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1

Narrow portion of the terminal choledochus is a cause of upstream biliary dilatation in patients with anomalous union of the pancreatic and biliary ducts  

PubMed Central

AIM: To clarify the pathogenesis of biliary dilatation associated with anomalous union of the pancreatic and biliary ducts (AUPBD). METHODS: Direct cholangiopancreatograms of 350 adult patients with or with suspicion of hepatobiliary or pancreatic disorders were reviewed. AUPBD was diagnosed cholangiopancreatographically, when the pancreaticobiliary ductal union was located above the narrow distal segment of the bile duct, which represents the action of the sphincter of Oddi. The narrow portion of the terminal choledochus was defined as symmetrical stricture of the common bile duct just above the pancreaticobiliary ductal union. RESULTS: AUPBD was found in 36 patients. Among ch-olangiopancreatographic features, the narrow portion of the terminal choledochus was the most pathognomonic for AUPBD (accuracy, 98%); it was present in 29 (81%) patients with AUPBD, but was not found in any patients without AUPBD. Among patients with AUPBD, biliary dilatation (>10 mm) was more frequent in those with the narrow portion of the terminal choledochus (23/29) than in those without (2/7; P = 0.018) AUPBD. Among the patients with both AUPBD and the narrow portion of the terminal choledochus, there was a strong negative correlation between the minimum diameter of the narrow portion and the maximum diameter of the choledochus (r = -0.78, P<0.001), suggesting that the degree of biliary narrowing at the narrow portion correlates with that of upstream biliary dilatation. CONCLUSION: The narrow portion of the terminal choledochus, a pathognomonic radiologic feature of AUPBD, may be a cause of biliary dilatation in patients with AUPBD. PMID:16425423

Nomura, Tatsuya; Shirai, Yoshio; Wakai, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Sakata, Jun; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi

2005-01-01

2

Intrahepatic Stones from Congenital Biliary Dilatation  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital or primary intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) dilatation is a rare disorder with symptoms of abdominal pain and hepatomegaly that usually presents in childhood and adolescence. Recurrent cholangitis, liver abscesses, septicemia, and biliary cirrhosis may result secondary to biliary sludge and hepatolithiasis. Case Report We present a case of IHBD dilatation with hepatolithiasis cured with surgical resection and discuss the management of this disease. Conclusion IHBD dilatation should be treated, as chronic biliary stasis and hepatolithiasis can lead to infection and recurrent cholangitis that can progress to cholangiocarcinoma. Treatment for IHBD dilatation usually involves multiple modalities including medical therapy, but ultimately resection of the diseased segments or lobes is required given the increased risk of malignancy.

Jhamb, Satvik; Decker, Christopher; Romero, Ricardo; Rivera, Ramon E.; Conway, W. Charles

2015-01-01

3

Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases. METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow-up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high. PMID:17461473

Edge, Mark D; Hoteit, Maarouf; Patel, Amil P; Wang, Xiaoping; Baumgarten, Deborah A; Cai, Qiang

2007-01-01

4

Diagnostics of Biliary Dilatation by Means of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is a relatively noninvasive technique of biliary and pancreatic duct imaging. MRCP technique utilizes T2-weighted sequences, in which bile is characterized by high signal intensity, whilst signal intensity of surrounding tissues is reduced. The purpose of this publication was to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnostics of biliary dilatation. Material/Methods MRCP examinations of 148 patients (48 men and 100 women; the average age was 56) performed on a 1.5T Achieva Philips device in the Provincial Hospital in Rzeszow between November 2011 and April 2013 were included in retrospective analysis. Examined group was divided into three subgroups: patients after cholecystectomy, patients with cholecystolithiasis and patients without gallbladder concretions. The definitive cause of biliary dilatation was determined mainly on the basis of MRCP and ECPW examinations, and, in individual cases, during intraoperative cholangiography and laparatomy. Results Signal loss corresponding to probable concretions was identified in 34 cases. In the group of patients with cholecystolithiasis the cause of biliary dilatation was usually (45%) cholelithiasis. MRCP image was typical in 4 out of 9 malignant cases. The cause of biliary dilatation was usually (20%) a neoplasm in the group of patients without gallstones. Benign causes of biliary dilatation, apart from cholelithiasis, were identified in 16 individuals, including 4 cases in which the diagnosis was identified using MRCP, whereas in the remaining 12 cases ECPW examination proved conclusive to the final diagnosis. Conclusions Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography enables reliable diagnosis of causes of biliary dilatation as long as they involve presence of gallbladder deposits and tumors. In benign causes of biliary dilatation, apart from cholelithiasis, MRCP picture is often atypical and therefore, the final identification of the cause of biliary dilatation is possible when this imagining method is combined with ERCP and additional tests. PMID:25243036

Szalacha-Tara?a, Ewa; Ramotowski, Rados?aw; Guz, Wies?aw; Samojedny, Antoni; Dziurzy?ska-Bia?ek, Ewa; Jadczak, Przemys?aw

2014-01-01

5

Computed tomography of localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-nine patients showed localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts on computed tomography, usually unaccompanied by jaundice. Congenital dilatation was diagnosed when associated with a choledochal cyst, while cholangiographic contrast material was helpful in differentiating such dilatation from a simple cyst by showing its communication with the biliary tract when no choledochal cyst was present. Obstructive dilatation was associated with intrahepatic calculi in 4 cases, hepatoma in 9, cholangioma in 5, metastatic tumor in 5, and polycystic disease in 2. Cholangioma and intrahepatic calculi had a greater tendency to accompany such localized dilatation; in 2 cases, the dilatation was the only clue to the underlying disorder.

Araki, T.; Itai Y.; Tasaka, A.

1981-12-01

6

Intrahepatic biliary dilatation caused by a small simple hepatic cyst: report of a case.  

PubMed

Abstract Biliary obstruction caused by small simple cysts is very rare. We present a case of biliary dilatation caused by a simple cyst with a 4-cm diameter. The patient was a 75-year-old woman referred to our hospital for evaluation of a cystic tumor associated with peripheral biliary duct dilatation in the left segment of the liver. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cyst probably communicated with the intrahepatic bile duct. Malignant tumors, including intrahepatic papillary neoplasms of the bile duct, could not be ruled out; therefore, we performed surgery with the patient's consent. Histopathologic examination of the resected liver showed that the cystic lesion was a simple cyst. The finding that even small simple cysts can obstruct the biliary tract is important for the management of cystic lesions of the liver. PMID:25437583

Naitoh, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Takaharu; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kiriyama, Shinsuke; Tabe, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hayato; Suzuki, Masaki; Yoshida, Tomonori; Sakurai, Shinji; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

7

The impact of duct-to-duct interaction on the hex duct dilation  

SciTech Connect

Dilation of the hex duct is an important factor in the operational lifetime of fuel subassemblies in liquid metal fast reactors. It is caused primarily by the irradiation-enhanced creep and void swelling of the hex duct material. Excessive dilation may jeopardize subassembly removal from the core or cause a subassembly storage problem where the grid size of the storage basket is limited. Dilation of the hex duct in Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) limits useful lifetime because of these storage basket limitations. It is, therefore, important to understand the hex duct dilation behavior to guide the design and in-core management of fuel subassemblies in a way that excessive duct deformation can be avoided. To investigate the dilation phenomena, finite-element models of the hex duct have been developed. The inelastic analyses were performed using the structural analysis code, ANSYS. Both Type 316 and D9 austenitic stainless steel ducts are considered. The calculated dilations are in good agreement with profilometry measurements made after irradiation. The analysis indicates that subassembly interaction is an important parameter in addition to neutron fluence and temperature in determining hex duct dilation. 5 refs.

Lee, M.J.; Chang, L.K.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.

1992-07-01

8

The impact of duct-to-duct interaction on the hex duct dilation  

SciTech Connect

Dilation of the hex duct is an important factor in the operational lifetime of fuel subassemblies in liquid metal fast reactors. It is caused primarily by the irradiation-enhanced creep and void swelling of the hex duct material. Excessive dilation may jeopardize subassembly removal from the core or cause a subassembly storage problem where the grid size of the storage basket is limited. Dilation of the hex duct in Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) limits useful lifetime because of these storage basket limitations. It is, therefore, important to understand the hex duct dilation behavior to guide the design and in-core management of fuel subassemblies in a way that excessive duct deformation can be avoided. To investigate the dilation phenomena, finite-element models of the hex duct have been developed. The inelastic analyses were performed using the structural analysis code, ANSYS. Both Type 316 and D9 austenitic stainless steel ducts are considered. The calculated dilations are in good agreement with profilometry measurements made after irradiation. The analysis indicates that subassembly interaction is an important parameter in addition to neutron fluence and temperature in determining hex duct dilation. 5 refs.

Lee, M.J.; Chang, L.K.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.

1992-01-01

9

A Rare Anomaly of Biliary System: MRCP Evidence of a Cystic Duct Cyst  

PubMed Central

Cystic duct cysts are a rare congenital anomaly. While the other bile duct cysts (choledochus and the intrahepatic bile ducts) are classified according to the classification described by Tadoni, there is no classification method described by the cystic duct cysts, although it is claimed that the cystic duct cysts may constitute a new “Type 6” category. Only a limited number of patients with cystic duct cysts have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis is usually made in the neonatal period or during childhood. The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and usually include pain in the right upper quadrant and jaundice. The condition may also present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholelithiasis, or pancreatitis. In our case, the abdominal ultrasonography (US) performed on a 6-year-old female patient who presented with pain in the right upper quadrant pointed out an anechoic cyst at the neck of the gall bladder. Based on the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) results, a cystic dilatation was diagnosed in the cystic duct. The aim of this case-report presentation was to discuss the US and MRCP findings of the cystic dilatation of cystic duct, which is an extremely rare condition, in the light of the literature information. PMID:24987540

Goya, Cemil; Arslan, Mehmet Serif; Hamidi, Cihad; Kuday, Suzan; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin

2014-01-01

10

Prospective evaluation of biliary reconstruction with duct-to-duct continuous suture in adult live donor liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Biliary reconstruction remains the Achilles’ heel of adult live donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The study aims to investigate the feasibility of duct-to-duct hepaticocholedochostomy in LDLT. Methods Perioperative data from 30 consecutive LDLT aiming at duct-to-duct reconstruction of the biliary tract using a continuous suture technique were prospectively collected. Nineteen recipients (63.3%) had one graft bile duct. Eleven recipients (36.7%) had two or three graft bile ducts. The median follow-up was 50 months. Results The overall biliary complication rate was 23.3%. Two recipients developed biliary stricture (6.7%), and two recipients (6.7%) presented with biliary leakage in early posttransplant phase (<90 days). One recipient suffered from bilioma (3.3%), and two recipients (6.7%) presented with biliary stricture in later posttransplant phase (>90 days). No correlation was found between the number of graft bile ducts and the incidence of biliary complications. No biliary complication-associated necessity for re-transplantation or mortality was observed. On multivariate analysis, no single risk factor associated with biliary complication could be identified. All biliary complications were successfully treated with Roux-en-hepaticojejunostomy and/or with endoscopic interventions. Conclusion Duct-to-duct hepaticocholedochostomy with continues suture represents a safe and feasible procedure for biliary reconstruction in LDLT. Recipients may benefit from aggressive management of biliary complications with Roux-en-hepaticojejunostomy as compared with repeated endoscopic interventions in early posttransplant phase. PMID:21058040

Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Obed, Aiman

2010-01-01

11

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2013-01-01

12

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct accompanying biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma.  

PubMed

We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET. PMID:23716999

Onishi, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Harada, Kenichi; Maruzen, Syogo; Sakai, Seisyo; Makino, Isamu; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Tani, Takashi; Kayahara, Masato; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2013-05-28

13

Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after limited sphincterotomy for difficult biliary stones  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation after biliary sphincterotomy for difficult bile duct stones retrieval. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients submitted to the technique during 18 mo. The main outcomes considered were: efficacy of the procedure (complete stone clearance; number of sessions; need of lithotripsy) and complications. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with a mean age of 68 ± 10 years, 23 female (77%) and 7 male (23%) were enrolled. In 10 patients, a single stone was found in the common bile duct (33%) and in 20 patients multiple stones (67%) were found. The median diameter of the stones was 17 mm (12-30 mm). Dilations were performed with progressive diameter Through-The-Scope balloons (up to 12, 15) or 18 mm. Complete retrieval of stones was achieved in a single session in 25 patients (84%) and in two sessions in 4 patients (13%). Failure occurred in 1 case (6%). Mechanical lithotripsy was performed in 6 cases (20%). No severe complications occurred. One patient (3%) had mild-grade post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic balloon dilatation with a large balloon after endoscopic sphincterotomy is a safe and effective technique that could be considered an alternative choice in therapeutic ERCP. PMID:22624069

Rebelo, Ana; Ribeiro, Pedro Moutinho; Correia, António Pinto; Cotter, José

2012-01-01

14

Paclitaxel-eluting balloon dilation of biliary anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic therapy with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) for biliary anastomotic stricture (AS) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: This prospective pilot study enrolled 13 consecutive eligible patients treated for symptomatic AS after LT at the University Hospital of Münster between January 2011 and March 2014. The patients were treated by endoscopic therapy with a PEB and followed up every 8 wk by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In cases of re-stenosis, further balloon dilation with a PEB was performed. Follow-up was continued until 24 mo after the last intervention. RESULTS: Initial technical feasibility, defined as successful balloon dilation with a PEB during the initial ERCP procedure, was achieved in 100% of cases. Long-term clinical success (LTCS), defined as no need for further endoscopic intervention for at least 24 mo, was achieved in 12 of the 13 patients (92.3%). The mean number of endoscopic interventions required to achieve LTCS was only 1.7 ± 1.1. Treatment failure, defined as the need for definitive alternative treatment, occurred in only one patient, who developed recurrent stenosis with increasing bile duct dilatation that required stent placement. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic therapy with a PEB is very effective for the treatment of AS after LT, and seems to significantly shorten the overall duration of endoscopic treatment by reducing the number of interventions needed to achieve LTCS. PMID:25624733

Hüsing, Anna; Reinecke, Holger; Cicinnati, Vito R; Beckebaum, Susanne; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut H; Kabar, Iyad

2015-01-01

15

Biliary reflux detection in anomalous union of the pancreatico-biliary duct patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To demonstrate the imaging findings of biliopancreatic and pancreatico-biliary reflux in patients with anomalous union of the pancreatico-biliary duct (AUPBD) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced functional magnetic resonance cholangiography (fMRC). METHODS: This study included six consecutive patients (two men and four women; mean age 47.5 years) with AUPBD. All subjects underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); one subject also underwent bile sampling of the common bile duct (CBD) to measure the amylase level because his gadoxetic acid-enhanced fMRC images showed evidence of pancreatico-biliary reflux of pancreatic secretions. Of the five patients with choledochal cysts, four underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. RESULTS: The five cases of choledochal cysts were classified as Todani classification?I. In three of the six patients with AUPBD, injected contrast media reached the distal CBD and pancreatic duct on delay images, suggesting biliopancreatic reflux. In two of these six patients, a band-like filling defect was noted in the CBD on pre-fatty meal images, which decreased in size on delayed post-fatty meal images, suggesting pancreatico-biliary reflux of pancreatic secretions, and the bile sampled from the CBD in one patient had an amylase level of 113?000 IU/L. In one of the six patients with AUPBD, contrast media did not reach the distal CBD due to multiple CBD stones. CONCLUSION: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced fMRC successfully demonstrated biliopancreatic reflux of bile and pancreatico-biliary reflux of pancreatic secretions in patients with AUPBD with and without choledochal cysts. PMID:22408355

Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Seung Wha; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Je, Bo Kyung; Kim, Baek Hyun; Hyun, Jong Jin

2012-01-01

16

Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

The results of duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in six pediatric patients who received a living donor liver transplant aged from 2 months to 11 yr old are reported. The graft was either entire or a part of the left lateral segments. The orifice of the bile duct of the graft was anastomosed to the recipients' hepatic duct in an end-to-end fashion by interrupted suture using 6-0 absorbable material. A transanastomotic external stent tube (4 Fr) was passed through the stump of the recipients' cystic duct. Mean time for reconstruction was 24 min. All the recipients survived the operation and reinitiated oral intake on postoperative day 3. There were no early biliary complications. One 5-yr-old boy suffered from an anastomotic stenosis 9 months after transplantation. He underwent re-anastomosis by Roux-en Y (R-Y) procedure and recovered uneventfully. Duct-to-duct anastomosis in pediatric living donor liver transplantation has benefits while the complication rate is comparable to R-Y reconstruction. PMID:16048608

Okajima, Hideaki; Inomata, Yukihiro; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Ueno, Mikako; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Takeichi, Takayuki; Kodera, Atsushi; Yoshimoto, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Yuki

2005-08-01

17

Common Bile Duct Dilatations in Asymptomatic Neonates: Incidence and Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background. This retrospective study reviewed 213 asymptomatic neonates with common bile duct (CBD) dilatations diagnosed via ultrasound to evaluate their incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods. From August 2001 to July 2010, 18,230 abdominal ultrasound scans were performed as newborn screening. There were 213 (1.17%) cases of CBD dilatation. Dilatation of neonatal CBD was defined when its diameter was ?2?mm. The neonates' birth history, CBD size, and follow-up results were analyzed. Results. In the 213 infants, four cystic dilatations (1.88%, 4/213) that were eventually diagnosed as choledochal cysts (CC). Among 209 neonates with fusiform dilatations (size 2.0–6.7?mm), 77 had ultrasound follow-up and 87% of them resolved spontaneously which were diagnosed as transient CBD dilatation (TCBDD). Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Patients with initial CBD size ?3?mm had significantly lower resolution rate and neonates whose mothers are older than 35 years took longer time to resolve. Conclusion. The incidence of CBD dilatation in asymptomatic neonates was 1.17%. Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Regular ultrasound follow-up every 6 months may be appropriate for asymptomatic neonates with fusiform CBD dilatations to ensure resolution or progression. PMID:24772168

Yeung, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chan, Wai-Tao

2014-01-01

18

Common bile duct dilatations in asymptomatic neonates: incidence and prognosis.  

PubMed

Background. This retrospective study reviewed 213 asymptomatic neonates with common bile duct (CBD) dilatations diagnosed via ultrasound to evaluate their incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods. From August 2001 to July 2010, 18,230 abdominal ultrasound scans were performed as newborn screening. There were 213 (1.17%) cases of CBD dilatation. Dilatation of neonatal CBD was defined when its diameter was ?2?mm. The neonates' birth history, CBD size, and follow-up results were analyzed. Results. In the 213 infants, four cystic dilatations (1.88%, 4/213) that were eventually diagnosed as choledochal cysts (CC). Among 209 neonates with fusiform dilatations (size 2.0-6.7?mm), 77 had ultrasound follow-up and 87% of them resolved spontaneously which were diagnosed as transient CBD dilatation (TCBDD). Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Patients with initial CBD size ?3?mm had significantly lower resolution rate and neonates whose mothers are older than 35 years took longer time to resolve. Conclusion. The incidence of CBD dilatation in asymptomatic neonates was 1.17%. Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Regular ultrasound follow-up every 6 months may be appropriate for asymptomatic neonates with fusiform CBD dilatations to ensure resolution or progression. PMID:24772168

Lin, Shun-Feng; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chan, Wai-Tao

2014-01-01

19

Congenital left intrahepatic bile duct draining into gastric wall mimicking biliary reflux gastritis.  

PubMed

Abnormalities and variations of the biliary ducts are not rare. Most aberrant bile ducts eventually drain into the descending part of duodenum through the papilla of vater. However, drainage of the left hepatic bile duct into the stomach is extremely rare. A 29-year old man was admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of biliary reflux gastritis. Comprehensive imaging modalities were performed including electronic endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography. Finally, congenital ectopic left intrahepatic bile duct draining into the stomach was found, which caused biliary reflux gastritis. The patient did not receive any surgery. Good recovery was achieved by medical treatment. PMID:25805955

Guan, Jian; Zhang, Ling; Chu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Shao-Chun; Li, Zi-Ping

2015-03-21

20

Congenital left intrahepatic bile duct draining into gastric wall mimicking biliary reflux gastritis  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities and variations of the biliary ducts are not rare. Most aberrant bile ducts eventually drain into the descending part of duodenum through the papilla of vater. However, drainage of the left hepatic bile duct into the stomach is extremely rare. A 29-year old man was admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of biliary reflux gastritis. Comprehensive imaging modalities were performed including electronic endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography. Finally, congenital ectopic left intrahepatic bile duct draining into the stomach was found, which caused biliary reflux gastritis. The patient did not receive any surgery. Good recovery was achieved by medical treatment. PMID:25805955

Guan, Jian; Zhang, Ling; Chu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Shao-Chun; Li, Zi-Ping

2015-01-01

21

Regulation of intrahepatic biliary duct morphogenesis by Claudin 15-like b  

PubMed Central

The intrahepatic biliary ducts transport bile produced by the hepatocytes out of the liver. Defects in biliary cell differentiation and biliary duct remodeling cause a variety of congenital diseases including Alagille Syndrome and polycystic liver disease. While the molecular pathways regulating biliary cell differentiation have received increasing attention (Lemaigre, 2010), less is known about the cellular behavior underlying biliary duct remodeling. Here, we have identified a novel gene, claudin 15-like b (cldn15lb), which exhibits a unique and dynamic expression pattern in the hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in zebrafish. Claudins are tight junction proteins that have been implicated in maintaining epithelial polarity, regulating paracellular transport, and providing barrier function. In zebrafish cldn15lb mutant livers, tight junctions are observed between hepatocytes, but these cells show polarization defects as well as canalicular malformations. Furthermore, cldn15lb mutants show abnormalities in biliary duct morphogenesis whereby biliary epithelial cells remain clustered together and form a disorganized network. Our data suggest that Cldn15lb plays an important role in the remodeling process during biliary duct morphogenesis. Thus, cldn15lb mutants provide a novel in vivo model to study the role of tight junction proteins in the remodeling of the biliary network and hereditary cholestasis. PMID:22020048

Cheung, Isla D.; Bagnat, Michel; Ma, Taylur P.; Datta, Anirban; Evason, Kimberley; Moore, John C.; Lawson, Nathan; Mostov, Keith E.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

2011-01-01

22

Large bile duct stones treated by endoscopic biliary drainage.  

PubMed

One hundred five patients with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis (49 patients), referred for diagnostic endoscopy, were found to have inextractable bile duct stones. Median age was 76 years and three quarters were more than 72 years of age. Insertion of an endoprosthesis with or without a sphincterotomy relieved jaundice in 94% and settled cholangitis in 90%. Antibiotic cover during the procedure seems essential inasmuch as pyrexia and septicemia occurred in 6 of 57 cases where it was not given. One case was lethal. Another patient died of acute pancreatitis. The patients were old. One quarter died before the follow-up, 1 to 5 years after the initial intervention. The results indicate that the combination of endoscopic sphincterotomy, insertion of an endoprosthesis, and, if feasible, stone extraction on a later occasion when the acute phase of the illness had subsided brought the disease sufficiently under control among three quarters of the patients with large common duct stones or stenoses in the biliary tract. One quarter of the patients were treated surgically. This was accomplished without mortality, but morbidity was not negligible. A policy with a surgical approach restricted to selected cases with persistent symptoms in spite of sufficient endoscopic drainage is recommended. PMID:2911804

Kiil, J; Kruse, A; Rokkjaer, M

1989-01-01

23

Bile duct epithelia as target cells in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are chronic autoimmune-mediated diseases of the\\u000a biliary tree, resulting in a loss of bile ducts. There are morphological features that clearly distinguish them from each\\u000a other: in PBC, there is overt destruction of the bile ducts with disruption of the basement membrane; in PSC there is abundant\\u000a periductular fibrosis with shrinkage

H. P. Dienes; A. W. Lohse; G. Gerken; P. Schirmacher; H. Gallati; H. F. Löhr; K. H. Meyer zum Büschenfelde

1997-01-01

24

Cholangiography for evaluation of the proximal biliary ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

Visualization of the entire biliary tree can be difficult in some patients undergoing cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A simple technique was developed for these patients, utilizing the laparoscope under fluoroscopic guidance, in order to visualize the proximal biliary ducts. PMID:8877743

Hawasli, A

1996-08-01

25

Biliary Stent Migration to Hepatic Duct–Case Report of a Late Complication  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic retrieval of proximally migrated biliary plastic stents may be technically challenging and sometimes unsuccessful. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old woman with a migrated biliary stent in the right hepatic duct, which was diagnosed after the patient presented with cholangitis. The patient presented with constant abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant lasting for two days, along with nausea and bilious vomiting. The stent was retrieved by a polypectomy snare after failure of biliary basket and forceps. We performed a novel procedure for extraction of a migrated plastic stent, by using a polypectomy snare. PMID:25733945

Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang; Donboli, Kianoush; Khodakarami, Mehran; Baghbani, Salar; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2015-01-01

26

Balloon dilatation of a benign biliary stricture through a T-tube tract  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous cholangioplasty is a commonly performed procedure for both benign and malignant diseases. The most common route for accessing the biliary tree is transhepatic, following ultrasound or fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous puncture. There are situations when alternative routes can be utilized to access the common bile duct (CBD). We accessed the CBD via T-tube placed surgically in a 57-year-old man who had obstructive jaundice of obscure etiology which was likely inflammatory. PMID:25709161

Gupta, Pankaj; Kalra, Naveen; Kumar, Ajay; Kochhar, Rakesh; Gupta, Vikas; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2015-01-01

27

Balloon dilatation of a benign biliary stricture through a T-tube tract.  

PubMed

Percutaneous cholangioplasty is a commonly performed procedure for both benign and malignant diseases. The most common route for accessing the biliary tree is transhepatic, following ultrasound or fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous puncture. There are situations when alternative routes can be utilized to access the common bile duct (CBD). We accessed the CBD via T-tube placed surgically in a 57-year-old man who had obstructive jaundice of obscure etiology which was likely inflammatory. PMID:25709161

Gupta, Pankaj; Kalra, Naveen; Kumar, Ajay; Kochhar, Rakesh; Gupta, Vikas; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2015-01-01

28

Efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and endoscopic dilation of major duct stenoses in primary sclerosing cholangitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is characterized by progressive fibrotic inflammation and obliteration of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment leads to improvement of biochemical parameters of cholestasis and in part also of liver histology. During treatment, obstruction of major ducts may lead to deterioration of liver function, which may be prevented by endoscopic dilation of the stenoses. Controlled

Adolf Stiehl; Gerda Rudolph; Peter Sauer; Christine Benz; Wolfgang Stremmel; Siegfried Walker; Lorenz Theilmann

1997-01-01

29

Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions  

PubMed Central

When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention. PMID:25400865

Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

2014-01-01

30

Choledochoduodenostomy as the biliary-enteric bypass of choice for benign and malignant distal common bile duct strictures.  

PubMed

Choledochoduodenostomy (including hepaticoduodenostomy) for common bile duct (CBD) strictures has been underused because of concerns regarding postoperative duodenal fistula and cholangitis attending the so-called "sump syndrome." An institutional retrospective review of 55 consecutive choledochoduodenostomy procedures for CBD strictures from 1995 to 2011 was performed to examine its suitability as the biliary-enteric bypass procedure of choice. There were 30 male (55%) and 25 female (45%) patients with a mean age of 49 years (range, 13 to 73 years). Thirty-seven (67%) patients had benign CBD strictures and 18 (33%) had unresectable periampullary adenocarcinomas. Forty-nine (89%) underwent choledochoduodenostomy and six (11%) underwent hepaticoduodenostomy. There were no 30-day postoperative deaths, anastomotic leaks, or intra-abdominal abscesses. Five patients (9%) sustained Clavien Grade III or IV complications. Over a mean long-term follow-up of 29 months (range, 1 to 162 months), there was one anastomotic stricture successfully managed by endoscopic dilation and temporary stenting. Liver function tests in all other patients returned to and remained within normal limits. We conclude that choledochoduodenostomy is the preferred biliary-enteric bypass for both benign and malignant distal CBD strictures because of its ease, safety, and durability. Persistent fears of duodenal fistula and the "sump syndrome" are not warranted by the empiric data and should be abandoned. PMID:24160798

Luu, Carrie; Lee, Byrne; Stabile, Bruce E

2013-10-01

31

A comparative study of one minute versus five seconds endoscopic biliary balloon dilation after small sphincterotomy in choleducolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Background: Limited sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a low-risk method for the treatment of choleducolithiasis. Traditionally one minute ballooning time (BT) is applied; however, the effective BT is not clear. In this study, we compare five seconds and one minute ballooning time. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind, randomized, clinical trial 60 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones documented in ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), with no severe hepatic, biliary or systemic diseases, enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive EPBD with either five seconds (n = 31) or one minute (n = 29) ballooning time (BT) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and small sphincterotomy. Then stones were retrieved with an extractor balloon. The patients were followed for 48 hours to check the possible complications. Results: Successful CBD stone removal was the same in the five-second and one-minute BT groups (93.5% vs. 96.6%; P = 0.594). Pancreatitis occurred in three (9.7%) patients in the five-second BT group and in six (20.7%) patients in the one-minute BT group (P = 0.233). No hemorrhage or perforation was noted. Conclusions: After a small sphincterotomy, EPBD in the five-second and one-minute BT groups had a similar efficacy. Small sphincterotomy combined with very short BT is a safe and effective method for CBD stone removal. PMID:25709993

Shavakhi, Ahmad; Minakari, Mohammad; Ardestani, Mohammad Hadi Shafigh; Sadeghizadeh, Atefeh; Shavakhi, Sara

2015-01-01

32

Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

1981-05-01

33

Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

1981-05-01

34

[Apropos of a case of acute pancreatitis revealing cystic dilatation of the common bile duct].  

PubMed

Dilatation of the common bile duct is rarely caused by cystic formations. Though the pathogenesis is uncertain, congenital disorders have been suggested. Most cases are observed in small children (80% female predominance) with only 20% of the cases reported in adults. Clinical signs vary. Recurrent acute pancreatitis has been reported but is rare. New imaging techniques using CT-scan cholangiography and sometimes MR cholangiography have greatly improved the diagnostic approach. MR of the bile ducts is a recent noninvasive technique enabling an analysis of the biliopancreatic ducts without contrast injection into the bile. To our knowledge, cystic dilatation of the common bile duct has not been previously reported in the literature. We report an interesting case in a 25-year-old woman who developed an episode of acute pancreatitis during the post partum period. We describe the clinical aspects and the different imaging findings, including magnetic resonance cholangiography results. PMID:9846293

Kabbaj, N; Ababou, A; el Fakir, Y; Amarouch, N; Dafiri, R; Sbihi, A; Imani, F

1998-11-01

35

The effect of biliary stenting on difficult common bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction If common bile duct (CBD) stones (choledocholithiasis) are left untreated, they may cause increases in morbidity and mortality due to several conditions. Aim In this study, using transient biliary stenting following the failure of an initial endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) session, we aimed to show the effects of making the CBD stones smaller and easier to remove in the following session. Material and methods In 156 of 1300 (12%) patients with CBD stones, who underwent balloon screening and/or basket lithotripsy following ERCP and CBD cannulation, it was not possible to remove the stones in the first session. Of these 156 patients, 64 (4.9%) were further followed and tested following transient biliary stenting. Results In the last ERCP following biliary stenting, the maximum stone sizes and stone indices were decreased in 54 (83%) patients and stone fragmentation was observed in 46 (72%) patients. Complete and incomplete removal was obtained in 40 (62.5%) and 24 (37.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusions Biliary stenting, fragmentation and the reduction in the size of difficult common bile duct stones caused by the first session of ERCP may increase the chance of success in the next session of ERCP. PMID:25061492

Arabul, Mahmut; Celik, Mustafa; Alper, Emrah; Unsal, Belk?s

2014-01-01

36

Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for removal of bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the efficacy and outcomes of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) for bile duct stones in a multicenter prospective study. METHODS: Lithotomy by EPLBD was conducted in 124 patients with bile duct stones ? 13 mm in size or with three or more bile duct stones ? 10 mm. After endoscopic sphincterotomy, the papilla was dilated using balloons 12-20 mm in diameter fitting the bile duct diameter. RESULTS: The success rate of first-time lithotomy was 86.3% (107/124) and the final lithotomy success rate was 100% (124/124). Lithotripsy was needed in 10 of the 124 (13.6%) patients. Adverse events due to the treatment procedure occurred in 6 (4.8%) patients, all of which were mild. Performing large balloon dilation after endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with large stones or multiple stones in the bile duct is considered to ensure the safety of treatment and to reduce the need for lithotripsy. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that treatment by EPLBD for large bile duct stones may be safe and useful. PMID:25493029

Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Kitamura, Katsuya; Mikami, Shigeru; Fujimoto, Tatsuya; Ijima, Masashi; Kurihara, Eishin; Oana, Shuhei; Nishino, Takayoshi; Tamura, Ryo; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Nishikawa, Takao; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Mine, Tetsuya; Yokosuka, Osamu

2014-01-01

37

Failure of sequential biliary stenting for unsuccessful common bile duct stone removal  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the factors associated with the failure of stone removal by a biliary stenting strategy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 645 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for stone removal in Siriraj GI Endoscopy center, Siriraj Hospital from June 2009 to June 2012. A total of 42 patients with unsuccessful initial removal of large CBD stones that underwent sequential biliary stenting were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data, laboratory results, stone characteristics, procedure details, and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed. In addition, the patients were classified into two groups based on outcome, successful or failed sequential biliary stenting, and the above factors were compared. RESULTS: Among the initial 42 patients with unsuccessful initial removal of large CBD stones, there were 37 successful biliary stenting cases and five failed cases. Complete CBD clearance was achieved in 88.0% of cases. The average number of sessions needed before complete stone removal was achieved was 2.43 at an average of 25 wk after the first procedure. Complications during the follow-up period occurred in 19.1% of cases, comprising ascending cholangitis (14.3%) and pancreatitis (4.8%). The factors associated with failure of complete CBD stone clearance in the biliary stenting group were unchanged CBD stone size after the first biliary stenting attempt (10.2 wk) and a greater number of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography sessions performed (4.2 sessions). CONCLUSION: The sequential biliary stenting is an effective management strategy for the failure of initial large CBD stone removal. PMID:23772266

Prachayakul, Varayu; Aswakul, Pitulak

2013-01-01

38

Is Opioid Addiction a Sufficient Predicting Factor for Common Bile Duct Dilatation? A Sonographic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of hepatobiliary symptoms, opioid consumption has been shown to cause dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD). The main objective of this study was to measure with sonography CBD diameters in opioid addicts as compared with nonaddicts. The research was done on 208 individuals; 104 were opioid addicts using various routes of administration (inhalation, oral, or intravenous),

Ahmad Rezaee; Behzad Narouie; Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad; Emad Nosair; Farshid Mohebi; Sharareh Sanei Sistani

2010-01-01

39

Balloon Dilatation of Salivary Duct Strictures: Report on 36 Treated Glands  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This paper describes the technique for balloon dilatation of salivary duct strictures and evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in a consecutive series of 36 affected glands. Methods: Thirty-four patients (36 glands) had balloon dilatation of their salivary duct strictures performed under fluoroscopic control. They were evaluated immediately afterwards and at review by sialography. Results: In 36 cases attempted, 33 (92%) strictures were dilated. The immediate post-treatment sialogram was available in 28 cases, of which 23 (82%) demonstrated complete and four (14%) partial elimination of stricture. In one case the appearance was unchanged(4%). Review data (mean 6.8 months) were available on 25 glands: 12 were asymptomatic (48%), 12 (48%) had reduced symptoms and one (4%)failed to improve. Sialographic data were available on 21 glands: in 10(48%) the duct remained patent, in one (5%) the stricture was partially eliminated, in seven (33%) the strictures had returned and in the remaining three (14%) cases there was complete obstruction. Conclusions: Balloon dilatation is an effective treatment of salivary duct stenosis. In half the cases the stricture recurred but symptomatic improvement was achieved and maintained in the majority of cases.

Drage, Nicholas A.; Brown, Jackie E. [Department of Dental Radiology, Guy's Dental Hospital, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, London (United Kingdom); Escudier, Michael P. [Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Guy's, King's and St. Thomas' Dental Institute, King's College, London (United Kingdom); Wilson, Ron F. [Dental Clinical Research, Guy's, King's and St. Thomas' Dental Institute, King's College, London (United Kingdom); McGurk, Mark [Department of Oral andMaxillofacial Surgery, Guy's, King's and St. Thomas' Dental Institute, King's College, London (United Kingdom)

2002-10-15

40

Pancreaticobiliary maljunction and biliary cancer.  

PubMed

Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a congenital malformation in which the pancreatic and bile ducts join anatomically outside the duodenal wall. Japanese clinical practice guidelines on how to deal with PBM were made in 2012, representing a world first. According to the 2013 revision to the diagnostic criteria for PBM, in addition to direct cholangiography, diagnosis can be made by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), 3-dimensional drip infusion cholangiography computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography (US), or multiplanar reconstruction images by multidetector row computed tomography. In PBM, the common channel is so long that sphincter action does not affect the pancreaticobiliary junction, and pancreatic juice frequently refluxes into the biliary tract. Persistence of refluxed pancreatic juice injures epithelium of the biliary tract and promotes cancer development, resulting in higher rates of carcinogenesis in the biliary tract. In a nationwide survey, biliary cancer was detected in 21.6 % of adult patients with congenital biliary dilatation (bile duct cancer, 32.1 % vs. gallbladder cancer, 62.3 %) and in 42.4 % of PBM patients without biliary dilatation (bile duct cancer, 7.3 % vs. gallbladder cancer, 88.1 %). Pathophysiological conditions due to pancreatobiliary reflux occur in patients with high confluence of pancreaticobiliary ducts, a common channel ?6 mm long, and occlusion of communication during contraction of the sphincter. Once the diagnosis of PBM is established, immediate prophylactic surgery is recommended. However, the surgical strategy for PBM without biliary dilatation remains controversial. To detect PBM without biliary dilatation early, MRCP is recommended for patients showing gallbladder wall thickening on screening US under suspicion of PBM. PMID:25404143

Kamisawa, Terumi; Kuruma, Sawako; Tabata, Taku; Chiba, Kazuro; Iwasaki, Susumu; Koizumi, Satomi; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Itoi, Takao

2015-03-01

41

Common bile duct obstruction by portal cavernoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Obstructive jaundice occurring in a patient with portal hypertension is a rare association. In this report, a 24-year-old patient is described who had biliary obstruction due to a portal cavernoma compressing the common bile duct and in whom surgical decompression of the portal system resulted in relief of the biliary obstruction, thus proving that the dilated portal vein collaterals

G. Choudhuri; R. K. Tandon; S. Nundy; N. K. Misra

1988-01-01

42

Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

2015-02-16

43

Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I

2015-01-01

44

[Ultrasound of gallbladder and bile duct.  

PubMed

The cystic nature of the gallbladder and bile duct when dilated, and the advantages of ultrasound as a quick, reproducible, convenient, cheap and low risk technique, with a high sensitivity and specificity, make it the most eligible technique in biliary pathology studies. Ultrasound has become a valuable tool for doctors studying biliary pathology and its complications, from abnormal liver function results, right upper quadrant pain, or jaundice, to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or suspicion of biliary tumors. PMID:25450432

Segura Grau, A; Joleini, S; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

2014-11-11

45

Late Complications and Stone Recurrence Rates after Bile Duct Stone Removal by Endoscopic Sphincterotomy and Large Balloon Dilation are Similar to Those after Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Alone  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Between endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) alone and combined endoscopic sphincterotomy and large balloon dilation (ES-LBD) groups, efficacy and long-term complications, difference in biliary stone recurrence rate, and risk factors of stone recurrence were compared. Methods Medical records of 222 patients who underwent ERCP for biliary stone removal were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with dilated CBD ?11 mm and follow-up longer than 6 months were included. Results There were 101 patients in ES-LBD group and 121 patients in ES group. Mean follow-up duration was 25.0 (6-48) months and 13.0 (6-43) months, respectively (p=0.001). There was no difference in number of ERCP sessions, brown pigment stones, angle between mid and distal common bile duct (CBD angle) <135°, and lithotripsy rate. Complete retrieval success rate was excellent in both groups (100% vs. 99%). Early complication rate of ES-LBD and ES alone group was 4 and 4.1%, respectively (p=1.000). One patient in ES-LBD group died from delayed bleeding. Late complication rate was 5.9 and 3.3%, respectively (p=1.000). Stone recurrence rate was 6.9% and 5.8%, respectively (p=0.984). The only Independent risk factor of stone recurrence was presence of periampullary diverticulum. Conclusions Late complication and stone recurrence rates were similar between ES-LBD and ES alone groups. PMID:24340257

Kim, Ka Young; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Byeong Suk; Jung, Jin Tae; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Chang Hyeong

2013-01-01

46

Meta-analysis of Duct-to-duct versus Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction following liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis aimed to compare outcomes following bile duct reconstruction in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) undergoing liver transplantation depending on whether duct-to-duct or Roux-en-Y anastomosis was utilized. An electronic search was performed of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed databases using both subject headings (MeSH) and truncated word searches. Pooled risk ratios and mean difference were calculated using the fixed-effects and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Ten studies including 910 patients met the inclusion criteria. There was no difference in the overall incidence of biliary strictures between the two groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.06 (0.68, 1.66); (P = 0.80)]. The anastomotic stricture rate was similar, [OR 1.18 (0.56, 2.50); (P = 0.67)]. Ascending cholangitis was higher in the Roux-en-Y group [OR 2.91 (1.17, 7.23); (P = 0.02)]. Anastomotic bile leak rates, graft survival, PSC recurrence and number of patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma following transplantation were comparable between both groups. Duct-to-duct and Roux-en-Y reconstruction had comparable outcomes. Both techniques are associated with similar incidence of biliary stricture. The bilioenteric reconstruction was associated with a higher risk of cholangitis. The incidence of de novo cholangiocarcinoma was similar in both groups. Duct-to-duct reconstruction should be considered when feasible in patients with PSC. PMID:25557556

Pandanaboyana, Sanjay; Bell, Richard; Bartlett, Adam J; McCall, John; Hidalgo, Ernest

2015-04-01

47

Hybrid endolaparoscopic management of biliary tract pathology in bariatric patients after gastric bypass: case report and review of a single-institution experience.  

PubMed

Obesity is the major risk factor in cholesterol crystal and gallstone formation. After an Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliary duct dilatation can appear and gallstone formation can cause biliary duct obstruction or gallstone pancreatitis. Management of this clinical situation can be challenging and many approaches have been reported. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plays an important role in the management of biliary duct obstruction in these patients. However, a previous modified anatomy makes this procedure technically difficult. For these reason, we describe our single-institution experience in the management of biliary duct obstruction utilizing a hybrid approach combining laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. PMID:24105293

Vilallonga, Ramon; Pimentel, Ronnie; Rosenthal, Raul J

2013-10-01

48

Improving patient and user safety during endoscopic investigation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endoscopic investigation of the main pancreatic duct and biliary ducts is called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and carries a risk of pancreatitis for the patient. During ERCP, a metal guidewire is inserted into the pancreatobiliary duct from a side-viewing large endoscope within the duodenum. To verify correct placement of the ERCP guidewire, an injection of radiopaque dye is required for fluoroscopic imaging, which exposes the patient and clinical team to x-ray radiation. A safer and more effective means to access the pancreatobiliary system can use direct optical imaging, although the endoscope diameter and stiffness will be significantly larger than a guidewire's. To quantify this invasiveness before human testing, a synthetic force-sensing pancreas was fabricated and attached to an ERCP training model. The invasiveness of a new, 1.7-mm diameter, steerable scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) was compared to the standard ERCP guidewire of 0.89-mm (0.035") diameter that is not steerable. Although twice as large and significantly stiffer than the ERCP guidewire, the SFE generated lower or significantly less average force during insertion at all 4 sensor locations (P<0.05) within the main pancreatic duct. Therefore, the addition of steering and forward visualization at the tip of the endoscope reduced the invasiveness of the in vitro ERCP procedure. Since fluoroscopy is not required, risks associated with dye injection and x-ray exposure can be eliminated when using direct optical visualization. Finally, the SFE provides wide-field high resolution imaging for image-guided interventions, laser-based fluorescence biomarker imaging, and spot spectral analysis for future optical biopsy.

Chandler, John E.; Melville, C. David; Lee, Cameron M.; Saunders, Michael D.; Burkhardt, Matthew R.; Seibel, Eric J.

