overall incidence of CCA in the EST/EPBD cohort was higher than in the controls (1.36 vs 7.37 per 1000 person-years, IRR = 5.40, 95% CI = 5.15–5.67), with an adjusted HR of 4.41 (95% CI = 3.86–5.04). There were no CCA occurrences among patients receiving EST over the follow-up period 3 year after EST performed. The cumulative incidence of extrahepatic CCA seemed to be little growing in patients receiving EPBD. The cumulative incidence of intrahepatic CCA was also steady increasing in patients treated with EPBD and was more than patients receiving EST 10 years after EPBD by Kaplan–Meier analysis. In the population-based cohort study, EST is not associated with a long-term risk of intrahepatic and extrahepatic CCA. The risk of CCA for EPBD needs further investigation. PMID:26061315

  4. [Ultrasound of gallbladder and bile duct].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Joleini, S; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cystic nature of the gallbladder and bile duct when dilated, and the advantages of ultrasound as a quick, reproducible, convenient, cheap and low risk technique, with a high sensitivity and specificity, make it the most eligible technique in biliary pathology studies. Ultrasound has become a valuable tool for doctors studying biliary pathology and its complications, from abnormal liver function results, right upper quadrant pain, or jaundice, to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or suspicion of biliary tumors. PMID:25450432

  5. Usefulness of the 'Rendezvous' Technique in Living Related Right Liver Donors with Postoperative Biliary Leakage from Bile Duct Anastomosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, R.; Traina, M.; Maruzzelli, L.; Caruso, S.; Di Pisa, M.; Gruttadauria, S.; Luca, A.; Gridelli, B.

    2008-09-15

    This is a report on two cases of large bile leak following right hepatectomy performed for living related liver transplantation, originating from the stump of the ligated right bile duct, and treated with the placement of large percutaneous biliary catheters through a combined percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic approach (rendezvous technique).

  6. Improving patient and user safety during endoscopic investigation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, John E.; Melville, C. David; Lee, Cameron M.; Saunders, Michael D.; Burkhardt, Matthew R.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Endoscopic investigation of the main pancreatic duct and biliary ducts is called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and carries a risk of pancreatitis for the patient. During ERCP, a metal guidewire is inserted into the pancreatobiliary duct from a side-viewing large endoscope within the duodenum. To verify correct placement of the ERCP guidewire, an injection of radiopaque dye is required for fluoroscopic imaging, which exposes the patient and clinical team to x-ray radiation. A safer and more effective means to access the pancreatobiliary system can use direct optical imaging, although the endoscope diameter and stiffness will be significantly larger than a guidewire's. To quantify this invasiveness before human testing, a synthetic force-sensing pancreas was fabricated and attached to an ERCP training model. The invasiveness of a new, 1.7-mm diameter, steerable scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) was compared to the standard ERCP guidewire of 0.89-mm (0.035") diameter that is not steerable. Although twice as large and significantly stiffer than the ERCP guidewire, the SFE generated lower or significantly less average force during insertion at all 4 sensor locations (P<0.05) within the main pancreatic duct. Therefore, the addition of steering and forward visualization at the tip of the endoscope reduced the invasiveness of the in vitro ERCP procedure. Since fluoroscopy is not required, risks associated with dye injection and x-ray exposure can be eliminated when using direct optical visualization. Finally, the SFE provides wide-field high resolution imaging for image-guided interventions, laser-based fluorescence biomarker imaging, and spot spectral analysis for future optical biopsy.

  7. Immune-mediated bile duct injury: The case of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, Carlo; Affronti, Andrea; Ferrari, Laura; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune cholangitis would be the appropriate name to define the immune-mediated bile duct injury following the breakdown of tolerance to mitochondrial proteins and the appearance of serum autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Nevertheless, the condition is universally named primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The disease etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown despite the proposed lines of evidence. One twin study and numerous epidemiology reports suggest that both a susceptible genetic background and environmental factors determine disease onset while a recent genome-wide association study proposed highly significant associations with several common genetic polymorphisms in subgroups of patients. Specific infectious agents and chemicals may contribute to the disease onset and perpetuation in a genetically susceptible host, possibly through molecular mimicry. Importantly, several murine models have been proposed and include strains in which PBC is genetically determined or induced by immunization with chemicals and bacteria. From a pathogenetic standpoint, new exciting data have demonstrated the unique apoptotic features of bile duct cells that allow the mitochondrial autoantigens to be taken up in their intact form within apoptotic blebs. We are convinced that the application of the most recent molecular techniques will soon provide developments in PBC etiology and pathogenesis with likely implications in diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:21607152

  8. Molecular mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis: are biliary intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct precursors to cholangiocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Bickenbach, Kai; Galka, Eva; Roggin, Kevin King

    2009-04-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare, malignant neoplasm that can develop from any site within the intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary tree. Although the key steps of cholangiocarcinogenesis remain unknown, it has been hypothesized that CC may develop through two key premalignant precursor lesions: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). These lesions probably are analogous to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, respectively. This article outlines the molecular basis of cholangiocarcinogenesis through the BilIN and IPNB pathways. It highlights the genetic mutations that alter cellular proliferation, tumor suppression, and impairment of critical mucinous, cell-adhesion, and matrix proteins. PMID:19306808

  9. Hybrid endolaparoscopic management of biliary tract pathology in bariatric patients after gastric bypass: case report and review of a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Pimentel, Ronnie; Rosenthal, Raul J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor in cholesterol crystal and gallstone formation. After an Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliary duct dilatation can appear and gallstone formation can cause biliary duct obstruction or gallstone pancreatitis. Management of this clinical situation can be challenging and many approaches have been reported. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plays an important role in the management of biliary duct obstruction in these patients. However, a previous modified anatomy makes this procedure technically difficult. For these reason, we describe our single-institution experience in the management of biliary duct obstruction utilizing a hybrid approach combining laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. PMID:24105293

  10. Multiple Cancers of the Biliary Tract and Pancreatic Duct after Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer in a Patient with Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kazuya; Sasajima, Junpei; Kawamoto, Toru; Sugiyama, Yoshiaki; Muto, Mizue; Muto, Momotaro; Ishikawa, Chisato; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    We herein report the rare case of a 76-year-old woman who underwent cholecystectomy with bile duct resection for advanced gallbladder cancer associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) and subsequently developed multiple cancers of the pancreaticobiliary system (the distal bile duct, intrahepatic duct and pancreatic duct) after the operation. We performed conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) using a side-viewing scope to evaluate the masses in the distal bile duct and the pancreatic duct. We also performed ERCP using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to observe the mass in the intrahepatic duct. It was possible to directly observe the lesion using DBE and to perform a biopsy under visual control. All lesions were correctly diagnosed by the combination of ERCP using different endoscopes. The present case suggests that it is necessary to pay close attention (with regard to carcinogenesis) to the whole pancreaticobiliary system in patients with PBM. In addition, the combination of ERCP using DBE and a side-viewing scope may be useful for making a precise diagnosis in patients with altered biliary anatomy who have multiple cancers of the pancreaticobiliary system. PMID:26781013

  11. Microcatheter use for difficult percutaneous biliary procedures.

    PubMed

    Brountzos, Elias N; Kelekis, Alexis D; Ptohis, Nikolaos; Kotsioumba, Ioanna; Misiakos, Evangelos; Perros, George; Gouliamos, Athanasios D

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous biliary drainage procedures in patients with nondilated ducts are demanding, resulting in lower success rates than in patients with bile duct dilatation. Pertinent clinical settings include patients with iatrogenic bile leaks, diffuse cholangiocarcinomas, and sclerosing cholangitis. We describe a method to facilitate these procedures with the combined use of a 2.7-Fr microcatheter and a 0.018-in. hydrophilic wire. PMID:18320271

  12. Intra and extra-hepatic cystadenoma of the biliary duct. Review of literature and radiological and pathological characteristics of a very rare case

    PubMed Central

    Soochan, Diana; Keough, Valerie; Wanless, Ian; Molinari, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Painless obstructive jaundice is often associated with a malignant disease of the common bile duct or head of the pancreas. The authors present a unique case of a 62-year-old woman affected by an intrahepatic cystadenoma that extended into the common biliary duct. To our knowledge no previous case reports have been published on similar cases. After undergoing an en-block hepatic and bile duct resection, this patient is doing well without signs of recurrent disease. PMID:22604197

  13. Screening of targeted genes in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    You, Zhen; Wen, Jing; Cheng, Liping; Ye, Hui; Li, Bei

    2015-09-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an infantile disease resulting from a severe cholangiopathy, which can obstruct extrahepatic bile ducts, disrupt bile flow and lead to end‑stage cirrhosis. The current study aimed to develop a genetic method to investigate the pathogenesis of BA. The gene expression profile of BA (GSE46967) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and included 18 samples from newborn mice. These samples were collected at three time points following the induction of BA with rhesus rotavirus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in mice with BA were identified using the limma package in R language, followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. Gene ontology functional analysis and Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of the selected common DEGs was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. In total, 306 DEGs were identified in the samples from the 3 day time point, 721 at 7 days and 370 at 14 days. A total of 74 common DEGs were identified in these three sample groups, which are reported to function in multiple immune biological processes, including the defense response, leukocyte migration, cell chemotaxis and leukocyte chemotaxis. In addition, 'cytokine‑cytokine receptor interaction' and 'chemokine signaling pathway' were observed to be significantly enriched in BA. A total of six common DEGs (CCL3, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCR2, CCL5 and CCL6) were identified that were involved in the significantly enriched functions and the significantly enriched pathways. The data from the current study suggested that the immune response is a critical biological process in the development of BA. The six critical hub genes identified (CCL3, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCR2, CCL5 and CCL6) may be used as specific target genes in the treatment of BA. PMID:26059850

  14. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-03-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures. PMID:27044769

  15. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures. PMID:27044769

  16. Somatostatin prevents acute pancreatitis after pancreatic duct sphincter hydrostatic balloon dilation in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Guelrud, M; Mendoza, S; Viera, L; Gelrud, D

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether prophylactic somatostatin infusion can prevent pancreatitis after hydrostatic balloon dilation of the pancreatic duct sphincter segment in 16 patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. This study demonstrated that prophylactic administration of somatostatin before, during, and after the procedure diminished the incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis. We recommend consideration of such prophylaxis in patients undergoing this procedure. PMID:1672278

  17. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hong; Yang, Min Jae; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo

    2013-12-14

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) has been widely used as the alternative to EST along with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (EML) for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones. Furthermore, EPLBD without EST was recently introduced as its simplified alternative technique. Thus, we systematically searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE, and analyzed all gathered data of EPLBD with and without EST, respectively, by using a single standardized definition, reviewing relevant literatures, published between 2003 and June 2013, where it was performed with large-diameter balloons (12-20 mm). The outcomes, including the initial success rate, the rate of needs for EML, and the overall success rate, and adverse events were assessed in each and compared between both of two procedures: "EPLBD with EST" and "EPLBD without EST". A total of 2511 procedures from 30 published articles were included in EPLBD with EST, while a total of 413 procedures from 3 published articles were included in EPLBD without EST. In the results of outcomes, the overall success rate was 96.5% in EPLBD with EST and 97.2% in EPLBD without EST, showing no significant difference between both of them. The initial success rate (84.0% vs 76.2%, P < 0.001) and the success rate of EPLBD without EML (83.2% vs 76.7%, P = 0.001) was significantly higher, while the rate of use of EML was significantly lower (14.1% vs 21.6%, P < 0.001), in EPLBD with EST. The rate of overall adverse events, pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, other adverse events, surgery for adverse events, and fatal adverse events were 8.3%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 0.6%, 1.7%, 0.2% and 0.2% in EPLBD with EST and 7.0%, 3.9%, 1.9%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0% and 0% in EPLBD without EST, respectively, showing no significant difference between both of them. In conclusion, recent accumulated results of EPLBD with or even without EST suggest that it is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones without any additional risk of severe adverse events, when performed under appropriate guidelines. PMID:24379575

  18. Endoscopic management of a major bile duct stricture from surgical clips following laparoscopic hemicolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailendra; Aoun, Elie; Thakkar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Benign postoperative bile duct strictures are usually complications of cholecystectomies. However, development of obstructive jaundice and biliary stricture as a result of surgical clips after laparoscopic right hemicolectomy is rare and has not been reported in the literature. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with sudden onset jaundice and abdominal pain, 1?week following right hemicolectomy. Laboratory reports suggested obstructive jaundice. Subsequent imaging studies showed biliary dilation of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts with no evidence of bile duct stones. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed an abrupt, complete obstruction of the common bile duct at the level of the surgical clips. The bile duct stricture formed at the site of surgical clips improved significantly after serial incremental biliary dilations with successive placement of increasing number of endoprostheses side-by-side at repeat ERCP sessions. PMID:23446047

  19. Primary Treatment of Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction with Balloon Catheter Dilation in Children Less than Four Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Repka, Michael X.; Melia, B. Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Chandler, Danielle L.; Fishman, Deborah R.; Goldblum, Todd A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Perla, Bernard D.; Quinn, Graham E.; Silbert, David I.; Wallace, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of nasolacrimal duct balloon catheter dilation as the primary treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) in children less than 4 years of age. Methods 102 children (151 eyes) aged 12 to <48 months (mean 23 months) at the time of surgery, with no prior nasolacrimal surgical procedure, and with at least one of the following clinical signs of NLDO present, epiphora, mucous discharge and/or increased tear lake, were enrolled in a prospective, non-randomized observational multicenter study (20 sites). All children received balloon catheter dilation of the nasolacrimal system of the affected eye(s). Results Treatment success was defined as no epiphora, mucous discharge, or increased tear lake present at the outcome visit one month after surgery. The proportion of eyes treated successfully was 82% (95% confidence interval = 74% to 88%). The dye disappearance test at outcome was normal in 105 (73%), indeterminate in 15 (10%), and abnormal in 23 (16%) of the 143 eyes tested. Conclusions In children 12 to <48 months of age, balloon catheter dilation as a primary treatment of NLDO was successful in about 80% of cases. Because we did not perform a randomized trial with a comparison group, we are unable to determine how this procedure’s success rate compares with that of simple probing or nasolacrimal intubation in this age group. PMID:18929305

  20. Biliary Strictures after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Choong Heon

    2011-01-01

    Biliary strictures are one of the most common complications following liver transplantation, representing an important cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The reported incidence of biliary stricture is 5% to 15% following deceased donor liver transplantations and 28% to 32% following living donor liver transplantations. Bile duct strictures following liver transplantation are easily and conveniently classified as anastomotic strictures (AS) or non-anastomotic strictures (NAS). NAS are characterized by a far less favorable response to endoscopic management, higher recurrence rates, graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Current endoscopic strategies to correct biliary strictures following liver transplantation include repeated balloon dilatations and the placement of multiple side-by-side plastic stents. Endoscopic balloon dilatation with stent placement is successful in the majority of AS patients. In patients for whom gaining biliary access is technically difficult, a combined endoscopic and percutaneous/surgical approach proves quite useful. Future directions, including novel endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography techniques, advanced endoscopy, and improved stents could allow for a decreased number of interventions, increased intervals before retreatment, and decreased reliance on percutaneous and surgical modalities. The aim of this review is to detail the present status of endoscopy in the diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and future directions of biliary strictures related to orthotopic liver transplantation from the viewpoint of a clinical gastroenterologists. PMID:21814591

  1. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system stimulates biliary hyperplasia during cholestasis induced by extrahepatic bile duct ligation

    PubMed Central

    Afroze, Syeda H.; Munshi, Md Kamruzzaman; Martínez, Allyson K.; Uddin, Mohammad; Gergely, Maté; Szynkarski, Claudia; Guerrier, Micheleine; Nizamutdinov, Damir; Dostal, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocyte proliferation is regulated in a coordinated fashion by many neuroendocrine factors through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a role in the activation of hepatic stellate cells and blocking the RAS attenuates hepatic fibrosis. We investigated the role of the RAS during extrahepatic cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). In this study, we used normal and BDL rats that were treated with control, angiotensin II (ANG II), or losartan for 2 wk. In vitro studies were performed in a primary rat cholangiocyte cell line (NRIC). The expression of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensinogen, and angiotensin receptor type 1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), real-time PCR, and FACs and found to be increased in BDL compared with normal rat. The levels of ANG II were evaluated by ELISA and found to be increased in serum and conditioned media of cholangiocytes from BDL compared with normal rats. Treatment with ANG II increased biliary mass and proliferation in both normal and BDL rats. Losartan attenuated BDL-induced biliary proliferation. In vitro, ANG II stimulated NRIC proliferation via increased intracellular cAMP levels and activation of the PKA/ERK/CREB intracellular signaling pathway. ANG II stimulated a significant increase in Sirius red staining and IHC for fibronectin that was blocked by angiotensin receptor blockade. In vitro, ANG II stimulated the gene expression of collagen 1A1, fibronectin 1, and IL-6. These results indicate that cholangiocytes express a local RAS and that ANG II plays an important role in regulating biliary proliferation and fibrosis during extraheptic cholestasis. PMID:25678505

  2. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system stimulates biliary hyperplasia during cholestasis induced by extrahepatic bile duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Syeda H; Munshi, Md Kamruzzaman; Martínez, Allyson K; Uddin, Mohammad; Gergely, Maté; Szynkarski, Claudia; Guerrier, Micheleine; Nizamutdinov, Damir; Dostal, David; Glaser, Shannon

    2015-04-15

    Cholangiocyte proliferation is regulated in a coordinated fashion by many neuroendocrine factors through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a role in the activation of hepatic stellate cells and blocking the RAS attenuates hepatic fibrosis. We investigated the role of the RAS during extrahepatic cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). In this study, we used normal and BDL rats that were treated with control, angiotensin II (ANG II), or losartan for 2 wk. In vitro studies were performed in a primary rat cholangiocyte cell line (NRIC). The expression of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensinogen, and angiotensin receptor type 1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), real-time PCR, and FACs and found to be increased in BDL compared with normal rat. The levels of ANG II were evaluated by ELISA and found to be increased in serum and conditioned media of cholangiocytes from BDL compared with normal rats. Treatment with ANG II increased biliary mass and proliferation in both normal and BDL rats. Losartan attenuated BDL-induced biliary proliferation. In vitro, ANG II stimulated NRIC proliferation via increased intracellular cAMP levels and activation of the PKA/ERK/CREB intracellular signaling pathway. ANG II stimulated a significant increase in Sirius red staining and IHC for fibronectin that was blocked by angiotensin receptor blockade. In vitro, ANG II stimulated the gene expression of collagen 1A1, fibronectin 1, and IL-6. These results indicate that cholangiocytes express a local RAS and that ANG II plays an important role in regulating biliary proliferation and fibrosis during extraheptic cholestasis. PMID:25678505

  3. [Iatrogenic biliary ducts lesions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a medical technical error or a therapeutic failure in a routinely performed procedure. A medico-legal evaluation of selected cases].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis is associated with a higher risk of intraoperative lesions of biliary duct in comparison to classic surgery. Technical difficulties, a limited access to operating area, the presence of cholecystic adhesions and inflammatory lesions, as well as possible anomalies or anatomical variations of the extrahepatic biliary ducts pose the risk of damaging the biliary tract. At times, laparoscopic procedures are performed by surgeons with insufficient operator skills and qualifications. The medico-legal evaluation of intraoperative damage to the biliary tract with resulting complications--the so-called "biliary damage"--is very difficult. The presented analysis included six cases of intraoperative biliary ducts lesions evaluated by the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University, Katowice. Three instances were associated with investigations carried out by public prosecutors in medical error cases, and in three others, civil cases were brought in the court, with the plaintiffs advancing a claim. While defining the scope of the management--both diagnostic, therapeutic and decision-making--in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period, attention was drawn to the prescriptive character of patient management in such cases, including indications for laparoscopic surgery, an increased potential therapeutic risk that also included a possibility of the patient developing "normal, typical" complications, referring the above factors to the scope and limits of the physician's professional and criminal liability and analyzing them to assess whether a medical error had been committed, or else the events had represented a therapeutic failure within the limits of the accepted therapeutic risk. A separate problem emphasized by the authors focused on difficulties in objective evaluation of health-associated consequences that might be defined in a tabular manner as long-term or permanent detriment to health. PMID:17571494

  4. Superiority of 10-mm-wide Balloon over 8-mm-wide Balloon in Papillary Dilation for Bile Duct Stones: A Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Tsujino, Takeshi; Umefune, Gyotane; Takahara, Naminatsu; Mohri, Dai; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Sasahira, Naoki; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a possible alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for common bile duct (CBD) stones. To date, 10- and 8-mm EPBD have not been fully compared. Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent EPBD for CBD stones at two Japanese tertiary care centers between May 1994 and January 2014 were identified. Matched pairs with 10- and 8-mm EPBD were generated. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 869 patients were identified (61 and 808 patients for 10- and 8-mm EPBD, respectively), and 61 well-balanced pairs were generated. The rate of complete stone removal within a single session was higher in the 10-mm EPBD group than in the 8-mm EPBD group (69% vs. 44%, P < 0.001), and use of lithotripsy was less frequent in the 10-mm EPBD group (23% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). The rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were similar between the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups (11% vs. 8%). Cumulative biliary complication-free rates were not statistically different between the two groups: 88% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7997%] and 94% (95% CI: 88100%) at 1 year and 69% (95% CI: 5685%) and 80% (95% CI: 6993%) at 2 years in the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups, respectively. In the 10-mm EPBD group, ascending cholangitis was not observed, and pneumobilia was found in 5% of cases during the follow-up period. Conclusions: EPBD using a 10-mm balloon for CBD stones is safe and more effective than 8-mm EPBD. The sphincter function is highly preserved after 10-mm EPBD. PMID:26228364

  5. Cholangiocarcinoma Arising from a Type VI Biliary Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Çamlıdağ, İlkay; Nural, Mehmet Selim; Danacı, Murat; Karabıçak, İlhan; Karabulut, Kağan

    2015-01-01

    Cystic dilatations of the cystic duct which are suggested as type VI biliary cysts are very rare and many of them go unrecognized or are confused with other cysts until the operation although they are obvious on imaging studies. They can present with fusiform or saccular dilatations and can be accompanied by common bile duct dilatations. It is important to identify these cysts as they share the same characteristics as the other biliary cyst types and can be complicated with malignancy. We herein present a very unusual case of a cholangiocarcinoma arising from a type VI biliary cyst in a 58-year-old female patient and review the literature. The patient presented with jaundice, weight loss, and abdominal pain. On imaging, the cystic duct and common bile duct were fusiformly dilated and had a wide communication. There was a mass filling the distal parts of both ducts. The patient was urgently operated on after perforation following ERCP. Histopathology was compatible with a type VI biliary cyst and an associated cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27034876

  6. Large balloon dilation post endoscopic sphincterotomy in removal of difficult common bile duct stones: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Olivier; Bommelaer, Gilles; Abergel, Armando; Poincloux, Laurent

    2014-06-28

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the standard therapy in common bile duct (CBD) stones extraction. Large stones (≥ 12 mm) or multiple stones extraction may be challenging after ES alone. Endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by large balloon dilation (ESLBD) has been described as an alternative to ES in these indications. Efficacy, safety, cost-effectiveness and technical aspects of the procedure have been here reviewed. PubMed and Google Scholar search resulted in forty-one articles dealing with CBD stone extraction with 12 mm or more dilation balloons after ES. ESLBD is at least as effective as ES, and reduces the need for additional mechanical lithotripsy. Adverse events rates are not statistically different after ESLBD compared to ES for pancreatitis, bleeding and perforation. However, particular attention should be paid in patients with CBD strictures, which is identified as a risk factor of perforation. ESLBD is slightly cost-effective compared to ES. A small sphincterotomy is usually performed, and may reduce bleeding rates compared to full sphincterotomy. Dilation is performed with 12-20 mm enteral balloons. Optimal inflation time is yet to be determined. The procedure can be performed safely even in patients with peri-ampullary diverticula and surgically altered anatomy. ESLBD is effective and safe in the removal of large CBD stones, however, small sphincterotomy might be preferred and CBD strictures should be considered as a relative contraindication. PMID:24976713

  7. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation in comparison with endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of large common bile duct stone

    PubMed Central

    Minakari, Mahammad; Samani, Rahil R.; Shavakhi, Ahmad; Jafari, Alireza; Alijanian, Neda; Hajalikhani, Mehri

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are concerns on the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) as an alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. We compared the efficacy and safety of EPBD and EST for removing large common bile duct (CBD) stones. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty patients with CBD stones of 10-20 mm were randomized to undergo EPBD or EST. A 15-mm dilatation balloon was used for EPBD. Cotton's criteria were used to determine the incidence of post-EPBD or post-EST complications. CBD stone removal and complications were compared between the two methods. Results: CBD stones were completely removed in 97.5% of the EPBD and 96.2% of the EST group (P = 0.5). The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis (11.2% vs 8.7%) and bleeding (1.2% vs 1.2%) were similar between the EPBD and EST groups (P > 0.05). Perforation did not occur in any patient. Conclusions: EPBD with 15-mm dilator balloon appears to be equally safe and effective compared with EST for removal of large CBD stones. So because of low complication and high success rate we recommend EPBD as the preferred method for removal of large (10-20 mm) CBD stones. PMID:24516846

  8. Anatomical study of the intrahepatic biliary ducts. Parameters that guide the surgical approach in transplanting the left lobe of the liver

    PubMed Central

    FARIAS, F.; BIGOLIN, A. VICENTE; CAVAZZOLA, L. TOTTI; DA COSTA FILHO, O. PEREIRA; DA COSTA, R. GONÇALVES; KALIL, A. NOCCHI

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction The techniques of split liver transplantation and transplanting organs from living donors require a thorough anatomical knowledge of biliary drainage, and this is an important factor in preventing complications. Methods forty-five human livers were used to perform this study. Measurements were made between the confluence of the right hepatic duct (RHD) and the left hepatic duct (LHD) and among the following structures: the venous ligament, the vertex of the confluence of the duct of segment II (DSll) and the duct of segment III (DSIII), the insertion of the duct of the segment I (DSI) and the duct of segment IV (DSIV). Then the distance between the vertex of the confluence of DSII and DSIII and the ligamentum venosum was checked. Results The LHD had less anatomical variation than the RHD. Four drainage patterns were established for the left lobe, and pattern l, in which the confluence of DSll and DSIII is to the left of the ligamentum venosum, is considered to be the most constant one. A single duct of the confluence of DSll and DSIII was found 1, 2 and 2.5 cm to the right of the ligamentum venosum in 65%, 80%, and 95% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion It was possible to show evidence of four drainage patterns of the left anatomical lobe of the liver. Furthermore, it was possible to establish the ligamentum venosum as an anatomical reference for locating the confluences of the ducts of the left liver segments. PMID:24091176

  9. Partial hepatectomy and bile duct ligation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): histologic, immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical characterization of hepatic regeneration and biliary hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Okihiro, M S; Hinton, D E

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) and biliary hyperplasia subsequent to bile duct ligation (BDL) were characterized in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by light microscopy using routine and special (immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical) stains. Both PH and BDL involved initial hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bile preductular epithelial cells (BPDECs). BPDECs are small oval cells that form junctional complexes with hepatocytes and bile ductular cells and are commonly found in hepatic tubules of teleost liver. Proliferating BPDECs transitioned through intermediate cell types before final differentiation into large basophilic hepatocytes (following PH) or biliary epithelial cells (after BDL). Normal BPDECs and hepatocytes were both negative for cytokeratin intermediate filaments in control fish when screened with the monoclonal antibody AE1/AE3. In contrast, hyperplastic BPDECs and their progeny (intermediate cells, immature hepatocytes, ductal epithelial cells) were all strongly cytokeratin positive. Cytokeratin expression was transient in newly differentiated hepatocytes (expression decreased as hepatocytes acquired characteristics consistent with full differentiation) but was permanent in biliary epithelial cells (expression was very strong in large mature ducts). BPDECs, intermediate cells, and immature ductal cells were also strongly positive for alkaline phosphatase following BDL. Chronology of histologic events and cytokeratin and enzyme expression all support the hypothesis that BPDECs possess the capacity to differentiate into either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells. Thus, BPDECs may be the teleost equivalent of a bipolar hepatic stem cell in mammals. PMID:10805153

  10. Choledochal Cyst with Aberrant Right Posterior Sectoral Duct.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumitoj; Singh, Narinder Pal; Goyal, Anirudh; Hans, Satpal; Khichy, Sudhir

    2015-12-01

    Choledochal cysts are focal or diffuse dilatations of the biliary tree. Its association with the aberrant hepatic duct is rarely reported. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl having aberrant right posterior sectoral duct with choledochal cyst. It can be missed on cholangiography and during surgery, leading to serious complications. In this case, it was diagnosed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and was managed along with cyst excision. PMID:26730107

  11. Percutaneous catheter drainage in intraabdominal fluid collections including infected biliary ducts and gallbladders

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.H.; Frederick, P.R.; Tocino, I.; Bahr, A.L.

    1982-12-01

    Sixty-five abscesses, including 6 infected biliary systems and 15 sterile fluid collections, were treated by percutaneous catheter drainage in 77 febrile patients who were evaluated by computerized tomography or ultrasonography of intraabdominal infection. Percutaneous catheter drainage and systemic antibiotic administration without surgery provided satisfactory control of infection in 52 of 65 abscesses (80 percent). Catheter drainage followed by surgical exploration for abscess control was performed in an additional 5 of 65 abscesses (7 percent). Nine death (14 percent) occurred in the abscess group of 64 patients. In 15 patients, aspirations, Gram stain, and culture of the abnormal fluid collection revealed sterile fluid. Drainage with a single catheter allowed complete resolution in 14 of 15 sterile collections. Surgery was performed electively in one patient with a fistula from a pancreatic pseudocyst in the small bowel. No deaths occurred in the noninfected group of 15 patients, 2 of whom underwent drainage of coexisting abscesses.

  12. Dendritic Cells Regulate Treg-Th17 Axis in Obstructive Phase of Bile Duct Injury in Murine Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shao-tao; Wang, Xin-xing; Cao, Guo-qing; Li, Shuai; Lei, Hai-yan; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Several cell types are considered to be effector cells in bile duct injury in rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced experimental biliary atresia (BA). Here, we identified an increased T helper 17 (Th17) cell population in a BA mode. By depleting the Th17 cells, the BA symptoms (onset of jaundice, acholic stools and retarded growth) were attenuated and the survival rate was improved. Furthermore, we found that in mice with BA, the percentage of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells decreased along with the increased percentage of Th17 cells. However, the absolute numbers of Treg and Th17 cells were both increased in liver of RRV-injected mice compared to saline-injected mice. The proportion of Th17 cells at 7 days post-infection was decreased if Treg cells isolated from normal adult mice, but not Treg cells from the livers of mice with BA, were intraperitoneally transferred on day 5 of life. In vitro experiments also showed that Treg cells from mice with BA had a diminished suppressive effect on Th17 cell generation. To determine the mechanisms, we investigated the production of cytokines in the liver. The level of IL-6, which has been shown to be abundantly secreted by activated dendritic cells (DCs), was remarkably elevated. Importantly, in a Treg/Th17 cell suppression assay, IL-6 was demonstrated to paralyze the Treg cells’ suppressive effect on Th17 cells and eventually the unrestrained increase of Th17 cells contributed to bile duct injury. In conclusion, the DC-regulated Treg-Th17 axis, probably in conjunction with other effector T cells, aggravates progressive inflammatory injury at the time of ductal obstruction. PMID:26325187

  13. Morphology of the bile ducts of the brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottenii (Le Sueur) before and during infection with the nematode, Truttaedacnitis stelmioides (Vessichelli, 1910) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae).

    PubMed

    Eng, F; Youson, J H

    1992-10-01

    Routine light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used to describe and compare the biliary tree of larval Lampetra lamottenii before and during infestation of the bile ducts with the nematode, Truttaedacnitis stelmioides. The most prominent changes to the biliary tree following infection by the parasite are the dilation of the bile ducts, alterations to their epithelial cells, and an increase in periductal fibrous tissue. In recently infected animals, the simple epithelium of dilated bile ducts often contains many mitotic figures. In long-term infestations, the epithelium is stratified or pseudostratified. Changes to the fine structure of the biliary epithelial cells include increase and/or dilation of the RER and SER, and increases in microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. The abundance of dense bodies may reflect enhance reabsorption of biliary constituents, and their accumulation may ultimately result in cytolysis. There are increased mucous granules in the apical cytoplasm of biliary epithelial cells and an abundance of mucinous material within the bile duct lumen, and the basal lamina appears thickened. The changes to the liver of L. lamottenii following infection are discussed and compared to those reported in small mammals following bile duct ligation, in patients with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and in parasitic infection of the biliary tree. PMID:1416106

  14. EUS-Guided Biliary Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc; Bories, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The echoendoscopic biliary drainage is an option to treat obstructive jaundices when ERCP drainage fails. These procedures compose alternative methods to the side of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and it was only possible by the continuous development and improvement of echoendoscopes and accessories. The development of linear setorial array echoendoscopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to diagnostic and therapeutic dimenion on echoendoscopy capabilities, opening the possibility to perform punction over direct ultrasonographic view. Despite of the high success rate and low morbidity of biliary drainage obtained by ERCP, difficulty could be found at the presence of stent tumor ingrown, tumor gut compression, periampulary diverticula, and anatomic variation. The echoendoscopic technique starts performing punction and contrast of the left biliary tree. When performed from gastric wall, the access is made through hepatic segment III. From duodenum, direct common bile duct punction. Dilatation is required before stent introduction, and a plastic or metallic stent is introduced. This phrase should be replaced by: diathermic dilatation of the puncturing tract is required using a 6F cystostome. The technical success of hepaticogastrostomy is near 98%, and complications are present in 36%: pneumoperitoneum, choleperitoneum, infection, and stent disfunction. To prevent bile leakage, we have used the 2 stent techniques, the first stent introduced was a long uncovered metallic stent (8 or 10?cm), and inside this first stent a second fully covered stent of 6?cm was delivered to bridge the bile duct and the stomach. Choledochoduodenostomy overall success rate is 92% and described complications include, in frequency order, pneumoperitoneum and focal bile peritonitis, present in 19%. By the last 10 years, the technique was especially performed in reference centers, by ERCP experienced groups, and this seems to be a general guideline to safer procedure execution. PMID:21860619

  15. Adenomas involving the extrahepatic biliary tree are rare but have an aggressive clinical course

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kah Poh; Nautsch, Deborah; Mueller, James; Desilets, David; Mehendiratta, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Biliary adenomas that are usually found in surgically removed gallbladders are rare, but can also occur in the extrahepatic biliary tree. We present a case series of extrahepatic bile duct adenomas at our institution, along with a review of the literature. All three patients with extrahepatic biliary adenomas (two in the common bile ducts, one in the hepatic duct) were female with a mean age of 74 years. On initial presentation, none of the patients had obstructive jaundice but two of the three patients had symptoms of biliary origin. Case 1 is an 85-year-old woman with an incidental biliary dilation seen on chest imaging; endoscopic ultrasound revealed a sessile adenomatous polyp in the distal bile duct. The patient refused surgery and presented with occlusive biliary stricture and jaundice 5 months after initial presentation, with cytology confirming malignant progression. Case 2 is a 78-year-old woman with a history of primary sclerosing cholangitis and who presented with cholangitis, and Gram-negative sepsis. A polypoid lesion was seen on imaging in the common hepatic duct and direct cholangioscopy with biopsies confirmed the presence of adenoma with high grade dysplasia. The patient underwent successful total bile duct resection and hepaticojejunostomy but represented 1 year later with diffuse metastatic disease to the bone, liver, and peritoneum. Case 3 is a 61-year-old woman who presented with symptoms suggestive of gallbladder pathology and was found to have a polypoid bile duct lesion on intraoperative cholangiogram. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy showed an adenomatous polyp with high grade dysplasia involving the distal common bile duct. The patient underwent distal bile duct resection with choledochojejunostomy but presented with jaundice 4 years after surgery. She was found to have adenocarcinoma involving the small bowel in the Roux limb of jejunum and transverse colon. All three patients in our series presented with interval gastrointestinal malignancy and we therefore recommend aggressive surgical intervention and close postoperative surveillance when diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct adenoma is made. PMID:26878036

  16. Imaging diagnosis--extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction secondary to a duodenal foreign body in a cat.

    PubMed

    Della Santa, Daniele; Schweighauser, Ariane; Forterre, Franck; Lang, Johann

    2007-01-01

    A 13-month-old, neutered female domestic shorthaired cat was evaluated for vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy. The cat was icteric and hyperbilirubinemic. Radiographically a partially radiolucent proximal duodenal foreign body was suspected. Ultrasonographically, there was a foreign body at the level of the duodenal papilla and dilation of the common bile duct and cystic duct; a diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction secondary to a duodenal foreign body was made. Sonographic findings were confirmed at surgery and a duodenal foreign body was removed. This information defines duodenal foreign body as a cause of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in cats. PMID:17899980

  17. Less invasive causal treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation: a case report, literature review and suggestion of a CT- or MRI-guided intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Ole; Osmonov, Daniar; Harde, Jonas; Girolami, Guido; Wedel, Thilo; Schäfer, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Uni- or bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is a rare but correctable cause of infertility, chronic pelvic pain and postejaculatory pain. EDO is a congenital or acquired condition, it is the underlying cause of infertility in approximately 5% of infertile men. If acquired, the etiology often remains unresolved, but prostatitis or urethritis with post-inflammatory adhesion of the duct walls seems to be a common underlying pathomechanism. Although a certain constellation of physicochemical semen parameters may lead to correct diagnosis, EDO often resembles a diagnosis by exclusion. Imaging of acquired EDO remains a challenge and the established surgical therapy, transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts (TURED), leads to a low rate of natural conception and a high rate of complications such as reflux of urine and epididymitis. We present a case of a male with suspected EDO who underwent a combined approach to both, semi-invasive diagnosis and therapy by transrectal puncture of the seminal vesicles and antegrade balloon-dilation of the ejaculatory ducts. Possibilities and pitfalls of this procedure are described and the literature is reviewed. Furthermore, we suggest a CT- or MRI-guided, percutaneous intervention for treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction by balloon dilation and demonstrate initial steps of this procedure with a body donor. We call this new procedure PTED (percutaneous transgluteal ejaculatory ductoplasty). PMID:22557939

  18. Risk factors of biliary intervention by imaging after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Kyu; Choi, Jong Young; Yeo, Dong Myung; Lee, Young Joon; Yoon, Seung Kew; Bae, Si Hyun; Jang, Jeong Won; Kim, Hee Yeon; Kim, Dong Goo; You, Young Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors of biliary intervention using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 196 patients who underwent right lobe LDLT between 2006 and 2010 at a single liver transplantation center. Direct duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis was performed in all 196 patients. MRCP images routinely taken 1 mo after LDLT were analyzed to identify risk factors for biliary intervention during follow-up, such as retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Two experienced radiologists evaluated the MRCP findings, including the anastomosis site angle on three-dimensional images, the length of the filling defect on maximum intensity projection, bile duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and leakage. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients underwent biliary intervention during follow-up. The anastomosis site angle [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-0.75, P < 0.001], a filling defect in the anastomosis site (HR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.41-3.38, P = 0.001), and biliary leakage (HR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.02-6.20, P = 0.048) on MRCP were identified in the multivariate analysis as significant risk factors for biliary intervention during follow-up. Moreover, a narrower anastomosis site angle (i.e., below the median angle of 113.3°) was associated with earlier biliary intervention (38.5 ± 4.2 mo vs 62. 1 ± 4.1 mo, P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis comparing biliary intervention-free survival according to the anastomosis site angle revealed that lower survival was associated with a narrower anastomosis site angle (36.3% vs 62.0%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The biliary anastomosis site angle in MRCP after LDLT may be associated with the need for biliary intervention. PMID:26900296

  19. Double-balloon enteroscopy for ERCP in patients with Billroth II anatomy: results of a large series of papillary large-balloon dilation for biliary stone removal

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Liang; Liu, Nai-Jen; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Chin; Tsui, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ching-Song; Lin, Cheng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Data on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrphy (ERCP) in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and the use of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) for the removal of common bile duct stones in Billroth II anatomy are limited. The aims of the study were to evaluate the success of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and examine the efficacy of EPLBD (???10?mm) for the removal of common bile duct stones. Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy in whom standard ERCP had failed underwent DBE-assisted ERCP. DBE success was defined as visualizing the papilla and ERCP success as completing the intended intervention. The clinical results of EPLBD for the removal of common bile duct stones were analyzed. Results: DBE was successful in 73 of 77 patients (95?%), and ERCP success was achieved in 67 of these 73 (92?%). Therefore, the rate of successful DBE-assisted ERCP was 87?% (67 of a total of 77 patients). The reasons for ERCP failure (n?=?10) included tumor obstruction (n?=?2), adhesion obstruction (n?=?2), failed cannulation (n?=?3), failed stone removal (n?=?2), and bowel perforation (n?=?1). Overall DBE-assisted ERCP complications occurred in 5 of 77 patients (6.5?%). A total of 48 patients (34 male, mean age 75.5 years) with common bile duct stones underwent EPLBD. Complete stone removal in the first session was accomplished in 36 patients (75?%); mechanical lithotripsy was required in 1 patient. EPLBD-related mild perforation occurred in 2 patients (4?%). No acute pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions: DBE permits therapeutic ERCP in patients who have a difficult Billroth II gastrectomy with a high success rate and acceptable complication rates. EPLBD is effective and safe for the removal of common bile duct stones in patients with Billroth II anatomy. PMID:26171434

  20. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  1. Laparoscopic trans-cystic-duct common-bile-duct exploration.

    PubMed

    Phillips, E H; Rosenthal, R J; Carroll, B J; Fallas, M J

    1994-12-01

    One thousand seventy-one consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed. Routine cholangiography was employed with a 99% success rate. One hundred thirty patients were found to have common duct stones (CBDS). In 48 (37%) patients they were unsuspected. One hundred eleven patients underwent attempted trans-cystic-duct extraction techniques (TCD-CBDE). One hundred three (93%) were successful. The following techniques were employed: 101--biliary endoscopy, 23--ampullary balloon dilation, 2--fluoroscopic basket retrieval. The average operative time was 136 min. The average postsurgical stay was 3.7 days. There were 19 (17%) complications--6 (5%) major. There were 4 retained stones (2 intentional) and 1 death. Patients over 65 years of age had more complications and patients with unsuspected CBDS under 65 years of age had the fewest. TCD-CBDE is a safe, effective way to extract common duct calculi. Endoscopy and basket stone retrieval was the primary technique employed. PMID:7878503

  2. Fight-or-flight: murine unilateral ureteral obstruction causes extensive proximal tubular degeneration, collecting duct dilatation, and minimal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Michael S; Thornhill, Barbara A; Minor, Jordan J; Gordon, Katherine A; Galarreta, Carolina I; Chevalier, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is the most widely used animal model of progressive renal disease. Although renal interstitial fibrosis is commonly used as an end point, recent studies reveal that obstructive injury to the glomerulotubular junction leads to the formation of atubular glomeruli. To quantitate the effects of UUO on the remainder of the nephron, renal tubular and interstitial responses were characterized in mice 7 and 14 days after UUO or sham operation under anesthesia. Fractional proximal tubular mass, cell proliferation, and cell death were measured by morphometry. Superoxide formation was identified by nitro blue tetrazolium, and oxidant injury was localized by 4-hydroxynonenol and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Fractional areas of renal vasculature, interstitial collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin were also measured. After 14 days of UUO, the obstructed kidney loses 19% of parenchymal mass, with a 65% reduction in proximal tubular mass. Superoxide formation is localized to proximal tubules, which undergo oxidant injury, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, with widespread mitochondrial loss, resulting in tubular collapse. In contrast, mitosis and apoptosis increase in dilated collecting ducts, which remain patent through epithelial cell remodeling. Relative vascular volume fraction does not change, and interstitial matrix components do not exceed 15% of total volume fraction of the obstructed kidney. These unique proximal and distal nephron cellular responses reflect differential "fight-or-flight" responses to obstructive injury and provide earlier indexes of renal injury than do interstitial compartment responses. Therapies to prevent or retard progression of renal disease should include targeting proximal tubule injury as well as interstitial fibrosis. PMID:22535799

  3. Percutaneous papillary large balloon dilation during percutaneous cholangioscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large bile-duct stones: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Young; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng

    2015-03-01

    When access to a major duodenal papilla or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has failed, percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy (PTCS-L) may be useful for removing common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, the feasibility and usefulness of percutaneous transhepatic papillary large-balloon dilation (PPLBD) during PTCS-L for the removal of large CBD stones has not been established. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of PPLBD for the treatment of large CBD stones. Eleven patients with large CBD stones in whom the access to the major papilla or bile duct had failed were enrolled prospectively. Papillary dilation was performed using a large (12-20 mm) dilation balloon catheter via the percutaneous transhepatic route. Post-procedure adverse events and efficacy of the stone retrieval were measured. The initial success rate of PPLBD was 100%. No patient required a basket to remove a stone after PPLBD. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy was required in 2 (18.2%) patients. The median time to complete stone removal after PPLBD was 17.8 min and no adverse events occurred after PPLBD. Asymptomatic hyperamylasemia was not encountered in any patients. This study indicates that PPLBD is safe and effective for removal of large CBD stones. PMID:25729250

  4. A novel biodegradable biliary stent in the normal duct hepaticojejunal anastomosis: an 18-month follow-up in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Sand, Juhani A; Chow, Pierce; Juuti, Hanne; Kellomäki, Minna; Kärkkäinen, Päivi; Isola, Jorma; Yu, Sidney; Somanesan, Satchithanantham; Kee, Irene; Song, In Chin; Ng, Teck Hin; Nordback, Isto H

    2007-06-01

    Creating a well-functioning hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) anastomosis with nondilated bile ducts remains a challenge. Our aim was to study the use in a large animal model of a novel, braided polylactide barium sulfate biodegradable biliary stent (BDBS) without external connection and with no need for later removal. Fifty swine were randomly operated on for Roux-Y HJ with or without BDBS in the anastomosis, and followed up (dynamic biligraphy, x-ray, serum determinations, anastomosis inner diameter, and histology) for 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. During the follow-up, one nonstented animal died because of anastomotic leakage. In x-ray BDBS was seen in place until 1.5 months in all of the stented animals. In the nonstented animals HJ anastomosis inner diameter was decreased at 18 months [6.3 (5.0-7.0) mm vs 7.4 (7.0-9.0) mm, p = 0.05] and liver clearance reduced at 12 and 18 months compared to stented animals. Serum liver values and liver and bile duct histology did not differ between the groups. We conclude that this novel BDBS is easy to insert into the HJ anastomosis with nondilated ducts. It is nontoxic, dissolves safely, and may be associated with a larger and better draining anastomosis at 18-month follow-up. These results encourage us to proceed to clinical studies. PMID:17436052

  5. The long-term outcome of hepaticojejunostomy in the treatment of benign bile duct strictures.

    PubMed Central

    Tocchi, A; Costa, G; Lepre, L; Liotta, G; Mazzoni, G; Sita, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors review the treatment and outcome of patients with benign bile duct strictures who underwent biliary enteric repair. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors conducted a retrospective review of all clinical records of patients referred for treatment of benign bile duct strictures caused by surgery, trauma, or common bile duct lithiasis or choledochal cyst. The authors performed univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical and pathologic factors in relation to patient outcome and survivals. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with documented benign bile duct strictures underwent hepaticojejunostomy, choledochojejunostomy, and intrahepatic cholangiojejunostomy during a 15-year period (January 1975 to December 1989). Morbidity, mortality, and patient survival rates were measured. RESULTS: Early and late outcomes correlated neither with demographic and clinical features at presentation nor with etiologic or pathologic characteristics of the stricture. Best results correlated with high biliary enteric anastomoses and degree of common bile duct dilatation independently of bile duct stricture location. CONCLUSIONS: High biliary enteric anastomosis provides a safe, durable, and highly effective solution to the problem of benign strictures of the bile duct. Transanastomotic tube stenting is unnecessary. Endoscopic and percutaneous transhepatic dilatation seems more appropriate for the treatment of patients in poor condition and those with anastomotic strictures. PMID:8757379

  6. Obstructive Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas Taylor

    1982-01-01

    The techniques that have come into general use for diagnosing problems of obstructive jaundice, particularly in the past ten years, have been ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging, transhepatic percutaneous cholangiography using a long thin needle, transhepatic percutaneous drainage for obstructive jaundice due to malignancy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the papilla (ERCP), endoscopic sphincterotomy and choledochoscopy. It is helpful to review obstructive jaundice due to gallstones from a clinical point of view and the use of the directable stone basket for the retrieval of retained stones, choledochoscopy for the same purpose using the rigid versus flexible choledochoscopes and dissolution of stones using various fluids through a T tube. The use of dilation of the sphincter for the treatment of stenosis or stricture of the bile duct is now frowned on; rather, treatment choices are between the use of sphincteroplasty versus choledochoduodenostomy and choledochojejunostomy. Any patient with obstructive jaundice or anyone undergoing manipulation of the bile ducts should have prophylactic antibiotic therapy. The current literature regarding treatment of cancer of the bile ducts is principally devoted to the new ideas relative to treatment of tumors of the upper third, especially the bifurcation tumors that are now being resected rather than bypassed. Tumors of the distal bile duct are still being resected by focal operations. Finally, it is now felt that early operation for congenital biliary atresia and choledochal cysts gives the best prognosis, with preoperative diagnosis now possible with the use of ultrasonography and ERCP. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:7051569

  7. Endoscopic transpapillary bile duct biopsy with the combination of intraductal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, K; Tomiyama, T; Wada, S; Ohashi, A; Satoh, Y; Ido, K; Sugano, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: When endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) guided bile duct biopsy fails to demonstrate malignancy, it remains unclear how to manage patients with presumably malignant strictures. Aims: To evaluate the value of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) when bile duct biopsy is negative. Methods: Sixty two patients with strictures of the bile duct were studied prospectively. During ERCP, IDUS was performed using an ultrasonic probe (diameter 2.0 mm; frequency 20 MHz). Following IDUS, a bile duct biopsy was performed using forceps (diameter 1.8 mm). The IDUS images of the tumour were classified as polypoid lesions, localised wall thickening, intraductal sessile tumours, sessile tumour outside of the bile duct, or absence of apparent lesion. The bile duct wall structures at the site of the tumour as well as the maximum diameter of the tumour were also analysed. The IDUS findings were compared with the histological findings or clinical course. Results: When the IDUS images showed a polypoid lesion (n=19), localised wall thickening (n=8), intraductal sessile tumour (n=13), and sessile tumour outside of the bile duct (n = 20), the sensitivities of the biopsy were 80%, 50%, 92%, and 53%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of sessile tumour (intraductal or outside of the bile duct: p<0.05), tumour size greater than 10.0 mm (p<0.001), and interrupted wall structure (p<0.05) were independent variables that predicted malignancy. Conclusion: When biopsy fails to demonstrate evidence of malignancy, the presence of sessile tumour (intraductal or outside of the bile duct), tumour size greater than 10.0 mm, and interrupted wall structure on IDUS images are factors that can predict malignancy. PMID:11839709

  8. Twenty-Second versus Sixty-Second Dilation Duration in Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for the Treatment of Small Common Bile Duct Stones: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Byoung Wook; Lee, Tae Hoon; Song, Tae Jun; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Kwon, Chang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) has been advocated as an alternative therapy to endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, there is no established consensus on the optimal balloon dilation duration (BDD). We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complications between the 20- and 60-second EPBD groups. Methods A total of 228 patients with small CBD stones (≤12 mm) were randomly assigned to undergo EPBD with a 20- or 60-second duration at six institutions. We evaluated baseline patient characteristics, endoscopic data, clinical outcomes, and procedure-related complications. In addition, we analyzed risk factors for postprocedural pancreatitis. Results CBD stones were removed successfully in 107 of 109 patients (98.1%) in the 20-second group and in 112 of 119 patients (94.1%) in the 60-second group (p=0.146). Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in seven patients (6.4%) in the 20-second group and nine patients (7.5%) in the 60-second group (p=0.408). In multivariate analysis, contrast dye injection into the pancreatic duct is a significant risk factor for post-EPBD pancreatitis. Conclusions Based on the data showing that there were no significant differences in safety and efficacy between the two BDD groups, 20 seconds of BDD may be adequate for treatment of small CBD stones with EPBD. PMID:25674528

  9. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  10. How can portal vein cavernous transformation cause chronic incomplete biliary obstruction?

