Sample records for binary metal oxides

  1. Nonpolar resistance switching of metal\\/binary-transition-metal oxides\\/metal sandwiches: Homogeneous\\/inhomogeneous transition of current distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Inoue; S. Yasuda; H. Akinaga; H. Takagi

    2008-01-01

    Exotic features of a metal\\/oxide\\/metal sandwich, which will be the basis for a drastically innovative nonvolatile memory device, is brought to light from a physical point of view. Here the insulator is one of the ubiquitous and classic binary-transition-metal oxides (TMO), such as Fe2O3 , NiO , and CoO . The sandwich exhibits a resistance that reversibly switches between two

  2. Sn-Mn binary metal oxides as non-carbon sorbent for mercury removal in a wide-temperature window.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiangkun; Xu, Haomiao; Qu, Zan; Huang, Wenjun; Chen, Wanmiao; Ma, Yongpeng; Zhao, Songjian; Liu, Ping; Yan, Naiqiang

    2014-08-15

    A series of Sn-Mn binary metal oxides were prepared through co-precipitation method. The sorbents were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (powder XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and NH3-temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) methods. The capability of the prepared sorbents for mercury adsorption from simulated flue gas was investigated by fixed-bed experiments. Results showed that mercury adsorption on pure SnO2 particles was negligible in the test temperature range, comparatively, mercury capacity on MnOx at low temperature was relative high, but the capacity would decrease significantly when the temperature was elevated. Interestingly, for Sn-Mn binary metal oxide, mercury capacity increased not only at low temperature but also at high temperature. Furthermore, the impact of SO2 on mercury adsorption capability of Sn-Mn binary metal oxides was also investigated and it was noted that the effect at low temperature was different comparing with that of high temperature. The mechanism was investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTs). Moreover, a mathematic model was built to calculate mercury desorption activation energy from Sn to Mn binary metal oxides. PMID:24910043

  3. Strain-induced ferroelectricity in simple rocksalt binary oxides.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Eric; Spaldin, Nicola A; Ghosez, Philippe

    2010-01-22

    Using first-principles density functional calculations, we show that ferroelectricity can be induced in simple alkaline-earth-metal binary oxides such as barium oxide (BaO) using appropriate epitaxial strains. Going beyond the fundamental discovery, we highlight that the functional properties (polarization, dielectric constant, and piezoelectric response) of such strained binary oxides are comparable in magnitude to those of typical ferroelectric perovskite oxides, making them of direct interest for applications. Finally, we show that magnetic binary oxides such as EuO, with the same rocksalt structure, behave similarly to the alkaline-earth-metal oxides, suggesting a route to new multiferroics combining ferroelectric and magnetic properties. PMID:20366683

  4. Excellent uniformity and reproducible resistance switching characteristics of doped binary metal oxides for non-volatile resistance memory applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongsoo Lee; Dong-jun Seong; Hye jung Choi; Inhwa Jo; R. Dong; W. Xiang; Seokjoon Oh; Myeongbum Pyun; Sun-ok Seo; Seongho Heo; Minseok Jo; Dae-Kyu Hwang; H. K. Park; M. Chang; M. Hasan; Hyunsang Hwang

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated various doped metal oxides such as copper doped molybdenum oxide, copper doped Al2O3, copper doped ZrO2, aluminium doped ZnO, and CuxO for novel resistance memory applications. Compared with non-stoichiometric oxides (Nb2O5-x, ZrOx, SrTiOx), doped metal oxides show higher device yield. Moreover, Cu:MoOx have demonstrated excellent memory characteristics such as reliability under programming cycles, potential multi-bit operation, good

  5. Resistance Switching and Formation of a Conductive Bridge in Metal\\/Binary Oxide\\/Metal Structure for Memory Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohei Fujiwara; Takumi Nemoto; Marcelo J. Rozenberg; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Hidenori Takagi

    2008-01-01

    The resistance switching mechanism of a metal\\/CuO\\/metal sandwich with a planar device structure has been studied. We report the direct observation of a conducting bridge within the CuO channel of the device, which is formed upon the initial voltage application (forming process). It is found that the resistance switching phenomenon only occurs when just a single bridge is formed during

  6. Development and Evaluation of Nanoscale Sorbents for Mercury Capture from Warm Fuel Gas. Evaluation of Binary Metal Oxides for Mercury Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Raja A. Jadhav; Howard Meyer

    2006-04-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in collaboration with Nanoscale Materials, Inc. (NanoScale), is developing and evaluating several nanocrystalline sorbents for capture of mercury from coal gasifier (such as IGCC) warm fuel gas. The focus of this study is on the understanding of fundamental mechanism of interaction between mercury and nanocrystalline sorbents over a range of fuel gas conditions. Detailed chemical and structural analysis of the sorbents will be carried out using an array of techniques, such as XPS, SEM, XRD, N{sub 2}-adsorption, to understand the mechanism of interaction between the sorbent and mercury. The proposed nanoscale oxides have significantly higher reactivities as compared to their bulk counterparts, which is a result of high surface area, pore volume, and nanocrystalline structure. These metal oxides/sulfides will be evaluated for their mercury-sorption potential in an experimental setup equipped with state-of-the-art analyzers. Initial screening tests will be carried out in N{sub 2} atmosphere, and two selected sorbents will be evaluated in simulated fuel gas containing H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, Hg and other gases. The focus will be on development of sorbents suitable for higher temperature (420-640 K) applications. In this Task, several formulations of binary metal oxide-based sorbents were prepared and evaluated for capture of mercury (Hg) in simulated fuel gas (SFG) atmosphere at temperatures in the range 423-533 K. The binary metal oxides with high surface area were found to be more effective, confirming the role of sorbent surface in mercury capture. These binary sorbents were found to be effective in capturing Hg at 473 and 533 K, with Hg capture decreasing at higher temperature. Based on the desorption studies, physical adsorption was found to be the dominant capture mechanism with lower temperatures favoring capture of Hg.

  7. Modeling selective intergranular oxidation of binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijie; Li, Dongsheng; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Intergranular attack of alloys under hydrothermal conditions is a complex problem that depends on metal and oxygen transport kinetics via solid-state and channel-like pathways to an advancing oxidation front. Experiments reveal very different rates of intergranular attack and minor element depletion distances ahead of the oxidation front for nickel-based binary alloys depending on the minor element. For example, a significant Cr depletion up to 9 ?m ahead of grain boundary crack tips was documented for Ni-5Cr binary alloy, in contrast to relatively moderate Al depletion for Ni-5Al (˜100 s of nm). We present a mathematical kinetics model that adapts Wagner's model for thick film growth to intergranular attack of binary alloys. The transport coefficients of elements O, Ni, Cr, and Al in bulk alloys and along grain boundaries were estimated from the literature. For planar surface oxidation, a critical concentration of the minor element can be determined from the model where the oxide of minor element becomes dominant over the major element. This generic model for simple grain boundary oxidation can predict oxidation penetration velocities and minor element depletion distances ahead of the advancing front that are comparable to experimental data. The significant distance of depletion of Cr in Ni-5Cr in contrast to the localized Al depletion in Ni-5Al can be explained by the model due to the combination of the relatively faster diffusion of Cr along the grain boundary and slower diffusion in bulk grains, relative to Al.

  8. Modeling selective intergranular oxidation of binary alloys.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Li, Dongsheng; Schreiber, Daniel K; Rosso, Kevin M; Bruemmer, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Intergranular attack of alloys under hydrothermal conditions is a complex problem that depends on metal and oxygen transport kinetics via solid-state and channel-like pathways to an advancing oxidation front. Experiments reveal very different rates of intergranular attack and minor element depletion distances ahead of the oxidation front for nickel-based binary alloys depending on the minor element. For example, a significant Cr depletion up to 9 ?m ahead of grain boundary crack tips was documented for Ni-5Cr binary alloy, in contrast to relatively moderate Al depletion for Ni-5Al (?100 s of nm). We present a mathematical kinetics model that adapts Wagner's model for thick film growth to intergranular attack of binary alloys. The transport coefficients of elements O, Ni, Cr, and Al in bulk alloys and along grain boundaries were estimated from the literature. For planar surface oxidation, a critical concentration of the minor element can be determined from the model where the oxide of minor element becomes dominant over the major element. This generic model for simple grain boundary oxidation can predict oxidation penetration velocities and minor element depletion distances ahead of the advancing front that are comparable to experimental data. The significant distance of depletion of Cr in Ni-5Cr in contrast to the localized Al depletion in Ni-5Al can be explained by the model due to the combination of the relatively faster diffusion of Cr along the grain boundary and slower diffusion in bulk grains, relative to Al. PMID:25573575

  9. Semiconducting transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lany, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott or charge transfer insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a correlated gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g. for energy applications. In order to place the 3d orbitals and the sp bands into an integrated picture, band structure calculations should treat both contributions on the same footing and, at the same time, account fully for electron correlation in the 3d shell. Fundamentally, this is a rather daunting task for electronic structure calculations, but quasi-particle energy calculations in GW approximation offer a viable approach for band structure predictions in these materials. Compared to conventional semiconductors, the inherent multivalent nature of transition metal cations is more likely to cause undesirable localization of electron or hole carriers. Therefore, a quantitative prediction of the carrier self-trapping energy is essential for the assessing the semiconducting properties and to determine whether the transport mechanism is a band-like large-polaron conduction or a small-polaron hopping conduction. An overview is given for the binary 3d oxides on how the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the O-p orbitals of the ligands affects the effective masses and the likelihood of electron and hole self-trapping, identifying those situations where small masses and band-like conduction are more likely to be expected. The review concludes with an illustration of the implications of the increased electronic complexity of transition metal cations on the defect physics and doping, using as an example the diversity of possible atomic and magnetic configurations of the O vacancy in TiO2, and the high levels of hole doping in Co2ZnO4 due to a self-doping mechanism that originates from the multivalence of Co.