2011-03-01

49

Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of bile duct cells in primary biliary cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a relative paucity of effort at defining effector mechanisms of biliary damage in PBC. We hypothesize that biliary cells are destroyed secondary to the immunologic relationships of inflammation and biliary epithelial apoptosis and, in particular, that biliary damage is a result of reduced levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and its association with

Thucydides L. Salunga; Zheng-Guo Cui; Shinji Shimoda; Hua-Chuan Zheng; Kazuhiro Nomoto; Takashi Kondo; Yasuo Takano; Carlo Selmi; Gianfranco Alpini; M. Eric Gershwin; Koichi Tsuneyama

2007-01-01

50

Intraoperative assessment of biliary anatomy for prevention of bile duct injury: a review of current and future patient safety interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dreaded complication of cholecystectomy, often caused by misinterpretation of biliary anatomy.\\u000a To prevent BDI, techniques have been developed for intraoperative assessment of bile duct anatomy. This article reviews the\\u000a evidence for the different techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses in terms of efficacy, ease, and cost-effectiveness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  PubMed was searched from January 1980 through

K. Tim Buddingh; Vincent B. Nieuwenhuijs; Lianne van Buuren; Jan B. F. Hulscher; Johannes S. de Jong; Gooitzen M. van Dam

2011-01-01

51

[The study of the efficacy of the microsurgical trauma-proof suture materials in biliary duct surgery].  

PubMed

Comparative estimation of the native microsurgical atraumatic suture material metallatraum and the foreign threads (prolene and virgin silk) application while the biliobiliary and biliodigestive anastomoses formation was done in experiment. Most favourable tissue reaction was noted using monolithic threads prolene and metallatraum. Metallatraum thread is the most resistant one to the calculi deposition on it. The silk thread application in biliary ducts surgery is not indicated. PMID:10429396

Solomko, A V

1999-01-01

52

High Dose IgG Therapy Mitigates Bile Duct Targeted Inflammation and Obstruction in a Mouse Model of Biliary Atresia  

PubMed Central

Background A proposed etiology of biliary atresia (BA) entails a virus-induced, progressive immune-mediated injury of the biliary system. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has demonstrated clinical benefit in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effects of high dose immunoglobulin (IgG) treatment in the rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced mouse model of BA. Methods Newborn mice were infected with RRV and jaundiced mice were given high dose IgG or albumin control. Survival, histology, direct bilirubin, liver immune cell subsets and cytokine production were analyzed. Results There was no difference in overall survival between RRV-infected groups, however high dose IgG resulted in decreased bilirubin, bile duct inflammation, and increased extrahepatic bile duct patency. High dose IgG decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, resulting in limited migration of immune cells to portal tracts. High dose IgG significantly decreased CD4+ T cell production of IL-2, IFN-? and TNF-? and CD8+ T cell production of IFN-?, as well as increased levels of regulatory T cells. Conclusions High dose IgG therapy in murine BA dramatically decreased Th1 cell-mediated inflammation and biliary obstruction. This study lends support for consideration of IVIg clinical trials in infants with BA, to diminish the progressive intrahepatic bile duct injury. PMID:24727948

Tucker, Rebecca M.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Mack, Cara L.

2014-01-01

53

Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for bile duct stones in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can be safety and effectively performed in patients aged ? 80 years. METHODS: Lithotomy by EPLBD was conducted in 106 patients with bile duct stones ? 13 mm in size or with three or more bile duct stones ? 10 mm. The patients were divided into group A (< 80 years) and group B (? 80 years). Procedure success rate, number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies (ERCP), and incidence of complications were examined in both groups. RESULTS: Group B tended to include significantly more patients with peripapillary diverticulum, hypertension, hyperlipemia, cerebrovascular disease/dementia, respiratory disease/cardiac disease, and patients administered an anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent (P < 0.05). The success rate of the initial lithotomy was 88.7 (94/106)%. The final lithotomy rate was 100 (106/106)%. Complications due to treatment procedure occurred in 4.72 (5/106)% of the patients. There was no significant difference in procedure success rate, number of ERCP, or incidence of complications between group A and group B. CONCLUSION: EPLBD can be safely performed in elderly patients, the same as in younger patients.

Sakai, Yuji; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Sasaki, Reina; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Watanabe, Yuuto; Nishikawa, Takao; Yasui, Shin; Mikata, Rintaro; Yokosuka, Osamu

2015-01-01

54

High frequency of K-ras mutations in biliary duct carcinomas of cases with a long common channel in the papilla of Vater.  

PubMed

The frequency of K-ras mutation in biliary duct carcinomas in different locations and the relationship to the form of the junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct (JPBD) are not understood clearly. These points were investigated in the present study. Thirty-seven biliary duct carcinomas in patients without anomalous JPBD were investigated for K-ras mutations. Regarding location, 12 were hilar, 4 in the upper, 11 in the middle, and 10 in the lower portion of the duct. Furthermore, with 14 cases for which the form of the JPBD could be confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or postoperative cholangiopancreatography, division was made into two types: those with a long common channel (>5 mm) in the papilla of Vater (type 1, n = 4), and the other with a shorter or nonapparent common channel (type 2, n = 10). The overall frequency of K-ras mutation was 30%, the incidence gradually increasing from upper to lower regions. K-ras mutations were significantly more frequent in biliary duct carcinomas associated with long common channels (P < 0.05). These results suggest that a long common channel may bear a relation to K-ras mutations in biliary duct carcinogenesis, presumably through its influence on pancreatic juice regurgitation. PMID:10676628

Hidaka, E; Yanagisawa, A; Seki, M; Takano, K; Setoguchi, T; Kato, Y

2000-02-01

55

[Cholecysto-biliary fistulas].  

PubMed

Out of a total of 910 cholecystectomies performed on patients suffering from biliary calculosis, from January 1980 to December 1994 the Authors observed two cases of cholecysto-biliary fistulas (0.2%), a complication which can rarely affect biliary stones. In the light of the international literature and of their own, however, limited experience, the Authors take into account the pathophysiologic and clinical aspects of this pathology. They agree with the literature data on the lack of specificity of the clinical signs and uselessness of preoperative diagnostic tools, the only exception sometimes being E.R.C.P. The Authors find Csendes' cholecysto-biliary fistulas classification extremely useful as far as the subsequent surgical treatment is concerned. The latter should be electric, i.e. evaluation of each single case depending on the type of fistula, its size, conditions of its edges, dilatation of the main bile duct. Surgery may range from a simple suture of the fistula edges with endoluminal drainage, associated or not to surgery of the papilla, to a biliary digestive anastomosis. PMID:8755227

Mandarano, R; Natale, A; Venturini, N; Rossi De Vermandois, S M; Ciccone, A

1996-05-01

56

Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for difficult common bile duct stones: Our experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) performed for common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: From a computer database, we retrospectively analyzed the data relating to EBD performed in patients at the gastrointestinal unit of the Sandro Pertini Hospital of Rome (small center with low case volume) who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for CBD from January 1, 2010 to February 29, 2012. All patients had a proven diagnosis of CBD stones studied with echography, RMN-cholangiography and, when necessary, with computed tomography of the abdomen (for example, in cases with pace-makers). Prophylactic therapies, with gabexate mesilate 24 h before the procedure and with an antibiotic (ceftriaxone 2 g) 1 h before, were administered in all patients. The duodenum was intubated with a side-viewing endoscope under deep sedation with intravenous midazolam and propofol. The patients were placed in the supine position in almost all cases. EBD of the ampulla was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance with a balloon through the scope (Hercules, wireguided balloon®, Cook Ireland Ltd. and CRE®, Microvasive, Boston Scientific Co., Natick, MA, United States). RESULTS: A total of 14 patients (9 female, 5 male; mean age of 73 years; range 57-82 years) were enrolled in the study, in whom a total of 15 EBDs were performed. All patients underwent minor endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) prior to the EBD. The size of balloon insufflation depended on stone size and CBD dilation and this was performed until it reached 16 mm in diameter. EBD was performed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. The balloon was gradually filled with diluted contrast agent and was maintained inflated in position for 45 to 60 s before deflation and removal. The need for precutting the major papilla was 21.4%. In one patient (an 81-year-old), EBD was performed in a Billroth II. Periampullary diverticula were found only in a 74-year-old female. The adverse event related to the procedures (ERCP + ES) was only an intra procedural bleeding (6.6%) that occurred after ES and was treated immediately with adrenaline sclerotherapy. No postoperative complications were reported. CONCLUSION: With the current endoscopic techniques, very few patients with choledocholithiasis require surgery. EBD is an efficacious and safe procedure. PMID:24303455

Zippi, Maddalena; De Felici, Isabella; Pica, Roberta; Traversa, Giampiero; Occhigrossi, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

57

Biliary tree stem/progenitor cells in glands of extrahepatic and intraheptic bile ducts: an anatomical in situ study yielding evidence of maturational lineages  

PubMed Central

Stem/progenitors have been identified intrahepatically in the canals of Hering and extrahepatically in glands of the biliary tree. Glands of the biliary tree (peribiliary glands) are tubulo-alveolar glands with mucinous and serous acini, located deep within intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. We have shown that biliary tree stem/progenitors (BTSCs) are multipotent, giving rise in vitro and in vivo to hepatocytes, cholangiocytes or pancreatic islets. Cells with the phenotype of BTSCs are located at the bottom of the peribiliary glands near the fibromuscular layer. They are phenotypically heterogeneous, expressing transcription factors as well as surface and cytoplasmic markers for stem/progenitors of liver (e.g. SOX9/17), pancreas (e.g. PDX1) and endoderm (e.g. SOX17, EpCAM, NCAM, CXCR4, Lgr5, OCT4) but not for mature markers (e.g. albumin, secretin receptor or insulin). Subpopulations co-expressing liver and pancreatic markers (e.g. PDX1+/SOX17+) are EpCAM+/?, and are assumed to be the most primitive of the BTSC subpopulations. Their descendants undergo a maturational lineage process from the interior to the surface of ducts and vary in the mature cells generated: pancreatic cells in hepatopancreatic ducts, liver cells in large intrahepatic bile ducts, and bile duct cells along most of the biliary tree. We hypothesize that there is ongoing organogenesis throughout life, with BTSCs giving rise to hepatic stem cells in the canals of Hering and to committed progenitors within the pancreas. The BTSCs are likely to be central to normal tissue turnover and injury repair and to be key elements in the pathophysiology of liver, pancreas and biliary tree diseases, including oncogenesis. PMID:22136171

Carpino, Guido; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Rossi, Massimo; Wang, Yunfang; Semeraro, Rossella; Anceschi, Maurizio; Brunelli, Roberto; Alvaro, Domenico; Reid, Lola M; Gaudio, Eugenio

2012-01-01

58

Activation of the renin-angiotensin system stimulates biliary hyperplasia during cholestasis induced by extrahepatic bile duct ligation.  

PubMed

Cholangiocyte proliferation is regulated in a coordinated fashion by many neuroendocrine factors through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a role in the activation of hepatic stellate cells and blocking the RAS attenuates hepatic fibrosis. We investigated the role of the RAS during extrahepatic cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). In this study, we used normal and BDL rats that were treated with control, angiotensin II (ANG II), or losartan for 2 wk. In vitro studies were performed in a primary rat cholangiocyte cell line (NRIC). The expression of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensinogen, and angiotensin receptor type 1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), real-time PCR, and FACs and found to be increased in BDL compared with normal rat. The levels of ANG II were evaluated by ELISA and found to be increased in serum and conditioned media of cholangiocytes from BDL compared with normal rats. Treatment with ANG II increased biliary mass and proliferation in both normal and BDL rats. Losartan attenuated BDL-induced biliary proliferation. In vitro, ANG II stimulated NRIC proliferation via increased intracellular cAMP levels and activation of the PKA/ERK/CREB intracellular signaling pathway. ANG II stimulated a significant increase in Sirius red staining and IHC for fibronectin that was blocked by angiotensin receptor blockade. In vitro, ANG II stimulated the gene expression of collagen 1A1, fibronectin 1, and IL-6. These results indicate that cholangiocytes express a local RAS and that ANG II plays an important role in regulating biliary proliferation and fibrosis during extraheptic cholestasis. PMID:25678505

Afroze, Syeda H; Munshi, Md Kamruzzaman; Martínez, Allyson K; Uddin, Mohammad; Gergely, Maté; Szynkarski, Claudia; Guerrier, Micheleine; Nizamutdinov, Damir; Dostal, David; Glaser, Shannon

2015-04-15

59

Biliary Tract Anatomy and its Relationship with Venous Drainage  

PubMed Central

Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S.; Sharma, Malay

2013-01-01

60

Polyarteritis nodosa presented as a dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct.  

PubMed

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-sized arteries in multiorgan systems. PAN may affect the gastrointestinal tract in 14%-65% of patients, but rarely involves the biliary tract and liver. We describe a patient without underlying disease who was diagnosed with PAN during resection of the gallbladder and liver. PMID:25368854

Choi, Han Lim; Sung, Ro Hyun; Kang, Min Ho; Jeon, Hyun Jeong; Yun, Hyo Yung; Jang, Lee Chan; Choi, Jae Woon; Song, Young Jin; Ryu, Dong Hee

2014-11-01

61

Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation in comparison with endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of large common bile duct stone  

PubMed Central

Background: There are concerns on the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) as an alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. We compared the efficacy and safety of EPBD and EST for removing large common bile duct (CBD) stones. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty patients with CBD stones of 10-20 mm were randomized to undergo EPBD or EST. A 15-mm dilatation balloon was used for EPBD. Cotton's criteria were used to determine the incidence of post-EPBD or post-EST complications. CBD stone removal and complications were compared between the two methods. Results: CBD stones were completely removed in 97.5% of the EPBD and 96.2% of the EST group (P = 0.5). The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis (11.2% vs 8.7%) and bleeding (1.2% vs 1.2%) were similar between the EPBD and EST groups (P > 0.05). Perforation did not occur in any patient. Conclusions: EPBD with 15-mm dilator balloon appears to be equally safe and effective compared with EST for removal of large CBD stones. So because of low complication and high success rate we recommend EPBD as the preferred method for removal of large (10-20 mm) CBD stones. PMID:24516846

Minakari, Mahammad; Samani, Rahil R.; Shavakhi, Ahmad; Jafari, Alireza; Alijanian, Neda; Hajalikhani, Mehri

2013-01-01

62

A Novel Biodegradable Biliary Stent in the Normal Duct Hepaticojejunal Anastomosis: an 18-month Follow-up in a Large Animal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating a well-functioning hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) anastomosis with nondilated bile ducts remains a challenge. Our aim was to study the use in a large animal model of a novel, braided polylactide barium\\u000a sulfate biodegradable biliary stent (BDBS) without external connection and with no need for later removal. Fifty swine were\\u000a randomly operated on for Roux-Y HJ with or without BDBS in

Johanna M. Laukkarinen; Juhani A. Sand; Pierce Chow; Hanne Juuti; Minna Kellomäki; Päivi Kärkkäinen; Jorma Isola; Sidney Yu; Satchithanantham Somanesan; Irene Kee; In Chin Song; Teck Hin Ng; Isto H. Nordback

2007-01-01

63

CT and MR cholangiography: advantages and pitfalls in perioperative evaluation of biliary tree  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in imaging technology have enabled CT and MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to provide minimally invasive alternatives to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the pre- and post-operative assessment of biliary disease. This article describes anatomical variants of the biliary tree with surgical significance, followed by comparison of CT and MR cholangiographies. Drip infusion cholangiography with CT (DIC-CT) enables high-resolution three-dimensional anatomical representation of very small bile ducts (e.g. aberrant branches, the caudate branch and the cystic duct), which are potential causes of surgical complications. The disadvantages of DIC-CT include the possibility of adverse reactions to biliary contrast media and insufficient depiction of bile ducts caused by liver dysfunction or obstructive jaundice. Conventional MRCP is a standard, non-invasive method for evaluating the biliary tree. MRCP provides useful information, especially regarding the extrahepatic bile ducts and dilated intrahepatic bile ducts. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MRCP may facilitate the evaluation of biliary structure and excretory function. Understanding the characteristics of each type of cholangiography is important to ensure sufficient perioperative evaluation of the biliary system. PMID:22422383

Hyodo, T; Kumano, S; Kushihata, F; Okada, M; Hirata, M; Tsuda, T; Takada, Y; Mochizuki, T; Murakami, T

2012-01-01

64

Advances in the endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Extraction of common bile duct stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography generally involves biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation or a combination of both. Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation after sphincterotomy has increased the safety of large stone extraction. Cholangioscopically directed electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy using single-operator mother-daughter systems or direct peroral cholangioscopy using ultraslim endoscopes are increasingly utilized for the management of refractory stones. In this Review, we focus on advances in endoscopic approaches and techniques, with a special emphasis on management strategies for 'difficult' common bile duct stones. PMID:24860928

Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa A; Attam, Rajeev; Freeman, Martin L

2014-09-01

65

Retained bile duct stones in a patient with Billroth II gastrectomy: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and papillary dilatation via T tube.  

PubMed Central

A postoperative T tube cholangiogram after cholecystectomy in a 62 year old patient showed two retained calculi of 14 mm diameter each. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was not possible because of previous Billroth II gastrectomy. The stones were disintegrated by electromagnetically generated extracorporeal shock waves. The T tube was replaced by a balloon catheter and the papilla of Vater was dilatated allowing passage of stone fragments. We conclude that retained bile duct stones can be removed without sphincterotomy or percutaneous extraction by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and papillary dilatation. This method should be considered especially in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2013432

Nitsche, R; Fölsch, U R

1991-01-01

66

Modern management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

Buxbaum, James

2013-04-01

67

Endoscopic Sphincterotomy with Large Balloon Dilation versus Endoscopic Sphincterotomy for Bile Duct Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The safety and efficacy of endoscopic sphincterotomy with large balloon dilation (EPLBD) are unclear. This study compares the safety and efficacy between EPLBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Patients and Methods. Literatures were searched for randomized controlled trials in PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Outcome measurements included adverse events; stone removal rate; requirement of mechanical lithotripsy. Results. Four RCTs with a total of 596 patients were included. Three RCTs compared EPLBD versus EST alone for stone removal; one RCT compared EPLBD versus EST plus mechanical lithotripsy for stone removal. Pooled data from three RCTs showed that there was no significant difference in the adverse event of ERCP. A significantly higher cholangitis rate was seen in patients who received EST plus mechanical lithotripsy, compared to those treated with EPLBD (13.3% versus 0.0, P = 0.026). No statistical difference was found between EPLBD and EST for stone removal rate. Significant differences in requirement of mechanical lithotripsy were seen with removal of large stones (>15 mm), with EPLBD reducing the use of mechanical lithotripsy (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54–0.99). Conclusions. EPLBD and EST have similar efficacy and safety for bile duct stones clearance. With larger stones, EPLBD can reduce requirement of mechanical lithotripsy. PMID:25756050

Xu, Lei; Kyaw, Moe Htet; Tse, Yee Kit; Lau, James Yun Wong

2015-01-01

68

Bile Duct Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... carry the bile to your small intestine. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a ... liver failure. A rare form of bile duct disease called biliary atresia occurs in infants. It is ...

69

Small sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation vs sphincterotomy alone for removal of common bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary large diameter balloon dilation (EPLBD) following limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and EST alone for removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: We retrospectively compared EST + EPLBD (group A, n = 64) with EST alone (group B, n = 89) for the treatment of large or multiple bile duct stones. The success rate of stone clearance, procedure-related complications and incidents, frequency of mechanical lithotripsy use, and recurrent stones were recorded. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding periampullary diverticula (35.9% vs 34.8%, P > 0.05), pre-cut sphincterotomy (6.3% vs 6.7%, P > 0.05), size (12.1 ± 2.0 mm vs 12.9 ± 2.6 mm, P > 0.05) and number (2.2 ± 1.9 vs 2.4 ± 2.1, P > 0.05) of stones or the diameters of CBD (15.1 ± 3.3 mm vs 15.4 ± 3.6 mm, P > 0.05). The rates of overall stone removal and stone removal in the first session were not significantly different between the two groups [62/64 (96.9%) vs 84/89 (94.4%), P > 0.05; and 58/64 (90.6%) vs 79/89 (88.8%), P > 0.05, respectively]. The rates of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia were not significantly different between the two groups [3/64 (4.7%) vs 4/89 (4.5%), P > 0.05; 7/64 (10.9%) vs 9/89 (10.1%), P > 0.05, respectively]. There were no cases of perforation, acute cholangitis, or cholecystitis in the two groups. The rate of bleeding and the recurrence of CBD stones were significantly lower in group A than in group B [1/64 (1.6%) vs 5/89 (5.6%), P < 0.05; 1/64 (1.6%) vs 6/89 (6.7%), P < 0.05, respectively]. CONCLUSION: EST + EPLBD is an effective and safe endoscopic approach for removing large or multiple CBD stones. PMID:25548495

Guo, Shi-Bin; Meng, Hua; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Li, Chun-Yan

2014-01-01

70

Biliary cysts.  

PubMed Central

This review brings the total number of biliary cysts reported in the world literature to 955. Eighty-one per cent of patients are females and 61% were discovered before age ten. The classical triad of right upper quadrant pain, right upper quandrant mass, and juandice is present in 38% of cases. The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis ranged from less than one week to more than 40 years. The etiology is multifaceted and evidence of the existence of both acquired and congenital cysts is presented. The most useful diagnostic tool is fiberoptic endoscopy with retrograde contrast injection of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. The incidence of biliary carcinoma in patients with biliary cysts is found to be 2.5%; 24 cases have been reported. Considerable controversy has existed concerning the best operative procedure for biliary cysts; no treatment or medical treatment yielding a 97% mortality rate. In an analysis of 235 patients presented since 1968 with an average followup of 5.2 years, the best procedure appears to be excision with either choledochocholedocostomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The operative mortality for all procedures is now 3 to 4%. PMID:1103760

Flanigan, P D

1975-01-01

71

Obstructive Biliary Tract Disease  

PubMed Central

The techniques that have come into general use for diagnosing problems of obstructive jaundice, particularly in the past ten years, have been ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging, transhepatic percutaneous cholangiography using a long thin needle, transhepatic percutaneous drainage for obstructive jaundice due to malignancy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the papilla (ERCP), endoscopic sphincterotomy and choledochoscopy. It is helpful to review obstructive jaundice due to gallstones from a clinical point of view and the use of the directable stone basket for the retrieval of retained stones, choledochoscopy for the same purpose using the rigid versus flexible choledochoscopes and dissolution of stones using various fluids through a T tube. The use of dilation of the sphincter for the treatment of stenosis or stricture of the bile duct is now frowned on; rather, treatment choices are between the use of sphincteroplasty versus choledochoduodenostomy and choledochojejunostomy. Any patient with obstructive jaundice or anyone undergoing manipulation of the bile ducts should have prophylactic antibiotic therapy. The current literature regarding treatment of cancer of the bile ducts is principally devoted to the new ideas relative to treatment of tumors of the upper third, especially the bifurcation tumors that are now being resected rather than bypassed. Tumors of the distal bile duct are still being resected by focal operations. Finally, it is now felt that early operation for congenital biliary atresia and choledochal cysts gives the best prognosis, with preoperative diagnosis now possible with the use of ultrasonography and ERCP. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:7051569

White, Thomas Taylor

1982-01-01

72

Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

2013-01-01

73

Twenty-Second versus Sixty-Second Dilation Duration in Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for the Treatment of Small Common Bile Duct Stones: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) has been advocated as an alternative therapy to endoscopic sphincterotomy for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, there is no established consensus on the optimal balloon dilation duration (BDD). We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complications between the 20- and 60-second EPBD groups. Methods A total of 228 patients with small CBD stones (?12 mm) were randomly assigned to undergo EPBD with a 20- or 60-second duration at six institutions. We evaluated baseline patient characteristics, endoscopic data, clinical outcomes, and procedure-related complications. In addition, we analyzed risk factors for postprocedural pancreatitis. Results CBD stones were removed successfully in 107 of 109 patients (98.1%) in the 20-second group and in 112 of 119 patients (94.1%) in the 60-second group (p=0.146). Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in seven patients (6.4%) in the 20-second group and nine patients (7.5%) in the 60-second group (p=0.408). In multivariate analysis, contrast dye injection into the pancreatic duct is a significant risk factor for post-EPBD pancreatitis. Conclusions Based on the data showing that there were no significant differences in safety and efficacy between the two BDD groups, 20 seconds of BDD may be adequate for treatment of small CBD stones with EPBD. PMID:25674528

Bang, Byoung Wook; Lee, Tae Hoon; Song, Tae Jun; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Kwon, Chang-Il

2015-01-01

74

Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a brief report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Biliary Tract Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (BT-IPMN) is a very rare entity, gradually emerging into attention as sporadic cases are being reported worldwide. In this brief report we discuss about such an entity from our part of the world, based on a case from our institution. A 47-year-old female was referred to our department with jaundice, intermittent fever with chills and rigor of 6 weeks duration. Initial evaluation revealed obstructive jaundice with distended gall bladder. Imaging with ultrasonogram (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hugely dilated intra and extrahepatic biliary radicles with multiple and diffuse soft tissue lesions filling the common bile duct (CBD) extending to the ductal system of left lobe of liver. A side viewing endoscopy demonstrated mucin extruding from a prominent ampulla of Vater. The patient was managed successfully by left hepatectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy (HPD). Gross pathological examination of the specimen showed marked dilatation of intra and extra hepatic bile ducts with multiple polypoidal lesions and plenty of mucin filling the entire biliary ductal system. Histopathology revealed predominantly intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma at the hilum extending to left bile duct with diffuse dysplastic changes throughout the biliary tree. Thus the clinical, radiological and pathological features of this lesion clearly fit into the diagnosis of BT-IPMN, which is slowly being established as a definite clinical entity with features much similar to its pancreatic counterpart. PMID:25308012

Subhash, Raveendran; Valiyaveettil, Iyoob Ali; Natesh, Bonny; Raji, Laila

2014-01-01

75

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct developing in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis: A case report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) that developed in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with obstructive jaundice. The liver function tests demonstrated increased serum liver enzyme levels. Computed tomography showed dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a highly echoic protruding lesion in the posterior bile duct near the right lobe of the liver. The lesion was suspected to be IPNB, but we were unable to confirm whether it was a carcinoma. A right hepatectomy was performed, and this showed that the dilated bile duct was filled with mucin and contained several yellowish papillary tumors. Histologically, the neoplastic biliary epithelium showed papillary growth in the dilated lumen. The tumor was diagnosed as IPNB, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia secreting abundant mucin. No recurrence has been detected 3 years after surgery. PMID:25400480

Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kita, Junji; Shiraki, Takayuki; Iso, Yukihiro; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kubota, Keiichi

2014-01-01

76

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct developing in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) that developed in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with obstructive jaundice. The liver function tests demonstrated increased serum liver enzyme levels. Computed tomography showed dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a highly echoic protruding lesion in the posterior bile duct near the right lobe of the liver. The lesion was suspected to be IPNB, but we were unable to confirm whether it was a carcinoma. A right hepatectomy was performed, and this showed that the dilated bile duct was filled with mucin and contained several yellowish papillary tumors. Histologically, the neoplastic biliary epithelium showed papillary growth in the dilated lumen. The tumor was diagnosed as IPNB, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia secreting abundant mucin. No recurrence has been detected 3 years after surgery. PMID:25400480

Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kita, Junji; Shiraki, Takayuki; Iso, Yukihiro; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kubota, Keiichi

2014-11-14

77

How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

2010-01-01

78

Interval Biliary Stent Placement Via Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystostomy: Another Approach to Palliative Treatment in Malignant Biliary Tract Obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure for providing gallbladder decompression, often in critically ill patients. It can be used in malignant biliary obstruction following failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography when the intrahepatic ducts are not dilated or when stent insertion is not possible via the bile ducts. In properly selected patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy in obstructive jaundice is a simple, safe, and rapid option for biliary decompression, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality involved with percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Subsequent use of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for definitive biliary stent placement is an attractive concept and leaves patients with no external drain. To the best of our knowledge, it has only been described on three previous occasions in the published literature, on each occasion forced by surgical or technical considerations. Traditionally, anatomic/technical considerations and the risk of bile leak have precluded such an approach, but improvements in catheter design and manufacture may now make it more feasible. We report a case of successful interval metal stent placement via percutaneous cholecystostomy which was preplanned and achieved excellent palliation for the patient. The pros and cons of the procedure and approach are discussed.

Harding, James, E-mail: drjames.harding@btinternet.com; Mortimer, Alex [North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Kelly, Michael [North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay Hospital, Department of General Surgery (United Kingdom); Loveday, Eric [North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2010-12-15

79

Iatrogenic Biliary Injuries: Multidisciplinary Management in a Major Tertiary Referral Center  

PubMed Central

Background. Iatrogenic biliary injuries are considered as the most serious complications during cholecystectomy. Better outcomes of such injuries have been shown in cases managed in a specialized center. Objective. To evaluate biliary injuries management in major referral hepatobiliary center. Patients & Methods. Four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy biliary injuries were managed with multidisciplinary team (hepatobiliary surgeon, gastroenterologist, and radiologist) at major Hepatobiliary Center in Egypt over 10-year period using endoscopy in 232 patients, percutaneous techniques in 42 patients, and surgery in 198 patients. Results. Endoscopy was very successful initial treatment of 232 patients (49%) with mild/moderate biliary leakage (68%) and biliary stricture (47%) with increased success by addition of percutaneous (Rendezvous technique) in 18 patients (3.8%). However, surgery was needed in 198 patients (42%) for major duct transection, ligation, major leakage, and massive stricture. Surgery was urgent in 62 patients and elective in 136 patients. Hepaticojejunostomy was done in most of cases with transanastomotic stents. There was one mortality after surgery due to biliary sepsis and postoperative stricture in 3 cases (1.5%) treated with percutaneous dilation and stenting. Conclusion. Management of biliary injuries was much better with multidisciplinary care team with initial minimal invasive technique to major surgery in major complex injury encouraging early referral to highly specialized hepatobiliary center. PMID:25435672

Salama, Ibrahim Abdelkader; Shoreem, Hany Abdelmeged; Saleh, Sherif Mohamed; Hegazy, Osama; Housseni, Mohamed; Abbasy, Mohamed; Badra, Gamal; Ibrahim, Tarek

2014-01-01

80

A case of cholecystohepatic duct with atrophic common hepatic duct  

PubMed Central

Background Cholecystohepatic ducts are rare congenital variants of the biliary tree. Case outline An 81-year-old woman presented with biliary colic and elevated liver function tests. An ERCP demonstrated a common bile duct stone and stricture of the common hepatic duct. An operative cholangiogram demonstrated an atrophic common hepatic duct and retrograde filling of the gallbladder through a large cholecystoheptic duct. The patient had a cholecystectomy and reconstructive cholecystohepatic duct jejunostomy. Discussion This case demonstrates a rare congenital anomaly where the gallbladder fills retrograde during an intraoperative cholangiogram despite clipping of the cystic duct. The major path of biliary drainage was through a large cholecystoheptic duct similar to a gallbladder interposition; however, the common hepatic duct was still present but atrophic. This anomaly has not been described previously. PMID:18332999

Schofield, A; Hankins, J

2003-01-01

81

Intraductal Papillary Neoplasms of the Bile Duct  

PubMed Central

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. IPNBs display a spectrum of premalignant lesion towards invasive cholangiocarcinoma. The most common radiologic findings for IPNB are bile duct dilatation and intraductal masses. The major treatment of IPNB is surgical resection. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance image, and cholangiography are usually performed to assess tumor location and extension. Cholangioscopy can confirm the histology and assess the extent of the tumor including superficial spreading along the biliary epithelium. However, pathologic diagnosis by preoperative biopsy cannot always reflect the maximum degree of atypia, because IPNBs are often composed of varying degrees of cytoarchitectural atypia. IPNBs are microscopically classified into four epithelial subtypes, such as pancreatobiliary, intestinal, gastric, and oncocytic types. Most cases of IPNB are IPN with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or with an associated invasive carcinoma. The histologic types of invasive lesions are either tubular adenocarcinoma or mucinous carcinoma. Although several authors have investigated molecular genetic changes during the development and progression of IPNB, these are still poorly characterized and controversial. PMID:24949206

Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kato, Atsushi; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sakai, Yuji; Yokosuka, Osamu

2014-01-01

82

Deep Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes Revealed GNAS Mutations to Be Associated with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Its Main Pancreatic Duct Dilation  

PubMed Central

Background To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues. Methods Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer. Results Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n?=?3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p?=?0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN. Conclusions The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion. PMID:24897499

Takano, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Maekawa, Shinya; Kadokura, Makoto; Miura, Mika; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

2014-01-01

83

[Carcinoma of the biliary tract].  

PubMed

Six problems were pointed out in General Rules for Surgical Studies on Cancer of Biliary Tract; division of extrahepatic bile duct and papilla of Vater, definition of carcinoma of the bile duct, gallbladder and papilla of Vater, classification of the lymphnodes, macroscopic classification of cancer of the biliary tract, tumor size and staging, pathological rules. Furthermore, in 15 cases of the gallbladder carcinoma and 21 cases of the bile duct carcinoma, the correlation between the prognosis and the histological findings of cancer invasion to the wall or of lymphnode metastasis was evaluated. PMID:3783969

Miyazaki, I; Konishi, I; Nagakawa, T

1986-08-01

84

Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: Report of 19 cases  

PubMed Central

AIM: To gain a better understanding of biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BT-IPMN). METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2013, 19 cases of BT-IPMN were retrospectively identified from a total of 343 biliary tract tumors resected in our single institution. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, pathology, surgical strategies, and long-term follow-up were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the 19 BT-IPMN cases was 53.8 years (range: 25-74 years). The most common symptom was abdominal pain (15/19; 78.9%), followed by jaundice (7/19; 36.8%). Cholangitis was associated with most (16/19; 84.2%) of the BT-IPMN cases. Macroscopically visible mucin was detected in all 19 patients, based on original surgical reports. The most common abnormal preoperative imaging findings for BT-IPMN were bile duct dilation (19/19; 100%) and intraluminal masses (10/19; 52.6%). Thirteen (68.4%) cases involved the intrahepatic bile duct and hilum. We performed left hepatectomy in 11/19 (57.9%), right hepatectomy in 2/19 (10.5%), bile duct resection in 4/19 (21.1%), and pancreatoduodenectomy in 1/19 (5.3%) patients. One (5.3%) patient was biopsied and received a choledochojejunostomy because of multiple tumors involving the right extrahepatic and left intrahepatic bile ducts. Histology showed malignancy in 10/19 (52.6%) patients. The overall median survival was 68 mo. The benign cases showed a non-significant trend towards improved survival compared to malignant cases (68 mo vs 48 mo, P = 0.347). The patient without tumor resection died of liver failure 22 mo after palliative surgery. CONCLUSION: BT-IPMN is a rare biliary entity. Complete resection of the tumor is associated with good survival, even in patients with malignant disease.

Wang, Xing; Cai, Yun-Qiang; Chen, Yong-Hua; Liu, Xu-Bao

2015-01-01

85

FDG PET/CT findings of common bile duct tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Common bile duct (CBD) tuberculosis is rare. A 39-year-old woman was referred because of a 5-month history of abdominal pain. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed dilatation of the distal CBD with irregularly thickened wall. Enhanced CT revealed enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake of the CBD lesion and several retroperitoneal lymph nodes with slight FDG uptake. CBD cholangiocarcinoma with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis was suspected. CBD tuberculosis was confirmed by endoluminal biopsy. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal biliary FDG accumulation, particularly in tuberculosis endemic areas. PMID:23579971

Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Gong, Jing; Zuo, Changjing

2014-01-01

86

Endoscopic management of bile duct stones: residual bile duct stones after surgery, cholangitis, and "difficult stones".  

PubMed

Endoscopic treatment has become, according to the latest recommendations, the standard treatment for common bile duct stones (CBDS), although in certain situations, surgical clearance of the common duct at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still considered a possible alternative. The purpose of this article is not to compare endoscopic with surgical treatment of CBDS, but to describe the various techniques of endoscopic treatment, detailing their preferential indications and the various treatment options that must sometimes be considered when faced with "difficult calculi" of the CBD. The different techniques of lithotripsy and the role of biliary drainage with plastic or metallic stents will be detailed as well as papillary balloon dilatation and particularly the technique of sphincterotomy with macrodilatation of the sphincter of Oddi (SMSO), a recently described approach that has changed the strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS. Finally, the overall strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS, with description of different techniques, will be exposed. PMID:23817008

Karsenti, D

2013-06-01

87

[Biliary colic: imaging diagnosis].  

PubMed

Biliary colic is the most common clinical presentation of symptomatic gallstone disease, whatever its localisation (cholelithiasis or choledocolithiasis). The pain of biliary colic is unfortunately called "colic", a word suggesting paroxystic bouts and usually described as localised in the right upper quadrant. In fact, biliary pain is most frequently epigastric in location, usually starts abruptly to generally persists without fluctuation and resolve gradually over two to four hours. Biliary lithiasis has a high prevalence in the population, especially in elderly women but only 20% of the patients are symptomatic and among them, only 10 to 20% experience severe pain. Misdiagnosis is frequent with potential disastrous implications, especially with other causes of epigastric pain (atypical myocardial ischemia, perforated ulcer, etc.). Non invasive imaging of the biliary tract is now generally easy to obtain; abdominal ultrasound for gallbladder stones and magnetic resonance cholangiography for the main bile duct and the intrahepatic bile ducts. But, for gallbladder stones, the greatest care must be taken by the radiologist to link up the symptomatology and the cholelithiasis. Precise description of the abdominal pain (nature, intensity, location, duration, irradiation...) is needed and must be searched by the radiologist to prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:16691173

Régent, D; Laurent, V; Meyer-Bisch, L; Barbary-Lefèvre, C; Corby-Ciprian, S; Mathias, J

2006-04-01

88

A Multicenter, Prospective Study of a New Fully Covered Expandable Metal Biliary Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Malignant Bile Duct Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aims. Endoscopic placement of self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) is indicated for palliation of inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. A fully covered biliary SEMS (WallFlex Biliary RX Boston Scientific, Natick, USA) was assessed for palliation of extrahepatic malignant biliary obstruction. Patients and Methods. 58 patients were included in this prospective, multicenter series conducted under an FDA-approved IDE. Main outcome measurements included (1) absence of stent occlusion within six months or until death, whichever occurred first and (2) technical success, need for reintervention, bilirubin levels, stent patency, time to stent occlusion, and adverse events. Results. Technical success was achieved in 98% (57/58), with demonstrated acute removability in two patients. Adequate clinical palliation until completion of followup was achievedin 98% (54/55) of evaluable patients, with 1 reintervention due to stent obstruction after 142 days. Mean total bilirubin decreased from 8.9?mg/dL to 1.2?mg/dL at 1 month. Device-related adverse events were limited and included 2 cases of cholecystitis. One stent migrated following radiation therapy. Conclusions. The WallFlex Biliary fully covered stent yielded technically successful placement with uncomplicated acute removal where required, appropriate reduction in bilirubin levels, and low rates of stent migration and occlusion. This SEMS allows successful palliation of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction. PMID:23606835

Petersen, Bret T.; Kahaleh, Michel; Kozarek, Richard A.; Loren, David; Gupta, Kapil; Kowalski, Thomas; Freeman, Martin; Chen, Yang K.; Branch, Malcolm S.; Edmundowicz, Steven; Gluck, Michael; Binmoeller, Kenneth; Baron, Todd H.; Shah, Raj J.; Kinney, Timothy; Ross, William; Jowell, Paul; Carr-Locke, David

2013-01-01

89

Hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage as palliative treatment for proximal malignant obstructive jaundice.  

PubMed

The proximal malignant obstructive jaundice remains one of the most challenging problems for hepato-biliary surgeons. Particularly when the findings preclude surgical resection at exploration, the next decision seems hard to make. A novel palliative treatment called "hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage" was designed for these proximal malignant obstructive jaundice patients. Hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage was performed with silicone tube whose diameter was determined according to the degree of dilated biliary ducts, and the proximal end of the tube was placed to intrahepatic ducts as far as possible, the distal end was placed across the duodenal papilla. Between February 2011 and August 2012, 23 patients with the proximal malignant obstructive jaundice of unresectable tumors at exploration received hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage. Patient's liver function results, symptoms, complications, and survival time were documented. The bilirubin levels of all 23 patients had a considerable and persistent decrease after operation and remained low or normal before death except for four cases of recurrent jaundice (two resulted from migration of tube and other two resulted from hepatocellular carcinoma extensively involving liver parenchyma). After effective drainage, clinical symptoms of cholangitis such as fever or pain were markedly relieved. No procedure-related bleeding, bile leakage, pancreatitis were observed. The median survival time was 212 days, half-year and 1-year survival rate were 56.5 and 21.7%, respectively. Hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage with less expense, less complications, and easy operation may be an ideal option for patients with unresectable malignancy in the hilar region at exploration. PMID:24464214

Pan, Hao; Liang, Zhang; Yin, Tian-sheng; Xie, Yan; Li, De-wei

2014-03-01

90

Biliary Atresia  

MedlinePLUS

... likely has multiple causes, though none are yet proven. Biliary atresia is not an inherited disease, meaning ... likely has multiple causes, though none is yet proven. No single test can definitively diagnose biliary atresia, ...

91

Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses.

Tidmore, H.; Ram, M.D.

1985-03-01

92

Pneumoperitoneum Caused by Transhepatic Air Leak After Metallic Biliary Stent Placement  

SciTech Connect

A self-expanding metallic biliary stent was placed for palliation of a common bile duct obstruction in a 68-year-old male with unresectable pancreatic head cancer 3 days after initial percutaneous right transhepatic catheter decompression. The stent crossed the ampulla of Vater. Three days later, the stent was balloon-dilated and the percutaneous access was removed. At removal, a small contrast leak from the transhepatic tract was seen. Three days later, pneumoperitoneum was found with symptoms of peritoneal irritation and fever. A widely open sphincter of Oddi caused by the metallic stent, accompanied by delayed sealing of the transhepatic tract, may have caused the air and bile leakage into the peritoneal space. This case shows that pneumoperitoneum may occur without ductal tear or bowel injury, with a biliary stent crossing the ampulla of Vater.

Lee, Jei Hee; Lee, Deok Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Joon [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Ki Whang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of)

2000-11-15

93

Biliary disease in pregnancy: strategy for surgical management.  

PubMed

Acute biliary tract disease complicated intrauterine pregnancy in 26 patients seen during a 5 year period. Biliary symptoms were distinct and occurred during the first trimester in 7 patients, the second trimester in 5 patients, the third trimester in 12 patients, and in two early postpartum patients. Nine patients had marked hyperamylasemia which resolved with medical management, and no severe cases of pancreatitis occurred. Ultrasonography was used to confirm the presence of gallstones in 18 patients and demonstrated dilated intrahepatic ducts in one of two patients with surgically proved choledocholithiasis. Nineteen patients had cholecystectomy and cholangiography, and 4 had common bile duct explorations. Only two of seven patients who presented in the first trimester had term pregnancy. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis in pregnancy by ultrasonography is accurate and reliable. The risk to the fetus of radionuclide scanning and conventional radiography is not justified. Secondary hyperamylasemia is common but responds to conservative therapy. Operation may be delayed until delivery in most patients, with urgent exploration reserved for uncertainty in diagnosis, choledocholithiasis, or acute cholecystitis that does not resolve with medical measures. PMID:3511761

Hiatt, J R; Hiatt, J C; Williams, R A; Klein, S R

1986-02-01

94

Feasibility and safety of using Soehendra stent retriever as a new technique for biliary access in endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the feasibility and safety of the use of soehendra stent retriever as a new technique for biliary access in endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage. METHODS: The medical records and endoscopic reports of the patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) owing to failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in our institute between June 2011 and January 2014 were collected and reviewed. All the procedures were performed in the endoscopic suite under intravenous sedation with propofol and full anaesthetic monitoring. Then we used the Soehendra stent retriever as new equipment for neo-tract creation and dilation when performing EUS-BD procedures. The patients were observed in the recovery room for 1-2 h and transferred to the regular ward, patients’ clinical data were reviewed and analysed, clinical outcomes were defined by using several different criteria. Data were analysed by using SPSS 13 and presented as percentages, means, and medians. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients were enrolled. The most common indications for EUS-BD in this series were failed common bile duct cannulation, duodenal obstruction, failed selective intrahepatic duct cannulation, and surgical altered anatomy for 50%, 25%, 16.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Seven patients underwent EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy (58.3%), and 5 underwent EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (41.7%). The technical success rate was 100%, while the clinical success rate was 91.7%. Major and minor complications occurred in 16.6% and 33.3% of patients, respectively, but there were no procedure-related death. CONCLUSION: Soehendra stent retriever could be used as an alternative instrument for biliary access in endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary drainage.