    PubMed

    Harmanci, Ozgur; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2012-07-14

    Biliary disease in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal vein thrombosis (and similarly in portal vein cavernous transformation) can become a serious problem during the evolution of disease. This is mostly due to portal biliary ductopathy. There are several mechanisms that play a role in the development of portal biliary ductopathy, such as induction of fibrosis in the biliary tract (due to direct action of dilated peribiliary collaterals and/or recurrent cholangitis), loss of biliary motility, chronic cholestasis (due to fibrosis or choledocholithiasis) and increased formation of cholelithiasis (due to various factors). The management of cholelithiasis in cases with portal vein cavernous transformation merits special attention. Because of a heterogeneous clinical presentation and concomitant pathophysiological changes that take place in biliary anatomy, diagnosis and therapy can become very complicated. Due to increased incidence and complications of cholelithiasis, standard treatment modalities like sphincterotomy or balloon sweeping of bile ducts can cause serious problems. Cholangitis, biliary strictures and hemobilia are the most common complications that occur during management of these patients. In this review, we specifically discuss important issues about bile stones related to bile duct obstruction in non-cirrhotic portal vein thrombosis and present evidence in the current literature. PMID:22807606

  11. How can portal vein cavernous transformation cause chronic incomplete biliary obstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Harmanci, Ozgur; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Biliary disease in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal vein thrombosis (and similarly in portal vein cavernous transformation) can become a serious problem during the evolution of disease. This is mostly due to portal biliary ductopathy. There are several mechanisms that play a role in the development of portal biliary ductopathy, such as induction of fibrosis in the biliary tract (due to direct action of dilated peribiliary collaterals and/or recurrent cholangitis), loss of biliary motility, chronic cholestasis (due to fibrosis or choledocholithiasis) and increased formation of cholelithiasis (due to various factors). The management of cholelithiasis in cases with portal vein cavernous transformation merits special attention. Because of a heterogeneous clinical presentation and concomitant pathophysiological changes that take place in biliary anatomy, diagnosis and therapy can become very complicated. Due to increased incidence and complications of cholelithiasis, standard treatment modalities like sphincterotomy or balloon sweeping of bile ducts can cause serious problems. Cholangitis, biliary strictures and hemobilia are the most common complications that occur during management of these patients. In this review, we specifically discuss important issues about bile stones related to bile duct obstruction in non-cirrhotic portal vein thrombosis and present evidence in the current literature. PMID:22807606

  12. Mechanisms of Biliary Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fuquan; Gaudio, Eugenio; Onori, Paolo; Wise, Candace; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S.

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct damage is present in virtually all cholangiopathies, which share the biliary epithelial cells (i.e. cholangiocytes) as a common pathogenic target. Cholangiocyte cell death largely occurs through the process of apoptosis. In this review, we will summarize the mechanisms through which biliary damage occurs in a variety of animal and in vitro models, such as extrahepatic cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL), cytotoxin- and hepatotoxin-induced liver injury, and biliary atresia. Although we have increased our knowledge of the factors that regulate cholangiocyte cell death mechanisms during cholangiopathies, especially in experimental models, there is still a lack of effective treatment modalities for these biliary disorders. However, future studies will hopefully provide for new therapeutic modalities for the prevention or restoration of biliary mass and function lost during the progression of cholangiopathies. PMID:22924014

  13. Choledochal cyst of the cystic duct: Report of imaging findings in three cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sonali; Upreti, Lalendra; Verma, Amit K; Puri, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    The choledochal cysts, which refer to the cystic dilatation of the biliary duct, are rare lesions generally seen in children. Choledochal cyst of the cystic duct is an uncommon entity. Often, it is associated with the choledochal cyst of the rest of the biliary tree. Isolated cystic duct choledochal cyst is quite rare. Most of these lesions have been recognized only on surgery. Modern cross-sectional imaging methods have facilitated preoperative recognition and characterization of cystic duct cyst enabling formulation of appropriate management strategy. We report the imaging findings in three cases of choledochal cyst involving the cystic duct. All these cases were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. A review of cases reported in the literature and the role of imaging in guiding the management are also presented. PMID:26288528

  14. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct developing in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kita, Junji; Shiraki, Takayuki; Iso, Yukihiro; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) that developed in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with obstructive jaundice. The liver function tests demonstrated increased serum liver enzyme levels. Computed tomography showed dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a highly echoic protruding lesion in the posterior bile duct near the right lobe of the liver. The lesion was suspected to be IPNB, but we were unable to confirm whether it was a carcinoma. A right hepatectomy was performed, and this showed that the dilated bile duct was filled with mucin and contained several yellowish papillary tumors. Histologically, the neoplastic biliary epithelium showed papillary growth in the dilated lumen. The tumor was diagnosed as IPNB, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia secreting abundant mucin. No recurrence has been detected 3 years after surgery. PMID:25400480

  15. Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a brief report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Raveendran; Valiyaveettil, Iyoob Ali; Natesh, Bonny; Raji, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Biliary Tract Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (BT-IPMN) is a very rare entity, gradually emerging into attention as sporadic cases are being reported worldwide. In this brief report we discuss about such an entity from our part of the world, based on a case from our institution. A 47-year-old female was referred to our department with jaundice, intermittent fever with chills and rigor of 6 weeks duration. Initial evaluation revealed obstructive jaundice with distended gall bladder. Imaging with ultrasonogram (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hugely dilated intra and extrahepatic biliary radicles with multiple and diffuse soft tissue lesions filling the common bile duct (CBD) extending to the ductal system of left lobe of liver. A side viewing endoscopy demonstrated mucin extruding from a prominent ampulla of Vater. The patient was managed successfully by left hepatectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy (HPD). Gross pathological examination of the specimen showed marked dilatation of intra and extra hepatic bile ducts with multiple polypoidal lesions and plenty of mucin filling the entire biliary ductal system. Histopathology revealed predominantly intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma at the hilum extending to left bile duct with diffuse dysplastic changes throughout the biliary tree. Thus the clinical, radiological and pathological features of this lesion clearly fit into the diagnosis of BT-IPMN, which is slowly being established as a definite clinical entity with features much similar to its pancreatic counterpart. PMID:25308012

  16. Biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chardot, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease characterised by a biliary obstruction of unknown origin that presents in the neonatal period. It is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in this age group. BA occurs in approximately 1/18,000 live births in Western Europe. In the world, the reported incidence varies from 5/100,000 to 32/100,000 live births, and is highest in Asia and the Pacific region. Females are affected slightly more often than males. The common histopathological picture is one of inflammatory damage to the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with sclerosis and narrowing or even obliteration of the biliary tree. Untreated, this condition leads to cirrhosis and death within the first years of life. BA is not known to be a hereditary condition. No primary medical treatment is relevant for the management of BA. Once BA suspected, surgical intervention (Kasai portoenterostomy) should be performed as soon as possible as operations performed early in life is more likely to be successful. Liver transplantation may be needed later if the Kasai operation fails to restore the biliary flow or if cirrhotic complications occur. At present, approximately 90% of BA patients survive and the majority have normal quality of life. PMID:16872500

  17. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-In; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month. PMID:26155279

  18. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

  19. Current diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-28

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remain a significant biliary complication and play an important role in graft and patient survival. Benign biliary strictures after transplantation are classified into anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures. These two types differ in presentation, outcome, and response to therapy. The leading causes of biliary strictures include impaired blood supply, technical errors during surgery, and biliary anomalies. Because patients usually have non-specific symptoms, a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Magnetic resonance cholangiography has gained widespread acceptance as a reliable noninvasive tool for detecting biliary complications. Endoscopy has played an increasingly prominent role in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary strictures after LDLT. Endoscopic management in LDLT recipients may be more challenging than in deceased donor liver transplantation patients because of the complex nature of the duct-to-duct reconstruction. Repeated aggressive endoscopic treatment with dilation and the placement of multiple plastic stents is considered the first-line treatment for biliary strictures. Percutaneous and surgical treatments are now reserved for patients for whom endoscopic management fails and for those with multiple, inaccessible intrahepatic strictures or Roux-en-Y anastomoses. Recent advances in enteroscopy enable treatment, even in these latter cases. Direct cholangioscopy, another advanced form of endoscopy, allows direct visualization of the inner wall of the biliary tree and is expected to facilitate stenting or stone extraction. Rendezvous techniques can be a good option when the endoscopic approach to the biliary stricture is unfeasible. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. PMID:26819525

  20. Current diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remain a significant biliary complication and play an important role in graft and patient survival. Benign biliary strictures after transplantation are classified into anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures. These two types differ in presentation, outcome, and response to therapy. The leading causes of biliary strictures include impaired blood supply, technical errors during surgery, and biliary anomalies. Because patients usually have non-specific symptoms, a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Magnetic resonance cholangiography has gained widespread acceptance as a reliable noninvasive tool for detecting biliary complications. Endoscopy has played an increasingly prominent role in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary strictures after LDLT. Endoscopic management in LDLT recipients may be more challenging than in deceased donor liver transplantation patients because of the complex nature of the duct-to-duct reconstruction. Repeated aggressive endoscopic treatment with dilation and the placement of multiple plastic stents is considered the first-line treatment for biliary strictures. Percutaneous and surgical treatments are now reserved for patients for whom endoscopic management fails and for those with multiple, inaccessible intrahepatic strictures or Roux-en-Y anastomoses. Recent advances in enteroscopy enable treatment, even in these latter cases. Direct cholangioscopy, another advanced form of endoscopy, allows direct visualization of the inner wall of the biliary tree and is expected to facilitate stenting or stone extraction. Rendezvous techniques can be a good option when the endoscopic approach to the biliary stricture is unfeasible. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. PMID:26819525

  1. Endoscopic Treatment of Biliary Stenosis in Patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis – Report of 7 Consecutive Patients with Serial ERC Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovic, Marija; Junghanss, Thomas; Veeser, Mira; Weber, Tim F.; Sauer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Biliary vessel pathology due to alveolar echicococcosis (AE) results in variable combinations of stenosis, necrosis and inflammation. Modern management strategies for patients with cholestasis are desperately needed. The aim is proof of principle of serial ERC (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) balloon dilation for AE biliary pathology. Methods Retrospective case series of seven consecutive patients with AE-associated biliary pathology and ERC treatment in an interdisciplinary endoscopy unit at a University Hospital which hosts a national echinococcosis treatment center. The AE patient cohort consists of 106 patients with AE of the liver of which 13 presented with cholestasis. 6/13 received bilio-digestive anastomosis and 7/13 patients were treated by ERC and are reported here. Biliary stricture balloon dilation was performed with 18-Fr balloons at the initial and with 24-Fr balloons at subsequent interventions. If indicated 10 Fr plastic stents were placed. Results Six patients were treated by repeated balloon dilation and stenting, one by stenting only. After an acute phase of 6 months with repeated balloon dilation, three patients showed “sustained clinical success” and four patients “assisted therapeutic success,” of which one has not yet reached the six month endpoint. In one patient, sustained success could not be achieved despite repeated insertion of plastic stents and balloon dilation, but with temporary insertion of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS). There was no loss to follow up. No major complications were observed. Conclusions Serial endoscopic dilation is a standard tool in the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Serial endoscopic intervention with balloon dilation combined with benzimidazole treatment can re-establish and maintain biliary duct patency in AE associated pathology and probably contributes to avoid or postpone bilio-digestive anastomosis. This approach is in accordance with current ERC guidelines and is minimally disruptive for patients. PMID:26910822

  2. Thyroid hormone inhibits biliary growth in bile duct-ligated rats by PLC/IP(3)/Ca(2+)-dependent downregulation of SRC/ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giammarco; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Glaser, Shannon; Francis, Heather; Demorrow, Sharon; Marucci, Luca; Marzioni, Marco; Benedetti, Antonio; Venter, Julie; Vaculin, Bradley; Vaculin, Shelley; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2007-04-01

    The role of the thyroid hormone agonist 3,3',5 l-tri-iodothyronine (T3) on cholangiocytes is unknown. We evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of T3 on cholangiocyte proliferation of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. We assessed the expression of alpha(1)-, alpha(2)-, beta(1)-, and beta(2)-thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) by immunohistochemistry in liver sections from normal and BDL rats. BDL rats were treated with T3 (38.4 mug/day) or vehicle for 1 wk. We evaluated 1) biliary mass and apoptosis in liver sections and 2) proliferation in cholangiocytes. Serum-free T3 levels were measured by chemiluminescence. Purified BDL cholangiocytes were treated with 0.2% BSA or T3 (1 muM) in the absence/presence of U-73122 (PLC inhibitor) or BAPTA/AM (intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) before measurement of PCNA protein expression by immunoblots. The in vitro effects of T3 (1 muM) on 1) cAMP, IP(3), and Ca(2+) levels and 2) the phosphorylation of Src Tyr139 and Tyr530 (that, together, regulate Src activity) and ERK1/2 of BDL cholangiocytes were also evaluated. alpha(1)-, alpha(2)-, beta(1)-, and beta(2)-THRs were expressed by bile ducts of normal and BDL rats. In vivo, T3 decreased cholangiocyte proliferation of BDL rats. In vitro, T3 inhibition of PCNA protein expression was blocked by U-73122 and BAPTA/AM. Furthermore, T3 1) increased IP(3) and Ca(2+) levels and 2) decreased Src and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of BDL cholangiocytes. T3 inhibits cholangiocyte proliferation of BDL rats by PLC/IP(3)/Ca(2+)-dependent decreased phosphorylation of Src/ERK1/2. Activation of the intracellular signals triggered by T3 may modulate the excess of cholangiocyte proliferation in liver diseases. PMID:17192280

  3. Granular cell tumor of the common hepatic duct presenting as cholangiocarcinoma and acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Bilanović, D; Boricić, I; Zdravković, D; Randjelović, T; Stanisavljević, N; Toković, B

    2008-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCT) are rare benign tumors. Less than 1% of GCTs involve the extrahepatic biliary tree. Most researches favour a Schwann cell origin. Patient, caucasion, female, 31-year-old presented with 4 month history of painless jaundice and pruritus. US and CT revealed dilatation of intrahepatic biliary tree and surgery was performed. Firm tumor mass was found above the conjunction of cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD) that caused obstruction and gallblader empyema. The patient underwent radical surgical procedure because Klatskin tumor was clinically suspected. Patohystology and immunohistochemistry confirmed granular cell tumor. Eight years after surgery the patient is wellbeing without symptoms. To our knowledge 69 cases of GCT of the extrahepatic biliary tree have been reported and none of the acute acalculous cholecystitis case acompanied by GCT of CHD. Granular cell tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Wide resection offers the best chance for cure. PMID:19245149

  4. Interval Biliary Stent Placement Via Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystostomy: Another Approach to Palliative Treatment in Malignant Biliary Tract Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, James Mortimer, Alex; Kelly, Michael; Loveday, Eric

    2010-12-15

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure for providing gallbladder decompression, often in critically ill patients. It can be used in malignant biliary obstruction following failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography when the intrahepatic ducts are not dilated or when stent insertion is not possible via the bile ducts. In properly selected patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy in obstructive jaundice is a simple, safe, and rapid option for biliary decompression, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality involved with percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Subsequent use of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for definitive biliary stent placement is an attractive concept and leaves patients with no external drain. To the best of our knowledge, it has only been described on three previous occasions in the published literature, on each occasion forced by surgical or technical considerations. Traditionally, anatomic/technical considerations and the risk of bile leak have precluded such an approach, but improvements in catheter design and manufacture may now make it more feasible. We report a case of successful interval metal stent placement via percutaneous cholecystostomy which was preplanned and achieved excellent palliation for the patient. The pros and cons of the procedure and approach are discussed.

  5. Intraductal Papillary Neoplasms of the Bile Duct

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kato, Atsushi; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sakai, Yuji; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. IPNBs display a spectrum of premalignant lesion towards invasive cholangiocarcinoma. The most common radiologic findings for IPNB are bile duct dilatation and intraductal masses. The major treatment of IPNB is surgical resection. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance image, and cholangiography are usually performed to assess tumor location and extension. Cholangioscopy can confirm the histology and assess the extent of the tumor including superficial spreading along the biliary epithelium. However, pathologic diagnosis by preoperative biopsy cannot always reflect the maximum degree of atypia, because IPNBs are often composed of varying degrees of cytoarchitectural atypia. IPNBs are microscopically classified into four epithelial subtypes, such as pancreatobiliary, intestinal, gastric, and oncocytic types. Most cases of IPNB are IPN with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or with an associated invasive carcinoma. The histologic types of invasive lesions are either tubular adenocarcinoma or mucinous carcinoma. Although several authors have investigated molecular genetic changes during the development and progression of IPNB, these are still poorly characterized and controversial. PMID:24949206

  6. Effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on intrahepatic biliary calculi developing after choledochal cyst surgery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Şenyüz, Osman Faruk; Gülşen, Fatih; Gökhan, Okan; Emre, Şenol; Eroğlu, Egemen

    2015-05-01

    The development of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct stones has been reported as one of the most serious complications after choledochal cyst excision with biliary-enteric reconstruction through Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). Here, we report our experience with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in a case of giant intrahepatic stones developing after choledochal cyst surgery. ESWL is an excellent therapeutic modality for large intrahepatic biliary calculi, and after dilating the HJ anastomosis percutaneously, it can be offered as first-line therapy to these patients. PMID:26006206

  7. Cystadenomas of the liver and extrahepatic bile ducts: Morphologic and immunohistochemical characterization of the biliary and intestinal variants.

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Henson, Donald E

    2015-06-01

    Cystadenomas of the liver and extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBD) are uncommon but distinctive neoplasms whose terminology and epithelial phenotype have been a source of controversy. We reviewed 20 cases, 16 arising in the liver and 4 in the EHBD. Eighteen patients were women, with a mean age of 36.5 years. Eighteen tumors were multiloculated and 2 were unilocular. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 29 cm (average, 11 cm). The cyst fluid in 13 tumors was described as serous, in 2 as clear, in 2 others as hemorrhagic, and in 1 as serous and mucinous. Only in 2 tumors was the fluid described as mucinous. In 18 cystadenomas, the predominant epithelial lining consisted of a single layer of cuboidal or low-columnar nondysplastic cells similar to those of the gallbladder or bile ducts. This epithelial lining was strongly positive for cytokeratins 7 and 19, and focally positive for MUC1. Only 2 cystadenomas showed predominant intestinal differentiation characterized by mature goblet cells and columnar absorptive cells. These cells expressed CDX2, MUC2, and cytokeratin 20. Admixed with the goblet and columnar cells, there were serotonin-containing cells and Paneth cells. These 2 tumors showed extensive areas of high-grade dysplasia and invasive adenocarcinoma with intestinal phenotype. A subepithelial ovarian-like stroma was present in all tumors. None of the patients died of the tumors. We believe that the term mucinous cystic tumor recommended by the World Health Organization for all cystadenomas of the liver and EHBD is a misnomer. PMID:25792461

  8. A novel technique for treatment of intrahepatic biliary obstruction using an endobronchial ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Chikamoto, Akira; Nakahara, Osamu; Abe, Shinya; Imai, Katsunori; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Ikuta, Yoshiaki; Doi, Koichi; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Takamori, Hiroshi; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    Biliary obstruction (BO) is one of the complications after hepatobiliary surgery decreasing patients' quality of life. Existing interventional methods, such as endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage, occasionally fail to treat this condition. This is the first report of treatment of BO using an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) system. A 65-year-old woman developed BO at the confluence of the bile duct of segment 3 of the liver (B3) and segment 2 (B2) after extended right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed through B3, and its fistula was dilated up to the size of an 18-Fr PTBD silicone catheter. An EBUS endoscope was inserted through the dilated PTBD route. B2 was punctured through the EBUS endoscope inserted to B3 just before the obstruction with a needle for fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A guidewire was inserted to the common bile duct through the needle, and a 7.2-Fr PTBD catheter was placed over the guidewire. The inserted PTBD catheter was clamped, and internal biliary drainage was established. The catheter was patent for 24 months, and the patient had no episodes of jaundice or cholangitis. This technique using the EBUS system can be a treatment option for BO. PMID:26182320

  9. Deep Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes Revealed GNAS Mutations to Be Associated with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Its Main Pancreatic Duct Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Maekawa, Shinya; Kadokura, Makoto; Miura, Mika; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues. Methods Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer. Results Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n?=?3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p?=?0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN. Conclusions The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion. PMID:24897499

  10. Surgical treatment of biliary ductal stricture complicating localized left hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen-Bing; Han, Ben-Li; Cai, Jing-Xiu; He, Zhen-Ping

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the experience in the clinical treatment of biliary duct strictures complicating localized left hepatolithiasis in the last two decades. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 67 cases of biliary duct strictures complicating localized left hepatolithiasis treated in our center in the last two decades was made with regards to each patient’s age, gender, results of various preoperative examinations, operative findings, treatment and postoperative courses. RESULTS: The incidence of left hepatic duct (LHD) stricture was 59.8% and that of a left external hepatic duct (LEHD) stricture was 84.0 % and 84.8% respectively, in which a severe degree dominated. Among the operative procedures used in the treatment of LHD strictures, plastic operation plus biliary enteric anastomosis ranks first in frequency (52.2%), with a re-stricture rate of 17.1%. Left lobectomy ranks third (19.4%) with no re-stricture. Simple plastic performance or dilation had a high occurrence rate of re-stricture and usually needed subsequent surgery. Most LEHD strictures were eradicated by lateral segmentectomy or lobectomy, whereas most LMHD strictures were just the opposite. The rate of preoperative diagnosis of LMHD by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, computed tomography or intraoperative and postoperative trans-T-tube cholangiography was much lower than that of LEHD or extrahepatic duct. CONCLUSION: Too much attention paid to LEHD disorders in the treatment of localized left hepatolithiasis potentially results in negligence or omission in LMHD disorders. Malpractice treatments of LHD strictures are important factors affecting the long term results of localized left hepatolithiasis, for which left lobectomy is usually the therapy of choice. PMID:27006579

  11. Bile duct cysts in adults: a multi-institutional retrospective study. French Associations for Surgical Research.

    PubMed Central

    Lenriot, J P; Gigot, J F; Ségol, P; Fagniez, P L; Fingerhut, A; Adloff, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the features of adult patients undergoing surgery for bile duct cysts, focusing on the anatomy of the biliary tree as well as the long-term outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Bile duct cysts (BDCs) are uncommon in Western countries, and the majority of reported cases originate from Asia. Japanese authors have emphasized the frequent association of extra- and intrahepatic bile duct dilatations, but grading of patients based on Todani's classification is often hindered by the absence of an accurate definition of types IC and IVA cysts. Moreover, despite the increasing use of extrahepatic cyst excision, little is known about the long-term outcome in patients with intrahepatic bile duct involvement. METHODS: Forty-two adult patients with BDC were treated between 1980 and 1992 in 17 institutions of the French Associations for Surgical Research. Clinical presentation, radiologic presurgical evaluation, and surgical procedures were analyzed. The long-term postsurgical outcome was derived from patient charts, attending physicians, or direct patient contact. RESULTS: Twelve patients (30%) had recurrent abdominal pain or jaundice from childhood. Seven (17%) had undergone prior cystenterostomy. Twenty-one (50%) had a Todani-type IVA cyst with extra- and intrahepatic bile duct involvement. Of these, nine had segmental, exclusively left-sided intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Biliary carcinoma was encountered in five patients (12%). Extrahepatic cyst excision with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed in 34 patients with type I or IV cysts. The overall operative mortality rate was 2.4%. Long-term results were clearly correlated with cyst type: during a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 11 of 12 patients (92%) treated by cyst excision for type I cyst remained free of symptoms, whereas 31% of patients who underwent surgery for type IV cyst had episodic or severe cholangitis with intrahepatic stones. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with BDC, particular attention must be given to the associated intrahepatic bile duct dilatations. We propose a modification of Todani's classification to distinguish cystic, segmental, and fusiform dilatations of the intrahepatic biliary tree in type IV cysts. In patients with segmental left intrahepatic cystic dilatations, combined left liver lobectomy and extrahepatic cyst excision is suggested to decrease late postsurgical biliary complications. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:9712559

  12. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  13. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-06-28

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  14. Intraluminal biliary obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, N D; Davenport, M; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Jaundice caused by intraluminal bile duct obstruction in infancy is rare but may occur in association with biliary sludge, inspissated bile plugs, or gall stones. Nine boys (aged 2 weeks-6 months) with obstruction caused by inspissated bile (n = 7) or gall stones (n = 2) are presented. Haemolysis was not a factor in the patients' histories but an abnormal entry of the common bile duct into the third part of the duodenum was demonstrated in two and one had an asymptomatic haemangioma. Ultrasonography was the most useful investigation. Surgical removal of the bile duct obstruction was necessary in eight cases and included biliary tract drainage in six and cholecystectomy for changes of cholecystitis in four. Obstruction resolved spontaneously in one infant after percutaneous cholangiography. There were no postoperative complications. Images p1396-a PMID:1776884

  15. Endoscopic management of post-liver transplant biliary complications

    PubMed Central

    Girotra, Mohit; Soota, Kaartik; Klair, Jagpal S; Dang, Shyam M; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Biliary complications are being increasingly encountered in post liver transplant patients because of increased volume of transplants and longer survival of these recipients. Overall management of these complications may be challenging, but with advances in endoscopic techniques, majority of such patients are being dealt with by endoscopists rather than the surgeons. Our review article discusses the recent advances in endoscopic tools and techniques that have proved endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with various interventions, like sphincterotomy, bile duct dilatation, and stent placement, to be the mainstay for management of most of these complications. We also discuss the management dilemmas in patients with surgically altered anatomy, where accessing the bile duct is challenging, and the recent strides towards making this prospect a reality. PMID:25992185

  16. An intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct mimicking a hemorrhagic hepatic cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct is a biliary, epithelium-lined, cystic lesion that exhibits papillary proliferation and rarely causes large hemorrhagic cystic lesions. Here, we report a case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct mimicking a hemorrhagic hepatic cyst in a middle-aged man with large hemorrhagic hepatic cysts who experienced abdominal pain and repeated episodes of intracystic bleeding. Following portal vein embolization, extended right hepatic lobectomy was performed, and intraoperative cholangiography revealed communication between the intracystic space and the hepatic duct. Although histological studies revealed that the large hemorrhagic lesion was not lined with epithelium, the surrounding multilocular lesions contained biliary-derived epithelial cells that presented as papillary growths without ovarian-like stroma. A diagnosis of oncocytic-type intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct was made, and we hypothesized that intracystic bleeding with denudation of the lining epithelial cells might occur as the cystically dilated bile duct increased in size. Differential diagnosis between a hemorrhagic cyst and a cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct with bleeding is difficult. However, an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct could manifest as multilocular hemorrhagic lesions; therefore, complete resection should be performed for a better prognosis. PMID:23706166

  17. Role of Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent for Treatment of Benign Biliary Strictures and Bile Leaks

    PubMed Central

    Pausawasadi, Nonthalee; Soontornmanokul, Tanassanee

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy by balloon dilation and placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents is the treatment of choice for benign biliary stricture. This approach is effective but it typically requires multiple endoscopic sessions given the short duration of stent patency. The endoscopic approach for treatment of bile leak involves the placement of a stent with or without biliary sphincterotomy. The self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has traditionally been used for palliation of malignant biliary strictures given the long duration of stent patency owing to their larger stent diameter. Recently, SEMS has been used in a variety of benign biliary strictures and leaks, especially with the design of the covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS), which permits endoscopic-mediated stent removal. The use of CSEMS in benign biliary stricture could potentially result in a decrease in endoscopic sessions and it is technically easier when compared to placement of multiple plastic stents. However, complications such as cholecystitis due to blockage of cystic duct, stent migration, infection and pancreatitis have been reported. The potential subsegmental occlusion of contralateral intrahepatic ducts also limits the use of CSEMS in hilar stricture. Certain techniques and improvement of stent design may overcome these challenges in the future. Thus, CSEMS may be appropriate in only highly selected conditions, such as refractory benign biliary stricture, despite multiple plastic stent placement or difficult to treat bile duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis, and should not be used routinely. This review focuses on the use of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for benign biliary strictures and bile leaks. PMID:22563290

  18. Detection, localization, and quantitation of degree of common bile duct obstruction by scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Lieberman, D.A.; Brar, H.S.

    1985-07-01

    The detection, localization, and quantitation of the degree of obstruction was successfully accomplished by (/sup 99m/Tc)IDA scintigraphy in 13 of 14 patients with cholangiographically documented common bile duct (CBD) obstruction. Ductal dilation was present on ultrasound examination in only seven patients. The accuracy of biliary scintigraphy was enhanced by several innovations including: (a) selection of a radiopharmaceutical with rapid hepatic uptake and excretion; (b) shorter imaging interval over longer period of time; (c) substitution of image parameter for appearance time; and (d) quantitative measurement of bile emptying parameters following cholecystokinin infusion. Scintigraphically, the partial obstruction was characterized by CBD segmental narrowing or intraluminal filling defects and bile stasis within the area and segmental ducts. It is concluded that quantitative biliary dynamic scintigraphy employing modern techniques can accurately detect and localize CBD obstruction.

  19. Current Concepts in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Sclair, Seth N; Little, Ester; Levy, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are chronic, cholestatic diseases of the liver with common clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of PBC slows progression and decreases the need for transplant. However, one-third of patients will progress regardless of treatment. Bilirubin <1.0 and alkaline phosphatase <2.0 x the upper limit of normal at 1 year after treatment appear to predict 10-year survival. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the recommended treatment for PBC, and recent studies with obeticholic acid showed promising results for UDCA non-responders. Unlike PBC, no therapy has been shown to alter the natural history of PSC. The recommended initial diagnostic test for PSC is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, typically showing bile duct wall thickening, focal bile duct dilatation, and saccular dilatation of the intra- and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. Immunoglobulin 4-associated cholangitis must be excluded when considering the diagnosis of PSC, to allow for proper treatment, and monitoring of disease progression. In addition to the lack of therapy, PSC is a pre-malignant condition and close surveillance is indicated. PMID:26312413

  20. Biliary access procedure in the management of oriental cholangiohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gott, P E; Tieva, M H; Barcia, P J; Laberge, J M

    1996-11-01

    The objective was to review the treatment of oriental cholangiohepatitis using a combined approach of surgical access to the biliary tree with a cutaneous choledochoenteric conduit and interventional radiology to remove intrahepatic stones and dilate biliary strictures. Design was a retrospective case series. Oriental cholangiohepatitis is a condition marked by intrahepatic strictures and extensive formation of pigmented stones leading to recurrent biliary sepsis and hepatic abscesses. It is a common condition in southeast Asia and is seen with increasing frequency in Western populations due to Asian immigration. Ten patients were treated at Tripler Army Medical Center from 1986 to 1994. Tripler is a 500 bed tertiary referral center located in Honolulu, Hawaii, and serves the military community in the Pacific basin as well as beneficiaries of the Trust Territories of Micronesia. Patients underwent cholecystectomy and formation of a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy with a lateral limb that was brought out as a cutaneous stoma. After 4 weeks of healing, the intestinal conduit was used by the interventional radiologist to extract retained stones and dilate strictures using a variety of techniques. This was easily performed under light sedation. After completion of therapy, the stoma was closed and buried subcutaneously. This retains the option for accessing the conduit percutaneously or reopening the stoma if necessary for recurrence. Resolution of symptoms and radiologic clearance of intrahepatic stones, biliary strictures, and hepatic abscesses were the main outcome measures. Eight patients underwent the biliary access procedure and had clearance of stones and strictures after one to 10 interventional sessions. There was no major morbidity associated with treatment. No patient required liver resection, and there was resolution of the hepatic abscesses in all cases. The access procedure could not be completed in one patient due to extensive adhesions; this patient was successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the biliary duct. Another patient was treated by the same method on several occasions and never referred to surgery. A combined approach using surgical access to the biliary tree and interventional radiology offers effective treatment of oriental cholangiohepatitis without the need for hepatic resection. PMID:8895715

  1. A variant of multicystic biliary hamartoma presenting as an intrahepatic cystic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Kinoshita, Naoe; Murakami, Tomonori; Sato, Yasunori; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Harada, Kenich; Masuda, Junichi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nanashima, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    A rare case of an intrahepatic multicystic tumor is described. A 26-year-old man visited our hospital because of abdominal discomfort. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 10נ7cm multicystic tumor of the bile duct in the right side of the liver. The gross appearance of the tumor resembled an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, and right hepatectomy with regional lymphadenectomy was performed. Histologically, these cystic lesions were composed of variably and irregularly dilated duct structures lined by columnar epithelium resembling bile duct lining. There were no atypical cells and no papillary growth of the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the dilated ducts contained inspissated bile, and the inter-cystic parenchyma contained variable but irregularly distributed and hamartomatous hepatic parenchyma with an abnormal lobular pattern. Though it had atypical features of a hamartoma in some aspects (age, smooth muscle), this case could finally be regarded as a variant of multicystic biliary hamartoma. PMID:26017582

  2. In Vivo Study of Polyurethane-Coated Gianturco-Rosch Biliary Z-Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Severini, Aldo; Mantero, Sara; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Cigada, Alberto; Addis, Flaminio; Cozzi, Guido; Salvetti, Monica; Andreola, Salvatore; Motta, Antonella; Regalia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea; De Pedri, Enrico; Doci, Roberto

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Prototypes of Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents coated with polycarbonate urethane (PCU) were placed in the biliary tree of pigs, in order to test their biomechanical behavior, stability, and biocompatibility. Methods: The stents were surgically implanted in the common bile duct of three pairs of pigs, which were killed after 1, 3, and 6 months respectively. Explanted livers from pigs of the same race, age, and size were used to provide comparative data. The bile ducts were radiologically and histopathologically examined; the stents were processed and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: No complications occurred and the animals showed a normal weight gain. The main bile duct appeared radiologically and macroscopically dilated, but the stents proved to be in place. Histologically, the bile duct epithelium was destroyed, but neither hyperplastic nor inflammatory fibrotic reactions of the wall were evident. Both the metallic structure and the polymeric coating of the stents were intact. A layer of organic material with a maximum thickness of approximately 3 {mu}m was evident on the inner surface of the stents. Conclusion: The present in vivo study demonstrates the biocompatibility, efficacy, and stability of PCU-coated Gianturco-Rosch stents in the biliary environment.

  3. Pneumoperitoneum Caused by Transhepatic Air Leak After Metallic Biliary Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jei Hee; Lee, Deok Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Se Joon; Kwon, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Ki Whang

    2000-11-15

    A self-expanding metallic biliary stent was placed for palliation of a common bile duct obstruction in a 68-year-old male with unresectable pancreatic head cancer 3 days after initial percutaneous right transhepatic catheter decompression. The stent crossed the ampulla of Vater. Three days later, the stent was balloon-dilated and the percutaneous access was removed. At removal, a small contrast leak from the transhepatic tract was seen. Three days later, pneumoperitoneum was found with symptoms of peritoneal irritation and fever. A widely open sphincter of Oddi caused by the metallic stent, accompanied by delayed sealing of the transhepatic tract, may have caused the air and bile leakage into the peritoneal space. This case shows that pneumoperitoneum may occur without ductal tear or bowel injury, with a biliary stent crossing the ampulla of Vater.

  4. Follicular cholangitis associated with focal biliary stricture treated with left hepatectomy after 8 years of follow-up: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, RYUSUKE; FUKUDA, TOSHIKATSU; AMANO, HIRONOBU; NAKAHARA, MASAHIRO; YOSHIDA, MAKOTO; YAMAKI, MINORU; HANADA, KEIJI; YONEHARA, SHUJI; NORIYUKI, TOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Follicular cholangitis may lead to severe focal biliary stricture, which is difficult to distinguish from cholangiocarcinoma. This is the report of a rare case of follicular cholangitis associated with an intrahepatic focal biliary stricture in a 69-year-old woman. The patient visited our hospital for upper abdominal pain in 2006. Computed tomography revealed common bile duct stones and focal stricture of the left intrahepatic duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a severe B3 stricture and dilation of the peripheral biliary tract. Repeated cytology revealed no malignancy. The patient was followed up for 8 years and repeated attacks of cholangitis severely compromised her quality of life. A left hepatectomy was performed, and the pathological findings were consistent with follicular cholangitis. It is generally difficult to make a definitive diagnosis after identifying a biliary stricture, and the stricture is often treated with surgical resection. The clinical presentation and radiological findings of follicular cholangitis are similar to those of cholangiocarcinoma; therefore, if a conservative approach is selected, frequent follow-up is recommended. The present case suggests that follicular cholangitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of biliary stricture. PMID:26870368

  5. Obstructive putty-like cast of the biliary tree.

    PubMed

    Clermonts, Stefan Hem; van Dam, Ronald M

    2014-02-01

    A 62-year-old woman was presented at the emergency department with cholangiosepsis. She had a history of liver metastases for which she had a left hemihepatectomy and loco regional recurrence at the liver hilum for which she received chemoradiation therapy MR-imaging of the liver showed multiple intrahepatic fluid collections/abscesses, together with significantly dilated intrahepatic bile ducts. For her significant hepatic function impairment she received antibiotic treatment and percutaneous drainage. The differential diagnosis was local tumor recurrence or post radiation fibrosis causing outflow obstruction centrally in the liver hilum. During the admission the serum bilirubin values kept rising. During surgery surgeons decided to perform a hepatotomy and connect a loop of the jejunum directly on the liver parenchyma, in order to allow better drainage. Intra operatively, after the hepatotomy, we encountered green-brownisch putty-like material. By traction a 'cast' of a large part of the biliary tree was removed. PMID:24696838

  6. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Intrahepatic and Choledochal Biliary Stones

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, Uri; Kleinmann, Nir; Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris; Winkler, Harry

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-{mu}m holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. Results: All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive 'balloon push' (n = 4) and 'rendezvous' (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Conclusion: Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

  7. Mutations in vacuolar H+-ATPase subunits lead to biliary developmental defects in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    EauClaire, Steven F.; Cui, Shuang; Ma, Liyuan; Matous, James; Marlow, Florence L.; Gupta, Tripti; Burgess, Harold A.; Abrams, Elliott W.; Kapp, Lee D.; Granato, Michael; Mullins, Mary C.; Matthews, Randolph P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We identified three zebrafish mutants with defects in biliary development. One of these mutants, pekin (pn), also demonstrated generalized hypopigmentation and other defects, including disruption of retinal cell layers, lack of zymogen granules in the pancreas, and dilated Golgi in intestinal epithelial cells. Bile duct cells in pn demonstrated an accumulation of electron dense bodies. We determined that the causative defect in pn was a splice site mutation in the atp6ap2 gene that leads to an inframe stop codon. atp6ap2 encodes a subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-H+-ATPase), which modulates pH in intracellular compartments. The Atp6ap2 subunit has also been shown to function as an intracellular renin receptor that stimulates fibrogenesis. Here we show that mutants and morphants involving other V-H+-ATPase subunits also demonstrated developmental biliary defects, but did not demonstrate the inhibition of fibrogenic genes observed in pn. The defects in pn are reminiscent of those we and others have observed in class C VPS (vacuolar protein sorting) family mutants and morphants, and we report here that knockdown of atp6ap2 and vps33b had an additive negative effect on biliary development. Our findings suggest that pathways important in modulating intracompartmental pH lead to defects in digestive organ development, and support previous studies demonstrating the importance of intracellular sorting pathways in biliary development. PMID:22465374

  8. Extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J; Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was the macromorphological analysis of extrahepatic biliary tract in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina). Bile ducts, the gall bladder and portal vein were injected with coloured latex. Using the technique of dissection, bile ducts were isolated from the liver lobes. It was found that the cystic duct in this species is rarely single. Hepatic ducts form a system of multiple anastomosing structures running in the hepatoduodenal ligament. Many bile duct openings were observed in the duodenal papilla. The results confirm wide variations of the biliary tract in mammals and may be important for comparative analysis of the morphological differentiation of these structures in small mammals. PMID:25091180

  9. Duplicated extrahepatic bile duct identified following cholecystectomy injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoepfner, Lauren; Sweeney, Mary Katherine; White, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    Though variations of intrahepatic biliary anatomy are quite common, duplication of the extrahepatic biliary system is extremely rare and reported infrequently in the literature. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgery procedures performed. Unfortunately, iatrogenic bile duct injuries can contribute to significant morbidity including hospital readmissions, infectious complications and death. Anomalous extrahepatic biliary anatomy may be one of the factors, which increases the likelihood of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of an iatrogenic bile duct injury that occurred during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in which a duplicated extrahepatic biliary system was identified intraoperatively during the definitive operative repair. PMID:27141049

  10. Biliary secretion of endotoxin and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sakisaka, S.; Koga, H.; Sasatomi, K.; Mimura, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Tanikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested endotoxin, derived from the intestine through the portal blood to the liver, was predominantly metabolized by Kupffer cells. In the present study, fluorescent-labeled endotoxin injected into the rat portal vein was demonstrated not only in Kupffer cells but also in hepatocytes. Furthermore a great amount of labeled endotoxin was recovered in bile. In the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), immunohistochemistry demonstrated significant retention of endotoxin in the biliary epithelial cells, and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid significantly reduced the retention in those cells. The study for detection of apoptosis demonstrated increased rates of apoptosis in hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in PBC liver, and the rate of apoptosis in biliary epithelial cells was significantly reduced after treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Immunohistochemistry in PBC liver demonstrated significant reduction of fluorescence intensity for a 7H6 antigen in biliary epithelial cells, indicating the increased paracellular permeability of bile ducts, because cellular immunolocalization of that antigen has been shown to be inversely correlated with the paracellular permeability of the tight junction. These results suggest that, in biliary epithelial cells, retention of endotoxin, increased apoptosis, and increased permeability of tight junctions may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626760

  11. Contribution of Mature Hepatocytes to Biliary Regeneration in Rats with Acute and Chronic Biliary Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Hui-Ling; Chien, Chin-Sung; Wu, Shang-Hsin; Ho, Yi-Tian; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2015-01-01

    Whether hepatocytes can convert into biliary epithelial cells (BECs) during biliary injury is much debated. To test this concept, we traced the fate of genetically labeled [dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)-positive] hepatocytes in hepatocyte transplantation model following acute hepato-biliary injury induced by 4,4’-methylene-dianiline (DAPM) and D-galactosamine (DAPM+D-gal) and in DPPIV-chimeric liver model subjected to acute (DAPM+D-gal) or chronic biliary injury caused by DAPM and bile duct ligation (DAPM+BDL). In both models before biliary injury, BECs are uniformly DPPIV-deficient and proliferation of DPPIV-deficient hepatocytes is restricted by retrorsine. We found that mature hepatocytes underwent a stepwise conversion into BECs after biliary injury. In the hepatocyte transplantation model, DPPIV-positive hepatocytes entrapped periportally proliferated, and formed two-layered plates along portal veins. Within the two-layered plates, the hepatocytes gradually lost their hepatocytic identity, proceeded through an intermediate state, acquired a biliary phenotype, and subsequently formed bile ducts along the hilum-to-periphery axis. In DPPIV-chimeric liver model, periportal hepatocytes expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) were exclusively DPPIV-positive and were in continuity to DPPIV-positives bile ducts. Inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation by additional doses of retrorsine in DPPIV-chimeric livers prevented the appearance of DPPIV-positive BECs after biliary injury. Moreover, enriched DPPIV-positive BEC/hepatic oval cell transplantation produced DPPIV-positive BECs or bile ducts in unexpectedly low frequency and in mid-lobular regions. These results together suggest that mature hepatocytes but not contaminating BECs/hepatic oval cells are the sources of periportal DPPIV-positive BECs. We conclude that mature hepatocytes contribute to biliary regeneration in the environment of acute and chronic biliary injury through a ductal plate configuration without the need of exogenously genetic or epigenetic manipulation. PMID:26308208

  12. Bile duct cyst in adults: interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?

    PubMed

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2013-08-28

    Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s) can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and variable types of hepatic resection. However, the diffuse forms of Todani type V cysts (Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome) in particular remain a therapeutic problem, and liver transplantation has become an important option. The mainstay of interventional treatment for Todani type III bile duct cysts is via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnostic term "bile duct cyst" comprises quite different pathological and clinical entities. Interventional therapy, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation all have their place in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease group. They should not be seen as competitive treatment modalities, but as complementary options. Each patient should receive individualized treatment after all of the clinical findings have been considered by an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23983423

  13. Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V K

    2015-08-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones, but is associated with increased risk of bile duct injury (BDI bile duct injury). If the BDI is detected during LC can be addressed immediately, if available hepatobiliary surgeon, but the easiest and safest procedure for the general surgeon is placing drains into subhepatic region and the transfer of acute BDI to controlled external biliary fistula (external Biliary fistula EBF). Most BDI is diagnosed when the postoperative period, when there is biliary leak. Therapy is a percutaneous catheter drainage and endoscopic stenting in the bile duct; early repair is not recommended. Repair in the form hepatico-jejunostomy (HJ) should be performed hepatobiliary surgeon at intervals of 46 weeks after it closes EBF. BDI is a frequent cause medico-legal actions and a substantial burden on health care costs. Most BDI can be avoided by adherence to the principles of safe cholecystectomy. PMID:26395953

  14. Melatonin regulation of biliary functions

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Shannon; Han, Yuyan; Francis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The intrahepatic biliary epithelium is a three-dimensional tubular system lined by cholangiocytes, epithelial cells that in addition to modify ductal bile are also the targets of vanishing bile duct syndromes (i.e., cholangiopathies) such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) that are characterized by the damage/proliferation of cholangiocytes. Cholangiocyte proliferation is critical for the maintenance of the biliary mass and secretory function during the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies. Proliferating cholangiocytes serve as a neuroendocrine compartment during the progression of cholangiopathies, and as such secrete and respond to hormones, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides contributing to the autocrine and paracrine pathways that regulate biliary homeostasis. The focus of this review is to summarize the recent findings related to the role of melatonin in the modulation of biliary functions and liver damage in response to a number of insults. We first provide a general background on the general function of cholangiocytes including their anatomic characteristics, their innervation and vascularization as well the role of these cells on secretory and proliferation events. After a background on the synthesis and regulation of melatonin and its role on the maintenance of circadian rhythm, we will describe the specific effects of melatonin on biliary functions and liver damage. After a summary of the topics discussed, we provide a paragraph on the future perspectives related to melatonin and liver functions. PMID:24696836

  15. Early Bile Duct Cancer Detected by Direct Peroral Cholangioscopy with Narrow-Band Imaging after Bile Duct Stone Removal

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Choi, Hyun Jong; Kim, Hee Kyung; Min, Seul Ki; Park, Jong Kyu; Cho, Young Deok; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Moon Sung

    2011-01-01

    Cholangioscopy not only enables the direct visualization of the biliary tree, but also allows for forceps biopsy to diagnosis early cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, some reports have suggested the clinical usefulness of direct peroral cholangioscopy (POC) using an ultra-slim endoscope with a standard endoscopic unit by a single operator. Enhanced endoscopy, such as narrow band imaging (NBI), can be helpful for detecting early neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract and is easily applicable during direct POC. A 63-year-old woman with acute cholangitis had persistent bile duct dilation on the left hepatic duct after common bile duct stone removal and clinical improvement. We performed direct POC with NBI using an ultra-slim upper endoscope to examine the strictured segment. NBI examination showed an irregular surface and polypoid structure with tumor vessels. Target biopsy under direct endoscopic visualization was performed, and adenocarcinoma was documented. The patient underwent an extended left hepatectomy, and the resected specimen showed early bile duct cancer confined to the ductal mucosa. PMID:21927669

  16. Newly Designed Y-configured Single-Catheter Stenting for the Treatment of Hilar-Type Nonanastomotic Biliary Strictures After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changming; Li Xuan; Song Shibing; Lv Xianjun; Luan Jingyuan; Dong Guoxiang

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to introduce our novel technique of percutaneous single catheter placement into the hilar bile ducts strictures while fulfilling the purpose of bilateral biliary drainage and stenting. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the technique for the treatment of hilar nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Methods: Ten patients who were post-orthotopic liver transplantation between July 2000 and July 2010 were enrolled in this study. Percutaneous Y-configured single-catheter stenting for bilateral bile ducts combined with balloon dilation was designed as the main treatment approach. Technical success rate, clinical indicators, complications, and recurrent rate were analyzed. Results: Technical success rate was 100%. Nine of the ten patients had biochemical normalization, cholangiographic improvement, and clinical symptoms relief. None of them experienced recurrence in a median follow-up of 26 months after completion of therapy and removal of all catheters. Complications were minor and limited to two patients. The one treatment failure underwent a second liver transplantation but died of multiple system organ failure. Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic Y-configured single-catheter stenting into the hilar bile ducts is technically feasible. The preliminary trial of this technique combined with traditional PTCD or choledochoscopy for the treatment of hilar biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation appeared to be effective and safe. Yet, further investigation is needed.

  17. [Biliary atresia: a severe illness].