  10. Semiconducting transition metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Lany, Stephan

    2015-07-22

    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott or charge transfer insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a correlated gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g. for energy applications. In order to place the 3d orbitals and the sp bands into an integrated picture, band structure calculations should treat both contributions on the same footing and, at the same time, account fully for electron correlation in the 3d shell. Fundamentally, this is a rather daunting task for electronic structure calculations, but quasi-particle energy calculations in GW approximation offer a viable approach for band structure predictions in these materials. Compared to conventional semiconductors, the inherent multivalent nature of transition metal cations is more likely to cause undesirable localization of electron or hole carriers. Therefore, a quantitative prediction of the carrier self-trapping energy is essential for the assessing the semiconducting properties and to determine whether the transport mechanism is a band-like large-polaron conduction or a small-polaron hopping conduction. An overview is given for the binary 3d oxides on how the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the O-p orbitals of the ligands affects the effective masses and the likelihood of electron and hole self-trapping, identifying those situations where small masses and band-like conduction are more likely to be expected. The review concludes with an illustration of the implications of the increased electronic complexity of transition metal cations on the defect physics and doping, using as an example the diversity of possible atomic and magnetic configurations of the O vacancy in TiO2, and the high levels of hole doping in Co2ZnO4 due to a self-doping mechanism that originates from the multivalence of Co. PMID:26126022

  11. An Acidity Scale for Binary Oxides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the classification of binary oxides as acidic, basic, or amphoteric. Demonstrates how a numerical scale for acidity/basicity of binary oxides can be constructed using thermochemical data for oxoacid salts. Presents the calculations derived from the data that provide the numeric scale values. (TW)

  12. Isothermal Phase Diagrams of Binary Alloys and Two Oxidants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. WangC; C. S. Ni; F. Gesmundo; Y. Niu

    2010-01-01

    An example of an isothermal thermodynamic phase diagram of a quaternary system composed of a binary alloy and two oxidants\\u000a has been calculated under appropriate values of the stability of the corresponding compounds, assuming that each metal forms\\u000a only one compound with each oxidant. Initially, two-dimensional sections of the complete three-dimensional diagram made along\\u000a planes corresponding to constant values of

  13. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  14. An in situ study using anomalous wide angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the binary metal oxide catalytic system SnO2-ZnAI2O4 supported on alumina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Revel; D. Bazin; B. Bouchet-Fabre; A. Seigneurin; Y. Kihn

    2002-01-01

    A fine structural description of the local order around zinc and tin atoms of a binary metal oxide catalyst, namely SnO2-ZnAl2O4\\/AI2O3 which can be used as a DeNOx catalyst, is achieved through XAS (X-ray absorption Spectroscopy) and AWAXS (Anomalous wide angle X-ray scattering). The analysis of the data was supported by ab initio calculations based on the multiple scattering processes

  15. Facile synthesis of multi-shell structured binary metal oxide powders with a Ni/Co mole ratio of 1:2 for Li-Ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Park, Sun Kyu; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-06-01

    Multi-shell structured binary transition metal oxide powders with a Ni/Co mole ratio of 1:2 are prepared by a simple spray drying process. Precursor powder particles prepared by spray drying from a spray solution of citric acid and ethylene glycol have completely spherical shape, fine size, and a narrow size distribution. The precursor powders turn into multi-shell powders after a post heat-treatment at temperatures between 250 and 800 °C. The multi-shell structured powders are formed by repeated combustion and contraction processes. The multi-shell powders have mixed crystal structures of Ni1-xCo2O4-x and NiO phases regardless of the post-treatment temperature. The reversible capacities of the powders post-treated at 250, 400, 600, and 800 °C after 100 cycles are 584, 913, 808, and 481 mA h g-1, respectively. The low charge transfer resistance and high lithium ion diffusion rate of the multi-shell powders post-treated at 400 °C with optimum grain size result in superior electrochemical properties even at high current densities.

  16. Metal oxide-polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellinghoff, Stephen T. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide clusters in a single stage by reacting a metal oxide with a substoichiometric amount of an acid in the presence of an oxide particle growth terminator and solubilizer. A method of making a ceramer is also disclosed in which the metal oxide clusters are reacted with a functionalized polymer. The resultant metal oxide clusters and ceramers are also disclosed.

  17. Metal oxide-polymer composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellinghoff, Stephen T. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide clusters in a single stage by reacting a metal oxide with a substoichiometric amount of an acid in the presence of an oxide particle growth terminator and solubilizer. A method of making a ceramer is also disclosed in which the metal oxide clusters are reacted with a functionalized polymer. The resultant metal oxide clusters and ceramers are also disclosed.

  18. Binary alloys for refractory-metal brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Data on binary-metal eutectics and melting-point minimums have been assembled for use in selecting brazing filler compositions for refractory metals. Data are presented in four tables for ready reference. Brief discussion of problems and potentials of metallides is included in appendix.

  19. Tuning the switching behavior of binary oxide-based resistive memory devices by inserting an ultra-thin chemically active metal nanolayer: a case study on the Ta2O5-Ta system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Zeng, Fei; Wang, Minjuan; Wang, Guangyue; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng

    2015-05-21

    The common nonpolar switching behavior of binary oxide-based resistive random access memory devices (RRAMs) has several drawbacks in future application, such as the requirements for a high forming voltage, a large reset current, and an additional access device to settle the sneak-path issue. Herein, we propose the tuning of the switching behavior of binary oxide-based RRAMs by inserting an ultra-thin chemically active metal nanolayer, and a case study on Ta2O5-Ta systems is provided. The devices are designed to be Pt/Ta2O5(5 - x/2)/Ta(x)/Ta2O5(5 - x/2)/Pt with x = 0, 2, or 4 nm. The reference devices without the Ta nanolayer exhibit an expected nonpolar switching behavior with a high forming voltage of ?-4.5 V and a large reset current of >10 mA. In contrast, a self-compliance bipolar switching behavior with a low forming voltage of ?-2 V and a small reset current of <1 mA is observed after inserting a 2 nm Ta nanolayer. When the Ta nanolayer is increased to 4 nm, a complementary resistive switching (CRS) behavior is found, which can effectively settle the sneak-path issue. The appearance of CRS behavior suggests that a thin Ta nanolayer of 4 nm is robust enough to act as an inner electrode. Besides, the behind switching mechanisms are thoroughly discussed with the help of a transmission electron microscope and temperature-dependent electrical measurements. All these results demonstrate the feasibility of tuning switching behavior of binary oxide-based RRAMs by inserting an ultra-thin chemically active metal nanolayer and might help to advance the commercialization of binary oxide-based RRAMs. PMID:25907552

  20. Metal oxide sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Meixner; U. Lampe

    1996-01-01

    New gas sensors based on novel semiconducting metal oxides are developed. In comparison to the sensors based on SnO2 their properties are improved in several items. The main improvements are the lower influence of humidity, the long-term stability, the ability to start measurement immediately after switch on and reduced unit spread. The sensors will be marketed within this year.

  1. Crystallographically aligned metal-oxide composite made by reduction of a directionally solidified oxide-oxide eutectic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Revcolevschi; G. Dhalenne

    1985-01-01

    Aligned metal-oxide composite materials have been grown from the melt by directional solidification at eutectic composition of several binary metal-oxide systems. The resulting microstructures consist of metallic fibres ~1 µm in diameter imbedded in an oxide matrix1,2. The occurrence of such fibrous structures, as opposed to lamellar structures, corresponds to eutectic compositions for which the volume fraction of the minor

  2. Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752

  3. Metal oxide nanowires gas sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Comini

    2008-01-01

    Metal oxides are an attractive and heterogeneous class of materials covering the entire range from metals to semiconductors and insulators and almost all aspects of material science and physics in areas including superconductivity and magnetism. As far as chemical sensing is concerned it has been known, from more than five decades, that the electrical conductivity of metal oxides semiconductors varies

  4. Can low metallicity binaries avoid merging?

    E-print Network

    S. E. de Mink; M. Cottaar; O. R. Pols

    2007-10-11

    Rapid mass transfer in a binary system can drive the accreting star out of thermal equilibrium, causing it to expand. This can lead to a contact system, strong mass loss from the system and possibly merging of the two stars. In low metallicity stars the timescale for heat transport is shorter due to the lower opacity. The accreting star can therefore restore thermal equilibrium more quickly and possibly avoid contact. We investigate the effect of accretion onto main sequence stars with radiative envelopes with different metallicities. We find that a low metallicity (Zsynthesis models.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of transition metal oxides under mild conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Stanley Whittingham

    1996-01-01

    A notable development in mild (? 200°C) hydrothermal synthesis in the past few years has been the extension of the synthesis technique from zeolites and metal phosphates to binary and ternary transition metal oxides. This low-temperature technique is critical to the formation of metastable phases not obtainable using traditional high-temperature methods. New phases, as well as known materials, of the

  6. Raman and IR studies of surface metal oxide species on oxide supports: Supported metal oxide catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Israel E. Wachs

    1996-01-01

    Raman and infrared spectroscopy provide complementary information about the nature of the surface metal oxide species present in supported metal oxide catalysts. This paper reviews the type of fundamental information that is typically obtained in Raman and IR characterization studies of supported metal oxide catalysts. The molecular structures of the surface metal oxide species are reflected in the terminal M=O

  7. Polymorphism Control in Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Shantanu

    Polymorphic phase transformations are common to all nanocrystalline binary metal oxides. The polymorphic nature of such metal oxides makes available a large number of phases with differing crystal structures, each stable under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and/or particle size. These different crystal structures translate to unique physical and chemical properties for each structural class of polymorphs. Thus predicting when polymorphic phase transitions are likely to occur becomes important to the synthesis of stable functional materials with desired properties. Theoretical calculations using a heuristic approach have resulted in an accurate estimation of the critical particle size predicting metastable to stable phase transitions. This formula is applied to different case studies: for anatase to rutile titania; gamma-Alumina to alpha-Alumina; and tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia. The theoretical values calculated have been seen to be very close to the experimental results from the literature. Manifestation of the effect of phase transitions in nanostructured metal oxides was provided in the study of metastable to stable phase transitions in WO3. Nanowires of tungsten trioxide have been synthesized in-situ inside an electron microscope. Such structure of tungsten trioxide result due to a metastable to stable phase transformation, from the cubic to the monoclinic phase. The transformation is massive and complete. The structures formed are unique one-dimensional nanowires. Such a method can be scaled inside any equipment equipped with an electron gun, for example lithography systems either using STEM or E-beam lithography. Another study on nanowire formation in binary metal oxides involved the synthesis of stable orthorhombic MoO3 by means of blend electrospinning. Both a traditional single jet electrospinning set up and a novel high-throughput process to get high aspect ratio nanowires. The latter is a jet-controlled and flow controlled electrospinning. The mechanism of the formation of nanowires of both tungsten trioxide and molybdenum trioxide are discussed in relation to the polymorphic nature of the oxides.

  8. Simple Route to Gradient Concentric Metal and Metal Oxide Rings

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Simple Route to Gradient Concentric Metal and Metal Oxide Rings Suck Won Hong, Supratim Giri on metal and metal oxide have been reported. The rings organized in a concentric mode many offer systems.13 Herein, we report on a simple route to concentric rings of metals or metal oxide. The gradient

  9. Synthesis, characterization and formation process of transition metal oxide nanotubes using carbon nanofibers as templates

    SciTech Connect

    Ogihara, Hitoshi, E-mail: ogihara@cms.titech.ac.j [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, N21-W10 Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-002 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Masahiro, Sadakane [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, N21-W10 Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-002 (Japan); Nodasaka, Yoshinobu [Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, N13-W7 Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Ueda, Wataru, E-mail: ueda@cat.hokudai.ac.j [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, N21-W10 Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-002 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Mono and binary transition metal oxide nanotubes could be synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanofiber templates into metal nitrate solutions and removal of the templates by heat treatment in air. The transition metal oxide nanotubes were composed of nano-crystallites of metal oxides. The functional groups on the carbon nanofiber templates were essential for the coating of these templates: they acted as adsorption sites for the metal nitrates, ensuring a uniform metal oxide coating. During the removal of the carbon nanofiber templates by calcination in air, the metal oxide coatings promoted the combustion reaction between the carbon nanofibers and oxygen. - Graphical abstract: Mono and binary transition metal-oxide nanotubes could be synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanofiber templates into metal nitrate solutions and removal of the templates by heat treatment in air.