Prachayakul, Varayu; Aswakul, Pitulak

2015-01-01

95

Postcholecystectomy syndrome: evaluation using biliary scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively studied 30 patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome to determine the efficacy of biliary scintigraphy in the detection of stenosis of the sphincter of Oddi. All patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Biliary scintigraphy disclosed stenosis of the sphincter by agreement with the ERCP or surgical findings in nine (90%) of ten patients and in eight (100%) of eight patients with biliary obstruction from other causes. Retention of activity at 2 hours in visually prominent ducts was the best predictor of abnormal biliary drainage. Biliary scintigraphy is a useful, noninvasive screening test for the detection of postcholecystectomy biliary obstruction.

Zeman, R.K.; Burrell, M.I.; Dobbins, J.; Jaffe, M.K.; Choyke, P.L.

1985-09-01

96

Percutaneous Transhepatic Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Intrahepatic and Choledochal Biliary Stones  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-{mu}m holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. Results: All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive 'balloon push' (n = 4) and 'rendezvous' (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Conclusion: Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Kleinmann, Nir [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Urology, Section of Endourology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel); Winkler, Harry [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Urology, Section of Endourology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the 'Sackler' School of Medicine (Israel)

2011-12-15

97

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract  

SciTech Connect

Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

1981-01-01

98

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for biliary anastomotic strictures after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In most cases, an anastomosis of the bile duct is performed as a duct-to-duct reconstruction, which makes endoscopic therapy with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) feasible. Biliary anastomotic strictures (AS) are the most common cause of biliary complications. The early detection of an AS, which can sometimes be challenging given that its clinical presentation is often subtle, is of key importance to obtain high treatment success. In this review, we focus on the management of AS after LT with a special emphasis on ERC. PMID:25438291

Fernández-Simon, Alejandro; Díaz-Gonzalez, Alvaro; Thuluvath, Paul J; Cárdenas, Andrés

2014-11-01

99

Hepatectomy with primary closure of common bile duct for hepatolithiasis combined with choledocholithiasis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of hepatectomy and primary closure of common bile duct for intrahepatic and extrahepatic calculi. METHODS: From January 2008 to May 2013, anatomic hepatectomy followed by biliary tract exploration without biliary drainage (non-drainage group) was performed in 43 patients with intrahepatic and extrahepatic calculi. After hepatectomy, flexible choledochoscopy was used to extract residual stones and observe the intrahepatic bile duct and common bile duct (CBD) for determination of biliary stricture and dilatation. Function of the sphincter of Oddi was determined by manometry of the CBD. Primary closure of the CBD without T-tube drainage or bilioenteric anastomosis was performed when there was no biliary stricture or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Dexamethasone and anisodamine were intravenously injected 2-3 d after surgery to prevent postoperative retrograde infection due to intraoperative bile duct irrigation, and to maintain relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, respectively. During the same period, anatomic hepatectomy followed by biliary tract exploration with biliary drainage (drainage group) was performed in 48 patients as the control group. Postoperative complications and hospital stay were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no operative mortality in either group of patients. Compared to intrahepatic and extrabiliary drainage, hepatectomy with primary closure of the CBD (non-drainage) did not increase the incidence of complications, including residual stones, bile leakage, pancreatitis and cholangitis (P > 0.05). Postoperative hospital stay and costs were nevertheless significantly less in the non-drainage group than in the drainage group. The median postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the non-drainage group than in the drainage group (11.2 ± 2.8 d vs 15.4 ± 2.1 d, P = 0.000). The average postoperative cost of treatment was lower in the non-drainage group than in the drainage group (29325.6 ± 5668.2 yuan vs 32933.3 ± 6235.1 yuan, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy followed by choledochoendoscopic stone extraction without biliary drainage is a safe and effective treatment of hepatolithiasis combined with choledocholithiasis. PMID:25834321

Jia, Chang-Ku; Weng, Jie; Chen, You-Ke; Yang, Qing-Zhuang; Fu, Yu; Qin, Qi-Fan; Yu, Wei-Ming

2015-01-01

100

Newly Designed Y-configured Single-Catheter Stenting for the Treatment of Hilar-Type Nonanastomotic Biliary Strictures After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to introduce our novel technique of percutaneous single catheter placement into the hilar bile ducts strictures while fulfilling the purpose of bilateral biliary drainage and stenting. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the technique for the treatment of hilar nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Methods: Ten patients who were post-orthotopic liver transplantation between July 2000 and July 2010 were enrolled in this study. Percutaneous Y-configured single-catheter stenting for bilateral bile ducts combined with balloon dilation was designed as the main treatment approach. Technical success rate, clinical indicators, complications, and recurrent rate were analyzed. Results: Technical success rate was 100%. Nine of the ten patients had biochemical normalization, cholangiographic improvement, and clinical symptoms relief. None of them experienced recurrence in a median follow-up of 26 months after completion of therapy and removal of all catheters. Complications were minor and limited to two patients. The one treatment failure underwent a second liver transplantation but died of multiple system organ failure. Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic Y-configured single-catheter stenting into the hilar bile ducts is technically feasible. The preliminary trial of this technique combined with traditional PTCD or choledochoscopy for the treatment of hilar biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation appeared to be effective and safe. Yet, further investigation is needed.

Wang Changming; Li Xuan, E-mail: lixuanbysy@163.com [Peking University Third Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery (China); Song Shibing [Peking University Third Hospital, Department of General Surgery (China); Lv Xianjun; Luan Jingyuan; Dong Guoxiang [Peking University Third Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery (China)

2012-02-15

101

Bile duct cyst in adults: Interventional treatment, resection, or transplantation?  

PubMed Central

Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s) can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and variable types of hepatic resection. However, the diffuse forms of Todani type V cysts (Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome) in particular remain a therapeutic problem, and liver transplantation has become an important option. The mainstay of interventional treatment for Todani type III bile duct cysts is via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnostic term “bile duct cyst” comprises quite different pathological and clinical entities. Interventional therapy, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation all have their place in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease group. They should not be seen as competitive treatment modalities, but as complementary options. Each patient should receive individualized treatment after all of the clinical findings have been considered by an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23983423

Cerwenka, Herwig

2013-01-01

102

A case of small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct.  

PubMed

Small cell carcinoma occasionally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, but rarely in the biliary tract. We report a case of small cell carcinoma which occurred in the common bile duct. A 66-year-old female complained of epigastralgia and weight loss. Computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a mass near the pancreas head and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage was undertaken, and it revealed obstruction of the common bile duct. The patient was diagnosed preoperatively as having extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Upon laparotomy, a tumor was found to be located in the middle common bile duct. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The main trunk of the portal vein and the right hepatic artery were resected concomitantly because of tumor involvement. Postoperative pathological examination revealed well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma on the surface of the bile duct lumen, but a large part of the extraductal component was small cell carcinoma. Upon immunohistochemical examination, synaptophysin and chromogranin A were found to be focally positive in small cell carcinoma, but negative for L-26 and CEA. The patient then underwent two postoperative courses of systemic chemotherapy. Nevertheless, she died of cancer recurrence eight months after the operation, which showed that the tumor had a highly lethal nature, with rapid and widespread dissemination. Further therapeutic trials are needed to improve survival in such cases. PMID:15816436

Kaiho, Takashi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Shunichi; Yanagisawa, Shinji; Takeuchi, Osamu; Miura, Masami; Saigusa, Naoki; Hayasaka, Akira; Matsuzaki, Osamu; Miyazaki, Masaru

2005-01-01

103

[Ascariasis of the common bile duct. An ultrasonographic case in Yemen].  

PubMed

A case of a biliary ascariasis associated with a cystic bile duct lithiasis observed in the French Medical Mission of the Republic of Yemen is reported. Ascaris biliary migration, method of diagnosis, complications and treatment are reviewed. PMID:8360862

Trotta, P; Belin, X; Mahyub, A; Melki, P; Hélénon, O; Viallard, Y

1993-01-01

104

Management of Benign Biliary Strictures  

SciTech Connect

Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F. [Department of Radiology, South ManchesterUniversity Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)

2002-12-15

105

The hedgehog pathway regulates remodelling responses to biliary obstruction in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic biliary obstruction provokes fibrosis and accumulation of immature ductular cells. This fibroductular reaction resolves following biliary decom- pression, suggesting that it may also be involved in the repair of biliary damage. The hedgehog (Hh) pathway becomes activated in liver after bile duct ligation (BDL), and might modulate hepatic remodelling because Hh ligands are potent morphogens. Objective: To study

A Omenetti; Y Popov; Y Jung; S S Choi; R P Witek; L Yang; K D Brown; D Schuppan; A M Diehl

2008-01-01

106

Complicated bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

2013-01-01

107

Total Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Cholangiojejunostomy for the Treatment of Biliary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (RCJS) has been widely used in biliary bypass surgeries, but in most reported literature, an assisted mini-incision was needed, and studies reporting total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (TLRCJS) are rare. The goal of this study was to investigate how to treat hepatic portal bile duct diseases and perform jejunojejunostomy and cholangiojejunostomy totally laparoscopically. We evaluated the feasibility of TLRCJS in treating biliary tract diseases. Methods: TLRCJS were performed in 103 patients from January 2000 to August 2011. There were 28 cases of recurrent choledocholithiasis combined with stricture of the common bile duct (CBD) after several stone extractions, 3 patients with iatrogenic bile duct injury, 24 patients with choledochal cyst, 36 patients with hepatic portal cholangiocarcinoma, and 12 patients with cancer of the pancreatic head and periampullary cancer. All surgeries were performed through 5 trocars. First, laparoscopic surgery on the CBD was performed according to the original disease. The CBD was opened and stones were extracted in choledocholithiasis patients. In iatrogenic injury patients, strictured CBD was resected and repaired. Dilated CBD or choledochal cyst with tumor was transected. In patients with malignant jaundice, the CBD was opened longitudinally. At the same time, the bile duct was prepared for cholangiojejunostomy. Second, the positions of the laparoscope and surgeons were altered. The jejunal mesentery and jejunum were transected, and side-to-side jejunojejunostomy (JJS) was performed. The laparoscope and surgeon positions were exchanged again; the Roux-en-Y biliary limb was lifted close to the residual bile duct; and side-to-side or end-to-side choledochojejunostomy (CJS) was performed. Finally, an abdominal drainage tube was placed. Results: All the surgeries were performed successfully. The diameter of the residual bile duct ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 cm (average, 0.9 cm). Three patients had postoperative bile leakage and were treated from 1 week to approximately 1 month with abdominal drainage. Postoperative intraperitoneal hemorrhage and stress ulcer of the stomach occurred in 2 patients with biliary tract injury combined with obstructive jaundice. One with intraperitoneal hemorrhage was cured by another laparoscopic surgery. The other patient was cured after 2 days of abdominal drainage, antacids, and hemostatic drug therapy. The follow-up duration of 95 patients was 4 to 93 months (average, 48.3 months). The follow-up rate was 92.2% (95/103). Patients with cancer died of metastasis or cachexia during 14-month follow-up with no postoperative complication. Reflux cholangitis occurred in 3 patients 2, 3, and 5 years after the operation, respectively. No anastomotic stricture or other complication was found in other patients during the follow-up. Conclusions: TLRCJS is the best and first choice for patients with biliary tract diseases that need biliary-jejunal anastomosis. But it is essential that the surgeon has proficiency in laparoscopic surgeries. PMID:23815976

Zhu, Andong; Zhang, Zhibo

2013-01-01

108

Iatrogenic biliary injuries: identification, classification, and management.  

PubMed

Because it offers several advantages over open cholecystectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has largely replaced open cholecystectomy for the management of symptomatic gallstone disease. The only potential disadvantage is a higher incidence of major bile duct injury. Although prevention of these biliary injuries is ideal, when they do occur, early identification and appropriate treatment are critical to improving the outcomes of patients suffering a major bile duct injury. This report delineates the key factors in classification (and its relationship to mechanism and management), identification (intraoperative and postoperative), and management principles of these bile duct injuries. PMID:24679422

Stewart, Lygia

2014-04-01

109

Biliary papillomatosis with the point mutation of K-ras gene arising in congenital choledochal cyst.  

PubMed

Biliary papillomatosis is a rare entity. A case of biliary papillomatosis associated with congenital choledochal cyst and intrahepatic gallstones is reported here. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy revealed multiple papillary lesions of the right intrahepatic duct and the common bile duct. Microscopically, the papillary mucosal lesion showed papillary proliferations of bile duct epithelial cells with mild atypia. Furthermore, a point mutation at codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene was found in the papillary lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of biliary papillomatosis arising in congenital choledochal cyst. Although the pathogenesis of biliary papillomatosis in our case was unclear, biliary irritation associated with choledochal cyst may be related to biliary papillomatosis with point mutation at codon 12 of K-ras gene. PMID:8405868

Ohta, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamakawa, O; Watanabe, H; Satomura, Y; Motoo, Y; Okai, T; Terada, T; Sawabu, N

1993-10-01

110

Filling Defect on ERCP: Biliary Cystadenoma, a Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Biliary cystadenomas are rare tumors of the bile ducts most commonly presenting as large right liver lobe lesions. These are usually slow-growing and mostly benign. They commonly present with abdominal pain. On physical exam an abdominal mass can be identified occasionally. Walls of biliary cystadenomas appear thicker than simple cysts, with soft tissue nodules and enhancing septations on CT or MRI. Radiographic images can vary with the amount of protein content in the fluid on CT or MRI. Due to the risk of malignant transformation, complete surgical resection is advised. Hereby, we describe a 37-year-old lady who presented to the outpatient clinic with bloating and abdominal discomfort with intermittent elevated liver enzymes and hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts followed by CT scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts. It was seen as a filling defect of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts (common hepatic duct) on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Involvement of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts simultaneously is a rare presentation of this tumor. She later on underwent exploratory laparotomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, left hepatic lobe resection and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. Pathology confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma with ovarian-like stroma. She had recovered uneventfully from the surgery when seen 2 weeks later in the clinic. Biliary cystadenoma is a rare, mostly benign neoplasm of the biliary tract that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the biliary tract. PMID:23467382

Rayapudi, Krishna; Schmitt, Timothy; Olyaee, Mojtaba

2013-01-01

111

Filling Defect on ERCP: Biliary Cystadenoma, a Rare Tumor.  

PubMed

Biliary cystadenomas are rare tumors of the bile ducts most commonly presenting as large right liver lobe lesions. These are usually slow-growing and mostly benign. They commonly present with abdominal pain. On physical exam an abdominal mass can be identified occasionally. Walls of biliary cystadenomas appear thicker than simple cysts, with soft tissue nodules and enhancing septations on CT or MRI. Radiographic images can vary with the amount of protein content in the fluid on CT or MRI. Due to the risk of malignant transformation, complete surgical resection is advised. Hereby, we describe a 37-year-old lady who presented to the outpatient clinic with bloating and abdominal discomfort with intermittent elevated liver enzymes and hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts followed by CT scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts. It was seen as a filling defect of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts (common hepatic duct) on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Involvement of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts simultaneously is a rare presentation of this tumor. She later on underwent exploratory laparotomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, left hepatic lobe resection and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. Pathology confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma with ovarian-like stroma. She had recovered uneventfully from the surgery when seen 2 weeks later in the clinic. Biliary cystadenoma is a rare, mostly benign neoplasm of the biliary tract that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the biliary tract. PMID:23467382

Rayapudi, Krishna; Schmitt, Timothy; Olyaee, Mojtaba

2013-01-01

112

Curative Chemoradiotherapy of Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma with Vertebral Metastasis: Palliation of Persistent Biliary Stricture by Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy  

PubMed Central

Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare tumor that usually presents with the clinical picture of advanced adenocarcinoma but has a much better prognosis. A 38-year-old man was referred after percutaneous transhepatic external biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography had revealed a 5-cm pancreatic head mass that caused biliary tract dilation. Computed tomography angiography showed that the mass encased the celiac trunk as well as the common hepatic and splenic arteries. MRI also revealed a metastatic lesion at the third lumbar vertebra. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were within normal range. The initial diagnosis was inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, Tru-Cut pancreatic biopsy showed a large B cell lymphoma. After 6 sessions of chemotherapy and 21 sessions of radiotherapy, both the pancreatic mass and the vertebral metastasis had disappeared. However, he had persistent distal common bile duct stricture that could not be negotiated by either the endoscopic or percutaneous route. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The patient stayed alive without recurrence for 52 months after the initial diagnosis and 45 months after completion of oncologic treatment. In conclusion, a large pancreatic mass with grossly involved peripancreatic lymph nodes, without ascites, liver or splenic metastasis, should alert the clinician to the possibility of PPL. Cure is possible by chemoradiotherapy even in the presence of vertebral metastasis. Persistent stricture in the distal common bile duct may require a biliodigestive anastomosis. PMID:22171216

Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Güven, Koray; Özden, ?lgin; Do?an, Öner; Gök, Kaan; Demir, Cumhur; Emre, Ali

2011-01-01

113

Dilated cardiomyopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... the term "dilated cardiomyopathy" for cases where the primary problem is with the muscle itself. This definition does not include weakness or enlargement that was caused by a heart attack or a heart valve problem.

114

Long-Term Placement of Subcutaneous Ruesch-Type Stents for Double Biliary Stenosis in a Living-Donor Liver Transplant Recipient  

SciTech Connect

Biliary reconstruction continues to be a major source of morbidity following liver transplantation. The spectrum of biliary complications is evolving due to the increasing number of split-liver and living-donor liver transplantation, which are even associated with a higher incidence of biliary complications. Bile duct strictures are the most common cause of late biliary complications and account for up to 40% of all biliary complications. Optimal therapy for posttransplantation anastomotic biliary strictures remains uncertain and requires a multidisciplinary approach. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male affected by hepatocarcinoma and hepatitis C-related cirrhosis who underwent right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation from his son complicated by double anastomotic stenosis of the main right hepatic duct and of an accessory biliary duct draining segments 6 and 7 of the graft that was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with long-term subcutaneous placement of two internal Ruesch-type biliary stents.

Adani, Gian Luigi, E-mail: adanigl@hotmail.com; Baccarani, Umberto; Lorenzin, Dario; Risaliti, Andrea [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Como, Giuseppe [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Italy); Gasparini, Daniele; Sponza, Massimo [AOSMM-Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Bresadola, Vittorio; Bresadola, Fabrizio [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy)

2007-04-15

115

Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

2012-11-01

116

Magnetic resonance evaluations of biliary malignancy and condition at high-risk for biliary malignancy: Current status  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the biliary tree are relatively rare; but their incidence is rising worldwide. There are several known risk factors for bile duct cancers, and these are seem to be associated with chronic inflammation of the biliary epithelium. Herein, 2 risk factors have been discussed, primary sclerosing cholangitis and reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct, as seen in such as an abnormal union of the pancreatic-biliary junction because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used widely and effectively in the diagnosis of these diseases. When biliary disease is suspected, MRI can often help differentiate between benignity and malignancy, stage tumors, select surgical candidates and guide surgical planning. MRI has many advantages over other modalities. Therefore, MRI is a reliable noninvasive imaging tool for diagnosis and pre-surgical evaluation of bile duct tumors. Nowadays remarkable technical advances in magnetic resonance technology have expanded the clinical applications of MRI in case of biliary diseases. In this article, it is also discussed how recent developments in MRI contributes to the diagnosis of the bile duct cancer and the evaluation of patients with risk factors affecting bile duct cancer. PMID:24432183

Sugita, Reiji

2013-01-01

117

Current surgical treatment for bile duct cancer  

PubMed Central

Since extrahepatic bile duct cancer is difficult to diagnose and to cure, a safe and radical surgical strategy is needed. In this review, the modes of infiltration and spread of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and surgical strategy are discussed. Extended hemihepatectomy, with or without pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), plus extrahepatic bile duct resection and regional lymphadenectomy has recently been recognized as the standard curative treatment for hilar bile duct cancer. On the other hand, PD is the choice of treatment for middle and distal bile duct cancer. Major hepatectomy concomitant with PD (hepatopancreatoduodenectomy) has been applied to selected patients with widespread tumors. Preoperative biliary drainage (BD) followed by portal vein embolization (PVE) enables major hepatectomy in patients with hilar bile duct cancer without mortality. BD should be performed considering the surgical procedure, especially, in patients with separated intrahepatic bile ducts caused by hilar bile duct cancer. Right or left trisectoriectomy are indicated according to the tumor spread and biliary anatomy. As a result, extended radical resection offers a chance for cure of hilar bile duct cancer with improved resectability, curability, and a 5-year survival rate of 40%. A 5-year survival rate has ranged from 24% to 39% after PD for middle and distal bile duct cancer. PMID:17461441

Seyama, Yasuji; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

2007-01-01

118

Otaru consensus on biliary stenting for unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction.  

PubMed

Endoscopic biliary drainage with biliary stent placement is the treatment of choice for palliation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable neoplasms. Various biliary stent designs have become available, but lack of a clear consensus persists on the use of covered versus uncovered metal stents in malignant distal bile duct obstructions, and plastic versus metal stents. In 2012, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy indicated guidelines for biliary stenting. Accordingly, the consensus meeting for biliary stenting was held at the Endoscopic Forum Japan 2012, and four selected statements related to stent placement for distal malignant biliary obstruction were discussed to produce a consensus. Two of four statements (related to the usefulness of self-expandable metallic stents, and reintervention after stenting) were agreed upon by almost all participants. Nevertheless, our opinions were divided on the other two statements (necessity of sphincterotomy for stenting, and covered metal stent versus uncovered metal stent). We herein report the results of the meeting, and present proposed new statements via discussion. PMID:23617650

Irisawa, Atsushi; Katanuma, Akio; Itoi, Takao

2013-05-01

119

Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.  

PubMed

Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

2014-12-01

120

Endoscopic biliary drainage.  

PubMed

Endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) has become an established method of relieving posthepatic jaundice. This study comprises 399 patients in whom 472 EBD procedures were performed during a 5 year period; 272 patients had malignant obstruction, 36 had a benign stricture, 79 had common duct stones and 12 patients had other benign conditions requiring drainage. A 7F double pigtail endoprosthesis was used in the majority of patients and was inserted with an Olympus JF-1T duodenoscope. Ninety-two per cent of the prostheses were correctly positioned, and 88 per cent of these functioned well with relief of symptoms. The 30-day mortality was 22 per cent and one-third of these deaths were due to the procedure, septicaemia being the dominant hazard. This was more marked if the obstruction was not relieved satisfactorily. Antibiotic cover was not used routinely and had not been prescribed in any of the fatal cases. This omission probably made a significant contribution to the septicaemia. Acute pancreatitis and haemorrhage were rare complications and both were probably related to the coincidental sphincterotomy. Prostheses intended for permanent relief of malignant obstruction remained patent for 2-3 months (median) with a wide range of 1-618 days. Survival among these patients is so short, that one or two EBD procedures will keep the majority of patients free from symptoms related to biliary obstruction, and only two patients needed more than three procedures. Fifty-one patients with pancreatic head carcinoma had EBD as a bypass before an intended operation. Only 16 patients actually had a resection. The median survival among the 51 patients was 106 days (compared with 59 days among 100 patients with a permanent prosthetic bypass). Only one patient with a very small periampullary carcinoma has survived for more than 3 years. Forty-seven patients are dead. Among the 51 patients in whom radical resection was intended two-thirds were actually treated by permanent surgical or prosthetic bypass. PMID:2827833

Kiil, J; Kruse, A; Rokkjaer, M

1987-12-01

121

Burdick's Technique for Biliary Access Revisited  

PubMed Central

The precut sphincterotomy is used to facilitate selective biliary access in cases of difficult biliary cannulation. Needle-knife precut papillotomy is the standard of care but is associated with a high rate of complications such as pancreatitis, duodenal perforation, bleeding, etc. Sometimes during bowing of the sphincterotome/cannula and the use of guide wire to facilitate biliary cannulation, inadvertent formation of a false passage occurs in the 10 to 11 o'clock direction. Use of this step to access the bile duct by the intramucosal incision technique was first described by Burdick et al., and since then two more studies have also substantiated the safety and efficacy of this non-needle type of precut sphincterotomy. In this review, we discuss this non-needle technique of precut sphincterotomy and also share our experience using this "Burdick's technique." PMID:25674522

Goenka, Mahesh Kumar

2015-01-01

122

Ampullary intervention for bile duct stones in patients with surgically altered anatomy.  

PubMed

Transpapillary endoscopic treatment is a standard technique for the treatment of bile duct stones. This technique includes biliary cannulation, ampullary interventions such as endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), and stone removal. In patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, the transpapillary approach using an ordinary scope has been challenging. A recently developed single-/double-balloon enteroscope enables therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to be carried out in such cases. EST using a balloon enteroscope is often difficult to carry out as a result of restriction of scope maneuverability or inadequate direction of the accessory. Although EPBD is easy to carry out for any anatomy, large or multiple stones are difficult to remove by EPBD only because of insufficient opening of Vater's papilla. Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation following EST is reported to be useful for the treatment of large and/or multiple stones. This technique is also useful for the treatment of bile duct stones in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis. PMID:24750160

Ito, Kei; Masu, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihide; Ohira, Tetsuya; Noda, Yutaka

2014-04-01

123

Pregnancy Complicated by Portal Hypertension Secondary to Biliary Atresia  

PubMed Central

Biliary atresia is a rare idiopathic neonatal cholestatic disease characterized by the destruction of both the intra- and extrahepatic biliary ducts. As the disease is progressive all cases will develop portal fibrosis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with the sequelae of varices, jaundice, and eventually liver failure requiring a transplant. Survival rates have improved considerably with many females living well in to be childbearing age. Due to the complexity of the disease these pregnancies are considered, high risk. We report the antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum managements of a pregnancy complicated by biliary atresia. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in optimizing obstetric care for this high risk group. PMID:24459595

O'Sullivan, O. E.; Crosby, D.; Byrne, B.; Regan, C.

2013-01-01

124

A severe case of hemobilia and biliary fistula following an open urgent cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cholecystectomy has been the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones, but remains the greatest source of post-operative biliary injuries. Laparoscopic approach has been recently preferred because of short hospitalisation and low morbidity but has an higher incidence of biliary leakages and bile duct injuries than open one due to a technical error or misinterpretation of the anatomy. Even open

Vincenzo Napolitano; Roberto Cirocchi; Alessandro Spizzirri; Lorenzo Cattorini; Francesco La Mura; Eriberto Farinella; Umberto Morelli; Carla Migliaccio; Pamela Del monaco; Stefano Trastulli; Micol Sole Di Patrizi; Diego Milani; Francesco Sciannameo

2009-01-01

125

Laparoscopic repair of various types of biliary-enteric fistula: three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary-enteric fistula is one of the reasons for converting from laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) to open surgery. Here we present three cases of various types of biliary-enteric fistula treated successfully by laparoscopic surgery. Two cases were diagnosed preoperatively, and the remaining case intraoperatively. The first patient had a cholecystoduodenal fistula with a common bile duct stone. The second patient had cholecystocolic

J. H. Lee; H. S. Han; S. K. Min; H. K. Lee

2004-01-01

126

Intrahepatic biliary lesions following blunt liver trauma in children--is nonoperative management or conservative operative treatment always safe?  

PubMed

Nonoperative management of blunt liver injuries has become standard care for children, in the absence of hemodynamic instability. However, attention has to be drawn to biliary complications which can manifest themselves after a latent period, even in the presence of rupture of main biliary ducts. Peripheral bile duct lesions are easily treated by wide drainage. However, the extremely rare intrahepatic main bile duct lesions require other treatments. We report 2 cases of severe liver trauma associated with intrahepatic bile duct lesions: the first, managed nonoperatively, developed biliary peritonitis on day 21. Lesions of the main right biliary ducts were discovered. Because the right liver vascularization was not compromised, an intrahepatic biliary reconstruction was performed through a large hepatotomy according to the functional anatomy. The second child, who had an emergency laparotomy on admission, suffered nevertheless from a bilioma, drained on day 38. Because of increasing daily bile flow through the drain a second laparotomy was performed that demonstrated a biliary leak from a main segmental duct. Resection of the segment cured the patient. These two cases illustrate the occurrence of intrahepatic main bile duct lesions, clinically apparent after a latent period, following blunt trauma of the liver treated by nonsurgical or conservative surgical management. Intrahepatic biliary reconstruction is an alternative to liver resection when viable vascularization of the involved sector justifies its preservation. PMID:8218071

Roche, B; Mentha, G; Bugmann, P; La Scala, G; Le Coultre, C

1993-08-01

127

Rupture of right hepatic duct into hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

Michalopoulos, Nickolaos; Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T

2012-08-01

128

Rupture of Right Hepatic Duct into Hydatid Cyst  

PubMed Central

Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T.

2012-01-01

129

Aberrant left main bile duct draining directly into the cystic duct or gallbladder: an unreported anatomical variation and cause of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

Despite recent advances, iatrogenic bile duct injury remains one of the most common complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Aberrant biliary tract anatomy is one of the major risk factors for iatrogenic bile duct injury. In this case report, for the first time, we report a case of aberrant left main bile duct draining directly into the cystic duct or gallbladder that presented with bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We hope that the diagnostic and management approach used in this case will help physicians to identify and manage their patients should they face such a rare anatomy. PMID:25369222

Shokouh-Amiri, Hosein; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Abdehou, Sophia T; Sugar, Miles; Zibari, Gazi B

2014-01-01

130

Biliary cast syndrome in an opium inhaler.  

PubMed

Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon complication which is mostly described in orthotopic liver transplantation. However, BCS has also been reported rarely in non-liver transplant patients. We describe a male long-term opium inhaler with BCS who underwent successful endoscopic cast removal by balloon enteroscopy-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A 52-year-old man, who was a known case of opium addiction, presented with the chief complaint of epigastric pain for 1 week prior to admission. Routine laboratory evaluation revealed cholestatic liver enzyme elevation. A cholestatic pattern was seen in radiographic modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a linear filling defect in the intra- and extrahepatic duct. A long biliary cast was successfully removed using an extractor balloon. After removal of the biliary cast the patient is receiving ursodeoxycholic acid and does not report any problem 4 months after treatment. It seems that biliary dyskinesia due to long-term opium use can be a predisposing factor for biliary cast formation. PMID:24163648

Dabiri, Reza; Aghdae, Hamid Asadzadeh; Rajabalinia, Hasan; Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang

2013-01-01

131

Common Bile Duct Duplication: The more the murkier  

PubMed Central

Congenital duplication of the common bile duct is an extremely rare anomaly of the biliary tract, which putatively represents failure of regression of the embryological double biliary system. Depending on the morphology of the duplicated bile duct, the anomaly can be classified into five distinct subtypes as per the modified classification (proposed by Choi et al). Among the five subtypes of bile duct duplication, type V duplication is considered to be the least common with only two previous cases of type Va variant reported in medical literature prior to the current report. PMID:25672240

Arora, Ankur; Sureka, Binit; Kasana, Vivek; Patidar, Yashwant; Bansal, Kalpana

2015-01-01

132

Late biliary complications in human alveolar echinococcosis are associated with high mortality  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the incidence of late biliary complications in non-resectable alveolar echinococcosis (AE) under long-term chemotherapy with benzimidazoles. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of AE patients with biliary complications occurring more than three years after the diagnosis of AE. We compared characteristics of patients with and without biliary complications, analyzed potential risk factor for biliary complications and performed survival analyses. RESULTS: Ninety four of 148 patients with AE in Zurich had non-resectable AE requiring long-term benzimidazole chemotherapy, of which 26 (28%) patients developed late biliary complications. These patients had a median age of 55.5 (35.5-65) years at diagnosis of AE and developed biliary complications after 15 (8.25-19) years of chemotherapy. The most common biliary complications during long-term chemotherapy were late-onset cholangitis (n = 14), sclerosing cholangitis-like lesions (n = 8), hepatolithiasis (n = 5), affection of the common bile duct (n = 7) and secondary biliary cirrhosis (n = 7). Thirteen of the 26 patients had undergone surgery (including 12 resections) before chemotherapy. Previous surgery was a risk factor for late biliary complications in linear regression analysis (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Late biliary complications can be observed in nearly one third of patients with non-resectable AE, with previous surgery being a potential risk factor. After the occurrence of late biliary complications, the median survival is only 3 years, suggesting that late biliary complications indicate a poor prognostic outcome. PMID:24914349

Frei, Pascal; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Prakash, Meher K; Schoepfer, Alain M; Prinz Vavricka, Bettina M; Müllhaupt, Beat; Fried, Michael; Lehmann, Kuno; Ammann, Rudolf W; Vavricka, Stephan R

2014-01-01

133

Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation after sphincterotomy for difficult choledocholithiasis: A case-controlled study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) + endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) vs isolated EST. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single center study over two years, from February 2010 to January 2012. Patients with large (? 10 mm), single or multiple bile duct stones (BDS), submitted to endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) were included. Patients in Group A underwent papillary large balloon dilation after limited sphincterotomy (EST+EPLBD), using a through-the-scope balloon catheter gradually inflated to 12-18 mm according to the size of the largest stone and the maximal diameter of the distal bile duct on the cholangiogram. Patients in Group B (control group) underwent isolated sphincterotomy. Stones were removed using a retrieval balloon catheter and/or a dormia basket. When necessary, mechanical lithotripsy was performed. Complete clearance of the bile duct was documented with a balloon catheter cholangiogram at the end of the procedure. In case of residual lithiasis, a double pigtail plastic stent was placed and a second ERCP was planned within 4-6 wk. Some patients were sent for extracorporeal lithotripsy prior to subsequent ERCP. Outcomes of EST+EPLBD (Group A) vs isolated EST (Group B) were compared regarding efficacy (complete stone clearance, number of therapeutic sessions, mechanical and/or extracorporeal lithotripsy, biliary stent placement) and safety (frequency, type and grade of complications). Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 or Fisher’s exact tests for the analysis of categorical parameters and Student’s t test for continuous variables. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were included, 68 (61.3%) in Group A and 43 (38.7%) in Group B. The mean diameter of the stones was similar in the two groups (16.8 ± 4.4 and 16.0 ± 6.7 in Groups A and B, respectively). Forty-eight (70.6%) patients in Group A and 21 (48.8%) in Group B had multiple BDS (P = 0.005). Overall, balloon dilation was performed up to 12 mm in 10 (14.7%) patients, 13.5 mm in 17 (25.0%), 15 mm in 33 (48.6%), 16.5 mm in 2 (2.9%) and 18 mm in 6 (8.8%) patients, taking into account the diameter of the largest stone and that of the bile duct. Complete stone clearance was achieved in sixty-five (95.6%) patients in Group A vs 30 (69.8%) patients in Group B, and was attained within the first therapeutic session in 82.4% of patients in Group A vs 44.2% in Group B (P < 0.001). Patients submitted to EST+EPLBD underwent fewer therapeutic sessions (1.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.8 ± 1.1, P < 0.001), and fewer required mechanical (14.7% vs 37.2%, P = 0.007) or extracorporeal (0 vs 18.6%, P < 0.001) lithotripsy, as well as biliary stenting (17.6% vs 60.5%, P < 0.001). The rate of complications was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: EST+EPLBD is a safe and effective technique for treatment of difficult BDS, leading to high rates of complete stone clearance and reducing the need for lithotripsy and biliary stenting. PMID:23678373

Rosa, Bruno; Moutinho Ribeiro, Pedro; Rebelo, Ana; Pinto Correia, António; Cotter, José

2013-01-01

134

Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction and Erosive Disruption by Cavitating Porta Hepatis Nodal Metastasis, Treated by Uncovered Wallstent  

SciTech Connect

A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.

Trambert, Jonathan J., E-mail: jtrambert@pol.net; Frost, Andrei [J. D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Malasky, Charlotte [J. D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (United States)

2004-08-15

135

Percutaneous Transhepatic Endobiliary Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Rupture into the Biliary System: An Unusual Route for Drainage  

SciTech Connect

The most common and serious complication of hydatid cyst of the liver is rupture into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and abscess. The traditional treatment of biliary-cystic fistula is surgery and recently endoscopic sphincterotomy. We report a case of complex heterogeneous cyst rupture into the biliary tract causing biliary obstruction in which the obstruction and cyst were treated successfully by percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage. Our case is the second report of percutaneous transbiliary internal drainage of hydatid cyst with rupture into the biliary duct in which the puncture and drainage were not performed through the cyst cavity.

Inal, Mehmet; Soyupak, Suereyya; Akguel, Erol [Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Balcali Hospital 01330, Adana (Turkey); Ezici, Hueseyin [Department of General Surgery, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Balcali Hospital 01330, Adana (Turkey)

2002-10-15

136

Imaging diagnosis--extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction secondary to a biliary foreign body in a cat.  

PubMed

An 11-year-old, neutered female British Shorthair cat was referred with a 4-week history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a dilated common bile duct containing a spindle-shaped structure with several reflecting interfaces. Differentials that were considered included an intraluminal foreign body, or helminth parasites within the common bile duct. Surgical exploration of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of two grass awns obstructing the common bile duct. Anomalies of the portal vasculature were noted during surgery and were considered an incidental finding. The clinical signs resolved following surgical removal of the grass awns. PMID:23919830

Brioschi, Valentina; Rousset, Nicolas; Ladlow, Jane F

2014-01-01

137

Development of the Bile Ducts: Essentials for the Clinical Hepatologist  

PubMed Central

Several cholangiopathies result from a perturbation of developmental processes. Most of these cholangiopathies are characterised by the persistence of biliary structures with foetal configuration. Developmental processes are also relevant in acquired liver diseases, as liver repair mechanisms exploit a range of autocrine and paracrine signals transiently expressed in embryonic life. We briefly review the ontogenesis of the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree, highlighting the morphogens, growth factors and transcription factors that regulate biliary development, and the relationships between developing bile ducts and other branching biliary structures. Then we discuss the ontogenetic mechanisms involved in liver repair, and how these mechanisms are recapitulated in ductular reaction, a common reparative response to many forms of biliary and hepatocellular damage. Finally, we discuss the pathogenic aspects of the most important primary cholangiopathies related to altered biliary development i.e. polycystic and fibropolycystic liver diseases, Alagille syndrome. PMID:22245898

Strazzabosco, Mario; Fabris, Luca

2012-01-01

138

Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B. [Department of Interventional Endoscopy, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

1996-03-15

139

Adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree.  

PubMed Central

Increasing survival rates for carcinoma of the biliary tree could reflect the selection of patients for referral to a specialist centre as well as modern improvements in diagnosis and treatment. To determine the true incidence and outcome of biliary cancer, the records of 243 unselected Bristol patients were reviewed retrospectively over a 15-year period. Mean age was 64 years. Gallstones were associated in 38% of cases. Sixty-nine of 87 patients with gallbladder carcinoma were submitted to laparotomy. The operative (30-day) mortality rate was 56% and the one-year survival rate was 7%; one patient with an unexpected carcinoma is alive 7 years after cholecystectomy (1% five-year survival rate). Among 31 patients with carcinoma of the ampulla the operative mortality rate was 27%; one-year and five-year survival rates were 46% and 15%. Bile duct cancers (n = 125) arose proximal to the entry of the cystic duct (n = 63), distal to that point (n = 46) or diffusely (n = 16). For proximal cholangiocarcinoma the operative mortality rate was 38% and 1-year survival rate 17%; no patient lived for 2 years. For distal cholangiocarcinoma the operative mortality rate was 45% and one-year survival rate 26%; no patient lived for 3 years. Only palliative procedures were undertaken for diffuse cholangiocarcinoma; 2 patients survived 1 year (13%). Overall 5 patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree appear to have been cured (2%). PMID:2988399

Anderson, J. B.; Cooper, M. J.; Williamson, R. C.

1985-01-01

140

Biliary tract cancer and occupation in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

Using the Cancer-Environment Registry, which links the incidence of cancer (1961-79) and the 1960 census data on industry and occupation for all employed individuals in Sweden, the occurrence of biliary tract cancer (ICD 7th rev 155.1-.9) was systematically assessed according to occupational and industrial classifications. Data are presented separately for cancer of the gall bladder (ICD 155.1) and other cancers of the biliary tract (ICD 155.2-.9) including cancers of the extrahepatic bile ducts, ampulla of Vater, and unspecified bile passages. Statistically significant increased risks for cancer of the gall bladder were observed for men employed in petroleum refining, papermills, chemical processing, shoemaking, and repairing, and for both men and women employed in textile work. A significant increase in the incidence of other cancers of the biliary tract (mostly cancers of the bile duct) was found for such asbestos related employment as shipbuilding and in the wholesale construction materials industry and among insulation workers. These findings should be considered only as clues to aetiological factors, although several are consistent with earlier observations from other countries. PMID:3964574

Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, B K; Stone, B J; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Blot, W J

1986-01-01

141

Biliary Cystadenoma and Cystadenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biliary cystadenoma (BCA) and its malignant counterpart biliary cystadenocarcinoma (BCAC) are rare cystic tumors originating\\u000a from the biliary system. BCA appears as a multilocular intrahepatic cyst lined by benign cuboidal or columnar non-ciliated\\u000a epithelium. If the epithelium shows neoplastic degeneration it is defined as BCAC. According to the presence or absence of\\u000a ovarian-like mesenchymal stroma, BCA is classified into two

Paolo Del Poggio; Ezio Pezzica; Daniela Corti

142

Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

1983-12-01

143

Extrahepatic biliary cancer: New staging classification  

PubMed Central

Tumor staging defines the point in the natural history of the malignancy when the diagnosis is made. The most common staging system for cancer is the tumor, node, metastases classification. Staging of cancers provides useful parameters in the determination of the extent of disease and prognosis. Cholangiocarcinoma are rare and refers to cancers that arise from the biliary epithelium. These tumors can occur anywhere along the biliary tree. These tumors have been previously divided into extrahepatic and intrahepatic lesions. Until recently the extrahepatic bile duct tumors have been considered as a single entity per American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) staging classification. The most recent changes to the AJCC classification of bile duct cancers divide the tumors into two major categories: proximal and distal tumors. This practical classification is based on anatomy and surgical management. High quality cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the abdomen are essential information to accurately stage this tumors. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis, localization, staging and optimal management of cholangiocarcinoma. For example, it helps to localize the tumor to either perihilar or distal bile duct, both of which have different management. Further, it helps to accurately stage the disease and identify the presence of significant nodal and distant metastasis, which may preclude surgery. Also, it helps to identify the extent of local invasion, which has a major impact on the management. For example, extensive involvement of hepatic duct reaching up to second-order biliary radicals or major vascular encasement of portal vein or hepatic arteries precludes curative surgery and patient may be managed by palliative therapy. Further, imaging helps to identify any anatomical variations in the hepatic arterial or venous circulation and biliary ductal system, which is vital information for surgical planning. This review presents relevant clinical presentation and imaging acquisition and presentation for the accurate staging classification of bile duct tumors based on the new AJCC criteria. This will be performed with the assistance of anatomical diagrams and representative CT and MR images. The image interpretation must include all relevant imaging information for optimum staging. Detailed recommendations on the items required on the radiology report will be presented. PMID:22937214

Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Moron, Fanny E; Szklaruk, Janio

2012-01-01

144

Biliary repair and carcinogenesis are mediated by IL-33–dependent cholangiocyte proliferation  

PubMed Central

Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers inflammation and fibrosis, which can result in severe liver diseases and may progress to malignancy. Development of a type 1 immune response has been linked to biliary injury pathogenesis; however, a subset of patients with biliary atresia, the most common childhood cholangiopathy, exhibit increased levels of Th2-promoting cytokines. The relationship among different inflammatory drivers, epithelial repair, and carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we determined that the Th2-activating cytokine IL-33 is elevated in biliary atresia patient serum and in the livers and bile ducts of mice with experimental biliary atresia. Administration of IL-33 to WT mice markedly increased cholangiocyte proliferation and promoted sustained cell growth, resulting in dramatic and rapid enlargement of extrahepatic bile ducts. The IL-33–dependent proliferative response was mediated by an increase in the number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which released high levels of IL-13 that in turn promoted cholangiocyte hyperplasia. Induction of the IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 circuit in a murine biliary injury model promoted epithelial repair; however, induction of this circuit in mice with constitutive activation of AKT and YAP in bile ducts induced cholangiocarcinoma with liver metastases. These findings reveal that IL-33 mediates epithelial proliferation and suggest that activation of IL-33/ILC2/IL-13 may improve biliary repair and disruption of the circuit may block progression of carcinogenesis. PMID:24892809

Li, Jun; Razumilava, Nataliya; Gores, Gregory J.; Walters, Stephanie; Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Mourya, Reena; Bessho, Kazuhiko; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Glaser, Shannon S.; Shivakumar, Pranavkumar; Bezerra, Jorge A.