    PubMed

    Ramonet, Margarita; Ciocca, Mirta; Alvarez, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Biliary atresia is a serious disease of unknown cause, affecting newborns. An inflammation and progressive destruction of the bile ducts lead to jaundice, dark urines, and acholia, between the second and sixth weeks of life. Neonatal cholestasis could be due to several different diseases, thus a diagnosis of biliary atresia and early derivation for surgical treatment are necessary to allow a restoration of the bile flow. Eighty percent of the children normalize serum bilirubin after the portoenterostomy (Kasai operation), if they are operated before their 45 days of life. When Kasai operation fails, a liver transplantation is the only possibility. Biliary atresia must be diagnosed before the first month of life and must be considered as a surgical emergency. PMID:25362914

  18. Successive breaks in biliary stents.

    PubMed

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; Guerra, María

    2016-04-01

    A 64 year-old male, was diagnosed with obstructive jaundice due to a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with liver metastases. The patient underwent endoscopic placement of covered self-expanding biliary stent (10x60 mm, Hanaro) by ERCP. He was admitted with cholangitis one year later. The following ERCP revealed a fractured stent with loss of the distal end (duodenal) and partial migration of the remaining stent to the common bile duct. The fragmented stent was removed from the common bile duct and a new, similar one was inserted. Four months later the patient was admitted with cholangitis. A new ERCP was done and biliary stent was also fragmented. It was removed and an uncovered stent (Wallflex) was inserted. PMID:27065248

  19. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  20. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  1. Complicated bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  2. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  3. Endoscopic Extraction of Biliary Fascioliasis Diagnosed Using Intraductal Ultrasonography in a Patient with Acute Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji Su; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Tae, Jae Woong; Choi, Moon Han; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection may result in biliary obstruction with or without cholangitis in the chronic biliary phase. Because clinical symptoms and signs of F. hepatica are similar to other biliary diseases that cause bile duct obstruction, such as stones or bile duct malignancies, that are, in fact, more common, this condition may not be suspected and diagnosis may be overlooked and delayed. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography for the evaluation of bile duct obstruction may be incidentally detected with the worm, and diagnosis can be confirmed by extraction of the leaf-like trematode from the bile duct. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of the bile duct, and is useful in evaluating indeterminate biliary diseases. We present a case of biliary fascioliasis that was diagnosed using IDUS and managed endoscopically in a patient with acute cholangitis. PMID:26668810

  4. Bile duct stone formation around a Prolene suture after cholangioenterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Tao, Liang; Wu, Xingyu; Mou, Lingjun; Sun, Xitai; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The iatrogenic cause of bile duct stone formation is mainly due to suture materials, especially silk sutures. In recent years, Prolene and Vicryl sutures have been widely used in biliary surgery, and bile duct stone formation related to sutures are seemingly becoming rare, as there has only been one report of bile duct stone formation caused by Prolene sutures in the literature. In the last few years we have had two cases of Prolene suture-related bile duct stone formation within our unit. We therefore suggest that Vicryl sutures should be used as the first choice in biliary surgery, in order to prevent the formation of iatrogenic bile duct stones. PMID:27022388

  5. Bile duct stone formation around a Prolene suture after cholangioenterostomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Tao, Liang; Wu, Xingyu; Mou, Lingjun; Sun, Xitai; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The iatrogenic cause of bile duct stone formation is mainly due to suture materials, especially silk sutures. In recent years, Prolene and Vicryl sutures have been widely used in biliary surgery, and bile duct stone formation related to sutures are seemingly becoming rare, as there has only been one report of bile duct stone formation caused by Prolene sutures in the literature. In the last few years we have had two cases of Prolene suture-related bile duct stone formation within our unit. We therefore suggest that Vicryl sutures should be used as the first choice in biliary surgery, in order to prevent the formation of iatrogenic bile duct stones. PMID:27022388

  6. Biliary Fasciola gigantica infestation in a nonendemic area--An intraoperative surprise.

    PubMed

    Menon, Prema; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Khurana, Sumeeta; Lal, Sadhana; Thapa, Babu Ram

    2015-11-01

    A 7year old girl infected with the zoonotic trematode, Fasciola gigantica is reported because of the extreme rarity of this condition in our region. Because of the overlap in symptomatology and radiological features, the more common amebic/pyogenic liver abscess in the initial hepatic migratory phase and later choledochal cyst/biliary ascariasis when the parasite was finally located in the extrahepatic bile ducts, were thought of delaying effective treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed only by surgical exploration. The characteristic contrast enhanced computed tomography scan features retrospectively identified were multiple clustered hypodense lesions in the liver with peripheral enhancement in the acute hepatic migratory phase, and periportal tracking in the previously affected areas of the liver with biliary dilatation and a linear hypointense lesion within the common bile duct in the chronic phase. Although a known association, she did not have eosinophilia. This child, who became symptomatic at the age of 5.5years, also appears to be one of the youngest patients reported with Fasciola gigantica. PMID:26362003

  7. Percutaneous Management of Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Christopher M; Ryu, Robert K

    2015-12-01

    Malignancy resulting in impaired biliary drainage includes a number of diagnoses familiar to the interventional radiologist. Adequate drainage of such a system can significantly improve patient quality of life, and can facilitate the further treatment options and care of such patients. In the setting of prior instrumentation, cholangitis can present as an urgent indication for drainage. Current initial interventional management of malignant biliary duct obstruction frequently includes endoscopic or percutaneous intervention, with local practices and preprocedural imaging guiding interventional approaches and subsequent management. This article addresses the indications for percutaneous drainage, technical considerations in performing such drainage, and specific techniques useful in attempting to achieve clinical end points in patients with malignant biliary duct obstruction. PMID:26615162

  8. Endoscopic biliary drainage as a bridging procedure to single-stage surgery for perforated choledochal cyst: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Takuya; Dowaki, Shoichi; Kikunaga, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Koji; Ishikawa, Keiichi; Mori, Katsuaki; Sakuragawa, Tadayuki; Ichisaka, Shunsuke; Miura, Hiroshi; Kumai, Koichiro; Mikami, Shuji; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    Choledochal cyst (CC)-a congenital anomaly of the bile duct-is rare. We report a 28-year-old woman complaining of epigastralgia who was transferred to our hospital. Physical examination revealed severe tenderness to abdominal palpation without symptoms of diffuse peritonitis. Urgent contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography indicated the dilated common bile duct (CBD) was perforated, with a presumed diagnosis of perforated CC. Endoscopic external biliary drainage was performed immediately as a bridging procedure to the definitive surgery. Additional evaluations confirmed a type IVa CC, according to Todani's classification, but no signs of malignancy. Twenty-two days after biliary drainage, laparotomy was performed. A large cystic mass was found in the CBD with a perforated scar on the right-side wall. Because inflammation around the pancreas head was too severe to perform cyst excision safely, the patient underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 29th postoperative day. Pathologic examination of a specimen showed no malignancy, and the patient has remained well during the 3-year follow-up. Our experience with this case suggests that definitive single-stage surgery for perforated CC in an adult can be performed safely owing to external biliary drainage as a bridging procedure, if manifestation of diffuse peritonitis is not evident. PMID:26943441

  9. Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stones: A Population-based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chang, Shih-Chen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Danforth, Kim N.; Althuis, Michelle D.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are rare, but highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the predominant risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. As part of a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we examined the associations of serum lipid levels with biliary stones and cancers. We included 460 biliary cancer cases (264 gallbladder, 141 extrahepatic bile duct, and 55 ampulla of Vater), 981 biliary stone cases, and 858 healthy individuals randomly selected from the population. Participants completed an in-person interview and gave overnight fasting blood samples. Participants in the highest quintile of triglycerides (≥ 160 mg/dl) had a 1.4-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=1.1-1.9), a 1.9-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=1.3-2.8), and a 4.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=2.8-8.1), compared to the reference group (third quintile: 90-124 mg/dl). Participants in the lowest quintile of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 30 mg/dl) had a 4.2-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=3.0-6.0), an 11.6-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=7.3-18.5), and a 16.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=9.1-30.9), relative to the reference group (third quintile: 40-49 mg/dl). In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein A (apo A) were inversely associated with biliary stones; whereas low levels as well as high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, apo A, and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were associated with excess risks of biliary tract cancers. Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis. PMID:18076041

  10. Biliary fascioliasis--an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: report of a case and brief review.

    PubMed

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report. PMID:22566787

  11. Biliary fascioliasis – an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: Report of a case and brief review

    PubMed Central

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report. PMID:22566787

  12. Intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from colon cancer after resection of liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Shoji; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Takayama, Yuichi; Fukami, Yasuyuki; Onoe, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    An extremely rare case of intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis from sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma is herein presented. Sigmoid colon cancer (T3, N0, M0, stage IIA) had been diagnosed and treated by sigmoidectomy in October 1993. In December 2002, a liver metastasis with intrabiliary growth was found, and this was treated by extended right hepatic lobectomy and caudate lobectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. In February 2014, intrapancreatic bile duct metastasis was found, and this was treated by subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The intrapancreatic metastasis was judged to have arisen from cancer cell implantation, either by spontaneous shedding of cancer cells or as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. Twelve months have passed since the last surgical intervention, and there has been no sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Differential diagnosis between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and intrabiliary growth of a liver metastasis originating from colorectal adenocarcinoma is difficult but very important for determining the therapeutic strategy. Careful examination is needed to diagnose intrahepatic biliary dilatation, especially for patients with a history of carcinoma in the digestive tract and even if years have passed since curative resection of the digestive tract cancer. Aggressive surgical management for localized recurrence of a hepatic metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma may improve patient survival. PMID:26293132

  13. Molecular Identification of Biliary Isospora Belli: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Eng, Hock-Liew

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the novel sampling of bile from the biliary endoscopic intervention for the molecular identification of parasite infection.A 63-year-old Vietnamese man underwent travel health examination in our hospital. Physical examination showed that his height was 159 cm and weight was 41 kg. He had a 15-year history of intermittent abdominal pain and frequent episodes of diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed raised eosinophil count (23%, normal range [NR] 0-5), absolute eosinophil count (1899/μL, NR 50-350), and levels of serum immunoglobulin E (3770 IU/mL, NR < 100), aspartate transaminase (270 U/L, NR 0-37), alanine transaminase (210 U/L, NR 0-40), and total bilirubin (1.8 mg/dL, NR 0.2-1.4); however, the serum alkaline phosphatase level was normal (65 U/L, NR 28-94) and non-reactive result for serum human insufficiency virus antibody.Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed diffuse dilatation of the biliary tree; the common hepatic and pancreatic duct diameters increased to 1.86 cm and 0.61 cm, respectively.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed and a 10-Fr model plastic biliary stent was inserted and flushed with 20 cc normal saline; thereafter, the bile was collected and sent for DNA sequencing. Isospora belli (IB) infection was identified by a polymerase chain reaction.Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800 mg q6h was administered for 1 month. Liver enzyme levels normalized and negative for concentration method of ova study. The patient was doing well and weighed 51 kg at the outpatient clinic visit 3 months later.This bile sampling with molecular identification has not been described in the literature. We believe that an acute IB infection through fecal-oral transmission may progress to chronic infection of the hepatobiliary system, leading to biliary obstruction and jaundice. PMID:26962840

  14. Current surgical treatment for bile duct cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seyama, Yasuji; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Since extrahepatic bile duct cancer is difficult to diagnose and to cure, a safe and radical surgical strategy is needed. In this review, the modes of infiltration and spread of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and surgical strategy are discussed. Extended hemihepatectomy, with or without pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), plus extrahepatic bile duct resection and regional lymphadenectomy has recently been recognized as the standard curative treatment for hilar bile duct cancer. On the other hand, PD is the choice of treatment for middle and distal bile duct cancer. Major hepatectomy concomitant with PD (hepatopancreatoduodenectomy) has been applied to selected patients with widespread tumors. Preoperative biliary drainage (BD) followed by portal vein embolization (PVE) enables major hepatectomy in patients with hilar bile duct cancer without mortality. BD should be performed considering the surgical procedure, especially, in patients with separated intrahepatic bile ducts caused by hilar bile duct cancer. Right or left trisectoriectomy are indicated according to the tumor spread and biliary anatomy. As a result, extended radical resection offers a chance for cure of hilar bile duct cancer with improved resectability, curability, and a 5-year survival rate of 40%. A 5-year survival rate has ranged from 24% to 39% after PD for middle and distal bile duct cancer. PMID:17461441

  15. Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

    2014-12-01

    Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

  16. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy. PMID:23214186

  17. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  18. Long-Term Placement of Subcutaneous Ruesch-Type Stents for Double Biliary Stenosis in a Living-Donor Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi Baccarani, Umberto; Lorenzin, Dario; Risaliti, Andrea; Como, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Daniele; Sponza, Massimo; Bresadola, Vittorio; Bresadola, Fabrizio

    2007-04-15

    Biliary reconstruction continues to be a major source of morbidity following liver transplantation. The spectrum of biliary complications is evolving due to the increasing number of split-liver and living-donor liver transplantation, which are even associated with a higher incidence of biliary complications. Bile duct strictures are the most common cause of late biliary complications and account for up to 40% of all biliary complications. Optimal therapy for posttransplantation anastomotic biliary strictures remains uncertain and requires a multidisciplinary approach. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male affected by hepatocarcinoma and hepatitis C-related cirrhosis who underwent right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation from his son complicated by double anastomotic stenosis of the main right hepatic duct and of an accessory biliary duct draining segments 6 and 7 of the graft that was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with long-term subcutaneous placement of two internal Ruesch-type biliary stents.

  19. Role of CD56-expressing immature biliary epithelial cells in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Zhong; Yu, Jia-Kang; Peng, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Hai-Ying; Lui, Vincent CH; Nicholls, John M; Tam, Paul KH; Lamb, Jonathan R; Chen, Yan; Xia, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and pathological parameters and expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) in patients with biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: Established clinical laboratory markers of hepatic function, including enzyme activity, protein synthesis, and bilirubin metabolism, were evaluated in patients with BA and compared with those in patients with choledochal cysts and neonatal hepatitis. Pathological changes in tissue morphology and fibrosis were examined by histological and tissue collagen staining. Immunohistochemical staining for the biliary epithelial cell markers CD56 and CK19 together with the Notch signaling related molecules Notch1 and Notch2 was performed in the context of alterations in the structure of intrahepatic biliary ducts. RESULTS: Differences in some clinical laboratory parameters among the three diseases examined were observed, but they did not correlate with the pathological classification of fibrosis in BA. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of CD56-positive immature bile ducts in most patients (74.5%) with BA but not in patients with choledochal cysts or neonatal hepatitis. The number of CD56-expressing cells correlated with disease severity, with more positive cells present in the later stages of liver damage (81.8% vs 18.2%). Furthermore, bile plugs were mainly found in CD56-positive immature biliary ducts. Notch signaling was a key regulatory pathway in biliary duct formation and played a role in tissue fibrosis. Notch1 was co-expressed in CD56-positive cells, whereas Notch2 was found exclusively in blood vessels in the portal area of patients with BA. CONCLUSION: The maturation of biliary epithelial cells and the expression of Notch may play a role in the pathogenesis of BA. PMID:26937142

  20. Mirizzi Syndrome in a patient with an accessory hepatic duct.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, F M; Lai, Q; Coiro, S; Casciani, E; Pappalardo, G

    2013-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) represents an uncommon clinical condition, being characterized by a narrowing of the common hepatic duct or its erosion by stones impacted in the cystic duct or gallbladder Hartman's pouch. Very uncommonly, MS can be reported in patients with contemporaneous bile duct anomalies. The case is reported of a 76-year-old Caucasian woman with a MS with a cholecystobiliary fistula and a contemporaneous aberrant biliary duct for the right posterior segments.Due to the presence of an anatomical abnormality, an open approach was decided: also during surgery, it was impossible to clarify which part of the biliary tree the accessory duct merged into. After surgery, post-operative course was uneventful: the patient is alive without medical problems (follow-up: 16 months). MS represents a challenge for the surgeon. Contemporaneous presence of biliary abnormalities is anecdotic, increasing the risk of iatrogenic injuries. An open approach may be preferred in these conditions. PMID:23698208

  1. Successful treatment with a covered stent and 6-year follow-up of biliary complication after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Doros, Attila; Németh, Andrea; Deák, Akos Pál; Hartmann, Erika; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Fazakas, János; Kóbori, László

    2010-04-01

    The role of covered stent in the management of biliary complications is not yet defined in liver transplant recipients. This Case Report presents a patient with anastomotic stricture and leakage with biloma treated with a covered stent 32 months following liver transplantation. Signs of in-stent restenosis developed 52 months following covered stent placement, which was resolved by balloon dilation. There were no complications during the interventions. The latest follow-up, at 69 months following primary and 19 months following secondary percutaneous intervention, shows a patent covered stent without any clinical or morphological sign of further restenosis. The clinical success with long-term follow-up data suggests that covered stent implantation can be a rational, minimally invasive option for simultaneous treatment of bile duct stenosis and bile leak following liver transplantation in selected cases. PMID:19333650

  2. Successful Treatment with a Covered Stent and 6-Year Follow-Up of Biliary Complication After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Doros, Attila Nemeth, Andrea; Deak, Akos Pal; Hartmann, Erika; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Fazakas, Janos; Kobori, Laszlo

    2010-04-15

    The role of covered stent in the management of biliary complications is not yet defined in liver transplant recipients. This Case Report presents a patient with anastomotic stricture and leakage with biloma treated with a covered stent 32 months following liver transplantation. Signs of in-stent restenosis developed 52 months following covered stent placement, which was resolved by balloon dilation. There were no complications during the interventions. The latest follow-up, at 69 months following primary and 19 months following secondary percutaneous intervention, shows a patent covered stent without any clinical or morphological sign of further restenosis. The clinical success with long-term follow-up data suggests that covered stent implantation can be a rational, minimally invasive option for simultaneous treatment of bile duct stenosis and bile leak following liver transplantation in selected cases.

  3. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Biliary Fistulas in the Laparoscopic Era

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, M.; Montecamozzo, G.; Foschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary fistulas are rare complications of gallstone. They can affect either the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract and are usually classified as primary or secondary. The primary fistulas are related to the biliary lithiasis, while the secondary ones are related to surgical complications. Laparoscopic surgery is a therapeutic option for the treatment of primary biliary fistulas. However, it could be the first responsible for the development of secondary biliary fistulas. An accurate preoperative diagnosis together with an experienced surgeon on the hepatobiliary surgery is necessary to deal with biliary fistulas. Cholecystectomy with a choledocoplasty is the most frequent treatment of primary fistulas, whereas the bile duct drainage or the endoscopic stenting is the best choice in case of minor iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the extreme therapeutic option for both conditions. The sepsis, the level of the bile duct damage, and the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract increase the complexity of the operation and affect early and late results. PMID:26819608

  5. Burdick's Technique for Biliary Access Revisited.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Rai, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The precut sphincterotomy is used to facilitate selective biliary access in cases of difficult biliary cannulation. Needle-knife precut papillotomy is the standard of care but is associated with a high rate of complications such as pancreatitis, duodenal perforation, bleeding, etc. Sometimes during bowing of the sphincterotome/cannula and the use of guide wire to facilitate biliary cannulation, inadvertent formation of a false passage occurs in the 10 to 11 o'clock direction. Use of this step to access the bile duct by the intramucosal incision technique was first described by Burdick et al., and since then two more studies have also substantiated the safety and efficacy of this non-needle type of precut sphincterotomy. In this review, we discuss this non-needle technique of precut sphincterotomy and also share our experience using this "Burdick's technique." PMID:25674522

  6. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  7. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Steven B.; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD. PMID:27144209

  8. Pathogenesis and classification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: different characters of perihilar large duct type versus peripheral small duct type.

    PubMed

    Aishima, Shinichi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are made up of heterogenous carcinomas arising from different anatomical sites of the liver. Two types of candidate stem/progenitor cells of the biliary tree are postulated to exist at the peribiliary glands for large bile ducts and at the canals of Hering for small ducts and hepatocytes. According to the recent observations, ICCs can be subclassified into two types: tumors involving the large bile ducts comparable in size to the intrahepatic second branches and composed of a tubular or papillary component with tall columnar epithelium, and tumors involving the smaller duct than segmental branches and composed of small tubules with cuboidal epithelium. Perihilar large duct type ICCs can be interpreted as arising from large bile duct type ICCs, and peripheral small duct type ICCs may arise from small bile duct type or ductular type ICCs. Chronic biliary inflammation induces neoplastic change of the large bile ducts and thereby progression to the perihilar large duct type ICC, which can be grossly classified into periductal filtrating type ICC and intraductal growth type ICC, while chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis induces mass-forming peripheral small duct type ICC. The different morphological and molecular features, including stromal components and tumor vasculature, support the hypothesis that perihilar large duct type ICCs and peripheral small duct type ICCs arise from different backgrounds, have different carcinogenetic pathways, and exhibit different biologic behaviors. PMID:25181580

  9. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. , Benett

    1994-01-01

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic.

  10. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.

    1994-04-26

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding is described. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic. 3 figures.

  11. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction and Erosive Disruption by Cavitating Porta Hepatis Nodal Metastasis, Treated by Uncovered Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Trambert, Jonathan J. Frost, Andrei; Malasky, Charlotte

    2004-08-15

    A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.

  12. Combined radiological-endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones: 18-year single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Cannavale, Alessandro; Bezzi, Mario; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Fanello, Gianfranco; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Fiocca, Fausto; Donatelli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Clinical evidence regarding radiological–endoscopic management of intrahepatic bile duct stones is currently lacking. Our aim is to report our 18-year experience in combined radiological–endoscopic management of intrahepatic difficult bile duct stones. Methods: From June 1994 to June 2012, 299 symptomatic patients with difficult bile duct stones were admitted to our institution. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)/biliary drainage/s was performed, dilating the PTC track to 10 or 16 French within 3–7 days. Afterward we carried out percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) with electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) and/or interventional radiology techniques. Follow up was made with clinical/laboratory tests and ultrasound (US). We retrospectively analyzed our radiological–endoscopic approach and reported our technical and clinical outcomes. Results: Complete stone clearance was achieved in 298 patients after a maximum of 4 consecutive sessions. Most patients (64.6%) were treated with PTCS/EHL alone, while the remaining with radiological techniques alone (26%) or a combination of both techniques (13.3%). Recurrence of stones occurred in 45 cases (15%, Tsunoda class III and class IV) within 2 years and were successfully retreated. Major adverse events were: 5 (1.6%) cases of massive bleeding that required embolisation, 2 (0.66%) perforations of the common bile duct and 31 cases (10.3%) of acute cholangitis managed with medical therapy or intervention. Conclusion: After 18 years of experience we demonstrated that our combined radiological–endoscopic approach to ‘difficult bile duct stones‘ may result in both immediate and long-term clearance of stones with a low rate of adverse events. PMID:26557890

  13. Biliary atresia: From Australia to the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This review is based upon an invited lecture for the 52nd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, July 2015. The aetiology of biliary atresia (BA) is at best obscure, but it is probable that a number of causes or pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved leading to the final common phenotype we recognise clinically. By way of illustration, similar conditions to human BA are described, including biliary agenesis, which is the normal state and peculiar final pattern of bile duct development in the jawless fish, the lamprey. Furthermore, there have been remarkable outbreaks in the Australian outback of BA in newborn lambs whose mothers were exposed to and grazed upon a particular plant species (Dysphania glomulifera) during gestation. More recent work using a zebrafish model has isolated a toxic isoflavonoid, now named Biliatresone, thought to be responsible for these outbreaks. Normal development of the bile ducts is reviewed and parallels drawn with two clinical variants thought to definitively have their origins in intrauterine life: Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) and Cystic Biliary Atresia (CBA). For both variants there is sufficient clinical evidence, including associated anomalies and antenatal detection, respectively, to warrant their aetiological attribution as developmental BA. CMV IgM +ve associated BA is a further variant that appears separate with distinct clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. In these it seems possible that this involves perinatal obliteration of a normally formed duct system. Although still circumstantial, this evidence appears convincing enough to perhaps warrant a different treatment strategy. This then still leaves the most common (more than 60% in Western series) variant, now termed Isolated BA, whereby origins can only be alluded to. PMID:26653951

  14. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endobiliary Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Rupture into the Biliary System: An Unusual Route for Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Soyupak, Suereyya; Akguel, Erol; Ezici, Hueseyin

    2002-10-15

    The most common and serious complication of hydatid cyst of the liver is rupture into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and abscess. The traditional treatment of biliary-cystic fistula is surgery and recently endoscopic sphincterotomy. We report a case of complex heterogeneous cyst rupture into the biliary tract causing biliary obstruction in which the obstruction and cyst were treated successfully by percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage. Our case is the second report of percutaneous transbiliary internal drainage of hydatid cyst with rupture into the biliary duct in which the puncture and drainage were not performed through the cyst cavity.

  15. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis. PMID:23272363

  16. Repair of a Post-Hepatectomy Posterior Sectoral Duct Injury Secondary to Anomalous Bile Duct Anatomy Using a Novel Combined Surgical-Interventional Radiologic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Beth-Ann; Eng, Oliver S.; Gendel, Vyacheslav; Nosher, John; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman with a completely transected posterior sectoral duct following extended hepatectomy underwent a combined operative procedure with interventional radiology and surgery to restore biliary-enteric drainage. The anterior and posterior sectoral ducts were identified, and catheters were inserted into both systems. The posterior sectoral catheter was placed intraoperatively through a preoperatively placed sheath, and a new tunnel was created through the regenerated liver surface. Biliary-enteric anastomoses were created over the stents. PMID:24159406

  17. Discordance of sonography and cholescintigraphy in acute biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Collins, T.L.

    1983-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that there is a brief interval of several hours after acute biliary obstruction during which sonography will demonstrate only normal-sized bile ducts while /sup 99m/Tc cholescintigraphy will document total obstruction. Serial studies documented this phenomenon in a patient whose case is reported and reviewed.

  18. Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

  19. Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin; Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B.

    1996-03-15

    Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

  20. Outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic stenting has become a widely method for the management of various malignant and benign pancreatico-biliary disorders. Biliary and pancreatic stents are devices made of plastic or metal used primarily to establish patency of an obstructed bile or pancreatic duct and may also be used to treat biliary or pancreatic leaks, pancreatic fluid collections and to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the outcome of stenting in biliary and pancreatic benign and malignant diseases. PMID:26290631

  1. Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Mimicking Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Bashar; Bhatt, Amit; Kumaravel, Arthi; Aucejo, Federico; Jang, Sunguk; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John; Parsi, Mansour

    2015-10-01

    We present a 42-year-old man with a 1-month history of painless jaundice, dark urine, clay-colored stools, and a 13.5-kg weight loss. Laboratory tests revealed elevated liver enzymes and CA19-9. Imaging showed dilation of both the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, narrowing of the bile duct at the junction of the common bile duct and common hepatic duct, and a hypoechoic mass involving the neck of the gallbladder and the muscularis propria of the duodenum. Examination of the resected gallbladder and perihilar nodes ruled out malignancy and revealed a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of giant histiocytes with clear, lipid-containing cytoplasm (xanthoma cells), consistent with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. PMID:26504881

  2. UPDATE ON PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune chronic liver disease characterized by progressive bile duct destruction eventually leading to cirrhosis, liver failure, and death. The autoimmune pathogenesis is supported by a plethora of experimental and clinical data, such as the presence of autoreactive T cells and serum autoantibodies. The etiology remains unknown, although evidence suggests a role for both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors that remain to be determined. In fact, a number of chemicals and infectious agents have been proposed to induce the disease in predisposed individuals. The recent availability of several murine models will significantly help in understanding pathphysiology mechanisms. In this review, we critically summarize the most recent data on the etiopathogenesis of PBC, discuss the latest theories and developments, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:20359968

  3. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  4. Palliation double stenting for malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANG; XU, HAITAO; ZHANG, YUBAO

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of patients with malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction is complex. Tumor excision is no longer possible in the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraluminal dual stent placement in malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. In total, 20 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction, including 6 with pancreatic carcinoma, 11 with cholangiocarcinoma, 1 with duodenal carcinoma and 2 with abdominal lymph node metastasis, were treated with intraluminal stent placement. Bile duct obstruction with late occurrence of duodenal obstruction was observed in 16 cases, and duodenal obstruction followed by a late occurrence of bile duct obstruction was observed in 3 cases, while, in 1 case, bile duct obstruction and duodenal obstruction occurred simultaneously. After X-ray fluoroscopy revealed obstruction in the bile duct and duodenum, stents were placed into the respective lumens. Percutaneous transhepatic placement was employed for the biliary stent, while the duodenal stent was placed perioraly. The clinical outcomes, including complications associated with the procedures and patency of the stents, were evaluated. The biliary and duodenal stents were successfully implanted in 18 patients and the technical success rate was 90% (18/20). A total of 39 stents were implanted in 20 patients. In 2 cases, duodenal stent placement failed following biliary stent placement. Duodenal obstruction remitted in 15 patients, and 1 patient succumbed to aspiration pneumonia 5 days after the procedure. No severe complications were observed in any other patient. The survival time of the 18 patients was 5–21 months (median, 9.6 months), and 6 of those patients survived for >12 months. The present study suggests that X-ray fluoroscopy-guided intraluminal stent implantation is an effective procedure for the treatment of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. PMID:26889267

  5. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagi, Teru; Heathcote, E Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology characterized by injury of the intrahepatic bile ducts that may eventually lead to liver failure. Affected individuals are usually in their fifth to seventh decades of life at time of diagnosis, and 90% are women. Annual incidence is estimated between 0.7 and 49 cases per million-population and prevalence between 6.7 and 940 cases per million-population (depending on age and sex). The majority of patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis, however, some patients present with symptoms of fatigue and/or pruritus. Patients may even present with ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and/or esophageal variceal hemorrhage. PBC is associated with other autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, Raynaud's phenomenon and CREST syndrome and is regarded as an organ specific autoimmune disease. Genetic susceptibility as a predisposing factor for PBC has been suggested. Environmental factors may have potential causative role (infection, chemicals, smoking). Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, abnormal liver biochemical pattern in a cholestatic picture persisting for more than six months and presence of detectable antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in serum. All AMA negative patients with cholestatic liver disease should be carefully evaluated with cholangiography and liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only currently known medication that can slow the disease progression. Patients, particularly those who start UDCA treatment at early-stage disease and who respond in terms of improvement of the liver biochemistry, have a good prognosis. Liver transplantation is usually an option for patients with liver failure and the outcome is 70% survival at 7 years. Recently, animal models have been discovered that may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and facilitate appreciation for novel treatment in PBC. PMID:18215315

  6. Pediatric Biliary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Atchie, Benjamin; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Josephs, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    An interventional radiologist is frequently called to evaluate and treat biliary diseases in children; a tailored approach specific to this population is required. Imaging with an emphasis on minimizing ionizing radiation is used not only in the initial workup but also to guide interventions. The most common form of intervention generally consists of transhepatic biliary drainage to treat either biliary obstruction or bile leakage, a scenario frequently encountered after pediatric liver transplantation. Other pathologies referred for evaluation and management include biliary atresia and, rarely, symptomatic choledochal cysts. Biliary complications caused by an underlying malignancy are not a frequently encountered problem in the pediatric population. The initial evaluation, role of preprocedural imaging, and interventional management with an emphasis on technique are discussed regarding these common biliary pathologies in children. PMID:26615168

  7. Primary biliary cirrhosis in adults.

    PubMed

    Momah, Njideka; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-05-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, autoimmune, cholestatic liver disease. It is characterized by slow destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, impaired biliary secretion and stasis of toxic endogenous bile acids within the liver with progression to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has an increasing prevalence worldwide. It occurs more commonly in women than men at a ratio of 10:1. In most cases, diagnosis relies on a positive antimitochondrial antibody in the context of chronic cholestasis, without the need for a liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves survival even in patients with advanced liver disease. Certain findings such as fatigue, anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-centromere antibodies and the GP210 antinuclear antibody predict a poor outcome. Up to 40% of patients do not respond satisfactorily to ursodeoxycholic acid therapy and should be considered for adjunctive therapies. Several adjunctive and newer therapies are being tested and some appear promising. We provide a review of PBC with a focus on advances in therapies that may impact the management of PBC in the near future. PMID:24580040

  8. Biliary tract cancer and occupation in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, B K; Stone, B J; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Blot, W J

    1986-01-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry, which links the incidence of cancer (1961-79) and the 1960 census data on industry and occupation for all employed individuals in Sweden, the occurrence of biliary tract cancer (ICD 7th rev 155.1-.9) was systematically assessed according to occupational and industrial classifications. Data are presented separately for cancer of the gall bladder (ICD 155.1) and other cancers of the biliary tract (ICD 155.2-.9) including cancers of the extrahepatic bile ducts, ampulla of Vater, and unspecified bile passages. Statistically significant increased risks for cancer of the gall bladder were observed for men employed in petroleum refining, papermills, chemical processing, shoemaking, and repairing, and for both men and women employed in textile work. A significant increase in the incidence of other cancers of the biliary tract (mostly cancers of the bile duct) was found for such asbestos related employment as shipbuilding and in the wholesale construction materials industry and among insulation workers. These findings should be considered only as clues to aetiological factors, although several are consistent with earlier observations from other countries. PMID:3964574

  9. Interferon-Gamma Directly Mediates Developmental Biliary Defects

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuang; EauClaire, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common identifiable hepatobiliary disease affecting infants, in which there are defects in intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and progressive fibrosis. Activation of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) appears to be critical in both patients with BA and in rodent models of BA. We have recently reported a zebrafish model of biliary disease that shares features with BA, in which inhibition of DNA methylation leads to intrahepatic biliary defects and activation of IFNγ target genes. Here we report that ifng genes are hypomethylated and upregulated in zebrafish larvae treated with azacytidine (azaC), an inhibitor of DNA methylation. Injection of IFNγ protein into developing zebrafish larvae leads to biliary defects, suggesting that activation of the IFNγ pathway is sufficient to cause developmental biliary defects. These defects are associated with decreased cholangiocyte proliferation and with a decrease in the expression of vhnf1 (hnf1b, tcf2), which encodes a homeodomain protein with previously reported roles in biliary development in multiple models. These results support an importance of IFNγ in mediating biliary defects, and also demonstrate the feasibility of direct injection of intact protein into developing zebrafish larvae. PMID:23448251

  10. Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction in two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Hauptman, K; Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

    2011-07-01

    This report describes extrahepatic bile duct obstruction in two ferrets, which were presented with anorexia, chronic weight loss and general weakness. Physical examination revealed lethargy, cachexia, dehydration, abdominal pain and icterus. Marked haematological, serum chemistry and urinalysis abnormalities included hyperbilirubinaemia (65·5 and 114·2 μmol/L), high concentrations of alanine transaminase (1327·53 and 2578·88 IU/L) and biluribinuria. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed thickening of the bile duct together with the gall bladder wall. The common bile duct was obviously distended. Choledochotomy revealed inspissated bile with fragile green gelatinous plugs that was removed to allow the bile to flow into the duodenum. Cytology and culture of the biliary tract contents were negative for bacteria. Laboratory analyses of biliary plugs showed presence of only protein substances, without detectable mineral composition. Histopathological examination of the liver showed diffuse steatosis and non-specific cholangiohepatitis in both cases. PMID:21671943

  11. Profiling Circulating and Urinary Bile Acids in Patients with Biliary Obstruction before and after Biliary Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Patrick; Straka, Robert J.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Barbier, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Bile acids are considered as extremely toxic at the high concentrations reached during bile duct obstruction, but each acid displays variable cytotoxic properties. This study investigates how biliary obstruction and restoration of bile flow interferes with urinary and circulating levels of 17 common bile acids. Bile acids (conjugated and unconjugated) were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in serum and urine samples from 17 patients (8 men and 9 women) with biliary obstruction, before and after biliary stenting. Results were compared with serum concentrations measured in 40 age- and sex-paired control donors (20 men and 20 women). The total circulating bile acid concentration increases from 2.7 µM in control donors to 156.9 µM in untreated patients with biliary stenosis. Serum taurocholic and glycocholic acids exhibit 304- and 241-fold accumulations in patients with biliary obstruction compared to controls. The enrichment in chenodeoxycholic acid species reached a maximum of only 39-fold, while all secondary and 6α-hydroxylated species –except taurolithocholic acids – were either unchanged or significantly reduced. Stenting was efficient in restoring an almost normal circulating profile and in reducing urinary bile acids. Conclusion These results demonstrate that biliary obstruction affects differentially the circulating and/or urinary levels of the various bile acids. The observation that the most drastically affected acids correspond to the less toxic species supports the activation of self-protecting mechanisms aimed at limiting the inherent toxicity of bile acids in face of biliary obstruction. PMID:21760958

  12. 100 consecutive common duct explorations without mortality.

    PubMed

    Pappas, T N; Slimane, T B; Brooks, D C

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that the incidence of morbidity and mortality after common duct exploration no longer justifies its use in patients with a gallbladder in situ. Therefore endoscopic sphincterotomy has been advocated for removal of common duct stones before cholecystectomy in selected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine our current rate of retained common duct stones and the morbidity and mortality rates associated with common duct exploration. Charts of 100 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy and common duct exploration from January 1982 through December 1986 were reviewed. Indications for duct exploration included jaundice, dilated common bile duct, gallstone pancreatitis, multiple small stones, and abnormal intraoperative cholangiogram. Common duct exploration was done by manual technique or choledochoscopy, as determined by the surgeon's preference. Only two patients required duodenotomy for extraction of difficult stones. There were no deaths in this series of consecutive common duct exploration. The total morbidity rate was 15.7%, which included a 5.3% incidence of retained common duct stones. There was a 7.4% major complication rate, including deep vein thrombosis, bleeding gastric ulcer, and pneumonia. The remaining complications were minor and did not prolong hospitalization. There was one wound infection and no postoperative pancreatitis. None of the complications were directly attributable to choledochotomy or duct exploration. All retained common duct stones were removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or by angiographic basket and did not require reoperation. It is concluded that operative common duct exploration not requiring duodenotomy is safe and does not appreciably increase the incidence of complications after cholecystectomy. Endoscopic sphincterotomy continues to be the preferable alternative to operative common duct exploration for patients with retained common duct stones. PMID:2310236

  13. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  14. Biliary repair and carcinogenesis are mediated by IL-33-dependent cholangiocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Razumilava, Nataliya; Gores, Gregory J; Walters, Stephanie; Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Mourya, Reena; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Glaser, Shannon S; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Bezerra, Jorge A

    2014-07-01

    Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers inflammation and fibrosis, which can result in severe liver diseases and may progress to malignancy. Development of a type 1 immune response has been linked to biliary injury pathogenesis; however, a subset of patients with biliary atresia, the most common childhood cholangiopathy, exhibit increased levels of Th2-promoting cytokines. The relationship among different inflammatory drivers, epithelial repair, and carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we determined that the Th2-activating cytokine IL-33 is elevated in biliary atresia patient serum and in the livers and bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia. Administration of IL-33 to WT mice markedly increased cholangiocyte proliferation and promoted sustained cell growth, resulting in dramatic and rapid enlargement of extrahepatic bile ducts. The IL-33-dependent proliferative response was mediated by an increase in the number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which released high levels of IL-13 that in turn promoted cholangiocyte hyperplasia. Induction of the IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 circuit in a murine biliary injury model promoted epithelial repair; however, induction of this circuit in mice with constitutive activation of AKT and YAP in bile ducts induced cholangiocarcinoma with liver metastases. These findings reveal that IL-33 mediates epithelial proliferation and suggest that activation of IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 may improve biliary repair and disruption of the circuit may block progression of carcinogenesis. PMID:24892809

  15. Per oral cholangiopancreatoscopy in pancreatico biliary diseases - Expert consensus statements

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandani, Mohan; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Tandan, Manu; Maydeo, Amit; Chandrashekhar, Thoguluva Seshadri; Kumar, Ajay; Sud, Randhir; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Makmun, Dadang; Khor, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide consensus statements on the use of per-oral cholangiopancreatoscopy (POCPS). METHODS: A workgroup of experts in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endosonography, and POCPS generated consensus statements summarizing the utility of POCPS in pancreaticobiliary disease. Recommendation grades used validated evidence ratings of publications from an extensive literature review. RESULTS: Six consensus statements were generated: (1) POCPS is now an important additional tool during ERCP; (2) in patients with indeterminate biliary strictures, POCS and POCS-guided targeted biopsy are useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis; (3) POCS and POCS-guided lithotripsy are recommended for treatment of difficult common bile duct stones when standard techniques fail; (4) in patients with main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) POPS may be used to assess extent of tumor to assist surgical resection; (5) in difficult pancreatic ductal stones, POPS-guided lithotripsy may be useful in fragmentation and extraction of stones; and (6) additional indications for POCPS include selective guidewire placement, unexplained hemobilia, assessing intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. CONCLUSION: POCPS is important in association with ERCP, particularly for diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures and for intra-ductal lithotripsy when other techniques failed, and may be useful for pre-operative assessment of extent of main duct IPMN, for extraction of difficult pancreatic stones, and for unusual indications involving selective guidewire placement, assessing unexplained hemobilia or intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. PMID:25914484

  16. Post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bile leak secondary to an accessory duct of Luschka.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, M; Obermeyer, R J; Garcia, G; Hashmi, M

    1999-01-01

    Intraperitoneal bile collection following laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been reported to occur in 0.2-2% of cases and appears to be slightly higher than when the open technique is used. When the injuries of the common bile duct, technical problems with the cystic duct, diathermic injuries to the biliary tree, and iatrogenic interruption of congenital anomalous of the biliary tree are excluded, the iatrogenic transaction of the cholecystohepatic ducts commonly known as the 'Ducts of Luschka' should be considered as the cause of the biliary leak. This article reports a case of bile leakage due to an unrecognized division of a large duct of Luschka within the gall bladder fossa during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and reviews clinical diagnosis, radiological confirmation, and the appropriate treatment for this uncommon complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:10421026

  17. Simultaneous Extensive Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct and Pancreas: A Very Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Luvira, Vor; Pugkhem, Ake; Tipwaratorn, Theerawee; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a specific type of bile duct tumor. It has been proposed that it could be the biliary counterpart of the intraductal papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P). This hypothesis is supported by the presence of simultaneous intraductal tumors of both the bile duct and pancreas. There have been five reports of patients with simultaneous IPNB and IPMN-P. In all of these cases, biliary involvement was limited to the intrahepatic and perihilar bile duct, which had characteristics similar to IPMN-P and usually had slow progression in nature. Herein, we present the first case of extensive intraductal neoplasm involving the extrahepatic bile duct, intrahepatic bile duct, and entire length of the pancreas with a poor outcome, even after being treated aggressively with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, we summarize previous case reports of simultaneous intraductal lesions of the bile duct and pancreas. PMID:26925284

  18. "Biliary Diseases with Pancreatic Counterparts": Cross-sectional Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Flaherty, Erin M; Dasyam, Anil K; Menias, Christine O; Riddle, Nicole D; Lath, Narayan; Kozaka, Kazuto; Matsui, Osamu; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the similarities in the histopathologic findings and the clinical-biologic behaviors of select biliary and pancreatic conditions, a new disease concept, "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts," has been proposed. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic pathologic conditions of the biliary tract have their counterparts in the pancreas. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing cholangitis is the biliary manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is its pancreatic counterpart. People with chronic alcoholism can develop peribiliary cysts and fibrosis as well as pancreatic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis simultaneously. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous cystic neoplasm are considered pancreatic counterparts for the biliary neoplasms of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract, and hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, respectively. The anatomic proximity of the biliary tract and the pancreas, the nearly simultaneous development of both organs from the endoderm of the foregut, and the presence of pancreatic exocrine acini within the peribiliary glands surrounding the extrahepatic bile ducts are suggested as causative factors for these similarities. Interestingly, these diseases show "nearly" identical findings at cross-sectional imaging, an observation that further supports this new disease concept. New information obtained with regard to biliary diseases can be used for evaluation of pancreatic abnormalities, and vice versa. In addition, combined genetic and molecular studies may be performed to develop novel therapeutic targets. For both biliary and pancreatic diseases, imaging plays a pivotal role in initial diagnosis, evaluation of treatment response, efficacy testing of novel drugs, and long-term surveillance. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26824512

  19. Role of radiation after operative palliation in cancer of the proximal bile ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, M.K.; Hermann, R.E.; Vogt, D.P.; Broughan, T.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Cancer of the proximal bile ducts continues to pose a formidable problem to even the most experienced biliary surgeon. From 1977 through 1985, 51 patients with histologically confirmed proximal bile duct cancers underwent surgical treatment. The lesion was confined to the hilar region in 30 patients; there was extensive hepatic infiltration or distant metastatic disease in 21 patients. One patient underwent resection. Biopsy only was performed in six patients. In the remaining 44 patients, transtumoral dilation and intubation were performed. These 44 patients were further analyzed with regard to how survival was affected by the presence of metastatic disease and by the adjunctive use of radiation therapy. Mean survival in those patients with metastatic disease (n = 16) was 6.1 months, and survival was not improved by the use of postoperative radiation. In the absence of metastatic or advanced local disease, however, the addition of external beam radiation did significantly extend the mean survival from 4.5 to 12.2 months and the median survival from 2.2 to 12.2 months. The operative mortality for the series was 14% and postoperative complications occurred in 18 patients. These findings suggest that the addition of external beam radiation improves survival in patients undergoing palliative treatment of hilar tumors. Further confirmation of the value of radiation awaits prospective investigation.

  20. Intraoperative cholangiography and bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Costi, R; Roncoroni, L

    2006-01-01

    We are not in agreement with the opinion that the credit for excellent results after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is to be attributed to the routine performing of intraoperative cholangiography. We performed 2538 laparoscopic cholecystectomies without routine intraoperative cholangiography and we obtained very low rate and severity of common bile duct injuries: there was a total of four common bile duct injuries (0.16%), in no case was the injury a major transaction, and injuries were detected intraoperatively and easily repaired with a T-tube. Cholangiography could prevent bile duct transaction, but that it is not necessary for intraoperative cholangiography to be routinely performed for this purpose. It is sufficient for intraoperative cholangiography to be performed whenever the surgeon is in doubt as to the biliary anatomy or common bile duct clearance, and that when dissection of the cholecystic peduncle proves difficult he does not hesitate to convert to open access. PMID:16333543

  1. Identification and Manipulation of Biliary Metaplasia in Pancreatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    DelGiorno, Kathleen E.; Hall, Jason C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth K.; Pan, Fong Cheng; Halbrook, Christopher J.; Washington, M. Kay; Olive, Kenneth P.; Spence, Jason; Sipos, Bence; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Wells, James M.; Crawford, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Metaplasias often have characteristics of developmentally related tissues. Pancreatic metaplastic ducts are usually associated with pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The tuft cell is a chemosensory cell that responds to signals in the extracellular environment via effector molecules. Commonly found in the biliary tract, tuft cells are absent from normal murine pancreas. Using the aberrant appearance of tuft cells as an indicator, we tested if pancreatic metaplasia represents transdifferentiation to a biliary phenotype and what effect this has on pancreatic tumorigenesis. Methods We analyzed pancreatic tissue and tumors that developed in mice that express an activated form of Kras (KrasLSL−G12D/+;Ptf1aCre/+ mice). Normal bile duct, pancreatic duct, and tumor-associated metaplasias from the mice were analyzed for tuft cell and biliary progenitor markers, including SOX17, a transcription factor that regulates biliary development. We also analyzed pancreatic tissues from mice expressing transgenic SOX17 alone (ROSAtTa/+;Ptf1 CreERTM/+;tetO-SOX17) or along with activated Kras (ROSAtT a/+;Ptf1a CreERTM/+;tetO-SOX17;KrasLSL−G12D;+). Results Tuft cells were frequently found in areas of pancreatic metaplasia, decreased throughout tumor progression, and were absent from invasive tumors. Analysis of the pancreatobiliary ductal systems of mice revealed tuft cells in the biliary tract, but not the normal pancreatic duct. Analysis for biliary markers revealed expression of SOX17 in pancreatic metaplasia and tumors. Pancreas-specific overexpression of SOX17 led to ductal metaplasia along with inflammation and collagen deposition. Mice that overexpressed SOX17 along with KrasG12D had a greater degree of transformed tissue compared with mice expressing only KrasG12D. Immunofluorescence analysis of human pancreatic tissue arrays revealed the presence of tuft cells in metaplasia and early-stage tumors, along with SOX17 expression, consistent with a biliary phenotype. Conclusions Expression of KrasG12D and SOX17 in mice induces development of metaplasias with a biliary phenotype, containing tuft cells. Tuft cells express a number of tumorigenic factors that can alter the microenvironment. Expression of SOX17 induces pancreatitis and promotes KrasG12D-induced tumorigenesis in mice. PMID:23999170

  2. Multicenter study of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sasahira, Naoki; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Togawa, Osamu; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Iwai, Tomohisa; Tamada, Kiichi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Kenji; Koike, Takero; Yoshida, Yu; Sugimori, Kazuya; Ryozawa, Shomei; Kakimoto, Toshiharu; Nishikawa, Ko; Kitamura, Katsuya; Imamura, Tsunao; Mizuide, Masafumi; Toda, Nobuo; Maetani, Iruru; Sakai, Yuji; Itoi, Takao; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimal method of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study was conducted in patients who underwent plastic stent (PS) or nasobiliary catheter (NBC) placement for resectable malignant distal biliary obstruction followed by surgery between January 2010 and March 2012. Procedure-related adverse events, stent/catheter dysfunction (occlusion or migration of PS/NBC, development of cholangitis, or other conditions that required repeat endoscopic biliary intervention), and jaundice resolution (bilirubin level < 3.0 mg/dL) were evaluated. Cumulative incidence of jaundice resolution and dysfunction of PS/NBC were estimated using competing risk analysis. Patient characteristics and preoperative biliary drainage were also evaluated for association with the time to jaundice resolution and PS/NBC dysfunction using competing risk regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 419 patients were included in the study (PS, 253 and NBC, 166). Primary cancers included pancreatic cancer in 194 patients (46%), bile duct cancer in 172 (41%), gallbladder cancer in three (1%), and ampullary cancer in 50 (12%). The median serum total bilirubin was 7.8 mg/dL and 324 patients (77%) had ≥ 3.0 mg/dL. During the median time to surgery of 29 d [interquartile range (IQR), 30-39 d]. PS/NBC dysfunction rate was 35% for PS and 18% for NBC [Subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 4.76; 95%CI: 2.44-10.0, P < 0.001]; the pig-tailed tip was a risk factor for PS dysfunction. Jaundice resolution was achieved in 85% of patients and did not depend on the drainage method (PS or NBC). CONCLUSION: PS has insufficient patency for preoperative biliary drainage. Given the drawbacks of external drainage via NBC, an alternative method of internal drainage should be explored. PMID:27076764

  3. Management issues in post living donor liver transplant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Biliary complications are common after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) although with advancements in surgical understanding and techniques, the incidence is decreasing. Biliary strictures are more common than leaks. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first line modality of treatment of post LDLT biliary strictures with a technical success rate of 75%-80%. Most of ERCP failures are successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and rendezvous technique. A minority of patients may require surgical correction. ERCP for these strictures is technically more challenging than routine as well post deceased donor strictures. Biliary strictures may increase the morbidity of a liver transplant recipient, but the mortality is similar to those with or without strictures. Post transplant strictures are short segment and soft, requiring only a few session of ERCP before complete dilatation. Long-term outcome of patients with biliary stricture is similar to those without stricture. With the introduction of new generation cholangioscopes, ERCP success rate may increase, obviating the need for PTBD and surgery in these patients. PMID:27057304

  4. Apotopes and the Biliary Specificity of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lleo, Ana; Selmi, Carlo; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Coppel, Ross L.; Mackay, Ian R.; Gores, Gregory J.; Ansari, Aftab A.; Van de Water, Judy; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), directed to the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2). Notwithstanding the presence of mitochondria in virtually all nucleated cells, the destruction in PBC is limited to small intrahepatic bile ducts. The reasons for this tissue specificity remain unknown, although biliary epithelial cells (BEC) uniquely preserve the PDC-E2 epitope following apoptosis. Notably, PBC recurs in an allogeneic transplanted liver, suggesting generic rather than host-PBC-specific susceptibility of BEC. We used cultured human intrahepatic BEC (HIBEC) and other well-characterized cell lines, including, HeLa, CaCo-2 cells, and non transformed human keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells (BrEpC), to determine the integrity and specific localization of PDC-E2 during induced apoptosis. All cell lines, both before and after apoptosis, were tested with sera from patients with PBC (n=30), other autoimmune liver and rheumatic diseases (n=20), and healthy individuals (n=20), a mouse monoclonal antibody against PDC-E2, and AMA with an IgA isotype. PDC-E2 was found to localize unmodified within apoptotic blebs of HIBEC, but not within blebs of various other cell lineages studied. The fact that AMA- containing sera reacted with PDC-E2 on apoptotic BEC without a requirement for permeabilization suggests that the autoantigen is accessible to the immune system during apoptosis. In conclusion, our data indicate that the tissue (cholangiocyte) specificity of the autoimmune injury in PBC is a consequence of the unique characteristics of HIBEC during apoptosis and can be explained by exposure to the immune system of intact immunoreactive PDC-E2 within apoptotic blebs. PMID:19185000

  5. Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of stent used. Another treatment is balloon catheter dilation (DCP). In DCP, a balloon is inserted through an opening in the corner ... sterile solution to expand the tear duct. The balloon is then deflated and removed. Both of these ...