  10. Nanosize Powders of Transition Metals Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharov, Yu A.; Pugachev, V. M.; Dodonov, V. G.; Popova, A. N.; Kolmykov, R. P.; Rostovtsev, G. A.; Vasiljeva, O. V.; Zyuzyukina, E. N.; Ivanov, A. V.; Prosvirin, I. P.

    2012-02-01

    The review of the results obtained by the authors in the field of synthesis of Fe-Co, Fe-Ni, Co-Ni and Cu-Ni nano-size binary systems (NBS) by the liquid-phase reducing of metal chlorides by hydrazine (pH>10) and sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH4) (pH = 7-8) by the process conditions variation (temperature of reaction medium, concentration and input order of reagents) as well as NBS properties investigation is presented.

  11. Oxidation Behavior of Binary Niobium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles A.; Corey, James L.

    1960-01-01

    This investigation concludes a study to determine the effects of up to 25 atomic percent of 55 alloying additions on the oxidation characteristics of niobium. The alloys were evaluated by oxidizing in an air atmosphere for 4 hours at 1000 C and 2 hours at 1200 C. Titanium and chromium improved oxidation resistance at both evaluation conditions. Vanadium and aluminum improved oxidation resistance at 1000 C, even though the V scale tended to liquefy and the Al specimens became brittle and the scale powdery. Copper, cobalt, iron, and iridium improved oxidation resistance at 1200 C. Other investigations report tungsten and molybdenum are protective up to about 1000 C, and tantalum at 1100 C. The most important factor influencing the rate of oxidation was the ion size of the alloy additions. Ions slightly smaller than the Nb(5+) ion are soluble in the oxide lattice and tend to lower the compressive stresses in the bulk scale that lead to cracking. The solubility of the alloying addition also depends on the valence to some extent. All of the elements mentioned that improve the oxidation resistance of Nb fit this size criterion with the possible exception of Al, whose extremely small size in large concentrations would probably lead to the formation of a powdery scale. Maintenance of a crack-free bulk scale for as long as possible may contribute to the formation of a dark subscale that ultimately is rate- controlling in the oxidation process. The platinum-group metals, especially Ir, appear to protect by entrapment of the finely dispersed alloying element by the incoming Nb2O5 metal-oxide interface. This inert metallic Ir when alloyed in a sufficient amount with Yb appears to give a ductile phase dispersed in the brittle oxide. This scale would then flow more easily to relieve the large compressive stresses to delay cracking. Complex oxide formation (which both Ti and Zr tend to initiate) and valence effects, which probably change the vacancy concentration in the scale, are masked by the overriding tendency for a porous scale.

  12. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-11-13

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  13. Magic structures of binary metallic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, Riccardo

    2005-03-01

    The structure of binary metallic clusters is investigated by a variety of computational tools, ranging from genetic and basin-hopping global optimization algorithms, to molecular dynamics, and to density-functional calculations. Three different binary systems are investigated: Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, and Ag-Pd. A new family of magic cluster structures is found. These clusters have the common feature of presenting a perfect core-shell chemical arrangement (with an outer Ag shell of monoatomic thickness) and of being polyicosahedra, that is being made of interpenetrating icosahedra of 13 atoms. Core-shell polyicosahedra are of special stability, which originates from the interplay of different factors. First of all, polyicosahedra are very compact structures, so that they maximize the number of nearest-neighbor bonds for a given size. However, in single-element clusters, these bonds are not optimal, since inner bonds are strongly compressed and surface bonds are expanded. This is the contrary of what is required from the bond order -bond length correlation in metals, which favors contracted surface bonds. In binary clusters, the situation is different. Substituting the inner atoms of a single-element polyicosahedron with different atoms of smaller size, the bonds can relax close to their optimal distance. This leads naturally to the appearance of core-shell polyicosahedra. In Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni and Ag-Pd the formation of these structures is reinforced by the tendency of Ag atoms to surface segregation. A similar mechanism of structural relaxation, originating from the interplay of cluster geometry and bond order - bond length correlation, is also the cause of the destabilization of icosahedral structures in pure Pt and Au clusters . In these clusters, the compressed inner atoms of the icosahedra can relax because of the formation of rosette structures at vertices in the outer layer.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides

    E-print Network

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01

    Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus considerable research recently has addressed the physical and chemical properties...

  15. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in binary metallic melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. V.; Spaepen, F.

    1983-01-01

    A method for calculating the homogeneous crystal nucleation frequency in binary metallic melts is developed. The free energy of crystallization is derived from regular solution models for the liquid and solid and is used, together with model-based estimates of the interfacial tension, to calculate the nucleation frequency from the classical theory. The method can account for the composition dependence of the maximum undercooling observed in a number of experiments on small droplet dispersions. It can also be used to calculate the driving force for crystal growth and to obtain more precise estimates of the homogeneous crystal nucleation frequency in glass-forming alloys. This method, although approximate, is simple to apply, and requires only knowledge of the phase diagram and a few readily available thermodynamic quantities as input data.

  16. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  17. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  18. Two-Dimensional Porous Micro/Nano Metal Oxides Templated by Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xufeng; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-06-10

    Novel two-dimensional (2D) porous metal oxides with micro-/nanoarchitecture have been successfully fabricated using graphene oxide (GO) as a typical sacrificial template. GO as a 2D template ensures that the growth and fusion of metal oxides nanoparticles is restricted in the 2D plane. A series of metal oxides (NiO, Fe2O3, Co3O4, Mn2O3, and NiFe2O4) with similar nanostructure were investigated using this simple method. Some of these special nanostructured materials, such as NiO, when being used as anode for lithium-ion batteries, can exhibit high specific capacity, good rate performance, and cycling stability. Importantly, this strategy of creating a 2D porous micro/nano architecture can be easily extended to controllably synthesize other binary/polynary metal oxides nanostructures for lithium-ion batteries or other applications. PMID:25996560

  19. The chemical and catalytic properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides prepared through modified sol-gel synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrie Leigh Carnes

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research was to synthesize, characterize and study the chemical properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides. Nanocrystalline (NC) ZnO, CuO, NiO, Al2O3, and the binary Al2O 3\\/MgO and ZnO\\/CuO were prepared through modified sol gel methods. These NC metal oxides were studied in comparison to the commercial (CM) metal oxides. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR,

  20. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

  1. Molecular Level Coating for Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); Saint Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar aprotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper, making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  2. Molecular Level Coating of Metal Oxide Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniel, Patricia R. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Polymer encapsulated metal oxide particles are prepared by combining a polyamide acid in a polar osmotic solvent with a metal alkoxide solution. The polymer was imidized and the metal oxide formed simultaneously in a refluxing organic solvent. The resulting polymer-metal oxide is an intimately mixed commingled blend, possessing, synergistic properties of both the polymer and preceramic metal oxide. The encapsulated metal oxide particles have multiple uses including, being useful in the production of skin lubricating creams, weather resistant paints, as a filler for paper. making ultraviolet light stable filled printing ink, being extruded into fibers or ribbons, and coatings for fibers used in the production of composite structural panels.

  3. Diffusion and Interdiffusion in Binary Metallic Melts

    E-print Network

    P. Kuhn; J. Horbach; F. Kargl; A. Meyer; Th. Voigtmann

    2014-08-09

    We discuss the dependence of self- and interdiffusion coefficients on temperature and composition for two prototypical binary metallic melts, Al-Ni and Zr-Ni, in molecular-dynamics (MD) computer simulations and the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition (MCT). Dynamical processes that are mainly entropic in origin slow down mass transport (as expressed through self diffusion) in the mixture as compared to the ideal-mixing contribution. Interdiffusion of chemical species is a competition of slow kinetic modes with a strong thermodynamic driving force that is caused by non-entropic interactions. The combination of both dynamic and thermodynamic effects causes qualitative differences in the concentration dependence of self-diffusion and interdiffusion coefficients. At high temperatures, the thermodynamic enhancement of interdiffusion prevails, while at low temperatures, kinetic effects dominate the concentration dependence, rationalized within MCT as the approach to its ideal-glass transition temperature $T_c$. The Darken equation relating self- and interdiffusion qualitatively reproduces the concentration-dependence in both Zr-Ni and Al-Ni, but quantitatively, the kinetic contributions to interdiffusion can be slower than the lower bound suggested by the Darken equation. As temperature is decreased, the agreement with Darken's equation improves, due to a strong coupling of all kinetic modes that is a generic feature predicted by MCT.

  4. Oxide Electronics Utilizing Ultrafast Metal-Insulator

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zheng

    Oxide Electronics Utilizing Ultrafast Metal-Insulator Transitions Zheng Yang, Changhyun Ko of strongly correlated oxides, mechanisms of metal-insulator transitions, and exploratory electron devices dioxide 1. INTRODUCTION Metal-insulator transition (MIT) in oxides (1) is a topic of long

  5. Quantum Transport in Transition Metal Oxides

    E-print Network

    Takada, Yasutami

    Quantum Transport in Transition Metal Oxides Anomalous transport properties in transition metal to strong correlation. Another aspect of the transition-metal oxides, in particular in manganese the anomalous current in transition-metal compounds from a viewpoint of the band theory, we have recently

  6. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Valko, M; Morris, H; Cronin, M T D

    2005-01-01

    Metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is reviewed. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to DNA bases, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Lipid peroxides, formed by the attack of radicals on polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids, can further react with redox metals finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and other exocyclic DNA adducts (etheno and/or propano adducts). Whilst iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), vanadium (V) and cobalt (Co) undergo redox-cycling reactions, for a second group of metals, mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Arsenic (As) is thought to bind directly to critical thiols, however, other mechanisms, involving formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions, have been proposed. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Common mechanisms involving the Fenton reaction, generation of the superoxide radical and the hydroxyl radical appear to be involved for iron, copper, chromium, vanadium and cobalt primarily associated with mitochondria, microsomes and peroxisomes. However, a recent discovery that the upper limit of "free pools" of copper is far less than a single atom per cell casts serious doubt on the in vivo role of copper in Fenton-like generation of free radicals. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be involved in arsenite-induced DNA damage and pyrimidine excision inhibition. Various studies have confirmed that metals activate signalling pathways and the carcinogenic effect of metals has been related to activation of mainly redox-sensitive transcription factors, involving NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. Antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) provide protection against deleterious metal-mediated free radical attacks. Vitamin E and melatonin can prevent the majority of metal-mediated (iron, copper, cadmium) damage both in vitro systems and in metal-loaded animals. Toxicity studies involving chromium have shown that the protective effect of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation may be associated rather with the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants than the activity of enzymatic antioxidants. However, a very recent epidemiological study has shown that a daily intake of vitamin E of more than 400 IU increases the risk of death and should be avoided. While previous studies have proposed a deleterious pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C (ascorbate) in the presence of iron (or copper), recent results have shown that even in the presence of redox-active iron (or copper) and hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in humans in vitro. Experimental results have also shown a link between vanadium and oxidative stress in the etiology of diabetes. The impact of zinc (Zn) on the immune system, the ability of zinc to act as an antioxidant in order to reduce oxidative stress and the neuroprotective and neurodegenerative role of zinc (and copper) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed. This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals. PMID:15892631

  7. Why are some oxides metallic, while most are insulating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrance, Jerry B.; Lacorre, Philippe; Asavaroengchai, Chinnarong; Metzger, Robert M.