2014-01-01

145

Per oral cholangiopancreatoscopy in pancreatico biliary diseases - Expert consensus statements  

PubMed Central

AIM: To provide consensus statements on the use of per-oral cholangiopancreatoscopy (POCPS). METHODS: A workgroup of experts in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endosonography, and POCPS generated consensus statements summarizing the utility of POCPS in pancreaticobiliary disease. Recommendation grades used validated evidence ratings of publications from an extensive literature review. RESULTS: Six consensus statements were generated: (1) POCPS is now an important additional tool during ERCP; (2) in patients with indeterminate biliary strictures, POCS and POCS-guided targeted biopsy are useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis; (3) POCS and POCS-guided lithotripsy are recommended for treatment of difficult common bile duct stones when standard techniques fail; (4) in patients with main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) POPS may be used to assess extent of tumor to assist surgical resection; (5) in difficult pancreatic ductal stones, POPS-guided lithotripsy may be useful in fragmentation and extraction of stones; and (6) additional indications for POCPS include selective guidewire placement, unexplained hemobilia, assessing intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents. CONCLUSION: POCPS is important in association with ERCP, particularly for diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures and for intra-ductal lithotripsy when other techniques failed, and may be useful for pre-operative assessment of extent of main duct IPMN, for extraction of difficult pancreatic stones, and for unusual indications involving selective guidewire placement, assessing unexplained hemobilia or intraductal biliary ablation therapy, and extracting migrated stents.

Ramchandani, Mohan; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Tandan, Manu; Maydeo, Amit; Chandrashekhar, Thoguluva Seshadri; Kumar, Ajay; Sud, Randhir; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Makmun, Dadang; Khor, Christopher

2015-01-01

146

Oblique Bile Duct Predisposes to the Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aims Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. Patients and Methods 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD) and the horizontal plane was measured (angle ?). Oblique common bile duct (OCBD) was defined as a CBD with angle ?<45°. Results 103 patients (7.9%) were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i) significantly older (72±13 vs. 67±13, p<0.00001); (ii) more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p?=?0.02) and biliary surgery (p?=?0.003) prior to the diagnosis and (iii) more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p?=?0.04) as well as biliary fistulae (p?=?0.03). Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle ? negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.003). OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p?=?0.005) as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05). Conclusion OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:23365676

Strnad, Pavel; von Figura, Guido; Gruss, Regina; Jareis, Katja-Marlen; Stiehl, Adolf; Kulaksiz, Hasan

2013-01-01

147

Prolonged exposure of cholestatic rats to complete dark inhibits biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

Biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are common features in cholestatic liver disease. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland as well as the liver. Melatonin inhibits biliary hyperplasia of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Since melatonin synthesis (by the enzyme serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) from the pineal gland increases after dark exposure, we hypothesized that biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are diminished by continuous darkness via increased melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland. Normal or BDL rats (immediately after surgery) were housed with light-dark cycles or complete dark for 1 wk before evaluation of 1) the expression of AANAT in the pineal gland and melatonin levels in pineal gland tissue supernatants and serum; 2) biliary proliferation and intrahepatic bile duct mass, liver histology, and serum chemistry; 3) secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (functional index of biliary growth); 4) collagen deposition, liver fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver, and cholangiocytes; and 5) expression of clock genes in cholangiocytes. In BDL rats exposed to dark there was 1) enhanced AANAT expression/melatonin secretion in pineal gland and melatonin serum levels; 2) improved liver morphology, serum chemistry and decreased biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated choleresis; and 4) decreased fibrosis and expression of fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver and cholangiocytes and reduced biliary expression of the clock genes PER1, BMAL1, CLOCK, and Cry1. Thus prolonged dark exposure may be a beneficial noninvasive therapeutic approach for the management of biliary disorders. PMID:25214401

Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Meng, Fanyin; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Franchitto, Antonio; Ray, Debolina; Kennedy, Lindsey; Greene, John; Renzi, Anastasia; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

2014-11-01

148

Technical aspects of bile duct evaluation and exploration.  

PubMed

Choledocholithiasis is a common manifestation of biliary disease. Intraoperative cholangiography can be performed in several ways. Common bile duct exploration can be safely performed but necessitates an advanced level of surgical experience to limit complications and improve success. An algorithm based on available resources and the physician skill set is vital for safe and effective management of choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography requires the availability of an advanced endoscopist as well as significant equipment and resources. Current training of young surgeons is limited for open biliary procedures and common bile duct explorations. Educational guidelines are necessary to reduce this educational gap. PMID:24679421

Orenstein, Sean B; Marks, Jeffrey M; Hardacre, Jeffrey M

2014-04-01

149

Extrahepatic Biliary Cystadenoma: A Rare Cause of Biliary Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Biliary cystadenoma is a rare tumor of the biliary tree and a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Most are intrahepatic, and pure extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma is less common. Cases are more common in women. Unless suspected, diagnosis of extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma is often delayed. Here, we report the case of a young woman with extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma who presented at Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital with obstructive jaundice initially thought to be due to a large biliary stone based on the endoscopic cholangiogram image. She was successfully managed with resection of the cystadenoma.

Metussin, Adli; Telisinghe, Pemasari; Kok, Kenneth; Chong, Vui

2015-01-01

150

Biliary obstruction - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... indicate a high level of bilirubin, a waste product of the liver, or diagnosis may come from an endoscopic examination. Untreated biliary obstruction may cause life-threatening infection or chronic liver disease.

151

Primary biliary cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 158. Angulo P, Lindor KD. Primary biliary cirrhosis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, ... Clin Liver Dis . 2008;12:277-288. Lindor KD, Gershwin ME, Poupon R, Kaplan M, et al. ...

152

Biliary concentrations of moxalactam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have demonstrated that biliary concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics may be markedly reduced in the presence of hepatobiliary disease (1-3). Such a decrease in antibiotic biliary levels is less likely to reduce an antibiotic's therapeutic potential if it exhibits its antibacterial activity at relatively low concentrations. The first oxa-beta-lactam antibiotic, moxalactam, possesses an expanded antibacterial spectrum that encompasses most

S. Vartivarian; H. Harakeh; H. Kantarjian; M. Uwaydah

1984-01-01

153

Duct closure  

DOEpatents

A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

Vowell, Kennison L. (Canoga Park, CA)

1987-01-01

154

Role of Cholangiocytes in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2); characteristics of the disease are also the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. Recent evidence suggests that cholangiocytes show specific immunobiological features that are responsible for the selective targeting of those cells by the immune system. The immune reaction in PBC selectively targets small sized, intrahepatic bile ducts; although a specific reason for that has not been defined yet, it has been established that the biliary epithelium displays a unique heterogeneity, for which the physiological and pathophysiological features of small and large cholangiocytes significantly differ. In this review article, the authors provide a critical overview of the current evidence on the role of cholangiocytes in the immune-mediated destruction of the biliary tree that characterizes PBC. PMID:25057951

Lleo, Ana; Maroni, Luca; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

2014-01-01

155

Hedgehog-mediated mesenchymal–epithelial interactions modulate hepatic response to bile duct ligation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In bile duct-ligated (BDL) rodents, as in humans with chronic cholangiopathies, biliary obstruction triggers proliferation of bile ductular cells that are surrounded by fibrosis produced by adjacent myofibroblastic cells in the hepatic mesenchyme. The proximity of the myofibroblasts and cholangiocytes suggests that mesenchymal–epithelial crosstalk promotes the fibroproliferative response to cholestatic liver injury. Studying BDL mice, we found that bile duct

Alessia Omenetti; Liu Yang; Yin-Xiong Li; Shannon J McCall; Youngmi Jung; Jason K Sicklick; Jiawen Huang; Steve Choi; Ayako Suzuki; Anna Mae Diehl

2007-01-01

156

Bile duct stenosis due to portal cavernomas: MR portography and MR cholangiopancreatography demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two cases of bile duct stenosis due to portal cavernomas. Smooth stenoses were seen arising from both walls of the common bile duct on magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography. On contrast-enhanced MR portography, peribiliary tortuous vessels were evident, indicating portal cavernomas. MR imaging can evaluate the biliary tree and portal systems noninvasively and was useful for evaluating this condition.

S. Akaki; H. Kobayashi; N. Sasai; M. Tsunoda; M. Kuroda; S. Kanazawa; I. Togami; Y. Hiraki

2002-01-01

157

Double cystic duct in a child with VACTERL association: a case report.  

PubMed

Double cystic duct is an extremely rare anomaly of the biliary tract not described in the pediatric literature. We report the first pediatric case born with VACTERL association found to have double cystic ducts during gallbladder surgery for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Description of the anatomic variability, cholangiography images, and pathologic findings along with review of the literature is included. PMID:19954104

Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Correa, Maria; Brunet, Hector

2009-01-01

158

Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Mechanism of injury, prevention, and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies have shown a low incidence of bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, concerns remain because of the sustained increase in the number of referrals for biliary reconstruction after the procedure. Twenty-one patients have been referred to our institution because of major bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The injury was recognized during the laparoscopic procedure in only

Horacio J. Asbun; Ricardo L. Rossi; Jeffrey A. Lowell; J. Lawrence Munson

1993-01-01

159

Differentiation of jaundice in infancy: an application of radionuclide biliary studies  

SciTech Connect

Atresia and hypoplasia of the bile ducts are the most common congenital biliary anomalies of clinical importance. Surgical correction can help about 10% of these infants. However, surgery should be performed within the first month of life to avoid irreversible liver parenchymal changes. It is difficult to separate the surgical condition, biliary atresia, from conditions in which the trauma of laparotomy should be avoided, such as neonatal hepatitis and other clinically indistinguishable causes of obstructive jaundice. Radionuclide imaging with the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled N-substituted iminodiacetic acids (HIDA, PIDIDA, DISIDA, etc) have been helpful in the differential diagnosis of biliary atresia.

Johnston, G.S.; Rosenbaum, R.C.; Hill, J.L.; Diaconis, J.N.

1985-12-01

160

Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula  

SciTech Connect

A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech [University of Michigan Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: cwikiel@med.umich.edu

2006-12-15

161

Prospective observational multicenter study to define a diagnostic algorithm for biliary candidiasis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop an algorithm to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with biliary candidiasis. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 127 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, for various biliary disorders, at 3 tertiary referral centers in Germany from July 2011 through July 2012 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01109550). Bile, buccal, and stool samples were collected. When indicated, endoscopic transpapillary bile duct biopsies were performed to clarify the etiology of bile duct strictures and to prove invasive fungal infections. RESULTS: Candida species were detected in 38 of the 127 bile samples (29.9%). By multivariate analysis patients’ age and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy were independent risk factors for biliary candidiasis (P < 0.05). Patients with immunosuppression (P = 0.058) and recent long-term antibiotic therapy (> 7 d) (P = 0.089) tend to be at risk for biliary candidiasis. One patient was negative in mycological culture of bile fluid but invasive biliary candidiasis was diagnosed histologically. Of Candida subspecies detected, 36.7% were azole-resistant, such as C glabrata. Eight patients received anti-mycotic therapy, based on our algorithm. Of these, 3 had cancer with biliary tract involvement, 2 had secondary sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had retroperitoneal fibrosis, and 5 had septicemia. In all patients contamination was ruled out by smears of the endoscope channel. CONCLUSION: Gastroenterologists should be aware of frequent candida colonization in patients with cholangitis and biliary disorders. Our suggested algorithm facilitates the further clinical management. PMID:25232260

Lenz, Philipp; Eckelskemper, Franziska; Erichsen, Thomas; Lankisch, Tim; Dechêne, Alexander; Lubritz, Gabriele; Lenze, Frank; Beyna, Torsten; Ullerich, Hansjörg; Schmedt, Andre; Domagk, Dirk

2014-01-01

162

Bacteremia with esophageal dilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

(GUMMI BEARS)Background: Antibiotic prophylaxis has been recommended for selected patients undergoing esophageal stricture dilation because of a reported high rate of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of bacteremia after esophageal dilatation in a large series and the source of the organisms recovered. Methods: Blood cultures and oral temperatures were obtained before esophageal dilation and

Douglas B. Nelson; Steven J. Sanderson; Miguel M. Azar

1998-01-01

163

Computed tomography of biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction : Biliary cystadenoma (BCA) and biliary cystadenocarcinoma (BCAC) are rare biliary ductal neoplasms of the liver. This study aims to describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of these neoplasms and to distinguish between both entities. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings of five patients with proven BCA and seven patients with proven BCAC at our institution from

Pojchamarnwiputh S; Lertprasertsuke N

164

Tolerance of bile duct to intraoperative irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications.

Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.

1982-09-01

165

Intra-operative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental injury to the common bile duct is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Accurate visualization of the biliary ducts may prevent or detect injuries early. Conventional X-Ray cholangiography is often used and can reduce the severity of injury when correctly interpreted. However, it may be useful to have an imaging method that could provide real-time extra-hepatic bile duct visualization without changing the field of view from the laparoscope. The purpose of this study was to use a new NIR fluorescent agent that is rapidly excreted via the biliary route in pre-clinical models to evaluate intra-operative real time near infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC). Methods To investigate probe function and excretion, a lipophilic near infrared fluorescent agent with hepatobiliary excretion was injected intravenously into one group of C57/BL6 control mice and four groups of C57/BL6 mice with the following experimentally-induced conditions: a) chronic biliary obstruction, b) acute biliary obstruction c) bile duct perforation and e) choledocholithiasis, respectively. The biliary system was imaged intravitally for one hour using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) with an intra-operative small animal imaging system (excitation 649 nm, emission 675 nm). Results The extra hepatic ducts and extra-luminal bile were clearly visible due to the robust fluorescence of the excreted fluorochrome. Twenty-five minutes after intravenous injection, the target-to-background ratio peaked at 6.40 ± 0.83 but was clearly visible for ~ sixty minutes. The agent facilitated rapid identification of biliary obstruction and bile duct perforation. Implanted beads simulating choledocholithiasis were promptly identifiable within the common bile duct lumen. Conclusions NIRF agents with hepatobiliary excretion may be used intra-operatively to visualize extra hepatic biliary anatomy and physiology. Used in conjunction with laparoscopic imaging technologies this should enhance hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:20033407

Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Siegel, Cory; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph

2009-01-01

166

Acute biliary conditions.  

PubMed

Acute biliary complications may result from several medical conditions such as gallstone pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, acute cholecystitis, bile leak, liver abscess and hepatic trauma. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. About 25% of theses patients will develop clinically severe acute pancreatitis, usually due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Choledocholithiasis, malignant and benign biliary strictures, and stent dysfunction may cause partial or complete obstruction and infection in the biliary tract with acute cholangitis. Bile leaks are most commonly associated with hepatobiliary surgeries or invasive procedures such as open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy, hepatic resection, hepatic transplantation, liver biopsy, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may have an essential role in the management of these complications. PMID:24160931

de C Ferreira, Lincoln E V V; Baron, Todd H

2013-10-01

167

Biomarkers in bile-complementing advanced endoscopic imaging in the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures  

PubMed Central

Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge and a conundrum, particularly when an initial work up including abdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography based sampling are non-diagnostic. Advances in endoscopic imaging have helped us diagnose these strictures better. However, even with modern technology, some strictures remain a diagnostic challenge. The proximity of bile fluid to the bile duct epithelia makes it an attractive option to investigate for bio-markers, which might be representative of the functions/abnormal changes taking place in the biliary system. A number of biomarkers in bile have been discovered recently in approaching biliary strictures with their potential future diagnostic utility, further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tissue specimens. Novel biliary biomarkers especially carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seem promising in differentiating malignant from benign biliary strictures. Recent developments in lipidomic profiling of bile are also very promising. Biliary biomarkers appear to complement endoscopic imaging in diagnosing malignant etiologies of biliary stricture. Future studies addressing these biomarkers need to be incorporated to the current endoscopic techniques to determine the best approach in determining the etiology of biliary strictures.

Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; Tharian, Benjamin; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

2015-01-01

168

Mechanical nasal alar dilators.  

PubMed

Most studies on nasal dilators have used Breathe Right or Nozovent. Both devices dilate the nasal valves, reduce nasal resistance, and improve nasal airflow. The use of dilators improves airflow most on inspiration, as the valve is stabilised and prevented from collapse. The response varies greatly between individuals, and can be impressive. The effect of nasal dilators may be lower in non-Caucasians. During exercise, nasal dilators delay the onset of oronasal breathing, and can have only small effects on performance thereafter. Nozovent and Breathe Right can reduce snoring, and improve otherwise obstructed breathing during sleep in selected patients. It is a challenge to find those patients, and one way could be to perform polysomnography with and without nasal dilator. PMID:17216739

Ellegård, Eva

2006-12-01

169

Percutaneous Transhepatic Cutting Balloon Papillotomy for Removal of Common Bile Duct Stones  

SciTech Connect

We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with jaundice secondary to recurrent adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and several common bile duct stones. Percutaneous papillary dilatation was planned to remove the common bile duct stones. Papilla was dilated through the percutaneous approach with an 8-mm peripheral cutting balloon instead of a standard balloon. All the stones were pushed successfully into the duodenum with a saline flush. No complications were encountered. Use of a peripheral cutting balloon for dilatation of the papilla seems to be safe and effective because it has the advantage of controlled incision and dilatation of the target at low pressures.

Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Ozkan, Ugur; Gumus, Burcak [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2009-09-15

170

Unilateral versus bilateral endoscopic biliary stenting for malignant hilar biliary strictures.  

PubMed

The present review compared unilateral versus bilateral stenting in order to determine the optimal stenting strategy for malignant hilar biliary strictures based on the previous literature. The role of preoperative biliary drainage prior to liver resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains under discussion. However, in Japan, endoscopic placement of single nasobiliary drainage in the future remnant hepatic lobe is currently considered the most suitable method. In most unresectable cases, unilateral stenting appears to be adequate for ameliorating jaundice. It is technically easier and less expensive than bilateral stenting, with reintervention for stent dysfunction also being considerably easier. However, contrast medium injection into undrained bile ducts is associated with uncontrolled cholangitis and poor prognosis. To prevent this complication, bilateral stenting may be preferred to unilateral stenting. Additionally, previous studies have demonstrated bilateral stenting to be associated with longer stent patency as compared to unilateral stenting. We consider that further large-scale studies are required to clarify whether unilateral or bilateral stenting is a better therapeutic technique for malignant hilar biliary stricture. PMID:23617655

Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

2013-05-01

171

Sox17 haploinsufficiency results in perinatal biliary atresia and hepatitis in C57BL/6 background mice.  

PubMed

Congenital biliary atresia is an incurable disease of newborn infants, of unknown genetic causes, that results in congenital deformation of the gallbladder and biliary duct system. Here, we show that during mouse organogenesis, insufficient SOX17 expression in the gallbladder and bile duct epithelia results in congenital biliary atresia and subsequent acute 'embryonic hepatitis', leading to perinatal death in ~95% of the Sox17 heterozygote neonates in C57BL/6 (B6) background mice. During gallbladder and bile duct development, Sox17 was expressed at the distal edge of the gallbladder primordium. In the Sox17(+/-) B6 embryos, gallbladder epithelia were hypoplastic, and some were detached from the luminal wall, leading to bile duct stenosis or atresia. The shredding of the gallbladder epithelia is probably caused by cell-autonomous defects in proliferation and maintenance of the Sox17(+/-) gallbladder/bile duct epithelia. Our results suggest that Sox17 plays a dosage-dependent function in the morphogenesis and maturation of gallbladder and bile duct epithelia during the late-organogenic stages, highlighting a novel entry point to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of human congenital biliary atresia. PMID:23293295

Uemura, Mami; Ozawa, Aisa; Nagata, Takumi; Kurasawa, Kaoruko; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Taga, Tetsuya; Hara, Kenshiro; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Saijoh, Yukio; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

2013-02-01

172

Variants in Inflammation Genes and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Stones: A Population-based Study in China  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the role of chronic inflammation in the development of gallstones and biliary tract cancer, we examined the risk associated with 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 22 inflammation-related genes, based on a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, where the incidence of biliary tract cancer has been increasing in recent decades. The study included 411 cases with biliary tract cancer (237 gallbladder, 127 extrahepatic bile duct, and 47 ampulla of Vater), 895 with biliary stones, and 786 controls randomly selected from the population. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with biliary stones and biliary tract cancer. Of the 62 SNPs examined, 14 were related to the risk of biliary cancer and stones. Specifically, variants in the IL8, IL8RB, RNASEL, and NOS2 genes were associated with biliary stones, while VEGF variants were associated with gallbladder cancer. Of the 10 genes with multiple SNPs from which we inferred haplotypes, only one IL8RB haplotype, consisting of 3 SNPs (rs2230054, rs1126579, rs1126580), was associated with the risk of bile duct cancer (p=0.003) and biliary stones (p=0.02), relative to the most frequent haplotype. In summary, common variants in genes that influence inflammatory responses may predispose to gallstones and biliary tract cancer, suggesting the need for future studies into the immunologic and inflammatory pathways that contribute to biliary diseases, including cancer. PMID:18676870

Hsing, Ann W.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Rashid, Asif; Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Wang, Bin-Shen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Chen, Bingshu E.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Zhang, Mingdong; Niwa, Shelley; Chu, Lisa; Welch, Robert; Yeager, Meredith; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chanock, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

173

Positive predictive value of cholescintigraphy in common bile duct obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m DISIDA imaging was employed in 400 patients to differentiate obstruction of the common bile duct from medical and other surgical causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Sequential anterior images demonstrated variable degrees of liver uptake, yet there was no evidence of intrabiliary or extrabiliary radioactivity for at least 4 hr after injection in 25 patients. Twenty-three patients were surgically documented to have complete obstruction of the common bile duct. One patient had hepatitis, and another had sickle cell crisis without bile duct obstruction. The remaining patients had either partial or no obstruction of the common bile duct. We conclude that the presence of liver uptake without evident biliary excretion by 4 hr on cholescintigraphy is highly sensitive and predictive of total obstruction of the common bile duct.

Lecklitner, M.L.; Austin, A.R.; Benedetto, A.R.; Growcock, G.W.

1986-09-01

174

Recent advances in the morphological and functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the recent advances related to the heterogeneity of different-sized bile ducts with regard to the morphological and phenotypical characteristics, and the differential secretory, apoptotic and proliferative responses of small and large cholangiocytes to gastrointestinal hormones/peptides, neuropeptides and toxins. We describe several in vivo and in vitro models used for evaluating biliary heterogeneity. Subsequently, we discuss the heterogeneous proliferative and apoptotic responses of small and large cholangiocytes to liver injury and the mechanisms regulating the differentiation of small into large (more differentiated) cholangiocytes. Following a discussion on the heterogeneity of stem/progenitor cells in the biliary epithelium, we outline the heterogeneity of bile ducts in human cholangiopathies. After a summary section, we discuss the future perspectives that will further advance the field of the functional heterogeneity of the biliary epithelium. PMID:23856906

Han, Yuyan; Glaser, Shannon; Meng, Fanyin; Francis, Heather; Marzioni, Marco; McDaniel, Kelly; Alvaro, Domenico; Venter, Julie; Carpino, Guido; Onori, Paolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio

2014-01-01

175

A New Xenobiotic-Induced Mouse Model of Sclerosing Cholangitis and Biliary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Xenobiotics and drugs may lead to cholangiopathies and biliary fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the cause and consequences of hepatobiliary injury and biliary fibrosis in 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-fed mice as a novel model of xenobiotic-induced cholangiopathy. Liver morphology, markers of inflammation, cell proliferation, fibrosis, bile formation, biliary porphyrin secretion, and hepatobiliary transporter expression were studied longitudinally in DDC- and control diet-fed Swiss albino mice. DDC feeding led to increased biliary porphyrin secretion and induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule, osteopontin, and tumor necrosis factor-? expression in bile duct epithelial cells. This was associated with a pronounced pericholangitis with a significantly increased number of CD11b-positive cells, ductular reaction, and activation of periductal myofibroblasts, leading to large duct disease and a biliary type of liver fibrosis. After 4 weeks, we constantly observed intraductal porphyrin pigment plugs. Glutathione and phospholipid excretion significantly decreased over time. Expression of Ntcp, Oatp4, and Mrp2 was significantly reduced, whereas Bsep expression remained unchanged and adaptive Mrp3 and Mrp4 expression was significantly induced. We demonstrate that DDC feeding in mice leads to i) a reactive phenotype of cholangiocytes and bile duct injury, ii) pericholangitis, periductal fibrosis, ductular reaction, and consequently portal-portal bridging, iii) down-regulation of Mrp2 and impaired glutathione excretion, and iv) segmental bile duct obstruction. This model may be valuable to investigate the mechanisms of xenobiotic-induced chronic cholangiopathies and its sequels including biliary fibrosis. PMID:17600122

Fickert, Peter; Stöger, Ulrike; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Moustafa, Tarek; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Weiglein, Andreas H.; Tsybrovskyy, Oleksiy; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Zatloukal, Kurt; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

2007-01-01

176

Photodynamic therapy for bile duct invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The prognosis of patients with obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dismal, because effective biliary drainage is difficult due to frequent malfunction of the drainage tube caused by hemobilia and/or tumor emboli. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) improves biliary patency and prolongs survival in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of PDT in unresectable HCC with bile duct invasion. Between January 2009 and September 2010, eleven patients with bile duct invasion of unresectable HCC were enrolled at Samsung Medical Center. PDT was performed with 180 J cm(-1) light activation 48 hours after administration of the photosensitizer at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight. Biliary drainages were performed in all patients. The safety and efficacy of PDT were prospectively evaluated. Eleven patients had successful PDT and biliary drainage. Jaundice improved in seven out of ten patients who had jaundice before PDT. Hemobilia, which had developed in six cases, was controlled by PDT. There were no complications from the photosensitizer. There was no 30-day mortality, and the mean survival was 140.5 days. PDT controlled hemobilia associated with bile duct invasion of HCC and could be an effective treatment option in these patients. PMID:23175171

Bahng, Sunha; Yoo, Byung Chul; Paik, Seung Woon; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Lee, Kyu Teak; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

2013-03-01

177

Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review  

PubMed Central

There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

2014-01-01

178

What is new in primary biliary cirrhosis?  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the small- and medium-sized intrahepatic bile ducts. The disease mainly affects middle-aged women who frequently suffer from concomitant autoimmune diseases. This review discusses the most recent findings in the epidemiology, natural history and approaches used for the accurate diagnosis of the disease. We critically review emerging data reporting on the role of genetics such as those of genome-wide association studies. Special attention is given to recent studies reporting on the immunopathogenesis of the disease and the role of plasma cells, apotopes, immunosenescence, autophagy and the involvement of components of the innate immunity in the induction of this enigmatic disease. PMID:23075865

Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Gershwin, M Eric

2012-01-01

179

Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction  

SciTech Connect

/sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

1982-07-01

180

Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction  

SciTech Connect

/sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

Taylor, A. Jr. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Diego); Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

1982-07-01

181

Should preoperative biliary drainage be routinely performed for obstructive jaundice with resectable tumor?  

PubMed Central

Obstructive jaundice is a common clinical manifestation of malignant lesions adjacent to extrahepatic bile duct, ampulla or pancreatic head. Animal experiments and some clinical observations have demonstrated that preoperative biliary drainage could improve liver function as well as reduce endotoxemia, thereby reducing the incidence of perioperative complications. However, a number of randomized, controlled studies have found that preoperative biliary drainage failed to improve prognosis or reduce the incidence of perioperative complications; in contrast, it might increase the incidence of complications and cause extra financial burden on patients. Thus, whether preoperative biliary drainage should be performed or not is controversial. Since clinical randomized controlled studies are more relevant in clinical setting, we believe that preoperative biliary drainage should not be routinely performed for obstructive jaundice with resectable tumors. More randomized, controlled, prospective studies should be conducted for further exploration. PMID:24570957

Wang, Chu; Xu, Yiyao

2013-01-01

182

[Endoscopic management of severe pancreatic and biliary diseases in children].  

PubMed

Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and choledocal lithiasis is a first-line treatment in adults. Nevertheless, due to technical difficulties such a management is not always feasible in children. This series reports our results in the management of pancreatic and biliary diseases in children. Seven children, two months to 12 years old, underwent endoscopic management of pancreatic and biliary diseases. Two of them had choledocal lithiasis with jaundice or acute pancreatitis, two had pancreatic pseudocyst due to abdominal traumatism, two had chronic pancreatitis with a communicating pseudocyst in one case, and one had a biliary leakage after traumatism. All the endoscopic treatments were performed under general anesthesia. In six cases, the duodenoscope was a regular one with a large operating channel (Olympus TJF 160; Japan) employed for children aged 33 months to 12 years. In the case of the two months child, a "rendez-vous" technique was performed with a percutaneous approach of the common bile duct followed by an endoscopic sphincteroclasy using an axial endoscope allowing the extraction of a choledocal stone. In two cases, post-traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts (eight and 12 year-old children) were managed with the transgastric insertion of two double pig-tail stents. In two cases, children with chronic pancreatitis (38 months and 12 years old) were managed with pancreatic sphincterotomy. Biliary leakage in an 11-year-old child was managed with biliary sphincterotomy and stenting. All the children became symptom-free without any procedural complications with an 11 months median follow-up. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic and biliary diseases is possible in children like in adults with the same procedures and results. PMID:18538966

Lamblin, G; Desjeux, A; Grimaud, J-C; Merot, T; Alessandrini, P; Barthet, M

2008-10-01

183

Protection of the intrahepatic biliary tree by contemporaneous portal and arterial reperfusion: results of a prospective randomized pilot study.  

PubMed

Sequential portal and arterial revascularization (SPAr) is the most common method of graft reperfusion at liver transplantation (LT), contemporaneous portal and arterial revascularization (CPAr) was used to reduce arterial ischemia to the bile ducts. Aim of this pilot study is to prospectively compare SPAr (group 1 #38) versus CPAr (group 2 #42) in 80 consecutive LTs. Biliary anastomosis was always duct to duct [T-tube in 21 % of cases (p = 0.83) in both groups]. CPAr had longer warm ischemia 61 ± 10 versus 39 ± 13 min, p < 0.0001, while SPAr had longer arterial ischemia 96 ± 39 min (p = 0.0001). No PNF while DGF was encountered in 10 versus 5 % (p = 0.32). One-year graft and patient's survival were respectively 87 versus 93 % and 83 versus 88 % in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.31 and p = 0.39). At a median follow-up of 19 ± 8 versus 17 ± 8 months (p = 0.24), biliary complications were 28 %, being 39 % in group 1 and 19 % in group 2 (p = 0.04). Anastomotic stenoses were present in 11 versus 12 % (p = 0.84), biliary leakage in 5 versus 5 % (p = 0.72) and intrahepatic non-anastomotic biliary strictures in 23 versus 0 % (p = 0.0008) in groups 1 and 2. CPAr is safe and feasible and reduces the incidence of intrahepatic biliary strictures by decreasing the duration of arterial ischemia to the intrahepatic bile ducts. PMID:22773391

Baccarani, Umberto; Rossetto, Anna; Lorenzin, Dario; Bidinost, Stefania; Pertoldeo, Maria Laura; Lugano, Manuela; Bresadola, Vittorio; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Risaliti, Andrea; Adani, Gian Luigi

2012-09-01

184

[Biliary diseases in the elderly].  

PubMed

Gallstone disease is more common in the elderly. In this short review, we summarize guideline-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary diseases in elderly patients. Warning episodes of biliary colic represent a general indication for cholecystectomy to avoid stone-related complications. Elderly patients with mild and moderate acute cholecystitis should undergo urgent cholecystectomy. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and stone extraction as well as mild acute biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy should be performed during the same hospital admission. Since the elevated risk of gallstone carriers to develop biliary cancer increases with age, cholecystectomy also protects against cancer. PMID:24824910

Heger, E; Lammert, F

2014-05-01

185

Pancreas-preserving biliary amputation with pancreatic diversion: a new surgical technique for complete resection of the intrapancreatic biliary system.  

PubMed

Pancreatoduodenectomy is not optimal for organ preservation in patients with mucosal carcinoma of the choledochus. When the lesion spreads near the papilla of Vater, pancreas-preserving biliary amputation may be indicated to achieve complete resection of the biliary system. The first successful case is reported here with technical considerations. First, the pancreatic neck was divided and a tube was inserted into the main pancreatic duct beyond the papilla. The choledochus was dissected downward with division of the posterior pancreatoduodenal vessels. The main pancreatic duct was isolated with the aid of palpation of the tube, and was then ligated and divided. Subsequent dissection was performed to the level of the duodenal mucosa, which was incised circularly. The duodenal defect was then closed. The elevated jejunum was interposed between the pancreatic stumps and bilateral pancreaticojejunostomies were created. The procedure was successfully performed in a patient with superficially spreading cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative bile leak and pancreatic fistula were controlled with medical management. The patient is currently well without tumor recurrence 19 months after surgery. Her glucose tolerance, which was moderately impaired preoperatively, has been maintained. Pancreas-preserving biliary amputation has been developed as an organ-preserving procedure alternative to pancreatoduodenectomy. Indications, methods of pancreatic reconstruction, and long-term results require further study. PMID:15362726

Kondo, Satoshi; Hirano, Satoshi; Ambo, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Eiichi; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

2004-01-01

186

Absorption of biliary cobalamin in baboons following total gastrectomy  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of radiolabeled cobalamin in baboons was assessed by whole body counting. Retention of biliary cobalamin and an aqueous solution of cyanocobalamin was measured in normal baboons and in baboons after total gastrectomy by using /sup 57/Co-labeled biliary cobalamin and /sup 58/C0-cyanocobalamin, with and without baboon gastric juice containing intrinsic factor. Radiolabeled biliary cobalamin was obtained by intravenous injection of /sup 57/Co-cyanocobalamin in baboons and collection of bile through a cannula placed in the common bile duct. Cobalamin absorption was not completely abolished by gastrectomy and biliary cobalamin was better retained than cyanocobalamin; intrinsic factor enhanced absorption of both forms. After gastrectomy there was steady depletion of liver and serum cobalamin levels, which ceased after a new equilibrium was reached between a progressively diminishing cobalamin loss and the impaired but significant residual level of absorption. These studies in the nonhuman primate provide further information concerning the enterohepatic circulation of cobalamin and suggest that the form of cobalamin in bile may be more readily absorbed than is cyanocobalamin or that bile itself may have an enhancing effect on cobalamin absorption. The data also suggest that physiologically significant amounts of cobalamin may be absorbed in the absence of a gastric source of intrinsic factor.

Green, R.; Jacobsen, D.W.; Van Tonder, S.V.; Kew, M.C.; Metz, J.

1982-11-01

187

Double common bile duct with an ectopic drainage into the stomach  

PubMed Central

Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly among biliary anomalies. The anomaly has an important clinical implication because of its association with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union (APBDU) and upper gastrointestinal cancers. In addition, if one of the two common bile ducts is mistaken for the cystic duct during surgery, bile duct injury is likely to occur. Treatment depends on the coexistence of concomitant cancer and APBDU. A 54-year-old male diagnosed of gastric cancer was referred for surgery. During surgery, we incidentally detected bile leak from the tubular structure around the hepatoduodenal ligament. We performed intraoperative cholangiogram by cannulizing into the tubular structure, and confirmed the tubular duct as the accessory bile duct with an ectopic drainage into the stomach, which was connected to the proximal common bile duct. In this study, we report a rare case of DCBD with an ectopic drainage into the stomach and review the literature. PMID:25844358

Park, Jeong-Ik

2015-01-01

188

Double common bile duct with an ectopic drainage into the stomach.  

PubMed

Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly among biliary anomalies. The anomaly has an important clinical implication because of its association with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union (APBDU) and upper gastrointestinal cancers. In addition, if one of the two common bile ducts is mistaken for the cystic duct during surgery, bile duct injury is likely to occur. Treatment depends on the coexistence of concomitant cancer and APBDU. A 54-year-old male diagnosed of gastric cancer was referred for surgery. During surgery, we incidentally detected bile leak from the tubular structure around the hepatoduodenal ligament. We performed intraoperative cholangiogram by cannulizing into the tubular structure, and confirmed the tubular duct as the accessory bile duct with an ectopic drainage into the stomach, which was connected to the proximal common bile duct. In this study, we report a rare case of DCBD with an ectopic drainage into the stomach and review the literature. PMID:25844358

Park, Jeong-Ik; Oh, Sang-Hoon

2015-04-01

189

Pancreatic and biliary secretion are both altered in cystic fibrosis pigs  

PubMed Central

The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are commonly involved in cystic fibrosis (CF), and acidic, dehydrated, and protein-rich secretions are characteristic findings. Pancreatic function studies in humans have been done by sampling the jejunal fluid. However, it has been difficult to separately study the function of pancreatic and biliary systems in humans with CF, because jejunal fluid contains a mixture of bile and pancreatic fluids. In contrast, pancreatic and biliary ducts open separately into the porcine intestine; therefore, biliary and pancreatic fluid can be individually analyzed in CF pigs. We studied newborn wild-type (WT) and CF pigs and found that CFTR was localized to the pancreatic ducts. We collected bile and pancreatic fluid and analyzed pancreatic enzymes with activity assays and immunoblot. Pancreatic enzyme expression was significantly decreased in CF compared with WT pigs. The volume and pH of pancreatic fluid were significantly lower and protein concentration was >5-fold higher in CF pigs. Secretin stimulation increased pancreatic fluid volume and pH in WT, but not CF, pigs. Baseline bile volume did not differ between WT and CF pigs, but volume did not increase in response to secretin in CF pigs. Bile pH was lower and protein concentration was twofold higher in CF pigs. These results indicate that pancreatic and biliary secretions are altered in CF pigs. Abnormal pancreatic and biliary secretion in CF may have important implications in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22936270

Giriyappa, Radhamma; Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Abu-El-Haija, Marwa; Stoltz, David A.; Ludwig, Paula; Pezzulo, Alejandro; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Taft, Peter; Welsh, Michael J.

2012-01-01

190

Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

Surlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

2014-01-01

191

Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang alleviates biliary obstructive cirrhosis in rats by inhibiting biliary epithelial cell proliferation and activation  

PubMed Central

Background: Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) consists of three aqueous extracts from Artemisia capillaris, Gardenia sp., and prepared Rheum rhabarbarum (rhubarb) (3:2:1). YCHT is characterized by its anti-inflammatory properties in liver regulation and relief of jaundice. We aimed to study the effects and mechanisms of action of YCHT on biliary obstructive cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: Secondary biliary fibrosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation (BDL) and scission. One week after BDL, rats were randomly divided into a saline-treated BDL or YCHT-treated BDL group for 4 weeks. Liver function and hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were assessed. Types I and IV collagen (Col-IV), laminin, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were assessed with immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the YCHT-treated BDL group, serum total bilirubin, total bile acids, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and ?-glutamyl transferase were lower than those in the sham-operated BDL group. The proliferation of bile ducts in hepatic tissues and the Hyp content and Col deposition were also significantly lower than those in control rats. In addition, ?-SMA and Col-IV staining was less obvious, and mRNA expression of Procol-?1 (IV), platelet derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF)-B, connective tissue growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta in proliferative biliary epithelial cells (BECs) in the YCHT-treated BDL group was significantly lower than those in controls. Conclusions: YCHT effectively reduces the formation of biliary obstructive cirrhosis mainly via inhibition of BEC proliferation by down-regulation of PDGF-B mRNA expression, inhibition of BEC profibrogenic paracrines, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathological process.

Wang, Bing; Sun, Ming-Yu; Long, Ai-Hua; Cao, Hong-Yan; Ren, Shuang; Bian, Yan-Qin; Lu, Xiong; Gu, Hong-Tu; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Liu, Ping

2015-01-01

192

Of cholescintigraphy, sonography, and great bears. A view on modern biliary imaging  

SciTech Connect

We review the discrepancies and the reasons for them, to conclude that clinical findings hold the key to selection of the proper imaging test in biliary obstruction. Cholescintigraphy is a more rewarding approach in detecting low grade obstruction, as by common duct stones, whereas in the patient with prolonged painless jaundice, and the high likelihood of a malignancy, computed tomography or ultrasound will yield the best results. Because of the potential for noninvasive imaging to miss choledocholithiasis and because of ever increasing therapeutic options, direct cholangiography will continue to be the mainstay in definition evaluation of the biliary tract. 12 references.

Burrell, M.I.; Zeman, R.K.

1988-04-01

193

Autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis concurrent with biliary stricture after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Although the development of de novo autoimmune liver disease after liver transplantation (LT) has been described in both children and adults, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) overlap syndrome has rarely been seen in liver transplant recipients. Here, we report a 50-year-old man who underwent LT for decompensated liver disease secondary to alcoholic steatohepatitis. His liver function tests became markedly abnormal 8 years after LT. Standard autoimmune serological tests were positive for anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies, and a marked biochemical response was observed to a regimen consisting of prednisone and ursodeoxycholic acid added to maintain immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Liver biopsy showed moderate bile duct lesions and periportal lymphocytes infiltrating along with light fibrosis, which confirmed the diagnosis of AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. We believe that this may be a case of post-LT de novo AIH-PBC overlap syndrome; a novel type of autoimmune overlap syndrome. PMID:25717264

Kang, Yong-Zhen; Sun, Xiao-Ye; Liu, Yi-He; Shen, Zhong-Yang

2015-02-21

194

[Cholangitis secondary to migrated metallic coils in the common bile duct].  

PubMed

Biliary obstructions are infrequently caused by foreign bodies. We present an unusual case of angiographically placed metallic coils into the intrahepatic arteries to provide hemostasis, that subsequently eroded into the common bile duct leading to obstructive jaundice and cholangitis a year later. In patients with history of invasive procedures, the possibility of foreign body migration into the common bile duct should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. PMID:23940918

Zervos, Xaralambos; Molina, Enrique; Larsen, Marcelo Fabián

2013-06-01

195

Biliary Adenofibroma of the Liver: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

We herein report the clinicopathologic features of a rare case of biliary adenofibroma (BAF) of the liver in a 79-year-old man. Grossly, tumour presented as a well-circumscribed, 5.5-cm mass with a solid and microcystic appearance. Histological examination was typical of biliary adenofibroma, showing a proliferation of variable-sized tubulocystic structures embedded in a moderately cellular fibrous stroma. Immunohistochemistry, revealing immunoreactivity of the epithelial component to cytokeratins 7 and 19, was consistent with a bile duct origin. Notably, the stromal cells had a myofibroblastic profile, showing a diffuse and strong expression of vimentin and ?-smooth muscle actin. Differential diagnosis with Von Meyenburg complex, biliary adenoma, biliary cistadenoma, congenital biliary cystsy, and hepatic benign cystic mesothelioma is provided. The occasionally reported expression of p53 in biliary adenofibroma has suggested that this tumour could represent a premalignant lesion. The absence of both cytological atypia and p53 immunoreactivity in our case confirms that BAF is a benign tumour with an indolent clinical behaviour. However, a careful histological examination of BAF is mandatory because malignant transformation of the epithelial component has been documented in two cases. PMID:21151526

Gurrera, Alessandra; Alaggio, Rita; Leone, Giorgia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Magro, Gaetano

2010-01-01

196

Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14-260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14-260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14-260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38-210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

Mizandari, Malkhaz [Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Radiology (Georgia); Pai, Madhava, E-mail: madhava.pai@imperial.ac.uk; Xi Feng [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina [University Hospital Brno Bohunice, Department of Radiology (Czech Republic); Quaretti, Pietro [IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Italy); Ao Guokun [The 309 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Department of Radiology (China); Kyriakides, Charis [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Robert [Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering (United Kingdom); Nicholls, Joanna; Habib, Nagy, E-mail: nagy.habib@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College, London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom)

2013-06-15

197

Treatment of biliary complications after liver transplant: results of a single center.  