  6. [Current concepts of lithogenetic mechanism in the gallbladder and the role of biliary sludge in this process].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S

    2010-01-01

    A review of current data on cholelithiasis is presented. The concept of staged development of the pathological process in the biliary system is considered starting from dysfunction of gallbladder and sphincter apparatus of extrahepatic biliary ducts via chronic acalculous cholecystitis to chronic calculous cholecystitis. Other issues discussed include biliary acid metabolism; varieties, composition and formation of calculi in the gallbladder; biliary sludge and its role in cholelithogenesis. Debatable questions of sludge nature and composition as well as certain terminological problems are considered. PMID:21089450

  7. Biliary wound healing, ductular reactions, and IL-6/gp130 signaling in the development of liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A J; III, John G Lunz; Specht, Susan; Nozaki, Isao

    2006-01-01

    Basic and translational wound healing research in the biliary tree lag significantly behind similar studies on the skin and gastrointestinal tract. This is at least partly attributable to lack of easy access to the biliary tract for study. But clinical relevance, more interest in biliary epithelial cell (BEC) pathophysiology, and widespread availability of BEC cultures are factors reversing this trend. In the extra-hepatic biliary tree, ineffectual wound healing, scarring and stricture development are pressing issues. In the smallest intra-hepatic bile ducts either impaired BEC proliferation or an exuberant response can contribute to liver disease. Chronic inflammation and persistent wound healing reactions in large and small bile ducts often lead to liver cancer. General concepts of wound healing as they apply to the biliary tract, importance of cellular processes dependent on IL-6/gp130/STAT3 signaling pathways, unanswered questions, and future directions are discussed. PMID:16773708

  8. Biliary obstruction - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... indicate a high level of bilirubin, a waste product of the liver, or diagnosis may come from an endoscopic examination. Untreated biliary obstruction may cause life-threatening infection or chronic liver disease.

  9. Tolerance of bile duct to intraoperative irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.

    1982-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications.

  10. Acalculous biliary pain: new concepts for an old entity.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, E

    2003-07-01

    Biliary pain is commonly reported in household surveys with the presumed cause being gallstones. When gallstones are absent or other abnormalities as a potential cause of similar pain do not exist, a different approach is necessary. Although trans-abdominal ultrasound can detect stones down to 3-5 mm, the advent of endoscopic ultrasound provides an even better definition for microlithiasis of < 3 mm. Duodenal aspiration of bile can further detect cholesterol microlithiasis or bilirubin granules, another potential source of biliary-type pain and perhaps even pancreatitis. Only in this way can acalculous gallbladder disease be clearly defined. The percentage of cholecystokinin-stimulated gallbladder emptying has been reputed to be the most sensitive diagnostic test for 'biliary dyskinesia', but abnormality of gallbladder emptying can be due to a smooth muscle defect of the gallbladder itself or heightened tone in the sphincter of Oddi. The value of surgical intervention has not been clearly established. The advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, however, has increased the number of patients with acalculous biliary disease who undergo surgery. Surgery is best done using impaired gallbladder emptying as the criterion for operation with improved outcome. Often, following cholecystectomy, biliary pain does not resolve the so-called 'post cholecystectomy syndrome'. Absence of the gallbladder as a pressure reservoir leaves the sphincter of Oddi as the prime determinant of bile duct pressure. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction also exists in patients with an intact biliary tract and may become evident following cholecystectomy. Biliary manometry has clarified who might benefit from sphincterotomy. Choledochoscintigraphy is a non-invasive preliminary test. Advent of visceral hypersensitivity and better definition of this entity has shown, that in some of these patients with type III sphincter of Oddi, dysfunction appears to reside in duodenal hyperalgesia. It is clear that improved criteria are required to perform gallbladder emptying and better techniques to detect visceral hypersensitivity. Nonetheless, functional biliary pain in the absence of gallstone disease is a definite entity and a challenge for clinicians. PMID:12974505

  11. Role of Cholangiocytes in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lleo, Ana; Maroni, Luca; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2); characteristics of the disease are also the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. Recent evidence suggests that cholangiocytes show specific immunobiological features that are responsible for the selective targeting of those cells by the immune system. The immune reaction in PBC selectively targets small sized, intrahepatic bile ducts; although a specific reason for that has not been defined yet, it has been established that the biliary epithelium displays a unique heterogeneity, for which the physiological and pathophysiological features of small and large cholangiocytes significantly differ. In this review article, the authors provide a critical overview of the current evidence on the role of cholangiocytes in the immune-mediated destruction of the biliary tree that characterizes PBC. PMID:25057951

  12. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Hugo Gonalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  13. Biliary Cystadenomas: A Case for Complete Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ahanatha Pillai, Sastha; Velayutham, Vimalraj; Perumal, Senthilkumar; Ulagendra Perumal, Srinivasan; Lakshmanan, Anand; Ramaswami, Sukumar; Ramasamy, Ravi; Sathyanesan, Jeswanth; Palaniappan, Ravichandran; Rajagopal, Surendran

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Biliary cystadenoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the liver with less than 200 cases being reported allover the world. We report a series of 13 cases highlighting the radiological findings and problems related to its management. Materials and Methods. Records of thirteen patients who underwent surgery for biliary cystadenomas, between March 2006 and October 2011, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Majority of the patients were females (11 out of 13), with a median age of 46 (23–65) years. The most frequent symptom was abdominal pain (92%). Seven patients had presented with history of previous surgery for liver lesions. Five patients had presented with recurrence after partial resection for a suspected hydatid cyst and two after surgery for presumed simple liver cyst. Ten of the 13 patients had complete resection of the cyst with enucleation in 3 patients, 2 of whom in addition required T-tube drainage of the bile duct. There has been no recurrence during the follow-up period ranging from 3 months to 5 years. Conclusion. Biliary cystadenoma must be differentiated from other benign cysts. Hepatic resection or cyst enucleation is the recommended treatment option. PMID:22778493

  14. Eosinophilic Cholangitis-A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I; Kontis, Elissaios A; Pantiora, Eirini V; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G; Politi, Aikaterini N; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K; Mela, Maria K; Polydorou, Andreas A

    2016-01-01

    When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task.We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids.Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  15. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report.

    PubMed

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-Zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involve the common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bile duct. PMID:25932083

  16. Pancreaticobiliary reflux as a high-risk factor for biliary malignancy: Clinical features and diagnostic advancements

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Reiji

    2015-01-01

    Pancreaticobiliary junction is composed of complex structure with which biliary duct and pancreatic duct assemble and go out into the ampulla of Vater during duodenum wall surrounding the sphincter of Oddi. Although the sphincter of Oddi functionally prevents the reflux of pancreatic juice, pancreaticobiliary reflux (PBR) occurs when function of the sphincter of Oddi halt. The anatomically abnormal junction is termed pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) and is characterized by pancreatic and bile ducts joining outside of the duodenal wall. PBM is an important anatomical finding because many studies have revealed that biliary malignancies are related due to the carcinogenetic effect of the pancreatic back flow on the biliary mucosa. On the other hand, several studies have been published on the reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct without morphological PBM, and the correlation of such cases with biliary diseases, especially biliary malignancies, is drawing considerable attention. Although it has long been possible to diagnose PBM by various imaging modalities, PBR without PBM has remained difficult to assess. Therefore, the pathological features of PBR without PBM have not been yet fully elucidated. Lately, a new method of diagnosing PBR without PBM has appeared, and the features of PBR without PBM should soon be better understood. PMID:26167246

  17. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Is a Generalized Autoimmune Epithelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Bingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by highly specific antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and the specific immune-mediated injury of small intrahepatic bile ducts. Unique apoptotic feature of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) may contribute to apotope presentation to the immune system, causing unique tissue damage in PBC. Perpetuation of inflammation may result in senescence of BECs, contributing to irreversible loss of bile duct. In addition to the classic liver manifestations, focal inflammation and tissue damage are also seen in salivary glands and urinary tract in a significant proportion of PBC patients. These findings provide potent support to the idea that molecular mimicry may be involved in the breakdown of autoimmune tolerance and mucosal immunity may lead to a systematic epithelitis in PBC patients. Thus, PBC is considered a generalized epithelitis in clinical practice. PMID:25803105

  18. Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2006-12-15

    A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

  19. Optimal line of hepatotomy for left lateral living donor liver transplantation according to the anatomical variations of left hepatic duct system.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Mátyás; Deshpande, Rahul R; Nemeskéri, Ágnes; Nguyen, Tien T; Kürti, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Sándor; Pápai, Zsolt; Németh, Károly; Szuák, András; Dudás, Ibolyka; Kóbori, László

    2015-08-01

    Multiple duct anastomoses during LLS transplantation increase the incidence of biliary complications. The optimal plane of hepatotomy that results in the least number of bile ducts at the surface was investigated according to LHD variations. Ducts of 30 human livers were injected with resin and LHD branching on 3D-CT reconstructions were analyzed. Ducts on the virtual hepatotomy surface were estimated in three splitting lines. Variations with subtypes were described. Ia (66.7%): ducts from segments (S.) II-III form a common trunk and S.IV duct joins it. Ib (10%): common trunk formed by ducts from S.II-S.III while S.IV duct joins the common hepatic duct. IIa (16.67%): S.IV duct drains into S.III duct. IIc (3.33%): S.IV duct drains into both S.II and S.III ducts. III (3.33%): trifurcation of S.II, S.III and S.IV ducts. When the virtual hepatotomy line was on the FL, there was a single duct for the anastomosis in 30% of cases but two, three, or four ducts in 53.3%, 10%, and 3.3%, respectively. Division 1 cm to the right of the FL resulted in one duct (70%), but S.IV duct injury may occur. LLS hepatotomy should not necessarily be performed along the FL. Variations must be taken into consideration to minimize the number of biliary anastomoses during liver implantation. PMID:25907302

  20. Biliary decompression promotes Kupffer cell recovery in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, W D; McCaigue, M; Erwin, P; Halliday, I; Rowlands, B J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jaundiced patients undergoing surgical procedures have an increased risk of Gram negative sepsis with potential morbidity and mortality. Depressed Kupffer cell clearance capacity (KCCC) predisposes jaundiced patients to endotoxaemia and its sequelae. Biliary decompression remains the main therapeutic strategy in obstructive jaundice. AIMS: This study investigates the efficacy of internal (ID) and external biliary drainage (ED) on KCCC in an experimental model of extrahepatic biliary obstruction. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were assigned to one of six groups: sham operated, where the bile duct was mobilised but not divided; bile duct ligation (BDL) for three weeks, and sham operated or BDL for three weeks followed by a second laparotomy and further 21 days of ID or ED, by way of choledochoduodenostomy or choledochovesical fistula respectively. KCCC was measured using an isolated hepatic perfusion technique with FITC labelled latex particles (0.75 mu) as the test probe. Plasma was assayed for bilirubin, endotoxin, and anticore glycolipid antibody (ACGA) concentrations. RESULTS: Jaundiced rats had reduced KCCC (p < 0.001), increased concentrations of ACGA (p < 0.001), and endotoxin (p < 0.001) compared with controls. Biliary drainage for three weeks produced a recovery in KCCC and normalisation of endotoxin and ACGA concentrations, however, external drainage was less effective than ID (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that endotoxaemia and its mediated effects are integral in the pathophysiology of jaundice. Furthermore, a short period of internal biliary drainage is a useful therapeutic strategy in restoring Kupffer cell function and negating systemic endotoxaemia and consequent complications in biliary obstruction. Images Figure 3 PMID:8984035

  1. Pathogenesis of biliary atresia: defining biology to understand clinical phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Akihiro; Miethke, Alexander; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a severe cholangiopathy of early infancy that destroys extrahepatic bile ducts and disrupts bile flow. With a poorly defined disease pathogenesis, treatment consists of the surgical removal of duct remnants followed by hepatoportoenterostomy. Although this approach can improve the short-term outcome, the liver disease progresses to end-stage cirrhosis in most children. Further improvement in outcome will require a greater understanding of the mechanisms of biliary injury and fibrosis. Here, we review progress in the field, which has been fuelled by collaborative studies in larger patient cohorts and the development of cell culture and animal model systems to directly test hypotheses. Advances include the identification of phenotypic subgroups and stages of disease based on clinical, pathological and molecular features. Stronger evidence exists for viruses, toxins and gene sequence variations in the aetiology of biliary atresia, triggering a proinflammatory response that injures the duct epithelium and produces a rapidly progressive cholangiopathy. The immune response also activates the expression of type 2 cytokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production by nonparenchymal cells. These advances provide insight into phenotype variability and might be relevant to the design of personalized trials to block progression of liver disease. PMID:26008129

  2. Bile flow rates and biliary motility quantitated by intravital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cox, K L; Cheung, A T

    1989-01-01

    Intravital microscopy was adapted to document and quantitate in vivo biliary motility and bile flow rates in guinea pigs. The movement of 10 microns diameter fluorescent beads in the bile duct was used to measure bile flow rates. Using this method, bile flow rates were comparable to those determined by measuring the volume of bile collected from the papilla, but greater (P less than 0.01) than the volume of bile collected from a bile duct cannula. During intravital microscopy, biliary contractions were only detected at the choledochoduodenal junction. While fasting, the sphincter ductus choledochi contracted at 6.0 +/- 1.0 per min and the ampulla at 1.2 +/- 0.2 per min. Postprandially, sphincter contractions had a decreased frequency and an increased duration while both duration and frequency of ampullary contractions increased. The volume of bile collected from a bile duct cannula postprandially did not change. This data suggested that the choledochoduodenal junction had a propulsive function and postprandial changes in motility were due to neurohumoral factors rather than passive response to changes in bile flow rates. Intravital microscopy proved to be a sensitive in vivo technique in which to quantitate bile flow rates and biliary motility. PMID:2775869

  3. CD8 T cells mediate direct biliary ductule damage in nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Yuehong; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Leung, Patrick S; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Rainbow, Daniel B; Hunter, Kara M; Morris, Gerard A; Lyons, Paul A; Peterson, Laurence B; Wicker, Linda S; Gershwin, M Eric; Ridgway, William M

    2011-01-15

    We previously described the NOD.c3c4 mouse, which is protected from type 1 diabetes (T1D) because of protective alleles at multiple insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) genes, but develops autoimmune biliary disease (ABD) resembling primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In this paper, we characterize the NOD.ABD strain, which is genetically related to the NOD.c3c4 strain but develops both ABD and T1D. Histologically, NOD.ABD biliary disease is indistinguishable from that in NOD.c3c4 mice. The frequency of effector memory (CD44(+)CD62L(-)) and central memory (CD44(+)CD62L(+)) CD8 T cells is significantly increased in the intrahepatic lymphocyte fraction of NOD.ABD mice, and NOD.ABD CD8 T cells produce more IFN-? and TNF-?, compared with controls. NOD.ABD splenocytes can transfer ABD and T1D to NOD.c3c4 scid mice, but only T1D to NOD scid mice, suggesting that the genetic origin of the target organ and/or its innate immune cells is critical to disease pathogenesis. The disease transfer model, importantly, shows that biliary duct damage (characteristic of PBC) and inflammation precede biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Unlike T1D where both CD4 and CD8 T cells are required for disease transfer, purified NOD.ABD CD8 T cells can transfer liver inflammation into NOD.c3c4 scid recipients, and disease transfer is ameliorated by cotransferring T regulatory cells. Unlike NOD.c3c4 mice, NOD.ABD mice do not develop anti-nuclear or anti-Smith autoantibodies; however, NOD.ABD mice do develop the antipyruvate dehydrogenase Abs typical of human PBC. The NOD.ABD strain is a model of immune dysregulation affecting two organ systems, most likely by mechanisms that do not completely coincide. PMID:21169553

  4. [Primary biliary cirrhosis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Bernuau, J; Luton, D

    2014-05-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, asymptomatic during a protracted time, characterized by changes in the small-sized bile ducts near portal spaces. The etiology of PBC is undefined, but immunologic and environmental disturbances may contribute to the disease. Infertility is often associated with PBC and cirrhosis, but pregnancy may well occur in women with PBC and without cirrhosis or in some others with compensated cirrhosis. A pluridisciplinary approach including gastroenterologists and obstetricians is recommended. The patient must be closely monitored throughout her pregnancy with maternal and routine antenatal care. Medical treatment requires ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In non-cirrhotic UDCA-treated women with PBC, pregnancy often follows a normal course with vaginal delivery. In cirrhotic patients, UDCA must be continued during pregnancy, esophageal and gastric varices must be evaluated before pregnancy, and endoscopic ligature is recommended for treating large varices. Additionally, beta-blocker therapy may be associated, especially when variceal rupture occurred previously. Elective cesarean section is recommended in patients with large esophageal or gastric varices because of the potentially increased risk of variceal bleeding during maternal expulsive efforts in case of vaginal delivery. PMID:23628147

  5. Transplantation in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sallie, R; O'Grady, J; Williams, R

    1991-01-01

    Improved immunosuppressive regimens, better postoperative intensive care and judicious patient selection have all resulted in increased patient survival following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), which has become the preferred option for most patients with end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). As with most other clinical series, PBC is now the most common indication for OLT in the King's College hospital and Cambridge programmes. To date (30 July 1990), 129 patients with PBC have been transplanted, with overall actual 1 and 5 year survival rates of 65 and 63% respectively. When patients transplanted since 1985 are considered, both the 1 and 2 year survival rates are 78%. Immediate operative mortality was 4.5%, generally due to uncontrollable bleeding, while further mortality within 30 days of operation--mainly consequent upon infection and multi-organ failure--has fallen from 40% prior to 1985 to 9% since 1988. Thirteen per cent of patients have been retransplanted for vanishing bile duct syndrome, manifest in this series invariably within the first 6 months following OLT. Although rehabilitation in this series was excellent, a significant percentage of cases have continuing problems with metabolic bone disease, hypertension and renal impairment, mainly due to cyclosporin toxicity. PMID:1782369

  6. Contrast-free endoscopic stent insertion in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Lombardi, Giovanni; Rega, Maria; Simeoli, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Siciliano, Saverio; Maione, Francesco; Salvatori, Francesca; Balzano, Antonio; Persico, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To present a case series of MRCP-guided endoscopic biliary stent placement, performed entirely without contrast injection. METHODS: Contrast-free endoscopic biliary drainage was attempted in 20 patients with malignant obstruction, unsuitable for resection on the basis of tumor extent or medical illness. MRCP images were used to confirm the diagnosis of tumor, to exclude other biliary diseases and to demonstrate the stenoses as well as dilation of proximal liver segments. The procedure was carried out under conscious sedation. Patients were placed in the left lateral decubitus position. The endoscope was inserted, the papilla identified and cannulated by a papillotome. A guide wire was inserted and guided deeply into the biliary tree, above the stenosis, by fluoroscopy. A papillotomy approximately 1 cm. long was performed and the papillotome was exchanged with a guiding-catheter. A 10 Fr, Amsterdam-type plastic stent, 7 to 15 cm long, was finally inserted over the guide wire/guiding catheter by a pusher tube system. RESULTS: Successful stent insertion was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications. Successful drainage, with substantial reduction in bilirubin levels, was achieved in all patients. CONCLUSION: This new method of contrast-free endoscopic stenting in malignant biliary obstruction is a safe and effective method of palliation. However, a larger, randomized study comparing this new approach with the standard procedure is needed to confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:17663512

  7. Early biliary complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Malgras, Brice; Duron, Sandrine; Gaujoux, Sébastien; Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Rebours, Vinciane; Palazzo, Maxime; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background Early biliary complications (EBC) following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are poorly known. This study aimed to assess incidence, predictive factors, and treatment of EBC including bilio-enteric stricture, transient jaundice, biliary leak, and cholangitis. Method From 2007 to 2011, 352 patients underwent PD. Statistical analysis including logistic regression was performed to determine EBC predictive factors. Results 49 patients (14%) developed 51 EBC, including 7(2%) bilio-enteric strictures, 15(4%) transient jaundices, 9(3%) biliary leaks, and 20(6%) cholangitis with no mortality and a 18% reoperation rate. In multivariate analysis, male gender, benign disease, malignancy with preoperative chemoradiation, and common bile duct (CBD) diameter ≤5 mm were predictive of EBC. Of the 7 strictures, all were associated with CBD ≤5 mm and 5(71%) required reoperation. Transient jaundice resolved spontaneously in all 15 cases. Among 8 patients with serum bilirubin level >50 μmol/L (3 mg/dL) at POD3, 7(88%) developed bilio-enteric stricture. Biliary leak resolved spontaneously in 5(56%); otherwise, it required reoperation. Cholangitis recurred after antibiotics discontinuation in 5(25%). Conclusions EBC following PD do not increase mortality. EBC are more frequent with male gender, benign disease, malignancy with preoperative chemoradiation, and CBD ≤5 mm. Transient jaundice or cholangitis has a favorable outcome, whereas bilio-enteric stricture or biliary leak can require reintervention. PMID:27037207

  8. EUS hepaticogastrostomy for bilioenteric anastomotic strictures: a permanent access for repeated ambulatory dilations? Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-García, Pablo; Gonzalez, Jean M.; Tellechea, Juan I.; Culetto, Adrian; Barthet, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Postsurgical benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures are a major adverse event of biliary surgery and endoscopic treatment, including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), is challenging in this setting. We present an innovative approach to treating this complication. Patients and methods: Patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-hepaticogastrostomy (HG) to treat nonmalignant biliary obstructions. A first endoscopy was performed to create the hepaticogastrostomy and to drain the biliary tree. The second step had a therapeutic purpose: antegrade dilation of the anastomosis. Results: Four men and three women with benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures were included. Patients presented with jaundice or recurrent cholangitis. A fully covered HG stent was successfully deployed during the first endoscopy. During the second step, repeat antegrade dilation was performed through the HG in four cases (1 – 4 dilations) followed by double pigtail stenting in three cases. In three other patients, the stenosis was not crossable and a double pigtail stent was placed to maintain biliary drainage. All patients had symptom relief at the end of follow-up (45 weeks, range 33 – 64). Conclusions: Dilation of anastomotic stenosis through a hepaticogastrostomy is feasible and may provide permanent biliary drainage or recurrent access to the biliary tree in patients with altered anatomy. Double pigtail stents might prevent migration. PMID:27092329

  9. A Rare Case of Biliary Leakage After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy–Diagnostic Evaluation and Nonsurgical Treatment: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehmedovic, Zlatan; Mehmedovic, Majda; Hasanovic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a gold standard in treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis, it is associated with higher risk of intraoperative lesions and primarily lesions of biliary ducts. In small percentage of cases biliary fistulas occur, most commonly after leakage from cystic duct stump or accessory bile ducts – Luschka’s duct. We report of a patient who had episodes of abdominal pain following routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous gallbladder. Results of conducted diagnostics verify the presence of biliary fistula caused by obstruction of bile pathways by stagnant pus and microcalculi of common bile duct, with development of biloma presumably caused by pressure injection of contrast material during ERCP procedure. Endoscopic sphincterectomy via ERCP enabled healing of formed biliary fistula, whilst continuous percutaneous ultrasound guided drainage of biloma was method of choice in later treatment of our patient. It is important to note that diagnostic evaluation of biliary fistula is very challenging and that timely nonsurgical treatment is of great benefit for patient. PMID:26005280

  10. Pigment gallstone pathogenesis: slime production by biliary bacteria is more important than beta-glucuronidase production.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Ponce, R; Oesterle, A L; Griffiss, J M; Way, L W

    2000-01-01

    Pigment stones are thought to form as a result of deconjugation of bilirubin by bacterial beta-glucuronidase, which results in precipitation of calcium bilirubinate. Calcium bilirubinate is then aggregated into stones by an anionic glycoprotein. Slime (glycocalyx), an anionic glycoprotein produced by bacteria causing foreign body infections, has been implicated in the formation of the precipitate that blocks biliary stents. We previously showed that bacteria are present within the pigment portions of gallstones and postulated a bacterial role in pigment stone formation through beta-glucuronidase or slime production. Ninety-one biliary bacterial isolates from 61 patients and 12 control stool organisms were tested for their production of beta-glucuronidase and slime. The average slime production was 42 for biliary bacteria and 2.5 for stool bacteria (P <0.001). Overall, 73% of biliary bacteria and 8% of stool bacteria produced slime (optical density >3). In contrast, only 38% of biliary bacteria produced beta-glucuronidase. Eighty-two percent of all patients, 90% of patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones, 100% of patients with primary CBD stones, and 93% of patients with biliary tubes had one or more bacterial species in their stones that produced slime. By comparison, only 47% of all patients, 60% of patients with CBD stones, 62% of patients with primary CBD stones, and 50% of patients with biliary tubes had one or more bacteria that produced beta-glucuronidase. Most biliary bacteria produced slime, and slime production correlated better than beta-glucuronidase production did with stone formation and the presence of biliary tubes or stents. Patients with primary CBD stones and biliary tubes had the highest incidence of slime production. These findings suggest that bacterial slime is important in gallstone formation and the blockage of biliary tubes. PMID:11077333

  11. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of liver cancer every 6 to 12 months. Health care providers use blood tests, ultrasound, or both to check for signs of ... make the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. A health care provider uses the test selectively when he or she is concerned that ...

  12. Fine structure of a freshwater teleost (Pimelodus maculatus) intrahepatic biliary pathways.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S

    1982-01-01

    The intrahepatic biliary passages of a teleost liver composed by a muralium duplex was studied by electron microscopy. The bile canaliculus was commonly formed by 2 or more hepatic cells. In the transition zone between the intercellular bile canaliculus and the bile ductule, this duct was formed in part by hepatic cells and in part by duct cells. While the number of duct cells increased, the number of hepatocytes decreased until the entire ductule was formed by 2 or 3 duct cells. Bile duct was formed only by pyramidal duct cells. These cells are readily distinguished from the hepatocytes by its irregular shape, by a paucity of organelles and by the abundance of microfilaments. PMID:7201253

  13. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involvethe common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bileduct. PMID:25932083

  14. Successful surgical treatment of extrahepatic biliary papillomatosis diagnosed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Biliary papillomatosis is a condition characterized by multiple papillary tumors of variable distribution and extent within the biliary tract. Papillary carcinoma can develop in these lesions. It is a rare biliary pathological entity and its clinical features and outcome are not well known. Case presentation We experienced a case of biliary papillomatosis in a 51-year-old North African man who presented with obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests showed elevated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Imaging (ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) was suggestive of Klatskin tumor associated to common bile duct stones. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a balloon sweep retrieved friable tissue from his bile ducts. Histology demonstrated papillary adenomatous proliferation showing high-grade dysplasia and he was referred for surgical management. Conclusions Although biliary papillomatosis is rare, it is a premalignant condition that should be well known and considered in all diagnoses of obstructive jaundice. We report a new case of biliary papillomatosis and highlight the contribution of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:24885726

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2009-12-31

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging investigation for biliary diseases. However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases. The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has reached the field of bile duct disease in recent years and promising results have been achieved. In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for CEUS in the biliary system are summarized. CEUS may be indicated in the biliary system under the following circumstances: (1) Where there is a need to make a characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); (2) For differentiation diagnosis between ICC and other tumors (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastasis) or infectious diseases; (3) For differentiation diagnosis between biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma; (4) To detect malignant change in Caroli's disease; (5) To depict the extent of Klatskin's tumor with greater clarity; (6) To make a distinction between gallbladder cholesterol polyp, adenoma and polypoid cancer; (7) To make a distinction between chronic cholecystitis with thickened wall and gallbladder cancer; (8) For differentiation diagnosis between motionless sludge and gallbladder cancer; (9) For differentiation diagnosis between common bile duct cancer and sludge or stone without acoustic shadowing; and (10) In patients who are suspected of having a drop of their percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage tube, US contrast agent can be administered to through the tube detect the site of the tube. PMID:21160719

  16. Hedgehog Activity, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions, and Biliary Dysmorphogenesis in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Omenetti, Alessia; Bass, Lee M; Anders, Robert A.; Clemente, Maria G; Francis, Heather; Guy, Cinthya D; McCall, Shannon; Choi, Steve S; Alpini, Gianfranco; Schwarz, Kathleen B; Diehl, Anna Mae; Whitington, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Background Biliary Atresia (BA) is notable for marked ductular reaction and rapid development of fibrosis. Activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway promotes the expansion of populations of immature epithelial cells that co-express mesenchymal markers and may be pro-fibrogenic. We examined the hypothesis that in BA excessive Hh activation impedes ductular morphogenesis and enhances fibrogenesis by promoting accumulation of immature ductular cells with a mesenchymal phenotype. Methods Livers and remnant extrahepatic ducts from BA patients were evaluated by QRT-PCR and immunostaining for Hh ligands, target genes, and markers of mesenchymal cells or ductular progenitors. Findings were compared to children with genetic cholestatic disease, age-matched deceased donor controls, and adult controls. Ductular cells isolated from adult rats with and without bile duct ligation were incubated with Hh ligand-enriched medium ± Hh-neutralizing antibody to determine direct effects of Hh ligands on EMT marker expression. Results Livers from pediatric controls showed greater innate Hh activation than adult controls. In children with BA, both intra- and extra-hepatic ductular cells demonstrated striking up-regulation of Hh ligand production, and increased expression of Hh target genes. Excessive accumulation of Hh-producing cells and Hh-responsive cells also occurred in other infantile cholestatic diseases. Further analysis of the BA samples demonstrated that immature ductular cells with a mesenchymal phenotype were Hh-responsive. Treating immature ductular cells with Hh ligand-enriched medium induced mesenchymal genes; neutralizing Hh ligands inhibited this. Conclusions BA is characterized by excessive Hh pathway activity, which stimulates biliary EMT and may contribute to biliary dysmorphogenesis. Other cholestatic diseases show similar activation, suggesting this is a common response to cholestatic injury in infancy. PMID:21480329

  17. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  18. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  19. Development of hepatolithiasis due to a celery stalk retained within the bile ducts of the liver.

    PubMed

    Lv, G Y; Qiu, W; Yu, Y; Li, T

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Commonly encountered foreign bodies are remnants from surgical procedures and ingested materials. Rarely, the latter cause stone formation in the biliary tract. Case History We describe a 51-year-old female who underwent choledoduodenostomy and who presented with abdominal distension caused by multiple stones in the bile ducts within the liver (hepatolithiasis) and an intact celery stalk. Hepatolithiasis was demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen. The celery stalk was not confirmed until exploration of the biliary duct. Conclusions Here, we describe, for the first time, an intact, undigested celery stalk in the biliary tract which induced hepatolithiasis. We believe that choledochojejunostomy favoured reflux of the celery stalk from the duodenum into the biliary tract. PMID:27087342

  20. Recent advances in the morphological and functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuyan; Glaser, Shannon; Meng, Fanyin; Francis, Heather; Marzioni, Marco; McDaniel, Kelly; Alvaro, Domenico; Venter, Julie; Carpino, Guido; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent advances related to the heterogeneity of different-sized bile ducts with regard to the morphological and phenotypical characteristics, and the differential secretory, apoptotic and proliferative responses of small and large cholangiocytes to gastrointestinal hormones/peptides, neuropeptides and toxins. We describe several in vivo and in vitro models used for evaluating biliary heterogeneity. Subsequently, we discuss the heterogeneous proliferative and apoptotic responses of small and large cholangiocytes to liver injury and the mechanisms regulating the differentiation of small into large (more differentiated) cholangiocytes. Following a discussion on the heterogeneity of stem/progenitor cells in the biliary epithelium, we outline the heterogeneity of bile ducts in human cholangiopathies. After a summary section, we discuss the future perspectives that will further advance the field of the functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium. PMID:23856906

  1. Clinicopathological subclassification of biliary cystic tumors: Report of 4 cases with a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Suguru; Tanaka, Nobutaka; Takahashi, Michiro; Hata, Shojiro; Nomura, Yukihiro; Ooe, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biliary cystic tumors are rare hepatic neoplasms, and knowledge regarding the origin and pathology of these tumors remains vague. They should be analyzed in more detail. In our institution, 4 biliary cystic tumor surgeries were performed between December 1999 and March 2010. Pathological evaluation of resected specimens was performed to evaluate the characteristics of the intracystic epithelium and to determine the presence or absence of interstitial infiltrate, ovarian mesenchymal stroma (OMS), luminal communication between the cystic tumor and the bile duct, and mucin (MUC) protein expression. We evaluated the following 4 cases: case 1, a 21-year-old woman with a biliary cystadenoma who underwent extended right hepatectomy; case 2, a 39-year-old woman with a biliary cystadenoma who underwent left hepatectomy; case 3, an 80-year-old man with a biliary cystadenoma who underwent left hepatectomy; and case 4, a 61-year-old man with a biliary cystadenocarcinoma revealing papillary proliferation of atypical epithelium and interstitial infiltrates who underwent left hepatectomy. Case 3 had papillary proliferation of the intracystic atypical epithelium but showed interstitial infiltrates. Luminal communication with the bile duct, centrally or peripherally, was found in all 4 cases. Only case 2 showed OMS. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the following findings: cases 1 and 2, MUC1−/MUC2−; case 3, MUC1+/MUC2−; and case 4, MUC1+/MUC2+. It is important to gather information on more cases of biliary cystic tumors because atypical cases were observed, where both OMS and luminal communication with the bile duct were present or absent. PMID:25343105

  2. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  3. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghersi, Stefania; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Bassi, Marco; Fabbri, Carlo; Cennamo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important tool for the management of a selected group of biliary diseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allows targeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POC can be performed using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameter endoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was first described in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generation devices was substantially limited by the cumbersome equipment setup and high repair costs. For nearly ten years, several technical improvements, including the single-operator system, high-quality images, the development of dedicated accessories and the increased size of the working channel, have led to increased diagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiation of benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targeting biopsies and the precise delineation of intraductal tumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies for biliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can be performed under POC control. Recent developments of new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safe and effective procedures at reasonable costs. In the current review, we provide an updated overview of POC, focusing our attention on the main current clinical applications and on areas for future research. PMID:25992189

  4. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs. PMID:8560608

  5. [Percutaneous transhepatic biliary manometry].

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hong

    2007-03-01

    Perendoscopic biliary manometry may not represent the overall sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility, as the recording time is relatively short and it is possibly influenced by the presence of an endoscope in duodenum and air inflation. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary manometry of SO permits long-term recordings without patient discomfort and risk of complications. We investigated the change of human SO motility and the correlation between SO motility and migrating motor complex (MMC) of the small bowel in a fasting state by long-term simultaneous manometric examination of SO and small bowel. During long-term manometry, MMC-like cyclic activities of SO were observed, which considered to be MMC of SO. It coordinated well with MMC of the small bowel, except that SO was not quiescent during phase I MMC of the small bowel. In addition, the basal pressure of SO changed in accordance with the phases of SO motility. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary manometry also permits prolonged manometric studies to investigate normal physiologic reflexes such as gastroduodeno-sphincteric, cholecysto-sphincteric and choledocho-sphincteric reflexes, and the influence of cholecystectomy on SO motility in humans. PMID:18172340

  6. Selective biliary cannulation techniques for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures and prevention of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Shuntaro; Itoi, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Numerous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) techniques have been reported to achieve selective biliary cannulation success. For standard biliary cannulation procedures, the wire-guided cannulation technique has been reported to reduce the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and increase the biliary cannulation success rate, although conflicting reports exist. The pancreatic or double-guidewire technique and several precut techniques have been reported as useful techniques in difficult biliary cannulation cases. Although ERCP is a useful endoscopic procedure, the risk of adverse events, particularly post-ERCP pancreatitis, is inevitable. Previous studies and analyses have revealed the risk factors for PEP. The efficacy of prophylactic pancreatic duct stent placement and the administration of rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for preventing PEP has also been reported. Herein, we reviewed reports in the literature regarding the current status of selective biliary cannulation techniques and PEP prevention. PMID:26782710

  7. [Shape-memory nitinol alloy endoprosthesis for malignant biliary strictures].

    PubMed

    Gu, W Q

    1993-05-01

    A new design of endoprosthesis, made of shape-memory nitinol alloy, was used to replace the currently used one, which was soon clogged with bile mud. After nitinol wire coil stent was slenderized in ice water, it was inserted into the strictured bile duct by endoscopy or operation. When nitinol wire coil was positioned in a narrowed biliary segment, normal saline heated to 39 degrees C was rapidly hand-injected into the lumen of the inner transport catheter to make the alloy coil to resume its original shape with a length of 3 to 10cm, and a diameter of 5 to 10mm. Since June 1991, 13 patients with malignant biliary strictures were treated with nitinol endoprosthesis. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 16 months (average 6 months). Biliary sludge was not found in the endoprosthesis during the period. The results suggested that shape-memory nitinol alloy endoprosthesis could maintain long term patency without severe infection or obstruction due to biliary sludge. PMID:8112151

  8. Questionnaire Based Assessment of Risk Factors for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Craig; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. Aims Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. Methods Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. Results Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection (UTI) was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple UTIs more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis. PMID:23490343

  9. [Biliary leaks after liver resection. Prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Arend, J; Schütte, K; Weigt, J; Wolff, S; Schittek, U; Peglow, S; Mohnike, K; Benckert, C; Bruns, C

    2015-02-01

    The surgical treatment of primary and secondary liver pathologies is nowadays standard practice. Since the first major resections performed by Langenbruch in 1888 there have been significant developments in the surgical technique. In addition to the surgical technique, the diagnostics and patient selection, perioperative care and anesthetic management as well as knowledge of liver anatomy and physiology have also shown significant developments. The proportion of complex operations, even within the framework of multimodal concepts has also increased. Despite this increasing complexity, the morbidity (< 45 %) and mortality (< 5 %) of liver surgery could be clearly reduced; however, the incidence of postoperative biliary leaks in large published series currently lies between 0 % and 30  % and has only shown a minimal reduction in recent years. The management of bile leakage requires an interdisciplinary management involving endoscopic and radiological, interventional or operative therapy. Most leakages (69-94 %) persist under conservative treatment (drainage and if necessary antibiotic therapy). For high volume fistulas and persistent biliary leakage endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with stent placement represents the therapy of choice. Infections with biliary peritonitis and failure of interventional strategies often require revision surgery, possibly consisting of suturing if a leakage is identifiable, replacement of drainages or application of a bile duct drainage (e.g. T-drain or transhepatic external biliary drainage). PMID:25673224

  10. Absorption of biliary cobalamin in baboons following total gastrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.; Jacobsen, D.W.; Van Tonder, S.V.; Kew, M.C.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Absorption of radiolabeled cobalamin in baboons was assessed by whole body counting. Retention of biliary cobalamin and an aqueous solution of cyanocobalamin was measured in normal baboons and in baboons after total gastrectomy by using /sup 57/Co-labeled biliary cobalamin and /sup 58/C0-cyanocobalamin, with and without baboon gastric juice containing intrinsic factor. Radiolabeled biliary cobalamin was obtained by intravenous injection of /sup 57/Co-cyanocobalamin in baboons and collection of bile through a cannula placed in the common bile duct. Cobalamin absorption was not completely abolished by gastrectomy and biliary cobalamin was better retained than cyanocobalamin; intrinsic factor enhanced absorption of both forms. After gastrectomy there was steady depletion of liver and serum cobalamin levels, which ceased after a new equilibrium was reached between a progressively diminishing cobalamin loss and the impaired but significant residual level of absorption. These studies in the nonhuman primate provide further information concerning the enterohepatic circulation of cobalamin and suggest that the form of cobalamin in bile may be more readily absorbed than is cyanocobalamin or that bile itself may have an enhancing effect on cobalamin absorption. The data also suggest that physiologically significant amounts of cobalamin may be absorbed in the absence of a gastric source of intrinsic factor.

  11. Evaluation of Biliary Calprotectin as a Biomarker in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Annika; Sauer, Peter; Stiehl, Adolf; Rupp, Christian; Krisam, Johannes; Leopold, Yvonne; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts with limited therapeutic options except liver transplantation. Reliable biomarkers to predict the disease course are unavailable, and currently employed disease activity scores such as the Mayo risk score (MRS) have limitations. The present study aims to evaluate biliary calprotectin as a marker of disease activity and prognosis in PSC.This is a monocentric retrospective observational study. Calprotectin concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in bile samples collected by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography from 106 PSC patients and 20 controls. Biliary calprotectin concentrations were compared between the 2 groups. In PSC patients, results were evaluated with regard to the presence of dominant bile duct stenoses, bile microbiology, MRS, survival free of liver transplantation, and necessity for bile duct interventions in the further disease course.Median (interquartile ranges) biliary calprotectin concentrations were higher in PSC patients than in controls (3646 ng/mL, 249-9748 vs 116 ng/mL, 104-655; P < 0.001). In the PSC cohort, higher biliary calprotectin concentrations were associated with the presence of microbes in bile (P = 0.02), the occurrence of dominant bile duct stenosis at any time in the disease course (P = 0.005), and the necessity for future bile duct interventions (P = 0.02). Patients with biliary calprotectin concentrations above a cut-off of 11,610 ng/mL displayed significantly shorter transplantation-free survival than those with biliary calprotectin concentrations ≤11,610 ng/mL (P < 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed high biliary calprotectin concentration (>11,610 ng/mL) as a risk factor of shorter transplantation-free survival of PSC patients (P < 0.001) beside high plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration (>142.5 U/L) (P = 0.006), high MRS (≥2) (P < 0.001), and nonsterility of bile (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis identified only MRS (P = 0.002) and ALP concentration (P = 0.04) as independent risk factors.Our data strongly suggest that biliary calprotectin may be a valuable additional marker for disease activity and a predictor of outcome in PSC, so that further studies for evaluation of calprotectin in this disease are warranted. PMID:27124059

  12. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xue-Shuai; Xu, Yi-Yao; Qian, Jun-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, An-Qiang; He, Lian; Zhao, Hai-Tao; Sang, Xin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a variant of bile duct carcinoma that is characterized by intraductal growth and better outcomes compared with common cholangiocarcinoma. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. According to the immunohistochemical profiles of the mucin core proteins, IPNBs are classified into four types: pancreaticobiliary, intestinal, gastric, and oncocytic. Approximately 40%-80% of IPNBs contain a component of invasive carcinoma or tubular or mucinous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that IPNB is a disease with high potential for malignancy. It is difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis because of IPNB’s low incidence and the lack of specificity in its clinical manifestation. The most common abnormal preoperative imaging findings of IPNB are intraductal masses and the involvement of bile duct dilation. Simultaneous proximal and distal bile duct dilation can be detected in some cases, which has diagnostic significance. Cholangiography and cholangioscopy are needed to confirm the pathology and demonstrate the extent of the lesions. However, pathologic diagnosis by biopsy cannot reflect the actual stage in many cases because different foci may be of different stages and because mixed pathologic findings may exist in the same lesion. Surgical resection is the major treatment. Systematic cholangioscopy with staged biopsies and frozen sections is recommended during resection to ensure that no minor tumors are left and that curative resection is achieved. Staging, histologic subtype, curative resection and lymph node metastasis are factors affecting long-term survival. PMID:24379576

  13. [Renal cancer metastasis into common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Simůnek, R; Sirotek, L; Sefr, R

    2011-03-01

    We present rare case of clear cell renal carcinoma metastasis into common bile duct. It is a 9th case listed on the MEDLINE data base from 1966 to 2010.71-year-old woman underwent right nefrectomy for renal cancer G1 in 1986. She was reoperated in 2006 for relaps in renal bed on the right side. Histological examination confirmed clear cell renal carcinoma again. At present, a new liver metastasis in S 4/5 was detected. During the operation we found first described liver metastasis and second another one in common bile duct with intraluminal growth. Before surgery the patient showed neither clinical nor laboratory marks of biliary obstruction. Even abdominal ultrasound, SONO VUE, CT and body PET were negative. We carried out choledochectomy with hepaticojejunoanastomosis sec Roux and liver metastasis was destructed using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21634099

  14. Laparoscopic T-Tube Choledochotomy for Biliary Lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Alejandro Weber; López Acosta, María Elena

    2008-01-01

    T-tube choledochotomy has been an established practice in common bile duct exploration for many years. Although bile leaks, biliary peritonitis, and long-term postoperative strictures have been reported and are directly associated with the placement or removal of the T-tube, the severity of these complications may often be underestimated by surgeons. We present the case of a 31-year-old male patient who developed biliary peritonitis and septic shock after removal of a T-tube and illustrate one of the catastrophic events that may follow such procedures. Literature shows that these complications may occur more frequently and have higher morbidity and mortality than other less invasive procedures. This article reviews the advances in laparoscopic and endoscopic techniques, which provide alternative therapeutic approaches to choledocholithiasis and allow the surgeon to avoid having to perform a choledochotomy with T-tube drainage. PMID:18765064

  15. Fractalkine and Other Chemokines in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Shinji; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by the autoimmune injury of small intrahepatic bile duct. On this basis, it has been suggested that the targeted biliary epithelial cells (BEC) play an active role in the perpetuation of autoimmunity by attracting immune cells via chemokine secretion. To address this issue, we challenged BEC using multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands as well as autologous liver infiltrating mononuclear cells (LMNC) with subsequent measurement of BEC phenotype and chemokine production and LMNC chemotaxis by quantifying specific chemokines, specially CX3CL1 (fractalkine). We submit the hypothesis that BEC are in fact the innocent victims of the autoimmune injury and that the adaptive immune response is critical in PBC. PMID:22235377

  16. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  17. Duct Joining System

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P.