    1991-11-01

    A large variety of undoped binary and ternary transition metal oxides, including formally divalent, trivalent and tetravalent metal cations, have been examined. These 76 compounds are classified as either “metals”, “insulators”, or having a “metal-to-insulator” transition. In an attempt to understand these variations, the Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen framework was used in which each compound can be characterized by three parameters: the Coulomb correlation or disproportionation energy ( U?), the charge-transfer energy (?) and the bandwidth ( W). Assuming W is constant, we have calculated U? and ? using a simple ionic model, which includes only the gas phase ionization potentials and the bare electrostatic Coulomb interactions between the ions. With this model, the occurence of metallic conductivity is remarkably well accounted for in these oxides.

  8. Making A Noble-Metal-On-Metal-Oxide Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Irvin M.; Davis, Patricia P.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1989-01-01

    Catalyst exhibits superior performance in oxidation of CO in CO2 lasers. Two-step process developed for preparing platinum- or palladium-on-tin-oxide catalyst for recombination of CO and O2, decomposition products that occur in high-voltage discharge region of closed-cycle CO2 laser. Process also applicable to other noble-metal/metal-oxide combinations.

  9. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  10. Oxide film on metal substrate reduced to form metal-oxide-metal layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngdahl, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Electrically conductive layer of zirconium on a zirconium-oxide film residing on a zirconium substrate is formed by reducing the oxide in a sodium-calcium solution. The reduced metal remains on the oxide surface as an adherent layer and seems to form a barrier that inhibits further reaction.

  11. The catalytic methanol synthesis over nanoparticle metal oxide catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrie L. Carnes; Kenneth J. Klabunde

    2003-01-01

    Several nanoparticle metal oxides were prepared and studied for the catalytic production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These catalysts include: ZnO, CuO, NiO, and a binary system CuO\\/ZnO. The catalysts were prepared through sol–gel synthesis and were found, via TEM and BET, to have high surface areas and small crystallite sizes. With this in mind, the catalytic production

  12. Preparing oxidizer coated metal fuel particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Simmons, G. M. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A solid propellant composition of improved efficiency is described which includes an oxidizer containing ammonium perchlorate, and a powered metal fuel, preferably aluminum or beryllium, in the form of a composite. The metal fuel is contained in the crystalline lattice framework of the oxidizer, as well as within the oxidizer particles, and is disposed in the interstices between the oxidizer particles of the composition. The propellant composition is produced by a process comprising the crystallization of ammonium perchlorate in water, in the presence of finely divided aluminum or beryllium. A suitable binder is incorporated in the propellant composition to bind the individual particles of metal with the particles of oxidizer containing occluded metal.

  13. Heavy metal oxide glasses as active materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. MacFarlane; Peter J. Newman; Ruth Plathe; David J. Booth

    1999-01-01

    The solubility of rare earths at a level of 0.5 mol% in traditional heavy metal oxide glasses based on bismuth, lead and gallium is limited to the largest cations Pr, Nd and Sm. Within the families of these oxide glasses, a higher level of doping was achieved in this work with a heavy metal oxide glass containing germanium as a

  14. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  15. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  16. M-Dwarf Metallicity through Analysis of Binary Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Li, Ting

    2015-01-01

    We present work on determining the metallicity of M-dwarfs through analysis of M-star containing binary pairs and discuss its potential use with regards to exoplanet host star population studies. It is notoriously difficult to directly measure the metallicity of M-dwarf stars via their spectra due to the complexity of their composition; by study of the spectra of M-dwarfs and their binary partners, a technique to determine the metallicity of M-dwarfs via spectra analysis can be developed. Assuming that the metallicity of two stars in a binary pair is similar, by studying the metal content of the more easily measured solar type star and correlating that to various spectra line indices in the accompanying M-dwarf, we can indirectly measure the metal content of the M-dwarf. We use both high and low resolution spectra of 50+ halo binary stars in the northern hemisphere collected at McDonald Observatory to perform this analysis.

  17. Glycothermal synthesis of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masashi

    2004-04-01

    The author has been exploring the synthesis of inorganic materials in organic solvents at temperatures (200-300 °C) higher than their boiling points (solvothermal reaction), and has developed various reaction methods for the synthesis of ultrafine particles of metal oxides. In this paper, the reactions of aluminium compounds (aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3; gibbsite), aluminium alkoxides, and aluminium salts) in various organic solvents (alcohols, glycols, aminoalcohols, and inert organic solvents) are first reviewed, and reaction mechanisms and effects of the starting materials and solvents on the products are discussed. Then, the specificity of the use of glycols, especially 1,4-butanediol (glycothermal reaction), is clarified, and glycothermal synthesis of crystalline mixed oxides such as yttrium aluminium garnet is described. Finally, the use of the solvothermally prepared products as the catalyst materials is described.

  18. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  19. Orbital polarization transition metal oxides (invited) (abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Norman

    1991-01-01

    One of the most controversial topics in condensed matter physics concerns the nature of the electronic structure of transition metal oxides. Unpolarized band structure calculations predict metallic ground states for these oxides, whereas experimentally they are insulating. This led to the development of the Mott insulator picture for these materials fifty years ago. Later, though, Slater’s group showed that by

  20. High temperature, oxidation resistant noble metal-Al alloy thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L. (inventor); Gedwill, Michael G. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermocouple is disclosed. The thermocouple is comprised of an electropositive leg formed of a noble metal-Al alloy and an electronegative leg electrically joined to form a thermocouple junction. The thermocouple provides for accurate and reproducible measurement of high temperatures (600 - 1300 C) in inert, oxidizing or reducing environments, gases, or vacuum. Furthermore, the thermocouple circumvents the need for expensive, strategic precious metals such as rhodium as a constituent component. Selective oxidation of rhodium is also thereby precluded.

  1. Wettability of transition metal oxide surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiguo Feng; Benjamin J McCoy; Zuhair A Munir; Domenick Cagliostro

    1998-01-01

    The wettability of transition metal oxide surfaces (TiO2, ZrO2 and HfO2) by water was investigated by measuring the contact angles using the sessile drop method. The oxide surfaces were prepared by thermal oxidation of polished metal foils of Ti, Zr and Hf, which had been polished to different levels of surface roughness. The surfaces were also characterized by optical microscopy,

  2. A metal-oxide-semiconductor varactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Svelto; P. Erratico; S. Manzini; R. Castello

    1999-01-01

    CMOS technology scaling opens up the possibility of designing variable capacitors based on a metal oxide semiconductor structure with improved tuning range and quality factor. This is due to an increase in the oxide capacitance and a reduction in the parasitic resistance. A prototype metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) variable capacitor of 3.1 pF nominal value has been realized in a 0.35-?m standard

  3. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  4. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  5. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  6. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  7. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  8. High dielectric constant gate oxides for metal oxide Si transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Robertson

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistors has led to the silicon dioxide layer, used as a gate dielectric, being so thin (1.4 nm) that its leakage current is too large. It is necessary to replace the SiO2 with a physically thicker layer of oxides of higher dielectric constant (kappa) or 'high K' gate oxides such as hafnium oxide

  9. Generation of metal, metal oxide and metal-metal oxide powders by spray pyrolysis for microelectronic thick film applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diptarka Majumdar

    1997-01-01

    Materials in powdered form have wide ranging applications. In thick film microelectronics, powders are dispersed in organic liquids to form pastes which are screen printed on ceramic substrates and fired to fabricate active and passive electronic devices. The functional phase is a metal powder in conductive pastes, a metal or conductive metal oxide powder in resistive pastes and a ceramic

  10. Muon Sites in Transition Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwaichow Benjamin Chan

    1988-01-01

    Muon behavior in a selected series of transition -metal oxides has been investigated by the Muon Spin Rotation (muSR) technique. The materials studied are the corundum structured oxides (M_2 O_3: M = Fe, Cr, V, Ti) and the high-Tc superconducting oxides in Y-Ba-Cu-O system. The muon is first implanted into the oxide crystalline and its subsequent behavior in the presence

  11. Engineering catalytic contacts and thermal stability: gold/iron oxide binary nanocrystal superlattices for CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijin; Ye, Xingchen; Chen, Jun; Qi, Liang; Diaz, Rosa E; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky; Xing, Guozhong; Kagan, Cherie R; Li, Ju; Gorte, Raymond J; Stach, Eric A; Murray, Christopher B

    2013-01-30

    Well-defined surface, such as surface of a single crystal, is being used to provide precise interpretation of catalytic processes, while the nanoparticulate model catalyst more closely represents the real catalysts that are used in industrial processes. Nanocrystal superlattice, which combines the chemical and physical properties of different materials in a single crystalline structure, is an ideal model catalyst, that bridge between conventional models and real catalysts. We identify the active sites for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation on Au-FeO(x) catalysts by using Au-FeO(x) binary superlattices correlating the activity to the number density of catalytic contacts between Au and FeO(x). Moreover, using nanocrystal superlattices, we propose a general strategy of keeping active metals spatially confined to enhance the stability of metal catalysts. With a great range of nanocrystal superlattice structures and compositions, we establish that nanocrystal superlattices are useful model materials through which to explore, understand, and improve catalytic processes bridging the gap between traditional single crystal and supported catalyst studies. PMID:23294105

  12. Adsorption of divalent metals to metal oxide nanoparicles: Competitive and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Valerie Ann

    The presence of metals in natural waters is becoming a critical environmental and public health concern. Emerging nanotechnology and the use of metal oxide nanoparticles has been identified as a potential remediation technique in removing metals from water. However, practical applications are still being explored to determine how to apply their unique chemical and physical properties for full scale remediation projects. This thesis investigates the sorption properties of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) to hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in single- and binary-adsorbate systems. Competitive sorption was evaluated in 1L batch binary-metal systems with 0.05g/L nano-hematite at pH 8.0 and pH 6.0. Results indicate that the presence of a secondary metal can affect the sorption process depending upon the molar ratios, such as increased or reduced adsorption. Thermodynamic properties were also studied in order to better understand the effects of temperature on equilibrium and kinetic adsorption capabilities. Understanding the thermodynamic properties can also give insight to determine if the sorption process is a physical, chemical or ion exchange reaction. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS), and Gibbs free energy (DeltaG) were evaluated as a function of temperature, pH, and metal concentration. Results indicate that Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption to nano-hematite was an endothermic and physical adsorption process, while Zn(II) and Cd(II) adsorption was dependent upon the adsorbed concentration evaluated. However, metal adsorptions to nano-titanium dioxide were all found to be endothermic and physical adsorption processes; the spontaneity of metal adsorption was temperature dependent for both metal oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Foran, M.T.