PubMed

Biliary complications are major sources of morbidity after liver transplant due to vulnerable vascularization of the bile ducts. Biliary complications are the "Achilles' heel" of liver transplant with their high incidence, need for repeated and prolonged treatment, and potential effects on graft and patient survival. Although standardization of reconstruction techniques and improvements in immunosuppression and organ preservation have reduced the incidence of biliary complications, in early reports the morbidity rates are 50%, with related mortality rate 25% to 30%. Prophylaxis is a major issue. Although many risk factors (old donor age, marginal graft, prolonged ischemia time, living-donor liver transplant, partial liver transplant, donation after cardiac death, hepatic arterial thrombosis, organ preservation, chronic rejection, and other donor and recipient characteristics) do not directly affect biliary complications, accumulation of the factors mentioned above, should be avoided. However, no accepted standard has been established. Treatment strategy is a subject of debate. Recently, nonoperative treatment of biliary complications have been preferred for diagnosis and therapy, because percutaneous or endoscopic treatment may prevent the need for surgical intervention. In this study, we reviewed our treatment of early and late biliary complications after liver transplant. PMID:25894131

Yildirim, Sedat; Ayvazoglu Soy, Ebru Hatice; Akdur, Aydincan; Kirnap, Mahir; Boyvat, Fatih; Karakayali, Feza; Torgay, Adnan; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

2015-04-01

198

IKK1 and IKK2 cooperate to maintain bile duct integrity in the liver  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts is a common cause of vanishing bile duct syndrome and cholestasis, often progressing to biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of inflammatory biliary disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that the two I?B kinases, IKK1/IKK? and IKK2/IKK?, display distinct collaborative and specific functions that are essential to protect the liver from cytokine toxicity and bile duct disease. Combined conditional ablation of IKK1 and IKK2, but not of each kinase alone, sensitized the liver to in vivo LPS challenge, uncovering a redundant function of the two I?B kinases in mediating canonical NF-?B signaling in hepatocytes and protecting the liver from TNF-induced failure. Unexpectedly, mice with combined ablation of IKK1 and IKK2 or IKK1 and NEMO spontaneously developed severe jaundice and fatal cholangitis characterized by inflammatory destruction of small portal bile ducts. This bile duct disease was caused by the combined impairment of canonical NF-?B signaling together with inhibition of IKK1-specific functions affecting the bile–blood barrier. These results reveal a novel function of the two I?B kinases in cooperatively regulating liver immune homeostasis and bile duct integrity and suggest that IKK signaling may be implicated in human biliary diseases. PMID:18606991

Luedde, Tom; Heinrichsdorff, Jan; de Lorenzi, Rossana; De Vos, Rita; Roskams, Tania; Pasparakis, Manolis

2008-01-01

199

Ducted turbine theory with right angled ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of an inviscid approach to model a ducted turbine - also known as a diffuser augmented turbine - and a comparison of results with a particular one-dimensional theory. The aim of the investigation was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between a real duct and the ideal diffuser, which is a concept that is developed in the theory. A range of right angled ducts, which have a rim for a 90° exit angle, were modelled. As a result, the performance of right angled ducts has been characterised in inviscid flow. It was concluded that right angled ducts cannot match the performance of their associated ideal diffuser and that the optimum rotor loading for these turbines varies with the duct dimensions.

McLaren-Gow, S.; Jamieson, P.; Graham, J. M. R.

2014-06-01

200

Duct joining system  

DOEpatents

A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

Proctor, John P. (44 Glen Dr., Fairfax, CA 94930); deKieffer, Robert C. (Boulder, CO)

2001-01-01

201

Duct Joining System  

DOEpatents

A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

Proctor, John P. (Fairfax, CA)

2001-02-27

202

Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Riva, Silvia [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Pediatric Hepatology (Italy); Spada, Marco [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy); Luca, Angelo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Radiology (Italy); Gridelli, Bruno [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (IsMeTT), Department of Transplantation Surgery (Italy)

2008-09-15

203

Exploration of common bile duct for treating hepatic cystic echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of exploration of common bile duct through cystic duct or T type tube in CE patients. Methods: One hundred and fifty six patients with chronic CE received decompression of biliary tract from January 2007 to December 2012 were included. Exploration of common bile duct was performed through cystic duct (n=102) or T type tube (n=54). Psychological reactions were monitored including inconvenient position alteration due to carrying of the drainage tube, anxiety of the folding and prolapse of drainage tube, folding of the drainage tube, and any pain during the body position change. Results: No significant difference was noticed in the body position alteration discomfort in both groups (P>0.05). Statistical difference was noted in the anxiety of folding and prolapse of draining tube (P<0.05), and improvement of the clinical symptoms (P<0.05). Conclusions: A higher possibility of wound, enlarged tube-carrying duration, and lower sense of discomfort, were noticed in patients underwent exploration of common bile duct through T type tube. Higher sense of comfort was reported in patients received exploration of common bile duct through cystic duct tube. PMID:25785125

Liu, Xing-Wen; Zhao, Ping; Gao, Li-Qun; Hu, Jing; Wang, Li-Ying

2015-01-01

204

Intraluminal radiation therapy in the management of malignant biliary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction from carcinoma of the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas (Group I) or metastatic disease (Group II) were treated with intraluminal radiation therapy (ILRT) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In 11 cases ILRT was used as a central boost in combination with 3000 cGy external beam radiation therapy (ERT). No significant treatment toxicity was observed. Cholangiographic response was observed in 2 of 12 evaluable patients. In no patient was long-term relief of jaundice without indwelling biliary stent achieved. Survival from treatment in eight Group I patients treated with ILRT +/- ERT was 3 to 13 months (median, 4.5). Survival in seven similarly treated Group II patients was 0.5 to 8 months (median, 4.0). Additional data for ten similar patients referred for ILRT but treated with ERT alone are presented. Analysis of this and other reports indicate the need for prospective controlled trials of the role of this regimen in the management of malignant biliary obstruction before wider application can be recommended.

Molt, P.; Hopfan, S.; Watson, R.C.; Botet, J.F.; Brennan, M.F.

1986-02-01

205

Biliary papillomatosis arising in a congenital choledochal cyst: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of biliary papillomatosis arising in a congenital choledochal cyst, with an anomalous junction of the pancreatobiliary ductal system (AJPBDS). A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our department with epigastralgia, and imaging studies showed two masses in the cystic common bile duct and an AJPBDS. We made a preoperative diagnosis of biliary tract cancer, considering the size of the masses and the presence of the AJPBDS, and performed a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The resected specimen contained two papillary tumors, which were subsequently diagnosed as benign papillomas. Histopathological and oncological examinations indicated that the lesions were involved in the development and progression of carcinogenesis because a point mutation of the K- ras gene and overexpression of p53 protein were detected. These findings suggest that biliary papillomatosis is a precancerous lesion induced by an AJPBDS. PMID:12444445

Iwasaki, Yoshimi; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Furihata, Tadashi; Rokkaku, Kyu; Sakuma, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Kazuhito; Fujimori, Takahiro; Kubota, Keiichi

2002-01-01

206

Sequential algorithm analysis to facilitate selective biliary access for difficult biliary cannulation in ERCP: a prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous clinical trials to improve the success rate of biliary access in difficult biliary cannulation (DBC) during ERCP have been reported. However, standard guidelines or sequential protocol analysis according to different methods are limited in place. We planned to investigate a sequential protocol to facilitate selective biliary access for DBC during ERCP. Methods This prospective clinical study enrolled 711 patients with naïve papillae at a tertiary referral center. If wire-guided cannulation was deemed to have failed due to the DBC criteria, then according to the cannulation algorithm early precut fistulotomy (EPF; cannulation time?>?5 min, papillary contacts?>?5 times, or hook-nose-shaped papilla), double-guidewire cannulation (DGC; unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation???3 times), and precut after placement of a pancreatic stent (PPS; if DGC was difficult or failed) were performed sequentially. The main outcome measurements were the technical success, procedure outcomes, and complications. Results Initially, a total of 140 (19.7%) patients with DBC underwent EPF (n?=?71) and DGC (n?=?69). Then, in DGC group 36 patients switched to PPS due to difficulty criteria. The successful biliary cannulation rate was 97.1% (136/140; 94.4% [67/71] with EPF, 47.8% [33/69] with DGC, and 100% [36/36] with PPS; P?duct cannulations, and PPS in failed or difficult DGC may facilitate successful biliary cannulation. PMID:24529239

2014-01-01

207

Pneumobilia After Penetrating Trauma Abdominal Wall with no Injury to the Biliary Tree- A Case Report.  

PubMed

Pneumobilia denotes an abnormal connection between the gastrointestinal and the biliary tracts. In the absence of surgically created anastomosis between the bowel and the bile duct, the common causes for pneumobilia are gallstone obstruction, endoscopic interventions or emphysematous cholecystitis. We present the case of a young male with traumatic pneumobilia with gastric perforation and a tear in the mesentery of the small gut following penetrating trauma in the form of stab in the abdomen. PMID:24426638

Sandhu, Sartaj Singh; Sampley, Sunil K; Chhabra, Kapil

2013-06-01

208

Liver resection for the treatment of post-cholecystectomy biliary stricture with vascular injury  

PubMed Central

AIM: To report experience with liver resection in a select group of patients with postoperative biliary stricture associated with vascular injury. METHODS: From a prospective database of patients treated for benign biliary strictures at our hospital, cases that underwent liver resections were reviewed. All cases were referred after one or more attempts to repair bile duct injuries following cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic). Liver resection was indicated in patients with Strasberg E3/E4 (hilar stricture) bile duct lesions associated with vascular damage (arterial and/or portal), ipsilateral liver atrophy/abscess, recurrent attacks of cholangitis, and failure of previous hepaticojejunostomy. RESULTS: Of 148 patients treated for benign biliary strictures, nine (6.1%) underwent liver resection; eight women and one man with a mean age of 38.6 years. Six patients had previously been submitted to open cholecystectomy and three to laparoscopic surgery. The mean number of surgical procedures before definitive treatment was 2.4. All patients had Strasberg E3/E4 injuries, and vascular injury was present in all cases. Eight patients underwent right hepatectomy and one underwent left lateral sectionectomy without mortality. Mean time of follow up was 69.1 mo and after long-term follow up, eight patients are asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Liver resection is a good therapeutic option for patients with complex postoperative biliary stricture and vascular injury presenting with liver atrophy/abscess in which previous hepaticojejunostomy has failed. PMID:25717244

Perini, Marcos V; Herman, Paulo; Montagnini, Andre L; Jukemura, Jose; Coelho, Fabricio F; Kruger, Jaime A; Bacchella, Telesforo; Cecconello, Ivan

2015-01-01

209

Review of experimental animal models of biliary acute pancreatitis and recent advances in basic research.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a formidable disease, which, in severe forms, causes significant mortality. Biliary AP, or gallstone obstruction-associated AP, accounts for 30-50% of all clinical cases of AP. In biliary AP, pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) death (the initiating event in the disease) is believed to occur as acinar cells make contact with bile salts when bile refluxes into the pancreatic duct. Recent advances have unveiled an important receptor responsible for the major function of bile acids on acinar cells, namely, the cell surface G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar1), located in the apical pole of the PAC. High concentrations of bile acids induce cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and inhibit mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in cell injury to both PACs and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Various bile salts are employed to induce experimental AP, most commonly sodium taurocholate. Recent characterization of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulphate on PACs has led researchers to focus on this bile salt because of its potency in causing acinar cell injury at relatively low, sub-detergent concentrations, which strongly implicates action via the receptor Gpbar1. Improved surgical techniques have enabled the infusion of bile salts into the pancreatic duct to induce experimental biliary AP in mice, which allows the use of these transgenic animals as powerful tools. This review summarizes recent findings using transgenic mice in experimental biliary AP. PMID:22221567

Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Latawiec, Diane; Jiang, Kun; Booth, David M; Elliott, Victoria; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Xia, Qing

2012-02-01

210

Percutaneous Embolization of Transhepatic Tracks for Biliary Intervention  

SciTech Connect

Significant pain can occur after removing transhepatic catheters from biliary access tracks, after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) or stenting. We undertook a randomized prospective study to ascertain whether track embolization decreases the amount of pain or analgesic requirement after PBD. Fifty consecutive patients (M:F, 22:28; age range:29-85 years; mean age: 66.3 years) undergoing PBD were randomized to receive track embolization or no track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters. A combination of Lipoidol and n-butyl cyanoacrylate were used to embolize transhepatic tracks using an 8F dilator. The patients who did not have track embolization performed had biliary drainage catheters removed over a guide wire. A visual analog scoring (VAS) system was used to grade pain associated with catheter removal, 24 h afterward. A required analgesic score (RAS) was devised to tabulate the analgesia required. No analgesia had a score of 0, oral or rectal nonopiate analgesics had a score of 1, oral opiates had a score of 2, and parenteral opiates had a score of 3. The average VAS and RAS for both groups were calculated and compared.Seven patients were excluded for various reasons, leaving 43 patients in the study group. Twenty-one patients comprised the embolization group and 22 patients comprised the nonembolization group. The mean biliary catheter dwell time was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the embolization group and nonembolization (mean: 5.4 days vs 6.9 days, respectively). In the nonembolization group, the mean VAS was 3.4. Eight patients required parenteral opiates, three patients required oral opiates, and five patients required oral or rectal analgesics, yielding a mean RAS of 1.6. In the embolization group, the mean VAS was 0.9. No patient required parenteral opiates, six patients required oral opiates, and two patients had oral analgesia. The average RAS was 0.6. Both the VAS and the RAS were significantly lower in the embolization group compared with the nonembolization group (p < 0.0023 and p < 0.002, respectively). No complications were seen related to track embolization. Percutaneous track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters decreases patient's perception of pain and decreases the amount of required analgesia. In particular, the amount of opiate analgesia required is considerably less.

Lyon, Stuart M.; Terhaar, Olaf; Given, Mark F.; O'Dwyer, Helena M.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J. [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology (Ireland)], E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie

2006-12-15

211

Evaluation of biliary disease by scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The value of biliary scintigraphy was studied in 180 patients with suspected biliary tract disease. Most of the patients were investigated additionally by conventional techniques such as cholecystography, cholangiography and ultrasonography. It is concluded that biliary scintigraphy is a simple and safe technique for visualization of the biliary tract. It is particularly useful in the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, in patients with iodine sensitivity obstructive from nonobstructive jaundice.

Ram, M.D.; Hagihara, P.F.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.; Griffen, W.O.

1981-01-01

212

Biliary atresia and neonatal hepatobiliary scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m diethyl IDA was performed on 14 jaundiced neonates. It aided greatly the differential diagnosis between neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. Limitations in the interpretation of the results are described, as neonatal hepatitis may be accompanied by biliary excretion ranging from zero to normal. Also both biliary atresia (intra- and extrahepatic) and neonatal hepatitis may show no biliary excretion within 24 hours.

Wynchank, S.; Guillet, J.; Leccia, F.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.

1984-03-01

213

Animal models of primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized histologically by the presence of chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis of the small interlobular bile duct, leading to chronic progressive cholestasis. Most PBC patients are asymptomatic and have a reasonable prognosis, but a few develop esophageal varices or jaundice, rapidly leading to liver failure within a short period. As multiple factors appear to be involved in the onset of PBC, its clinical course may be complicated. Therefore, the use of an animal model would be valuable for clarifying the pathogenesis of PBC. Here, we review recent data of selected PBC models, particularly spontaneous models, xenobiotic immunized models, and infection-triggered models. There are a number of spontaneous models: the NOD.c3c4, dominant-negative TGF-? receptor II, IL-2R?-/-, Scurfy, and Ae2a,b-/- mice. These animal models manifest distinct clinical and immunological features similar, but also often different, from those of human PBC. It is clear that a combination of genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immunological dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of PBC. The diverse clinical course and complexity of the immunological mechanisms of PBC cannot be fully recapitulated solely any single animal model. The challenge remains to develop a progressive PBC disease model that exhibits fibrosis, and ultimately hepatic failure. PMID:25771770

Katsumi, Tomohiro; Tomita, Kyoko; Leung, Patrick S C; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Gershwin, M Eric; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

2015-06-01

214

[Surgical treatment of benign lesions and strictures of the bile ducts].  

PubMed

Benign strictures of the biliary ducts are treated surgically in 90% of cases. Usually they are caused by trauma to the choledochous duct during gallbladder operations. Younger patients are frequently affected and, particularly if the strictures go untreated, can suffer from secondary complications such as cholangitis or secondary biliary cirrhosis with the serious dangers of portal hypertension and even hepatic failure and death. Although immediate treatment by end-to-end anastomosis has sometimes been described, this method is reasonable only for smooth cuts to the choledochous duct. Good long-term results have been achieved in 86% of cases with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. In general, the best way to avoid complications is the all-important surgical maxim of correct indication for the primary operation. The best course is to limit the decision for surgery to symptomatic gallstones. PMID:16557406

Tracey, J Y; Moossa, A R

2006-04-01

215

Trps1 Regulates Biliary Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Has Roles during Biliary Fibrosis in Liver Grafts: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role(s) of Trps1 in non-anastomotic biliary stricture (NABS) following liver transplantation. Methods Immunohistochemical and histological techniques were used to detect Trps1, E-cadherin, CK19, vimentin, ?-SMA, and collagen deposition. Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBECs) were infected with a Trps1 adenovirus, or transfected with Trps1 short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays and western blotting were used to determine expression levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and Trps1 in HIBECs. Results Expression of Trps1 and epithelial markers was down-regulated or absent in NABS liver samples. Mesenchymal markers were seen in biliary epithelial cells (BECs), with collagen deposited around the bile duct. Trps1 expression positively correlated with epithelial markers. Expression of epithelial marker mRNAs and proteins in HIBECs decreased with prolonged cold preservation (CP), while mesenchymal marker expression increased. A 12-h CP period led to increased Trps1 mRNA and protein levels. Expression of E-cadherin was increased in HIBECs following Trps1 adenovirus infection and CP/reperfusion injury (CPRI), with vimentin expression levels reduced and CPRI-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibited. Transfection of HIBECs with Trps1 siRNAs in conjunction with CPRI revealed that E-cadherin expression was decreased, vimentin expression was increased, and CPRI-mediated EMT was promoted. Conclusion Trps1 is involved in NABS pathogenesis following liver transplantation and negatively correlates with BEC EMT and biliary fibrosis in liver grafts. Trps1 demonstrates antagonistic effects that could reverse EMT. PMID:25886207

Zhe, Cheng; Yu, Fan; Tian, Ju; Zheng, Shuguo

2015-01-01

216

Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary diseases  

PubMed Central

Biliary fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) are now being used to treat several benign biliary conditions. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters in addition to an easy insertion technique. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. In benign biliary strictures that usually require multiple procedures, despite the substantially higher cost of FCSEMS compared with plastic stents, the use of FCSEMS is offset by the reduced number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography interventions required to achieve stricture resolution. In the same way, FCSEMS have also been employed to treat complex bile leaks, perforation and bleeding after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and as an aid to maintain permanent drainage tracts obtained by means of Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided biliary drainage. Good success rates have been achieved in all these conditions with an acceptable number of complications. FCSEMS were successfully removed in all patients. Comparative studies of FCSEMS and plastic stents are needed to demonstrate efficacy and cost-effectiveness PMID:22523615

García-Cano, Jesús

2012-01-01

217

Manometric study of the sphincter of Oddi in patients with and without common bile duct stones.  

PubMed Central

Motor activity of the sphincter of Oddi has been evaluated in 34 patients who underwent ERCP examination. Manometric recordings from the common bile duct and the sphincter of Oddi were performed with a polyethylene triple lumen catheter. At ERCP 16 patients had undamaged biliary ducts; six had undergone cholecystectomy and six had gall bladder stones; 18 patients had common bile duct stones; nine of whom had undergone cholecystectomy, and seven had gall bladder stones. Length and amplitude of the resting sphincter pressure as well as frequency, duration, amplitude, and propagating pattern of phasic contractions did not significantly differ in patients with and without common bile duct stones. Sphincter of Oddi motor activity did not appear to be influenced by the variation in the diameter of the common bile duct or by previous cholecystectomy. PMID:6698444

De Masi, E; Corazziari, E; Habib, F I; Fontana, B; Gatti, V; Fegiz, G F; Torsoli, A

1984-01-01

218

Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct.  

PubMed

Complete bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction has long been recognized as an uncommon, treatable form of male infertility. Partial ejaculatory duct obstruction reflects a disturbance of ejaculation where sperm quality is impaired during transit through the distal vas deferens and ejaculatory ducts. With the advent and increased use of high-resolution transrectal ultrasonography, abnormalities of the distal ejaculatory ducts related to infertility have been well documented. Although there are no pathognomonic findings associated with ejaculatory duct obstruction, several clinical findings are highly suggestive. In an infertile man with oligospermia or azoospermia with low ejaculate volume, normal secondary sexual characteristics, testes and hormonal profile and dilated seminal vesicles, midline cyst, or calcification on transrectal ultrasonography, ejaculatory duct obstruction is suggested. Of course, other causes of infertility may be concomitantly present and need to be searched for and treated as well. In selected cases, transurethral resection has resulted in marked improvement in semen parameters and pregnancies have been achieved. As is the case with all surgical procedures, proper patient selection and surgical experience are necessary to obtain optimal results. However, it appears that the treatments currently available for relief of ejaculatory obstruction are not optimally effective. Only approximately one half of treated patients will have an improvement in semen parameters and only about one quarter of treated patients will contribute to a pregnancy. What remains to be determined is how to manage the additional nearly 50% of patients who do not benefit from transurethral resection of ejaculatory obstruction. Based on my experience, I suggest that transrectal ultrasonography should be the first diagnostic procedure used when infertile men are suspected of having ejaculatory duct obstruction; however, vasography should still be considered for a more comprehensive diagnosis of ejaculatory duct obstruction. In patients showing atrophic seminal vesicles on transrectal ultrasonography and having a history of pulmonary tuberculosis, further study is not necessary and microscopic epididymal sperm aspiration is recommended for in vitro fertilization. Qualitative measurement of semen fructose may be helpful in the diagnosis of partial ejaculatory duct obstruction. Patients having midline cyst and being treated by transurethral resection are expected to have the best outcome. PMID:10830818

Paick, J S

2000-05-01

219

Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model  

SciTech Connect

PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (?2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ?50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

Choi, Jae Woong, E-mail: cooljay@korea.ac.kr; Lu, David S. K., E-mail: dlu@mednet.ucla.edu; Osuagwu, Ferdnand, E-mail: fosuagwu@mednet.ucla.edu; Raman, Steven, E-mail: sraman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States); Lassman, Charles, E-mail: classman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Pathology (United States)

2013-11-07

220

Dilation and Curettage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains dilation and curettage (D & C) and its use in the diagnosis and treatment of various gynecological diseases. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

221

Delayed rearterialization unlikely leads to nonanastomotic stricture but causes temporary injury on bile duct after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Nonanastomotic strictures (NAS) are common biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT). Delayed rearterialization induces biliary injury in several hours. However, whether this injury can be prolonged remains unknown. The correlation of this injury with NAS occurrence remains obscure. Different delayed rearterialization times were compared using a porcine LT model. Morphological and functional changes in bile canaliculus were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL were performed to validate intrahepatic bile duct injury. Three months after LT was performed, biliary duct stricture was determined by cholangiography; the tissue of common bile duct was detected by real-time PCR. Bile canaliculi were impaired in early postoperative stage and then exacerbated as delayed rearterialization time was prolonged. Nevertheless, damaged bile canaliculi could fully recover in subsequent months. TNF-? and TGF-? expressions and apoptosis cell ratio increased in the intrahepatic bile duct only during early postoperative period in a time-dependent manner. No abnormality was observed by cholangiography and common bile duct examination after 3 months. Delayed rearterialization caused temporary injury to bile canaliculi and intrahepatic bile duct in a time-dependent manner. Injury could be fully treated in succeeding months. Solo delayed rearterialization cannot induce NAS after LT. PMID:25406364

Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiazhong; Yang, Peng; Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Le; Wang, Jinlong; Li, Hua; Duan, Yanxia; Wang, Jun; Li, Yiming

2015-01-01

222

Role of Kasai procedure in surgery of hilar bile duct strictures  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the application of the Kasai procedure in the surgical management of hilar bile duct strictures. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients between 2005 and 2011 with hilar bile duct strictures who underwent the Kasai procedure were retrospectively analyzed. Kasai portoenterostomy with the placement of biliary stents was performed in all patients. Clinical characteristics, postoperative complications, and long-term outcomes were analyzed. All patients were followed up for 2-60 mo postoperatively. RESULTS: Patients were classified according to the Bismuth classification of biliary strictures. There were two Bismuth III and eight Bismuth IV lesions. Six lesions were benign and four were malignant. Of the benign lesions, three were due to post-cholecystectomy injury, one to trauma, one to inflammation, and one to inflammatory pseudotumor. Of the malignant lesions, four were due to hilar cholangiocarcinoma. All patients underwent Kasai portoenterostomy with the placement of biliary stents. There were no perioperative deaths. One patient experienced anastomotic leak and was managed conservatively. No other complications occurred perioperatively. During the follow-up period, all patients reported a good quality of life. CONCLUSION: The Kasai procedure combined with biliary stents may be appropriate for patients with hilar biliary stricture that cannot be managed by standard surgical methods. PMID:22072856

Gao, Jin-Bo; Bai, Li-Shan; Hu, Zhi-Jian; Wu, Jun-Wei; Chai, Xin-Qun

2011-01-01

223

Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence  

E-print Network

We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer [1]. The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation [2]. We show that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, indicating that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Finally, we point out a way to bootstrap the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, and comment on how this can be considered a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.

Cisco Gooding; William G. Unruh

2015-03-18

224

Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

1991-01-01

225

Repression of Farnesoid X receptor contributes to biliary injuries of liver grafts through disturbing cholangiocyte bile acid transport.  

PubMed

Biliary epithelial damage is the critical point in the development of nonanastomotic strictures, a serious biliary complication after liver transplantation (LT). Current study focuses on the roles and mechanisms of unbalanced bile acid (BA) transporting of cholangiocytes in biliary epithelial damages following LT. Using rat LT models, we observed that biliary transit time (BTT) of BA was prolonged, and the degree and duration of BTT prolongation were related to the cold ischemia time of donor liver. Moreover, prolonged BTT was correlated with bile duct injury severity. The expression of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) underwent a dramatic decrease after transplantation, and the decrease in FXR was related to cold ischemic time of donor liver. Negative correlation was observed between FXR expression and BTT. With in vitro cultured human biliary epithelial cells, it was observed that FXR expressions and DNA binding activities were repressed under hypoxic conditions. FXR repression by hypoxia mediated unparallel expressions of BA transporters and intracellular accumulation of BAs, which induced higher cell apoptosis rates and enhanced profibrotic factor expression in cholangiocytes. These findings indicated that FXR repression under ischemic/hypoxic conditions contributed to biliary epithelial damages by disturbing BA transporting of cholangiocytes after LT. PMID:24266967

Cheng, L; Tian, F; Tian, F; Tang, L; Chen, G; Luo, Z; Ren, J; Wang, S

2013-12-01

226

Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Clearance of Occluded Metal Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results  

SciTech Connect

PurposeThe major complication occurring with biliary stents is stent occlusion, frequently seen because of tumour in-growth, epithelial hyperplasia, and sludge deposits, resulting in recurrent jaundice and cholangitis. We report a prospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation to clear the blocked metal stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a novel bipolar RF catheter.MethodsNine patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary RF ablation through the blocked metal stent following external biliary decompression with an internal–external biliary drainage.ResultsAll nine patients had their stent patency restored successfully without the use of secondary stents. Following this intervention, there was no 30-day mortality, haemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the nine patients, six are alive and three patients are dead with a median follow-up of 122 (range 50–488) days and a median stent patency of 102.5 (range 50–321) days. Six patients had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. Three patients with stent blockage at 321, 290, and 65 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and repeat ablation.ConclusionsIn this selective group of patients, it appears that this new approach is safe and feasible. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

Pai, Madhava, E-mail: madhava.pai@imperial.ac.uk [Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, HPB Unit, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina [University Hospital Brno Bohunice, Department of Radiology (Czech Republic); Doros, Attila [Semmelweis University, Radiology Unit, Department of Transplantation and Surgery (Hungary); Quaretti, Pietro [IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Italy); Habib, Nagy, E-mail: nagy.habib@imperial.ac.uk [Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, HPB Unit, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom)

2013-07-11

227

Robotic-Assisted Surgery Approach in a Biliary Rhabdomyosarcoma Misdiagnosed as Choledochal Cyst  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue malignant tumor affecting 1% of children from 0 to 14 years. Preoperative imaging may not always be diagnostic for hepatobiliary rhabdomyosarcoma and differential diagnosis with choledochal cyst (CC) could be difficult. We report a case of 2-years-old girl with a strange CC pattern of presentation. A grapelike lesion involving the choledochal and biliary ducts was easily and completely resected by robotic assisted surgery. Since no previous reports were available about oncologic safety of robotic approach, the porto-enterostomy was performed in open surgery. On histologic examination, the specimen revealed a botryoidembryonal rhabdomyosarcoma affecting both the common bile duct and the common hepatic duct. One year postoperatively the child is safe of tumor relapse. Robotic approach seems to be safe and advantageous to obtain a radical excision of the tumor at the porta hepatis, even in case of misdiagnosed malignant lesion mimicking a CC. PMID:24711907

Nakib, Ghassan; Calcaterra, Valeria; Goruppi, Ilaria; Romano, Piero; Raffaele, Alessandro; Schleef, Jurgen; Pelizzo, Gloria

2014-01-01

228

Molecular identification of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in liver tissue of primary biliary cirrhosis: Is Propionibacterium acnes involved in granuloma formation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains speculative. Epithelioid granulomas are often found in the vicinity of damaged interlobular bile ducts in PBC, raising the possibility of a reaction to microbial materials. In this study, we tried to detect and identify bacterial DNA within granulomatous lesions in PBC. Using liver sections from 9 patients with PBC and 13 control

Kenichi Harada; Koichi Tsuneyama; Yoshiko Sudo; Shinji Masuda; Yasuni Nakanuma

2001-01-01

229

Cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and common duct stenosis in children and adolescents.  

PubMed Central

A study of 100 patients from 14 months through 18 years of age with extrahepatic biliary tract conditions who have been treated from 1950 through 1979 is reported. For discussion, these have been classified into four groups including acalculous cholecystitis, nonhemolytic cholelithiasis, hemolytic cholelithiasis and stenosis of the common duct. Ninety-nine patients were operated on and there were no deaths. Except for unusual contraindications, cholecystectomy is preferred for acute noncalculous cholecystitis. The largest number having gallstones were those patients (87%) without hemolytic disease. Only 13% had an associated hemolytic disorder. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment and common duct exploration is utilized when indicated. Six children with chronic relapsing pancreatitis secondary to stenosis of the ampulla of Vater and two with common duct stenosis are analyzed. Although extrahepatic biliary disorders are usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of children and adolescents with vague abdominal pain, it is evident by this large number of patients that there should be greater emphasis placed on earlier diagnosis in the future. PMID:6989334

Holcomb, G W; O'Neill, J A; Holcomb, G W

1980-01-01

230

Spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct in children  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe radiologic findings in five patients with spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct (a rare disorder). The patients were 5 weeks, 9 weeks, 3 months, 11 months, and 2 1/2 years old at presentation. The most common presenting complaints were jaundice and abdominal distention (due to ascites). Sonographic findings included ascites in three patients, a loculated fluid collection around the gallbladder in two patients, and both in one patient. The biliary tree was undilated in all patients. Results of hepatobiliary scintigraphy definitely demonstrated that intraperitoneal fluid originated from the biliary tract. Intraoperative cholangiography was used to confirm the diagnosis at surgery. All children were successfully treated with surgery. Recognition of these findings on sonograms and subsequent confirmation with scintigraphy are important to prevent delays in diagnosis of a potentially fatal condition.

Haller, J.O.; Condon, V.R.; Berdon, W.E.; Oh, K.S.; Price, A.P.; Bowen, A.; Cohen, H.L. (State Univ. of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (USA))

1989-09-01

231

EUS-Guided Bile Duct Drainage (EUBD) in 95 Patients.  

PubMed

Purpose: Bile duct stenting during ERCP has long been established as the gold standard for the treatment of biliary obstruction. However, when the ampulla cannot be reached or bile duct cannulation fails, percutaneous or surgical drainage is performed. The study aimed to investigate the feasibility and long-term outcome of a potential alternative intervention, EUS-guided transluminal biliary drainage (EUBD), in a representative number of patients. Materials and Methods: All patients undergoing EUBD were included in a prospectively collected single-center database over a 10-year period. Feasibility was characterized by technical and clinical success, including long-term follow-up data. Results: From IV/2002 - XI/2012, 10?832 EUS and 8756 ERCP procedures were performed. Simultaneously, 223 PTCD and 95 EUBD were performed. Cholangiography was achieved in 93/95 patients (97.9?%). However, in one patient stone extraction was executed by means of the rendezvous technique. Therefore, drainage was not necessary. Intention to treat with EUS-guided drainage was given in 80/94 patients (86.9?%) using different techniques depending on anatomical variations and requirements. The cause of bile duct obstruction could not be cured in 77 patients (malignancy). In 18 patients, a benign (n?=?15) or unknown etiology (n?=?3) of bile duct stenosis was found. The complication rate was 15.7?% (mortality, 1.1?%; n?=?1/95). The follow-up ranged from 3?-?60 months with reintervention in 3 patients. Conclusion: EUBD is a promising therapy for bile duct obstruction in patients predominantly with malignant diseases. Using EUBD, an excellent interventional approach is available for long-term internal drainage to prevent percutaneous drainage (PTCD). EUS-guided drainage is challenging and needs extraordinary interventional expertise, preferentially in tertiary gastroenterological and endoscopic centers. PMID:24854133

Will, U; Fueldner, F; Kern, C; Meyer, F

2014-05-22

232

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided bile duct access for rendezvous ERCP drainage in the setting of intradiverticular papilla.  

PubMed

Cannulation of an intradiverticular papilla during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be challenging. We present here a technique for endoscopic ultrasound-guided puncture of the common bile duct followed by rendezvous ERCP for biliary drainage through the native intradiverticular papilla. PMID:15844030

Lai, R; Freeman, M L

2005-05-01

233

Percutaneous transhepatic intubation of bile ducts for combined internal-external drainage in preoperative and palliative treatment of obstructive jaundice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous transhepatic intubation and combined internal-external drainage of the biliary system was performed in 15 patients with occlusion of the extrahepatic bile ducts due mainly to cholangiocarcinoma, metastases of the hepatoduodenal ligament, and tumors of the periampullary region. The technique is described and the value of the procedure in temporary decompression and combined internalexternal bile drainage prior to radical surgery

J. Hoevels; A. Lunderquist; I. Ihse

1978-01-01

234

Advanced Duct Sealing Testing  

SciTech Connect

Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected weekly. The baking test specimens were visually inspected weekly, and the durability was judged by the observed deterioration in terms of brittleness, cracking, flaking and blistering (the terminology used in the UL 181B-FX test procedure).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2003-08-01

235

Duct Tape Durability Testing  

SciTech Connect

Duct leakage is a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums, or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections, a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that taped seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been testing sealant durability for several years using accelerated test methods and found that typical duct tape (i.e., cloth-backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) fails more rapidly than other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing over two years for four UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (two cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The tests involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars. Periodic air leakage tests and visual inspection were used to document changes in sealant performance. After two years of testing, the flex-to-collar connections showed little change in air leakage, but substantial visual degradation from some products. A surprising experimental result was failure of most of the clamps used to mechanically fasten the connections. This indicates that the durability of clamps also need to be addressed ensure longevity of the duct connection. An accelerated test method developed during this study has been used as the basis for an ASTM standard (E2342-03).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2004-04-01

236

Gadolinium chloride suppresses hepatic oval cell proliferation in rats with biliary obstruction.  

PubMed Central

Liver injury due to bile duct ligation (BDL) is histologically characterized by cholestasis, bile ductular proliferation, hepatocellular damage, portal fibrosis, and ultimately biliary cirrhosis. Stem cells within the liver may act as progenitor cells for small epithelial cells termed oval cells that can differentiate into bile duct cells or hepatocytes, whereas myofibroblasts are the principal source of collagen production in fibrosis. The aims of this study were to determine 1) whether BDL induces oval cell proliferation and 2) whether blockade of Kupffer cells affects oval cell proliferation, bile duct proliferation, and myofibroblast transformation in experimental biliary obstruction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups to receive either a single dose of gadolinium chloride (a selective Kupffer cell blocking agent) or vehicle. One day later, the gadolinium- and vehicle-treated groups were further subdivided to receive either BDL or sham operation. The rats were sacrificed on day 7 postoperatively. Serum was collected for measurement of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and bilirubin levels. Liver tissue was taken for evaluation of fibrosis, bile ductular cells, oval cells, and myofibroblasts. BDL resulted in elevated aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and bilirubin in serum, and gadolinium pretreatment did not modify these effects. BDL induced marked oval cell proliferation, which was completely prevented by gadolinium pretreatment. Gadolinium did not affect the induction of bile duct expansion or myofibroblasts after BDL. We conclude that experimental biliary obstruction induces oval cell proliferation, which can be prevented by gadolinium pretreatment. This suggests that bile ductular proliferation and myofibroblast transformation are not mediated by Kupffer cells and that ductular proliferation can proceed in the absence of oval cells. Alternatively, gadolinium may directly affect oval cell proliferation after BDL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9466559

Olynyk, J. K.; Yeoh, G. C.; Ramm, G. A.; Clarke, S. L.; Hall, P. M.; Britton, R. S.; Bacon, B. R.; Tracy, T. F.

1998-01-01

237

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates biliary proliferation by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms.  

PubMed

During cholestatic liver disease, there is dysregulation in the balance between biliary growth and loss in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats modulated by neuroendocrine peptides via autocrine/paracrine pathways. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a trophic peptide hormone that modulates reproductive function and proliferation in many cell types. We evaluated the autocrine role of GnRH in the regulation of cholangiocyte proliferation. The expression of GnRH receptors was assessed in a normal mouse cholangiocyte cell line (NMC), sham, and BDL rats. The effect of GnRH administration was evaluated in normal rats and in NMC. GnRH-induced biliary proliferation was evaluated by changes in intrahepatic bile duct mass and the expression of proliferation and function markers. The expression and secretion of GnRH in NMC and isolated cholangiocytes was assessed. GnRH receptor subtypes GnRHR1 and GnRHR2 were expressed in cholangiocytes. Treatment with GnRH increased intrahepatic bile duct mass as well as proliferation and function markers in cholangiocytes. Transient knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of GnRHR1 in NMC decreased proliferation. BDL cholangiocytes had increased expression of GnRH compared with normal rats, accompanied by increased GnRH secretion. In vivo and in vitro knockdown of GnRH decreased intrahepatic bile duct mass/cholangiocyte proliferation and fibrosis. GnRH secreted by cholangiocytes promotes biliary proliferation via an autocrine pathway. Disruption of GnRH/GnRHR signaling may be important for the management of cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:25794706

Ray, Debolina; Han, Yuyan; Franchitto, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon; Meng, Fanyin; Venter, Julie; McMillin, Matthew; Kennedy, Lindsey; Francis, Heather; Onori, Paolo; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S

2015-04-01

238

Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of the thoracic duct in the canine  

E-print Network

(1. ). b) A lymphangio- gxam of the same dog. Notice the dilated lymphabcs (small white arrow), thoracic lymphangiectasia (laxge arrow), and i~ized regions of contrast rostral to the heart consistent with a mediastinal lymph node (open arrow). 32... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE CANINE A Thesis by CARLOS CINTRON HODGES Approved as to style and content by: H W. Boothe (Chair of Committee) D...

Hodges, Carlos Cintron

1990-01-01

239

Novel biliary self-expanding metal stents: indications and applications.  

PubMed

Endoscopic insertion of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) through a malignant common bile duct stricture is the first line of palliation for malignant jaundice. Patency of these stents remains a major concern. SEMS dysfunction can result from tumor ingrowth, overgrowth and/or clogging. Initial SEMS modifications involved covering the central part of the stent in order to reduce ingrowth and ultimately increase patency. Fully covered stents became available shortly after reports of their use in human patients. The potential removability and radial strength of SEMS have led to evaluation of their use in new indications including benign biliary strictures, post sphincterotomy bleeding and perforation. Other aspects of development include the addition of features such as anti-reflux valves, drug elution and spontaneous biodegradability. These aspects and their clinical implications are reviewed and discussed. PMID:25231201

Blero, Daniel; Huberty, Vincent; Devière, Jacques

2015-03-01

240

Clinical significance of autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Antimitochondrial, anti-gp210, anti-sp100, and anticentromere antibodies are specifically detected in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In clinical practice, they are useful for the diagnosis of PBC or for evaluating disease severity, clinical phenotype, and long-term outcome. In the typical or classical form of PBC which shows slow progressive loss of small bile ducts with a parallel increase in liver fibrosis, anti-gp210 antibodies are a strong risk factor for progression to jaundice and hepatic failure, whereas the presence of anticentromere antibodies is a risk factor for progression to cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Of note, the autoimmune repertoire, which is established during the early stage of the disease process, can influence the clinical phenotype and the long-term prognosis of PBC. Because the natural course of PBC is being altered by treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, the clinical significance of these PBC-specific autoantibodies awaits re-evaluation in various ethnicities. PMID:25057956

Nakamura, Minoru

2014-08-01

241

Squamoid Cystosis of Pancreatic Ducts: A Variant of a Newly-Described Cystic Lesion, with Evidence for an Obstructive Etiology  

PubMed Central

We describe a 40-year-old man who was found to have a cystic mass in the pancreatic tail during workup for weight loss and abdominal discomfort. Although computed tomography scan showed a single cyst associated with dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, gross and histologic examination of the distal pancreatectomy specimen actually revealed a central cyst that was surrounded by multiple smaller cystic spaces. This distinctive appearance was formed from extensive cystic dilatation and squamous metaplasia of the native pancreatic duct system. Further, a traumatic neuroma was discovered near the junction between normal and abnormal parenchyma. We believe that this case represents a variant of the newly-described squamoid cyst of pancreatic ducts which we term squamoid cystosis of pancreatic ducts. The presence of chronic pancreatitis and a traumatic neuroma supports the hypothesis that squamoid cysts are non-neoplastic lesions arising from prior duct obstruction. PMID:25276318

Foo, Wai Chin; Wang, Huamin; Prieto, Victor G.; Fleming, Jason B.; Abraham, Susan C.

2014-01-01

242

Aircraft Inlet Ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After studying three Tech Briefs reports on NASA submerged duct technology developed for high performance aircraft, Wilhelm Cashen was able to adapt the technology to the induction intercooler system of turbocharged lightplanes. In lightplane installations, the submerged ducts introduce cool "ram" air to the propulsion system for greater operating efficiency.

1984-01-01

243

Loft duct project report  

SciTech Connect

On October 16, 1992, during a routine examination of the loft of Building 332, the Building Coordinator observed cracks in the welds of the duct work that services the fume hoods for Rooms 1313, 1321, and 1329. Further examination revealed cracks in the weld of the duct work that services the gloveboxes in Rooms 1321 and 1329. Upon discovery of the cracked welds, facility management immediately took the following two actions: Because one crack in the fume hood exhaust extended 70% around the duct circumference, a 1-ton chain fall was used to secure the duct to the roof support structure to prevent the duct from falling if the duct completely fractured. The Facility Manager suspended plutonium handling operations in the gloveboxes and work in the fume hoods in the affected rooms until the situation could be thoroughly investigated. Building 332 is ventilated by drawing conditioned air from the building hallways into the laboratories, hoods, and gloveboxes. This air is filtered through two sets of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being exhausted from the facility. Figure 1 is a schematic of the typical air flow pattern for the facility. All affected duct work is located in the loft of the facility or pressure zone 4. This ducting is fabricated from 12-, 14- and 16-gauge, 304 stainless-steel sheet stock and joined by the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process.

Reed, J.R.