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  18. Duct joining system

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P.; deKieffer, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  19. Early endoscopic ultrasonography in acute biliary pancreatitis: A prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anderloni, Andrea; Galeazzi, Marianna; Ballarè, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Orsello, Marco; Del Piano, Mario; Repici, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical usefulness of early endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the management of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). METHODS: All consecutive patients entering the emergency department between January 2010 and December 2012 due to acute abdominal pain and showing biochemical and/or radiological findings consistent with possible ABP were prospectively enrolled. Patients were classified as having a low, moderate, or high probability of common bile duct (CBD) stones, according to the established risk stratification. Exclusion criteria were: gastrectomy or patient in whom the cause of biliary obstruction was already identified by ultrasonography. All enrolled patients underwent EUS within 48 h of their admission. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed immediately after EUS only in those cases with proven CBD stones or sludge. The following parameters were investigated: (1) clinical: age, sex, fever; (2) radiological: dilated CBD; and (3) biochemical: bilirubin, AST, ALT, gGT, ALP, amylase, lipasis, PCR. Association between presence of CBD stone at EUS and the individual predictors were assessed by univariate logistic regression. Predictors significantly associated with CBD stones (P < 0.05) were entered in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients with pancreatitis were admitted to the emergency department between January 2010 and December 2012. After exclusion criteria a total of 71 patients (38 females, 53.5%, mean age 58 ± 20.12 years, range 27-89 years; 33 males, 46.5%, mean age 65 ± 11.86 years, range 41-91 years) were included in the present study. The probability of CBD stones was considered low in 21 cases (29%), moderate in 26 (37%), and high in the remaining 24 (34%). The 71 patients included in the study underwent EUS, which allowed for a complete evaluation of the target sites in all the cases. The procedure was completed in a mean time of 14.7 min (range 9-34 min), without any notable complications.The overall CBD stone frequency was 44% (31 of 71), with a significant increase from the group at low pretest probability to that at moderate (OR = 5.79, P = 0.01) and high (OR = 4.25, P = 0.03) pretest probability. CONCLUSION: Early EUS in ABP allows, if appropriate, immediate endoscopic treatment and significant spare of unnecessary operative procedures thus reducing possible related complications. PMID:26420969

  20. Vitamin D Nuclear Receptor Deficiency Promotes Cholestatic Liver Injury by Disruption of Biliary Epithelial Cell Junctions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Firrincieli, Delphine; Zúñiga, Silvia; Rey, Colette; Wendum, Dominique; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Rainteau, Dominique; Braescu, Thomas; Falguières, Thomas; Boissan, Mathieu; Cadoret, Axelle; Housset, Chantal; Chignard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in apical junctional complexes (AJCs) have been reported in genetic or acquired biliary diseases. The vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR), predominantly expressed in biliary epithelial cells in the liver, has been shown to regulate AJCs. The aim of our study was thus to investigate the role of VDR in the maintenance of bile duct integrity in mice challenged with biliary-type liver injury. Vdr−/− mice subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) displayed increased liver damage compared to wildtype BDL mice. Adaptation to cholestasis, ascertained by expression of genes involved in bile acid metabolism and tissue repair, was limited in Vdr−/− BDL mice. Furthermore, evaluation of Vdr−/− BDL mouse liver tissue sections indicated altered E-cadherin staining associated with increased bile duct rupture. Total liver protein analysis revealed that a truncated form of E-cadherin was present in higher amounts in Vdr−/− mice subjected to BDL compared to wildtype BDL mice. Truncated E-cadherin was also associated with loss of cell adhesion in biliary epithelial cells silenced for VDR. In these cells, E-cadherin cleavage occurred together with calpain 1 activation and was prevented by the silencing of calpain 1. Furthermore, VDR deficiency led to the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, while EGFR activation by EGF induced both calpain 1 activation and E-cadherin cleavage in these cells. Finally, truncation of E-cadherin was blunted when EGFR signaling was inhibited in VDR-silenced cells. Conclusion: Biliary-type liver injury is exacerbated in Vdr−/− mice by limited adaptive response and increased bile duct rupture. These results indicate that loss of VDR restricts the adaptation to cholestasis and diminishes bile duct integrity in the setting of biliary-type liver injury. (Hepatology 2013;58:1401–1412) PMID:23696511

  1. Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang alleviates biliary obstructive cirrhosis in rats by inhibiting biliary epithelial cell proliferation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Sun, Ming-Yu; Long, Ai-Hua; Cao, Hong-Yan; Ren, Shuang; Bian, Yan-Qin; Lu, Xiong; Gu, Hong-Tu; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) consists of three aqueous extracts from Artemisia capillaris, Gardenia sp., and prepared Rheum rhabarbarum (rhubarb) (3:2:1). YCHT is characterized by its anti-inflammatory properties in liver regulation and relief of jaundice. We aimed to study the effects and mechanisms of action of YCHT on biliary obstructive cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: Secondary biliary fibrosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation (BDL) and scission. One week after BDL, rats were randomly divided into a saline-treated BDL or YCHT-treated BDL group for 4 weeks. Liver function and hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were assessed. Types I and IV collagen (Col-IV), laminin, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were assessed with immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the YCHT-treated BDL group, serum total bilirubin, total bile acids, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase were lower than those in the sham-operated BDL group. The proliferation of bile ducts in hepatic tissues and the Hyp content and Col deposition were also significantly lower than those in control rats. In addition, α-SMA and Col-IV staining was less obvious, and mRNA expression of Procol-α1 (IV), platelet derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF)-B, connective tissue growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta in proliferative biliary epithelial cells (BECs) in the YCHT-treated BDL group was significantly lower than those in controls. Conclusions: YCHT effectively reduces the formation of biliary obstructive cirrhosis mainly via inhibition of BEC proliferation by down-regulation of PDGF-B mRNA expression, inhibition of BEC profibrogenic paracrines, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathological process. PMID:25829784

  2. Surgical Management of Benign Biliary Stricture in Chronic Pancreatitis: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sukanta; Ghatak, Supriyo; Das, Khaunish; Dasgupta, Jayanta; Ray, Sujay; Khamrui, Sujan; Sonar, Pankaj Kumar; Das, Somak

    2015-12-01

    Biliary stricture in chronic pancreatitis (CP) is not uncommon. Previously, all cases were managed by surgery. Nowadays, three important modes of treatment in these patients are observation, endoscopic therapy, and surgery. In the modern era, surgery is recommended only in a subset of patients who develop biliary symptoms or those who have asymptomatic biliary stricture and require surgery for intractable abdominal pain. We want to report on our experience regarding surgical management of CP-induced benign biliary stricture. Over a period of 5 years, we have managed 340 cases of CP at our institution. Bile duct stricture was found in 62 patients. But, surgical intervention was required in 44 patients, and the remaining 18 patients were managed conservatively. Demographic data, operative procedures, postoperative complications, and follow-up parameters of these patients were collected from our prospective database. A total 44 patients were operated for biliary obstruction in the background of CP. Three patients were excluded, so the final analysis was based on 41 patients. The indication for surgery was symptomatic biliary stricture in 27 patients and asymptomatic biliary stricture with intractable abdominal pain in 14 patients. The most commonly performed operation was Frey's procedure. There was no inhospital mortality. Thirty-five patients were well at a mean follow-up of 24.4 months (range 3 to 54 months). Surgery is still the best option for CP-induced benign biliary stricture, and Frey's procedure is a versatile operation unless you suspect malignancy as the cause of biliary obstruction. PMID:26730073

  3. Hollow lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Mitchell, Scott; Lang, John; Maderas, Dennis; Speth, Joel; Payne, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  4. Retrograde Percutaneous Transjejunal Creation of Biliary Neoanastomoses in Patients with Complete Hepaticojejunostomy Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giancarlo; Contro, Alberto; Zamboni, Giulia A; De Robertis, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    A technique of percutaneous hepaticojejunostomy (PHJ) was developed to allow creation of a neoanastomosis in cases of hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) dehiscence when endoscopic intervention is unfeasible as a result of postsurgical anatomy. PHJ involves transhepatic biliary catheterization and transjejunal retrograde enterotomy. A rendezvous establishes the communication between the bile ducts and the jejunum. PHJ was performed in five patients, and neoanastomosis creation without residual biliary leak was achieved in all cases, with no procedure-related complications. Bilirubin levels and white blood cell counts quickly decreased after PHJ (median, 1 d; range, 1-4 d). Median survival after PHJ was 210 days (range, 45-540 d). PMID:26408218

  5. Biliary cirrhosis caused by Campula spp. in a dolphin and four porpoises.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Prez, J; Rotstein, D; Zafra, R; Herrez, P; Carrascosa, C; Fernndez, A

    2013-09-24

    Biliary cirrhosis produced by Campula spp. is described in 1 striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena. The hepatic lesions consisted of severe proliferation of fibrous connective tissue with loss of the lobular pattern, nodular regeneration of the hepatic tissue, bile duct hyperplasia and severe inflammatory infiltrate composed of eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. These lesions were associated with severe infestation by Campula spp. Although inflammatory and degenerative hepatic lesions are frequently found in stranded dolphins, biliary cirrhosis has not been previously reported in cetaceans. Massive infestation by these parasites should be included as a cause of hepatic failure resulting in stranding of marine mammals. PMID:24062555

  6. IKK1 and IKK2 cooperate to maintain bile duct integrity in the liver.

    PubMed

    Luedde, Tom; Heinrichsdorff, Jan; de Lorenzi, Rossana; De Vos, Rita; Roskams, Tania; Pasparakis, Manolis

    2008-07-15

    Inflammatory destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts is a common cause of vanishing bile duct syndrome and cholestasis, often progressing to biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of inflammatory biliary disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that the two IkappaB kinases, IKK1/IKKalpha and IKK2/IKKbeta, display distinct collaborative and specific functions that are essential to protect the liver from cytokine toxicity and bile duct disease. Combined conditional ablation of IKK1 and IKK2, but not of each kinase alone, sensitized the liver to in vivo LPS challenge, uncovering a redundant function of the two IkappaB kinases in mediating canonical NF-kappaB signaling in hepatocytes and protecting the liver from TNF-induced failure. Unexpectedly, mice with combined ablation of IKK1 and IKK2 or IKK1 and NEMO spontaneously developed severe jaundice and fatal cholangitis characterized by inflammatory destruction of small portal bile ducts. This bile duct disease was caused by the combined impairment of canonical NF-kappaB signaling together with inhibition of IKK1-specific functions affecting the bile-blood barrier. These results reveal a novel function of the two IkappaB kinases in cooperatively regulating liver immune homeostasis and bile duct integrity and suggest that IKK signaling may be implicated in human biliary diseases. PMID:18606991

  7. Continuous controllable balloon dilation: a novel approach for cervix dilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical dilation using mechanical dilators is associated with various complications, such as uterine perforation, cervical laceration, infections and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. To achieve safe and painless cervical dilation, we constructed a new medical device to achieve confident mechanical cervical dilation: a continuous controllable balloon dilator (CCBD). Methods Controlled pumping of incompressible fluid into the CCBD increases the pressure and outer diameter of the CCBD, continuously dilating the cervical canal. The reliability of the CCBD was confirmed in vitro (testing for consistency and endurance, with no detected risk for breakage) and in vivo. A multi-center clinical study was conducted,with 120 pregnant women randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group I,control group, no dilation;Group II,mechanical dilation, Hegar dilator (HeD); and Group III,CCBD. The tissue material for histological evaluation was obtained from the endocervical mucosa before and after dilation using the HeD or CCBD. Results The CCBD dilations were successful and had no complications in all 40 patients of Group III. The cervical tissue was markedly less damaged after CCBD dilation compared with HeD dilation (epithelium damage: 95% (HeD) vs. 45% (CCBD), P <0.001; basal membrane damage: 82.5% (HeD) vs. 27.5% (CCBD), P <0.001; stromal damage: 62.5% (HeD) vs. 37.5% (CCBD), P <0.01). Cervical hemorrhagia was observed in 90% of the patients after HeD dilation versus in 32.5% of the patients after CCBD dilation. Conclusions The CCBD should be used as a replacement for mechanical dilators to prevent uterine and cervical injury during cervical dilation. Trial registration ISRCTN54007498 PMID:23088906

  8. Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kasper S

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Affected infants exhibit evidence of biliary obstruction within the first few weeks after birth. Early diagnosis and successful surgical drainage of bile are associated with greater survival with the child's native liver. Unfortunately, because noncholestatic jaundice is extremely common in early infancy, it is difficult to identify the rare infant with cholestatic jaundice who has biliary atresia. Hence, the need for timely diagnosis of this disease warrants a discussion of the feasibility of screening for biliary atresia to improve outcomes. Herein, newborn screening for biliary atresia in the United States is assessed by using criteria established by the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Published analyses indicate that newborn screening for biliary atresia by using serum bilirubin concentrations or stool color cards is potentially life-saving and cost-effective. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and costs of potential screening strategies for early identification of biliary atresia in the United States. PMID:26620065

  9. Plastic Biliary Stent Migration During Multiple Stents Placement and Successful Endoscopic Removal Using Intra-Stent Balloon Inflation Technique: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Calcara, Calcedonio; Broglia, Laura; Comi, Giovanni; Balzarini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 77 Final Diagnosis: Biliary neoplasm Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Biliary stent removal using intra-stent balloon inflation techniqueextraction Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Late migration of a plastic biliary stent after endoscopic placement is a well known complication, but there is little information regarding migration of a plastic stent during multiple stents placement. Case Report: A white man was hospitalized for severe jaundice due to neoplastic hilar stenosis. Surgical eligibility appeared unclear on admission and endoscopy was carried out, but the first stent migrated proximally at the time of second stent insertion. After failed attempts with various devices, the migrated stent was removed successfully through cannulation with a dilation balloon. Conclusions: The migration of a plastic biliary stent during multiple stents placement is a possible complication. In this context, extraction can be very complicated. In our patient, cannulation of a stent with a dilation balloon was the only effective method. PMID:26847214

  10. What Is Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common type of bile duct cancer, accounting for more than half of all bile duct ... of bile duct cancer. The rest of this document refers only to cholangiocarcinomas. Benign bile duct tumors ...

  11. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  12. Cholangiocarcinoma and malignant bile duct obstruction: A review of last decades advances in therapeutic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mangiafico, Santi; Caruso, Angelo; Manno, Mauro; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Pigò, Flavia; Barbera, Carmelo; Manta, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades many advances have been achieved in endoscopy, in the diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma, however blood test, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan may fail to detect neoplastic disease at early stage, thus the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is achieved usually at unresectable stage. In the last decades the role of endoscopy has moved from a diagnostic role to an invaluable therapeutic tool for patients affected by malignant bile duct obstruction. One of the major issues for cholangiocarcinoma is bile ducts occlusion, leading to jaundice, cholangitis and hepatic failure. Currently, endoscopy has a key role in the work up of cholangiocarcinoma, both in patients amenable to surgical intervention as well as in those unfit for surgery or not amenable to immediate surgical curative resection owing to locally advanced or advanced disease, with palliative intention. Endoscopy allows successful biliary drainage and stenting in more than 90% of patients with malignant bile duct obstruction, and allows rapid reduction of jaundice decreasing the risk of biliary sepsis. When biliary drainage and stenting cannot be achieved with endoscopy alone, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage represents an effective alternative method affording successful biliary drainage in more than 80% of cases. The purpose of this review is to focus on the currently available endoscopic management options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26078827

  13. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mizandari, Malkhaz; Pai, Madhava Xi Feng; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Ao Guokun; Kyriakides, Charis; Dickinson, Robert; Nicholls, Joanna; Habib, Nagy

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14-260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14-260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14-260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38-210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  14. Postoperative Bile Duct Strictures: Management and Outcome in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Lillemoe, Keith D.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Cameron, John L.; Pitt, Henry A.; Campbell, Kurtis A.; Talamini, Mark A.; Sauter, Patricia A.; Coleman, JoAnn; Yeo, Charles J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To describe the management and outcome after surgical reconstruction of 156 patients with postoperative bile duct strictures managed in the 1990s. Summary Background Data The management of postoperative bile duct strictures and major bile duct injuries remains a challenge for even the most skilled biliary tract surgeon. The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the incidence of bile duct strictures and injuries from the introduction and widespread use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the management of these injuries and short-term outcome have been reported, long-term follow-up is limited. Methods Data were collected prospectively on 156 patients treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with major bile duct injuries or postoperative bile duct strictures between January 1990 and December 1999. With the exception of bile duct injuries discovered and repaired during surgery, all patients underwent preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and placement of transhepatic biliary catheters before surgical repair. Follow-up was conducted by medical record review or telephone interview during January 2000. Results Of the 156 patients undergoing surgical reconstruction, 142 had completed treatment with a mean follow-up of 57.5 months. Two patients died of reasons unrelated to biliary tract disease before the completion of treatment. Twelve patients (7.9%) had not completed treatment and still had biliary stents in place at the time of this report. Of patients who had completed treatment, 90.8% were considered to have a successful outcome without the need for follow-up invasive, diagnos tic, or therapeutic interventional procedures. Patients with reconstruction after injury or stricture after laparoscopic cholecystectomy had a better overall outcome than patients whose postoperative stricture developed after other types of surgery. Presenting symptoms, number of stents, interval to referral, prior repair, and length of postoperative stenting were not significant predictors of outcome. Overall, a successful outcome, without the need for biliary stents, was obtained in 98% of patients, including those requiring a secondary procedure for recurrent stricture. Conclusions Major bile duct injuries and postoperative bile duct strictures remain a considerable surgical challenge. Management with preoperative cholangiography to delineate the anatomy and placement of percutaneous biliary catheters, followed by surgical reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, is associated with a successful outcome in up to 98% of patients. PMID:10973393

  15. Progenitor cell niches in the human pancreatic duct system and associated pancreatic duct glands: an anatomical and immunophenotyping study.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Overi, Diletta; Rossi, Massimo; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Alvaro, Domenico; Reid, Lola M; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) are tubule-alveolar glands associated with the pancreatic duct system and can be considered the anatomical counterpart of peribiliary glands (PBGs) found within the biliary tree. Recently, we demonstrated that endodermal precursor niches exist fetally and postnatally and are composed functionally of stem cells and progenitors within PBGs and of committed progenitors within PDGs. Here we have characterized more extensively the anatomy of human PDGs as novel niches containing cells with multiple phenotypes of committed progenitors. Human pancreata (n = 15) were obtained from cadaveric adult donors. Specimens were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. PDGs were found in the walls of larger pancreatic ducts (diameters > 300 μm) and constituted nearly 4% of the duct wall area. All of the cells identified were negative for nuclear expression of Oct4, a pluripotency gene, and so are presumably committed progenitors and not stem cells. In the main pancreatic duct and in large interlobular ducts, Sox9(+) cells represented 5-30% of the cells within PDGs and were located primarily at the bottom of PDGs, whereas rare and scattered Sox9(+) cells were present within the surface epithelium. The expression of PCNA, a marker of cell proliferation, paralleled the distribution of Sox9 expression. Sox9(+) PDG cells proved to be Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+/-) /Oct4A(-) . Nearly 10% of PDG cells were positive for insulin or glucagon. Intercalated ducts contained Sox9(+) /Pdx1(+) /Ngn3(+) cells, a phenotype that is presumptive of committed endocrine progenitors. Some intercalated ducts appeared in continuity with clusters of insulin-positive cells organized in small pancreatic islet-like structures. In summary, PDGs represent niches of a population of Sox9(+) cells exhibiting a pattern of phenotypic traits implicating a radial axis of maturation from the bottoms of the PDGs to the surface of pancreatic ducts. Our results complete the anatomical background that links biliary and pancreatic tracts and could have important implications for the common patho-physiology of biliary tract and pancreas. PMID:26610370

  16. Removal of a large stone growing around and encasing a plastic biliary stent: respect the ductal axis.

    PubMed

    Dokas, S; Kalampakas, A; Delivorias, P; Sion, M; Tsitouridis, I

    2009-04-01

    Plastic biliary stents are commonly used during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP). The main indication for biliary stenting is benign or malignant obstruction. Plastic stents, among others, can be used as an escape route in patients with large common bile duct stones, or in cases of acute cholangitis with or without sphincterotomy to provide drainage until definitive treatment. Stent occlusion is the main disadvantage, limiting their patency to around 3 months, after which replacement is recommended. We present a case of a large, close to 2cm, stone developing around and encasing the proximal end of a plastic biliary stent. The stent/stone complex was successfully removed en bloc. The stent was placed in the common bile duct without sphincterotomy, and remained in situ for 2 years. The presented case highlights the importance of definitive treatment for common bile duct stones, the need to respect the ductal axis especially when dealing with large stones and the significance of biliary sphincterotomy during endoscopic interventions in the bile duct. PMID:18083076

  17. Primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Douglas L; Juran, Brian D; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2010-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an idiopathic chronic autoimmune liver disease that primarily affects women. It is believed that the aetiology for PBC is a combination between environmental triggers in genetically vulnerable persons. The diagnosis for PBC is made when two of the three criteria are fulfilled and they are: (1) biochemical evidence of cholestatic liver disease for at least 6 month's duration; (2) anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) positivity; and (3) histologic features of PBC on liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only FDA-approved medical treatment for PBC and should be administered at a recommended dose of 13-15 mg/kg/day. Unfortunately despite adequate dosing of UDCA, approximately one-third of patients does not respond adequately and may require liver transplantation. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the role of environmental exposures and overall genetic impact not only in the development of PBC, but on disease progression and variable clinical response to therapy. PMID:20955967

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Occlusion Complicated with Biliary Fistula Successfully Treated with a Stent Graft: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunyoung; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Woo Hyeon; Bae, Si Hyun; Han, Nam Ik; Oh, Jung Suk; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hae Giu

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old man with liver cirrhosis received transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for the treatment of recurrent variceal bleeding and F3 esophageal varices. During routine follow up liver ultrasound examination, six months after the implantation, TIPS occlusion was suspected and TIPS revision was performed. During the revision, moderate to severe stenosis at the hepatic venous segment of the tract and a total occlusion at the parenchymal segment of TIPS tract near the portal vein with biliary-TIPS fistula were identified with a clear visualization of the common bile duct. After the successful TIPS revision with the placement of an additional stent-graft, the biliary fistula and common bile duct were no more delineated. We herein report a rare case with an obvious visualization of biliary-TIPS fistula associated with obstruction of TIPS shunt on the tractogram and recanalization with an additional stent-graft. PMID:27127576

  19. Biliary Cystadenoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Joel, Johnsy Merla; Jeyasingh, Suresh Durai; Kalyanaraman, Shantaraman

    2016-02-01

    Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic neoplasms of liver that usually occurs in middle-aged women characterized by multiloculated cysts with internal septae and mural nodules. Unilocular biliary cystadenomas are rare and are difficult to differentiate from other cysts by radiology. Biliary cystadenomas are slow growing benign lesions that are easily resectable with a reported recurrence rate of 90% when the resection is incomplete. We present a case of 65-year-old male with unilocular biliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma who presented with abdominal pain and distension. Laparotomy followed by cystectomy was done and postoperative period was uneventful with no abnormal biochemical, heamatological or imaging findings. Preoperative radio-imaging techniques may not always be helpful in arriving at a specific diagnosis in such cases. Hence thorough sampling and a careful histopathological examination is considered gold standard for specific diagnosis. PMID:27042478

  20. Biliary Cystadenoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeyasingh, Suresh Durai; Kalyanaraman, Shantaraman

    2016-01-01

    Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic neoplasms of liver that usually occurs in middle-aged women characterized by multiloculated cysts with internal septae and mural nodules. Unilocular biliary cystadenomas are rare and are difficult to differentiate from other cysts by radiology. Biliary cystadenomas are slow growing benign lesions that are easily resectable with a reported recurrence rate of 90% when the resection is incomplete. We present a case of 65-year-old male with unilocular biliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma who presented with abdominal pain and distension. Laparotomy followed by cystectomy was done and postoperative period was uneventful with no abnormal biochemical, heamatological or imaging findings. Preoperative radio-imaging techniques may not always be helpful in arriving at a specific diagnosis in such cases. Hence thorough sampling and a careful histopathological examination is considered gold standard for specific diagnosis. PMID:27042478

  1. LKB1 and Notch Pathways Interact and Control Biliary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Poncy, Alexis; Charawi, Sara; Dahmani, Rajae; Traore, Massiré; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drouet, Valérie; Dumont, Florent; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Colnot, Sabine; Terris, Benoit; Coulouarn, Cédric; Lemaigre, Frédéric; Perret, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background LKB1 is an evolutionary conserved kinase implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including inhibition of cell proliferation, regulation of cell polarity and metabolism. When Lkb1 is inactivated in the liver, glucose homeostasis is perturbed, cellular polarity is affected and cholestasis develops. Cholestasis occurs as a result from deficient bile duct development, yet how LKB1 impacts on biliary morphogenesis is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the phenotype of mice in which deletion of the Lkb1 gene has been specifically targeted to the hepatoblasts. Our results confirmed that lack of LKB1 in the liver results in bile duct paucity leading to cholestasis. Immunostaining analysis at a prenatal stage showed that LKB1 is not required for differentiation of hepatoblasts to cholangiocyte precursors but promotes maturation of the primitive ductal structures to mature bile ducts. This phenotype is similar to that obtained upon inactivation of Notch signaling in the liver. We tested the hypothesis of a functional overlap between the LKB1 and Notch pathways by gene expression profiling of livers deficient in Lkb1 or in the Notch mediator RbpJκ and identified a mutual cross-talk between LKB1 and Notch signaling. In vitro experiments confirmed that Notch activity was deficient upon LKB1 loss. Conclusion LKB1 and Notch share a common genetic program in the liver, and regulate bile duct morphogenesis. PMID:26689699

  2. Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Riva, Silvia; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2008-09-15

    We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

  3. Prospective study of outcomes after percutaneous biliary drainage for malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Robson, P. C.; Heffernan, N.; Gonen, M.; Thornton, R.; Brody, L. A.; Holmes, R.; Brown, K. T.; Covey, A. M.; Fleischer, D.; Getrajdman, G. I.; Jarnagin, W.; Sofocleous, C.; Blumgart, L.; D’Angelica, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) is used to relieve malignant bile duct obstruction (MBO) when endoscopic drainage is not feasible. Little is known about the effects of PBD on the quality of life (QoL) in patients with MBO. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in QoL and pruritus after PBD and to explore the variables that impact these changes. Patients and Methods Eligible patients reported their QoL and pruritus before and after PBD using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Hepatobiliary instrument (FACT-HS) and the Visual Analog Scale for Pruritus (VASP). Instruments were completed pre-procedure and at one and four weeks following PBD. Results One hundred and nine (60 male/49 female) patients enrolled, 102 (94%) had unresectable disease. PBD was technically successful (hepatic ducts cannulated at the conclusion of procedure) in all patients. There were two procedure-related deaths. All-cause mortality was 10% (N=11) at 4 weeks and 28% (N=31) at 8 weeks post PBD with a median survival of 4.74 months. The mean FACT-HS scores declined significantly (P<.01) over time (101.3, 94.8, 94.7 at baseline, 1 week, 4 weeks, respectively). The VASP scores showed significant improvement at 1 week with continued improvement at 4 weeks (P<.01). Conclusion PBD improves pruritus but not QoL in patients with MBO and advanced malignancy. There is high early mortality in this population. PMID:20358300

  4. Genome-wide association studies in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, Mylarappa; Min, Jun; Higgs, Brandon W; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a model complex disease resulting from interactions between multiple susceptibility loci and environmental factors. This perception is based on a heterogeneous phenotype extending beyond an absent extrahepatic bile duct to include gut and cardiovascular anomalies, and the association of BA with viral infections. Refractory jaundice and progression to cirrhosis shortly after birth can be fatal without surgical correction, and further suggests a pathogenesis during liver and bile duct development. Conclusive proof for a developmental origin would require documentation of disease progression in the perinatal or fetal liver, an impossible task for obvious reasons. We review three different sets of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from three different cohorts of BA patients by three different groups of investigators, which address this knowledge gap. Knockdown of each susceptibility gene identified by GWAS in zebrafish embryos impairs excretion of bile from the liver, duplicating the characteristic diagnostic finding seen in affected children. This finding is associated with impaired intrahepatic biliary network formation in zebrafish morphants. Although distinct, these susceptibility genes share several functions including roles in mechanisms for organogenesis (glypican 1 or GPC1, and adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 6, or ARF6) or a greater expression in fetal liver than in adult liver (adducin 3 or ADD3). Together, these studies emphasize the importance of the human evidence, and present opportunities to map novel pathways which explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of BA. PMID:25963027

  5. Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and Curettage ( ... February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage (D& ...

  6. Biliary papillomatosis with malignant transformation: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GU, CHICHANG; LIN, YE; JIN, HAOSHENG; JIAN, ZHIXIANG

    2015-01-01

    Biliary papillomatosis is a rare benign tumor that possesses a high potential for malignant transformation, and is frequently misdiagnosed. In the present report, a case of biliary papillomatosis with malignant transformation in a 63-year-old female, with a 19-year history of cholelithiasis, is presented. The patient presented with right epigastric pain and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse mass in the right liver lobe, which extended through the common bile duct. Definitive preoperative diagnosis was unable to be established; however, following surgical resection of the tumor, a diagnosis of biliary papillomatosis with malignant transformation was confirmed by pathological examination. The patient was followed up seven months later and no recurrence was detected. A supplementary review of previously published literature is additionally presented. PMID:26722332

  7. Chemical ablation of the gallbladder using alcohol in cholecystitis after palliative biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sang-Pil; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Chang-Kyun; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Hong-Soo; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2009-04-28

    Chemical ablation of the gallbladder is effective in patients at high risk of complications after surgery. Percutaneous gallbladder drainage is an effective treatment for cholecystitis; however, when the drain tube cannot be removed because of recurrent symptoms, retaining it can cause problems. An 82-year-old woman presented with cholecystitis and cholangitis caused by biliary stent occlusion and suspected tumor invasion of the cystic duct. We present successful chemical ablation of the gallbladder using pure alcohol, through a percutaneous gallbladder drainage tube, in a patient who developed intractable cholecystitis with obstruction of the cystic duct after receiving a biliary stent. Our results suggest that chemical ablation therapy is an effective alternative to surgical therapy for intractable cholecystitis. PMID:19399941

  8. Small cell carcinoma of the liver and biliary tract without jaundice.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jae-Min; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Hyun, Chang-Lim; Han, Kyoung-Hee; Rhee, Ji-Young; Kwon, Jung-Mi; Kim, Woo-Kun; Han, Sang-Hoon

    2013-11-28

    An 80-year-old woman presenting with chest pain was found to have a large, lobulated soft tissue mass in the liver and nearby tissues on abdominal computed tomography (CT). The tumor had invaded the common hepatic artery and main portal vein. Jaundice developed 4 wk later, at which point, a pancreas and biliary CT scan revealed a large mass in the right lobe of the liver and a hilar duct obstruction, which was found to be a small cell carcinoma. Despite its rarity, liver and bile duct small cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical chest pain without jaundice. PMID:24307811

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the liver and biliary tract without jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jae-Min; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Hyun, Chang-Lim; Han, Kyoung-Hee; Rhee, Ji-Young; Kwon, Jung-Mi; Kim, Woo-Kun; Han, Sang-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presenting with chest pain was found to have a large, lobulated soft tissue mass in the liver and nearby tissues on abdominal computed tomography (CT). The tumor had invaded the common hepatic artery and main portal vein. Jaundice developed 4 wk later, at which point, a pancreas and biliary CT scan revealed a large mass in the right lobe of the liver and a hilar duct obstruction, which was found to be a small cell carcinoma. Despite its rarity, liver and bile duct small cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical chest pain without jaundice. PMID:24307811

  10. Tamoxifen decreases the myofibroblast count in the healing bile duct tissue of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Orlando Hiroshi Kiono; Filho, Benedito Herani; de Paula, Rafael Erthal; Áscoli, Fábio Otero; da Nóbrega, Antonio Cláudio Lucas; Carvalho, Angela Cristina Gouvêa; Pires, Andréa Rodrigues Cordovil; Gaglionone, Nicolle Cavalcante; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral tamoxifen treatment on the number of myofibroblasts present during the healing process after experimental bile duct injury. METHODS: The sample consisted of 16 pigs that were divided into two groups (the control and study groups). Incisions and suturing of the bile ducts were performed in the two groups. Tamoxifen (20 mg/day) was administered only to the study group. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days. Quantification of myofibroblasts in the biliary ducts was made through immunohistochemistry analysis using anti-alpha smooth muscle actin of the smooth muscle antibody. Immunohistochemical quantification was performed using a digital image system. RESULTS: In the animals treated with tamoxifen (20 mg/day), there was a significant reduction in immunostaining for alpha smooth muscle actin compared with the control group (0.1155 vs. 0.2021, p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Tamoxifen reduced the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin in the healing tissue after bile duct injury, suggesting a decrease in myofibroblasts in the scarred area of the pig biliary tract. These data suggest that tamoxifen could be used in the prevention of biliary tract stenosis after bile duct surgeries. PMID:23420165

  11. Blunt Dissection: A Solution to Prevent Bile Duct Injury in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiu-Jun; Ying, Han-Ning; Yu, Hong; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Wen-Bin; Li, Jian-Bo; Ji, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been a standard operation and replaced the open cholecystectomy (OC) rapidly because the technique resulted in less pain, smaller incision, and faster recovery. This study was to evaluate the value of blunt dissection in preventing bile duct injury (BDI) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods: From 2003 to 2015, LC was performed on 21,497 patients, 7470 males and 14,027 females, age 50.3 years (14–84 years). The Calot's triangle was bluntly dissected and each duct in Calot's triangle was identified before transecting the cystic duct. Results: Two hundred and thirty-nine patients (1.1%) were converted to open procedures. The postoperative hospital stay was 2.1 (0–158) days, and cases (46%) had hospitalization days of 1 day or less, and 92.8% had hospitalization days of 3 days or less; BDI was occurred in 20 cases (0.09%) including 6 cases of common BDI, 2 cases of common hepatic duct injury, 1 case of right hepatic duct injury, 1 case of accessory right hepatic duct, 1 case of aberrant BDI 1 case of biliary stricture, 1 case of biliary duct perforation, 3 cases of hemobilia, and 4 cases of bile leakage. Conclusion: Exposing Calot's triangle by blunt dissection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy could prevent intraoperative BDI. PMID:26612288

  12. Effective Treatment of Biliary Cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K Tyson; Welch, Derek; Trueblood, Andrew; Sulur, Paulgun; Wise, Paul; Gorden, D Lee; Chari, Ravi S.; Wright, J Kelly; Washington, Kay; Pinson, C Wright

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate experience over 15 years with treatment of this lesion. Summary Background Data: Biliary cystadenoma, a benign hepatic tumor arising from Von Meyenberg complexes, usually present as septated intrahepatic cystic lesions. Methods: Data were collected concurrently and retrospectively on patients identified from hospital medical records reviewed for pertinent International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and CPT codes, pathology logs, and from operative case logs. Pathology specimens were rereviewed to confirm the diagnosis of biliary cystadenoma or biliary cystadenocarcinoma by 2 GI pathologists. Results: From October 1989 to April 2004 at our institution, 19 (18F:1M) patients had pathologically confirmed biliary cystadenomas, including one with a biliary cystadenocarcinoma. The mean age was 48 ± 15 years at initial evaluation. Complaints included abdominal pain in 74%, abdominal distension in 26%, and nausea/vomiting in 11%. Only 1 patient presented with an incidental finding. Symptoms had been present for 3 ± 5 years, with 1 to 4 different surgeons and many other physicians involved in the diagnosis or treatment prior to definitive ablation. Eight patients had undergone 20 previous treatments, including multiple percutaneous aspirations in 4 and 11 operative procedures. CT or US was diagnostic in 95%, with internal septations present in the hepatic cysts. Definitive operative intervention consisted of hepatic resection in 12 patients, enucleation in 6 patients, and fenestration and complete fulguration in 1 patient. There were no perioperative deaths. No recurrences were observed after definitive therapy, with follow-up of 4 ± 4 years. Conclusions: Biliary cystadenoma must be recognized and treated differently than most hepatic cysts. There remains a need for education about the imaging findings for biliary cystadenoma to reduce the demonstrated delay in appropriate treatment. Traditional treatment of simple cysts such as aspiration, drainage, and marsupialization results in near universal recurrence and occasional malignant degeneration. This experience demonstrates effective options include total ablation by standard hepatic resection and cyst enucleation. PMID:15849512

  13. Beta cells occur naturally in extrahepatic bile ducts of mice.

    PubMed

    Dutton, James R; Chillingworth, Naomi L; Eberhard, Daniel; Brannon, Claire R; Hornsey, Mark A; Tosh, David; Slack, Jonathan M W

    2007-01-15

    Insulin-secreting beta cells were thought to reside only in the pancreas. Here, we show that beta cells are also present in the extra-hepatic bile ducts of mice. They are characterised by insulin and C-peptide content, the presence of secretory granules that are immunoreactive for insulin, and the ducts exhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Genetic lineage labelling shows that these beta cells arise from the liver domain rather than the pancreas and, by histological study, they appear to be formed directly from the bile duct epithelium in late embryogenesis. Other endocrine cell types (producing somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide) are also found in close association with the bile-duct-derived beta cells, but exocrine pancreatic tissue is not present. This discovery of beta cells outside the mammalian pancreas has implications for regenerative medicine, indicating that biliary epithelium might offer a new source of beta cells for the treatment of diabetes. The finding also has evolutionary significance, because it is known that certain basal vertebrates usually form all of their beta cells from the bile ducts. The mammalian bile-duct-derived beta cells might therefore represent an extant trace of the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate beta cell. PMID:17179205

  14. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. PMID:25992160

  15. Nasolacrimal duct mucocele: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. PMID:25992160

  16. Fracture of Self-Expandable Metal Stent during Endoscopic Removal in Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kyu Re; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin Mo

    2013-01-01

    The endoscopic insertion of the self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) in benign biliary stricture has become an alternative to surgery. Fracture or migration of SEMS can occur rarely as complications. We report a case of fracture of SEMS during endoscopic retrieval in patients with chronic pancreatitis. In this case, broken stent was successfully removed with endoscopic ballooning of bile duct and with a snare device. PMID:23423882

  17. Pneumobilia After Penetrating Trauma Abdominal Wall with no Injury to the Biliary Tree- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Sartaj Singh; Sampley, Sunil K; Chhabra, Kapil

    2013-06-01

    Pneumobilia denotes an abnormal connection between the gastrointestinal and the biliary tracts. In the absence of surgically created anastomosis between the bowel and the bile duct, the common causes for pneumobilia are gallstone obstruction, endoscopic interventions or emphysematous cholecystitis. We present the case of a young male with traumatic pneumobilia with gastric perforation and a tear in the mesentery of the small gut following penetrating trauma in the form of stab in the abdomen. PMID:24426638

  18. Percutaneous Embolization of Transhepatic Tracks for Biliary Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Stuart M.; Terhaar, Olaf; Given, Mark F.; O'Dwyer, Helena M.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2006-12-15

    Significant pain can occur after removing transhepatic catheters from biliary access tracks, after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) or stenting. We undertook a randomized prospective study to ascertain whether track embolization decreases the amount of pain or analgesic requirement after PBD. Fifty consecutive patients (M:F, 22:28; age range:29-85 years; mean age: 66.3 years) undergoing PBD were randomized to receive track embolization or no track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters. A combination of Lipoidol and n-butyl cyanoacrylate were used to embolize transhepatic tracks using an 8F dilator. The patients who did not have track embolization performed had biliary drainage catheters removed over a guide wire. A visual analog scoring (VAS) system was used to grade pain associated with catheter removal, 24 h afterward. A required analgesic score (RAS) was devised to tabulate the analgesia required. No analgesia had a score of 0, oral or rectal nonopiate analgesics had a score of 1, oral opiates had a score of 2, and parenteral opiates had a score of 3. The average VAS and RAS for both groups were calculated and compared.Seven patients were excluded for various reasons, leaving 43 patients in the study group. Twenty-one patients comprised the embolization group and 22 patients comprised the nonembolization group. The mean biliary catheter dwell time was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the embolization group and nonembolization (mean: 5.4 days vs 6.9 days, respectively). In the nonembolization group, the mean VAS was 3.4. Eight patients required parenteral opiates, three patients required oral opiates, and five patients required oral or rectal analgesics, yielding a mean RAS of 1.6. In the embolization group, the mean VAS was 0.9. No patient required parenteral opiates, six patients required oral opiates, and two patients had oral analgesia. The average RAS was 0.6. Both the VAS and the RAS were significantly lower in the embolization group compared with the nonembolization group (p < 0.0023 and p < 0.002, respectively). No complications were seen related to track embolization. Percutaneous track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters decreases patient's perception of pain and decreases the amount of required analgesia. In particular, the amount of opiate analgesia required is considerably less.

  19. Hepatic and Biliary Ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anup K

    2014-01-01

    Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA) is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number. PMID:24926166

  20. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an idiopathic chronic autoimmune liver disease that primarily affects women. It is believed that the etiology for PBC is a combination between environmental triggers in genetically vulnerable persons. The diagnosis for PBC is made when two of the three criteria are fulfilled and they are: (1) biochemical evidence of cholestatic liver disease for at least 6 month’s duration; (2) anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) positivity; and (3) histologic features of PBC on liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only FDA-approved medical treatment for PBC and should be administered at a recommended dose of 13-15mg/kg/day. Unfortunately despite adequate dosing of UDCA, approximately one-third of patients does not respond adequately and may require liver transplantation. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the role of environmental exposures and overall genetic impact not only in the development of PBC, but on disease progression and variable clinical response to therapy. PMID:20955967

  1. The Role of ARF6 in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Joseph; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Min, Jun; Higgs, Brandon W.; Sun, Qing; Haberman, Kimberly; Schmitt, Lori; Vilarinho, Silvia; Mistry, Pramod K.; Vockley, Gerard; Dhawan, Anil; Gittes, George K.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Jaffe, Ronald; Subramaniam, Shankar; Shin, Donghun; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Altered extrahepatic bile ducts, gut, and cardiovascular anomalies constitute the variable phenotype of biliary atresia (BA). Methods To identify potential susceptibility loci, Caucasian children, normal (controls) and with BA (cases) at two US centers were compared at >550000 SNP loci. Systems biology analysis was carried out on the data. In order to validate a key gene identified in the analysis, biliary morphogenesis was evaluated in 2-5-day post-fertilization zebrafish embryos after morpholino-antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of the candidate gene ADP ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6, Mo-arf6). Results Among 39 and 24 cases at centers 1 and 2, respectively, and 1907 controls, which clustered together on principal component analysis, the SNPs rs3126184 and rs10140366 in a 3’ flanking enhancer region for ARF6 demonstrated higher minor allele frequencies (MAF) in each cohort, and 63 combined cases, compared with controls (0.286 vs. 0.131, P = 5.94x10-7, OR 2.66; 0.286 vs. 0.13, P = 5.57x10-7, OR 2.66). Significance was enhanced in 77 total cases, which included 14 additional BA genotyped at rs3126184 only (p = 1.58x10-2, OR = 2.66). Pathway analysis of the 1000 top-ranked SNPs in CHP cases revealed enrichment of genes for EGF regulators (p<1 x10-7), ERK/MAPK and CREB canonical pathways (p<1 x10-34), and functional networks for cellular development and proliferation (p<1 x10-45), further supporting the role of EGFR-ARF6 signaling in BA. In zebrafish embryos, Mo-arf6 injection resulted in a sparse intrahepatic biliary network, several biliary epithelial cell defects, and poor bile excretion to the gall bladder compared with uninjected embryos. Biliary defects were reproduced with the EGFR-blocker AG1478 alone or with Mo-arf6 at lower doses of each agent and rescued with arf6 mRNA. Conclusions The BA-associated SNPs identify a chromosome 14q21.3 susceptibility locus encompassing the ARF6 gene. arf6 knockdown in zebrafish implicates early biliary dysgenesis as a basis for BA, and also suggests a role for EGFR signaling in BA pathogenesis. PMID:26379158

  2. Biliary calcium and gallstone formation.

    PubMed

    Moore, E W

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief overview of the current status of the field of biliary calcium and the role of calcium in the formation and maturation of gallstones. The study of free Ca+(+) ions in bile by electrochemical potentiometric measurements using Ca+(+)-selective ion-exchange electrodes is a relatively new field, but much progress has been made in the past few years. Using this powerful analytical tool, new concepts and findings have arisen in almost every aspect of biliary calcium. Although the current symposium is targeted primarily toward cholesterol gallstones, there are several areas in which understanding of biliary calcium may significantly contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cholesterol, as well as "pigment" (calcium salt), gallstones. Five broad areas are considered in relation to biliary calcium: (a) physiology (calcium entry into bile), (b) biophysics (the regulation of biliary free [Ca+(+)] as related to Gibbs-Donnan equilibria, (c) physical chemistry (the physicochemical state of calcium in bile, (d) thermodynamics (calcium solubility in bile), and (e) kinetics (pronucleating and antinucleating factors and metastable states). With more specific reference to cholesterol stones, consideration is also made of (a) the calcium salt "seed" hypothesis in cholesterol stone pathogenesis; (b) the interactions of Ca+(+) with phospholipid-cholesterol vesicles, with consideration of possible structural requirements and (c) thermodynamic and kinetic factors as related to peripheral or "eggshell" calcification of existing cholesterol stones. PMID:2210651

  3. Advances in pharmacotherapy for primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Hani; Lleo, Ana; Invernizzi, Pietro; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease mostly seen in middle aged women characterized by progressive non-suppurative destruction of small bile ducts resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, parenchymal injury, and ultimately end stage liver disease. Despite major breakthroughs in our understanding of PBC, there remains only one FDA-approved agent for treatment: ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to which one third of patients are unresponsive. Areas covered Biochemical response to treatment with UDCA is associated with excellent survival rates in PBC patients. However, there is a need for alternative treatments for non-responders. Results from human epidemiological and genetic studies as well as preclinical studies in PBC animal models have provided a strong impetus for the development of new therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in translational research in PBC focusing on promising therapeutic approaches, namely immune-based targeted therapies and agents targeting the synthesis and circulation of bile acids. Expert opinion We are in a new era for the development of novel therapies for PBC. Data on fibrates, budesonide, and obeticholic acid offer encouragement for non-responders to UDCA. PMID:25543678

  4. Geographic Clusters of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Mouch, Saif; Selmi, Carlo; Benson, Gordon D.; Kenny, Thomas P.; Invernizzi, Pietro; Zuin, Massimo; Podda, Mauro; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors have been widely suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology leading to destruction of small bile ducts. Interestingly, epidemiologic data indicate a variable prevalence of the disease in different geographical areas. The study of clusters of PBC may provide clues as to possible triggers in the induction of immunopathology. We report herein four such unique PBC clusters that suggest the presence of both genetic and environmental factors in the induction of PBC. The first cluster is represented by a family of ten siblings of Palestinian origin that have an extraordinary frequency of PBC (with 5/8 sisters having the disease). Second, we describe the cases of a husband and wife, both having PBC. A family in which PBC was diagnosed in two genetically unrelated individuals, who lived in the same household, represents the third cluster. Fourth, we report a high prevalence of PBC cases in a very small area in Alaska. Although these data are anedoctal, the study of a large number of such clusters may provide a tool to estimate the roles of genetics and environment in the induction of autoimmunity. PMID:14768943

  5. Genomic variants associated with primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune hepatobiliary disease characterized by immune-mediated injury of small and medium-sized bile ducts, eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Several studies have addressed PBC immunopathology, and the data support an immune activation leading to autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells acting against the lipoylated 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes. The causes of the disease remain unknown, but environmental factors and genetic susceptibility both contribute to its onset. Over the past two decades several association studies have addressed the role of genetic polymorphisms in PBC pathogenesis and have reported multiple associations. However, only a few studies had sufficient statistical power, and in most cases results were not independently validated. A genome-wide association study has recently been reported, but this too awaits independent confirmation. The aim of this present work is to critically review the numerous studies dedicated to revealing genetic associations in PBC, and to predict the potential for future studies based on these data. PMID:20193050

  6. Biliary atresia and neonatal hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wynchank, S.; Guillet, J.; Leccia, F.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.

    1984-03-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m diethyl IDA was performed on 14 jaundiced neonates. It aided greatly the differential diagnosis between neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. Limitations in the interpretation of the results are described, as neonatal hepatitis may be accompanied by biliary excretion ranging from zero to normal. Also both biliary atresia (intra- and extrahepatic) and neonatal hepatitis may show no biliary excretion within 24 hours.

  7. Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

  8. Trps1 Regulates Biliary Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Has Roles during Biliary Fibrosis in Liver Grafts: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhe, Cheng; Yu, Fan; Tian, Ju; Zheng, Shuguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role(s) of Trps1 in non-anastomotic biliary stricture (NABS) following liver transplantation. Methods Immunohistochemical and histological techniques were used to detect Trps1, E-cadherin, CK19, vimentin, α-SMA, and collagen deposition. Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBECs) were infected with a Trps1 adenovirus, or transfected with Trps1 short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays and western blotting were used to determine expression levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and Trps1 in HIBECs. Results Expression of Trps1 and epithelial markers was down-regulated or absent in NABS liver samples. Mesenchymal markers were seen in biliary epithelial cells (BECs), with collagen deposited around the bile duct. Trps1 expression positively correlated with epithelial markers. Expression of epithelial marker mRNAs and proteins in HIBECs decreased with prolonged cold preservation (CP), while mesenchymal marker expression increased. A 12-h CP period led to increased Trps1 mRNA and protein levels. Expression of E-cadherin was increased in HIBECs following Trps1 adenovirus infection and CP/reperfusion injury (CPRI), with vimentin expression levels reduced and CPRI-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibited. Transfection of HIBECs with Trps1 siRNAs in conjunction with CPRI revealed that E-cadherin expression was decreased, vimentin expression was increased, and CPRI-mediated EMT was promoted. Conclusion Trps1 is involved in NABS pathogenesis following liver transplantation and negatively correlates with BEC EMT and biliary fibrosis in liver grafts. Trps1 demonstrates antagonistic effects that could reverse EMT. PMID:25886207

  9. Natural history of asymptomatic bile duct stones at time of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Caddy, G. R.; Kirby, J.; Kirk, S. J.; Allen, M. J.; Moorehead, R. J.; Tham, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is little data on the natural history of asymptomatic bile duct stones and hence there is uncertainty on the management of asymptomatic bile duct stones discovered incidentally at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We retrospectively reviewed a group of patients who had previously underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but who did not have a pre-operative suspicion of intra-ductal stones, to determine if any biliary complications had subsequently developed. A group of patients who had no pre-operative suspicion of intra-ductal stones, but routinely underwent intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) at time of cholecystectomy, served as the control group. METHODS: A telephone questionnaire was completed by each patient's family practitioner in 59 of 79 (75%) patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the remaining 20 patients additional information was obtained from hospital records and from the central services agency (CSA). These patients had no pre-operative suspicion of bile duct stones and therefore did not undergo an IOC or ERCP. The control group (73 patients) had no pre-operative suspicion of bile duct stones but had a routine IOC performed to define the biliary anatomy. RESULTS: 59 patients were followed up for an average of 57 months (range 30-78 months) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. None of these patients developed pancreatitis, jaundice, deranged liver function tests (LFT's), or required ERCP or other biliary intervention. In the additional 20 patients where no information was available from the family practitioner, 11 patients had follow up appointments with no documentation of biliary complications or abnormal LFT's. 19 of 20 patients were traceable through the CSA and were all alive. Only 1 patient was untraceable and therefore unknown if biliary complications had developed. In the control group, 4 of 73 (6%) patients had intraductal stones detected and extracted. Thus the prevalence of asymptomatic bile duct stones during the time of cholecystectomy in our population was 6%. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic bile duct stones discovered at the time of cholecystectomy do not appear to cause any biliary complications over a 5-year follow up. Incidental bile duct stones found in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy may not need to be removed. PMID:16235763

  10. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae Woong Lu, David S. K. Osuagwu, Ferdnand Raman, Steven; Lassman, Charles

    2013-11-07

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

  11. Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected weekly. The baking test specimens were visually inspected weekly, and the durability was judged by the observed deterioration in terms of brittleness, cracking, flaking and blistering (the terminology used in the UL 181B-FX test procedure).

  12. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Cano, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Biliary fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) are now being used to treat several benign biliary conditions. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters in addition to an easy insertion technique. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. In benign biliary strictures that usually require multiple procedures, despite the substantially higher cost of FCSEMS compared with plastic stents, the use of FCSEMS is offset by the reduced number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography interventions required to achieve stricture resolution. In the same way, FCSEMS have also been employed to treat complex bile leaks, perforation and bleeding after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and as an aid to maintain permanent drainage tracts obtained by means of Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided biliary drainage. Good success rates have been achieved in all these conditions with an acceptable number of complications. FCSEMS were successfully removed in all patients. Comparative studies of FCSEMS and plastic stents are needed to demonstrate efficacy and cost-effectiveness PMID:22523615

  13. Duct Tape Durability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2004-04-01

    Duct leakage is a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums, or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections, a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that taped seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been testing sealant durability for several years using accelerated test methods and found that typical duct tape (i.e., cloth-backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) fails more rapidly than other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing over two years for four UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (two cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The tests involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars. Periodic air leakage tests and visual inspection were used to document changes in sealant performance. After two years of testing, the flex-to-collar connections showed little change in air leakage, but substantial visual degradation from some products. A surprising experimental result was failure of most of the clamps used to mechanically fasten the connections. This indicates that the durability of clamps also need to be addressed ensure longevity of the duct connection. An accelerated test method developed during this study has been used as the basis for an ASTM standard (E2342-03).

  14. [Interaction of octapeptide of cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P on dynamics of biliary system and cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zou, S; Qiu, F

    1997-01-01

    We tested in vivo: (a) the effect of an i.v. infusion of cholecystokinin octapeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide or substance P on dynamics of biliary system and cardiovascular system, (b) the relation of dynamics of biliary system and cardiovascular system. In 91 anesthetized guinea pigs, left ventricle motility of heart, sphincter of Oddi motility and common bile duct pressure were monitored during the intravenous administration of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and combination of CCK-OP and VIP. Intravenous CCK-OP increased fasting Oddis sphincter motility index, decreased the basal pressure in sphincter of Oddi, increased common bile duct pressure, and decreased the left ventricle of heart motility. VIP alone showed no significant effect on biliary system and cardiovascular system, but in conjunction with CCK-OP it produced inhibition on the effects of CCK-OP on both sides. Exogenous SP acted like CCK-OP on both biliary system and cardiovascular system, but it was less potent. We conclude that it may be an important interaction between dynamics of biliary system and cardiovascular system; and gastrointestinal peptide plays an important role in this interaction in guinea pigs. PMID:10374510

  15. Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Cisco; Unruh, William G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer (Gooding and Unruh in Phys Rev D 90:044071, 2014). The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015). We note that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, emphasizing that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Whereas the effect described in (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015) vanishes in the absence of an external gravitational field, our approach bootstraps the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, yielding a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.

  16. Ducted auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1982-01-01

    Certain discrete, intense wave signals attributed to auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) were observed with ISEE-l while it was within the plasmaspheric shadow zone for direct propagation. It is believed that wave ducting by thin depletions of the plasma density aligned with the magnetic field accounts for such signals, and that their discrete nature is caused by the satellite intercepting individual ducts. These ducts, which were also observed as coincident decreases of the upper hybrid resonance frequency, appeared to be twenty-percent depletions roughly one hundred kilometers across. The AKR, which is emitted approximately perpendicular to the magnetic field, apparently entered these ducts equatorward of the source after the waves had been refracted parallel to the duct axis. A diffuse background was also observed which is consistent with the leakage from similar ducts at lower L-values. These observations establish the existence of ducted AKR, its signature on the satellite wave spectrograms, and new evidence for depletion ducts within the plasmasphere.