    1984-01-06

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150 to 260/sup 0/C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO/sub 4/ and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect. 3 tables.

  14. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Foran, Michael T. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150.degree.-260.degree. C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO.sub.4 and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect.

  15. Memristive switching mechanism for metal\\/oxide\\/metal nanodevices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Joshua Yang; Matthew D. Pickett; Xuema Li; Douglas A. A. Ohlberg; R. Stanley Williams; Duncan R. Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Nanoscale metal\\/oxide\\/metal switches have the potential to transform the market for nonvolatile memory and could lead to novel forms of computing. However, progress has been delayed by difficulties in understanding and controlling the coupled electronic and ionic phenomena that dominate the behaviour of nanoscale oxide devices. An analytic theory of the ‘memristor’ (memory-resistor) was first developed from fundamental symmetry arguments

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  17. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  18. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1994-01-01

    An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

  19. Development of techniques for processing metal-metal oxide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques for producing model metal-metal oxide systems for the purpose of evaluating the results of processing such systems in the low-gravity environment afforded by a drop tower facility are described. Because of the lack of success in producing suitable materials samples and techniques for processing in the 3.5 seconds available, the program was discontinued.

  20. Multilevel metallization method for fabricating a metal oxide semiconductor device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, B. R., Jr.; Feltner, W. R.; Bouldin, D. L.; Routh, D. E. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    An improved method is described of constructing a metal oxide semiconductor device having multiple layers of metal deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at low dc voltages and low substrate temperatures. The method provides multilevel interconnections and cross over between individual circuit elements in integrated circuits without significantly reducing the reliability or seriously affecting the yield.

  1. Methanol oxidation over nonprecious transition metal oxide catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umit S. Ozkan; Richard F. Kueller; Edgar Moctezuma

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports methanol oxidation over nonprecious transition metal oxide catalysts studied in a gradient less external recycle reactor. The catalysts (oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu), which were prepared by using the incipient wetness technique, were supported on 1\\/8 in.γ-AlâOâ tablets. The catalysts were characterized by using BET surface area measurement, X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, scanning

  2. Aerosol-spray diverse mesoporous metal oxides from metal nitrates.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Long; Wang, Junxin; Ming, Tian; Fang, Caihong; Sun, Zhenhua; Geng, Baoyou; Wang, Jianfang

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are widely used in solar cells, batteries, transistors, memories, transparent conductive electrodes, photocatalysts, gas sensors, supercapacitors, and smart windows. In many of these applications, large surface areas and pore volumes can enhance molecular adsorption, facilitate ion transfer, and increase interfacial areas; the formation of complex oxides (mixed, doped, multimetallic oxides and oxide-based hybrids) can alter electronic band structures, modify/enhance charge carrier concentrations/separation, and introduce desired functionalities. A general synthetic approach to diverse mesoporous metal oxides is therefore very attractive. Here we describe a powerful aerosol-spray method for synthesizing various mesoporous metal oxides from low-cost nitrate salts. During spray, thermal heating of precursor droplets drives solvent evaporation and induces surfactant-directed formation of mesostructures, nitrate decomposition and oxide cross-linking. Thirteen types of monometallic oxides and four groups of complex ones are successfully produced, with mesoporous iron oxide microspheres demonstrated for photocatalytic oxygen evolution and gas sensing with superior performances. PMID:25897988

  3. Oxidation effect on templating of metal oxide nanoparticles within block copolymers

    E-print Network

    Kofinas, Peter

    Oxidation effect on templating of metal oxide nanoparticles within block copolymers Pinar Akcora a-norbornene dicarboxylic acid) (NOR-NORCOOH) have been synthesized and processed to template metal oxide nanoparticle) copolymer films before and after oxidizing the metal ions into metal oxides. The carboxylic acid containing

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the metals and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2014-11-01

    The ever increasing resistance of pathogens towards antibiotics has caused serious health problems in the recent years. It has been shown that by combining modern technologies such as nanotechnology and material science with intrinsic antimicrobial activity of the metals, novel applications for these substances could be identified. According to the reports, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles represent a group of materials which were investigated in respect to their antimicrobial effects. In the present review, we focused on the recent research works concerning antimicrobial activity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature indicated that the particle size was the essential parameter which determined the antimicrobial effectiveness of the metal nanoparticles. Combination therapy with the metal nanoparticles might be one of the possible strategies to overcome the current bacterial resistance to the antibacterial agents. However, further studies should be performed to minimize the toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to apply as proper alternatives for antibiotics and disinfectants especially in biomedical applications. PMID:25280707

  5. Oscillatory surface intermixing in binary metallic alloys*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Kalman; Wang, Ligen; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2001-03-01

    The creation of a surface of a metallic system often leads to an oscillatory charge density distribution propagating into the bulk [1], which may further induce an oscillatory interlayer lattice relaxation [2]. Oscillatory intermixing has also been frequently observed in disordered alloys, with one of the constituents enriched or depleted from layer to layer. Here we investigate the oscillation of the concentration profiles in the first few layers of different alloys using the density functional theory, with the Mo-Re and Mo-Ta systems as specific examples. The Re (Ta) atom has charge excess (deficiency) with respect to the host Mo atom. The Re (Ta) is found to follow the maxima (minima) of the oscillatory charge density distribution of the Mo surface layers, thus elucidating the microscopic origin of the oscillation of the alloy concentration at different layers. [1] N. D. Lang and W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. B 1 4555 (1970). [2] Jun-Hyung Cho, Ismail, Z. Zhang and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. B 59 1677 (1999).

  6. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01binary metal oxides.

  7. Universality in surface mixing rule of adsorption strength for small adsorbates on binary transition metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jeonghyun; Kwon, Hyunguk; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Byung-Kook; Han, Jeong Woo

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the adsorption phenomena of small adsorbates involved in surface reactions on transition metals is important because their adsorption strength can be a descriptor for predicting the catalytic activity. To explore adsorption energies on a wide range of binary transition metal alloys, however, tremendous computational efforts are required. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, here we suggest a "surface mixing rule" to predict the adsorption energies of H, O, S, CO and OH on bimetallic alloys, based on the linear interpolation of adsorption energies on each pure surface. As an application, the activity of CO oxidation on various bimetallic alloys is predicted from the adsorption energies of CO and O easily obtained by the surface mixing rule. Our results provide a useful tool for rapidly estimating adsorption energies, and furthermore, catalytic activities on multi-component metal alloy surfaces. PMID:25515855

  8. The gel route to transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Livage

    1986-01-01

    The so-called ``sol-gel'' process offers new approaches to the synthesis of transition metal oxides. Based on inorganic polymerization from molecular precursors, it leads to highly condensed species or colloids. These colloids are actually two-phase systems in which small oxide particles are dispersed in a liquid medium. A very large interface separates both phases and interfacial phenomena, at the oxide-water interface,

  9. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  10. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado, P.R.

    1999-09-28

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  11. Theoretical Study of the Role of a Metal-Cation Ensemble at the Oxide-Metal Boundary on CO Oxidation

    E-print Network

    Li, Weixue

    Theoretical Study of the Role of a Metal-Cation Ensemble at the Oxide-Metal Boundary on CO of the inverse 3d transition-metal oxide nanoislands on Pt(111) for low-temperature CO oxidation was studied by density functional theory calculations. A characteristic Pt-cation ensemble at the oxide/ metal boundaries

  12. Amorphous transition metal oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Heiman; N. S. Kazama

    1979-01-01

    We have been able to prepare amorphous oxides of Fe and Cr by sputter deposition. Magnetization measurements were made between 4.2 K and 300 K. Mössbauer spectra were obtained for the iron oxide samples in the same temperature range. Amorphous CrO2 films showed no evidence of magnetic order. For the amorphous Fe oxide films, the 4.2 K Mössbauer spectrum showed

  13. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  14. Metals, Toxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Valko; H. Morris; M. T. D. Cronin

    2005-01-01

    Metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is reviewed. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to DNA bases, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Lipid peroxides, formed by the attack of radicals on polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids , can further react with

  15. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  16. The effects of metal oxides on thermal stabilization of EPDM insulation compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Hattori; J. F. Goncalves

    1992-01-01

    The efficiency of two metal oxides, red lead and zinc oxide, and their binary mixture as thermal stabilizers in an ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM)-based compound for high-voltage insulating cable has been investigated. Mechanical characteristics were monitored during long term aging up to the point of obtaining both 50% retention of tensile strength and elongation at break. It was possible to identify the

  17. THEORY OF MOTTTRANSITION : APPLICATION S TO TRANSITION METAL OXIDES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    125 THEORY OF MOTTTRANSITION : APPLICATION S TO TRANSITION METAL OXIDES M. CYROT Institut Laue discuss the relevance of the theory to transition metal oxides. The main qualitative features in transition metal oxides. These oxides form a very interesting class of materials [1]. Their electrical

  18. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Surface Stabilization Mechanisms in Metal Oxides

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Surface Stabilization Mechanisms in Metal Oxides A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED Mechanisms in Metal Oxides Andrés E. Becerra Toledo Metal oxide surfaces play a central role in modern SrTiO3(001) surfaces reveals that water plays two major roles in the stabilization of oxide surfaces

  19. Transition Metal Oxides: Extra Thermodynamic Stability as Thin Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles T. Campbell

    2006-01-01

    Introduction.—Transition metals are used as industrial catalysts for a wide range of oxidation reactions of great importance in fuel processing, chemical production, and pollution cleanup. A key fundamental question is whether the surface under catalytic reaction conditions is metallic or is, instead, the metal's oxide. We show here that since these oxides often wet their metals, an? 1n mthick film

  20. Effect of fluorine contamination on barrier metal oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ozaki; Y. Nakata; Y. Kobayashi; T. Nakamura; Y. Iba; S. Fukuyama; H. Watatani; Y. Ohkura