1993-06-01

244

Endoscopic ultrasonography can diagnose distal biliary strictures without a mass on computed tomography  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the diagnostic ability of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for evaluating causes of distal biliary strictures shown on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), even without identifiable mass on computed tomography (CT). METHODS: The diagnostic ability of EUS was retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of routine cytology (RC) and tumor markers in 34 patients with distal biliary strictures detected by ERCP or MRCP at Dokkyo Medical School Hospital from December 2005 to December 2008, without any adjacent mass or eccentric thickening of the bile duct on CT that could cause biliary strictures. Findings considered as benign strictures on EUS included preservation of the normal sonographic layers of the bile duct wall, irrespective of the presence of a mass lesion. Other strictures were considered malignant. Final diagnosis of underlying diseases was made by pathological examination in 18 cases after surgical removal of the samples, and by clinical follow-up for > 10 mo in 16 cases. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (50%) were finally diagnosed with benign conditions, including 6 “normal” subjects, while 17 patients (50%) were diagnosed with malignant disease. In terms of diagnostic ability, EUS showed 94.1% sensitivity, 82.3% specificity, 84.2% positive predictive value, 93.3% negative predictive value (NPV) and 88.2% accuracy for identifying malignant and benign strictures. EUS was more sensitive than RC (94.1% vs 62.5%, P = 0.039). NPV was also better for EUS than for RC (93.3% vs 57.5%, P = 0.035). In addition, EUS provided significantly higher sensitivity than tumor markers using 100 U/mL as the cutoff level of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (94.1% vs 53%, P = 0.017). On EUS, biliary stricture that was finally diagnosed as malignant showed as a hypoechoic, irregular mass, with obstruction of the biliary duct and invasion to surrounding tissues. CONCLUSION: EUS can diagnose biliary strictures caused by malignant tumors that are undetectable on CT. Earlier detection by EUS would provide more therapeutic options for patients with early-stage pancreaticobiliary cancer. PMID:20066744

Saifuku, Yasuyuki; Yamagata, Michiko; Koike, Takero; Hitomi, Genyo; Kanke, Kazunari; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Murohisa, Toshimitsu; Tamano, Masaya; Iijima, Makoto; Kubota, Keiichi; Hiraishi, Hideyuki

2010-01-01

245

Risk factors for early and late biliary complications in pediatric liver transplantation.  

PubMed

BC are a common source of morbidity after pediatric LT. Knowledge about risk factors may help to reduce their incidence. Retrospective analysis of BC in 116 pediatric patients (123 LT) (single institution, 05/1990-12/2011, medium follow-up 7.9 yr). One-, five-, and 10-yr survival was 91.1%, no patient died of BC. Prevalence and risk factors for anastomotic and intrahepatic BC were examined. There were 29 BC in 123 LT (23.6%), with three main categories: 10 (8.1%) primary anastomotic strictures, eight (6.5%) anastomotic leaks, and three (2.4%) intrahepatic strictures. Significant risk factors for anastomotic leaks were total operation time (increase 1.26-fold) and early HAT (<30 days post-LT; increase 5.87-fold). Risk factor for primary anastomotic stricture was duct-to-duct choledochal anastomosis (increase 5.96-fold when compared to biliary-enteric anastomosis). Risk factors for intrahepatic strictures were donor age >48 yr (increase 1.09-fold) and MELD score >30 (increase 1.2-fold). To avoid morbidity from anastomotic BC in pediatric LT, the preferred biliary anastomosis appears to be biliary-enteric. Operation time should be kept to a minimum, and HAT must by all means be prevented. Children with a high MELD score or receiving livers from older donors are at increased risk for intrahepatic strictures. PMID:25263826

Lüthold, Samuel C; Kaseje, Neema; Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Mentha, Gilles; Majno, Pietro; Toso, Christian; Belli, Dominique C; McLin, Valérie A; Wildhaber, Barbara E

2014-12-01

246

Radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary system. An analysis of 63 cases  

SciTech Connect

From 1976 to 1988, 63 patients received radiation therapy for primary cancers of the extrahepatic biliary system (eight gallbladder and 55 extrahepatic biliary duct). Twelve patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Chemotherapy was administered to 13 patients. Three patients underwent intraluminal brachytherapy alone (range, 28 to 55 Gy). Sixty patients received megavoltage external-beam radiation therapy (range, 5.4 to 61.6 Gy; median, 45 Gy), of whom nine received additional intraluminal brachytherapy (range, 14 to 45 Gy; median, 30 Gy). The median survival of all patients was 7 months. Sixty patients died, all within 39 months of radiation therapy. One patient is alive 11 months after irradiation without surgical resection, and two are alive 50 months after liver transplantation and irradiation. Symptomatic duodenal ulcers developed after radiation therapy in seven patients but were not significantly related to any clinical variable tested. Extrahepatic biliary duct cancers, the absence of metastases, increasing calendar year of treatment, and liver transplantation with postoperative radiation therapy were factors significantly associated with improved survival.

Flickinger, J.C.; Epstein, A.H.; Iwatsuki, S.; Carr, B.I.; Starzl, T.E. (Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

1991-07-15

247

Hepatic copper in primary biliary cirrhosis: biliary excretion and response to penicillamine treatment.  

PubMed Central

Excessive hepatic copper accumulation occurs in long-lasting cholestatic liver disorders especially in primary biliary cirrhosis. As in Wilson's disease, penicillamine has recently been introduced for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. In Wilson's disease there is decreased biliary excretion of copper. The present study shows that as compared with controls the biliary excretion of copper is not decreased in primary biliary cirrhosis; instead it may be increased in some patients. However, when compared with high hepatic copper concentration biliary copper excretion was low. In contrast with copper, biliary secretion of bile acids was decreased in eight of the 17 patients. Treatment with oral penicillamine (600 mg/day) for one year resulted in a significant decrease of hepatic copper concentration, but had no consistent effect on the biliary excretion of copper or on the amount of histologically stainable orcein-positive copper-binding protein. The results suggest that excessive hepatic copper accumulation in primary biliary cirrhosis may not be primarily caused by a decreased biliary excretion, or that a new equilibrium is achieved in advanced primary biliary cirrhosis. D-penicillamine appears to improve significantly the biliary excretion of bile acids. PMID:7308845

Salaspuro, M P; Pikkarainen, P; Sipponen, P; Vuori, E; Miettinen, T A

1981-01-01

248

Cystic duct patency in malignant obstructive jaundice. An ERCP-based study relevant to the role of laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-(ERCP)based study estimates the potential role of laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy for palliation of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Traditional treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice has used a standard bilioenteric anastomosis. Laparoscopic biliary bypass via a gallbladder conduit currently is an established technique; it provides a low initial morbidity alternative to open procedures, similar to endoscopic stenting. No study has specifically addressed anatomic factors relevant to cholecystojejunostomy, such as prior cholecystectomy, stricture location in reference to the hepatocystic junction, and cystic duct patency in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Retrograde cholangiograms were reviewed from consecutive patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and a control group without biliary disease who underwent ERCP during a 2-year period. Patients with either prior biliary surgery or hilar tumors were excluded. The presence of gallbladder or cystic duct filling was assessed. In patients with patent cystic ducts, the distance from obstruction to the cystic duct takeoff was classified as either greater or less than 1 cm. RESULTS: Nearly half the patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were ineligible for cholecystojejunostomies because of prior biliary surgery (29%) or hilar tumors (17%). Half (50 of 101) of the remaining potential candidates had patent hepatocystic junctions. Patients with ampullary carcinoma and patent hepatocystic junctions (5 of 9) were all ideal candidates for cholecystojejunostomies, having biliary obstruction more than 1 cm from the cystic duct takeoff. Two thirds of the remaining eligible patients (28 of 45) had obstructions less than 1 cm from patent hepatocystic junctions. CONCLUSIONS: Palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice by laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy should only be attempted after direct cholangiography demonstrates a patent hepatocystic junction that is well separated from the malignant stricture. The majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice are ineligible for cholecystojejunostomies because of prior cholecystectomies, hilar obstructions, or tumor involvement of the hepatocystic junction. Nonoperative treatments will continue to be indicated for the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:7536405

Tarnasky, P R; England, R E; Lail, L M; Pappas, T N; Cotton, P B

1995-01-01

249

CD8+ T lymphocyte response against extrahepatic biliary epithelium is activated by epitopes within NSP4 in experimental biliary atresia.  

PubMed

Interferon (IFN)-?-driven and CD8+ T cell-dependent inflammatory injury to extrahepatic biliary epithelium (EHBE) is likely to be involved in the development of biliary atresia (BA). We previously showed that viral protein NSP4 is the pathogenic immunogen that causes biliary injury in BA. In this study, NSP4 or four synthetic NSP4 (NSP4(157-170), NSP4(144-152), NSP4(93-110), NSP4(24-32)) identified by computer analysis as candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes were injected into neonatal mice. The pathogenic NSP4 epitopes were confirmed by studying extrahepatic bile duct injury, IFN-? release and CD8+ T cell response against EHBE. The results revealed, at 7 days postinjection, inoculation of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-NSP4 caused EHBE injury and BA in neonatal mice. At 7 or 14 days postinject, inoculation of GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) increased IFN-? release by CD8+ T cells, elevated the population of hepatic memory CD8+ T cells, and augmented cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells to rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-infected or naive EHBE cells. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ T cells in mice abrogated the elevation of GST-NSP4-induced serum IFN-?. Lastly, parenteral immunization of mouse dams with GST-NSP4, NSP4(144-152), or NSP4(157-170) decreased the incidence of RRV-induced BA in their offspring. Overall, this study reports the CD8+ T cell response against EHBE is activated by epitopes within rotavirus NSP4 in experimental BA. Neonatal passive immunization by maternal vaccination against NSP4(144-152) or NSP4(157-170) is effective in protecting neonates from developing RRV-related BA. PMID:24875101

Zheng, Shuaiyu; Zhang, Hongyi; Zhang, Xiaojin; Peng, Fei; Chen, Xuyong; Yang, Jixin; Brigstock, David; Feng, Jiexiong

2014-07-15

250

How to access photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment option for local control of remnant cancer after surgical resection or biliary stenosis by the unresectable tumor in patients with bile duct carcinomas (BDC). To achieve effective tumor necrosis, an appropriate approach to laser irradiation is necessary. Methods The efficacy of endoscopy-guided PDT using porfimer (n=12) or talaporfin sodium (n=13) was investigated by evaluating the transhepatic biliary routes and endoscopic retrograde biliary (ERB) routes in 25 patients with BDC. Results Diseases included perihilar intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in four patients, extrahepatic BDCs in 19 and ampular carcinoma (AC) in two patients. Adjuvant PDT after surgical resection was performed in 18 patients, and PDT for tumor biliary stenosis was performed in seven. In patients undergoing surgical resections, the mean period between the operation and PDT was 87±42 days. In patients who underwent prior surgical resections, the transhepatic route was used in five (28%), the jejunal loop was used in 11 (61%), the T-tube route was used in one, and the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) route via papilla Vater was used in one. In unresectable BDC, the ERC route was used in four patients (57%), and the transhepatic biliary route was used in three (43%). Endoscopic-guided PDT could not be performed in one patient because of a technical failure. Except for the complication of photosensitivity, endoscopy-related complications were not observed in any patients. Patients undergoing PDT with porfimer sodium had a significantly longer admission period compared to patients undergoing PDT with talaporfin sodium (36 vs. 5 days, respectively) (P<0.01). Conclusions PDT was safely and definitively performed using the endoscopy-guided approach via the transhepatic or ERC route. By considering the disadvantages of both routes, PDT must be adequately achieved for local control of BDC. PMID:25332999

Isomoto, Hajime; Abo, Takafumi; Nonaka, Takashi; Morisaki, Tomohito; Arai, Junichi; Takagi, Katsunori; Ohnita, Ken; Shoji, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Senoo, Takemasa; Murakami, Goshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

2014-01-01

251

Autoimmunity and primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The history of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) began in 1851, with autoimmunity introduced in 1958 and expanded from the 1960s on. In PBC, autoantibodies are present to mitochondria-located antigens (AMA) and to nuclear-located antigens (ANA). The AMA react with E2 subunits of three members of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex family, but most frequently with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC); the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 contains a major B- and T-cell epitope. The ANA react with three nuclear components, centromeric proteins, nuclear dot proteins and nuclear pore complex. Autoimmune diseases including PBC reflect a failure in mechanisms of self-tolerance which is developed in central lymphoid tissues in embryonic life by deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes, and maintained in peripheral tissues in post-natal life by regulatory processes. Primary biliary cirrhosis has not yet been identified with failure in any one particular tolerance mechanism. Genetic influences are revealed by familial occurrences and by associations with HLA alleles, and environmental influences by epidemiological data. A lead to pathogenesis is the accumulation uniquely in PBC of PDC-E2-like material at the plasma membrance of biliary epithelial cells (BECs). Although the origin of this accumulation of PDC-E2 at the surface of BECs is uncertain, it provides a credible 'tissue-specific' target for an autoimmune attack by T and B lymphocytes at the site of the actual pathology. PMID:10976012

Mackay, I R

2000-08-01

252

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DUCT LEAKAGE TEST EXISTING DUCT SYSTEM  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DUCT LEAKAGE TEST ­ EXISTING DUCT SYSTEM CEC-CF-6R-MECH-21-HERS (Revised 03 System (Page 1 of 4) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: Registration Number 2010 Enter the Duct System Name or Identification/Tag: Enter the Duct System Location or Area Served

253

Increased microfilaments in hepatocytes and biliary ductular cells in cholestatic liver diseases.  

PubMed Central

To assess the extent of microfilaments in cholestatic liver diseases we examined the cytoplasmic microfilaments in intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis in man by electron microscopy. Study subjects were two patients with drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis, three patients with intrahepatic cholestasis due to viral hepatitis, four patients with extrahepatic cholestasis due to stones of the common bile duct and two patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Two biopsied specimens from patients without clinical or histological evidence of liver disease served as noncholestatic controls. The microfilaments in hepatocytes and biliary ductular cells were significantly increased in cholestasis compared with those in non-cholestatic controls. Well developed bundles of microfilaments were noted around the pericanalicular ectoplasm and seemed to be parallel to plasma membrane of the hepatocytes in cholestasis. In cholestasis, there were increased bundles of microfilaments around the periluminal region, lateral cell wall, and nucleus of biliary ductular cells. Two patterns of microfilaments bundles (fine microfilamentous network and spindle-shaped dense or clusters of microfilaments) were associated with cholestasis. The clustered form of microfilaments also seemed to be clearly associated with intracytoplasmic vacuoles containing bile salts. In conclusion, the increase of microfilaments in hepatocytes and biliary ductular cells may be the consequence of various forms of cholestasis. Further studies are needed to clarify the functional significance of increased microfilaments in cholestasis. PMID:12483004

Chung, Kyu-Won; Han, Nam-Ik; Choi, Sang-Wook; Ahn, Byung-Min; Yoon, Seung-Kyu; Nam, Soon-Woo; Lee, Young-Sok; Han, Jun-Yeol; Sun, Hee-Sik

2002-01-01

254

Ultrasound Findings of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm in Bile Duct and the Added Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.  

PubMed

Purpose: To investigate the imaging features of intraductal papillary neoplasm in bile duct (IPNB) on baseline ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Materials and Methods: The imaging features on baseline ultrasound and CEUS in 16 pathologically proven IPNB lesions in 15 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Real-time contrast specific modes and contrast agent of SonoVue were used for CEUS. Results: Bile duct dilation was present in all patients. The mean lengths for the intraductal papillary adenomas and adenocarcinomas were 2.5?± 1.1 (range, 1.2?-?4.2?cm) and 5.6?±?2.0?cm (range, 3.3?-?9.8?cm) (P?=?0.004). Three imaging types of IPNB on ultrasound were depicted: bile duct dilation with intraductal mass (n?=?8), bile duct dilation without intraductal mass (n?=?3), and cystic-solid mixed type (n?=?5). On CEUS, solid components of 13 lesions appeared hyper- (n?=?12) or iso-enhancement (n?=?1) in the arterial phase whereas all showed hypo-enhancement in the portal and late phases. For 3 lesions of bile duct dilation without intraductal mass, CEUS showed non-enhancement during all phases. Pre-surgical CEUS and conventional ultrasound made correct diagnoses in 12 (75.0?%) and 5(31.3?%) of 16 IPNBs respectively (P?=?0.04). For CECT, correct diagnosis was also achieved in 12 (75.0?%) of 16 lesions (P?=?1.00, in comparison with CEUS). Conclusions: IPNB should be taken into consideration when intraductal mass or cystic-solid mass with bile duct dilation, or remarkable bile duct dilation without intraductal mass, are found on US.?Intraductal mass length >?3.0?cm is more commonly found in malignant IPNB. CEUS might facilitate the diagnosis of IPNB by easily excluding the possibility of commonly found sludge, nonshadowing stones, or blood clots. PMID:25188491

Liu, L N; Xu, H X; Zheng, S G; Sun, L P; Guo, L H; Zhang, Y F; Xu, J M; Liu, C; Xu, X H

2014-09-01

255

DPC4 ( Smad4) and K- ras gene mutations in biliary tract epithelium in children with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Recent studies have found that anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union (APBDU) is a substantial risk factor for biliary tract cancer at a younger age. DPC-4 (Smad-4) is a new tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated in pancreatic and bile duct adenocarcinoma. To clarify carcinogenesis in APBDU, the authors investigated possible DPC-4 and K-ras mutations in 35 pediatric patients. Methods: DNA was

Takashi Shimotake; Shigeyoshi Aoi; Hideki Tomiyama; Naomi Iwai

2003-01-01

256

Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence  

E-print Network

We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer [1]. The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation [2]. We show that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, indicating that the effect can be attributed entirely to ...

Gooding, Cisco

2015-01-01

257

Current status and issues regarding biliary stenting in unresectable biliary obstruction.  

PubMed

In the present review, we describe the current status of biliary stenting in patients with unresectable malignant biliary strictures. Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) are the ideal biliary stent for both distal and hilar biliary strictures, although in terms of distal biliary strictures, there is still some debate as to the selection of covered or uncovered SEMS, suprapapillary or transpapillary stent placement, side-by-side or stent-in-stent placement, unilateral or bilateral stent placement and the necessity for sphincterotomy. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials for these procedures are warranted. PMID:23617652

Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tonozuka, Ryosuke; Ishii, Kentaro

2013-05-01

258

Isolated right posterior bile duct injury following cholecystectomy: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Anatomic variations of the right biliary system are one of the most common risk factors for sectoral bile duct injury (BDI) during cholecystectomy. Isolated right posterior BDI may in particular be a challenge for both diagnosis and management. Herein we describe two cases of isolated right posterior sectoral BDI that took place during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite effective external biliary drainage from the liver hilum in both cases, there was a persistent biliary leak observed which was not visible on endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram. Careful evaluation of images from both endoscopic and magnetic resonance cholangiograms revealed the diagnosis of an isolated right posterior sectoral BDI. These were treated with a delayed bisegmental (segments 6 and 7) liver resection and a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy respectively with good outcomes at 24 and 4 mo of follow-up. This paper discusses strategies for prevention of such injuries along with the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges it offers. PMID:24106416

Wojcicki, Maciej; Patkowski, Waldemar; Chmurowicz, Tomasz; Bialek, Andrzej; Wiechowska-Kozlowska, Anna; Stankiewicz, Rafa?; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Krawczyk, Marek

2013-09-28

259

Dilatancy in slow granular flows.  

PubMed

When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected. PMID:19658906

Kabla, Alexandre J; Senden, Tim J

2009-06-01

260

An Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct at the Duodenal Papilla  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the disease concept of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) has been attracting attention as a biliary lesion that is morphologically similar to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), which is considered to be a counterpart of IPMN. However, there are few reports on IPNB, and a consensus regarding the features of this disease is thus lacking. We experienced an extremely rare case of IPNB occurring in the bile duct at the duodenal papilla, which is a tumor presentation that has not previously been reported. Herein, we report this interesting case and discuss the possible association between IPMN and IPNB. PMID:25126070

Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Izumi, Hideki; Furukawa, Daisuke; Yazawa, Naoki; Nakagori, Toshio; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Mine, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

261

Technetium-99m BIDA biliary scintigraphy in the evaluation of the jaundiced patient  

SciTech Connect

Biliary scintigraphy using 99mTc p-butyl acetanilidiminodiacetic acid (BIDA) was performed as part of the diagnostic evaluation on 96 patients with jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 2 mg/dl) to assess its value in this group of patients. The results of scintigraphy revealed no obstruction to the flow of the scintigraphic agent into the duodenum in 54 patients, delayed appearance of the agent (normal upper limit 60 min) in the duodenum indicating partial obstruction in 22 patients, and complete obstruction of the duct demonstrated by absence of agent in the duodenum in 20 patients. The findings were correlated with the final diagnosis and the overall results show accuracy of 92.7%, sensitivity of 97.3%, and specificity of 89.8%. Biliary scintigraphy was thus found to be useful in differentiating nonobstructive, partially obstructive, and completely obstructive causes of jaundice.

Lee, A.W.; Ram, M.D.; Shih, W.J.; Murphy, K.

1986-09-01

262

Endoscopic treatment of biliary tract disease prior to orthotopic liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Endoscopic therapy for biliary tract disease in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) before liver transplantation is safe and effective. Reported results in patients with choledocholithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and symptomatic gallbladder diseases are encouraging. Prompt recognition and appropriate treatment of symptomatic gallbladder and bile duct disease are important in reducing morbidity and mortality in these high-risk patients while they await liver transplantation. Confirmation of tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with sclerosing cholangitis is still difficult. Better screening tools and diagnostic methods are necessary for early detection. Because liver transplantation is the only definitive therapy for patients with advanced cirrhosis, maintenance of their candidacy with either endoscopic or radiologic therapeutic interventions is warranted until transplantation. Endoscopic therapy is the preferred method when feasible. If necessary, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a viable alternative because both avoid the attendant risks of surgery in a high-risk population with advanced liver disease. PMID:16539874

Shrestha, Roshan; Grunkemeier, David M S

2006-04-01

263

Intrahepatic biliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with gallbladder agenesis: case report.  

PubMed

We report here on a case of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct, associated with gallbladder agenesis. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with epigastric pain, anorexia, and nausea. Abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 5 × 2.5 cm lobulated cystic lesion in the lateral lobe of the liver. The gallbladder was not seen on both imaging modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography suggested the diagnosis of biliary IPMN due to abundant mucin that protruded from the papilla and the lobulated cystic lesion. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the liver was performed. The final pathology was consistent with biliary IPMN. The specimen showed multifocal high-grade dysplasia with negative resection margins. The patient experienced no postoperative complications and was discharged 5 days after the operation. PMID:23047406

Kim, Bum-Soo; Joo, Sun-Hyung; Lim, Sung-Jig; Joo, Kwang-Ro

2012-10-01

264

Intrahepatic biliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with gallbladder agenesis: case report.  

PubMed

We report here on a case of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct, associated with gallbladder agenesis. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with epigastric pain, anorexia, and nausea. Abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 5 × 2.5 cm lobulated cystic lesion in the lateral lobe of the liver. The gallbladder was not seen on both imaging modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography suggested the diagnosis of biliary IPMN due to abundant mucin that protruded from the papilla and the lobulated cystic lesion. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the liver was performed. The final pathology was consistent with biliary IPMN. The specimen showed multifocal high-grade dysplasia with negative resection margins. The patient experienced no postoperative complications and was discharged 5 days after the operation. PMID:23579531

Kim, Bum-Soo; Joo, Sun-Hyung; Lim, Sung-Jig; Joo, Kwang-Ro

2013-04-01

265

Choledochal cyst and biliary atresia in the neonate: Imaging findings in five cases  

SciTech Connect

The radiologic findings in five neonates with choledochal cyst associated with extra-hepatic biliary atresia are described. All five patients (age range, 13-72 days) presented with jaundice and acholic stools. In all four patients who underwent sonographic examination, a cystic structure separate from the gallbladder representing the choledochal cyst was shown. The diagnosis of atresia of the distal common bile duct was made preoperatively in all cases by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and was demonstrated by intraoperative cholangiography in four cases. All patients were successfully treated with surgical intervention within 1 month from the time of diagnosis. Early detection of this rare disorder, which may be distinct from choledochal cyst found in children and adults, is important to prevent fatal complications of biliary obstruction. The combined use of sonography and hepatobiliary scintigraphy can correctly identify this subset of patients with persistent neonatal jaundice and provide valuable information for prompt surgical management.

Torrisi, J.M.; Haller, J.O.; Velcek, F.T. (SUNY Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY (USA))

1990-12-01

266

Computer Aided Duct Design  

E-print Network

The circular slide rule is the industry standard for duct design. It is the simplest, most convenient way to take into account the many variables of ductwork analysis. The slide rule, however, is also relatively inaccurate. This means the ductwork...

Clark, W. H.

1994-01-01

267

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy by ultrasonic dissection without cystic duct and artery ligature  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment of gallstones. Nevertheless, there are some pitfalls\\u000a due to the limits of current technology and the use of inappropriate ligature material, with a relevant risk of injuries and\\u000a postoperative, mainly biliary, complications. Ultrasonically activated scissors may divide both vessels and cystic duct, with\\u000a no need of further ligature, and possibly reduce

C. G. S. Hüscher; M. M. Lirici; M. Di Paola; F. Crafa; C. Napolitano; A. Mereu; A. Recher; A. Corradi; M. Amini

2003-01-01

268

A method for culturing and transplanting biliary epithelial cell from syrian golden hamster.  

PubMed

The present paper describes the establishment of a method for simultaneous culturing of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) from the gall bladder (GB), extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) and intrahepatic bile duct (IBD) of the hamster. GB, EBD and IBD were cut from the biliary tree after collagenase perfusion of the liver. These biliary segments were minced into fragments. The fragments were embedded in collagen gel and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/HamF12 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The various cells subsequently spread from the fragments and formed cellular sheets. After the fragments and flattened cells were removed with the aid of a Pasteur pipette under phase-contrast microscopy, the sheets remaining were found to be composed of cuboidal cells. These cuboidal cells were shown to express gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and cytokeratin 7, which are known to be specific markers of BECs. Ultrastructurally, a large number of microvilli were observed on the luminal surface and junctional complex and interdigitation was identifiable on the lateral surfaces. BEC cultures were subcultured by digestion with collagenase and dispase and then dissociated by subsequent digestion in trypsin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then maintained on collagen gel for up to 8 weeks. After several passages, the BECs in culture eventually increased in size and showed vacuoles in the cytoplasm. They demonstrated irreversible growth arrest at 9 weeks. The BECs tended to form cystic structures when the BECs with collagen gel were transplanted into the interscapular fat pads of syngeneic hamsters. We established a method for culturing and transplanting biliary cells from syrian golden hamsters. This method may help to clarify the mechanism of hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:10755605

Asakawa, T; Tomioka, T; Kanematsu, T

2000-02-01

269

Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 {+-} 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 {+-} 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil <10 mg/dl, four (80%) showed good response,while in nine patients with T-bil > 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function.

Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo [Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-06-15

270

Paravertebral Block: An Improved Method of Pain Control in Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage  

SciTech Connect

Background and Purpose. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage remains a painful procedure in many cases despite the routine use of large amounts of intravenous sedation. We present a feasibility study of thoracic paravertebral blocks in an effort to reduce pain during and following the procedure and reduce requirements for intravenous sedation. Methods. Ten consecutive patients undergoing biliary drainage procedures received fluoroscopically guided paravertebral blocks and then had supplemental intravenous sedation as required to maintain patient comfort. Levels T8-T9 and T9-T10 on the right were targeted with 10-20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sedation requirements and pain levels were recorded. Results. Ten biliary drainage procedures in 8 patients were performed for malignancy in 8 cases and for stones in 2. The mean midazolam use was 1.13 mg IV, and the mean fentanyl requirement was 60.0 {mu}g IV in the block patients. Two episodes of hypotension, which responded promptly to volume replacement, may have been related to the block. No serious complications were encountered. The mean pain score when traversing the chest wall, liver capsule, and upon entering the bile ducts was 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 1 patient reporting a pain level of 1 and 9 reporting 0. The mean peak pain score, encountered when manipulating at the common bile duct level or when addressing stones there, was 5.4 and ranged from 0 to 10. Conclusions. Thoracic paravertebral block with intravenous sedation supplementation appears to be a feasible method of pain control during biliary interventions.

Culp, William C., E-mail: culpwilliamc@uams.edu; McCowan, Timothy C. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States); DeValdenebro, Miguel [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Wright, Lonnie B.; Workman, James L. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States); Culp, William C. [Scott and White Clinic and Memorial Hospital, The Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology (United States)

2006-12-15

271

Endoscopic management of acute biliary pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis represents numerous unique challenges to the practicing digestive disease specialist. Clinical presentations of acute pancreatitis vary from trivial pain to severe acute illness with a significant risk of death. Urgent endoscopic treatment of acute pancreatitis is considered when there is causal evidence of biliary pancreatitis. This article focuses on the diagnosis and endoscopic treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis. PMID:24079788

Kuo, Vincent C; Tarnasky, Paul R

2013-10-01

272

[Role of salmonella in biliary lithogenesis].  

PubMed

By the methods of light microscopy and immunocytochemistry studies of interaction between S. typhimurium and corpuscular biliary components was investigated in experimental model "bile-bacteria" It was shown that the results of this interaction was bacterial-biliary sludge formation. Bacterial extracellular mucopolysaccharides matrix and flagella's play crucial role in mechanism of sludge formation. PMID:19938286

Didenko, L V; Andreevskaia, S G; Tiganova, I G; Smirnova, T A; Romanova, Iu M

2009-01-01

273

Asystole to cross-clamp period predicts development of biliary complications in liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death donors.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine the procurement factors that lead to development of intrahepatic bile duct strictures (ITBS) and overall biliary complications in recipients of donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver grafts. Detailed information for different time points during procurement (withdrawal of support; SBP?biliary complications were examined using logistic regression. Two hundred and fifteen liver transplants using DCD donors were performed between 1998 and 2010 at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of all the time periods during procurement, only asystole-cross clamp period was significantly different between patients with ITBS versus no ITBS (P?=?0.048) and between the patients who had overall biliary complications versus no biliary complications (P?=?0.047). On multivariate analysis, only asystole-cross clamp period was significant predictor for development of ITBS (P?=?0.015) and development of overall biliary complications (P?=?0.029). Hemodynamic changes in the agonal period did not emerge as risk factors. The results of the study raise the possibility of utilizing asystole-cross-clamp period in place of or in conjunction with donor warm ischemia time in determining viability or quality of liver grafts. PMID:22703372

Taner, C Burcin; Bulatao, Ilynn G; Perry, Dana K; Sibulesky, Lena; Willingham, Darrin L; Kramer, David J; Nguyen, Justin H

2012-08-01

274

Compression of the Main Pancreatic Duct by the Intrapancreatic-Replaced Common Hepatic Artery  

PubMed Central

We describe a unique case of a patient who presented with a linear, transverse, and incidentally-detected main pancreatic duct dilatation that was caused by the intrapancreatic-replaced common hepatic artery, detected on the MDCT, MRCP and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. We believe this case to be the first of its kind reported in the literature. PMID:23690706

Lee, Ha-yeon; Kim, Min-jeong; Lim, Hyun Kyung

2013-01-01

275

Biliary Tree Stem Cells, Precursors to Pancreatic Committed Progenitors: Evidence for Possible Life-long Pancreatic Organogenesis  

PubMed Central

Peribiliary glands (PBGs) in bile duct walls, and pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) associated with pancreatic ducts, in humans of all ages, contain a continuous, ramifying network of cells in overlapping maturational lineages. We show that proximal (PBGs)-to-distal (PDGs) maturational lineages start near the duodenum with cells expressing markers of pluripotency (NANOG,OCT4,SOX2), proliferation (Ki67), self-replication (SALL4), and early hepato-pancreatic commitment (SOX9,SOX17,PDX1,LGR5), transitioning to PDG cells with no expression of pluripotency or self-replication markers, maintenance of pancreatic genes (PDX1), and expression of markers of pancreatic endocrine maturation (NGN3,MUC6,insulin). Radial-axis lineages start in PBGs near the ducts’ fibromuscular layers with stem cells and end at the ducts’ lumens with cells devoid of stem cell traits and positive for pancreatic endocrine genes. Biliary tree-derived cells behaved as stem cells in culture under expansion conditions, culture plastic and serum-free Kubota’s Medium, proliferating for months as undifferentiated cells, whereas pancreas-derived cells underwent only ?8-10 divisions, then partially differentiated towards an islet fate. Biliary tree-derived cells proved precursors of pancreas’ committed progenitors. Both could be driven by 3-dimensional conditions, islet-derived matrix components and a serum-free, hormonally defined medium for an islet fate (HDM-P), to form spheroids with ultrastructural, electrophysiological and functional characteristics of neoislets, including glucose regulatability. Implantation of these neoislets into epididymal fat pads of immuno-compromised mice, chemically rendered diabetic, resulted in secretion of human C-peptide, regulatable by glucose, and able to alleviate hyperglycemia in hosts. The biliary tree-derived stem cells and their connections to pancreatic committed progenitors constitute a biological framework for life-long pancreatic organogenesis. PMID:23847135

Wang, Yunfang; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Carpino, Guido; Cui, Cai-Bin; Dominguez-Bendala, Juan; Wauthier, Eliane; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Pileggi, Antonello; Gerber, David; Furth, Mark E.; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio; Inverardi, Luca; Reid, Lola M.

2013-01-01

276

Biliary tree stem cells, precursors to pancreatic committed progenitors: evidence for possible life-long pancreatic organogenesis.  

PubMed

Peribiliary glands (PBGs) in bile duct walls, and pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) associated with pancreatic ducts, in humans of all ages, contain a continuous, ramifying network of cells in overlapping maturational lineages. We show that proximal (PBGs)-to-distal (PDGs) maturational lineages start near the duodenum with cells expressing markers of pluripotency (NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2), proliferation (Ki67), self-replication (SALL4), and early hepato-pancreatic commitment (SOX9, SOX17, PDX1, and LGR5), transitioning to PDG cells with no expression of pluripotency or self-replication markers, maintenance of pancreatic genes (PDX1), and expression of markers of pancreatic endocrine maturation (NGN3, MUC6, and insulin). Radial-axis lineages start in PBGs near the ducts' fibromuscular layers with stem cells and end at the ducts' lumens with cells devoid of stem cell traits and positive for pancreatic endocrine genes. Biliary tree-derived cells behaved as stem cells in culture under expansion conditions, culture plastic and serum-free Kubota's Medium, proliferating for months as undifferentiated cells, whereas pancreas-derived cells underwent only approximately 8-10 divisions, then partially differentiated towards an islet fate. Biliary tree-derived cells proved precursors of pancreas' committed progenitors. Both could be driven by three-dimensional conditions, islet-derived matrix components and a serum-free, hormonally defined medium for an islet fate (HDM-P), to form spheroids with ultrastructural, electrophysiological and functional characteristics of neoislets, including glucose regulatability. Implantation of these neoislets into epididymal fat pads of immunocompromised mice, chemically rendered diabetic, resulted in secretion of human C-peptide, regulatable by glucose, and able to alleviate hyperglycemia in hosts. The biliary tree-derived stem cells and their connections to pancreatic committed progenitors constitute a biological framework for life-long pancreatic organogenesis. PMID:23847135

Wang, Yunfang; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Carpino, Guido; Cui, Cai-Bin; Dominguez-Bendala, Juan; Wauthier, Eliane; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Pileggi, Antonello; Gerber, David; Furth, Mark E; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio; Inverardi, Luca; Reid, Lola M

2013-09-01

277

Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree  

SciTech Connect

The new 99mTc biliary scintigraphy agents are highly sensitive and specific in detecting biliary tract disease and use of them is the initial procedure of choice in evaluating patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Other clinically useful indications are evaluation of biliary kinetics; evaluation of patients with suspected traumatic bile leakage, gallbladder perforation, or postsurgical biliary tract complications; and evaluation of patients with suspected biliary obstruction. In 99mTc we have a simple radiopharmaceutical of low radiation for evaluating congenital abnormalities and neonatal jaundice. In the Orient 99mTc cholescintigraphy is extremely important in evaluating patients with suspected intrahepatic stones. The overall advantages of this technique include availability, safety, simplicity, and accuracy. In addition, it may be performed in those patients who are allergic to iodinated contrast agents.

Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.

1981-08-01

278

Post-liver Transplant Biliary Complications  

PubMed Central

Biliary tract complications remain a common source of morbidity and mortality in liver transplant (LT) recipients with an estimated incidence of 5–30% after orthotopic LT and a mortality rate of up to 10%. Biliary complications after LT may be related to various factors including hepatic artery thrombosis or stenosis, ischemia reperfusion injury, immunologic injury, infections, donor pool, and technical issues which include imperfect anastomosis and T-tube-related complications. Management of the detected biliary complications includes nonsurgical and surgical methods. A majority of these post transplant biliary complications can be treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. If unsuccessful, a percutaneous intervention or surgery may be required. In this article, we review the incidence, clinical presentation, and management of the main types of biliary complications.

Atwal, Tegpal; Pastrana, Mariel; Sandhu, Bimaljit

2012-01-01

279

Home self-dilatation for esophageal strictures.  

PubMed

Esophageal strictures secondary to caustic ingestion, head and neck radiation and at the anastomosis post-esophagectomy tend to be refractory to one or several dilatations. One option for these strictures is home self-dilatation. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of home self-dilatation for a refractory esophageal stricture. A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients from 1997 to 2009 that performed home self-dilatation for an esophageal stricture. Patients with proximal strictures without tortuosity or a shelf proximal to the stricture were selected for self-dilatation. The patients were taught self-dilatation by the surgeon and an experienced nurse, and an appropriate sized Maloney dilator was provided to the patient and returned when no longer needed. There were 16 patients (11 male and 5 female) with a median age of 60 years (range 38-78). The stricture was related to the anastomosis after esophagectomy in 12 patients, caustic injury in 3 patients and cervical chemoradiotherapy in 1 patient. Prior to initiation of self-dilatation patients had a median of four endoscopic dilatations. Self-dilatation was done with a Maloney dilator ranging in size from 45 to 60 French. The median duration of self-dilatation was 16 weeks. No patient had a perforation or complication related to self-dilatation. No patient required stenting or repetitive endoscopic dilatations because of failure of self-dilatation. Strictures recurred in two patients after cessation of self-dilatation and both responded to endoscopic dilatation followed by additional self-dilatation. Self-dilatation effectively resolves refractory esophageal strictures. It was well tolerated, and there were no complications in this series. Home self-dilatation should be considered the treatment of choice in appropriate patients with refractory esophageal strictures in the cervical esophagus. PMID:23387392

Zehetner, J; DeMeester, S R; Ayazi, S; Demeester, T R

2014-01-01

280

Endoscopic stenting for post-transplant biliary stricture: usefulness of a novel removable covered metal stent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Endoscopic management of biliary anastomotic stricture (AS) following liver transplantation (LT) remains challenging. There\\u000a are no dedicated self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) for this setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A short fully covered SEMS (FCSEMS) with a retrieval suture was designed. Between July 2008 and June 2010, 13 patients with\\u000a post-LT AS had this FCSEMS placed endoscopically, keeping the whole stent inside the bile duct

Bing HuDao-jian; Dao-jian Gao; Feng-hai Yu; Tian-tian Wang; Ya-min Pan; Xiao-ming Yang

2011-01-01

281

U.S. Food and Drug Administration and off-label use of expandable metal biliary stents within the peripheral vasculature.  

PubMed

Expandable metal stents are used to maintain the patency of compromised ducts, lumens, and vessels. As medical devices, there products are regulated by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). During the past several years, the FDA has become aware of the increasing prevalence of off-label use of expandable metal stents cleared for biliary use within the peripheral vasculature. The authors provide an overview of how the FDA regulates medical devices and expandable stents and summarize safety issues reported to the Agency with regard to the off-label use of these biliary stents. PMID:18672491

Yustein, Aron S; Schultz, Daniel; Neuland, Carolyn; Buckles, David S; Nipper, Joshua C; Stephenson, Rebecca A; Gonzalez, Gema

2008-07-01

282

Sequential Double-Guidewire Technique and Transpancreatic Precut Sphincterotomy for Difficult Biliary Cannulation  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: The double-guidewire technique (DGT) and transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy (TPS) are introduced as alternative biliary cannulation techniques for difficult biliary cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the sequential use of DGT and TPS compared with a needle-knife precut papillotomy (NK). Patients and Methods: Six hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients with na?ve papilla and who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for biliary cannulation from March 2010 to April 2014 in a single institute were analyzed. When standard techniques were unsuccessful, DGT or NK was performed. TPS was sequentially performed if DGT failed. Results: DGT and NK were attempted in 65 and 58 patients, respectively. A sequential DGT-TPS was performed in 38 patients after a failed DGT. Biliary cannulations were successful in 42%, 74%, and 66% of the DGT, sequential DGT-TPS, and NK patients, respectively (P = 0.002). The cannulation rate was higher in the DGT ± TPS patients (85%) than in the NK patients (P = 0.014). Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) developed in 26% of the successful DGT patients, 37% of the sequential DGT-TPS patients, and 10% of the NK patients (P = 0.008). Of the sequential DGT-TPS patients, the incidence of PEP was significantly reduced in patients with a pancreatic duct (PD) stent compared with patients without a PD stent (24% vs. 62%, P = 0.023). Conclusions: Sequential DGT-TPS is a useful alternative method compared with NK for patients in whom biliary cannulation is difficult. In the sequential DGT-TPS patients, the incidence of PEP was significantly reduced with the use of a PD stent. PMID:25672234

Kim, Chang W.; Chang, Jae H.; Kim, Tae H.; Han, Sok W.

2015-01-01

283

Management of ejaculatory duct obstruction: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of the distal ejaculatory ducts related to infertility have been well-documented. Although there are no specific findings associated with ejaculatory duct obstruction, several clinical findings are highly suggestive. A diagnosis of ejaculatory duct obstruction is suggested in an infertile male with oligospermia or azoospermia with low ejaculate volume, normal secondary sex characteristics, testes, and hormonal profile, and dilated seminal vesicles, midline cyst, or calcifications on TRUS. Other causes of infertility may be concomitantly present and need to be evaluated and treated. Trans urethral resection of ejaculatory ducts (TURED) has resulted in marked improvement in semen parameters, and pregnancies have been achieved. Proper patient selection and surgical experience are necessary to obtain optimal results. In case of testicular dysfunction, chances of success are minimal. Extended follow-up periods are needed after TURED to examine the long-term effects of this procedure. Better understanding of the anatomy and pathology of the ejaculatory ducts will continue to refine diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for this disorder. PMID:17077974

Fisch, Harry; Lambert, Sarah M; Goluboff, Erik T

2006-12-01

284

Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients with Post-Liver Transplant Biliary Complications: Results of a Cohort Study with Long-Term Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the standard approach for the management of biliary complications in liver transplant patients; however, its safety and efficacy have not been established in this setting. This study was performed to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of ERCP in transplant patients. Methods The case reports of 1,500 liver transplant patients were reviewed. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients were matched 1:2 with non-OLT patients and followed-up for long-term outcome (median, 7.4 years). Results Of the 1,500 liver transplant patients, 94 (6.3%) underwent 150 ERCPs after OLT. Anastomotic strictures were present in 45 patients, biliary stones in 24, biliary leaks in 7, papillary stenosis in 2, and primary sclerosing cholangitis in 1. An ERCP success rate of 90.7% was achieved; biliary stenting led to resolution of the bile leak in 7/7 (100%) patients, and biliary stones were removed in 21/24 (87.5%) patients. In addition, 34 of 45 patients with anastomotic stricture underwent endoscopic dilation. We obtained complete resolution in 22/34 (64.7%) patients. OLT patients did not show a higher probability of complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.04), of pancreatitis (OR, 0.80) or of bleeding (OR, 1.34). Conclusions ERCP is safe and effective for the treatment of post-OLT biliary complications, has a low rate of pancreatitis and results in a durable effect. PMID:21927662

Sanna, Claudia; Giordanino, Chiara; Giono, Ilaria; Barletti, Claudio; Ferrari, Arnaldo; Recchia, Serafino; Reggio, Dario; Repici, Alessandro; Ricchiuti, Alessandro; Salizzoni, Mauro; Baldi, Ileana; Ciccone, Giovannino; Rizzetto, Mario

2011-01-01

285

Women and primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis occurs more frequently in women, and previous studies indicated that the average age of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) onset makes pregnancy in PBC patients uncommon. However, more recently, improved diagnostic testing has enabled detection of PBC in younger women, including those of childbearing age. This has led investigators to become increasingly interested in the relationship between the ontogeny of PBC and pregnancy. Published cases indicate that the typical age for pregnant women to be diagnosed with PBC is in the early 30s, and that during gestation, pruritus and jaundice are the most common symptoms. During gestation, susceptible women may experience onset of PBC resulting from the drastic changes in female hormones; this would include not only the mitochondrial damage due to accumulation of bile acids but also changes in the immune response during the different stages of pregnancy that might play an important role in the breakdown of self-tolerance. The mechanisms underlying the potential relationship between PBC and pregnancy warrant further investigation. For women first diagnosed with PBC during gestation, or those for whom first appearance of a flare up occurs during and postpartum, investigation of the immune response throughout gestation could provide new avenues for immunologic therapeutic intervention and the discovery of new treatment strategies for PBC. PMID:25241227

Sun, Ying; Haapanen, Krista; Li, Baosen; Zhang, Weici; Van de Water, Judy; Gershwin, M Eric

2015-06-01

286

Patent arterial duct.  