  17. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Visrodia, Kavel H; Tabibian, James H; Baron, Todd H

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic management of biliary obstruction has evolved tremendously since the introduction of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. For the last several decades, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become established as the mainstay for definitively diagnosing and relieving biliary obstruction. In addition, and more recently, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained increasing favor as an auxiliary diagnostic and therapeutic modality in facilitating decompression of the biliary tree. Here, we provide a review of the current and continually evolving role of gastrointestinal endoscopy, including both ERCP and EUS, in the management of biliary obstruction with a focus on benign biliary strictures. PMID:26322153

  18. SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE LIVER DISEASE CAUSED BY A BILIARY CALCULUS IN A CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Chatterton, James; Unwin, Steve; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; Bridson-Walton, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    A 40-yr-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with intermittent, short-duration episodes of nonspecific clinical signs that included lethargy and reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Clinical examination and diagnostics suggested obstructive hepatic disease, which was confirmed by subsequent ultrasonographic examination. During routine laparotomy, a biliary calculus was removed from the distal common bile duct and the gallbladder was removed, which resulted in complete clinical recovery. The biliary calculus was analyzed as a mixed composition of predominantly cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium. PMID:26667553

  19. Congenital web of the common bile duct in association with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, Basilios; Lazaridis, Charalampos; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Galanis, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Papaziogas, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Congenital web formations are extremely rare anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree. The age at presentation and the clinical symptomatology of these anomalies depend on the grade of the biliary obstruction. We report a case of a common bile duct septum in association with cholelithiasis in a 30-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made on preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and confirmed with intraoperative cholangiography. Because all known causes of acquired web formation were excluded, a congenital origin of the web was assumed. The patient was treated with a hepaticoduodenostomy above the level of the septum. The embryological aspects of this rare anomaly are described. PMID:12140619

  20. [Biliary atresia and polysplenia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kerkeni, Yosra; Ksia, Amine; Zitouni, Hayet; Belghith, Mohsen; Lassad, Sahnoun; Krichene, Imed; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    Polysplenia syndrome is a rare malformation characterized by the association of multiple rates and other congenital anomalies dominated by cardiac, vascular, intestinal and bile malformations. We report the observation of a patient operated in the neonatal period (3 days) for an upper intestinal obstruction with situs inversus. Surgical exploration noted the presence of multiple rates, a preduodenal vein, a biliary atresia and a duodenal atresia. The surgical procedures performed were a latero-lateral duodeno-duodenostomy and hepatoportoenterostomy of KASAI with simple immediate and delayed outcomes. The follow up was of 23 years. We recall the epidemiological characteristics of this malformative association and we discuss the role played by the prognosis of polysplenia syndrome in the evolution of biliary atresia. The diagnosis and treatment of biliary atresia are always urgent to increase the chances of success of the Kasai, and the chances of prolonged survival with native liver. However, almost all long-term survivors (even anicteric) have biliary cirrhosis, which requires lifelong follow up. PMID:26815511

  1. Cardiomyopathy, familial dilated

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Matthew RG; Carniel, Elisa; Mestroni, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterized by ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function. Patients with DCM suffer from heart failure, arrhythmia, and are at risk of premature death. DCM has a prevalence of one case out of 2500 individuals with an incidence of 7/100,000/year (but may be under diagnosed). In many cases the disease is inherited and is termed familial DCM (FDC). FDC may account for 20–48% of DCM. FDC is principally caused by genetic mutations in FDC genes that encode for cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins in the cardiac myocyte. Family history analysis is an important tool for identifying families affected by FDC. Standard criteria for evaluating FDC families have been published and the use of such criteria is increasing. Clinical genetic testing has been developed for some FDC genes and will be increasingly utilized for evaluating FDC families. Through the use of family screening by pedigree analysis and/or genetic testing, it is possible to identify patients at earlier, or even presymptomatic stages of their disease. This presents an opportunity to invoke lifestyle changes and to provide pharmacological therapy earlier in the course of disease. Genetic counseling is used to identify additional asymptomatic family members who are at risk of developing symptoms, allowing for regular screening of these individuals. The management of FDC focuses on limiting the progression of heart failure and controlling arrhythmia, and is based on currently accepted treatment guidelines for DCM. It includes general measures (salt and fluid restriction, treatment of hypertension, limitation of alcohol intake, control of body weight, moderate exercise) and pharmacotherapy. Cardiac resynchronization, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices have progressively expanding usage. Patients with severe heart failure, severe reduction of the functional capacity and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction have a low survival rate and may require heart transplant. PMID:16839424

  2. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  3. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities. PMID:26930491

  4. Primary biliary cirrhosis: lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Sambataro, A; Baldi, S; Modena, V; Todros, L; Libertucci, D; Coni, F; Fusaro, E; Revello, F; Murgia, A

    1995-08-01

    Sub-clinical lung impairment, mostly represented by a reduced diffusion of alveolar gases, is a recognised complication of advanced primary biliary cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of pulmonary involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis and the relationship between lung function abnormalities and selected epidemiological and clinical variables. Sixty-one patients with different stages of primary biliary cirrhosis consecutively seen in our outpatient clinic were evaluated. The advancement of primary biliary cirrhosis was characterised by the histological stage, the presence of signs of portal hypertension and the Mayo Risk Score: a Cox regression model using serum bilirubin and albumin levels, prothrombin time, age and degree of oedema as selected variables. We measured static and dynamic lung volumes, by means of a spirometer, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. Rheumatological disorders were evaluated by an independent rheumatologist. No patient complained of respiratory symptoms. Airway obstruction was present in one patient. In 24 patients (39%) the alveolar diffusion capacity was reduced. We did not find any significant relationship between diffusing capacity and smoking habits, advancement of liver disease and concomitant Sjogren syndrome. Reduced diffusion capacity showed a significant correlation with the presence of complete or incomplete CREST syndrome (p < 0.01) and with the presence of circulating anti-centromere antibodies (p < 0.05). Alveolar diffusion capacity is frequently impaired in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, usually in the absence of clinical manifestations. These alterations mostly affect patients with concomitant CREST syndrome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8544642

  5. Intrahepatic bile ducts develop according to a new mode of tubulogenesis regulated by the transcription factor SOX9

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Aline; Raynaud, Peggy; Cordi, Sabine; Zong, Yiwei; Tronche, François; Stanger, Ben; Jacquemin, Patrick; Pierreux, Christophe E.; Clotman, Frederic; Lemaigre, Frederic P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS A number of diseases are characterized by defective formation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. In the embryo, hepatoblasts differentiate to cholangiocytes which give rise to the intrahepatic bile ducts. Here we investigated how these ducts develop in mouse liver and characterized the role of the transcription factor SOX9. METHODS We identified SOX9 as a new biliary marker and used it with other cell markers in immunostaining experiments to characterize the process of bile duct morphogenesis. The expression of growth factors was determined by in situ hybridization and immunostaining, and their role was studied on cultured embryonic hepatoblasts. SOX9 function was investigated by phenotyping mice with a liver-specific inactivation of Sox9. RESULTS Biliary tubulogenesis started with formation of asymmetrical ductal structures, lined on the portal side by cholangiocytes and on the parenchymal side by hepatoblasts. When the ducts grew from the hilum to the periphery, the hepatoblasts lining the asymmetrical structures differentiated to cholangiocytes, thereby allowing formation of symmetrical ducts lined only by cholangiocytes. We also provide evidence that TGFβ promotes differentiation of the hepatoblasts lining the asymmetrical structures. In the absence of SOX9, the maturation of asymmetrical structures into symmetrical ducts was delayed. This was associated with abnormal expression of C/EBPα and HES1, as well as of the TGFβ receptor type II, which are regulators of biliary development. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that biliary development proceeds according to a new mode of tubulogenesis characterized by transient asymmetry and whose timing is controlled by SOX9. PMID:19403103

  6. Laparoscopic Anatomical Left Hepatectomy for Intrahepatic Bile Duct Papillary Mucinous Cystadenoma With Intraoperative Vascular Repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyu; Peng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic hepatectomy has been widely performed for patients with benign liver tumors such as hepatic hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma. We here present a case of a 78-year-old female patient who was initially admitted to our department due to fever and jaundice for 2 days. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan showed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with liver atrophy of left lobe. Unenhanced nodules were seen within the left intrahepatic bile duct. Ultrasonography revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with viscous fluid, tubular adenoma? Tumor markers including alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA19-9 were normal. Preoperative total bilirubin was 64.4 mmol/L. Laparoscopic anatomical left hepatectomy and common bile duct exploration were performed. In this procedure, a lot of mucus was seen within the common bile duct and left intrahepatic bile duct. No bile duct stones were found after the exploration. During parenchymal transection, intraoperative hemorrhage from middle hepatic vein was met, and we repaired middle hepatic vein by laparoscopic suture (5-0 Prolene). No air embolism and hypotension were met. This operation took 232 minutes and estimated blood loss was 300 mL. Postoperative ultrasonography indicated a normal outflow of middle hepatic vein and there was no stricture. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and was discharged on the 6th day after surgery. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was intrahepatic bile duct papillary mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:26871845

  7. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Clearance of Occluded Metal Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Madhava; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Doros, Attila; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Habib, Nagy

    2013-07-11

    PurposeThe major complication occurring with biliary stents is stent occlusion, frequently seen because of tumour in-growth, epithelial hyperplasia, and sludge deposits, resulting in recurrent jaundice and cholangitis. We report a prospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation to clear the blocked metal stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a novel bipolar RF catheter.MethodsNine patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary RF ablation through the blocked metal stent following external biliary decompression with an internal–external biliary drainage.ResultsAll nine patients had their stent patency restored successfully without the use of secondary stents. Following this intervention, there was no 30-day mortality, haemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the nine patients, six are alive and three patients are dead with a median follow-up of 122 (range 50–488) days and a median stent patency of 102.5 (range 50–321) days. Six patients had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. Three patients with stent blockage at 321, 290, and 65 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and repeat ablation.ConclusionsIn this selective group of patients, it appears that this new approach is safe and feasible. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  8. Medical history and the risk of biliary tract cancers in Shanghai, China: implications for a role of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Liu, Enju; Gao, Yu-Tang; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Rashid, Asif; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bin-Shen; Deng, Jie; Han, Tian-Quian; Zhang, Bai-He; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that inflammation may play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers. To examine further the role of inflammation, we evaluated the associations between self-reported inflammatory-related medical conditions and the risk of biliary tract cancers in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Our analysis included 368 gallbladder cancer cases, 191 bile duct cancer cases, 68 ampulla of Vater cancer cases, and 959 healthy subjects. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for biliary tract cancers in relation to six inflammation-related conditions. Gallbladder cancer was significantly associated with cholecystitis occurring at least 5 years prior to interview (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.9). Even though biliary stones did not significantly modify the associations between cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer, 90% of the gallbladder cancer cases with cholecystitis also had biliary stones, indicating that stones likely play an important role in the link between cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer. Among subjects who smoked and drank alcohol, a history of gastric (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-15.0) or duodenal ulcers (OR = 3.7, 1.2-12.0) was associated with an excess risk of gallbladder cancer. Although the mechanisms are unclear, our results further support the role for inflammation in the etiology of biliary tract cancers. PMID:21744094

  9. The role of the pathologist in diagnosing and grading biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Y; Harada, K

    2011-05-01

    Pathological features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reviewed. Immune-mediated, non-suppurative cholangitis is the initial lesion and is followed by the gradual and extensive destruction of bile ducts and development of chronic cholestasis. Simultaneously, necro-inflammatory activities of the hepatic parenchyma and limiting plates of milder form develop not infrequently. Eventually, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis develop. A new system applicable to needle liver biopsies in which staging is evaluated using a combination of three factors (fibrosis, cholestasis, and bile duct loss) and necro-inflammatory activities of the bile duct and hepatic parenchyma are graded, is proposed. The clinical and therapeutic evaluation of PBC using this system is warranted. PMID:21474418

  10. How to access photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Isomoto, Hajime; Abo, Takafumi; Nonaka, Takashi; Morisaki, Tomohito; Arai, Junichi; Takagi, Katsunori; Ohnita, Ken; Shoji, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Senoo, Takemasa; Murakami, Goshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment option for local control of remnant cancer after surgical resection or biliary stenosis by the unresectable tumor in patients with bile duct carcinomas (BDC). To achieve effective tumor necrosis, an appropriate approach to laser irradiation is necessary. Methods The efficacy of endoscopy-guided PDT using porfimer (n=12) or talaporfin sodium (n=13) was investigated by evaluating the transhepatic biliary routes and endoscopic retrograde biliary (ERB) routes in 25 patients with BDC. Results Diseases included perihilar intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in four patients, extrahepatic BDCs in 19 and ampular carcinoma (AC) in two patients. Adjuvant PDT after surgical resection was performed in 18 patients, and PDT for tumor biliary stenosis was performed in seven. In patients undergoing surgical resections, the mean period between the operation and PDT was 8742 days. In patients who underwent prior surgical resections, the transhepatic route was used in five (28%), the jejunal loop was used in 11 (61%), the T-tube route was used in one, and the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) route via papilla Vater was used in one. In unresectable BDC, the ERC route was used in four patients (57%), and the transhepatic biliary route was used in three (43%). Endoscopic-guided PDT could not be performed in one patient because of a technical failure. Except for the complication of photosensitivity, endoscopy-related complications were not observed in any patients. Patients undergoing PDT with porfimer sodium had a significantly longer admission period compared to patients undergoing PDT with talaporfin sodium (36 vs. 5 days, respectively) (P<0.01). Conclusions PDT was safely and definitively performed using the endoscopy-guided approach via the transhepatic or ERC route. By considering the disadvantages of both routes, PDT must be adequately achieved for local control of BDC. PMID:25332999

  11. Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Bile Duct Cancer ... with Side Effects After Treatment Questions to Ask ...

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates biliary proliferation by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debolina; Han, Yuyan; Franchitto, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon; Meng, Fanyin; Venter, Julie; McMillin, Matthew; Kennedy, Lindsey; Francis, Heather; Onori, Paolo; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S

    2015-04-01

    During cholestatic liver disease, there is dysregulation in the balance between biliary growth and loss in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats modulated by neuroendocrine peptides via autocrine/paracrine pathways. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a trophic peptide hormone that modulates reproductive function and proliferation in many cell types. We evaluated the autocrine role of GnRH in the regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation. The expression of GnRH receptors was assessed in a normal mouse cholangiocyte cell line (NMC), sham, and BDL rats. The effect of GnRH administration was evaluated in normal rats and in NMC. GnRH-induced biliary proliferation was evaluated by changes in intrahepatic bile duct mass and the expression of proliferation and function markers. The expression and secretion of GnRH in NMC and isolated cholangiocytes was assessed. GnRH receptor subtypes GnRHR1 and GnRHR2 were expressed in cholangiocytes. Treatment with GnRH increased intrahepatic bile duct mass as well as proliferation and function markers in cholangiocytes. Transient knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of GnRHR1 in NMC decreased proliferation. BDL cholangiocytes had increased expression of GnRH compared with normal rats, accompanied by increased GnRH secretion. In vivo and in vitro knockdown of GnRH decreased intrahepatic bile duct mass/cholangiocyte proliferation and fibrosis. GnRH secreted by cholangiocytes promotes biliary proliferation via an autocrine pathway. Disruption of GnRH/GnRHR signaling may be important for the management of cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:25794706

  13. Investigations of ducted jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, A. J.; Damou, M.

    1991-07-01

    An attempt is made to obtain detailed information on ducted-jet flows for the testing of CFD modeling methods when applied to this type of flow. This goal was achieved for the case of ducted jets developing from a turbulent pipe flow in the nozzle. The results provide useful data that can be interpreted in terms of the physical structure of the turbulent flows.

  14. Primary biliary cirrhosis: What do autoantibodies tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chao-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Li, Yong-Zhe; Zhang, Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, progressive, cholestatic, organ-specific autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly affects middle-aged women, and is characterized by autoimmune-mediated destruction of small- and medium-size intrahepatic bile ducts, portal inflammation and progressive scarring, which without proper treatment can ultimately lead to fibrosis and hepatic failure. Serum autoantibodies are crucial tools for differential diagnosis of PBC. While it is currently accepted that antimitochondrial antibodies are the most important serological markers of PBC, during the last five decades more than sixty autoantibodies have been explored in these patients, some of which had previously been thought to be specific for other autoimmune diseases. PMID:20677333

  15. Integrative genomics identifies candidate microRNAs for pathogenesis of experimental biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biliary atresia is a fibroinflammatory obstruction of extrahepatic bile duct that leads to end-stage liver disease in children. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis of biliary atresia, very little is known about the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in onset and progression of the disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the entire biliary transcriptome to identify miRNAs with potential role in the pathogenesis of bile duct obstruction. Results By profiling the expression levels of miRNA in extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder (EHBDs) from a murine model of biliary atresia, we identified 14 miRNAs whose expression was suppressed at the times of duct obstruction and atresia (≥2 fold suppression, P < 0.05, FDR 5%). Next, we obtained 2,216 putative target genes of the 14 miRNAs using in silico target prediction algorithms. By integrating this result with a genome-wide gene expression analysis of the same tissue (≥2 fold increase, P < 0.05, FDR 5%), we identified 26 potential target genes with coordinate expression by the 14 miRNAs. Functional analysis of these target genes revealed a significant relevance of miR-30b/c, -133a/b, -195, -200a, -320 and −365 based on increases in expression of at least 3 target genes in the same tissue and 1st-to-3rd tier links with genes and gene-groups regulating organogenesis and immune response. These miRNAs showed higher expression in EHBDs above livers, a unique expression in cholangiocytes and the subepithelial compartment, and were downregulated in a cholangiocyte cell line after RRV infection. Conclusions Integrative genomics reveals functional relevance of miR-30b/c, -133a/b, -195, -200a, -320 and −365. The coordinate expression of miRNAs and target genes in a temporal-spatial fashion suggests a regulatory role of these miRNAs in pathogenesis of experimental biliary atresia. PMID:24138927

  16. Role for mycobacterial infection in pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis?

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Zen, Yoh; Abeles, Robin Daniel; Billinis, Charalambos; Pares, Albert; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the immune-mediated destruction of biliary epithelial cells in small intrahepatic bile ducts. The disease is characterized by circulating antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) as well as disease-specific antinuclear antibodies, cholestatic liver function tests, and characteristic histological features, including granulomas. A variety of organisms are involved in granuloma formation, of which mycobacteria are the most commonly associated. This has led to the hypothesis that mycobacteria may be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC, along with other infectious agents. Additionally, AMAs are found in a subgroup of patients with mycobacterial infections, such as leprosy and pulmonary tuberculosis. Antibodies against species-specific mycobacterial proteins have been reported in patients with PBC, but it is not clear whether these antibodies are specific for the disease. In addition, data in support of the involvement of the role of molecular mimicry between mycobacterial and human mitochondrial antigens as triggers of cross-reactive immune responses leading to the loss of immunological tolerance, and the induction of pathological features have been published. Thus, antibodies against mycobacterial heat shock protein appear to cross-recognize AMA-specific autoantigens, but it is not clear whether these autoantibodies are mycobacterium-species-specific, and whether they are pathogenic or incidental. The view that mycobacteria are infectious triggers of PBC is intriguing, but the data provided so far are not conclusive. PMID:23002357

  17. The Sea Lamprey as an Etiological Model for Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, inflammatory, and fibrosclerosing cholangiopathy in infants that results in obstruction of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. It is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult with steatohepatitis and fibrosis in the liver. In this paper, we present new histological evidence and compare the sea lamprey to existing animal models to highlight the advantages and possible limitations of using the sea lamprey to study the etiology and compensatory mechanisms of BA and other liver diseases. Understanding the signaling factors and genetic networks underlying lamprey BA can provide insights into BA etiology and possible targets to prevent biliary degeneration and to clear fibrosis. In addition, information from lamprey BA can be used to develop adjunct treatments for patients awaiting or receiving surgical treatments. Furthermore, the cholestatic adult lamprey has unique adaptive mechanisms that can be used to explore potential treatments for cholestasis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PMID:26101777

  18. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for biliary tract disease

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), or laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, has been employed in various fields to minimize traumatic effects over the last two decades. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has been the most frequently studied SILS to date. Hundreds of studies on SILC have failed to present conclusive results. Most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been small in scale and have been conducted under ideal operative conditions. The role of SILC in complicated scenarios remains uncertain. As common bile duct exploration (CBDE) methods have been used for more than one hundred years, laparoscopic CBDE (LCBDE) has emerged as an effective, demanding, and infrequent technique employed during the laparoscopic era. Likewise, laparoscopic biliary-enteric anastomosis is difficult to carry out, with only a few studies have been published on the approach. The application of SILS to CBDE and biliary-enteric anastomosis is extremely rare, and such innovative procedures are only carried out by a number of specialized groups across the globe. Herein we present a thorough and detailed analysis of SILC in terms of operative techniques, training and learning curves, safety and efficacy levels, recovery trends, and costs by reviewing RCTs conducted over the past three years and two recently updated meta-analyses. All existing literature on single-incision LCBDE and single-incision laparoscopic hepaticojejunostomy has been reviewed to describe these two demanding techniques. PMID:26811621

  19. microRNA-222 modulates liver fibrosis in a murine model of biliary atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Wen-jun; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong Zheng, Shan

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • The RRV infected group showed cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. • miR-222 was highly expressed, and PPP2R2A was inhibited in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine biliary atresia model. • miR-222 might represent a potential target for improving biliary atresia prognosis. - Abstract: microRNA-222 (miR-222) has been shown to initiate the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of miR-22 in a mouse model of biliary atresia (BA) induced by Rhesus Rotavirus (RRV) infection. New-born Balb/c mice were randomized into control and RRV infected groups. The extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. The experimental group was divided into BA group and negative group based on histology. The expression of miR-222, protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B alpha (PPP2R2A), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-Akt were detected. We found that the experimental group showed signs of cholestasis, retardation and extrahepatic biliary atresia. No abnormalities were found in the control group. In the BA group, miR-222, PCNA and Akt were highly expressed, and PPP2R2A expression was significantly inhibited. Our findings suggest that miR-222 profoundly modulated the process of fibrosis in the murine BA model, which might represent a potential target for improving BA prognosis.

  20. Biliary atresia: the animal models.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Claus

    2012-08-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibrosing process of the neonatal biliary tree and liver, of unknown origin, and an as-yet unexplained pathologic mechanism. The crucial point is to elucidate the origin of this rare disease to change palliative surgery to etiology-related procedures. Patient-based research can only begin at the time of the Kasai procedure and does not allow retracing of the pathology back to its origin. Basic research has focused on similar diseases in the veterinary literature and started to simulate BA in animal models. Unfortunately, even after 50 years of research, no knowledge has been gained from such models, which has led to a single clinical application. This article reviews BA in the context of the animal models available and discusses whether future studies are promising or futile. PMID:22800971

  1. Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches Involved in Hepatic and Biliary Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Carpino, Guido; Renzi, Anastasia; Franchitto, Antonio; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Onori, Paolo; Reid, Lola; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Niches containing stem/progenitor cells are present in different anatomical locations along the human biliary tree and within liver acini. The most primitive stem/progenitors, biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs), reside within peribiliary glands located throughout large extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. BTSCs are multipotent and can differentiate towards hepatic and pancreatic cell fates. These niches' matrix chemistry and other characteristics are undefined. Canals of Hering (bile ductules) are found periportally and contain hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HpSCs), participating in the renewal of small intrahepatic bile ducts and being precursors to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. The niches also contain precursors to hepatic stellate cells and endothelia, macrophages, and have a matrix chemistry rich in hyaluronans, minimally sulfated proteoglycans, fetal collagens, and laminin. The microenvironment furnishes key signals driving HpSC activation and differentiation. Newly discovered third niches are pericentral within hepatic acini, contain Axin2+ unipotent hepatocytic progenitors linked on their lateral borders to endothelia forming the central vein, and contribute to normal turnover of mature hepatocytes. Their relationship to the other stem/progenitors is undefined. Stem/progenitor niches have important implications in regenerative medicine for the liver and biliary tree and in pathogenic processes leading to diseases of these tissues. PMID:26880956

  2. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.

  3. Pseudo-obstruction of the biliary tract associated with a traumatic biliary fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-05-01

    Documentation of a biliary fistula as a complication of hepatic trauma may be made simply and noninvasively using radionuclide (technetium) cholescintigraphy. This report describes the utility of this approach in the evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying apparent biliary obstruction in a patient with a large traumatic biliary fistula.

  4. Biliary hemostasis using an endoscopic plastic stent placement for uncontrolled hemobilia caused by transpapillary forceps biopsy (with video).

    PubMed

    Shinjo, Kunihiro; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Toru; Kawata, Noboru; Uemura, Sunao; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the examination and treatment of jaundice. A transpapillary forceps biopsy for a long distal bile duct stricture was performed using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Immediately after the biopsy, massive bleeding was observed from the orifice of the papilla. Although hemobilia was pulsatile, an endoscopic biliary plastic stent placement was very effective in achieving hemostasis. However, a nasal biliary catheter was required because a blood clot clogged the stent on the following day. Although covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS) placement has been reported for achieving endoscopic hemostasis for bleeding, we chose to use a plastic stent to reduce the risk of post-procedure pancreatitis. The placement of both an endoscopic biliary plastic stent and a nasobiliary drainage catheter can be an alternative hemostatic tool to CSEMSs. PMID:26960930

  5. CD8+ T lymphocyte response against extrahepatic biliary epithelium is activated by epitopes within NSP4 in experimental biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuaiyu; Zhang, Hongyi; Zhang, Xiaojin; Peng, Fei; Chen, Xuyong; Yang, Jixin; Brigstock, David; Feng, Jiexiong

    2014-07-15

    Interferon (IFN)-γ-driven and CD8+ T cell-dependent inflammatory injury to extrahepatic biliary epithelium (EHBE) is likely to be involved in the development of biliary atresia (BA). We previously showed that viral protein NSP4 is the pathogenic immunogen that causes biliary injury in BA. In this study, NSP4 or four synthetic NSP4 (NSP4(157-170), NSP4(144-152), NSP4(93-110), NSP4(24-32)) identified by computer analysis as candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes were injected into neonatal mice. The pathogenic NSP4 epitopes were confirmed by studying extrahepatic bile duct injury, IFN-γ release and CD8+ T cell response against EHBE. The results revealed, at 7 days postinjection, inoculation of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-NSP4 caused EHBE injury and BA in neonatal mice. At 7 or 14 days postinject, inoculation of GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) increased IFN-γ release by CD8+ T cells, elevated the population of hepatic memory CD8+ T cells, and augmented cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells to rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-infected or naive EHBE cells. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ T cells in mice abrogated the elevation of GST-NSP4-induced serum IFN-γ. Lastly, parenteral immunization of mouse dams with GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) decreased the incidence of RRV-induced BA in their offspring. Overall, this study reports the CD8+ T cell response against EHBE is activated by epitopes within rotavirus NSP4 in experimental BA. Neonatal passive immunization by maternal vaccination against NSP4(144-152) or NSP4(157-170) is effective in protecting neonates from developing RRV-related BA. PMID:24875101

  6. CT evaluation of the bile ducts in patients with fatty liver

    SciTech Connect

    Quint, L.E.; Glazer, G.M.

    1984-12-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of the bile ducts in the fatty liver can be difficult, since hepatic attenuation decreases with increased triglyceride content, and liver parenchyma may become isodense with bile. Forty-seven patients with fatty infiltration of the liver were retrospectively identified. In 7 of these patients, attenuation of liver and bile differed by less than 10 HU. In 2 patients, dilated intrahepatic ducts were invisible using CT, because bile was isodense with fatty liver parenchyma. Thus, the fatty liver presents a potential pitfall in CT evaluation of the bile ducts. For maximal accuracy scans should be obtained both before and after administration of intravenous urographic contrast material.

  7. Rhesus rotavirus VP4 sequence-specific activation of mononuclear cells is associated with cholangiopathy in murine biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Ashley; Mohanty, Sujit K; Donnelly, Bryan; Coots, Abigail; Lages, Celine S; Lobeck, Inna; Dupree, Phylicia; Meller, Jaroslaw; McNeal, Monica; Sestak, Karol; Tiao, Greg

    2015-09-15

    Biliary atresia (BA), a neonatal obstructive cholangiopathy, remains the most common indication for pediatric liver transplantation in the United States. In the murine model of BA, Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) VP4 surface protein determines biliary duct tropism. In this study, we investigated how VP4 governs induction of murine BA. Newborn mice were injected with 16 strains of rotavirus and observed for clinical symptoms of BA and mortality. Cholangiograms were performed to confirm bile duct obstruction. Livers and bile ducts were harvested 7 days postinfection for virus titers and histology. Flow cytometry assessed mononuclear cell activation in harvested cell populations from the liver. Cytotoxic NK cell activity was determined by the ability of NK cells to kill noninfected cholangiocytes. Of the 16 strains investigated, the 6 with the highest homology to the RRV VP4 (>87%) were capable of infecting bile ducts in vivo. Although the strain Ro1845 replicated to a titer similar to RRV in vivo, it caused no symptoms or mortality. A Ro1845 reassortant containing the RRV VP4 induced all BA symptoms, with a mortality rate of 89%. Flow cytometry revealed that NK cell activation was significantly increased in the disease-inducing strains and these NK cells demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of cytotoxicity against noninfected cholangiocytes. Rotavirus strains with >87% homology to RRV's VP4 were capable of infecting murine bile ducts in vivo. Development of murine BA was mediated by RRV VP4-specific activation of mononuclear cells, independent of viral titers. PMID:26206856

  8. Dilatancy in slow granular flows.

    PubMed

    Kabla, Alexandre J; Senden, Tim J

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected. PMID:19658906

  9. Retroperitoneal Biloma due to Spontaneous Perforation of the Left Hepatic Duct

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kenjiro; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Seki, Hiroaki; Yasui, Nobutaka; Sakata, Michio; Shimada, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 82 Final Diagnosis: Retroperitoneal biloma due to spontaneous perforation of the left hepatic duct Symptoms: Abdominal pain • high fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Emergent operation Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct in adults is very rare, particularly in cases accompanied by retroperitoneal biloma. We report a patient with retroperitoneal biloma due to a spontaneous perforation of the left hepatic duct. Case Report: An 82-year-old man was admitted to our institution with abdominal pain and a high fever. He had tenderness at the epi-mesogastrium. Computed tomography showed several stones in the gall bladder and common bile duct (CBD) and a few ascites. A substantial amount of fluid had collected from the dorsal stratum of the duodenum and pancreas head to the right paracolic gutter and anterior side of the right iliopsoas. Laboratory examination revealed a high inflammation score. He underwent emergent laparotomy. Biliary fluid was revealed after the mobilization of the pancreas head, duodenum, and right side of the colon. Bile duct perforation was suspected. Therefore, we exfoliated the dorsal side of the CBD to the cranial side, and intraoperative cholangiography was performed. However, the perforation site could not be detected. Cholecystectomy and choledocholithotomy were performed. A retrograde transhepatic biliary drainage tube was inserted, and primary closure of the CBD incision site was achieved. Postoperative cholangiography revealed leakage from the left hepatic duct near the caudate branch. Conclusions: There are a few reports of spontaneous bile duct perforation cases in the literature, particularly on infants or children with congenital anomalies, but it is rare in adults. It usually causes bile peritonitis, although bile duct perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous retroperitoneal fluid collection in adults. PMID:27094183

  10. Biliary Complications in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Imaging Findings and the Roles of Interventional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Suh, Kyung Suk; Yi, Nam Joon; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo Choi, Byung Ihn

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To describe the incidence, types, and findings of biliary complications in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine the roles of interventional procedures. Materials and methods. Twenty-four biliary complications among 161 LDLT patients (24/161, 14.9%) were identified. These complications were divided into two groups according to the initial manifestation time, i.e., 'early' (<60 days) or 'late'. The CT and cholangiographic findings were reviewed regarding the presence of a stricture or leak and the location, and length, shape, and degree of the stricture. Both groups were categorized into three subgroups: leak, stricture, and both. The type of interventional procedures used and their roles were determined. Results. Early complications were identified in 14 of the 24 patients (58%) and late complications in 11 (46%). One patient showed both early and late complications. Biliary stricture was detected in 10 patients, leak in 10, and both in 5. By cholangiography, all strictures were irregular and short (mean length 15 {+-} 6 mm) at the anastomotic site and complete obstruction was observed in 2 patients with late stricture. Twenty-three of the 24 patients were treated using percutaneous and/or endoscopic drainage procedures with or without balloon dilatation. Seventeen (74%) showed a good response, but reoperations were inevitable in 6 (26%). All patients except those with complete obstruction showed a favorable outcome after interventional management. Conclusion. Biliary leaks and strictures are predominant complications in LDLT. Most show good responses to interventional treatment. However, complete obstruction needs additional operative management.

  11. An Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct at the Duodenal Papilla

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Izumi, Hideki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Yazawa, Naoki; Nakagori, Toshio; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the disease concept of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) has been attracting attention as a biliary lesion that is morphologically similar to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), which is considered to be a counterpart of IPMN. However, there are few reports on IPNB, and a consensus regarding the features of this disease is thus lacking. We experienced an extremely rare case of IPNB occurring in the bile duct at the duodenal papilla, which is a tumor presentation that has not previously been reported. Herein, we report this interesting case and discuss the possible association between IPMN and IPNB. PMID:25126070

  12. Post-earthquake dilatancy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Geodetic measurements of the 1964 Niigata, Japan earthquake and of three other examples are briefly examined. They show exponentially decaying subsidence for a year after the quakes. The observations confirm the dilatancy-fluid diffusion model of earthquake precursors and clarify the extent and properties of the dilatant zone. An analysis using one-dimensional consolidation theory is included which agrees well with this interpretation.

  13. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  14. Biliary complications after pediatric liver transplantation: Risk factors, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Feier, Flavia H; da Fonseca, Eduardo A; Seda-Neto, Joao; Chapchap, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The expanded indications of partial grafts in pediatric liver transplantation have reduced waiting list mortality. However, a higher morbidity is observed, including an increased rate of biliary complications (BCs). Factors such as the type of graft, the preservation methods applied, the donor characteristics, the type of biliary reconstruction, and the number of bile ducts in the liver graft influences the occurrence of these complications. Bile leaks and strictures comprise the majority of post-transplant BCs. Biliary strictures require a high grade of suspicion, and because most children have a bileo-enteric anastomosis, its diagnosis and management rely on percutaneous hepatic cholangiography and percutaneous biliary interventions (PBI). The success rates with PBI range from 70% to 90%. Surgery is reserved for patients who have failed PBI. BCs in children after liver transplantation have a prolonged treatment and are associated with a longer length of stay and higher hospital costs. However, with early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, patient and graft survival are not significantly compromised. PMID:26328028

  15. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of benign biliary strictures: What’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rosa; Loureiro, Rui; Nunes, Nuno; Santos, António Alberto; Maio, Rui; Cravo, Marília; Duarte, Maria Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common strictures amenable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, post-liver transplantation, related to primary sclerosing cholangitis and to chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures is widely used as first line therapy, since it is effective, safe, noninvasive and repeatable. Endoscopic techniques currently used are dilation, multiple plastic stents insertion and fully covered self-expandable metal stents. The main indication for dilation alone is primary sclerosing cholangitis related strictures. In the vast majority of the remaining cases, temporary placement of multiple plastic stents with/without dilation is considered the treatment of choice. Although this approach is effective, it requires multiple endoscopic sessions due to the short duration of stent patency. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents appear as a good alternative to plastic stents, since they have an increased radial diameter, longer stent patency, easier insertion technique and similar efficacy. Recent advances in endoscopic technique and various devices have allowed successful treatment in most cases. The development of novel endoscopic techniques and devices is still ongoing. PMID:26962404

  16. Natural Killer Cells Promote Long-Term Hepatobiliary Inflammation in a Low-Dose Rotavirus Model of Experimental Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Squires, James E.; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Mourya, Reena; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Walters, Stephanie; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rapidly progressive obstructive cholangiopathy of infants. Mechanistic studies in the mouse model of Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced biliary atresia have linked the importance of effector lymphocytes to the pathogenesis of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) injury and obstruction in experimental biliary atresia; however, studies of the progressive liver injury have been limited by early death of newborn mice. Here, we aimed to determine 1) if a lower inoculum of RRV induces obstruction of EHBDs while allowing for ongoing liver inflammation, and 2) if NK cells regulate intrahepatic injury. The administration of 0.25x106 fluorescence forming units of RRV induced an obstructive extrahepatic cholangiopathy, but allowed for restoration of the duct epithelium, increased survival, and the development of a progressive intrahepatic inflammatory injury with molecular and cellular signatures equivalent to the traditional infectious model. Investigating the mechanisms of liver injury, we found that NK cell depletion at the onset of jaundice decreased liver inflammation, suppressed the expression of fibrosis and inflammation/immunity genes, lowered plasma ALT and bilirubin and improved survival. Conclusions Lower inoculation of RRV-induced progressive liver injury and fibrosis via NK cells. These findings point to the potential use of NK cell-depleting strategies to block progression of liver disease in biliary atresia. PMID:25992581

  17. Development of automated extraction method of biliary tract from abdominal CT volumes based on local intensity structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kusuto; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Hirose, Tomoaki; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Nagino, Masato; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated biliary tract extraction method from abdominal CT volumes. The biliary tract is the path by which bile is transported from liver to the duodenum. No extraction method have been reported for the automated extraction of the biliary tract from common contrast CT volumes. Our method consists of three steps including: (1) extraction of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) candidate regions, (2) extraction of intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) candidate regions, and (3) combination of these candidate regions. The IHBD has linear structures and intensities of the IHBD are low in CT volumes. We use a dark linear structure enhancement (DLSE) filter based on a local intensity structure analysis method using the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix for the IHBD candidate region extraction. The EHBD region is extracted using a thresholding process and a connected component analysis. In the combination process, we connect the IHBD candidate regions to each EHBD candidate region and select a bile duct region from the connected candidate regions. We applied the proposed method to 22 cases of CT volumes. An average Dice coefficient of extraction result was 66.7%.

  18. Surgical strategy for bile duct cancer: Advances and current limitations

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Daijo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe recent advances and topics in the surgical management of bile duct cancer. Radical resection with a microscopically negative margin (R0) is the only way to cure cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with marked survival advantages compared to margin-positive resections. Complete resection of the tumor is the surgeon’s ultimate aim, and several advances in the surgical treatment for bile duct cancer have been made within the last two decades. Multidetector row computed tomography has emerged as an indispensable diagnostic modality for the precise preoperative evaluation of bile duct cancer, in terms of both longitudinal and vertical tumor invasion. Many meticulous operative procedures have been established, especially extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, to achieve a negative resection margin, which is the only prognostic factor under the control of the surgeon. A complete caudate lobectomy and resection of the inferior part of Couinaud’s segment IV coupled with right or left hemihepatectomy has become the standard surgical procedure for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy is the first choice for distal bile duct cancer. Limited resection for middle bile duct cancer is indicated for only strictly selected cases. Preoperative treatments including biliary drainage and portal vein embolization are also indicated for only selected patients, especially jaundiced patients anticipating major hepatectomy. Liver transplantation seems ideal for complete resection of bile duct cancer, but the high recurrence rate and decreased patient survival after liver transplant preclude it from being considered standard treatment. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a potentially crucial role in prolonging survival and controlling local recurrence, but no definite regimen has been established to date. Further evidence is needed to fully define the role of liver transplantation and adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. PMID:21603318

  19. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Jabłońska, Beata; Lampe, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI) remain an important problem in gastrointestinal surgery. They are most frequently caused by laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is one of the commonest surgical procedures in the world. The early and proper diagnosis of IBDI is very important for surgeons and gastroenterologists, because unrecognized IBDI lead to serious complications such as biliary cirrhosis, hepatic failure and death. Laboratory and radiological investigations play an important role in the diagnosis of biliary injuries. There are many classifications of IBDI. The most popular and simple classification of IBDI is the Bismuth scale. Endoscopic techniques are recommended for initial treatment of IBDI. When endoscopic treatment is not effective, surgical management is considered. Different surgical reconstructions are performed in patients with IBDI. According to the literature, Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the most frequent surgical reconstruction and recommended by most authors. In the opinion of some authors, a more physiological and equally effective type of reconstruction is end-to-end ductal anastomosis. Long term results are the most important in the assessment of the effectiveness of IBDI treatment. There are a few classifications for the long term results in patients treated for IBDI; the Terblanche scale, based on clinical biliary symptoms, is regarded as the most useful classification. Proper diagnosis and treatment of IBDI may avoid many serious complications and improve quality of life. PMID:19725140

  20. Pathological diagnosis of flat epithelial lesions of the biliary tract with emphasis on biliary intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Harada, Kenichi; Aishima, Shinichi; Fukusato, Toshio; Ojima, Hidenori; Kanai, Yae; Kage, Masayoshi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Flat epithelial lesions of the biliary tract cannot be detected by the image analysis, and the diagnosis entirely depends on pathological examination. The biliary tract is often affected by inflammatory conditions, and the resultant changes of the biliary epithelium make it difficult to differentiate them from neoplasia. Thus, the pathological diagnosis of biliary flat epithelial lesions can be challenging. In the biliary tract, there are several forms of intraepithelial neoplasia of the flat type, and biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) is known as one of such lesions that represent the multistep cholangiocarcinogenesis. In this article, the diagnostic criteria and the differential diagnosis of biliary flat epithelial lesions, particularly focusing on BilIN, were presented and discussed to provide help to advance clinical and research applications of the BilIN system. PMID:23616173

  1. [Biliary fistulas and biliary congestion after hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery].

    PubMed

    Dahlke, M-H; Loss, M; Schlitt, H J

    2015-06-01

    Biliary complications after hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery can have severe consequences for the long-term quality of life of patients. Adequate and timely diagnosis of the underlying problem by an experienced surgeon is essential. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy of drains and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are helpful examinations that can be employed in a step-wise approach. Early re-do surgery is indicated in the initial postoperative course. Interventional methods, such as ERCP and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage ( PTCD, plus stents and drains) offer a variety of additional therapeutic options that should be used by the experienced interventionalist in a patient-tailored interdisciplinary fashion. PMID:26016714

  2. Choledochal cyst and biliary atresia in the neonate: Imaging findings in five cases

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, J.M.; Haller, J.O.; Velcek, F.T. )

    1990-12-01

    The radiologic findings in five neonates with choledochal cyst associated with extra-hepatic biliary atresia are described. All five patients (age range, 13-72 days) presented with jaundice and acholic stools. In all four patients who underwent sonographic examination, a cystic structure separate from the gallbladder representing the choledochal cyst was shown. The diagnosis of atresia of the distal common bile duct was made preoperatively in all cases by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and was demonstrated by intraoperative cholangiography in four cases. All patients were successfully treated with surgical intervention within 1 month from the time of diagnosis. Early detection of this rare disorder, which may be distinct from choledochal cyst found in children and adults, is important to prevent fatal complications of biliary obstruction. The combined use of sonography and hepatobiliary scintigraphy can correctly identify this subset of patients with persistent neonatal jaundice and provide valuable information for prompt surgical management.

  3. Spontaneous thoracic duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Ray, J; Braithwaite, D; Patel, P J

    2003-05-01

    Spontaneous and asymptomatic supraclavicular thoracic duct cysts (lymphoceles ) are rare. Only five cases have been reported so far. They are more common after surgery or trauma and have been reported in the abdomen, mediastinum, pelvis and neck. They must be differentiated from other neck cysts as failure to recognise their attachment may result in the disastrous consequence of chylothorax. A high index of suspicion is necessary, and diagnosis usually can be established by fine-needle aspiration and suitable imaging. This case is reported along with a review of the literature and management options, including that of inadvertent damage to the thoracic duct. PMID:12750920

  4. Turbofan Duct Propagation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

  5. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  6. Spontaneous external biliary fistula uncomplicated by gallstones.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, B. R.; Cox, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    External biliary fistulae are rare. Only 65 cases have been reported in the literature and in each instance gallstones were a complicating factor. We report in this paper the first case of spontaneous external (cholecystocutaneous) biliary fistula uncomplicated by gallstones. PMID:2068038

  7. Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo

    2002-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 {+-} 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 {+-} 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil <10 mg/dl, four (80%) showed good response,while in nine patients with T-bil > 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function.

  8. Paravertebral Block: An Improved Method of Pain Control in Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, William C. McCowan, Timothy C.; DeValdenebro, Miguel; Wright, Lonnie B.; Workman, James L.; Culp, William C.

    2006-12-15

    Background and Purpose. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage remains a painful procedure in many cases despite the routine use of large amounts of intravenous sedation. We present a feasibility study of thoracic paravertebral blocks in an effort to reduce pain during and following the procedure and reduce requirements for intravenous sedation. Methods. Ten consecutive patients undergoing biliary drainage procedures received fluoroscopically guided paravertebral blocks and then had supplemental intravenous sedation as required to maintain patient comfort. Levels T8-T9 and T9-T10 on the right were targeted with 10-20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sedation requirements and pain levels were recorded. Results. Ten biliary drainage procedures in 8 patients were performed for malignancy in 8 cases and for stones in 2. The mean midazolam use was 1.13 mg IV, and the mean fentanyl requirement was 60.0 {mu}g IV in the block patients. Two episodes of hypotension, which responded promptly to volume replacement, may have been related to the block. No serious complications were encountered. The mean pain score when traversing the chest wall, liver capsule, and upon entering the bile ducts was 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 1 patient reporting a pain level of 1 and 9 reporting 0. The mean peak pain score, encountered when manipulating at the common bile duct level or when addressing stones there, was 5.4 and ranged from 0 to 10. Conclusions. Thoracic paravertebral block with intravenous sedation supplementation appears to be a feasible method of pain control during biliary interventions.

  9. Isolated Right Segmental Hepatic Duct Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Perini, Rafael F.; Uflacker, Renan Cunningham, John T.; Selby, J. Bayne; Adams, David

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones. There is an increased incidence of bile duct injuries in LC compared with the open technique. Isolated right segmental hepatic duct injury (IRSHDI) represents a challenge not only for management but also for diagnosis. We present our experience in the management of IRSHDI, with long-term follow-up after treatment by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods. Twelve consecutive patients (9 women, mean age 48 years) were identified as having IRSHDI. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were collected for analysis. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range 2-90 months). Results. Three patients had the LC immediately converted to open surgery without repair of the biliary injury before referral. Treatments before referral included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage and surgery, isolated or in combination. The median interval from LC to referral was 32 days. Eleven patients presented with biliary leak and biloma, one with obstruction of an isolated right hepatic segment. Post-referral management of the biliary lesion used a combination of ERCP stenting, percutaneous drainage and stent placement and surgery. In 6 of 12 patients ERCP was the first procedure, and in only one case was IRSHDI identified. In 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed first and an isolated right hepatic segment was demonstrated in all. The final treatment modality was endoscopic management and/or percutaneous drainage and stenting in 6 patients, and surgery in 6. The mean follow-up was 44 months. No mortality or significant morbidity was observed. Conclusion. Successful management of IRSHDI after LC requires adequate identification of the lesion, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary. Half of the patients can be treated successfully by nonsurgical procedures.

  10. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  11. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  12. Pathobiology of Biliary Epithelia and Cholangiocarcinoma: Proceedings of the Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single-Topic Conference

    PubMed Central

    Sirica, Alphonse E.; Nathanson, Michael H.; Gores, Gregory J.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2008, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) sponsored the Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single-Topic Conference on the Pathobiology of Biliary Epithelia and Cholangiocarcinoma, which was held in Atlanta, GA. Attendees from 12 different countries participated in this conference, making it a truly international scientific event. Both oral and poster presentations were given by multidisciplinary experts, who highlighted important areas of current basic and translational research on biliary epithelial cell biology and pathophysiology, and on the etiology, cellular and molecular pathogenesis, and target-based therapy of cholangiocarcinoma. The specific goals and objectives of the conference were: (1) to advance knowledge of basic and molecular mechanisms underlying developmental and proliferative disorders of the biliary tract; (2) to foster a better and more comprehensive understanding of mechanisms regulating biliary epithelial (cholangiocyte) growth and transport, signaling, cell survival, and abnormalities that result in disease; and (3) to understand basic mechanisms of cholangiocarcinoma development and progression, with the added goal of identifying and exploiting potentially critical molecular pathways that may be targeted therapeutically. A number of interrelated themes emerged from the oral and poster sessions that affected current understandings of the complex organization of transcriptional and signaling mechanisms that regulate bile duct development, hepatic progenitor cell expansion, cholangiocyte secretory functions and proliferation, and mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis and malignant cholangiocyte progression. Most notable were the critical questions raised as to how best to exploit aberrant signaling pathways associated with biliary disease as potential targets for therapy. PMID:18855901

  13. Pathobiology of biliary epithelia and cholangiocarcinoma: proceedings of the Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single-Topic Conference.

    PubMed

    Sirica, Alphonse E; Nathanson, Michael H; Gores, Gregory J; Larusso, Nicholas F

    2008-12-01

    In June 2008, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) sponsored the Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single-Topic Conference on the Pathobiology of Biliary Epithelia and Cholangiocarcinoma, which was held in Atlanta, GA. Attendees from 12 different countries participated in this conference, making it a truly international scientific event. Both oral and poster presentations were given by multidisciplinary experts, who highlighted important areas of current basic and translational research on biliary epithelial cell biology and pathophysiology, and on the etiology, cellular and molecular pathogenesis, and target-based therapy of cholangiocarcinoma. The specific goals and objectives of the conference were: (1) to advance knowledge of basic and molecular mechanisms underlying developmental and proliferative disorders of the biliary tract; (2) to foster a better and more comprehensive understanding of mechanisms regulating biliary epithelial (cholangiocyte) growth and transport, signaling, cell survival, and abnormalities that result in disease; and (3) to understand basic mechanisms of cholangiocarcinoma development and progression, with the added goal of identifying and exploiting potentially critical molecular pathways that may be targeted therapeutically. A number of interrelated themes emerged from the oral and poster sessions that affected current understandings of the complex organization of transcriptional and signaling mechanisms that regulate bile duct development, hepatic progenitor cell expansion, cholangiocyte secretory functions and proliferation, and mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis and malignant cholangiocyte progression. Most notable were the critical questions raised as to how best to exploit aberrant signaling pathways associated with biliary disease as potential targets for therapy. PMID:18855901

  14. A Comparative Study of CT Fluoroscopy Combined with Fluoroscopy Versus Fluoroscopy Alone for Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Laufer, Ulf; Kirchner, Johannes; Kickuth, Ralph; Adams, Stephan; Jendreck, Martin; Liermann, Dieter

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: We compared CT fluoroscopy (CTF) for the initial puncture of bile ducts with conventional fluoroscopic guidance in patients with malignant jaundice in whom percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was planned.Methods: Forty consecutive patients were randomized to two study groups: group A underwent PTBD under CTF and fluoroscopic guidance, group B underwent PTBD under fluoroscopic guidance alone. CTF-guided PTBD was performed using a combination of a helical CT scanner of the latest generation and a mobile C-arm; conventional PTBD was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in the angiographic unit. End points of the study were the success (a puncture that enabled safe placement of a guidewire in a suitable bile duct) and the complication rate (hemobilia, bile fistula, biliary peritonitis), the number of punctures required, the time needed for successful puncture of a suitable bile duct, and the patient's radiation exposure.Results: CTF-guided puncture of peripheral bile ducts suitable for PTBD was successful at the first attempt in 16 cases, under conventional fluoroscopic guidance, in only two cases. We found a significantly different number of punctures (1.2 in group A vs 2.9 in group B), a significantly shorter time for puncture in group A (mean 39 sec), but also a significantly higher skin exposure dosage in group A (mean 49.5 mSv surface dosage). There was no significant difference regarding the total procedure time. Only one complication occurred in group B (portobiliary fistula).Conclusion: CTF-guided initial puncture of bile ducts allowed a significantly reduced number of punctures and puncture times compared with puncture under conventional fluoroscopic guidance for placement of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage catheters.

  15. [Echographic signs of biliary atresia].

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, B A; Iaremenko, V V; Babko, S A; Klimenko, E F; Medvedenko, G F

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of echographic features of biliary atresia was conducted in 65 newborn children ageing up to 3 mo. Their characteristic variants were revealed: the absence or reduction in size of gall-bladder, the presence of hyperechogenic triangular formation in V. portae bifurcation (the symptom of "triangular cicatrix"); the thickening of anterior wall of V. portae right branch. The timely and correct establishment of the diagnosis permits a child to survive and serve the hepatic fibrosis prophylaxis. Echohepatography is a sufficiently trustful method of investigation. PMID:15628232

  16. Dynamic instability of ducts conveying fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y. Y.

    1975-01-01

    A finite element analysis was used to study dynamic instability in ducts conveying high speed fluids. Ducts examined include cantilevered curved, flexibly supported, arbitrarily shaped, and composite duct systems. Partial differential equations were used to study the duct systems.