    2010-01-01

    We clarified that interfacial barrier metal oxidation with inter layer dielectric (ILD) could be revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on the peeled-side of the barrier metal, and the barrier metal oxidation was promoted by fluorine contamination which adsorb to the ILD surface during etching. To consider the effect of fluorine contamination on barrier metal oxidation, hydrolysable property of fluorine

  1. Study of Growth Characteristics and Interfaces of Oxides and Oxide-Metal Heterostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sailaja Yadavalli

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal films of oxides have been synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy using methods developed in this thesis research and the growth characteristics of oxides and oxide-metal heterostructures have been studied. Studies of the structure of the oxide-metal interfaces using x -ray diffraction spectroscopy and high resolution electron microscopy are presented. The surface structure of the oxide and metal films

  2. Metal-Metal Oxide Nanoomposite for Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemar, H.; Ghosh, K.

    2012-02-01

    Currently, there is a large need for alternative energies and one good option is solar cells. A High efficiency solar cell generally consists of a number of thin layers: active layer consisting of a material having high absorption in the solar spectrum, transparent conducting layer, p- and n-type materials used to fabricate the junction, and electrodes for good Ohmic contacts. The presence of metal nanoparticles in metal oxide films improves significantly the solar absorbance of metal oxide films. The absorption depends on the bandgap of metal oxides which can be tuned by incorporation of metal nanoparticles. Tuning of the bandgap and absorption are the very important parameters to fabricate the solar cell devices. Thin films of M-MO (M = transition metals Co and Ni) nanocomposite have been grown on quartz substrate using pulse laser deposition technique. Structural properties have been characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Electrical properties with and without light and absorption spectra have been measured using I-V characterization and UV-VIS spectroscopy techniques. Detailed results will be discussed in the presentation.

  3. Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions

    E-print Network

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions of metal oxide thin films, including Al2O3, ZrO2, MnOx, and RuOx where the metal-organic precursors-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared transmission confirmed metal oxide formation. We show that hydrogen

  4. Self-assembly of metal nanostructures on binary alloy surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Duguet, T.; Han, Yong; Yuen, Chad; Jing, Dapeng; Ünal, Bar??; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Deposition of metals on binary alloy surfaces offers new possibilities for guiding the formation of functional metal nanostructures. This idea is explored with scanning tunneling microscopy studies and atomistic-level analysis and modeling of nonequilibrium island formation. For Au/NiAl(110), complex monolayer structures are found and compared with the simple fcc(110) bilayer structure recently observed for Ag/NiAl(110). We also consider a more complex codeposition system, (Ni + Al)/NiAl(110), which offers the opportunity for fundamental studies of self-growth of alloys including deviations for equilibrium ordering. A general multisite lattice-gas model framework enables analysis of structure selection and morphological evolution in these systems. PMID:21097706

  5. Role of metal oxides in chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaluddin

    2013-06-01

    Steps of chemical evolution have been designated as formation of biomonomers followed by their polymerization and then to modify in an organized structure leading to the formation of first living cell. Formation of small molecules like amino acids, organic bases, sugar etc. could have occurred in the reducing atmosphere of the primitive Earth. Polymerization of these small molecules could have required some catalyst. In addition to clay, role of metal ions and metal complexes as prebiotic catalyst in the synthesis and polymerization of biomonomers cannot be ruled out. Metal oxides are important constituents of Earth crust and that of other planets. These oxides might have adsorbed organic molecules and catalyzed the condensation processes, which may have led to the formation of first living cell. Different studies were performed in order to investigate the role of metal oxides (especially oxides of iron and manganese) in chemical evolution. Iron oxides (goethite, akaganeite and hematite) as well as manganese oxides (MnO, Mn2O3, Mn3O4 and MnO2) were synthesized and their characterization was done using IR, powder XRD, FE-SEM and TEM. Role of above oxides was studied in the adsorption of ribose nucleotides, formation of nucleobases from formamide and oligomerization of amino acids. Above oxides of iron and manganese were found to have good adsorption affinity towards ribose nucleotides, high catalytic activity in the formation of several nucleobases from formamide and oligomerization of glycine and alanine. Characterization of products was performed using UV, IR, HPLC and ESI-MS techniques. Presence of hematite-water system on Mars has been suggested to be a positive indicator in the chemical evolution on Mars.

  6. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOEpatents

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  7. Complex oxide-noble metal conjugated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Ling; Chiou, Yao-De; Liang, Wen-I; Liu, Heng-Jui; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Chih-Ya; Tsai, Kai-An; Kuo, Ho-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, Chien-Te; Liao, Xue-Pin; Shi, Bi; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2013-04-11

    Hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) composed of multiple components offer new opportunities for next-generation materials. In this study, a paradigm for the noble metal/ternary complex oxide hybrid NPs is reported by adopting pulsed laser ablation in liquids. As model hybrids, gold-spinel heterodimer (Au-CoFe2O4) and gold-pervoskite heterodimer (Au-SrTiO3) NPs are investigated. This work has demonstrated the diverse playgroup of NP conjugation enlarged by complex oxides. PMID:23427105

  8. Modeling of surface oxidation and oxidation induced damage in metal matrix composites 

    E-print Network

    Ma, Xinzheng

    1995-01-01

    Surface oxidation in metal matrix composites (MMC's) is modeled by Fickian diffusion of oxygen in both the oxide layer and metal matrix. The oxidation process and the resulting immobilized oxygen at the interface is accounted for by the introduction...

  9. Modeling of surface oxidation and oxidation induced damage in metal matrix composites

    E-print Network

    Ma, Xinzheng

    1995-01-01

    Surface oxidation in metal matrix composites (MMC's) is modeled by Fickian diffusion of oxygen in both the oxide layer and metal matrix. The oxidation process and the resulting immobilized oxygen at the interface is accounted for by the introduction...

  10. Uranium Metal to Oxide Conversion by Air Oxidation ?Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A

    2001-12-31

    Published technical information for the process of metal-to-oxide conversion of uranium components has been reviewed and summarized for the purpose of supporting critical decisions for new processes and facilities for the Y-12 National Security Complex. The science of uranium oxidation under low, intermediate, and high temperature conditions is reviewed. A process and system concept is outlined and process parameters identified for uranium oxide production rates. Recommendations for additional investigations to support a conceptual design of a new facility are outlined.

  11. Quantum Criticality in Transition-Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Büttgen; H.-A. Krug von Nidda; W. Kraetschmer; A. Günther; S. Widmann; S. Riegg; A. Krimmel; A. Loidl

    2010-01-01

    We report on experiments of the bulk susceptibility ?(T), heat capacity C(T)\\/T, resistivity ?(T) and nuclear resonances (NMR and NQR) in order to review evidence of quantum critical behaviour in some metallic transition-metal\\u000a oxides. In analogy to the conventional 4f- and 5f-electron based heavy-fermion compounds, the prerequisites of quantum criticality, i.e. a magnetic phase transition at T=0 accompanied by non-Fermi

  12. Orbital Physics in Transition-Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tokura; N. Nagaosa

    2000-01-01

    An electron in a solid, that is, bound to or nearly localized on the specific atomic site, has three attributes: charge, spin, and orbital. The orbital represents the shape of the electron cloud in solid. In transition-metal oxides with anisotropic-shaped d-orbital electrons, the Coulomb interaction between the electrons (strong electron correlation effect) is of importance for understanding their metal-insulator transitions

  13. Differential cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen; Jinmin Zhu; Hyun-Hee Cho; Kemi Cui; Fuhai Li; Xiaobo Zhou; Jack T. Rogers; Stephen T. C. Wong; Xudong Huang

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the potential health hazards of nanomaterials are growing. To determine the potential toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and H4 neuroglioma cells were exposed to Fe2O3, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles and their metal ion counterparts (Fe, Cu and Zn) at a concentration range of 0.01–100 µM for 48 h, under the cell culture conditions: 95% O2,

  14. Mixed metal oxide inorganic\\/organic coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad R. Wold; Mark D. Soucek

    1998-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide ceramer coatings were developed using linseed oil as the organic phase with titanium i-propoxide, and zirconium\\u000a n-propoxide as the inorganic sol-gel precursors. The overall goal of this study was to develop a primer that will provide\\u000a corrosion protection and better adhesion to metal substrates with minimal environmental impact. Zinc acetate dihydrate was\\u000a introduced to the system as

  15. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Turk, Brian S. (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC)

    1999-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  16. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Turk, Brian S. (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC)

    2001-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  17. Metal-oxide-oxide-metal granular tunnel diodes fabricated by anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenbin; Commisso Dolph, Melissa; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2011-12-01

    A metal-oxide-oxide-metal (MO-OM) junction was fabricated based on anodized Al and Ta granular metal-oxide tunnel junctions. Electrical transport properties of the MO-OM junction were investigated at various temperatures. A strong asymmetric nonlinear current-voltage curve at room temperature indicated a diode-like behavior with a threshold voltage of 0.19 V under forward bias. The nonlinear current-voltage curves under forward and reverse biases were well fitted separately by the Simmons equation (J. G. Simmons, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1793 (1963)) with barrier thickness, height, and tunneling area treated as variables.

  18. Ultrathin, ordered oxide films on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. S.; Goodman, D. W.

    2008-07-01

    Metal oxides and oxide thin films are extensively used as active catalysts and catalytic supports, as well as in many other important technical applications. Unlike TiO2, which is a semiconductor and can be investigated using a variety of surface science techniques, most metal oxides are insulators, which seriously restricts their use as model surfaces with modern surface science techniques. This difficulty can be circumvented by synthesizing ultrathin oxide films a few nanometers in thickness with well-defined structures, that mimic the corresponding bulk oxides yet are thin enough to be sufficiently conducting. In this review, preparations, structures, electronic and chemical properties of four representative oxides, alumina, magnesium oxide, silica, and titania, are addressed. Of these MgO is found to grow in a layer-by-layer fashion, allowing preparation of crystalline thin film structures with varying thicknesses. Crystalline TiO2 and Ti2O3 can also be synthesized, whereas SiO2 and Al2O3, although amenable to synthesis as well-defined monolayer structures, have only been grown to date as amorphous multilayers.

  19. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  20. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides 

    E-print Network

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01

    of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM...

  1. Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villarreal, I.; Jacobson, C.; Leming, A.; Matus, Y.; Visco, S.; De Jonghe, L.

    2003-01-07

    Low cost, colloidal deposition methods have been utilized to produce novel solid oxide fuel cell structures on metal alloy support electrodes. YSZ films were deposited on iron-chrome supports on top of a thin Ni/YSZ catalytic layer, and sintered at 1350 degrees C, in a reducing atmosphere. Dense, 20??m YSZ electrolyte films were obtained on highly porous stainless steel substrates.