PubMed

Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation secondary to a left-to-right shunt must be excluded. Coronary, systemic and pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, peripheral pulmonary stenosis and ventricular septal defect with aortic regurgitation and collateral vessels must be differentiated from PAD on echocardiogram. In preterm infants with symptomatic heart failure secondary to PAD, treatment may be achieved by surgical ligation or with medical therapy blocking prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin or ibuprofen). Transcatheter closure of the duct is usually indicated in older children. PAD in preterm and low birth weight infants is associated with significant co-morbidity and mortality due to haemodynamic instability. Asymptomatic patients with a small duct have a normal vital prognosis but have a lifetime risk of endocarditis. Patients with moderate-to-large ducts with significant haemodynamic alterations may develop irreversible changes to pulmonary vascularity and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:19591690

Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

2009-01-01

287

Electrohydraulic lithotripsy as an highly effective method for complete large common bile duct stone clearance  

PubMed Central

The removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones is commonly performed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), which has an 85–90% success rate. Thus, 10–15% of CBD stones, specifically large ones, cannot be completely removed using standard techniques and are therefore managed conservatively by sequential biliary stenting or using other techniques such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EH L). The aim of the present paper was to determine the outcomes of these different methods for the removal of large CBD stones in the patients who failed to clear the CBD after initial attempt and to identify the factors which might associated with patients who would fail for sequential biliary stenting. We retrospectively reviewed 439 patients who underwent ERC for stone removal in our institute. In this study, 36 cases and 7 cases were included in the sequential biliary stenting and intraductal EH L groups, respectively, with rates of complete CBD clearance of 86.1% and 100%, respectively. On average, 2.8 and 1.3 sessions were required before complete stone removal in the biliary stenting and EH L groups, respectively. The number of complications during follow-up was higher in biliary stenting than in intraductal EH L patients. The factors associated with failure to complete CBD stone clearance in the biliary stenting group were no change in CBD stone size 9 weeks after the first biliary stenting attempt and failure of balloon sphincteroplasty. EH L was an effective and safe procedure for acheivement of complete CBD clearance especially for large CBD stone. PMID:24147232

Aswakul, Pitulak; Kachintorn, Udom

2013-01-01

288

Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid  

E-print Network

Dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a sever shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, instantaneous hardening upon external impact. Analysis of the model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits {\\it the shear thickening oscillation}, i.e. the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states. Results of numerical simulations are presented for one and two-dimensional systems.

Hiizu Nakanishi; Shin-ichiro Nagahiro; Namiko Mitarai

2011-12-20

289

[A case of synchronous cancer of the gall bladder, common bile duct, and the papilla of vater].  

PubMed

A 58-year-old man was diagnosed with liver dysfunction during a health exam and subsequently visited a doctor. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed space-occupying lesions in the gall bladder and bile duct, and he was hospitalized for further examination and treatment. Computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed double cancer of the gall bladder and bile duct with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM), and we performed a pancreatoduodenectomy. Pathological examination revealed gall bladder and bile duct cancer, and severe dysplasia of the papilla of Vater. We diagnosed synchronous triple cancer because none of the cancers had continuity or vascular invasion. Each cancer was at Stage I, and the patient has survived for 2 years and 6 months without recurrence and no additional treatment. PBM is a mutation of the junction of the pancreatic and bile ducts outside of the duodenal wall, and is a known complication of biliary tract cancer due to the reflux of pancreatic juice and bile. Because K-ras and p53 gene mutations occur in the biliary tract mucosal epithelium, PBM increases the risk of developing multicentric cancer. It is important to consider the existence of double cancer when biliary tract cancer is detected in a PBM patient. PMID:25731239

Ueno, Goro; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Yoshitoshi; Hagi, Takaomi; Taniura, Nobuatsu; Chong, Hyonsu; Kanazawa, Akifumi; Takayama, Shouichi; Nishihara, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Kentaro; Shimada, Mamoru; Lee, Kyowon; Oka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Tamaki

2014-11-01

290

Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, Tarceva &/or Cisplatin in HCC & Biliary Tree Cancers  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Bile Duct Cancer; Periampullary Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

2015-03-03

291

Long-term prognosis for infants with intrahepatic cholestasis and patent extrahepatic biliary tract.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and three infants with prolonged cholestasis beginning before 3 months were classified as having alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (17 patients), scanty interlobular bile ducts (16 patients), or "neonatal hepatitis" (70 patients). Twenty-two gradually developed chronic liver disease and the remaining 81 recovered within a few months. Prognosis was found to be poor for infants with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, scanty interlobular bile ducts, and familial "idiopathic" hepatitis. Patients who developed cirrhosis often presented with severe and persistent neonatal cholestasis, mimicking extrahepatic biliary atresia and leading to laparotomy. Thus, a high-risk group of infants-defined by aetiology, family history, and degree of cholestasis-can be recognised in the first months of life. PMID:6973322

Odièvre, M; Hadchouel, M; Landrieu, P; Alagille, D; Eliot, N

1981-01-01

292

Variants in motilin, somatostatin and their receptor genes and risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Altered motility of the gallbladder can result in gallstone and cholecystitis, which are important risk factor for biliary tract cancer. Motilin (MLN) and somatostatin (SST) are known important modulators of gallbladder motility. To determine whether genetic variants in motilin, somatostatin, and their receptor genes are associated with the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones, nine tag-SNPs were determined in 439 biliary tract cancer cases (253 gallbladder, 133 extrahepatic bile duct and 53 ampulla of Vater cancer cases), 429 biliary stone cases, and 447 population controls in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. We found that subjects with the MLNR rs9568169 AA genotype and SSTR5 rs169068 CC genotype were significantly associated with risk of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (OR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.89; OR =2.40, 95% CI: 1.13-5.13) compared to the major genotypes. MLN rs2281820 CT and rs3793079 AT genotypes had significantly increased risks of gallstones (OR =1.52, 95% CI: 1.06-2.18; OR =1.64, 95% CI: 1.20-2.25) compared to TT genotypes. Besides, Haplotype analysis showed that MLN T-T-T haplotype (rs2281820-rs3793079-rs2281819) had a non-significantly elevated risk of gallstone (OR =1.30, 95% CI: 0.91-1.86) compared with C-A-A haplotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between genetic polymorphisms in MLN, MLNR and their receptor genes and risk of biliary tract cancers and stones. PMID:24999450

Xu, Hong-Li; Hsing, Ann W; Koshiol, Jill; Chu, Lisa W; Cheng, Jia-Rong; Gao, Jing; Tan, Yu-Ting; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Shen, Ming-Chang; Gao, Yu-Tang

2014-12-01

293

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01

294

Dynamic instability of ducts conveying fluid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element analysis was used to study dynamic instability in ducts conveying high speed fluids. Ducts examined include cantilevered curved, flexibly supported, arbitrarily shaped, and composite duct systems. Partial differential equations were used to study the duct systems.

Yu, Y. Y.

1975-01-01

295

Treatment Options for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Treatment of localized extrahepatic bile duct cancer may include ...

296

Nasopalatine Duct Cyst  

PubMed Central

The nasopalatine cyst is the most common epithelial and nonodontogenic cyst of the maxilla. The cyst originates from epithelial remnants from the nasopalatine duct. The cells may be activated spontaneously during life or are eventually stimulated by the irritating action of various agents (infection, etc.). It is different from a radicular cyst. The definite diagnosis should be based on clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. The treatment is enucleation of the cystic tissue, and only in rare cases a marsupialisation needs to be performed. A case of a nasopalatine duct cyst in a 35-year-old male is reviewed. The typical radiologic and histological findings are presented. PMID:24307954

Dedhia, Pratik; Dedhia, Shely; Dhokar, Amol; Desai, Ankit

2013-01-01

297

Turbofan Duct Propagation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

298

Otaru consensus on biliary stenting for unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction.  

PubMed

Biliary stenting for unresectable malignant biliary strictures is widely accepted and is routinely done as an effective palliation therapy. However, a consensus among experts is still far from being reached on the selection of stents, placement procedures etc. In 2012, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy reported guidelines for biliary stenting. At the Endoscopic Forum Japan 2012, a consensus meeting was held to examine seven statements that had been prepared based on these guidelines.Herein, we report the contents and the results of the examination of three of these statements on biliary stenting for hilar strictures. PMID:23617651

Katanuma, Akio; Irisawa, Atushi; Itoi, Takao

2013-05-01

299

Bleeding after Endoscopic Biliary Sphincterotomy  

PubMed Central

Bleeding during endoscopic sphincterotomy is a common complication. Sometimes bleeding occurs as a late complication after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We describe a case in which bleeding happened during ERCP but detection was done after the completion of the procedure. The detection of bleeding allowed further evaluation and detection of hemobilia in this case. The removal of blood clots from inside common bile duct by repeat ERCP however led to an uneventful recovery without any morbidity.

Sharma, Malay

2011-01-01

300

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas  

PubMed Central

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into two neighboring organs of the stomach and duodenum presenting with abdominal pain and jaundice. Endoscopy showed thick mucin extruding from two openings of the fistulas. Endoscopic suction of thick mucin using direct peroral cholangioscopy with ultra-slim endoscope through choledochoduodenal fistula was very difficult and ineffective because of very thick mucin and next endoscopic suction through the stent after prior insertion of biliary metal stent into choledochogastric fistula also failed. Pathologic specimen obtained from the proximal portion of the choledochogastric fistula near left intrahepatic bile duct through the metal stent showed a low grade adenoma. The patient declined the surgical treatment due to her old age and her abdominal pain with jaundice was improved after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with the irrigation of N-acetylcysteine three times daily for 10 d. PMID:25031793

Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

2014-01-01

301

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas.  

PubMed

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into two neighboring organs of the stomach and duodenum presenting with abdominal pain and jaundice. Endoscopy showed thick mucin extruding from two openings of the fistulas. Endoscopic suction of thick mucin using direct peroral cholangioscopy with ultra-slim endoscope through choledochoduodenal fistula was very difficult and ineffective because of very thick mucin and next endoscopic suction through the stent after prior insertion of biliary metal stent into choledochogastric fistula also failed. Pathologic specimen obtained from the proximal portion of the choledochogastric fistula near left intrahepatic bile duct through the metal stent showed a low grade adenoma. The patient declined the surgical treatment due to her old age and her abdominal pain with jaundice was improved after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with the irrigation of N-acetylcysteine three times daily for 10 d. PMID:25031793

Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

2014-07-16

302

Intraductal papillary mucininous neoplasm of the bile ducts: multimodality assessment with pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Mucin-producing intraductal papillary neoplasm (adenocarcinoma/adenoma) in the bile duct is becoming recognized as a specific type of neoplasm. Since, it bears a striking similarity to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with regard to its histopathologic features, the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct" (IPMN-B) is frequently used, although no definite terminology or definition has been decided by World Health Organization. This neoplasm lacks ovarian-like stroma and communicates with the bile ducts, unlike biliary mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). On the other hand, malignant IPMN-B is categorized as an intraductal-growth type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). In comparison to other types of ICC, such as the mass-forming type and periductal-infiltrating type that have poor resectability and an unfavorable prognosis, malignant IPMN-B can be resected and demonstrates a more favorable prognosis. Meanwhile, unlike biliary MCN that is usually confined in a closed cyst, IPMN-B can spread along the mucosal surface of the bile ducts, and it should be widely resected. Therefore, multimodality assessment is needed to ensure the correct diagnosis of IPMN-B. We herein review the imaging findings of IPMN-B with pathologic correlation. PMID:20959978

Takanami, Kentaro; Yamada, Takayuki; Tsuda, Masashi; Takase, Kei; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kanno, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Unno, Michiaki; Takahashi, Shoki

2011-08-01

303

Intrahepatic Bile Duct Regeneration in Mice Does Not Require Hnf6 or Notch Signaling through Rbpj  

PubMed Central

The potential for intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) regeneration in patients with bile duct insufficiency diseases is poorly understood. Notch signaling and Hnf6 have each been shown to be important for the morphogenesis of IHBDs in mice. One congenital pediatric liver disease characterized by reduced numbers of IHBDs, Alagille syndrome, is associated with mutations in Notch signaling components. Therefore, we investigated whether liver cell plasticity could contribute to IHBD regeneration in mice with disruptions in Notch signaling and Hnf6. We studied a mouse model of bile duct insufficiency with liver epithelial cell–specific deficiencies in Hnf6 and Rbpj, a mediator of canonical Notch signaling. Albumin-Cre Hnf6flox/floxRbpjflox/flox mice initially developed no peripheral bile ducts. The evolving postnatal liver phenotype was analyzed using IHBD resin casting, immunostaining, and serum chemistry. With age, Albumin-Cre Hnf6flox/floxRbpjflox/flox mice mounted a ductular reaction extending through the hepatic tissue and then regenerated communicating peripheral IHBD branches. Rbpj and Hnf6 were determined to remain absent from biliary epithelial cells constituting the ductular reaction and the regenerated peripheral IHBDs. We report the expression of Sox9, a marker of biliary epithelial cells, in cells expressing hepatocyte markers. Tissue analysis indicates that reactive ductules did not arise directly from preexisting hilar IHBDs. We conclude that liver cell plasticity is competent for regeneration of IHBDs independent of Notch signaling via Rbpj and Hnf6. PMID:24631193

Walter, Teagan J.; Vanderpool, Charles; Cast, Ashley E.; Huppert, Stacey S.

2014-01-01

304

A case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).  

PubMed

We report here a rare case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. In an 80-year-old woman, an approximately 8-mm papillary mass was incidentally detected at the downstream edge of a dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen on CT and MRI. Main pancreatic duct dilatation in the pancreatic body and tail and parenchymal atrophy were observed in the upstream of the mass. Histopathologically, the tumor protruded into the downstream edge of the dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen in the pancreatic body. The tumor cells had highly atypical nuclei and abundant polymorphic structures, and showed positive staining for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which led to the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma. A total of 13 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with intraductal tumor growth have been reported to date. The case report by Bergmann et al. has been the smallest in histopathological specimen, and the present case is the smallest in size detected by radiological images. Since early undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas can resemble those of main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in cross-sectional images, we have to consider undifferentiated carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of the solitary and papillary mass with low contrast enhancement in early phase in the main pancreatic duct. PMID:25526684

Kawai, Yuichi; Nakamichi, Rei; Kamata, Noriko; Miyake, Hideo; Fujino, Masahiko; Itoh, Shigeki

2015-03-01

305

Effective gravity theories with dilations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion of the dilation in the Einstein plus Gauss-Bonnet model removes the de Sitter ground state permitted in its absence; the generic case with higher order invariants is discussed. Spherically symmetric static solutions are considered and their asymptotic behavior established; they are nontrivial only for a nonvanishing dilaton field and are compatible with the existence of an horizon at which

David G. Boulware; S. Deser

1986-01-01

306

Curing heart dilatation with acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilatation of the chambers of the heart, which can be caused by a variety of factors, is always seen as serious heart pathology. The enlargement of the left ventricle inevitably leads to its loss of the systolic function, which, in turn, results in dyspnoea, fatigue, tachycardia and edemas. Widening of the right heart is almost surely a sign of pulmonary

Alexey A Kudriavtsev; Tanya N Vlasik; Alexey P Yurenev

2003-01-01

307

What Is Bile Duct Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Bile duct adenocarcinomas develop from the mucous gland cells that line the inside of the duct. Other types of bile duct cancers are much less common. These include sarcomas, lymphomas, and small cell cancers. This document does not discuss these other ...

308

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Biliary Drainage  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Materials and Methods Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. Results EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Conclusion Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions. PMID:22563291

Ferreira, Flávio C.; Sakai, Paulo

2012-01-01

309

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2011-04-01

310

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2012-04-01

311

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2010-04-01

312

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2011-04-01

313

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2014-04-01

314

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2010-04-01

315

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2012-04-01

316

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2014-04-01

317

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2013-04-01

318

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2011-04-01

319

21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a) Identification. A urethral dilator...

2013-04-01

320

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2010-04-01

321

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2014-04-01

322

21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a) Identification. A ureteral dilator is a...

2012-04-01

323

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2013-04-01

324

Can bile duct injuries be prevented? "A new technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy"  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has gained worldwide acceptance and considered to be as "gold standard" in the surgical management of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. However, the incidence of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still two times greater compared to classic open surgery. The development of bile duct injury may result in biliary cirrhosis and increase in mortality rates. The mostly blamed causitive factor is the misidentification of the anatomy, especially by a surgeon who is at the beginning of his learning curve. Biliary tree injuries may be decreased by direct coloration of the cystic duct, ductus choledochus and even the gall bladder. Methods gall bladder fundus was punctured by Veress needle and all the bile was aspirated. The same amount of fifty percent methylene blue diluted by saline solution was injected into the gall bladder for coloration of biliary tree. The dissection of Calot triangle was much more safely performed after obtention of coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and choledocus. Results Between October 2003 and December 2004, overall 46 patients (of which 9 males) with a mean age of 47 (between 24 and 74) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with methylene blue injection technique. The diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis (the thickness of the gall bladder wall was normal) confirmed by pre-operative abdominal ultrasonography in all patients. The diameters of the stones were greater than 1 centimeter in 32 patients and calcula of various sizes being smaller than 1 cm. were documented in 13 cases. One patient was operated for gall bladder polyp (our first case). Successful coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and ductus choledochus was possible in 43 patients, whereas only the gall bladder and proximal cystic duct were visualised in 3 cases. In these cases, ductus choledochus visibility was not possible. None of the patients developed bile duct injury. Conclusion The number of bile duct injuries related to anatomic misidentification can be decreased and even vanished by using intraoperative methylene blue injection technique into the gall bladder fundus intraoperatively. PMID:15963227

Sari, Yavuz Selim; Tunali, Vahit; Tomaoglu, Kamer; Karagöz, Binnur; Güney?, Ayhan; KaragöZ, ?brahim

2005-01-01

325

Participation of peribiliary glands in biliary tract pathophysiologies  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the roles of peribiliary glands around the bile ducts in the pathophysiology of the biliary tract. METHODS: The expression of fetal pancreatic markers, pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1) and endodermal stem/progenitor (S/P) cell markers [CD44s, chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), SOX9 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)] were examined immunohistochemically in 32 normal adult livers (autopsy livers) and 22 hepatolithiatic livers (surgically resected livers). The latter was characterized by the proliferation of the peribiliary glands. Immunohistochemistry was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections after deparaffinization. Although PDX1 and HES1 were expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of epithelial cells, only nuclear staining was evaluated. SOX9 was expressed in the nucleus, while CD44s, CXCR4 and EpCAM were expressed in the cell membranes. The frequency and extent of the expression of these molecules in the lining epithelia and peribiliary glands were evaluated semi-quantitatively based on the percentage of positive cells: 0, 1+ (focal), 2+ (moderate) and 3+ (extensive). RESULTS: In normal livers, PDX1 was infrequently expressed in the lining epithelia, but was frequently expressed in the peribiliary glands. In contrast, HES1 was frequently expressed in the lining epithelia, but its expression in the peribiliary glands was focal, suggesting that the peribiliary glands retain the potential of differentiation toward the pancreas and the lining epithelia exhibit properties to inhibit such differentiation. This unique combination was also seen in hepatolithiatic livers. The expression of endodermal S/P cell markers varied in the peribiliary glands in normal livers: SOX9 and EpCAM were frequently expressed, CD44s infrequently, and CXCR4 almost not at all. The expression of these markers, particularly CD44s and CXCR4, increased in the peribiliary glands and lining epithelia in hepatolithiatic livers. This increased expression of endodermal S/P cell markers may be related to the increased production of intestinal and gastric mucin and also to the biliary neoplasia associated with the gastric and intestinal phenotypes reported in hepatolithiasis. CONCLUSION: The unique expression pattern of PDX1 and HES1 and increased expression of endodermal S/P cell markers in the peribiliary glands may be involved in biliary pathophysiologies. PMID:24023981

Igarashi, Saya; Sato, Yasunori; Ren, Xiang Shan; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2013-01-01

326

Clinicopathological characterization of so-called “cholangiocarcinoma with intraductal papillary growth” with respect to “intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct (IPNB)”  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) of the biliary tract occasionally presents a predominant intraductal papillary growth in the bile ducts, called as biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) of papillary growth (PG) and intrahepatic CC (ICC) of intraductal growth (IG) type. Recently, intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct (IPNB) has been proposed as a pre-invasive biliary neoplasm. This study was performed to characterize pathologically BTC of PG type and ICC of IG type with respect to IPNB. It was found that 126 of such 154 CCs (81.8%) fulfilled the criteria of IPNB, while the remaining 28 cases showed different histologies, such as tubular adenocarcinoma and carcinosarcoma. These IPNBs occurred in old aged patients with a male predominance, and the left lobe was rather frequently affected in the liver. A majority of these cases were high grade IPNB (43 cases) and invasive IPNB (77 cases), while low grade IPNB was rare (6 cases). Pancreatobiliary type was predominant (48 cases) followed by gastric (30 cases), intestinal (29 cases) and oncocytic (19 cases) types. Mucus hypersecretion was found in 45 cases, and this was frequent in IPNB at the intrahepatic large bile duct and hilar bile ducts but rare at the extrahepatic bile ducts. Interestingly, 36 cases of high grade and invasive IPNBs contained foci of moderately differentiated adenocacinoma within the intraductal papillary tumor. In conclusion, a majority of ICC of IG type and BTC of PG type could be regarded as a IPNB lineage, and clinically detectable IPNBs were already a malignant papillary lesion. PMID:25031730

Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori; Ojima, Hidenori; Kanai, Yae; Aishima, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Ariizumi, Shun-ichi; Furukawa, Toru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Unno, Michiaki; Ohta, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

327

Cornice Duct System  

SciTech Connect

SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

2004-10-29

328

Biliary strictures: diagnostic considerations and approach  

PubMed Central

Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge, especially when no etiology can be ascertained after laboratory evaluation, abdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sampling. These strictures were traditionally classified as indeterminate strictures, although with advances in endoscopic techniques and better understanding of hepato-biliary pathology, more are being correctly diagnosed. The implications of missing a malignancy in patients with biliary strictures—and hence delaying surgery—are grave but a significant number of patients (up to 20%) undergoing surgery for suspected biliary malignancy can have benign pathology. The diagnostic approach to these patients involves detailed history and physical examination and depends on the presence or absence of jaundice, level of obstruction, and presence or absence of a mass lesion. While abdominal imaging helps to find the level of obstruction and provides a ‘road map' for further endoscopic investigations, tissue diagnosis is usually needed to make decisions on management. Initially ERCP was the only modality to investigate these strictures but now, with the development of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration and the availability of newer techniques such as intraductal ultrasound, single-operator cholangioscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy, the diagnostic approach to biliary strictures has changed significantly. In this review, we will focus on the decision-making process for patients with biliary strictures and discuss the key decision points that should dictate further diagnostic investigations at each step. PMID:25355800

Singh, Ajaypal; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

2015-01-01

329

The inflammatory phenotype of the fibrous plate is distinct from the liver and correlates with clinical outcome in biliary atresia.  

PubMed

Biliary atresia is an inflammatory cholangiopathy of still undetermined etiology. Correlations between histologic findings and clinical outcome in this disease have largely been based on evaluation of liver parenchyma. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of inflammation within the biliary remnant and identify associations between the type and degree of inflammation and clinical outcome as reflected by the transplant-free interval. The inflammation within the fibrous plates and livers of 41 patients with biliary atresia was characterized using immunohistochemical markers and the cell populations were digitally quantified. The type and quantity of cells within the infiltrate were then correlated with length of time from Kasai portoenterostomy until transplant. Histologic and immunohistochemical features of the biliary remnant allowed stratification of patients into "inflammatory plate" and "fibrotic plate" groups. Overall there was no significant difference in transplant-free interval between the two cohorts; however, there was a trend towards a longer time to transplant among patients in the "fibrotic plate" group. In addition, the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in the fibrous plate was distinctly different from that present in the liver and only the characteristics of the inflammation in the fibrous plate, in particular the number of Foxp3+ T regulatory lymphocytes correlated with clinical outcome. The results of this study support the view of the extra-hepatic biliary tree as the primary site of injury in BA with the changes seen in the liver as secondary manifestations of outflow obstruction. The association between specific inflammatory cell subtypes within the fibrous plate and the length of transplant-free interval also supports the role of the immune system in the initial process of bile duct damage in biliary atresia. PMID:25624184

Arva, Nicoleta C; Russo, Pierre A; Erlichman, Jessi; Hancock, Wayne W; Haber, Barbara A; Bhatti, Tricia R

2015-03-01

330

Non-Newtonian flow of pathological bile in the biliary system: experimental investigation and CFD simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an experimental study of pathological human bile taken from the gallbladder and bile ducts. The flow dependences were obtained for different types of bile from patients with the same pathology, but of different age and sex. The parameters of the Casson's and Carreau's equations were found for bile samples. Results on the hysteretic bile behavior at loading-unloading tests are also presented, which proved that the pathologic bile is a non-Newtonian thixotropic liquid. The viscosity of the gallbladder bile was shown to be higher compared to the duct bile. It was found that at higher shear stress the pathological bile behaves like Newtonian fluid, which is explained by reorientation of structural components. Moreover, some pathological bile flow in the biliary system CFD simulations were performed. The velocity and pressure distributions as well as flow rates in the biliary segments during the gallbladder refilling and emptying phases are obtained. The results of CFD simulations can be used for surgeons to assess the patient's condition and choose an adequate treatment.

Kuchumov, Alex G.; Gilev, Valeriy; Popov, Vitaliy; Samartsev, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vasiliy

2014-02-01

331

The Role of Perioperative Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Biliary Drainage in Large Liver Hydatid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Background. The best surgical technique for large liver hydatid cysts (LHCs) has not yet been agreed on. Objectives. The objective of this study was to examine the role of perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and biliary drainage in patients with large LHCs. Methods. A 20-year retrospective study of patients with LHCs treated surgically at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK). We divided patients into 2 groups based on treatment period: 1981–1990 (Group I) and 2001–2010 (Group II). Demographic characteristics (sex, age), the surgical procedure performed, complications rate, and outcomes were compared. Results. Of the 340 patients in our study, 218 (64.1%) were female with median age of 37 years (range, 17 to 81 years). 71% of patients underwent endocystectomy with partial pericystectomy and omentoplication, 8% total pericystectomy, 18% endocystectomy with capitonnage, and 3% external drainage. In Group I, 10 patients underwent bile duct exploration and T-tube placement; in Group II, 39 patients underwent bile duct exploration and T-tube placement. In addition, 9 patients in Group II underwent perioperative ERCP with papillotomy. The complication rate was 14.32% versus 6.37%, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Perioperative ERCP and biliary drainage significantly decreased the complication rate and improved outcomes in patients with large LHCs. PMID:25431783

Bicaj, B.; Limani, D.; Maxhuni, M.; Rrusta, A.; Hoxha, F.; Sada, F.; Hashani, S.; Musa, R.; Latifi, R.

2014-01-01

332

Transjejunal biliary interventions: going back to a road less traveled.  

PubMed

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions are not without risk and potential complications. In patients with bilioenteric anastomosis in whom repeat biliary interventions are expected, percutaneous transjejunal access is a very useful approach that is not frequently used nowadays. We provide a brief review of the history, indications, and current status of transjejunal biliary interventions. Transjejunal biliary access provides a relatively atraumatic pathway to the biliary system in patients that need repeat interventions. Multiple studies have provided convincing data that in appropriately chosen patients receiving a bilioenteric anastomosis, an antecolic limb of jejunum should be placed for subsequent access in biliary intervention. PMID:24316661

Lopera, Jorge E; Ramsey, Gregory R

2014-12-01

333

Soft-Tissue-Anchored Transcutaneous Port for Long-Term Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. A transcutaneous port (T-port) has been developed allowing easy exchange of a catheter, which was fixed inside the device, using the Seldinger technique. The objective of the study was to test the T-port in patients who had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Methods. The T-port, made of titanium, was implanted using local anesthesia in 11 patients (mean age 65 years, range 52-85 years) with biliary duct obstruction (7 malignant and 4 benign strictures). The subcutaneous part of the T-port consisted of a flange with several perforations allowing ingrowth of connective tissue. The T-port allowed catheter sizes of 10 and 12 Fr. Results. All wounds healed uneventfully and were followed by a stable period without signs of pronounced inflammation or infection. It was easy to open the port and to exchange the drainage tube. The patient's quality of life was considerably improved even though several patients had problems with repeated bile leakage due to frequent recurrent obstructions of the tubes. The ports were implanted for a mean time of 9 months (range 2-21 months). Histologic examination in four cases showed that the port was well integrated into the soft tissue. Tilting of the T-port in two cases led to perforation of the skin by the subcutaneous part of the ports, which were removed after 7 and 8 months. Conclusion. The T-port served as an excellent external access to the biliary ducts. The drainage tubes were well fixed within the ports. The quality of life of the patients was considerably improved. Together with improved aesthetic appearance they found it easier to conduct normal daily activities and personal care. However, the problem of recurrent catheter obstruction remained unsolved.

Nyman, Rickard, E-mail: rickard.nyman@akademiska.se; Ekloef, Hampus; Eriksson, Lars-Gunnar [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Sweden); Karlsson, Britt-Marie; Rasmussen, Ib [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Sweden); Lundgren, Dan; Thomsen, Peter [Goeteborg University, Biomaterials/Cell Biology (Sweden)

2005-01-15

334

Remains of the day: Biliary complications related to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assesse the rate of bile duct injuries (BDI) and overall biliary complications during single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) compared to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). METHODS: SPLC has recently been proposed as an innovative surgical approach for gallbladder surgery. So far, its safety with respect to bile duct injuries has not been specifically evaluated. A systematic review of the literature published between January 1990 and November 2012 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing SPLC versus CLC reporting BDI rate and overall biliary complications were included. The quality of RCT was assessed using the Jadad score. Analysis was made by performing a meta-analysis, using Review Manager 5.2. This study was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A retrospective study including all retrospective reports on SPLC was also performed alongside. RESULTS: From 496 publications, 11 RCT including 898 patients were selected for meta-analysis. No studies were rated as high quality (Jadad score ? 4). Operative indications included benign gallbladder disease operated in an elective setting in all studies, excluding all emergency cases and acute cholecystitis. The median follow-up was 1 mo (range 0.03-18 mo). The incidence of BDI was 0.4% for SPLC and 0% for CLC; the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.36). The incidence of overall biliary complication was 1.6% for SPLC and 0.5% for CLC, the difference did not reached statistically significance (P = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.66-15). Sixty non-randomized trials including 3599 patients were also analysed. The incidence of BDI reported then was 0.7%. CONCLUSION: The safety of SPLC cannot be assumed, based on the current evidence. Hence, this new technology cannot be recommended as standard technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24574757

Allemann, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

2014-01-01

335

Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct  

PubMed Central

Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6?cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive) surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient's poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas. PMID:24804133

Agarwal, Rishi; Nguyen, Jeremy; Weidenhaft, Mandy Crause; Shores, Nathan; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.

2014-01-01

336

Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia  

SciTech Connect

We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

Hayashi, Sadao, E-mail: hayashi@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-07-15

337

Detection of Ki-ras gene point mutations in bile specimens for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign biliary strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMThe present study was undertaken to determine if detection of Ki-ras gene point mutations in bile specimens could differentiate between benign and malignant biliary strictures.PATIENTSBile specimens were obtained from 117 patients exhibiting a stricture of the main bile duct, the nature of which was assessed by cholangiography, histology, and follow up.METHODSDNA from frozen bile specimens was extracted, amplified,

J-C Saurin; M-O Joly-Pharaboz; P Pernas; L Henry; T Ponchon; J-J Madjar

2000-01-01

338

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pancreatic and biliary tract disease in Korean children  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the indications, findings, therapeutic procedures, safety, and complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed in Korean children. METHODS: The demographic characteristics, indications for ERCP, findings, therapeutic procedures, and complications of 122 pediatric patients who underwent 245 ERCPs in the Asan Medical Center between June 1994 and March 2008 were investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the 122 patients was 8.0 ± 4.2 years. Indications were biliary pathology in 78 (64.0%), pancreatic pathology in 43 (35.2%), and chronic abdominal pain in one. Biliary indications included choledochal cysts in 40, choledocholithiasis in 24, suspected sclerosing cholangitis in 8, trauma in 2, and other conditions in 4. Pancreatic indications included acute pancreatitis in 7, acute recurrent pancreatitis in 11, chronic pancreatitis in 20, trauma in 3, and pancreatic mass in 2. Of the 245 ERCPs, success rate was 98.4% and 190 (77.6%) were for therapeutic purposes, including endoscopic nasal drainage (51.8%), biliary sphincterotomy (38.0%), pancreatic sphincterotomy (23.3%), stent insertion (15.1%), stone extraction (18.8%), and balloon dilatation (11.0%). Complications were post-ERCP pancreatitis in 16 (6.5%), ileus in 23 (9.4%), hemorrhage in 2 (0.8%), perforation in 2 (0.8%), sepsis in 1 (0.4%), and impacted basket in 1 (0.4%). There were no procedure-related deaths, and most complications improved under supportive care. CONCLUSION: This study showed that there is a high incidence of choledochal cyst and diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP for the management of various biliary and pancreatic diseases was safe and effective in Korean children. PMID:20101777

Jang, Joo Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mo

2010-01-01

339

Clinical review: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of critically ill patients requiring tracheotomy for prolonged ventilation has increased, the demand for a procedural\\u000a alternative to the surgical tracheostomy (ST) has also emerged. Since its introduction, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies\\u000a (PDT) have gained increasing popularity. The most commonly cited advantages are the ease of the familiar technique and the\\u000a ability to perform the procedure at the

Mariam A Al-Ansari; Mohammed H Hijazi

2005-01-01

340

Retrospective evaluation of endoscopic stenting of combined malignant common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum obstructions  

PubMed Central

Malignant dual obstruction in the common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum can cause difficulties in palliative treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize our successful experience with the endoscopic stenting procedure for the palliative treatment of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenum obstruction. Seventeen patients who underwent dual stenting procedures for the common bile duct and duodenum were retrospectively reviewed. The success rate of placement, palliative effect for biliary and duodenal obstruction, incidence of complication and restricture and stent patency were analyzed. Stent placement achieved a 100% success rate. Total bilirubin decreased from 263.4±62.5 to 157.6±25.1 ?mol/l, direct bilirubin decreased from 233.2±66.5 to 130.9±27.7 ?mol/l and alkaline phosphatase from 534.2±78.7 to 216.3±23.3 IU/l. The differences between the preoperative and postoperative results were statistically significant (P<0.01). The gastric outlet obstruction score increased significantly from 0.9±1.1 to 2.1±0.7 points (P<0.01). The general nutritional status of the patients was improved. No serious complications occurred in any of the patients, and the survival time of patients following stenting ranged between 70 and 332 days with a mean survival time of 192 days. In conclusion, our methodology for combined biliary and enteral stenting is highly effective for the palliation of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenal obstruction. PMID:25187819

YU, JIANFENG; HAO, JIANYU; WU, DONGFANG; LANG, HAIBO

2014-01-01

341

Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and postoperatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Results: Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:19660213

Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter

2009-01-01

342

Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage  

SciTech Connect

Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging was performed in 11 jaundiced patients before, during, and after biliary decompression. The rates of plasma clearances and radionuclide accumulation in liver cells and biliary tree were calculated, in addition to the uptake and retention index.

Falchero, F.; Valentini, M.; Ciambellotti, E.; Becchi, G.

1985-04-01

343

Intraductal biliary and pancreatic endoscopy: An expanding scope of possibility  

PubMed Central

Intraductal endoscopy describes the use of an endoscope to directly visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts. For many years, technological challenges have made performing these procedures difficult. The “mother-baby” system and other various miniscopes have been developed, but routine use has been hampered due to complex setup, scope fragility and the time consuming, technically demanding nature of the procedure. Recently, the SpyGlass peroral cholangiopancreatoscopy system has shown early success at providing diagnostic information and therapeutic options. The clinical utility of intraductal endoscopy is broad. It allows better differentiation between benign and malignant processes by allowing direct visualization and targeted sampling of tissue. Therapeutic interventions, such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL), laser lithotripsy, photodynamic therapy, and argon plasma coagulation (APC), may also be performed as part of intraductal endoscopy. Intraductal endoscopy significantly increases the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), and as technology progresses, it is likely that its utilization will only increase. In this review of intraductal endoscopy, we describe in detail the various endoscopic platforms and their diagnostic and clinical applications. PMID:18506916

Judah, Joel R; Draganov, Peter V

2008-01-01

344

A comparison of two common bile duct ligation methods to establish hepatopulmonary syndrome animal models.  

PubMed

The major drawback of the current common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) animal model is the extremely high mortality rate that hinders experimental studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate an improved method of CBDL with the goal of developing a simple and reproducible rat HPS model after a single CBDL treatment. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent separate methods of CBDL: (1) the upper common bile duct ligation (UCBDL) group (n?=?40), in which the first ligature was made near the junction of the hepatic ducts, and the second ligature was made above the entrance of the pancreatic duct; (2) the middle of the common bile duct ligation (MCBDL) group (n?=?40), in which the first ligature was made in the middle of the common bile duct, and the second ligature was made above the entrance of the pancreatic duct. The CBDL-induced HPS rats were evaluated by pulse oximeter, arterial blood analysis, histopathology, and cerebral uptake of intravenous technetium-99m-labeled albumin macroaggregates (which reflects intrapulmonary vascular dilation). The mortality rates of the UCBDL group and the MCBDL group were 42.5% and 77.5%, respectively (P?

Yang, Y; Chen, B; Chen, Y; Zu, B; Yi, B; Lu, K

2015-01-01

345

Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: An unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10?cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. PMID:25430551

Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

2015-04-01

346

Endoscopic diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma: Advances and current limitations  

PubMed Central

The accurate diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is difficult, even now. When ultrasonography (US) shows dilatation of the bile duct, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic US (EUS) is the next step. When US or EUS shows localized bile duct wall thickening, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be conducted with intraductal US (IDUS) and forceps biopsy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization increases the sensitivity of brush cytology with similar specificity. In patients with papillary type bile duct carcinoma, three biopsies are sufficient. In patients with nodular or infiltrating-type bile duct carcinoma, multiple biopsies are warranted, and IDUS can compensate for the limitations of biopsies. In preoperative staging, the combination of dynamic multi-detector low computed tomography (MDCT) and IDUS is useful for evaluating vascular invasion and cancer depth infiltration. However, assessment of lymph nodes metastases is difficult. In resectable cases, assessment of longitudinal cancer spread is important. The combination of IDUS and MDCT is useful for revealing submucosal cancer extension, which is common in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. To estimate the mucosal extension, which is common in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the combination of IDUS and cholangioscopy is required. The utility of current peroral cholangioscopy is limited by the maneuverability of the “baby scope”. A new baby scope (10 Fr), called “SpyGlass” has potential, if the image quality can be improved. Since extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is common in the Far East, many researchers in Japan and Korea contributed these studies, especially, in the evaluation of longitudinal cancer extension. PMID:21611097

Tamada, Kiichi; Ushio, Jun; Sugano, Kentaro

2011-01-01

347

Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

Lopera, Jorge E., E-mail: jloper@lsuhsc.edu; Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong [Louisiana State University, Department of Radiology (United States); Ruiz, Bernardo [Louisiana State University, Department of Pathology (United States); Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido [Louisiana State University, Department of Radiology (United States)

2005-05-15

348

Current endoscopic approach to indeterminate biliary strictures  

PubMed Central

Biliary strictures are considered indeterminate when basic work-up, including transabdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with routine cytologic brushing, are non-diagnostic. Indeterminate biliary strictures can easily be mischaracterized which may dramatically affect patient’s outcome. Early and accurate diagnosis of malignancy impacts not only a patient’s candidacy for surgery, but also potential timely targeted chemotherapies. A significant portion of patients with indeterminate biliary strictures have benign disease and accurate diagnosis is, thus, paramount to avoid unnecessary surgery. Current sampling strategies have suboptimal accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy. Emerging data on other diagnostic modalities, such as ancillary cytology techniques, single operator cholangioscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration, revealed promising results with much improved sensitivity. PMID:23180939

Victor, David W; Sherman, Stuart; Karakan, Tarkan; Khashab, Mouen A

2012-01-01

349

Involvement of cholangiocyte proliferation in biliary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells that line the biliary tree. In the adult liver, they are a mitotically dormant cell population, unless ductular reaction is triggered by injury. The ability of cholangiocytes to proliferate is important in many different human pathological liver conditions that target this cell type, which are termed cholangiopathies (i.e. primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and biliary atresia). In our article, we provide background information on the morphological and functional heterogeneity of cholangiocytes, summarize what is currently known about their proliferative processes, and briefly describe the diseases that target these cells. In addition, we address recent findings that suggest cholangiocyte involvement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation and liver fibrosis, and propose directions for future studies. PMID:21607140

Priester, Sally; Wise, Candace; Glaser, Shannon S

2010-06-15

350

Osteopontin Upregulation in Rotavirus-Induced Murine Biliary Atresia Requires Replicating Virus But is Not Necessary for Development of Biliary Atresia  

PubMed Central

Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory pediatric liver disease in which osteopontin (OPN), a glycoprotein with inflammatory and fibrogenic activity, may play a pathogenic role. The current studies were conducted in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced BA to test the hypotheses that live but not inactivated rotavirus causes antigenemia, upregulation of hepatic OPN expression, and induction of BA and fibrosis; and that OPN is necessary for development of BA. Prolonged or transient antigenemia developed in mice inoculated with live or inactivated virus, respectively, but only live virus upregulated hepatic OPN and caused BA and fibrosis. OPN was expressed in intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts in healthy mice and in mice with BA. OPN-deficient mice, similarly to WT mice, developed BA. Together, these data show that live but not inactivated rotavirus causes upregulation of hepatic OPN expression and BA but that OPN is not necessary for development of BA. PMID:21742364

Hertel, Paula M.; Crawford, Sue E.; Finegold, Milton J.; Estes, Mary K.

2011-01-01

351

Lithocholic Acid Feeding Induces Segmental Bile Duct Obstruction and Destructive Cholangitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

We determined the mechanisms of hepatobiliary injury in the lithocholic acid (LCA)-fed mouse, an increasingly used model of cholestatic liver injury. Swiss albino mice received control diet or 1% (w/w) LCA diet (for 1, 2, and 4 days), followed by assessment of liver morphology and ultrastructure, tight junctions, markers of fibrosis and key proteins of hepatobiliary function, and bile flow and composition. As expected LCA feeding led to bile infarcts, which were followed by a destructive cholangitis with activation and proliferation of periductal myofibroblasts. At the ultrastructural level, small bile ducts were frequently obstructed by crystals. Biliary-excreted fluorescence-labeled ursodeoxycholic acid accumulated in bile infarcts, whereas most infarcts did not stain with India ink injected into the common bile duct; both findings are indicative of partial biliary obstruction. Expression of the main basolateral bile acid uptake proteins (sodium-taurocholate cotransporter and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1) was reduced, the canalicular transporters bile salt export pump and multidrug-related protein 2 were preserved, and the basolateral transporter multidrug-related protein 3 and the detoxifying enzyme sulfotransferase 2a1 were induced. Thus, we demonstrate that LCA feeding in mice leads to segmental bile duct obstruction, destructive cholangitis, periductal fibrosis, and an adaptive transporter and metabolic enzyme response. PMID:16436656

Fickert, Peter; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Wagner, Martin; Zollner, Gernot; Krause, Robert; Zatloukal, Kurt; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

2006-01-01

352

Biliary excretion of phenprocoumon and metabolites.  