  17. Retroperitoneal Biloma due to Spontaneous Perforation of the Left Hepatic Duct.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kenjiro; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Seki, Hiroaki; Yasui, Nobutaka; Sakata, Michio; Shimada, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct in adults is very rare, particularly in cases accompanied by retroperitoneal biloma. We report a patient with retroperitoneal biloma due to a spontaneous perforation of the left hepatic duct. CASE REPORT An 82-year-old man was admitted to our institution with abdominal pain and a high fever. He had tenderness at the epi-mesogastrium. Computed tomography showed several stones in the gall bladder and common bile duct (CBD) and a few ascites. A substantial amount of fluid had collected from the dorsal stratum of the duodenum and pancreas head to the right paracolic gutter and anterior side of the right iliopsoas. Laboratory examination revealed a high inflammation score. He underwent emergent laparotomy. Biliary fluid was revealed after the mobilization of the pancreas head, duodenum, and right side of the colon. Bile duct perforation was suspected. Therefore, we exfoliated the dorsal side of the CBD to the cranial side, and intraoperative cholangiography was performed. However, the perforation site could not be detected. Cholecystectomy and choledocholithotomy were performed. A retrograde transhepatic biliary drainage tube was inserted, and primary closure of the CBD incision site was achieved. Postoperative cholangiography revealed leakage from the left hepatic duct near the caudate branch. CONCLUSIONS There are a few reports of spontaneous bile duct perforation cases in the literature, particularly on infants or children with congenital anomalies, but it is rare in adults. It usually causes bile peritonitis, although bile duct perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous retroperitoneal fluid collection in adults. PMID:27094183

  18. Admission mixing duct assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, Robert J. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A variable cycle jet engine is provided with a mixing duct assembly which mixes core engine exhaust gas with bypass air when the engine is operating in a turbofan mode and which blocks flow from the core engine and isolates the core engine from the bypass flow when the engine is operating as a ramjet.

  19. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  20. Cornice Duct System

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

    2004-10-29

    SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

  1. Cluster hepaticojejunostomy with radial spreading anchoring traction technique for secure reconstruction of widely opened hilar bile ducts

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Secure reconstruction of multiple hepatic ducts that are severely damaged by tumor invasion or iatrogenic injury is a challenge. Failure of percutaneous or endoscopic biliary stenting requires lifelong placement of one or more percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tubes. For such difficult situations, we devised a surgical technique termed cluster hepaticojejunostomy (HJ), which can be coupled with palliative bile duct resection. The cluster HJ technique consisted of applying multiple internal biliary stents and a single wide porto-enterostomy to the surrounding connective tissues. The technique is described in detail in the present case report. Performing cluster HJ benefits from three technical tips as follows: making the multiple bile duct openings wide and parallel after sequential side-to-side unification; radially anchoring and traction of the suture materials at the anterior anastomotic suture line; and making multiple segmented continuous sutures at the posterior anastomotic suture line. Thus, cluster HJ with radial spreading anchoring traction technique is a useful surgical method for secure reconstruction of severely damaged hilar bile ducts. PMID:27212993

  2. Long term treatment of biliary stricture due to chronic pancreatitis with a metallic stent.

    PubMed

    Hastier, P; Buckley, J M; Peten, E P; Dumas, R; Delmont, J

    1999-07-01

    The exact role of endoprostheses in the management of chronic pancreatitis-associated biliary strictures has not yet been clearly established. We report an unusual case of a patient with this condition who was treated for an unexpectedly long term with a self-expanding metallic endoprosthesis. There has only been one previous report of the use of metallic stents in this situation. It appears that metallic endoprostheses may have a role to play in the management of selected patients who have chronic pancreatitis-associated bile duct stricture. PMID:10406264

  3. Effects of Methylenedianiline on Tight Junction Permeability of Biliary Epithelial Cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Santa Cruz, Vicente; Liu, Hanlin; Kaphalia, Lata; Kanz, Mary F.

    2007-01-01

    Methylenedianiline (DAPM) is considered a cholangiodestructive toxicant in vivo. Increases in biliary inorganic phosphate (Pi) and glucose occur prior to biliary epithelial cell (BEC) injury, which could be due to increased paracellular permeability and/or impairment of Pi and glucose uptake by BEC. To evaluate these possibilities, we induced mild injury [loss of BEC from major bile ducts (6 h), ultrastructural alterations in BEC mitochondria and Golgi cisternae (3 h), and striking increases in biliary Pi and glucose (36 h)] with 25 mg DAPM/kg and then assessed temporal alterations in tight junction (TJ) permeability by measuring bile to plasma (B:P) ratios of [3H]-inulin. Parameters maintained by hepatocytes in bile were unchanged (bile flow, bile acids, bilirubin) or only transiently perturbed (protein, glutathione). Minimal elevations in B:P ratios of inulin occurred temporally later (4 h) in DAPM-treated rats than increases in biliary Pi and glucose. To confirm a direct effect of DAPM on BEC TJs, we measured transepithelial resistance (TER) and bi-ionic potentials of BEC monolayers prior to and after exposure to pooled (4 to 6) bile samples collected from untreated rats (Basal Bile) or rats treated with 50 mg DAPM/ kg (DAPM-Bile). BEC TJs were found to be cation selective. Exposure to DAPM-Bile for 1 h decreased TERs by ~35% and decreased charge selectivity of BEC TJs while exposure to Basal Bile had no effects. These observations indicate that DAPM-Bile impairs paracellular permeability of BEC in vitro. Further, our in vivo model suggests that increases in paracellular permeability induced by DAPM are localized to BEC because bile flow and constituents excreted by hepatocytes were unchanged; BEC damage was temporally correlated with increases in biliary Pi and glucose; and elevations in B:P ratios of inulin were delayed and minimal. PMID:17178199

  4. Laparoscopic Anatomical Left Hepatectomy for Intrahepatic Bile Duct Papillary Mucinous Cystadenoma With Intraoperative Vascular Repair: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Peng, Bing

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy has been widely performed for patients with benign liver tumors such as hepatic hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma.We here present a case of a 78-year-old female patient who was initially admitted to our department due to fever and jaundice for 2 days. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan showed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with liver atrophy of left lobe. Unenhanced nodules were seen within the left intrahepatic bile duct. Ultrasonography revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with viscous fluid, tubular adenoma? Tumor markers including alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA19-9 were normal. Preoperative total bilirubin was 64.4 mmol/L.Laparoscopic anatomical left hepatectomy and common bile duct exploration were performed. In this procedure, a lot of mucus was seen within the common bile duct and left intrahepatic bile duct. No bile duct stones were found after the exploration. During parenchymal transection, intraoperative hemorrhage from middle hepatic vein was met, and we repaired middle hepatic vein by laparoscopic suture (5-0 Prolene). No air embolism and hypotension were met. This operation took 232 minutes and estimated blood loss was 300 mL. Postoperative ultrasonography indicated a normal outflow of middle hepatic vein and there was no stricture. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and was discharged on the 6th day after surgery. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was intrahepatic bile duct papillary mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:26871845

  5. Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1979-01-01

    Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

  6. Markers of bile duct tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins. PMID:21528090

  7. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into two neighboring organs of the stomach and duodenum presenting with abdominal pain and jaundice. Endoscopy showed thick mucin extruding from two openings of the fistulas. Endoscopic suction of thick mucin using direct peroral cholangioscopy with ultra-slim endoscope through choledochoduodenal fistula was very difficult and ineffective because of very thick mucin and next endoscopic suction through the stent after prior insertion of biliary metal stent into choledochogastric fistula also failed. Pathologic specimen obtained from the proximal portion of the choledochogastric fistula near left intrahepatic bile duct through the metal stent showed a low grade adenoma. The patient declined the surgical treatment due to her old age and her abdominal pain with jaundice was improved after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with the irrigation of N-acetylcysteine three times daily for 10 d. PMID:25031793

  8. Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, Tarceva &/or Cisplatin in HCC & Biliary Tree Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-15

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Bile Duct Cancer; Periampullary Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  9. Ischemia reperfusion of the hepatic artery induces the functional damage of large bile ducts by changes in the expression of angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Romina; Glaser, Shannon; Francis, Heather; Carpino, Guido; Franchitto, Antonio; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pannarale, Luigi; Venter, Julie; Meng, Fanyin; Alpini, Gianfranco; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2015-12-01

    Liver transplantation and cholangiocarcinoma induce biliary dysfunction following ischemia reperfusion (IR). The function of the intrahepatic biliary tree is regulated by both autocrine and paracrine factors. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that IR-induced damage of cholangiocytes is associated with altered expression of biliary angiogenic factors. Normal and bile duct ligation rats underwent 24-h sham or hepatic reperfusion after 30 min of transient occlusion of the hepatic artery (HAIR) or portal vein (PVIR) before collecting liver blocks and cholangiocyte RNA or protein. We evaluated liver histology, biliary apoptosis, proliferation and expression of VEGF-A/C, VEGFR-2/3, Ang-1/2, and Tie-1/2 in liver sections and isolated small and large cholangiocytes. Normal rat intrahepatic cholangiocyte cultures (NRICC) were maintained under standard conditions in normoxic or under a hypoxic atmosphere for 4 h and then transferred to normal conditions for selected times. Subsequently, we measured changes in biliary proliferation and apoptosis and the expression of VEGF-A/C and VEGFR-2/3. In vivo, HAIR (but not PVIR) induced damage of large bile ducts and decreased proliferation and secretin-stimulated cAMP levels. HAIR-induced damage of large bile ducts was associated with increased expression of VEGF-A/C, VEGFR-2/3, Ang-1/2, and Tie-1/2. In vitro, under hypoxic conditions, there was increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of NRICC concomitant with enhanced expression of VEGF-A/C and VEGFR-2/3. The functional damage of large bile ducts by HAIR and hypoxia is associated with increased expression of angiogenic factors in small cholangiocytes, presumably due to a compensatory mechanism in response to biliary damage. PMID:26451003

  10. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transhepatic anterograde self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement across malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Tang, T; Binmoeller, K F; Sanchez-Yague, A; Shah, J N

    2010-03-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) for palliation of malignant obstruction may not be possible in patients with an inaccessible biliary orifice. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage methods may be useful in this setting. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of EUS-guided anterograde SEMS placement across malignant strictures in patients with an inaccessible biliary orifice. Over a 2-year period, procedural and outcomes data on all patients undergoing EUS-guided anterograde SEMS drainage after failed ERCP were prospectively entered into a database and reviewed. Five patients underwent EUS-guided anterograde SEMS. Indications included: advanced pancreatic cancer (n = 3), metastatic cancer (n = 1), and anastomotic stricture (n = 1). The biliary orifice could not be reached endoscopically due to duodenal stricture (n = 4) or inaccessible hepaticojejunostomy (n = 1). EUS-guided punctures were performed transgastrically into left intrahepatic ducts (n = 4) or transbulbar into the common bile duct (n = 1). Guide wires were passed and SEMS were successfully deployed across strictures in an anterograde fashion in all patients. Jaundice resolved and serum bilirubin levels decreased in all cases. No procedure-related complications were noted during a mean follow-up of 9.2 months. EUS-guided anterograde SEMS placement appears to be a safe and efficient technique for palliation of biliary obstruction in patients with an endoscopically inaccessible biliary orifice. The procedure can be performed at the time of failed standard ERCP, and provides an alternative drainage option to percutaneous or surgical decompression and to EUS-guided creation of bilioenteric fistulae. PMID:20119894

  12. Clinicopathological characterization of so-called “cholangiocarcinoma with intraductal papillary growth” with respect to “intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct (IPNB)”

    PubMed Central

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori; Ojima, Hidenori; Kanai, Yae; Aishima, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Ariizumi, Shun-ichi; Furukawa, Toru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Unno, Michiaki; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) of the biliary tract occasionally presents a predominant intraductal papillary growth in the bile ducts, called as biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) of papillary growth (PG) and intrahepatic CC (ICC) of intraductal growth (IG) type. Recently, intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct (IPNB) has been proposed as a pre-invasive biliary neoplasm. This study was performed to characterize pathologically BTC of PG type and ICC of IG type with respect to IPNB. It was found that 126 of such 154 CCs (81.8%) fulfilled the criteria of IPNB, while the remaining 28 cases showed different histologies, such as tubular adenocarcinoma and carcinosarcoma. These IPNBs occurred in old aged patients with a male predominance, and the left lobe was rather frequently affected in the liver. A majority of these cases were high grade IPNB (43 cases) and invasive IPNB (77 cases), while low grade IPNB was rare (6 cases). Pancreatobiliary type was predominant (48 cases) followed by gastric (30 cases), intestinal (29 cases) and oncocytic (19 cases) types. Mucus hypersecretion was found in 45 cases, and this was frequent in IPNB at the intrahepatic large bile duct and hilar bile ducts but rare at the extrahepatic bile ducts. Interestingly, 36 cases of high grade and invasive IPNBs contained foci of moderately differentiated adenocacinoma within the intraductal papillary tumor. In conclusion, a majority of ICC of IG type and BTC of PG type could be regarded as a IPNB lineage, and clinically detectable IPNBs were already a malignant papillary lesion. PMID:25031730

  13. Towards T-tube free laparoscopic bile duct exploration: a methodologic evolution during 300 consecutive procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, I J; Bailey, I S; Rhodes, M; O'Rourke, N; Nathanson, L; Fielding, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a simple, reproducible, and safe technique of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (CBDE) with high clearance rates and low morbidity and mortality rates. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: For most general surgeons, laparoscopic CBDE appears an unduly complex and demanding procedure. Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, many surgeons use endoscopic cholangiography (ERC) and endoscopic sphincterotomy as their only option in treating bile duct stones. ERC is more specific if used after surgery, but it carries an appreciable morbidity rate and has the disadvantage of requiring a second procedure to deal with bile duct stones. To this end, various methods of laparoscopic CBDE have been developed. METHODS: Between August 1991 and February 1997, 300 consecutive unselected patients underwent laparoscopic CBDE. RESULTS: Of 300 laparoscopic CBDE procedures, 173 (58%) were managed using a transcystic approach and 127 (42%) with choledochotomy. Successful laparoscopic stone clearance was achieved in 271 (90%). Of the 29 (10%) patients not cleared laparoscopically, 10 had an elective postsurgical ERC, 12 were converted to an open procedure early in the series, and 7 had unexpected retained stones. There was one death (mortality rate 0.3%) and major morbidity occurred in 22 patients (7%). The last 100 procedures were performed from July 1995 to February 1997, and stone clearance was unsuccessful in only two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic transcystic basket extraction of common duct stones under fluoroscopic guidance is a relatively quick, successful, and safe technique. Choledochotomy, when required, is associated with a higher morbidity rate, particularly with T-tube insertion, and the authors advocate primary bile duct closure with or without insertion of a biliary stent as a more satisfactory technique for both surgeon and patient. Most patients with gallbladder and common duct calculi should expect a curative one-stage laparoscopic procedure without the need for external biliary drainage or ERC. PMID:9671063

  14. Outcome of surgery for failed endoscopic extraction of common bile duct stones in elderly patients.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, B. R.; Lauri, A.; Horton, R.; Burroughs, A.; Dooley, J.

    1994-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the treatment of choice for common bile duct stones in elderly patients. For those in whom endoscopic clearance of the common bile duct fails the treatment options include stenting, dissolution therapy and lithotripsy. Surgery is often avoided because of the reported high morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. We have reviewed the outcome of patients referred for surgery after failed endoscopic clearance of common bile duct stones. Over a 3-year period, 100 patients with common bile duct stones were referred specifically for endoscopic clearance of the common bile duct (median age 69 years, range 19-97 years). In seven patients duct clearance was possible without ES and in five patients ES was considered inappropriate. ES was attempted in 88 patients and was successful in 75 (85%). Of the 13 patients failing ES or stone removal, surgery was performed in nine and four were stented. Of patients having successful ES (n = 75), ten were referred for surgery because of incomplete duct clearance. Surgery was performed to obtain duct clearance in 19 patients (eight male, 11 female, median age 77 years, range 47-90 years). Of the 19, eight had previously undergone a cholecystectomy (42%) and 17 of the 19 had biliary tract drainage preoperatively (90%). The procedures performed consisted of choledocholithotomy in all plus cholecystectomy (11), choledochoduodenostomy (7) and choledochojejunostomy (7). There were no deaths and only one major complication. The median total inpatient stay was 26 days (range 14-75 days) and the median postoperative stay was 12 days (range 7-50 days). We would conclude that open surgery can be performed safely and effectively in elderly patients with retained bile duct stones. Images Figure 2 PMID:7979073

  15. Association Between Cholecystectomy With vs Without Intraoperative Cholangiography and Risk of Common Duct Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Kristin M.; Riall, Taylor S.; Han, Yimei; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Townsend, Courtney M.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Significant controversy exists regarding routine intraoperative cholangiography in preventing common duct injury during cholecystectomy. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy and common duct injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of all Texas Medicare claims data from 2000 through 2009. We identified Medicare beneficiaries 66 years or older who underwent inpatient or outpatient cholecystectomy for biliary colic or biliary dyskinesia, acute cholecystitis, or chronic cholecystitis. We compared results from multilevel logistic regression models to the instrumental variable analyses. INTERVENTIONS Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), hospitals (percentage intraoperative cholangiography use for all cholecystectomies at the hospital), and surgeons (percentage use for all cholecystectomies performed by the surgeon). Percentage of use at the hospital and percentage of use by surgeon were the instrumental variables. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Patients with claims for common duct repair operations within 1 year of cholecystectomy were considered as having major common duct injury. RESULTS Of 92 932 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, 37 533 (40.4%) underwent concurrent intraoperative cholangiography and 280 (0.30%) had a common duct injury. The common duct injury rate was 0.21% among patients with intraoperative cholangiography and 0.36% among patients without it. In a logistic regression model controlling for patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics, the odds of common duct injury for cholecystectomies performed without intraoperative cholangiography were increased compared with those performed with it (OR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.35–2.36]; P < .001). When confounding was controlled with instrumental variable analysis, the association between cholecystectomy performed without intraoperative cholangiography and duct injury was no longer significant (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.81–1.96]; P = .31). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE When confounders were controlled with instrumental variable analysis, there was no statistically significant association between intraoperative cholangiography and common duct injury. Intraoperative cholangiography is not effective as a preventive strategy against common duct injury during cholecystectomy. PMID:23982367

  16. Anthony Eden's (Lord Avon) biliary tract saga.

    PubMed

    Braasch, John W

    2003-11-01

    Anthony Eden (Lord Avon) was the youngest foreign secretary in Great Britain's history. He subsequently became Prime Minister, succeeding Winston Churchill. Eden had the misfortune to have, during cholecystectomy, a biliary tract injury which required four subsequent biliary tract operations. He was subject to recurrent fevers and postoperative disability at important times in his career and during international crises. This report details the operative procedures used and his clinical status at crucial times in national and international affairs. PMID:14578742

  17. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage Complicated by Bilothorax

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephanie H.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a well-established and safe technique for the management of biliary obstructions and leaks. While approach is variable based on operator preference, patient anatomy, and indications; PTBD is commonly performed via a right-sided intercostal route. With a right-sided approach, pleural complications may be encountered. The authors describe a case of a right PTBD complicated by a leak into the pleural space, with the subsequent development of bilothorax.

  18. Percutaneous endoscopic management of intrahepatic stones in patients with altered biliary anatomy: A case series.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Bathini, Rajesh; Sharma, Atul; Maydeo, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Incidence of primary intrahepatic stones (IHS) in India is very less as compared to the Far East. However patients with altered biliary anatomy are prone for IHS formation secondary to anastomotic stricture formation. Indian data on percutaneous endoscopic management of IHS is scare. Five patients with IHS were managed percutaneously. All patients had undergone Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and were not suitable for direct endoscopic intervention. All patients underwent percutaneous biliary drainage followed by cholangioscopy-guided laser lithotripsy. Crushed stones were pushed across the anastomotic site using basket/balloon and ductal clearance was achieved. Good stone pulverization could be achieved in five patients (100 %). Complete ductal clearance could be achieved in all patients (100 %). Cholangioscopy-guided treatment of IHS can be valuable alternative to surgery in select group of patients especially those having dilated biliary tree with absence of intrahepatic strictures. However long-term follow up studies are required to see for recurrence of stone formation. PMID:27041379

  19. Temporary Placement of Stent Grafts in Postsurgical Benign Biliary Strictures: a Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Willatt, Jonathon M; Arabi, Mohammad; Cwikiel, Wojciech B

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of temporary stent graft placement in the treatment of benign anastomotic biliary strictures. Materials and Methods Nine patients, five women and four men, 22-64 years old (mean, 47.5 years), with chronic benign biliary anastomotic strictures, refractory to repeated balloon dilations, were treated by prolonged, temporary placement of stent-grafts. Four patients had strictures following a liver transplantation; three of them in bilio-enteric anastomoses and one in a choledocho-choledochostomy. Four of the other five patients had strictures at bilio-enteric anastomoses, which developed after complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomies and in one after a Whipple procedure for duodenal carcinoma. In eight patients, balloon-expandable stent-grafts were placed and one patient was treated by insertion of a self-expanding stent-graft. Results In the transplant group, treatment of patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses was unsuccessful (mean stent duration, 30 days). The patient treated for stenosis in the choledocho-choledochostomy responded well to consecutive self-expanding stent-graft placement (total placement duration, 112 days). All patients with bilio-enteric anastomoses in the non-transplant group were treated successfully with stent-grafts (mean placement duration, 37 days). Conclusion Treatment of benign biliary strictures with temporary placement of stent-grafts has a positive effect, but is less successful in patients with strictures developed following a liver transplant. PMID:22043153

  20. Participation of peribiliary glands in biliary tract pathophysiologies

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Saya; Sato, Yasunori; Ren, Xiang Shan; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of peribiliary glands around the bile ducts in the pathophysiology of the biliary tract. METHODS: The expression of fetal pancreatic markers, pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1) and endodermal stem/progenitor (S/P) cell markers [CD44s, chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), SOX9 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)] were examined immunohistochemically in 32 normal adult livers (autopsy livers) and 22 hepatolithiatic livers (surgically resected livers). The latter was characterized by the proliferation of the peribiliary glands. Immunohistochemistry was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections after deparaffinization. Although PDX1 and HES1 were expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of epithelial cells, only nuclear staining was evaluated. SOX9 was expressed in the nucleus, while CD44s, CXCR4 and EpCAM were expressed in the cell membranes. The frequency and extent of the expression of these molecules in the lining epithelia and peribiliary glands were evaluated semi-quantitatively based on the percentage of positive cells: 0, 1+ (focal), 2+ (moderate) and 3+ (extensive). RESULTS: In normal livers, PDX1 was infrequently expressed in the lining epithelia, but was frequently expressed in the peribiliary glands. In contrast, HES1 was frequently expressed in the lining epithelia, but its expression in the peribiliary glands was focal, suggesting that the peribiliary glands retain the potential of differentiation toward the pancreas and the lining epithelia exhibit properties to inhibit such differentiation. This unique combination was also seen in hepatolithiatic livers. The expression of endodermal S/P cell markers varied in the peribiliary glands in normal livers: SOX9 and EpCAM were frequently expressed, CD44s infrequently, and CXCR4 almost not at all. The expression of these markers, particularly CD44s and CXCR4, increased in the peribiliary glands and lining epithelia in hepatolithiatic livers. This increased expression of endodermal S/P cell markers may be related to the increased production of intestinal and gastric mucin and also to the biliary neoplasia associated with the gastric and intestinal phenotypes reported in hepatolithiasis. CONCLUSION: The unique expression pattern of PDX1 and HES1 and increased expression of endodermal S/P cell markers in the peribiliary glands may be involved in biliary pathophysiologies. PMID:24023981

  1. Transcatheter thoracic duct embolization in the dog. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A D; Bright, R M; Walker, M A; Patton, C S

    1989-01-01

    Thoracic duct embolization was created by injecting an isobutyl 2-cyanoacrylate/iophendylate (IBCA) mixture through a cannulated mesenteric lymphatic vessel in eight normal dogs. Aqueous contrast lymphangiography was repeated at minute 10 and week 6. Six dogs were euthanatized at week 6 and two dogs at month 6. Embolization with 1.5 to 3.9 ml of the mixture resulted in complete obstruction of the thoracic duct in all eight dogs. Results of lymphangiography in six dogs at week 6 showed a persistent, complete obstruction of the thoracic duct in six dogs and alternate lymphaticovenous anastomoses in four dogs. Histologically, there were a sclerosing granulomatous response surrounding the lymphatic embolus, mild congestive changes in the mesenteric lymph nodes, and mild lacteal dilatation in the jejunum. The procedure was well tolerated with only a few complications. One dog suffered partial thrombosis of the cranial vena cava by the injected material with later dislodgement and embolization of a pulmonary artery branch. Modifications have been made in the injection procedure to avoid this complication. This technique for occlusion of the thoracic duct shows potential for clinical use in the management of canine chylothorax. The obstruction appears to be complete and permanent, and surgical/anesthetic time is decreased greatly from previously described procedures. PMID:2773291

  2. The Biliary Epithelium Gives Rise to Liver Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Affò, Silvia; Coll, Mar; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Millán, Cristina; Blaya, Delia; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Rentero, Carles; José Lozano, Juan; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Solar, Myriam; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Enrich, Carlos; Ginès, Pere; Bataller, Ramon; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Severe liver diseases are characterized by expansion of liver progenitor cells (LPC), which correlates with disease severity. However, the origin and role of LPC in liver physiology and in hepatic injury remains a contentious topic. We found that ductular reaction cells in human cirrhotic livers express hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1β). However, HNF1β expression was not present in newly generated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive hepatocytes. In order to investigate the role of HNF1β- expressing cells we used a tamoxifen-inducible Hnf1βCreER/R26RYfp/LacZ mouse to lineage-trace Hnf1β+ biliary duct cells and to assess their contribution to LPC expansion and hepatocyte generation. Lineage tracing demonstrated no contribution of HNF1β+ cells to hepatocytes during liver homeostasis in healthy mice or after loss of liver mass. After acute acetaminophen or carbon tetrachloride injury no contribution of HNF1β+ cells to hepatocyte was detected. We next assessed the contribution of Hnf1β+ -derived cells following two liver injury models with LPC expansion, a diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidin (DDC)-diet and a choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented (CDE)-diet. The contribution of Hnf1β+ cells to liver regeneration was dependent on the liver injury model. While no contribution was observed after DDC-diet treatment, mice fed with a CDE-diet showed a small population of hepatocytes derived from Hnf1β+ cells that were expanded to 1.86% of total hepatocytes after injury recovery. Genome-wide expression profile of Hnf1β+ -derived cells from the DDC and CDE models indicated that no contribution of LPC to hepatocytes was associated with LPC expression of genes related to telomere maintenance, inflammation, and chemokine signaling pathways. Conclusion HNF1β+ biliary duct cells are the origin of LPC. HNF1β+ cells do not contribute to hepatocyte turnover in the healthy liver, but after certain liver injury, they can differentiate to hepatocytes contributing to liver regeneration. PMID:24700364

  3. Imaging Findings of Duodenal Duplication Cyst Complicated with Duodenal Intussusception and Biliary Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Torres Diez, Eduardo; Pellón Dabén, Raúl; Crespo Del Pozo, Juan; González Sánchez, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal duplication cyst is an extremely rare congenital anomaly usually diagnosed in childhood. However, it may remain asymptomatic for a long period. In adults it usually manifests with symptoms related to complications as pancreatitis, jaundice, or intussusception. We present the radiology findings of a patient with a duodenal intussusception secondary to a duplication cyst. The usefulness of the magnetic resonance (MR) in this case is highlighted. PMID:26989550

  4. GENETIC CAUSES OF DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Mestroni, Luisa; Brun, Francesca; Spezzacatene, Anita; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Taylor, Matthew RG

    2014-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and/or dysfunction, affecting both adult and pediatric populations. Almost half of cases are genetically determined with an autosomal pattern of inheritance. Up to 40 genes have been identified affecting proteins of a wide variety of cellular structures such as the sarcomere, the nuclear envelope, the cytoskeleton, the sarcolemma and the intercellular junction. Novel gene mutations have been recently identified thanks to advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. Genetic screening is an essential tool for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prognostic stratification and, possibly, adoption of primary preventive measures in affected patients and their asymptomatic relatives. The purpose of this article is to review the genetic basis of DCM, the known genotype-phenotype correlations, the role of current genetic sequencing techniques in the discovery of novel pathogenic gene mutations and new therapeutic perspectives. PMID:25584016

  5. Mixed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma with spindle cell and clear cell features in the extrahepatic bile duct.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, John; Agarwal, Rishi; Bratton, Laura; Nguyen, Jeremy; Weidenhaft, Mandy Crause; Shores, Nathan; Kimbrell, Hillary Z

    2014-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive) surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient's poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas. PMID:24804133

  6. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rishi; Nguyen, Jeremy; Weidenhaft, Mandy Crause; Shores, Nathan; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive) surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient's poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas. PMID:24804133

  7. Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Sadao Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto; Nakajo, Masayuki

    2008-07-15

    We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

  8. Current situation of endoscopic biliary cannulation and salvage techniques for difficult cases: Current strategies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Bhatia, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    In the pancreatobiliary session at Endoscopic Forum Japan (EFJ) 2015, current trends of routine biliary cannulation techniques and salvage techniques for difficult biliary cannulation cases were discussed. Endoscopists from nine Japanese high-volume centers along with two overseas centers participated in the questionnaires and discussion. It was concluded that, currently, in Western countries, the wire-guided cannulation (WGC) technique is favored during initial cannulation attempts. However, the conventional technique using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter with contrast medium injection is still used as first choice at most Japanese high-volume centers. The WGC technique is used as the second choice at some institutions only. After failed biliary cannulation attempts, the initial salvage option preferred in most centers includes pancreatic guidewire placement, followed by precut techniques as the second salvage choice. Among several precut techniques, the free-hand needle knife sphincterotomy with cutting upwards from the pancreatic duct is most popular. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided rendezvous technique is also carried out as a final salvage option at select institutions. PMID:26684083

  9. The effects of different preoperative biliary drainage methods on complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Liang, Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Fu-Bo; Wang, Xi-Tao; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) methods on complications in jaundiced patients following pancreaticoduodenectomy. We retrospectively analyzed 270 extrahepatic bile duct cancer patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. A total of 170 patients without PBD treatment were defined as the non-PBD group. According to different PBD methods, 45, 18, and 37 patients were classified into the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD), and endoscopic retrograde biliary stent (ERBS) groups, respectively. Clinical characteristics and complications were compared among the 4 groups. Preoperative cholangitis occurred in 14 (8.2%) and 8 (21.6%) patients in the non-PBD and ERBS group, respectively (P = 0.04). Compared with the non-PBD group, delayed gastric emptying (DGE) and wound infection occurred significantly more often in the ERBS group. The incidence of severe complications was significantly lower in the PTBD group than the non-PBD group (P = 0.03). Postoperative hospital stay and complication rates were significantly higher in the ERBS group than the PTBD group. There were no significant differences in complications between ENBD and other groups. In conclusion, PTBD can improve surgical outcomes by reducing severe complication rate in jaundiced patients following pancreaticoduodenectomy. ERBS increased the rates of DGE and wound infection due to high incidence of cholangitis before operative intervention and should be avoided. ENBD carried no special effect on complications and needs further analysis. PMID:25860221

  10. The Role of Biliary Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cellular Adhesion Molecule 6 (CEACAM6) as a Biomarker in Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J. Bart; Correa-Gallego, Camilo; Li, Yu; Nelson, James; Alseidi, Adnan; Helton, W. Scott; Allen, Peter J.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Fong, Yuman; Kingham, T. Peter; Kowdley, Kris V.; Jarnagin, William R.; Rocha, Flavio G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study is to determine if CEACAM6 can be detected in the bile of patients with biliary cancer and can serve as a diagnostic biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma. Summary Background Data Distinguishing bile duct carcinoma from other diagnoses is often difficult using endoscopic or percutaneous techniques. The cell surface protein CEACAM6 is over-expressed in many gastrointestinal cancers and may be selectively elevated in biliary adenocarcinoma. Methods Bile from patients with benign biliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma (hilar, intrahepatic and distal) was collected at the time of index operation. The concentration of CEACAM6 was quantified by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlated to pathologic diagnosis. Diagnostic capability of CEACAM6 was evaluated by Wilcoxon rank-sum, linear regression, multiple regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Bile from 83 patients was analyzed: 42 with benign disease and 41 with cholangiocarcinoma. Patients in the benign cohort were younger, predominantly female, and had lower median biliary CEACAM6 levels than patients in the malignant cohort (7.5 ng/ml vs. 40 ng/ml; p = <.001). ROC curve analysis determined CEACAM6 to be a positive predictor cholangiocarcinoma with a CEACAM6 level >14 ng/ml associated with 87.5% sensitivity, 69.1% specificity, and a likelihood ratio of 2.8 (AUC 0.74). Multiple regression analysis suggested elevated alkaline phosphatase and the presence of biliary endoprostheses may influence CEACAM6 levels. Conclusion Biliary CEACAM6 can identify patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a high degree of sensitivity and should be investigated further as a potential screening tool. PMID:26974538

  11. The inflammatory phenotype of the fibrous plate is distinct from the liver and correlates with clinical outcome in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Arva, Nicoleta C; Russo, Pierre A; Erlichman, Jessi; Hancock, Wayne W; Haber, Barbara A; Bhatti, Tricia R

    2015-03-01

    Biliary atresia is an inflammatory cholangiopathy of still undetermined etiology. Correlations between histologic findings and clinical outcome in this disease have largely been based on evaluation of liver parenchyma. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of inflammation within the biliary remnant and identify associations between the type and degree of inflammation and clinical outcome as reflected by the transplant-free interval. The inflammation within the fibrous plates and livers of 41 patients with biliary atresia was characterized using immunohistochemical markers and the cell populations were digitally quantified. The type and quantity of cells within the infiltrate were then correlated with length of time from Kasai portoenterostomy until transplant. Histologic and immunohistochemical features of the biliary remnant allowed stratification of patients into "inflammatory plate" and "fibrotic plate" groups. Overall there was no significant difference in transplant-free interval between the two cohorts; however, there was a trend towards a longer time to transplant among patients in the "fibrotic plate" group. In addition, the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in the fibrous plate was distinctly different from that present in the liver and only the characteristics of the inflammation in the fibrous plate, in particular the number of Foxp3+ T regulatory lymphocytes correlated with clinical outcome. The results of this study support the view of the extra-hepatic biliary tree as the primary site of injury in BA with the changes seen in the liver as secondary manifestations of outflow obstruction. The association between specific inflammatory cell subtypes within the fibrous plate and the length of transplant-free interval also supports the role of the immune system in the initial process of bile duct damage in biliary atresia. PMID:25624184

  12. Multisensory signalling enhances pupil dilation.

    PubMed

    Rigato, Silvia; Rieger, Gerulf; Romei, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and integrating information across the senses is an advantageous mechanism to efficiently respond to the environment. In this study, a simple auditory-visual detection task was employed to test whether pupil dilation, generally associated with successful target detection, could be used as a reliable measure for studying multisensory integration processing in humans. We recorded reaction times and pupil dilation in response to a series of visual and auditory stimuli, which were presented either alone or in combination. The results indicated faster reaction times and larger pupil diameter to the presentation of combined auditory and visual stimuli than the same stimuli when presented in isolation. Moreover, the responses to the multisensory condition exceeded the linear summation of the responses obtained in each unimodal condition. Importantly, faster reaction times corresponded to larger pupil dilation, suggesting that also the latter can be a reliable measure of multisensory processes. This study will serve as a foundation for the investigation of auditory-visual integration in populations where simple reaction times cannot be collected, such as developmental and clinical populations. PMID:27189316

  13. Non-Newtonian flow of pathological bile in the biliary system: experimental investigation and CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchumov, Alex G.; Gilev, Valeriy; Popov, Vitaliy; Samartsev, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vasiliy

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of pathological human bile taken from the gallbladder and bile ducts. The flow dependences were obtained for different types of bile from patients with the same pathology, but of different age and sex. The parameters of the Casson's and Carreau's equations were found for bile samples. Results on the hysteretic bile behavior at loading-unloading tests are also presented, which proved that the pathologic bile is a non-Newtonian thixotropic liquid. The viscosity of the gallbladder bile was shown to be higher compared to the duct bile. It was found that at higher shear stress the pathological bile behaves like Newtonian fluid, which is explained by reorientation of structural components. Moreover, some pathological bile flow in the biliary system CFD simulations were performed. The velocity and pressure distributions as well as flow rates in the biliary segments during the gallbladder refilling and emptying phases are obtained. The results of CFD simulations can be used for surgeons to assess the patient's condition and choose an adequate treatment.

  14. Laparoscopy-Assisted Percutaneous Cholangiography in Biliary Atresia Diagnosis: Comparison with Open Technique

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Murat; Tutus, Kamuran; Fakıoglu, Ender; Ozden, Onder; Hatipoglu, Zehra; Iskit, Serdar Hilmi; Tuncer, Recep; Zorludemir, Unal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Biliary atresia is a surgical cause of prolonged jaundice, which needs to be diagnosed with cholangiography that has traditionally been performed via laparotomy. Laparoscopic assistance has lately been introduced to avoid unnecessary laparotomy. We aim to evaluate the benefits of the laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography and compare it to the traditional procedure via laparotomy. Patients and Method. The medical records of the cases who had undergone cholangiography for prolonged jaundice between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. The patients were grouped according to cholangiography technique (laparotomy/laparoscopy). The laparoscopy and laparotomy groups with patent bile ducts were focused and compared in terms of operation duration, postoperative initiation time of enteral feeding, and full enteral feeding achievement time. Results. Sixty-one infants with prolonged jaundice were evaluated between 2007 and 2014. Among the patients with patent bile ducts, operation duration, postoperative enteral feeding initiation time, and the time to achieve full enteral feeding were shorter in laparoscopy group. Conclusion. Laparoscopic cholangiography is safe and less time-consuming compared to laparotomy, with less postoperative burden. As early age of operation is a very important prognostic factor, laparoscopic evaluation should be an early option in work-up of the infants with prolonged jaundice with direct hyperbilirubinemia, for diagnosis/exclusion of biliary atresia. PMID:26819607

  15. The Role of Perioperative Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Biliary Drainage in Large Liver Hydatid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Bicaj, B.; Limani, D.; Maxhuni, M.; Rrusta, A.; Hoxha, F.; Sada, F.; Hashani, S.; Musa, R.; Latifi, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The best surgical technique for large liver hydatid cysts (LHCs) has not yet been agreed on. Objectives. The objective of this study was to examine the role of perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and biliary drainage in patients with large LHCs. Methods. A 20-year retrospective study of patients with LHCs treated surgically at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK). We divided patients into 2 groups based on treatment period: 1981–1990 (Group I) and 2001–2010 (Group II). Demographic characteristics (sex, age), the surgical procedure performed, complications rate, and outcomes were compared. Results. Of the 340 patients in our study, 218 (64.1%) were female with median age of 37 years (range, 17 to 81 years). 71% of patients underwent endocystectomy with partial pericystectomy and omentoplication, 8% total pericystectomy, 18% endocystectomy with capitonnage, and 3% external drainage. In Group I, 10 patients underwent bile duct exploration and T-tube placement; in Group II, 39 patients underwent bile duct exploration and T-tube placement. In addition, 9 patients in Group II underwent perioperative ERCP with papillotomy. The complication rate was 14.32% versus 6.37%, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Perioperative ERCP and biliary drainage significantly decreased the complication rate and improved outcomes in patients with large LHCs. PMID:25431783

  16. Pancreatic Stenting Reduces Post-ERCP Pancreatitis and Biliary Sepsis in High-Risk Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai-En; Li, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Ou, Wei-Lin; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an established treatment modality for bile duct disorders, but patients have a risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and biliary sepsis. Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pancreatic stent for prophylaxis of PEP and biliary sepsis in high-risk patients with complicating common bile duct (CBD) disorders. Methods. Two hundred and six patients with complicating confirmed or suspected CBD disorders were randomly assigned to receive ERCP with pancreatic stenting (experimental group) or without stenting (control group). Primary outcome measure was frequency of PEP, and secondary outcome measures included operative time, blood loss, postoperative recovery times, and other ERCP-associated morbidities. Results. Baseline age, sex, CBD etiology, concomitant medical/surgical conditions, cannulation difficulty, and ERCP success were comparable between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Compared to the control group, the experimental group had a significantly lower frequency of PEP (7.7% versus 17.7%, P < 0.05) and positive bile microbial culture (40.4% versus 62.7%, P < 0.05). However, the two groups were similar in operative time, blood loss, postoperative recovery times, and other ERCP-associated morbidities (all P > 0.05). Conclusions. Pancreatic stenting can reduce the occurrence of PEP and biliary sepsis in high-risk patients with complicating CBD disorders but does not increase other ERCP-associated morbidities. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration identifier ChiCTR-OCH-14005134). PMID:27057161

  17. Upregulation of mir-506 Leads to Decreased AE2 Expression in Biliary Epithelium of Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Banales, Jesús M.; Sáez, Elena; Úriz, Miriam; Sarvide, Sarai; Urribarri, Aura D.; Splinter, Patrick; Tietz Bogert, Pamela S.; Bujanda, Luis; Prieto, Jesús; Medina, Juan F.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2012-01-01

    Cl−/HCO3−anion exchanger 2 (AE2) participates in intracellular pH homeostasis and secretin-stimulated biliary bicarbonate secretion. AE2/SLC4A2 gene expression is reduced in liver and blood mononuclear cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Our previous findings of hepatic and immunological features mimicking PBC in Ae2-deficient mice strongly suggest that decreased AE2 expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC. Here we tested the potential role of hsa-microRNA 506 (miR-506) – predicted as candidate to target AE2 mRNA – for the decreased expression of AE2 in PBC. Real-time qPCR showed that miR-506 expression is increased in PBC livers versus normal liver specimens. In situ hybridization in liver sections confirmed that miR-506 is upregulated in the intrahepatic bile ducts of PBC livers compared with normal and primary-sclerosing-cholangitis livers. Precursor-mediated overexpression of miR-506 in SV40-immortalized normal human cholangiocytes (H69 cells) led to decreased AE2 protein expression and activity, as indicated by immunoblotting and microfluorimetry, respectively. Moreover, miR-506 overexpression in 3D-cultured H69 cholangiocytes blocked the secretin-stimulated expansion of cystic structures developed under the three-dimensional conditions. Luciferase assays and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that miR-506 specifically may bind the 3’UTR region of AE2 mRNA and prevent protein translation. Finally, cultured PBC cholangiocytes showed decreased AE2 activity together with miR-506 overexpression compared to normal human cholangiocytes, and, transfection of PBC cholangiocytes with anti-miR-506 was able to improve their AE2 activity. Conclusion miR-506 is upregulated in cholangiocytes from PBC patients, binds the 3’UTR region of AE2 mRNA and prevents protein translation, leading to diminished AE2 activity and impaired biliary secretory functions. In view of the putative pathogenic role of decreased AE2 in PBC, miR-506 may constitute a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:22383162

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 mediates formation of bile ducts and hepatic maturation of fetal hepatic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Otani, Satoshi; Kakinuma, Sei; Kamiya, Akihide; Goto, Fumio; Kaneko, Shun; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Asano, Yu; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Nakata, Toru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2016-01-22

    Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the phenotype of these cells have not been completely elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is a type I transmembrane proteinase regulating pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is essential for the activation of several MMPs and cytokines. However, the physiological functions of MMP-14 in liver development are unknown. Here we describe a functional role for MMP-14 in hepatic and biliary differentiation of mouse hepatoblasts. MMP-14 was upregulated in cells around the portal vein in perinatal stage liver. Formation of bile duct-like structures in MMP-14-deficient livers was significantly delayed compared with wild-type livers invivo. Invitro biliary differentiation assays showed that formation of cholangiocytic cysts derived from MMP-14-deficient hepatoblasts was completely impaired, and that overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatoblasts promoted the formation of bile duct-like cysts. In contrast, the expression of molecules associated with metabolic functions in hepatocytes, including hepatic nuclear factor 4? and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, were significantly increased in MMP-14-deficient livers. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly upregulated in MMP-14-deficient livers. We demonstrate that MMP-14-mediated signaling in fetal hepatic progenitor cells promotes biliary luminal formation around the portal vein and negatively controls the maturation of hepatocytes. PMID:26724533

  19. Bile duct malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tucek, S; Tomasek, J; Halámkova, J; Kiss, I; Andrasina, T; Hemmelová, B; Adámková-Krákorová, D; Vyzula, R

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct malignancies include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), gall bladder carcinoma (GC) and carcinoma of Vater's ampulla (ampulloma). Bile duct neoplasms are rare tumours with overall poor prognosis. The overall incidence affects up to 12.5 per 100,000 persons in the Czech Republic. The mortality rate has risen recently to 9.5 per 100,000 persons. The incidence and mortality have been remarkably stable over the past 3 decades. The survival rate of patients with these tumours is poor, usually not exceeding 12 months. The diagnostic process is complex, uneasy and usually late. Most cases are diagnosed when unresectable, and palliative treatment is the main approach of medical care for these tumours. The treatment remains very challenging. New approaches have not brought much improvement in this field. Standards of palliative care are lacking and quality of life assessments are surprisingly not common. From the scarce data it seems, however, that multimodal individually tailored treatment can prolong patients'survival and improve the health-related quality of life. The care in specialized centres offers methods of surgery, interventional radiology, clinical oncology and high quality supportive care. These methods are discussed in the article in greater detail. Improvements in this field can be sought in new diagnostic methods and new procedures in surgery and interventional radiology. Understanding the tumour biology on the molecular level could shift the strategy to a more successful one, resulting in more cured patients. Further improvements in palliative care can be sought by defining new targets and new drug development. The lack of patients with bile duct neoplasms has been the limiting factor for any improvements. A new design of larger randomized international multicentric clinical trials with prompt data sharing could help to overcome this major problem. Defining standards of palliative care is a necessity. Addressing health-related quality of life could help to assess the real benefit of palliative treatment. PMID:20806821

  20. Soft-Tissue-Anchored Transcutaneous Port for Long-Term Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Rickard Ekloef, Hampus; Eriksson, Lars-Gunnar; Karlsson, Britt-Marie; Rasmussen, Ib; Lundgren, Dan; Thomsen, Peter

    2005-01-15

    Purpose. A transcutaneous port (T-port) has been developed allowing easy exchange of a catheter, which was fixed inside the device, using the Seldinger technique. The objective of the study was to test the T-port in patients who had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Methods. The T-port, made of titanium, was implanted using local anesthesia in 11 patients (mean age 65 years, range 52-85 years) with biliary duct obstruction (7 malignant and 4 benign strictures). The subcutaneous part of the T-port consisted of a flange with several perforations allowing ingrowth of connective tissue. The T-port allowed catheter sizes of 10 and 12 Fr. Results. All wounds healed uneventfully and were followed by a stable period without signs of pronounced inflammation or infection. It was easy to open the port and to exchange the drainage tube. The patient's quality of life was considerably improved even though several patients had problems with repeated bile leakage due to frequent recurrent obstructions of the tubes. The ports were implanted for a mean time of 9 months (range 2-21 months). Histologic examination in four cases showed that the port was well integrated into the soft tissue. Tilting of the T-port in two cases led to perforation of the skin by the subcutaneous part of the ports, which were removed after 7 and 8 months. Conclusion. The T-port served as an excellent external access to the biliary ducts. The drainage tubes were well fixed within the ports. The quality of life of the patients was considerably improved. Together with improved aesthetic appearance they found it easier to conduct normal daily activities and personal care. However, the problem of recurrent catheter obstruction remained unsolved.

  1. Remains of the day: Biliary complications related to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Allemann, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assesse the rate of bile duct injuries (BDI) and overall biliary complications during single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) compared to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). METHODS: SPLC has recently been proposed as an innovative surgical approach for gallbladder surgery. So far, its safety with respect to bile duct injuries has not been specifically evaluated. A systematic review of the literature published between January 1990 and November 2012 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing SPLC versus CLC reporting BDI rate and overall biliary complications were included. The quality of RCT was assessed using the Jadad score. Analysis was made by performing a meta-analysis, using Review Manager 5.2. This study was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A retrospective study including all retrospective reports on SPLC was also performed alongside. RESULTS: From 496 publications, 11 RCT including 898 patients were selected for meta-analysis. No studies were rated as high quality (Jadad score ≥ 4). Operative indications included benign gallbladder disease operated in an elective setting in all studies, excluding all emergency cases and acute cholecystitis. The median follow-up was 1 mo (range 0.03-18 mo). The incidence of BDI was 0.4% for SPLC and 0% for CLC; the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.36). The incidence of overall biliary complication was 1.6% for SPLC and 0.5% for CLC, the difference did not reached statistically significance (P = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.66-15). Sixty non-randomized trials including 3599 patients were also analysed. The incidence of BDI reported then was 0.7%. CONCLUSION: The safety of SPLC cannot be assumed, based on the current evidence. Hence, this new technology cannot be recommended as standard technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24574757

  2. Do Biliary Complications after Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after failure of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or in cases of refractory HCC, and to investigate biliary complications after hypofractionated RT. Materials and Methods We retrospectively enrolled patients with unresectable, TACE-unresponsive, or refractory HCC treated with hypofractionated RT between July 2006 and December 2012. The perihilar region was defined as the 1-cm area surrounding the right, left, and the common hepatic duct, including the gallbladder and the cystic duct. Significant elevation of total bilirubin was defined as an increase of more than 3.0 mg/dL, and more than two times that of the previous level after completion of RT. Results Fifty patients received hypofractionated RT and 27 (54%) had a tumor located within the perihilar region. The median follow-up period was 24.7 months (range, 4.3 to 95.5 months). None of the patients developed classic radiation disease symptoms, but four patients (8%) showed significant elevation of total bilirubin within 1 year after RT. During follow-up, 12 patients (24%) developed radiologic biliary abnormalities, but only two patients had toxicities requiring intervention. Estimated local progression-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival of the patients at 3-year post-hypofractionated RT were 89.7%, 11.2%, and 57.4%, respectively. Conclusion Biliary complications associated with a higher dose exposure of hypofractionated RT were minimal, even in the perihilar region. Hypofractionated RT provided excellent local control and may be a valuable option for treatment of unresectable cases of TACE-unresponsive or refractory HCC. PMID:26194367

  3. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2000-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that these seals tend to fail over time periods ranging from days to years. We have used several test methods over the last few years to evaluate the longevity of duct sealants when subjected to temperatures and pressures representative of those found in the field. Traditional cloth duct tapes have been found to significantly under-perform other sealants and have been banned from receiving duct tightness credits in California's energy code (California Energy Commission 1998). Our accelerated testing apparatus has been redesigned since its first usage for improved performance. The methodology is currently under consideration by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a potential new test method. This report will summarize the set of measurements to date, review the status of the test apparatus and test method, and summarize the applications of these results to codes and standards.

  4. Balloon dilator versus telescopic metal dilators for tract dilatation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn stones and calyceal stones

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, Mohamed; Salem, Shady; Allam, Adel; Hathout, Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of balloon dilatation (BD) vs. telescopic metal dilators (TMDs) in establishing the tract for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with calyceal stones or staghorn stones, but with no hydronephrosis. Patients and methods Data from selected patients over 4years were recorded retrospectively. Patients with complex staghorn stones, an undilated targeted calyx, or the stone filling the targeted calyx, were included in the study. In all, 97 patients were included, of 235 undergoing PCNL between March 2010 and March 2014, and were divided into two groups according to the technique of primary tract dilatation. Group A included patients who had BD and group B those treated using TMDs. Results In group A (BD, 55 patients) dilatation was successful in 34 (62%). The dilatation failed or there was a need for re-dilatation using TMD in 21 patients (38%). In one of these 21 patients the dilatation failed due to extravasation. In group B (TMD, 42 patients) dilatation was successful in 38 (90%) patients, with incomplete dilatation and a need for re-dilatation in four (10%) patients, and no failed procedures. Group A had a significantly higher failure rate than group B (P<0.001). Differences in operative duration, blood loss, stone-removal success rate and complication rate were statistically insignificant. Conclusion BD has a higher failure rate than TMD when establishing access for calyceal stones or staghorn stones that have little space around them. PMID:26413325

  5. [Congenital lacrimonasal duct cyst: Do not forget this radiological and clinical entity].