  2. SHG on Transition Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ney

    2005-01-01

    Optical second harmonic generation (SHG), within the electric-dipole approximation, is known to be sensitive to the surface electronic structure of inversion symmetric media. Besides, it allows to distinguish magneto-optically ferromagnetic from antiferromagnetic order of cubic (001) surfaces. Here, we compute the SHG from NiO(001) and CoO(001) surfaces from first principles. To address the notoriously difficult electronic correlations of transition metal

  3. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors and Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Siegel, Mel

    Olfaction Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors and Neural Networks M. W. Siegel Carnegie Mellon to motivate autonomous activity. #12;2 First, I describe the characteristics of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS

  4. Synthesis and applications of metal oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Li-Chia

    The one-dimensional nanostructured materials have attracted much attention because of their superior properties from the deducing size in the nanometer range. Among them, metal oxide materials provide a wide diversity and functionality in both theoretical study and applications. This work focused on the synthesis of metal oxide nanowires, and further investigated possible applications of nanostructured metal oxide materials. High quality ZnO nanowires have been synthesized by catalyst-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The control of initial Au or Ag film thickness and subsequent annealing conditions is shown to provide an effective method for controlling the size and density of nucleation sites for catalyst-driven growth of ZnO nanowires. For gas sensing applications, it is found that the sensitivity for detecting hydrogen is greatly enhanced by sputter-depositing metal catalysts (Pt and Pt) on surface. The sensors are shown to detect ppm hydrogen at room temperature using <0.4 mW of power when using multiple nanowires. A comparison study of the hydrogen-sensing characteristics of ZnO thin films with different thickness and ZnO nanowires was studied. The Pt-coated single nanowires show a current response by approximately a factor of 3 larger at room temperature. Both types of sensors are shown to be capable of the detection of ppm hydrogen at room temperature with nW power levels, but the nanowires show different recovery characteristics, consistent with the expected higher surface coverage of adsorbed hydrogen. The feasibility of a number of metal oxide nanowires has been synthesized by a high-pressure assisted pulsed laser deposition. The high density well-aligned metal oxide nanowires can be directly grown on substrate without metal catalysts. The results suggest the possibility of growing complex metal oxide nanostructures, including tailored heterostructures and aligned heterojunction arrays with PLD technique. The growth of epitaxial SnO2 on c-sapphire using pulsed laser deposition is examined. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films are highly a-axis oriented SnO2 with the rutile structure. The effects of Ga doping on SnO2 films were studied. The Hall data showed p-type behavior occurs only at specific growth condition, but converted back to n-type and degraded as time proceeds.

  5. Spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate and method of making same by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2006-02-21

    A method of making a spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate by molecular beam epitaxy, comprising the step of supplying activated oxygen, a first metal atom flux, and at least one other metal atom flux to the surface of the substrate, wherein the metal atom fluxes are individually controlled at the substrate so as to grow the spinel-structured metal oxide on the substrate and the metal oxide is substantially in a thermodynamically stable state during the growth of the metal oxide. A particular embodiment of the present invention encompasses a method of making a spinel-structured binary ferrite, including Co ferrite, without the need of a post-growth anneal to obtain the desired equilibrium state.

  6. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  7. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  8. MATERIALS THEORY From transition metal oxides to cosmic strings

    E-print Network

    MATERIALS THEORY From transition metal oxides to cosmic strings (and how electronic structure Transition metal oxides Thursday, September 20, 2012 6D-MATL / Materials Theory Compounds containing and competing interactions! Energy scale ~ 1eV #12;MATERIALS THEORY Where do transition metal oxides fit

  9. Magnetoresistance characterization of nanometer Si metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors

    E-print Network

    Levelut, Claire

    Magnetoresistance characterization of nanometer Si metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors Y. M on the short (down to 75-nm gate length) n-type Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors the transport properties in the semiconductor devices. In the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

  10. Transition metal oxides on organic semiconductors Yongbiao Zhao a

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Transition metal oxides on organic semiconductors Yongbiao Zhao a , Jun Zhang b , Shuwei Liu Accepted 14 January 2014 Available online 1 February 2014 Keywords: p-doping Transition metal oxide Organic semiconductor Diffusion Organic light-emitting diode a b s t r a c t Transition metal oxides (TMOs) on organic

  11. Compensation Mechanisms and Functionality of Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces and

    E-print Network

    Compensation Mechanisms and Functionality of Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces and Interfaces metal oxide surfaces and interfaces can lead to properties and functionality that are not observed-code on HLRBI and HLRBII. 1 Introduction The surfaces and interfaces of transition metal oxides represent

  12. Selection of Metal Oxide Charge Transport Layers for Colloidal Quantum

    E-print Network

    Selection of Metal Oxide Charge Transport Layers for Colloidal Quantum Dot LEDs V. Wood,* M. J study extends this line of investiga- tion by considering a series of semiconduct- ing metal oxides in layered QD-LED structures. Recently we demonstrated that metal oxides can be used as charge transport lay

  13. Faraday Discussion # 114 The Surface Science of Metal Oxides

    E-print Network

    Jennison, Dwight R.

    -1- Faraday Discussion # 114 The Surface Science of Metal Oxides Ultrathin Alumina Film Al of common point defects in metal island nucleation on oxide terraces, and 3) the growth and morphology, they represent struc- tures which may be produced during the oxidation of Al metal, and are thus important

  14. Doping and functionalization of photoactive semiconducting metal oxides

    E-print Network

    Diebold, Ulrike

    Preface Doping and functionalization of photoactive semiconducting metal oxides The Guest Editors-hole excitation in semiconducting metal oxides. Efficient utilization of solar energy and environ- mental cleanup. on N-doped metal oxides nanoparticles, followed by the report of H. Kisch et al. on electrochemical

  15. Hybrid carbon nanotube-silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuits

    E-print Network

    Hone, James

    Hybrid carbon nanotube-silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuits I. Merica and V field-effect transistors CNFET with conventional, silicon-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor. © 2007 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.2800322 I. INTRODUCTION Silicon complementary metal-oxide

  16. Quantum-chemical studies of metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Persson; R. Bergström; L. Ojamäe; S. Lunell

    2002-01-01

    A review of recent research, as well as new results, are presented on transition metal oxide clusters, surfaces, and crystals. Quantum-chemical calculations of clusters of first row transition metal oxides have been made to evaluate the accuracy of ab initio and density functional calculations. Adsorbates on metal oxide surfaces have been studied with both ab initio and semi-empirical methods, and

  17. The interactions between transition metal nanoparticles and their metal-oxide supports are often critical for heterogeneous metal nanoparticle

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Reports The interactions between transition metal nanoparticles and their metal- oxide supports at the metal-support interface is widely regarded as the key step in room-temperature CO oxidation (13 water, surface hydroxyls, and the metal-support inter- face interact during CO oxidation over Au/TiO2

  18. High temperature zirconia oxygen sensor with sealed metal\\/metal oxide internal reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John V. Spirig; Ramasamy Ramamoorthy; Sheikh A. Akbar; Jules L. Routbort; Dileep Singh; Prabir K. Dutta

    2007-01-01

    Potentiometric internal reference oxygen sensors are created by embedding a metal\\/metal oxide mixture within a yttria-stabilized zirconia oxygen-conducting ceramic superstructure. Three metal\\/metal oxide systems based on Pd, Ni, and Ru are examined. A static internal reference oxygen pressure is produced inside the reference chamber of the sensor at the target application temperature. The metal\\/metal oxide-containing reference chamber is sealed within

  19. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  20. Formation and characterization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaspell, Garry

    This dissertation contains two parts. The first part is focused on Laser Vaporization Controlled Condensation (LVCC). Silver nanoparticles of controlled size were synthesized by this method in order to produce a Surfaced Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) active material. We have investigated the effects of particle size on SERS enhancement and how the addition of halides can further increase the limits of detection. We have also explored using LVCC to synthesize cobalt oxide nanoparticles. This is significant since a simple chemical route doesn't currently exist. Finally, we have reported the synthesis of cobalt nitrate hexahydrate by this method using cobalt metal, oxygen and nitrogen as starting materials. The second part of this dissertation focuses on synthesizing transition metal doped titanium dioxide and zinc oxide by various novel sol-gel techniques for applications in spintronics. Spintronics is based on the concept of carrying information due to the relative spins of electrons. Utilizing spin up and spin down allows twice as much information to be carried on the flow of the electrons. One of the key requirements for a spintronic material is that it must exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM). Thus, we synthesized 10% cobalt and iron doped titanium dioxide by a novel synthesis which displays RTFM. We have also explored synthesizing 5% cobalt doped zinc oxide by a room temperature process which also displays RTFM. Finally, RTFM 5% cobalt and iron doped zinc oxide were synthesized by a novel process involving microwave irradiation.

  1. Oxidation of metal particles in the heating zone during the combustion of SHS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bloshenko, V.N.; Bokii, V.A.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1985-07-01

    This article examines, in relation to the combustion of simple binary M + X yields MX systems, where M is a metal, X a nonmetal and MX the product, the problem of the variation of the impurity oxygen concentration in metal particles during their dwell time in the heating zone (metal particle oxidation). On the basis of the results obtained, the experimental data on the synthesis of titanium carbide by the SHS (selfpropagating high-temperature synthesis) method is discussed both in a vacuum and in a constant-pressure bomb.

  2. Topological crystalline insulators in transition metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Fiete, Gregory A

    2013-04-12

    Topological crystalline insulators possess electronic states protected by crystal symmetries, rather than time-reversal symmetry. We show that the transition metal oxides with heavy transition metals are able to support nontrivial band topology resulting from mirror symmetry of the lattice. As an example, we consider pyrochlore oxides of the form A2M2O7. As a function of spin-orbit coupling strength, we find two Z2 topological insulator phases can be distinguished from each other by their mirror Chern numbers, indicating a different topological crystalline insulators. We also derive an effective k·p Hamiltonian, similar to the model introduced for Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te, and discuss the effect of an on-site Hubbard interaction on the topological crystalline insulator phase using slave-rotor mean-field theory, which predicts new classes of topological quantum spin liquids. PMID:25167290

  3. Magnetic Interactions in Transition-Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Solovyev

    2003-01-01

    This a review article, which presents a general framework for the analysis of interatomic magnetic interactions in the spin-density-functional theory, which is based on the magnetic force theorem, make a link with the models for transition-metal oxides, and gives several examples of how this strategy can be used for the analysis of magnetic properties of colossal-magnetoresistive perovskite manganites, double perovskite

  4. Electrically Erasable Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Dosimeters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Lipovetzky; Eduardo Gabriel Redin; Adrián Faigón

    2007-01-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) dosimetry including the reset of the sensor device for its reuse (reutilization) is described. The method consists in restoring the shifted threshold voltage after irradiation to a predefined value by the injection of a Fowler-Nordheim tunnel current. The amount of interface states per unit area is initially saturated in order to ensure repeatability. The method was tested on

  5. Metal oxide semiconductor NO 2 sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Inoue; Kazuyuki Ohtsuka; Yutaka Yoshida; Yoshinobu Matsuura; Yoshihisa Kajiyama

    1995-01-01

    A newly developed sensor for NO2 has been investigated from a practical point of view. Various metal oxide semiconductors have been examined and as a result it is found that WO3 shows the highest potentiality as an NO2 sensor for air-quality monitoring. Several approaches, such as introducing SiO2 binder, microprocessing techniques, heat-cleaning techniques and adopting a filter material, have been

  6. Removal of metallic iron on oxide slags

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, G.N.; Fruehan, R.J.; Sridhar, S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Material Science & Engineering

    2009-10-15

    It is possible, in some cases, for ground coal particles to react with gasifier gas during combustion, allowing the ash material in the coal to form phases besides the expected slag phase. One of these phases is metallic iron, because some gasifiers are designed to operate under a reducing atmosphere (pO{sub 2}) of approximately 10{sup -4} atm). Metallic iron can become entrained in the gas stream and deposit on, and foul, downstream equipment. To improve the understanding of the reaction between different metallic iron particles and gas, which eventually oxidizes them, and the slag that the resulting oxide dissolves in, the kinetics of iron reaction on slag were predicted using gas-phase mass-transfer limitations for the reaction and were compared with diffusion in the slag; the reaction itself was observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy. The expected rates for iron droplet removal are provided based on the size and effective partial pressure of oxygen, and it is found that decarburization occurs before iron reaction, leading to an extra 30- to 100-second delay for carbon-saturated particles vs pure iron particles. A pure metallic iron particle of 0.5 mg should be removed in about 220 seconds at 1400{sup o}C and in 160 seconds at 1600{sup o}C.