PubMed

To evaluate phenprocoumon elimination its possible biliary excretion was evaluated in addition to the known pathway of renal elimination. Bile samples were obtained during diagnostic endoscopy in patients receiving chronic phenprocoumon therapy and were analyzed for phenprocoumon and its metabolites by HPLC and GC-MS. The following substances were detected, mainly in conjugated form: unchanged phenprocoumon and the metabolites 7-hydroxy-, 4'-hydroxy-, and 6-hydroxy-phenprocoumon. The data provide direct evidence of the biliary elimination of unchanged phenprocoumon and its metabolites in humans. PMID:3197753

de Vries, J X; Raedsch, R; Völker, U; Walter-Sack, I; Weber, E

1988-01-01

353

Congenital Malformations of the Gallbladder and Cystic Duct Diagnosed by Laparoscopy: High Surgical Risk  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies of the gallbladder are rare and can be accompanied by other malformations of the biliary or vascular tree. Being difficult to diagnose during routine preoperative studies, these anomalies can provide surgeons with an unusual surprise during laparoscopic surgery. The presence of any congenital anomaly or the mere suspicion of its existence demands that we exercise surgical prudence, limit the use of electrocoagulation, and ensure that no structure be divided until a clear picture of the bile ducts and blood vessels is obtained. If necessary, perform intraoperative cholangiography to further define the biliary system. However, if the case remains unclear, or if laparoscopy does not provide enough information, open surgery should be considered before undesirable complications occur. PMID:10694079

Martín del Omo, Juan C.; Blanco, Jose I.; Cuesta, Carmen; Martín, Fernando; Toledano, Miguel; Atienza, Ramon; Vaquero, Carlos

1999-01-01

354

Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct: stepwise progression to carcinoma involves common molecular pathways.  

PubMed

Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct are still poorly characterized regarding (1) their molecular alterations during the development to invasive carcinomas, (2) their subtype stratification and (3) their biological behavior. We performed a multicenter study that analyzed these issues in a large European cohort. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from 45 patients were graded and subtyped using mucin markers and CDX2. In addition, tumors were analyzed for common oncogenic pathways, and the findings were correlated with subtype and grade. Data were compared with those from 22 extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Intraductal papillary neoplasms showed a development from preinvasive low- to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis revealed mutated KRAS, overexpression of TP53 and loss of p16 in low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas loss of SMAD4 was found in late phases of tumor development. Alterations of HER2, EGFR, ?-catenin and GNAS were rare events. Among the subtypes, pancreato-biliary (36%) and intestinal (29%) were the most common, followed by gastric (18%) and oncocytic (13%) subtypes. Patients with intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct showed a slightly better overall survival than patients with cholangiocarcinoma (hazard ratio (cholangiocarcinoma versus intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct): 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-4.30; P=0.552). The development of biliary intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct follows an adenoma-carcinoma sequence that correlates with the stepwise activation of common oncogenic pathways. Further large trials are needed to investigate and verify the finding of a better prognosis of intraductal papillary neoplasms compared with conventional cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:23828315

Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Born, Diana; Bettstetter, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Kim-Fuchs, Corina; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Jeliazkova, Petia; Sipos, Bence; Siveke, Jens T; Terris, Benoit; Zen, Yoh; Schuster, Tibor; Höfler, Heinz; Perren, Aurel; Klöppel, Günter; Esposito, Irene

2014-01-01

355

Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants  

SciTech Connect

Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that these seals tend to fail over time periods ranging from days to years. We have used several test methods over the last few years to evaluate the longevity of duct sealants when subjected to temperatures and pressures representative of those found in the field. Traditional cloth duct tapes have been found to significantly under-perform other sealants and have been banned from receiving duct tightness credits in California's energy code (California Energy Commission 1998). Our accelerated testing apparatus has been redesigned since its first usage for improved performance. The methodology is currently under consideration by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a potential new test method. This report will summarize the set of measurements to date, review the status of the test apparatus and test method, and summarize the applications of these results to codes and standards.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

2000-08-01

356

Familial dilated cardiomyopathy in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To determine the frequency and mode of inheritance of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in the United Kingdom. BACKGROUND--Two recent prospective studies have suggested that familial forms of dilated cardiomyopathy are common but have been limited by selective screening methods, inadequate diagnostic criteria, and low rates of ascertainment. METHODS--Prospective screening study of 236 relatives from 40 families of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

P. J. Keeling; Y. Gang; G. Smith; H. Seo; S. E. Bent; V. Murday; A. L. Caforio; W. J. McKenna

1995-01-01

357

Unilateral multiple metallic stent-in-stent for a case of hilar biliary cancer: an alternative stenting strategy.  

PubMed

The stenting strategy has been discussed in cases with unresectable hilar bile duct cancer (HBDC). We describe here a case of HBDC, 4 cm in size, invading the right portal vein and hepatic artery, which was only treated with repeated metallic stent placement, and the patient survived for a long period (51 months). Against Bismuth type-IV hilar biliary stricture, our strategy was to maintain the drainage of the largest, viable hepatic area (>50% of total liver) by unilateral multiple stent-in-stent. PMID:24976285

Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Ono, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

358

Holding X-Ray Film Inside Ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiographic inspection of welds in walls of nonmagnetic ducts made easy by new film holder. X-Ray film inside duct held by interior and exterior magnets. Tether used to move holder and to retrieve it from inside duct.

Bulthuis, Ronald V.; Pierce, Darryl

1988-01-01

359

Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Trauma to the eye area or an eye injury that lacerates (cuts through) the tear ducts also could block a duct, but reconstructive surgery at the time of the accident or injury may prevent this. Signs of Blocked Tear Ducts ...

360

Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer: Radiation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer Next Topic Chemotherapy for bile duct cancer Radiation therapy for bile duct cancer Radiation therapy uses ... of radiation for bile duct cancer. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) This type of radiation therapy uses ...

361

Outcomes of nonresected main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare characteristics and outcomes of resected and nonresected main-duct and mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN). METHODS: Over a 14-year period, 50 patients who did not undergo surgery for resectable main-duct or mixed IPMN, for reasons of precluding comorbidities, age and/or refusal, were compared with 74 patients who underwent resection to assess differences in rates of survival, recurrence/occurrence of malignancy, and prognostic factors. All study participants had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct by ? 5 mm, with or without dilatation of the branch ducts. Some of the nonsurgical patients showed evidence of mucus upon perendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasound and/or after fine needle aspiration. For the surgical patients, pathologic analysis of resected specimens confirmed a diagnosis of IPMN with involvement of the main pancreatic duct or of both branch ducts as well as the main pancreatic duct. Clinical and biologic follow-ups were conducted for all patients at least annually, through hospitalization or consultation every six months during the first year of follow-up, together with abdominal imaging analysis (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or computed tomography) and, if necessary, endoscopic ultrasound with or without fine needle aspiration. RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate of patients who underwent resection was significantly greater than that for the nonsurgical patients (74% vs 58%; P = 0.019). The parameters of age (< 70 years) and absence of a nodule were associated with better survival (P < 0.05); however, the parameters of main pancreatic duct diameter > 10 mm, branch duct diameter > 30 mm, or presence of extra pancreatic cancers did not significantly influence the prognosis. In the nonsurgical patients, pancreatic malignancy occurred in 36% of cases within a mean time of 33 mo (median: 29 mo; range: 8-141 mo). Comparison of the nonsurgical patients who experienced disease progression with those who did not progress showed no significant differences in age, sex, symptoms, subtype of IPMN, or follow-up period; only the size of the main pancreatic duct was significantly different between these two sub-groups, with the nonsurgical patients who experienced progression showing a greater diameter at the time of diagnosis (> 10 mm). CONCLUSION: Patients unfit for surgery have a 36% greater risk of developing pancreatic malignancy of the main-duct or mixed IPMN within a median of 2.5 years.

Daudé, Mathieu; Muscari, Fabrice; Buscail, Camille; Carrère, Nicolas; Otal, Philippe; Selves, Janick; Buscail, Louis; Bournet, Barbara

2015-01-01

362

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2011-04-01

363

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2012-04-01

364

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2010-04-01

365

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2014-04-01

366

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2013-04-01

367

Cryopreservation prevents arterial allograft dilation.  

PubMed

Historically, immune-mediated degradation and subsequent aneurysm formation have limited the usefulness of cryopreserved arterial allografts. This study tested the hypothesis that modern cryopreserved arterial allografts are protected from immune-mediated dilation. Abdominal aortas were harvested from anesthetized rats (Lewis and Brown-Norway) for immediate implantation or cryopreservation. Subsequently, Lewis rats underwent infrarenal aortic replacement with either an acutely harvested or a cryopreserved graft. There were four experimental groups: (1) acutely harvested isografts (Iso; n = 6), (2) cryopreserved isografts (C-Iso; n = 6), (3) cryopreserved allografts (C-Allo; n = 6), and (4) acutely harvested allografts (Allo; n = 6). All grafts were explanted at 8 weeks. A video camera and edge detection software were used to measure systolic and diastolic in vivo graft diameter (d). Measurement of arterial blood pressure (p) allowed calculation of compliance (Dd/Dp). Tail-cuff plethysmography was used to assess graft patency at 1 week. Graft diameter and blood pressure measurements were repeated at harvest. All harvested grafts were examined histologically. Our results showed that cryopreservation prevented immune-mediated dilation in arterial allografts in our 8-week rat implant model. Furthermore, the compliance of the cryopreserved grafts and was similar to that of controls. Further investigation is needed to delineate the exact mechanism of these potential clinically significant findings. PMID:12391500

Giglia, Joseph S; Ollerenshaw, Jeremy D; Dawson, Patti E; Black, Kirby S; Abbott, William M

2002-11-01

368

Treatment of Common Bile Duct Obstruction by Pancreatic Cancer Using Various Stents: Single-Center Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of various means of stenting in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer in a retrospective analysis. Methods: Sixty-two patients with biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent biliary stenting. On the basis of the findings obtained by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(10 patients) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (52 patients),the site of obstruction was distal to the hilar confluence,predominantly especially in the middle to lower third of the common bile duct. Polyurethane-covered Wallstents (9 mm in diameter) we reinserted in 13 patients, while uncovered Wallstents (10 mm in diameter)were used in 10 patients and plastic stents (10 Fr and 12 Fr) were used in 39 patients. Results: Stenting was successful in 34 patients (87.2%) treated with plastic stents and in 22 patients(95.7%) treated with Wallstents. Effective biliary drainage was achieved in 32 out of 34 patients (94.1%) treated with plastic stents and in 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) treated with Wallstents. The cumulative patency rate was significantly higher for the uncovered and covered Wallstents compared to plastic stents, but was not significantly higher for covered than for uncovered Wallstents. Stentocclusion occurred in 23 patients (70%; all by clogging) from the plastic stent group, in two patients (22%; by tumor ingrowth) from the uncovered Wallstent group, and in one patient (9%; by clogging) from the covered Wallstent group. The survival rate showed no significant difference among the three stent groups. Conclusion: The Wallstent is effective for long-term palliation in patients with obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer invading the middle to lower part of the common bile duct. The covered Wallstent can prevent tumor ingrowth, a problem with the uncovered Wallstent. However, it may be necessary to take measures to prevent the migration or clogging of covered Wallstents.

Nakamura, Toshifumi; Hirai, Ritsuko; Kitagawa, Mutsuo; Takehira, Yasunori; Yamada, Masami [Department of Gastroenterology, Hamamatsu Medical Center, 328 Tomitsuka-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Tamakoshi, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Hirotoshi [SecondDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School ofMedicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Kanamori, Masao [Department of Public Health, HamamatsuUniversity School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

2002-10-15

369

A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

1983-01-01

370

EUS-guided biliary drainage for malignant biliary obstruction in patients with failed ERCP  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with malignant biliary obstruction are diagnosed at an advanced stage. EUS-guided biliary drainage (EBD) may be an alternative to percutaneous transhepatic or surgical drainage for failed access by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of EBD in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods EUS guided biliary drainage was performed using different approaches depending on the site of entry in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and failed biliary drainage by ERCP. Assessment included clinical outcomes, quality of life improvement laboratory tests before and after drainage and procedure-related complications. Results From April 2010 to September 2011, a total of 749 therapeutic ERCP was performed and 32 patients were included in this study. EBD was technically successful in 90.6% (29/32) with clinical improvement in all (29/29) of the patients in whom biliary drainage was successful. Three (9.4%) patients had technical failure at EBD. EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy was the most common drainage procedure (58.6%). Duodenal self-expandable metallic stent was placed in 7 (24.1%) cases. There was a significant decrease in bilirubin levels (p<0.001) and patients had improved quality of life after the procedure (p<0.05). Complications occurred in 6 (20.7%) patients and the median survival was 90 days. Conclusion In patients with malignant biliary obstruction and failed endoscopic drainage with ERCP, EBD may provide a safe and effective alternative for biliary drainage with acceptable complication rates and significant improvement in the quality of survival. PMID:24478923

Takada, Jonas

2013-01-01

371

Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction.

B. Mittal; M. Deutsch; S. Iwatsuki

1985-01-01

372

Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma with Compression of the Main Pancreatic Duct: An Unusual Entity  

PubMed Central

Serous cystadenoma is a common benign neoplasm that can be managed without surgery in asymptomatic patients provided that the diagnosis is certain. We describe a patient, whose pancreatic cyst exhibited a radiological appearance distinct from that of typical serous cystadenoma, resulting in diagnostic difficulties. CT and MRI showed a 10?cm-polycystic tumor with upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). Ultrasonographic aspect and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration gave arguments for serous cystadenoma. ERCP showed a communication between cysts and the dilated MPD, compatible with IPMT. The patient underwent left pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Pathological examination concluded in a serous cystadenoma, with only a ductal obstruction causing proximal dilatation. PMID:21436987

Truant, Stéphanie; Izgarevic, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Buob, David; Bulois, Philippe; Ernst, Olivier; Huet, Guillemette; Zerbib, Philippe; Pruvot, François-René

2011-01-01

373

Balloon dilation itself may not be a major determinant of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the essential first modality for common bile duct (CBD) stone therapy. The conventional endoscopic treatment for CBD stones is stone removal after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Stone removal after papillary stretching using balloon dilation instead of the conventional method has been widely adopted. There are many reports regarding endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) utilizing a small balloon (< 10 mm) instead of EST for the removal of small CBD stones. In contrast, two cases of mortality due to post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) were reported after an EPBD clinical trial in the Western world, and the psychological barrier caused by these incidences hinders the use of this technique in Western countries. Endoscopic papillar large balloon dilation (EPLBD), which is used to treat large CBD stones, was not widely adopted when first introduced due to concerns about perforation and severe pancreatitis from the use of a large balloon (12-20 mm). However, as experience with this procedure accumulates, the occurrence of PEP with EPLBD is confirmed to be much lower than with EPBD. This report reviews whether EPBD and EPLBD, two procedures that use balloon dilation but differ in terms of indications and concept, contribute to the occurrence of PEP. PMID:25493004

Jang, Sung Ill; Yun, Gak Won; Lee, Dong Ki

2014-01-01

374

Risk Factors Associated with Biliary Pancreatitis in Children  

PubMed Central

Little is known about risk factors for biliary pancreatitis in children. Objectives We characterized cases of pediatric biliary pancreatitis, compared biliary with non-biliary cases, examined differences in presentation between younger and older children, and studied features distinguishing gallstone- from sludge-induced pancreatitis. Methods We evaluated 76 episodes of biliary pancreatitis from 271 cases of acute pancreatitis in children admitted to a tertiary care hospital from 1994 to 2007. Results Of the 76 cases, 55% had gallstones, 21% had sludge, and 24% had structural defects. Hispanic children had a 2.85 (p=0.01) and 5.59 (p=0.003) higher probability for biliary pancreatitis than white and black children, respectively. Median serum amylase and lipase in children with biliary pancreatitis were 64% and 49% higher, respectively, compared to other etiologies (p<0.05). In multiple logistic regression, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was an independent predictor of biliary pancreatitis (OR=6.69, p=0.001). When comparing gallstone- with sludge-induced etiologies, obesity was an independent predictor (38% more prevalent, p<0.01) of gallstone cases. Conclusions Hispanic ethnicity is a risk factor and AST is a biomarker for biliary pancreatitis over other etiologies. Furthermore, obesity can distinguish gallstone- from sludge-induced pancreatitis. These findings may spur prospective studies to determine the optimal evaluation and management of children with biliary pancreatitis. PMID:22002481

Ma, Michael H.; Bai, Harrison X.; Park, Alexander J.; Latif, Sahibzada U.; Mistry, Pramod K.; Pashankar, Dinesh; Northrup, Veronika S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Husain, Sohail Z.

2012-01-01

375

Surgical versus endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

The charts of all patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones admitted to Virginia Mason Medical Center between January 1, 1981 and July 31, 1986 were reviewed to define current methods of management and results of operative versus endoscopic therapy. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with CBD stones were treated. One hundred thirty patients had intact gallbladders. Of these patients, 76 (59%) underwent cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration (CBDE) while 54 (41%) underwent endoscopic papillotomy (EP) only. Of the 107 patients admitted with recurrent stones after cholecystectomy, all but five were treated with EP. The overall mortality rate was 3.0%. Complications, success, and death rates were all similar for CBDE and EP, but the complications of EP were often serious and directly related to the procedure (GI hemorrhage, 6; duodenal perforation, 5; biliary sepsis, 4; pancreatitis, 1). Patients undergoing EP required significantly shorter hospitalization than those undergoing CBDE. Multivariate analysis showed that age greater than 70 years, technical failure, and complications increased the risk of death, regardless of procedure performed. Twenty-one per cent of those undergoing EP with gallbladders intact eventually required cholecystectomy. The conclusion is that the results of EP and CBDE are similar, and the use of EP has not reduced the mortality rates of this disease. PMID:3341812

Miller, B M; Kozarek, R A; Ryan, J A; Ball, T J; Traverso, L W

1988-02-01

376

[Congenital obstruction of the ejaculatory ducts: diagnosis and resolution of two successful cases].  

PubMed

The ejaculatory ducts obstruction is an uncommon finding in the study of infertility male factor. We present two cases referred to our department for conjugal infertility, with proven male factor (low ejaculate volume and azoospermia). On physical examination there was no abnormality in both patients. Imaging studies demonstrated intra-prostatic cystic structure, causing ejaculatory ducts dilation. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts. Semen analysis 3 months postoperatively showed 1 case of normalization and 1 case of improvement in sperm count parameters. The couple 1 couple has 2 children, without medical assisted reproductive techniques. The couple 2 had one pregnancy after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection, from the ejaculate. This diagnosis depends on a strong clinical suspicion and is of high importance, since this disease has effective surgical treatment. The authors aim to highlight the relevance of the assessment andrological when studying marital infertility. PMID:24192104

Amorim, Rui; Oliveira, Vitor; Dias, Jorge; Freitas, Rui; Ferraz, Luis

2013-01-01

377

PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

1989-01-01

378

Cholecysto cholangiography versus cystic duct cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective controlled randomized trial.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of cholecysto-cholangiography (CCC), an extremely rapid and easy way of imaging the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and a viable alternative to cystic duct cholangiography in the era of minimal invasive surgery. Sixty patients with symptomatic gallbladder stones were studied in this series, 30 were evaluated for cholecysto-cholangiography and other 30 for transcystic-cholangiography. The success rate in cholecysto-cholangiography approached 80% with excellent quality films obtained. Delineation of anatomy approached 85%; 75% for cholecysto-cholangiography and transcystic cholangiography respectively. Exposure time to radiation compares favourably with cystic duct cannulation with a mean time 2.4 min. Cholecysto-cholangiography added less than 11 mins to the procedure; mean 10.4 mins, while transcystic cholangiography added an extra 30 mins; mean 31 mins. There were no cholangiogram related complications or false positive findings with a smooth for two months follow up. PMID:21634248

Nafeh, Ayman I; Elsebaie, Sameh B; Nasr, Maged M; Ezzat, Hussin M

2011-04-01

379

[Long-term survivor of unresectable bile duct cancer complicated with sclerosing cholangitis treated with chemotherapy].  

PubMed

A 70-year-old woman was admitted to a near by hospital with complaints of epigastric pain and fever. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed stenosis of the hilar bile duct and multiple stenoses in the intrahepatic bile duct; bile cytological analysis indicated adenocarcinoma. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were within normal limits. It was very difficult to evaluate the extent of tumor invasion; therefore, we concluded that the tumor was unresectable. The patient underwent systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine. After 5 years, she developed obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. The patient underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), with 3 incidents of cholangitis recurrence. Although systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine was performed for a long time, she died 6 years after the initiation of chemotherapy. Gemcitabine was administered 140 times in total, with a total dose of 203.744 g. PMID:25731246

Okazaki, Taro; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Shinozaki, Kenta; Yoshida, Yuko; Murakami, Sae; Matsumoto, Taku; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

2014-11-01

380

Heritable disorders of the bile ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases of the bile ducts encompass a wide range of disorders. These include those disorders primarily affecting extra and intrahepatic bile ducts and those that may be classified as panbiliary. A simple classification of bile duct disorders is represented in Box 1. This discussion focuses on heritable disorders of the bile ducts. For a discussion of so-called ''isolated'' or ''sporadic''

Binita M. Kamath; David A. Piccoli

2003-01-01

381

Characterization of FTR fuel duct tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical and metallurgical properties of three FTR fuel ducts taken from the Cores 1 and 2 fuel duct production sequence are evaluated. Type 316 stainless steel, double vacuum melted with no scrap additions was used for the Cores 1 and 2 fuel ducts. The ducts were fabricated according to RDT Standard E6-20T. The finished parts were targeted to 20

D. R. Duncan; M. M. Paxton; J. L. Straalsund

1976-01-01

382

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the evaluation of liver fibrosis after biliary obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate perfusion change in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to evaluate liver fibrosis based on biliary obstruction using an animal model. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits (3-4 kg) underwent bile duct ligation to form a biliary obstruction model. We performed liver CEUS and laboratory tests on the day before the operation (day 0) and every 7 postoperative days until the rabbits were sacrificed. After CEUS, signal intensity of liver parenchyma with a time-intensity curve was analyzed. Perfusion parameters were automatically calculated from region-of-interests, including peak signal intensity, mean transit time, area under the curve and time to peak. Histological grades of liver fibrosis were assessed according to the Metavir score system immediately after sacrifice. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between liver fibrosis grades and perfusion parameters for statistical analysis. The perfusion parameters were measured on the last day and the difference between day 0 and the last day were evaluated. RESULTS: From the nine rabbits, histological grades of liver fibrosis were grade 1 in one rabbit, grade 2 and 3 in three rabbits each, and grade 4 in two rabbits. Among the four CEUS parameters, only the peak signal intensity measured on the last day demonstrated a significant association with liver fibrosis grades (OR = 1.392, 95%CI: 1.114-1.741, P = 0.004). The difference in peak signal intensity between day 0 and the last day also demonstrated an association with liver fibrosis (OR = 1.191, 95%CI: 0.999-1.419, P = 0.051). The other parameters tested, including mean transit time, area under the curve, and time to peak, showed no significant correlation with liver fibrosis grades. CONCLUSION: This animal study demonstrates that CEUS can be used to evaluate liver fibrosis from biliary obstruction using peak signal intensity as a parameter. PMID:25759528

Shin, Hyun Joo; Chang, Eun Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Hong, Jung Hwa; Park, Gyuri; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung

2015-01-01

383

Laser lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones under direct visual control.  

PubMed Central

Biliary laser lithotripsy was performed under direct visual control in 35 consecutive patients not amenable to routine endoscopy. The patients had 1-50 (median 1) bile duct stones with the greatest diameter of the largest stone being 9-42 mm (median 20 mm). Conventional endoscopic treatment had failed because of an inaccessible papilla (16 patients), biliary strictures (seven patients), and impaction or large size of calculi (12 patients). Twelve patients, depending on their anatomical condition, underwent peroral cholangioscopy by means of a mother-babyscope system. Percutaneous cholangioscopy was initially carried out in 23 patients, 7-20 days (median 10 days) after creation of a transhepatic fistula. Pulsed dye laser (32 patients) or alexandrite laser (three patients) lithotripsy was applied under an appropriate direct visual control in all cases. Complete stone disintegration succeeded in 33 of 35 patients. All resultant fragments passed the papilla within a mean number of 1.3 treatment sessions. Peroral cholangioscopic lithotripsy failed in two cases. One patient successfully underwent percutaneous laser treatment and the other patient was referred to surgery. Fever, temporary haemobilia, or a subcapsular liver haematoma were seen in a total of eight patients during establishment of the cutaneobiliary fistula. A 95 year old patient who had been admitted with septic cholangitis died because of cardiorespiratory failure 5 days after bile duct clearance. It is concluded that laser lithotripsy performed under a direct visual control is an effective and safe procedure for the non-surgical treatment of difficult bile duct stones. Ductal clearance can usually be achieved in a single treatment session when the papilla and the stones are accessible by the peroral route. Percutaneous cholangioscopic lithotripsy is more time consuming but highly effective even in patients with a difficult anatomy, bile duct strictures, or intrahepatic calculi. This approach should be limited, however, to cases not amenable to retrograde procedures because the creation of the cutaneobiliary fistula is not without risks. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8472993

Neuhaus, H; Hoffmann, W; Zillinger, C; Classen, M

1993-01-01

384

Making ERCP training safe: A protocol-based strategy to minimize complications during selective biliary cannulation  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an advanced procedure with significant complication rate of 5 to 10%. Scant data is available on quality indicators for trainee-involved ERCP. In our study, we evaluated the outcome of trainee-involved ERCPs in which a protocol-based strategy to minimize complications during selective biliary cannulation was adopted. Patients and methods Hands-on training was excluded if patients had ASA grade > 3. The trainee's attempts at selective biliary cannulation were stopped and the procedure taken over by the supervising expert endoscopist if the following factors were encountered: (1) failed cannulation after 5 attempts; (2) unsuccessful cannulation after 10 minutes; (3) edematous papilla; (4) pancreatic duct cannulation ? 2 times. After successful ductal cannulation, the trainee was allowed to continue additional hands on training in other aspects such as stone extraction and stenting. Results During the study period, 331 patients underwent ERCP. Trainee group (TG) consisted of 85 patients; mean age 70 (range 27–99). Expert group (EG) consisted of 246 patients; mean age 65 (range 19–98). The overall technical success rate was 97.9% and there was no significant difference between TG (98.8%) and EG (97.6%). The overall complication rate was 3.9% and there was no difference between TG (3.5%) and EG (4%). In TG, although inadvertent pancreatic duct cannulation occurred in 12/85 (14.1%), acute pancreatitis developed only in 3/85 (3.5%). Conclusion The high success and low complication rates in trainee-involved and expert-only ERCP procedures were similar. While using a protocol-based strategy, good clinical outcome during the provision of hands-on training for ERCP was observed. PMID:23687588

Ang, Tiing Leong; Teo, Eng Kiong; Fock, Kwong Ming

2012-01-01

385

A new peroral mother-baby endoscope system for biliary tract disorders  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate a new mother-baby system, consisting of a peroral cholangioscope and a duodenoscope in patients regarding its feasibility. METHODS: In the study period from January 2007 to February 2010, 76 consecutive patients (33 men, 43 women; mean age 63 years old) were included in this pilot series. Endoluminal images and biopsies were obtained from 55 patients with indeterminate strictures, while 21 patients had fixed filling defects. The diagnostic accuracy of peroral cholangioscopy (POCS) in the visualization of strictures and tissue sampling was evaluated, and therapeutic success was monitored. Follow-up was performed over at least 9 mo. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients had indeterminate strictures. Using the criteria “circular stenosis” and “irregular surface or margins”, POCS correctly described 27 out of 28 malignant biliary strictures and 25 out of 27 benign lesions (sensitivity, 96.4%; specificity, 92.6%, diagnostic accuracy 94.5%). Visually targeted forceps biopsies were performed in 55 patients. Tissue sampling during POCS revealed malignancy in 18 of 28 cases (sensitivity: 64.3%). In 21 patients with fixed filling defects, 10 patients with bile duct stones were successfully treated with conventional stone removal. Nine patients with difficult stones (5 giant stones and 4 intrahepatic stones) were treated with visually guided laser lithotripsy. Two patients in the group with unclear fixed filling defects had bile duct adenoma or papillary tumors and were surgically treated. CONCLUSION: The new 95 cm POCS allows for accurate discrimination of strictures and fixed filling defects in the biliary tree, provides improved sensitivity of endoscopically guided biopsies and permits therapeutic approaches for difficult intrahepatic stones. PMID:24527177

Prinz, Christian; Weber, Andreas; Goecke, Stefanie; Neu, Bruno; Meining, Alexander; Frimberger, Eckart

2014-01-01

386

Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Indeterminate Biliary Strictures: Refinement of the Image Interpretation Classification  

PubMed Central

Background. Accurate diagnosis and clinical management of indeterminate biliary strictures are often a challenge. Tissue confirmation modalities during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suffer from low sensitivity and poor diagnostic accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) has been shown to be sensitive for malignant strictures characterization (98%) but lacks specificity (67%) due to inflammatory conditions inducing false positives. Methods. Six pCLE experts validated the Paris Classification, designed for diagnosing inflammatory biliary strictures, using a set of 40 pCLE sequences obtained during the prospective registry (19 inflammatory, 6 benign, and 15 malignant). The 4 criteria used included (1) multiple thin white bands, (2) dark granular pattern with scales, (3) increased space between scales, and (4) thickened reticular structures. Interobserver agreement was further calculated on a separate set of 18 pCLE sequences. Results. Overall accuracy was 82.5% (n = 40 retrospectively diagnosed) versus 81% (n = 89 prospectively collected) for the registry, resulting in a sensitivity of 81.2% (versus 98% for the prospective study) and a specificity of 83.3% (versus 67% for the prospective study). The corresponding interobserver agreement for 18 pCLE clips was fair (k = 0.37). Conclusion. Specificity of pCLE using the Paris Classification for the characterization of indeterminate bile duct stricture was increased, without impacting the overall accuracy. PMID:25866506

Giovannini, Marc; Jamidar, Priya; Gan, S. Ian; Cesaro, Paola; Caillol, Fabrice; Filoche, Bernard; Karia, Kunal; Smith, Ioana; Slivka, Adam

2015-01-01

387

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for indeterminate biliary strictures: refinement of the image interpretation classification.  

PubMed

Background. Accurate diagnosis and clinical management of indeterminate biliary strictures are often a challenge. Tissue confirmation modalities during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suffer from low sensitivity and poor diagnostic accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) has been shown to be sensitive for malignant strictures characterization (98%) but lacks specificity (67%) due to inflammatory conditions inducing false positives. Methods. Six pCLE experts validated the Paris Classification, designed for diagnosing inflammatory biliary strictures, using a set of 40 pCLE sequences obtained during the prospective registry (19 inflammatory, 6 benign, and 15 malignant). The 4 criteria used included (1) multiple thin white bands, (2) dark granular pattern with scales, (3) increased space between scales, and (4) thickened reticular structures. Interobserver agreement was further calculated on a separate set of 18 pCLE sequences. Results. Overall accuracy was 82.5% (n = 40 retrospectively diagnosed) versus 81% (n = 89 prospectively collected) for the registry, resulting in a sensitivity of 81.2% (versus 98% for the prospective study) and a specificity of 83.3% (versus 67% for the prospective study). The corresponding interobserver agreement for 18 pCLE clips was fair (k = 0.37). Conclusion. Specificity of pCLE using the Paris Classification for the characterization of indeterminate bile duct stricture was increased, without impacting the overall accuracy. PMID:25866506

Kahaleh, Michel; Giovannini, Marc; Jamidar, Priya; Gan, S Ian; Cesaro, Paola; Caillol, Fabrice; Filoche, Bernard; Karia, Kunal; Smith, Ioana; Gaidhane, Monica; Slivka, Adam

2015-01-01

388

[Histological study of the teleost liver. III. The system of biliary pathways].  

PubMed

In the liver of Haplochromis burtoni four divisions of the intrahepatic biliary pathways can be distinguished: canaliculus, canaliculus ductulus transition, ductulus biliferus, ductus biliferus. There are no transitional stages between the hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. The results of the investigation suggest that the ductules open into the ducts in two ways, directly and by graded transition of structure. The first part of the ductulus has a very narrow lumen and therefore is similar to the "Schaltstück" of salivary glands. Terminal ductulus cells can protrude into the canaliculus (= lumen of the liver tubulus), giving the appearance of centrotubular cells in cross-section. In the liver of most of the teleosts investigated here the canaliculi are intercellular. Tangentially cut diverticuli of the canaliculi appear to be unicellular ("intracellular") canaliculi, but are, however, merely unicellular ("intracellular") protrusions of the intercellular canaliculi. On the other hand the three cyprinid species (Barbus tetrazona, Idus idus, Carassius auratus) possess true unicellular ("intracellular") canaliculi. These can definitely be distinguished from the diverticuli of intercellular canaliculi by several criteria. Phylogenetically the unicellular ("intracellular") canaliculus must be regarded as derivative, and the intercellular canaliculus as the original form. The morphology of the wall of the gall-bladder of Haplochromis burtoni indicates that transfer of substances is increased together with transportation and drainage of fluids and variations in volume. The ultrastructure of the epithelial cells reveals a zonal arrangement. PMID:232800

Langer, M

1979-01-01

389

Autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis: Recent progress in research on the pathogenetic and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the small- and medium-sized intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in the serum. AMA are detected in over 90% of patients with PBC, whereas their prevalence in the general population is extremely low, varying from 0.16% to 1%. Previous studies have shown that the unique characteristics of biliary epithelial cells undergoing apoptosis may result in a highly direct and very specific immune response to mitochondrial autoantigens. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that serum from AMA-positive PBC patients is reactive with a number of xenobiotic modified E2 subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which is not observed in the serum of normal individuals. These findings indicate that chemicals originating from the environment may be associated with a breakdown in the tolerance to mitochondrial autoantigens. While it is currently generally accepted that AMA are the most specific serological markers of PBC, more than 60 autoantibodies have been investigated in patients with PBC, and some have previously been considered specific to other autoimmune diseases. This review covers the recent progress in research on the pathogenetic and clinical significance of important autoantibodies in PBC. Determining the pathogenic role of those autoantibodies in PBC remains a priority of basic and clinical research. PMID:24627596

Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Takamura, Masaaki; Aoyagi, Yutaka

2014-01-01

390

Technique of reintervention for stent dysfunction in patients with malignant hilar biliary stricture.  

PubMed

At present, the endoscopic approach is the most commonly adopted method for stenting in patients with unresectable malignant hilar biliary stricture. This procedure is important, as it determines the quality of life and prognosis of the patient. Regarding the quality of the stent material, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) are expected to show longer-term stent patency than plastic stents (PS), and their use as devices of first choice has been increasing. However, complications such as stent occlusion due to tumor ingrowth or biliary sludge formation occur at a considerably high frequency, necessitating reintervention in a considerable number of patients. In the case of dysfunction of an implanted PS, the stent is removed, and the lumen of the bile duct is cleaned, followed by placement of a new stent. In the event of dysfunction of a SEMS, cleaning of the lumen of the SEMS and placement of a second stent (PS is preferable) are carried out. Nevertheless, the results have not been entirely gratifying. Development of SEMS or PS suited to multidisciplinary treatment that would enable uncomplicated reintervention is anticipated. PMID:23617657

Okabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Yusuke; Ushijima, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Gen; Sata, Michio

2013-05-01

391

Radiation Exposure in Biliary Procedures Performed to Manage Anastomotic Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients: Comparison Between Radiation Exposure Levels Using an Image Intensifier and a Flat-Panel Detector-Based System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate radiation exposure in pediatric liver transplants recipients who underwent biliary interventional procedures and to compare radiation exposure levels between biliary interventional procedures performed using an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS) and a flat panel detector-based interventional system (FPDS). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 34 consecutive pediatric liver transplant recipients with biliary strictures between January 2008 and March 2013 with a total of 170 image-guided procedures. The dose-area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time was recorded for each procedure. The mean age was 61 months (range 4-192), and mean weight was 17 kg (range 4-41). The procedures were classified into three categories: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary catheter placement (n = 40); cholangiography and balloon dilatation (n = 55); and cholangiography and biliary catheter change or removal (n = 75). Ninety-two procedures were performed using an IIDS. Seventy-eight procedures performed after July 2010 were performed using an FPDS. The difference in DAP between the two angiographic systems was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a multiple linear regression model. Results: Mean DAP in the three categories was significantly greater in the group of procedures performed using the IIDS compared with those performed using the FPDS. Statistical analysis showed a p value = 0.001 for the PTBD group, p = 0.0002 for the cholangiogram and balloon dilatation group, and p = 0.00001 for the group with cholangiogram and biliary catheter change or removal. Conclusion: In our selected cohort of patients, the use of an FPDS decreases radiation exposure.

Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)] [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Tuzzolino, Fabio [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Information Technology (Italy)] [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Information Technology (Italy); Indovina, Pietro Luigi [Medical Physic ISMETT Consultant, Fismeco (Italy)] [Medical Physic ISMETT Consultant, Fismeco (Italy); Luca, Angelo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)] [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)

2013-12-15

392

The role of direct peroral cholangioscopy using an ultraslim endoscope for biliary lesions: indications, limitations, and complications.  

PubMed

Advantages of direct peroral cholangioscopy (POC) using an ultraslim endoscope include use of conventional endoscopy equipment, operation by a single endoscopist, and superior image quality of the biliary tree with easy application of enhanced endoscopy and a large working channel. The major diagnostic indications of this system are an evaluation of biliary strictures, filling defects, or unclear findings on cholangiogram or other imaging studies. Therapeutic application using a direct POC system can be broadened by a larger working channel. However, direct POC is difficult to apply in patients with a narrow diameter bile duct, far distal common bile duct lesion, or failed anchoring of the scope with accessories. An air embolism is a rare complication of direct POC but can be a fatal problem. Cholangitis can also occur during or after the procedure. Use of a CO2 system instead of room air during the POC procedure and administration of antibiotics before and after the procedure are strongly recommended. Continuous development of specialized endoscopes and accessories is expected to facilitate the diagnostic and therapeutic roles of direct POC. PMID:24143317

Moon, Jong Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong

2013-09-01

393

Articulated transition duct in turbomachine  

DOEpatents

Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

2014-04-29

394

Safety and Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation in the Management of Unresectable Bile Duct and Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Palliation Technique  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has replaced photodynamic therapy for premalignant and malignant lesions of the esophagus. However, there is limited experience in the bile duct. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the safety and efficacy of RFA in malignant biliary strictures. Methods: Twenty patients with unresectable malignant biliary strictures underwent RFA with stenting between June 2010 and July 2012. Diameters of the stricture before and after RFA, immediate and 30 day complications and stent patency were recorded prospectively. Results. A total of 25 strictures were treated. Mean stricture length treated was 15.2?mm (SD = 8.7?mm, Range = 3.5–33?mm). Mean stricture diameter before RFA was 1.7?mm (SD = 0.9?mm, Range = 0.5–3.4?mm) while the mean diameter after RFA was 5.2?mm (SD = 2?mm, Range = 2.6–9?mm). There was a significant increase of 3.5?mm (t = 10.8, DF = 24, P value = <.0001) in the bile duct diameter post RFA. Five patients presented with pain after the procedure, but only one developed mild post-ERCP pancreatitis and cholecystitis. Conclusions: Radiofrequency ablation can be a safe palliation option for unresectable malignant biliary strictures. A multicenter randomized controlled trial is required to confirm the long term benefits of RFA and stenting compared to stenting alone. PMID:23690775

Figueroa-Barojas, Paola; Bakhru, Mihir R.; Habib, Nagy A.; Ellen, Kristi; Millman, Jennifer; Jamal-Kabani, Armeen; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

2013-01-01

395

Turbofan aft duct suppressor study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suppressions due to acoustic treatment in the annular exhaust duct of a model fan were theoretically predicted and compared with measured suppressions. The predictions are based on the modal analysis of sound propagation in a straight annular flow duct with segmented treatment. Modal distributions of the fan noise source (fan-stator interaction only) were measured using in-duct modal probes. The flow profiles were also measured in the vicinity of the modal probes. The acoustic impedance of the single degree of freedom treatment was measured in the presence of grazing flow. The measured values of mode distribution of the fan noise source, the flow velocity profile and the acoustic impedance of the treatment in the duct were used as input to the prediction program. The predicted suppressions, under the assumption of uniform flow in the duct, compared well with the suppressions measured in the duct for all test conditions. The interaction modes generated by the rotor-stator interaction spanned a cut-off ratio range from nearly 1 to 7.

Syed, A. A.; Motsinger, R. E.; Fiske, G. H.; Joshi, M. C.; Kraft, R. E.

1983-01-01

396

Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

1999-02-01

397

Biliary Atresia: 50 Years after the First Kasai  

PubMed Central

Biliary atresia is a rare neonatal disease of unknown etiology, where obstruction of the biliary tree causes severe cholestasis, leading to biliary cirrhosis and death in the first years of life, if the condition is left untreated. Biliary atresia is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in neonates and should be evoked whenever this clinical sign is associated with pale stools and hepatomegaly. The treatment of biliary atresia is surgical and currently recommended as a sequence of, eventually, two interventions. During the first months of life a hepatoportoenterostomy (a “Kasai,” modifications of which are discussed in this paper) should be performed, in order to restore the biliary flow to the intestine and lessen further damage to the liver. If this fails and/or the disease progresses towards biliary cirrhosis and life-threatening complications, then liver transplantation is indicated, for which biliary atresia represents the most frequent pediatric indication. Of importance, the earlier the Kasai is performed, the later a liver transplantation is usually needed. This warrants a great degree of awareness of biliary atresia, and the implementation of systematic screening for this life-threatening pathology. PMID:23304557

Wildhaber, Barbara E.

2012-01-01

398

[Current therapy of bile duct cysts. II. Intrahepatic cysts (Caroli syndrome)].  

PubMed

17 patients with a Caroli's syndrome are reviewed with emphasis on clinical features and late results (follow-up: 2-10 years). The group consists of 9 women and 8 men ranging in age from 17 to 80 years (mean of 42.6). 14 patients had a diffuse form, 5 of whom had periportal fibrosis with secondary biliary cirrhosis, which in 3 cases resulted in a portal hypertension with hepatic failure. In only 3 cases the dilatation was limited to the left lobe of the liver. 9 of the patients had previously undergone surgery in the form of cholecystectomy and choledocholithotomy elsewhere. The disease was complicated by lithiasis (14 intrahepatic, 9 extrahepatic). Curative treatment was only possible in the 3 patients with unilobar Caroli's syndrome (partial liver resection). In 5 patients we performed a cholecystectomy and choledocholithotomy combined in 2 cases with a transduodenal sphincterotomy. There was no operative death. Endoscopic treatment consisted in removal of stones and decompression of the biliary tree by sphincterotomy in 9 cases and endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (endoprosthesis) in 5 cases. Excepting the 3 curative operated patients who are asymptomatic respectively 2, 4 and 5 years after surgery, the remaining cases had repeated bouts of acute pains accompanied by recurrent episodes of cholangitis. A late mortality of 23.5% (4 patients) is proof of the poor prognosis of this disease. PMID:8681697

Benhidjeb, T; Müller, J M; Gellert, K; Zanow, J; Rudolph, B

1996-03-01

399

[A combined surgical and interventional-radiologic procedure in bile duct obstructions].  

PubMed

Surgery for biliary obstruction may be complicated by the presence of intrahepatic stones and, in difficult anastomoses, by the possibility of recurrent stricture formation. In order to decrease the need for further operation, the first surgical repair in selected cases should allow access for later radiological intervention. Primary operation consists of biliary digestive anastomosis using established techniques with a Roux-en-Y-loop. A limb of the Roux-loop may be brought to the abdominal wall and secured to the anterior parietal peritoneum to allow access for later radiological intervention either by utilizing an established tubal tract into the Roux-loop or by later puncture of the loop under ultrasound guidance. Since October 1986 we have treated 11 patients utilizing this technique. Six patients had complex strictures following cholecystectomy and two patients had obstructions secondary to alveolar or cystic Echinococcosis. One stricture was due to a previous liver resection, one followed previous operation for congenital atresia of the biliary tract and one consisted of multiple strictures and stones associated with oriental recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. In all 11 patients, postoperative radiological imaging was possible. In 6 patients, 14 radiological manoeuvers were carried out for dilatation or for removal of stones and debris. There were no complications. During a median follow-up of 11 months no patient needed further surgical intervention. The indications and techniques are outlined. PMID:2715024

Schweizer, W; Baer, H U; Nudelmann, L I; Matthews, J; Thomas, P; Triller, J; Blumgart, L H

1989-01-01