    PubMed

    Braun, J-J; Debry, C; Donato, L; Riehm, S

    2016-02-01

    Although obstruction of the lacrimonasal duct is a fairly common finding in newborns, development of a dacryocystocele (nasolacrimal duct cyst) is uncommon and is caused by stenosis in the proximal and distal area of the nasolacrimal duct leading to a cystic dilatation. Its diagnosis remains difficult for the pediatrician, the ENT specialist, the ophthalmologist, and the radiologist. The study of six cases of dacryocystocele and the review of the literature led the authors to describe the clinical and radiological features of this uncommon entity. The symptomatology includes nasal obstruction and, when bilateral, significant respiratory distress in the newborn (obligate nose-breather) and dilatation of the lacrimal duct with blue cystic swelling inferior to the medial canthus or with an inflammatory aspect of the lacrimal duct in case of infection. A careful endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities and CT or MRI imaging reveals a cystic tumor, which arises in the inferior meatus, inferolateral to the inferior turbinate, and can partly or completely obstruct the endonasal space, uni- or bilaterally. CT and MRI are equally sensitive in detecting dacryocystocele and are also useful for differential diagnosis for other cystic or tumoral nasal lesions such as meningoencephalocele, dermoid cyst, and glioma. To avoid the risk of potential complications (respiratory distress or even sudden infant death, infectious ophthalmologic complications), this radiological and clinical entity should not be forgotten. Endoscopic marsupialization leads to immediate and definitive healing recovery. PMID:26724215

  6. Endoscopic diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma: Advances and current limitations

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Kiichi; Ushio, Jun; Sugano, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is difficult, even now. When ultrasonography (US) shows dilatation of the bile duct, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic US (EUS) is the next step. When US or EUS shows localized bile duct wall thickening, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be conducted with intraductal US (IDUS) and forceps biopsy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization increases the sensitivity of brush cytology with similar specificity. In patients with papillary type bile duct carcinoma, three biopsies are sufficient. In patients with nodular or infiltrating-type bile duct carcinoma, multiple biopsies are warranted, and IDUS can compensate for the limitations of biopsies. In preoperative staging, the combination of dynamic multi-detector low computed tomography (MDCT) and IDUS is useful for evaluating vascular invasion and cancer depth infiltration. However, assessment of lymph nodes metastases is difficult. In resectable cases, assessment of longitudinal cancer spread is important. The combination of IDUS and MDCT is useful for revealing submucosal cancer extension, which is common in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. To estimate the mucosal extension, which is common in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the combination of IDUS and cholangioscopy is required. The utility of current peroral cholangioscopy is limited by the maneuverability of the “baby scope”. A new baby scope (10 Fr), called “SpyGlass” has potential, if the image quality can be improved. Since extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is common in the Far East, many researchers in Japan and Korea contributed these studies, especially, in the evaluation of longitudinal cancer extension. PMID:21611097

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. PMID:25430551

  8. Thymopharyngeal duct cyst: MR imaging of a third branchial arch anomaly in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Vade, A; Griffiths, A; Hotaling, A; Eisenbeis, J F; Husain, A N

    1994-01-01

    Third branchial arch anomalies are rare. The authors present a case report of a neonate with a rapidly growing neck mass due to cystic dilation of a persistent thymopharyngeal duct, which is a derivative of the third branchial arch. The presence of thyroid and thymic tissue in the cyst wall, the communication of the cyst with the piriform sinus, and the relationship of the cyst to carotid vessels and the sternomastoid muscle were consistent with the features of a thymopharyngeal duct cyst embedded in the thyroid gland. PMID:7949690

  9. GWAS in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gulamhusein, Aliya F.; Juran, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been a significant technological advance in our ability to evaluate the genetic architecture of complex diseases such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC). To date, six large-scale studies have been performed which identified 27 non-HLA risk loci associated with PBC. The identified risk variants emphasize important disease concepts; namely, that disturbances in immunoregulatory pathways are important in the pathogenesis of PBC and that such perturbations are shared among a diverse number of autoimmune diseases – suggesting the risk architecture may confer a generalized propensity to autoimmunity not necessarily specific to PBC. Furthermore, the impact of non-HLA risk variants, particularly in genes involved with IL-12 signaling, and ethnic variation in conferring susceptibility to PBC have been highlighted. While GWAS have been a critical stepping-stone in understanding common genetic variation contributing to PBC, limitations pertaining to power, sample availability, and strong linkage disequilibrium across genes have left us with an incomplete understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease pathogenesis. Future efforts to gain insight into this missing heritability, the genetic variation that contributes to important disease outcomes and the functional consequences of associated variants will be critical if practical clinical translation is to be realized. PMID:26676814

  10. Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer: Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Chemotherapy for bile duct cancer Radiation therapy for bile duct cancer Radiation therapy uses ... of radiation for bile duct cancer. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) This type of radiation therapy uses ...

  11. Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and postoperatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Results: Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:19660213

  12. Surgery or EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy for malignant distal biliary obstruction after ERCP failure

    PubMed Central

    Artifon, Everson L.A.; Loureiro, Jarbas F.; Baron, Todd H.; Fernandes, Kaie; Kahaleh, Michel; Marson, Fernando P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the method of choice for drainage in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction, but it fails in up to 10% of cases. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and surgical bypass are the traditional drainage alternatives. This study aimed to compare technical and clinical success, quality of life, and survival of surgical biliary bypass or hepaticojejunostomy (HJT) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided choledochoduodenostomy (CDT) in patients with distal malignant bile duct obstruction and failed ERCP. Patients and Methods: A prospective, randomized trial was conducted. From March 2011 to September 2013, 32 patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction and failed ERCP were studied. The HJT group consisted of 15 patients and the CDT group consisted of 14 patients. Technical and clinical success, quality of life, and survival were assessed prospectively. Results: Technical success was 94% (15/16) in the HJT group and 88% (14/16) in the CDT group (P = 0.598). Clinical success occurred in 14 (93%) patients in the HJT group and in 10 (71%) patients in the CDT group (P = 0.169). During follow-up, a statistically significant difference was seen in mean functional capacity scores, physical health, pain, social functioning, and emotional and mental health aspects in both techniques (P < 0.05). The median survival time in both groups was the same (82 days). Conclusion: Data relating to technical and clinical success, quality of life, and survival were similar in patients who underwent HJT and CDT drainage after failed ERCP for malignant distal biliary obstruction. PMID:26374583

  13. Negative short-term impact of intraoperative biliary lavage in patients with hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ou; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Yang, Ke; Cai, Chun-Xian; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate short-term outcomes following intraoperative biliary lavage for hepatolithiasis. METHODS: A total of 932 patients who were admitted to the West China Medical Center of Sichuan University between January 2010 and January 2014 and underwent bile duct exploration and lithotomy were retrospectively included in our study. The patients were divided into the lavage group and the control group. Related pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors were recorded, analyzed, and compared between the two groups in order to verify the effects of biliary lavage on the short-term outcome of patients with hepatolithiasis. RESULTS: Amongst the patients who were included, 678 patients with hepatolithiasis were included in the lavage group, and the other 254 patients were enrolled in the control group. Data analyses revealed that preoperative baseline and related intraoperative variables were not significantly different. However, patients who underwent intraoperative biliary lavage had prolonged postoperative hospital stays (6.67 d vs 7.82 d, P = 0.024), higher hospitalization fees (RMB 28437.1 vs RMB 32264.2, P = 0.043), higher positive rates of bacterial cultures from blood (13.3% vs 25.8%, P = 0.001) and bile (23.6% vs 40.7%, P = 0.001) samples, and increased usage of advanced antibiotics (26.3% vs 38.2%, P = 0.001). In addition, in the lavage group, more patients had fever (> 37.5 °C, 81.4% vs 91.1%, P = 0.001) and hyperthermia (> 38.5°C,39.7% vs 54.9%, P = 0.001), and higher white blood cell counts within 7 d after the operation compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative biliary lavage might increase the risk of postoperative infection, while not significantly increasing gallstone removal rate. PMID:27004001

  14. Biliary epithelium and liver B cells exposed to bacteria activate intrahepatic MAIT cells through MR1

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Hannah C.; van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Kurioka, Ayako; Parekh, Krishan; Stirling, Kathryn; Roberts, Sheree; Dutton, Emma E.; Hunter, Stuart; Geh, Daniel; Braitch, Manjit K.; Rajanayagam, Jeremy; Iqbal, Tariq; Pinkney, Thomas; Brown, Rachel; Withers, David R.; Adams, David H.; Klenerman, Paul; Oo, Ye H.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells characterised by the invariant TCR-chain, Vα7.2-Jα33, and are restricted by MR1, which presents bacterial vitamin B metabolites. They are important for antibacterial immunity at mucosal sites; however, detailed characteristics of liver-infiltrating MAIT (LI-MAIT) and their role in biliary immune surveillance remain unexplored. Methods The phenotype and intrahepatic localisation of human LI-MAIT cells was examined in diseased and normal livers. MAIT cell activation in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, biliary epithelial cells (BEC) and liver B cells was assessed with/without anti-MR1. Results Intrahepatic MAIT cells predominantly localised to bile ducts in the portal tracts. Consistent with this distribution, they expressed biliary tropic chemokine receptors CCR6, CXCR6, and integrin αEβ7. LI-MAIT cells were also present in the hepatic sinusoids and possessed tissue-homing chemokine receptor CXCR3 and integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, suggesting their recruitment via hepatic sinusoids. LI-MAIT cells were enriched in the parenchyma of acute liver failure livers compared to chronic diseased livers. LI-MAIT cells had an activated, effector memory phenotype, expressed α4β7 and receptors for IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23. Importantly, in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, liver B cells and BEC, MAIT cells upregulated IFN-γ and CD40 Ligand and degranulated in an MR1-dependent, cytokine-independent manner. In addition, diseased liver MAIT cells expressed T-bet and RORγt and the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17. Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence of an immune surveillance effector response for MAIT cells towards BEC in human liver; thus they could be manipulated for treatment of biliary disease in the future. PMID:26743076

  15. Inhibition of histone deacetylase for the treatment of biliary tract cancer: A new effective pharmacological approach

    PubMed Central

    Bluethner, Thilo; Niederhagen, Manuel; Caca, Karel; Serr, Frederik; Witzigmann, Helmut; Moebius, Christian; Mossner, Joachim; Wiedmann, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in vitro and in vivo therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors NVP-LAQ824 and NVP-LBH589 on biliary tract cancer. METHODS: Cell growth inhibition by NVP-LAQ824 and NVP-LBH589 was studied in vitro in 7 human biliary tract cancer cell lines by MTT assay. In addition, the anti-tumoral effect of NVP-LBH589 was studied in a chimeric mouse model. Anti-tumoral drug mechanism was assessed by immunoblotting for acH4 and p21WAF-1/CIP-1, PARP assay, cell cycle analysis, TUNEL assay, and immunhistochemistry for MIB-1. RESULTS: In vitro treatment with both compounds significantly suppressed the growth of all cancer cell lines [mean IC50 (3 d) 0.11 and 0.05 μmol/L, respectively], and was associated with hyperacetylation of nucleosomal histone H4, increased expression of p21WAF-1/CIP-1, induction of apoptosis (PARP cleavage), and cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint. After 28 d, NVP-LBH589 significantly reduced tumor mass by 66% (bile duct cancer) and 87% (gallbladder cancer) in vivo in comparison to placebo, and potentiated the efficacy of gemcitabine. Further analysis of the tumor specimens revealed increased apoptosis by TUNEL assay and reduced cell proliferation (MIB-1). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that NVP-LBH589 and NVP-LAQ824 are active against human biliary tract cancer in vitro. In addition, NVP-LBH589 demonstrated significant in vivo activity and potentiated the efficacy of gemcitabine. Therefore, further clinical evaluation of this new drug for the treatment of biliary tract cancer is recommended. PMID:17729398

  16. Techniques of Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Better Delineation of the Bile Duct Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available. In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies. FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD–CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD–CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90 min; range, 15–165 min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 min; range, 21–205 min; P < 0.01). The signal contrast on the fluorescence images of the bile duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker. FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the “critical view of safety” during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of laparoscope close and vertically to Calot's triangle. PMID:26107666

  17. Brain abscess in hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Morita, Keiichi; Fukuzawa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Kosaku

    2015-12-01

    The first-choice therapy for biliary atresia (BA) is Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy, which has been shown to greatly improve outcome. Various long-term complications, however, such as portal hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), can occur in patients with native liver. A rare case of brain abscess in an 11-year-old girl with HPS associated with BA is reported. The patient underwent hepatoportoenterostomy for BA at 53 days of age, with resolution of hyperbilirubinemia. At 10 years of age, she was diagnosed with severe HPS with right-to-left shunting, and preparations for liver transplantation proceeded. Three months after the diagnosis, she had a right parietal brain abscess. Given that the brain abscess enlarged in size, surgical drainage of the brain abscess was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, but a slight left hemiplegia remained at discharge. The presumed mechanism of abscess formation in HPS may be right-to-left bacterial transit through intrapulmonary vascular dilatations and/or arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:26711920

  18. Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  19. Antarctic Analog for Dilational Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  20. Intrahepatic Transposition of Bile Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Delić, Jasmin; Savković, Admedina; Isaković, Eldar; Marković, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjalić, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24–43% of cases, out of which 1–22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  1. Streamwise computation of duct flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greywall, M. S.

    1980-02-01

    A computational method is presented to calculate momentum and energy transport in two-dimensional viscous compressible duct flows. The flow in the duct is partitioned into finite streams. The difference equations are then obtained by applying momentum and energy conservation principles directly to the individual streams. The method is applicable to laminar and turbulence flows.

  2. Biliary dyskinesia: is the problem with Oddi?

    PubMed

    Wood, J; Holland, A J A; Shun, A; Martin, H C O

    2004-02-01

    We report our experience of cholecystectomy for treating symptoms suggestive of biliary disease in association with a decreased gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) but without evidence of cholelithiasis. Five children with normal biliary ultrasounds were evaluated between January 1990 and December 2000 for recurrent upper abdominal pain. Based on a cholecystokinin (CCK)-provoked GBEF of less than 50% and the absence of any other gastrointestinal pathology, patients underwent cholecystectomy with operative cholangiography for presumed biliary dyskinesia. Pathological examination demonstrated chronic inflammation in all cases. Two patients had complete resolution of their symptoms, but three had persistent pain following surgery. Biliary dyskinesia seems an uncommon cause of persistent abdominal pain in childhood. Cholecystectomy was not always effective in relieving symptoms. Biliary scintigraphy with CCK provocation should not be used as the sole criterion for cholecystectomy. Sphincteric manometry may be valuable in the assessment of this small group of patients to avoid inappropriate intervention. The future perhaps lies in better understanding of the physiological action and pharmacological control of the sphincter of Oddi. PMID:14770323

  3. Tumor seeding from percutaneous biliary catheters.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, W C; Sharp, K W; Weaver, F; Sawyers, J L

    1989-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary decompression has been used since 1973 as a preoperative surgical adjunct in patients with obstructive jaundice. Tumor seeding along the catheter tract is an unusual complication but it occurred recently in one of our patients who had preoperative biliary drainage for four days. Four months after his pancreaticoduodenectomy, a 2-cm nodule developed at the catheter exit site. This nodule was a metastatic focus of adenocarcinoma similar to his pancreatic tumor. He died 1 month later and at autopsy was found to have numerous metastases along the catheter tract. A review of the world literature found 17 other patients with this complication. Thirteen of the 18 total patients had catheters placed for palliation, while 5 patients underwent preoperative drainage before definitive procedures, and 4 of these patients had undergone "curative" resections. Nine of the 18 patients had biliary obstruction from cholangiocarcinoma, while seven patients had primary pancreatic carcinoma. Positioning of the catheter tip above the obstructing tumor and maintaining the catheter for only a short duration before operation (mean 8 days for resected patients, range 2 to 16 days) did not protect against catheter-related tumor seeding. Patients with suspected malignant obstruction of the biliary tract who may have resectable tumors should not undergo routine preoperative biliary decompression. If, on exploration, the tumor is found to be unresectable, then a palliative bypass may be performed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2658881

  4. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage with Postoperative Morbidity after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Lu, Jian-Wen; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background. The advantages or disadvantages of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) prior to pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remain unclear. Methods. A prospectively maintained database was queried for 335 consecutive patients undergoing standard PD surgery between 2009 and 2013. Clinical data and postoperative complications of the 47 patients receiving PBD and 288 patients with early surgery were compared. A matching analysis was also performed between patients receiving or not receiving PBD (no-PBD). Results. The indication for PBD was severe obstructive jaundice (81%) and cholangitis (26%) at the time of PBD. 47 PBD patients had higher bilirubin level than 288 no-PBD patients preoperatively (363.2 μmol/L versus 136.0 μmol/L, p < 0.001). Although no significant difference of any complications could be observed between the two groups, positive intraoperative bile culture and wound infection seemed to be moderately increased in PBD compared to no-PBD patients (p = 0.084 and 0.183, resp.). In the matched-pair comparison, the incidence of wound infection was three times higher in PBD than no-PBD patients (14.9% versus 4.3%, p = 0.080). Conclusions. PBD seems to moderately increase the risk of postoperative wound and bile duct infection. Therefore, PBD should be selectively performed prior to PD. PMID:26798333

  5. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Clinical and laboratory criteria for its diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic granulomatous, and destructive inflammatory lesion of small intralobular and septal bile ducts, which is likely to be caused by an autoimmune mechanism with a the presence of serum antimitochondrial antibodies and a potential tendency to progress to cirrhosis. Despite the fact that the etiology of this disease has been unknown so far, there has been a considerable body of scientific evidence that can reveal the clinical and laboratory signs of PBC and the individual components of its pathogenesis and elaborate diagnostic criteria for the disease and its symptomatic therapy. Deficiencies in autoimmune tolerance are critical factors for the initiation and perpetuation of the disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data available in the literature and the author’s findings on clinical and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of PBC. This review describes the major clinical manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms of its development. It presents the immunological, biochemical, and morphological signs of PBC and their significance for its diagnosis. A great deal of novel scientific evidence for the problem of PBC has been accumulated. However, the inadequate efficiency of therapy for the disease lends impetus to the quest for its etiological factors and to further investigations of its pathogenetic mechanisms and, on this basis, to searches for new methods for its early diagnosis. PMID:26167070

  6. Metabonomics reveals metabolite changes in biliary atresia infants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kejun; Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Aihua; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Mingming; Ni, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Weihua; Che, Yanran; Zhang, Ting; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Wen, Jie; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare neonatal cholestatic disorder caused by obstruction of extra- and intra-hepatic bile ducts. If untreated, progressive liver cirrhosis will lead to death within 2 years. Early diagnosis and operation improve the outcome significantly. Infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) present similar symptoms, confounding the early diagnosis of BA. The lack of noninvasive diagnostic methods to differentiate BA from NHS greatly delays the surgery of BA infants, thus deteriorating the outcome. Here we performed a metabolomics study in plasma of BA, NHS, and healthy infants using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scores plots of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated BA from NHS and healthy infants. Eighteen metabolites were found to be differentially expressed between BA and NHS, among which seven (l-glutamic acid, l-ornithine, l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-valine, l-tryptophan, and l-serine) were amino acids. The altered amino acids were quantitatively verified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the network of "Cellular Function and Maintenance, Hepatic System Development and Function, Neurological Disease" was altered most significantly. This study suggests that plasma metabolic profiling has great potential in differentiating BA from NHS, and amino acid metabolism is significantly different between the two diseases. PMID:25899098

  7. Clinical features and management of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosignani, Andrea; Battezzati, Pier Maria; Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo; Prina, Elena; Podda, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which is characterized by progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, is not a rare disease since both prevalence and incidence are increasing during the last years mainly due to the improvement of case finding strategies. The prognosis of the disease has improved due to both the recognition of earlier and indolent cases, and to the wide use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). New indicators of prognosis are available that will be useful especially for the growing number of patients with less severe disease. Most patients are asymptomatic at presentation. Pruritus may represent the most distressing symptom and, when UDCA is ineffective, cholestyramine represents the mainstay of treatment. Complications of long-standing cholestasis may be clinically relevant only in very advanced stages. Available data on the effects of UDCA on clinically relevant end points clearly indicate that the drug is able to slow but not to halt the progression of the disease while, in advanced stages, the only therapeutic option remains liver transplantation. PMID:18528929

  8. Intraductal biliary and pancreatic endoscopy: An expanding scope of possibility

    PubMed Central

    Judah, Joel R; Draganov, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    Intraductal endoscopy describes the use of an endoscope to directly visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts. For many years, technological challenges have made performing these procedures difficult. The “mother-baby” system and other various miniscopes have been developed, but routine use has been hampered due to complex setup, scope fragility and the time consuming, technically demanding nature of the procedure. Recently, the SpyGlass peroral cholangiopancreatoscopy system has shown early success at providing diagnostic information and therapeutic options. The clinical utility of intraductal endoscopy is broad. It allows better differentiation between benign and malignant processes by allowing direct visualization and targeted sampling of tissue. Therapeutic interventions, such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL), laser lithotripsy, photodynamic therapy, and argon plasma coagulation (APC), may also be performed as part of intraductal endoscopy. Intraductal endoscopy significantly increases the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), and as technology progresses, it is likely that its utilization will only increase. In this review of intraductal endoscopy, we describe in detail the various endoscopic platforms and their diagnostic and clinical applications. PMID:18506916

  9. Estrogens and the pathophysiology of the biliary tree

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Domenico; Mancino, Maria Grazia; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The scientific framework concerning estrogen effects on different tissues has expanded enormously during the last decades, when estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes were identified. Estrogens are not only essential for the female reproductive system, but they also control fundamental functions in other tissues including the cardiovascular system, bone, brain and liver. Recently, estrogens have been shown to target the biliary tree, where they modulate the proliferative and secretory activities of cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining bile ducts. By acting on both estrogen receptors (ER-α) and (ER-β) subtypes, and by activating either genomic or non-genomic pathways, estrogens play a key role in the complex loop of growth factors and cytokines, which modulates the proliferative response of cholangiocytes to damage. Specifically, estrogens activate intracellular signalling cascades [ERK1/2 (extracellular regulated kinases 1/2, PI3- kinase/AKT (phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase/AKT)] typical of growth factors such as insulin like growth factor (IGF1), nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thus potentiating their action. In addition, estrogens stimulate the secretion of different growth factors in proliferating cholangiocytes. This review specifically deals with the recent advances related to the role and mechanisms by which estrogens modulate cholangiocyte functions in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:16773710

  10. Clinical review: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ansari, Mariam A; Hijazi, Mohammed H

    2006-01-01

    As the number of critically ill patients requiring tracheotomy for prolonged ventilation has increased, the demand for a procedural alternative to the surgical tracheostomy (ST) has also emerged. Since its introduction, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies (PDT) have gained increasing popularity. The most commonly cited advantages are the ease of the familiar technique and the ability to perform the procedure at the bedside. It is now considered a viable alternative to (ST) in the intensive care unit. Evaluation of PDT procedural modifications will require evaluation in randomized clinical trials. Regardless of the PDT technique, meticulous preoperative and postoperative management are necessary to maintain the excellent safety record of PDT. PMID:16356203

  11. Computed-tomographic cholangiography: a new technique for evaluating the head of the pancreas and distal biliary tree

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.; Greenberg, B.M.; Rubin, J.M.; Greenberg, I.M.

    1982-07-01

    Computed-tomographic cholangiography was used to evaluate the abdomen of 97 patients. The gallbladder and/or biliary tree was visualized well in 84 patients (87%); the distal common bile duct (CBD) was visualized well in 68 patients (70%). For 26 patients (30%) from the latter group, visualization of the opacified CBD was essential in order to differentiate the pancreatic head from the duodenum. Measurements of the distal CBD showed a significant difference between patients with gallbladders (mean, 4.7 +/- 1.2 mm) and those without gallbladders (mean, 6.8 +/- 1.1 mm). By visualizing the CBD and the superior mesenteric vein, exact dimensions of the uncinate process can be obtained. Also, the pancreatic head can be assessed more accurately, and the distal biliary tree can be evaluated.

  12. The Hepaticojejunostomy Technique with Intra-Anastomotic Stent in Biliary Diseases and Its Evolution throughout the Years: A Technical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Demetrios; Papalampros, Alexandros; Vailas, Michail; Petrou, Athanasios; Kontos, Michael; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) is currently considered as the definitive treatment for iatrogenic bile duct injuries and the principal representative of biliary diversion procedures. This technique has met many milestones of extensive evolution, particularly the last years of concomitant technological evolution (laparoscopic/robotic approach). Anastomotic strictures and leaks, which may have deleterious effects on the survival and quality of life of a patient with biliary obstruction of any cause, made the need of the development of a safe and efficient RYHJ compulsory. The aim of this technical analysis and the juxtaposed discussions is to elucidate with the most important milestones and technical tips and tricks all aspects of a feasible and reliable RYHJ technique that is performed in our center for the last 25 years in around 400 patients. PMID:27190504

  13. Hypertension and Biliary Ductopenia in a Patient with Duplication of Exon 6 of the JAG1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Moreno, L.; Muoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a neonatal patient with biliary ductopenia featuring duplication of exon 6 of the JAG1 gene. Facial alterations were observed, consisting of a prominent forehead, sunken eyes, upward slanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, flat nasal root and prominent chin. From birth, these were accompanied by the development of haematuria and renal failure and by renal Doppler findings indicative of peripheral renal artery stenosis. JAG1 gene mutations on chromosome 20 have been associated with various anomalies, including biliary cholestasis, vertebral abnormalities, eye disorders, heart defects and facial dysmorphia. This syndrome, first described by Alagille, is an infrequent congenital disorder caused by a dominant autosomal inheritance with variable expressivity. Anatomopathological effects include the destruction and disappearance of hepatic bile ducts (ductopenia). The duplication of exon 6 of JAG1 has not previously been described as an alteration related to the Alagille syndrome with peripheral renal artery stenosis. PMID:23641167

  14. Development of bile duct cancer in a 26-year-old man after resection of infantile choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeru; Sakai, Kohei; Kimura, Osamu; Iwai, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    Anomalous arrangement of the pancreaticobiliary duct is considered to be a high-risk factor for biliary tract malignancy. We report a case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a 26-year-old man after total resection of choledochal cyst with anomalous arrangement of the pancreaticobiliary duct at the age of 5 months. He had been doing well after total resection of the choledochal cyst; however, he suddenly presented with a spiky fever and abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant at the age of 26 years. Computed tomographic scan and percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscope revealed multiple stones and stenosis of the hepatic duct and the left intrahepatic bile duct. Histologic examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the stenotic site showed adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic bile duct. Left lobectomy with re-reconstruction by right hepaticojejunostomy was performed, and his postoperative course was uneventful. One year after the operation, however, he died of carcinomatous peritonitis with recurrence of cholangiocarcinoma. This report warns us that bile stasis owing to stenosis of the intrahepatic bile duct and repeated cholangitis with multiple stones are high-risk factors for carcinogenesis of the intrahepatic bile duct even after total resection of the infantile choledochal cyst. PMID:18558159

  15. Common bile duct schwannoma: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Fenoglio, Luigi; Severini, Sara; Cena, Paola; Migliore, Elena; Bracco, Christian; Pomero, Fulvio; Panzone, Sergio; Cavallero, Giovan Battista; Silvestri, Alberto; Brizio, Rodolfo; Borghi, Felice

    2007-01-01

    Schwannoma is a myelin sheath tumor complicated with neurofibroma, neurofibromatosis and neurogenic sarcoma. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors represent 2%-6% of gastrointestinal tract stromal tumors (GIST), but there are deficient data about location of neurogenic tumors in the biliary system and only nine cases of schwannoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract have been reported. These tumors are clinically non-specific. They are usually symptomatic by compressing the close or adjacent structures when being retroperitoneal, and their preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. This paper reviews the literature data and describes a case of schwannoma of the common bile duct associated with cholestasis in a healthy young woman, diagnosed and treated in our department. This case is of interest on account of the complexity of its diagnosis and the atypical macroscopic growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:17451214

  16. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  17. Persistent Mllerian duct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, N P; Biyabani, R; Herzig, M J; Ali, A; Nazir, Z; Sulaiman, M N; Talati, J

    1998-09-01

    Persistent mllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism. We present 5 cases with PMDS (2 cases associated with testicular malignancy) and discuss the diagnosis and management. Management strategies of PMDS have changed. Whereas in the past, removal of the mllerian remnants was targeted together with orchidopexy or -ectomy, this is no longer recommended. However, testicles that cannot be descended at an early stage are at a high risk of malignancy and should, therefore, be removed. If this is necessary on both sides, there is the additional problem of lifelong testosterone substitution which requires efficient patient monitoring and good patient compliance. In cases where this cannot be achieved, compromises, such as temporarily delayed orchidectomy, may be considered. PMID:9732199

  18. The pupil dilation response to visual detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Claudio M.; Renninger, Laura W.; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley; Aguilar, Mario

    2008-02-01

    The pupil dilation reflex is mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic Edinger-Westphal oculomotor complex and sympathetic activity. It has long been documented that emotional and sensory events elicit a pupillary reflex dilation. Is the pupil response a reliable marker of a visual detection event? In two experiments where viewers were asked to report the presence of a visual target during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), pupil dilation was significantly associated with target detection. The amplitude of the dilation depended on the frequency of targets and the time of the detection. Larger dilations were associated with trials having fewer targets and with targets viewed earlier during the trial. We also found that dilation was strongly influenced by the visual task.

  19. Bile duct dysplasia and congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with polycystic kidney (Caroli syndrome) in a rat.

    PubMed

    Bettini, G; Mandrioli, L; Morini, M

    2003-11-01

    Hepatic fibrosis with bile duct ectasia and hyperplasia associated with polycystic kidney disease, analogous to Caroli syndrome in humans, was observed in a rat used as a control in a subchronic toxicity study. Light microscopy of liver sections showed multiple cystic and segmental saccular dilatations and hyperplasia of the intrahepatic bile ducts associated with overgrowth of portal connective tissue; the kidneys had diffuse cystic dilatation of cortical renal tubules. The lesions resembled those of human cases of the fibropolycystic disease termed as Caroli syndrome, which is thought to be the result of a pathologic developmental process known as ductal plate malformation. Recently, an animal model of Caroli syndrome has been described in mutant rats from a colony that constantly showed renal and hepatic cysts and an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The finding in our case of identical hepatorenal lesions suggests that the same mutation has occurred incidentally in a standard colony. PMID:14608023

  20. Advanced endoscopic imaging of indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tabibian, James H; Visrodia, Kavel H; Levy, Michael J; Gostout, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures (IDBSs) has evolved considerably since the development of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography pancreatography (ERCP) was introduced nearly a decade later and has since become the mainstay of therapy for relieving obstruction of the biliary tract. However, longstanding methods of ERCP-guided tissue acquisition (i.e., biliary brushings for cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy for histology) have demonstrated disappointing performance characteristics in distinguishing malignant from benign etiologies of IDBSs. The limitations of these methods have thus helped drive the search for novel techniques to enhance the evaluation of IDBSs and thereby improve diagnosis and clinical care. These modalities include, but are not limited to, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography. In this review, we discuss established and emerging options in the evaluation of IDBSs. PMID:26675379

  1. Current endoscopic approach to indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Victor, David W; Sherman, Stuart; Karakan, Tarkan; Khashab, Mouen A

    2012-01-01

    Biliary strictures are considered indeterminate when basic work-up, including transabdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with routine cytologic brushing, are non-diagnostic. Indeterminate biliary strictures can easily be mischaracterized which may dramatically affect patient’s outcome. Early and accurate diagnosis of malignancy impacts not only a patient’s candidacy for surgery, but also potential timely targeted chemotherapies. A significant portion of patients with indeterminate biliary strictures have benign disease and accurate diagnosis is, thus, paramount to avoid unnecessary surgery. Current sampling strategies have suboptimal accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy. Emerging data on other diagnostic modalities, such as ancillary cytology techniques, single operator cholangioscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration, revealed promising results with much improved sensitivity. PMID:23180939

  2. Advanced endoscopic imaging of indeterminate biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Tabibian, James H; Visrodia, Kavel H; Levy, Michael J; Gostout, Christopher J

    2015-12-10

    Endoscopic evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures (IDBSs) has evolved considerably since the development of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography pancreatography (ERCP) was introduced nearly a decade later and has since become the mainstay of therapy for relieving obstruction of the biliary tract. However, longstanding methods of ERCP-guided tissue acquisition (i.e., biliary brushings for cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy for histology) have demonstrated disappointing performance characteristics in distinguishing malignant from benign etiologies of IDBSs. The limitations of these methods have thus helped drive the search for novel techniques to enhance the evaluation of IDBSs and thereby improve diagnosis and clinical care. These modalities include, but are not limited to, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography. In this review, we discuss established and emerging options in the evaluation of IDBSs. PMID:26675379

  3. Dilated cardiomyopathy due to a phospholamban duplication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teresa M; Addonizio, Linda J; Chung, Wendy K

    2014-10-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by dilation and impaired systolic function. We present the case of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a 624 kb duplication of 6q22.31, which includes the phospholamban gene. The patient also has failure to thrive and developmental delay due to complex cytogenetic abnormalities including a 5p15 deletion associated with Cri du Chat and an 11p15 duplication associated with Russell-Silver syndrome. PMID:24451198

  4. Treatment of Common Bile Duct Obstruction by Pancreatic Cancer Using Various Stents: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Toshifumi; Hirai, Ritsuko; Kitagawa, Mutsuo; Takehira, Yasunori; Yamada, Masami; Tamakoshi, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Kanamori, Masao

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of various means of stenting in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer in a retrospective analysis. Methods: Sixty-two patients with biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent biliary stenting. On the basis of the findings obtained by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(10 patients) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (52 patients),the site of obstruction was distal to the hilar confluence,predominantly especially in the middle to lower third of the common bile duct. Polyurethane-covered Wallstents (9 mm in diameter) we reinserted in 13 patients, while uncovered Wallstents (10 mm in diameter)were used in 10 patients and plastic stents (10 Fr and 12 Fr) were used in 39 patients. Results: Stenting was successful in 34 patients (87.2%) treated with plastic stents and in 22 patients(95.7%) treated with Wallstents. Effective biliary drainage was achieved in 32 out of 34 patients (94.1%) treated with plastic stents and in 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) treated with Wallstents. The cumulative patency rate was significantly higher for the uncovered and covered Wallstents compared to plastic stents, but was not significantly higher for covered than for uncovered Wallstents. Stentocclusion occurred in 23 patients (70%; all by clogging) from the plastic stent group, in two patients (22%; by tumor ingrowth) from the uncovered Wallstent group, and in one patient (9%; by clogging) from the covered Wallstent group. The survival rate showed no significant difference among the three stent groups. Conclusion: The Wallstent is effective for long-term palliation in patients with obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer invading the middle to lower part of the common bile duct. The covered Wallstent can prevent tumor ingrowth, a problem with the uncovered Wallstent. However, it may be necessary to take measures to prevent the migration or clogging of covered Wallstents.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cardiomyopathy Boston Children's Hospital: Cardiomyopathy Centre for Genetics Education (Australia): Cardiomyopathies Cincinnati Children's Hospital Cleveland Clinic Disease InfoSearch: Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy ...

  6. External biliary drainage following major liver resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: impact on development of liver failure and biliary leakage

    PubMed Central

    Olthof, Pim B.; Coelen, Robert J.S.; Wiggers, Jimme K.; Besselink, Marc G.H.; Busch, Olivier R.C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preoperative biliary drainage is considered essential in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) requiring major hepatectomy with biliary-enteric reconstruction. However, evidence for postoperative biliary drainage as to protect the anastomosis is currently lacking. This study investigated the impact of postoperative external biliary drainage on the development of post-hepatectomy biliary leakage and liver failure (PHLF). Methods All patients who underwent major liver resection for suspected PHC between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Biliary leakage and PHLF was defined as grade B or higher according to the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS) criteria. Results Eighty-nine out of 125 (71%) patients had postoperative external biliary drainage. PHLF was more prevalent in the drain group (29% versus 6%; P = 0.004). There was no difference in the incidence of biliary leakage (32% versus 36%). On multivariable analysis, postoperative external biliary drainage was identified as an independent risk factor for PHLF (Odds-ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 2.1–50.4; P = 0.004). Conclusions External biliary drainage following major hepatectomy for PHC was associated with an increased incidence of PHLF. It is therefore not recommended to routinely use postoperative external biliary drainage, especially as there is no evidence that this decreases the risk of biliary anastomotic leakage. PMID:27037204

  7. Biliary Tree Stem Cells, Precursors to Pancreatic Committed Progenitors: Evidence for Possible Life-long Pancreatic Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfang; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Carpino, Guido; Cui, Cai-Bin; Dominguez-Bendala, Juan; Wauthier, Eliane; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Pileggi, Antonello; Gerber, David; Furth, Mark E.; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio; Inverardi, Luca; Reid, Lola M.

    2013-01-01

    Peribiliary glands (PBGs) in bile duct walls, and pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) associated with pancreatic ducts, in humans of all ages, contain a continuous, ramifying network of cells in overlapping maturational lineages. We show that proximal (PBGs)-to-distal (PDGs) maturational lineages start near the duodenum with cells expressing markers of pluripotency (NANOG,OCT4,SOX2), proliferation (Ki67), self-replication (SALL4), and early hepato-pancreatic commitment (SOX9,SOX17,PDX1,LGR5), transitioning to PDG cells with no expression of pluripotency or self-replication markers, maintenance of pancreatic genes (PDX1), and expression of markers of pancreatic endocrine maturation (NGN3,MUC6,insulin). Radial-axis lineages start in PBGs near the ducts’ fibromuscular layers with stem cells and end at the ducts’ lumens with cells devoid of stem cell traits and positive for pancreatic endocrine genes. Biliary tree-derived cells behaved as stem cells in culture under expansion conditions, culture plastic and serum-free Kubota’s Medium, proliferating for months as undifferentiated cells, whereas pancreas-derived cells underwent only ∼8-10 divisions, then partially differentiated towards an islet fate. Biliary tree-derived cells proved precursors of pancreas’ committed progenitors. Both could be driven by 3-dimensional conditions, islet-derived matrix components and a serum-free, hormonally defined medium for an islet fate (HDM-P), to form spheroids with ultrastructural, electrophysiological and functional characteristics of neoislets, including glucose regulatability. Implantation of these neoislets into epididymal fat pads of immuno-compromised mice, chemically rendered diabetic, resulted in secretion of human C-peptide, regulatable by glucose, and able to alleviate hyperglycemia in hosts. The biliary tree-derived stem cells and their connections to pancreatic committed progenitors constitute a biological framework for life-long pancreatic organogenesis. PMID:23847135

  8. Novel technique for biliary reconstruction using an isolated gastric tube with a vascularized pedicle: a live animal experimental study and the first clinical case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biliary tract reconstruction continues to be a challenging surgical problem. Multiple experimental attempts have been reported to reconstruct biliary defects with different materials and variable outcome. Our aim was to evaluate a new method for biliary reconstruction using an isolated pedicled gastric tube in a live animal trial and also to present the first clinical case. Methods Seven mongrel dogs underwent biliary reconstruction using gastric tube harvested, completely separated from the greater curvature, and based on a vascularized pedicle with the right gastroepiploic vessels. The tube was interposed between the common bile duct (CBD) and the duodenum. Postoperative mortality, morbidity, liver functions, gross and microscopic histological picture were assessed. The first clinical case was also presented where, in a patient with post-cholecystectomy biliary injury, an isolated pedicled gastric tube was interposed between the proximal and distal ends of the CBD. Results One dog did not recover from anesthesia and another one died postoperatively from septic peritonitis. Five dogs survived the procedure and showed uneventful course and no cholestasis. The mean anastomotic circumference was 4.8 mm (range 4-6) for CBD anastomosis and 6.2 mm (range 5-7) for duodenal anastomosis. Histologically, anastomotic sites showed good evidence of healing. In the first clinical case, the patient showed clinical and biochemical improvement. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was feasible and assured patent biliary anastomoses. Conclusion In mongrel dogs, biliary reconstruction using pedicled gastric tube interposition between CBD and duodenum is feasible with satisfactory clinical results, anastomotic circumference and histological evidence of healing. The technique is also feasible in human and seems to be promising. PMID:21985492

  9. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  10. Brocho-biliary fistula: A rare complication after ruptured liver abscess in a 3½ year old child.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prawin; Mehta, Poonam; Ismail, Javed; Agarwala, Sandeep; Jana, Manisha; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil K

    2015-01-01

    Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition, defined by the presence of abnormal communication between biliary tract and bronchial tree. We describe a 3½-year-old child who developed BBF after rupture of liver abscess. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and peritoneal wash for ruptured liver abscess. Seven months later she presented with fever and cough with yellow-colored expectoration (bilioptysis). An abnormal communication between right branch of the hepatic duct and a branch of right main bronchus was identified. Child underwent right lateral thoracotomy and right lower lobectomy with surgical excision of sinus tract. On follow-up child was asymptomatic and doing well. PMID:26628766

  11. Pathological spectrum of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma arising in non-biliary chronic advanced liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Xu, Jing; Harada, Kenichi; Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Kim, Jihun; Yu, Eunsil

    2011-05-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is reported to develop in non-biliary chronic advanced liver diseases (CALD). Herein, we characterize the pathological features of ICC arising in CALD in comparison with those in non-CALD livers. Of 471 surgically resected cases of ICC in Kanazawa, Japan and Seoul, Korea, 53 were associated with CALD (group A), while the remaining 418 arose in otherwise normal livers (group B). When ICC were classified into bile duct type, bile ductular type, variants, and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), the whole spectrum of subtypes were found in group A; the majority of ICC belonged to the bile duct type in both groups. In group A, bile ductular type was rather frequent (22.6%) compared with group B (8.4%). IPNB was more frequent in group B (22.5%) than group A (3.8%), and in group B, frequent in Seoul cases (24.8%), but rare in Kanazawa cases (2.3%). Variants of ICC were rare in both groups. These results imply that cholangiocarcinogenesis itself is upregulated in group A in comparison with group B and that the bile ductular type is specifically related to group A. Some unique environmental factors in Seoul may be responsible for the frequent development of IPNB. PMID:21501296

  12. Detection of bile leakage from traumatic right hepatic duct laceration with technetium-99m DISIDA cholescintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Salam, M; Glowniak, J V; Vetto, R M; Jarboe, J E; Haines, J E; Krishnamurthy, G T

    1987-08-01

    A woman was admitted to the hospital after blunt abdominal trauma. Initial ultrasound was equivocal but suggested a localized hepatic laceration. The patient was discharged but returned three weeks later with ascites and mild pain in the right upper abdominal quadrant. Hepatobiliary imaging identified a large bile leak originating from the porta hepatis but showed no evidence of parenchymal injury. No hepatic injury was found at surgery, but a laceration of the right hepatic duct was identified. Hepatobiliary imaging is the procedure of choice in diagnosing bile leaks from the extrahepatic biliary system. PMID:3665296

  13. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  14. Biliary casts after liver transplantation: Morphology and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Mei-Ju; Shi, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Yu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathogenesis of biliary casts after liver transplantation relative to their morphology and biochemical markers. METHODS: The microstructure of biliary casts was assessed using scanning electron microscopy and Hematoxylin and eosin staining assessed their histology. The expression levels of CD3, CD5, CD34, CD68 and CD79a in these biliary casts were evaluated immunohistochemically. RESULTS: Biliary casts differed widely in their microstructure, with some containing blood vessels positive for CD34 and collagen fibers with positive Masson staining. Large numbers of neutrophils and other inflammatory cells were present, but only on the edge of the biliary casts; although the boundaries were clear without crossover. None of the biliary casts contained T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, macrophages and other inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: The microcostructure of biliary casts differed. Bacteria and acute rejection are not clearly related to their formation. PMID:24282366

  15. Surgical versus endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, B M; Kozarek, R A; Ryan, J A; Ball, T J; Traverso, L W

    1988-01-01

    The charts of all patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones admitted to Virginia Mason Medical Center between January 1, 1981 and July 31, 1986 were reviewed to define current methods of management and results of operative versus endoscopic therapy. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with CBD stones were treated. One hundred thirty patients had intact gallbladders. Of these patients, 76 (59%) underwent cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration (CBDE) while 54 (41%) underwent endoscopic papillotomy (EP) only. Of the 107 patients admitted with recurrent stones after cholecystectomy, all but five were treated with EP. The overall mortality rate was 3.0%. Complications, success, and death rates were all similar for CBDE and EP, but the complications of EP were often serious and directly related to the procedure (GI hemorrhage, 6; duodenal perforation, 5; biliary sepsis, 4; pancreatitis, 1). Patients undergoing EP required significantly shorter hospitalization than those undergoing CBDE. Multivariate analysis showed that age greater than 70 years, technical failure, and complications increased the risk of death, regardless of procedure performed. Twenty-one per cent of those undergoing EP with gallbladders intact eventually required cholecystectomy. The conclusion is that the results of EP and CBDE are similar, and the use of EP has not reduced the mortality rates of this disease. PMID:3341812

  16. Confluent monolayers of bile duct epithelial cells with tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, H; Ishii, M; Mano, Y; Igarashi, T; Ueno, Y; Kobayashi, K; Toyota, T

    1995-07-01

    The culture of fully differentiated intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells (IBDECs) to use as a model for the in vivo intrahepatic biliary tract has not been established. IBDECs from normal rat livers were grown on a collagen-coated permeable filter and formed a confluent monolayer 7 days after being plated. Positive reactions for cytokeratin-19 and retained gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) activity were shown. The transepithelial electrical resistance between the apical and the basolateral compartment culture chambers increased with the culture age and plateaued after the 7th day. The resulting cultured cells displayed a number of characteristics. (1) The cells formed a thin, continuous monolayer and displayed microvilli on the apical surface and junctional complexes between the cells, consistent with in vivo IBDECs. (2) Cells cultured for more than 7 days prevented the passage of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ruthenium red through paracellular pathways. (3) Seven-day-old cultures displayed a mean transepithelial electrical resistance of 137.3 omega-cm2, which decreased by 27.1% from its initial level after cell treatment with ethylenediamineteraacetic acid (EDTA). These results indicate that confluent IBDEC monolayers are well differentiated and polarized with tight junctions (TJs) between the cells. These cell monolayers can provide a useful and relevant model for the in vitro study of various in vivo bile duct phenomena. PMID:7601408

  17. Sound propagation in choked ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Liu, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The linearized equations describing the propagation of sound in variable area ducts containing flow are shown to be singular when the duct mean flow is sonic. The singularity is removed when previously ignored nonlinear terms are retained. The results of a numerical study, for the case of plane waves propagating in a one-dimensional converging-diverging duct, show that the sound field is adequately described by the linearized equations only when the axial mean flow Mach number at the duct throat M sub th 0.6. For M sub th 0.6, the numerical results showed that acoustic energy flux was not conserved. An attempt was made to extend the study to include the nonlinear behavior of the sound field. Meaningful results were not obtained due, primarily, to numerical difficulties.

  18. Cover For Duct Expansion Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Size and shape of cover reduces stress and increases strength. Cover for expansion joints on duct-work seals tightly while accommodating movement of joint. Provides ample bonding area on both members of joint.

  19. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  20. Extrahepatic biliary carcinoma in sloth bears.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, S J; Kramer, L W

    1984-12-01

    Extrahepatic biliary carcinoma was found in each of 5 adult sloth bears that died between 1970 and 1984 while on exhibit in Ohio zoos. The tumor was characterized by numerous mucin-producing neoplastic glands scattered throughout abundant fibrous stroma. The cause of the tumor was not determined. PMID:6096326

  1. Listeria monocytogenes-Associated Biliary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis. In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases. Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32–85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n = 6), IIb (n = 5), and IIa (n = 1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P = 0.033). Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  2. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  7. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  8. Two New Duct Leakage Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  9. TWO NEW DUCT LEAKAGE TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  10. Flexible Borescope For Inspecting Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinozaki, Keith; Armstrong, Mike P.; Urquidi, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Borescope and associated equipment developed specifically for use in optical inspection of inside of flexible joints in rocket-engine fuel duct. Apparatus includes assembly, characterized as "mouse/canoe," at sensing end of 10-ft borescope cable. Borescope tip rides in mouse/canoe. The mouse/canoe made laterally compressible, to facilitate movement past constrictions and provides fixed distance from inspection point permitting accurate description in duct inspected.

  11. Inadvertent ligation of the main pancreatic duct: an extremely rare complication of choledochal cyst excision.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic ductal injury is rare during choledochal cyst excision. Most cases present in the immediate postoperative period with pancreatic fistula or acute pancreatitis are managed conservatively. But, inadvertent ligation of the main pancreatic duct with subsequent recurrent pancreatitis and upstream dilatation of the pancreatic duct requiring a pancreatic ductal drainage operation has not been reported in the English literature. A 23-year-old female patient presented with recurrent episodes of upper abdominal pain for about 16 months. She had a history of type-1 choledochal cyst excision 18 months back. She was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). MRCP showed hugely dilated main pancreatic duct with normal hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis. There was no residual cyst. MRCP findings were suggestive of stricture of the main pancreatic duct due to previous surgery. Endoscopic pancreatic ductal decompression failed. The patient was treated successfully with pancreaticogastrostomy. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The patient was well at 24-month follow-up. PMID:25972658

  12. Turbofan aft duct suppressor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, A. A.; Motsinger, R. E.; Fiske, G. H.; Joshi, M. C.; Kraft, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Suppressions due to acoustic treatment in the annular exhaust duct of a model fan were theoretically predicted and compared with measured suppressions. The predictions are based on the modal analysis of sound propagation in a straight annular flow duct with segmented treatment. Modal distributions of the fan noise source (fan-stator interaction only) were measured using in-duct modal probes. The flow profiles were also measured in the vicinity of the modal probes. The acoustic impedance of the single degree of freedom treatment was measured in the presence of grazing flow. The measured values of mode distribution of the fan noise source, the flow velocity profile and the acoustic impedance of the treatment in the duct were used as input to the prediction program. The predicted suppressions, under the assumption of uniform flow in the duct, compared well with the suppressions measured in the duct for all test conditions. The interaction modes generated by the rotor-stator interaction spanned a cut-off ratio range from nearly 1 to 7.

  13. Ultrasound imaging of the liver and bile ducts – expectations of a clinician

    PubMed Central

    Pawełas, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Since diseases of the liver and bile ducts are common, a clinician is faced by the need to implement an appropriate diagnostic process. It is necessary to apply diagnostic methods that enable appropriate assessment of the most common pathologies of the liver, i.e. fibrosis, steatosis and focal lesions, as well as initial assessment of the bile ducts. These goals can be achieved using ultrasound methods based on conventional sonography, contrast-enhanced sonography and elastography. The assessment of fatty liver and bile duct dilatation using ultrasound reaches satisfactory levels of sensitivity and specificity. The usage of contrast agents enables unambiguous differentiation between benign and malignant focal lesions, frequently allowing them to be identified accurately without the assistance of other imaging modalities. Elastography has enabled reliable assessment of liver fibrosis. Its results are comparable to those of the standard method, i.e. liver biopsy. PMID:26673784

  14. Energy-efficient ducts: a practical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Krigger, J.

    1996-06-01

    Ducts are the heating and cooling system`s link to a home and to the ultimate comfort and satisfaction of its occupants. Proper duct design, installation, and testing can prevent a host of energy, comfort, system durability, and health and safety problems. This report addresses duct design and installation, identifies ways to improve duct energy efficiency, and summarizes test procedures used to assess duct air leakage and air flow.

  15. Biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Aeromonas infectio