  7. A Numerical Model Describing Multiphase Binary Diffusion in Liquid Metal/Solid Metal Couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    A numerical model for multiphase binary diffusion in liquid metal/solid metal infinite couples is developed by introducing a bisection method which determines a location of the Matano interface. The model makes use of phase diagram sources and kinetic data without any adjustable parameters. The model gives displacements of the interphase interfaces including the liquid/solid interface relative to the x = 0 plane, a change in the mass of a solid metal and a distance-composition profile at diffusion time given. The calculated rates of phase layer growth agreed reasonably well with the measured rates by other researchers in liquid Sn saturated with Cu/solid Cu couples and liquid Zn/solid Fe couples in the diffusion-controlled stage.

  8. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-04-25

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

  9. Surface and redox properties of cobalt-ceria binary oxides: On the effect of Co content and pretreatment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsolakis, Michalis; Sgourakis, Michalis; Carabineiro, Sónia A. C.

    2015-06-01

    Ceria-based transition metal catalysts have recently received considerable attention both in heterogeneous catalysis and electro-catalysis fields, due to their unique physicochemical characteristics. Their catalytic performance is greatly affected by the surface local chemistry and oxygen vacancies. The present study aims at investigating the impact of Co/Ce ratio and pretreatment conditions on the surface and redox properties of cobalt-ceria binary oxides. Co-ceria mixed oxides with different Co content (0, 20, 30, 60, 100 wt.%) were prepared by impregnation method and characterized by means of N2 adsorption at -196 °C, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results shown the improved reducibility of Co/CeO2 mixed oxides compared to single oxides, due to a synergistic interaction between cobalt and cerium. Oxidation pretreatment results in a preferential localization of cerium species on the outer surface. In contrast, a uniform distribution of cobalt and cerium species over the entire catalyst surface is obtained by the reduction process, which facilitates the formation of oxygen vacancies though Co3+/Co2+ and Ce3+/Ce4+ redox cycles. Fundamental insights toward tuning the surface chemistry of cobalt-ceria binary oxides are provided, paving the way for real-life industrial applications.

  10. Supercritical-carbon dioxide-assisted cyclic deposition of metal oxide and metal thin films

    E-print Network

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Supercritical-carbon dioxide-assisted cyclic deposition of metal oxide and metal thin films Dipak are of interest in mi- croelectronics for potential applications in advanced metal- oxide-semiconductor transistor 2006 Thin films of aluminum oxide and palladium were deposited on silicon at low temperatures 70­120 °C

  11. Stoichiometry control of complex oxides by sequential pulsed-laser deposition from binary-oxide targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herklotz, A.; Dörr, K.; Ward, T. Z.; Eres, G.; Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    To have precise atomic layer control over interfaces, we examine the growth of complex oxides through the sequential deposition from binary targets by pulsed laser deposition. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used to control the growth and achieve films with excellent structural quality. The growth from binary oxide targets is fundamentally different from single target growth modes and shows more similarities to shuttered growth by molecular beam epitaxy. The RHEED intensity oscillations of non-stoichiometric growth are consistent with a model of island growth and accumulation of excess material on the surface that can be utilized to determine the correct stoichiometry for growth. Correct monolayer doses can be determined through an envelope frequency in the RHEED intensity oscillations. In order to demonstrate the ability of this growth technique to create complex heterostructures, the artificial n = 2 and 3 Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases are grown with good long-range order. This method enables the precise unit-cell level control over the structure of perovskite-type oxides, and thus the growth of complex materials with improved structural quality and electronic functionality.

  12. Process for producing metal compounds from graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a precursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon, metal, chloride, and oxygen This intermediary product can be flier processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon, metal carbonate, and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide; b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate; c) in a reducing environment to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  13. Process for Producing Metal Compounds From Graphite Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a precursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon, metal, chloride, and oxygen. This intermediary product can be fiber processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon. metal carbonate. and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate; c) in a reducing environment to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  14. Process for Producing Metal Compounds from Graphite Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a precursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon. metal. chloride. and oxygen This intermediary product can be flier processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon. metal carbonate. and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide: b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate: c) in a reducing environment. to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal and metal oxide nanoparticles inside mesoporous carbon CMK-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Huwe; Michael Fröba

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal oxides were synthesized inside the pore system of mesoporous carbon CMK-3. By a wet impregnation, drying and calcination procedure iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and zinc oxides were formed almost exclusively within the mesopores. A reduction into the metal forms with regard to structural array in the case of zinc oxide and a reduction to manganese(II) oxide for

  16. Effects of methane and oxygen on decomposition of nitrous oxide over metal oxide catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Satsuma; Hajime Maeshima; Kiyoshi Watanabe; Kenji Suzuki; Tadashi Hattori

    2000-01-01

    Catalytic activities of various metal oxides for decomposition of nitrous oxide were compared in the presence and absence of methane and oxygen, and the general rule in the effects of the coexisting gases was discussed. The reaction rates of nitrous oxide were well correlated to the heat of formation of metal oxide, i.e., a V-shaped relationship with a minimum at

  17. Density Functional Theory Studies of Metal Oxide Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanmuga Sundaram Veliah

    1996-01-01

    The density functional theory which was first developed for solid-state calculations has been recently applied to a wide range of molecular electronic structure problems. In this work, this method is applied to study the structure and energetics of metal oxide clusters. The systems chosen, large clusters of magnesia, an alkaline earth oxide and microclusters of chromia, a transition metal oxide,

  18. Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Transition Metal Oxides

    E-print Network

    Millis, Andrew

    Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Transition Metal Oxides A. J. Millis Department and Prospects #12;Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Transition metal ``oxides and Electronic Structure 4. Theory--General 5. Dynamical Mean Field Theory and Oxides 6. Applications

  19. Simple and perovskite oxides of transition-metals: Why some are metallic, while most are insulating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrance, Jerry B.; Lacorro, Philippe; Asavaroengchai, Chinnarong; Metzger, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Some 76 simple and perovskite transition-metal oxides are classified as "metals," "insulators," and those exhibiting metal-insulator transitions. Using the framework of Zaanen, Sawatzky, and Allen and a simple ionic model to estimate the two relevant energies ( ?0 and U' 0), we can find boundaries which separate the insulating oxides from two types of metals: low ?0 metals and low U' 0 metals. In addition, compounds with metal-insulator transitions are found to be on (or near) these boundaries. It is concluded that the large differences in conductivity behavior of oxides are largely due to differences in the ionization potentials of the transition metal cations.

  20. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  1. The Effect of Metal Oxide on Nanoparticles from Thermite Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lewis Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how metal oxide used in a thermite reaction can impact the production of nanoparticles. The results showed the presence of nanoparticles (less than 1 micron in diameter) of at least one type produced by each metal oxide. The typical particles were metallic spheres, which ranged from 300 nanometers in…

  2. Catalytic decomposition of N 2O over monolithic supported noble metal-transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviane Boissel; Saad Tahir; Carolyn Ann Koh

    2006-01-01

    The decomposition of nitrous oxide to nitrogen and oxygen using a series of monolithic (ceria-alumina washcoated cordierite) supported transition metal (Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) and noble metal (Ir, Rh) oxide catalysts has been studied using gas chromatography. The effect of combining a transition metal with a noble metal has also been investigated. A synergetic effect was observed between transition

  3. Low frequency noise in GaN metal semiconductor and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    E-print Network

    Pala, Nezih

    Low frequency noise in GaN metal semiconductor and metal oxide semiconductor field effect-MESFETs and in GaN thin channel highly doped metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors HD- MOSFETs metal semiconduc- tor field effect transistors HD-MESFETs 1 showed that these devices especially short

  4. Selective oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen on transition metal containing mixed metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucjan Chmielarz; Piotr Ku?trowski; Alicja Rafalska-?asocha; Roman Dziembaj

    2005-01-01

    The selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen (NH3-SCO) has been studied over hydrotalcite derived mixed metal oxides containing Cu, Co, Fe or Ni. XRD, BET, NH3-TPD and TPR techniques were used for catalysts characterization. Results of NH3-SCO were compared with those of selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NO-SCR). Reaction mechanism was studied by temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR)

  5. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  6. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  7. Glucose enhancement of LDL oxidation is strictly metal ion dependent.

    PubMed

    Mowri, H O; Frei, B; Keaney, J F

    2000-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lipoprotein oxidation is increased in diabetes, however, the mechanism(s) for such observations are not clear. We examined the effect of glucose on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation using metal ion-dependent and -independent oxidation systems. Pathophysiological concentrations of glucose (25 mM) enhanced copper-induced LDL oxidation as determined by conjugated diene formation or relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) on agarose gels. Similarly, iron-induced LDL oxidation was stimulated by glucose resulting in 4- to 6-fold greater REM than control incubations without glucose. In contrast, glucose had no effect on metal ion-independent LDL oxidation by aqueous peroxyl radicals. The effect of glucose on metal ion-dependent LDL oxidation was associated with enhanced reduction of metal ions, and in the case of iron-induced LDL oxidation, was completely inhibited by superoxide dismutase. The effect of glucose was mimicked by other reducing sugars, such as fructose and mannose, and the extent to which each sugar enhanced LDL oxidation was closely linked to its metal ion-reducing activity. Thus, promotion of LDL oxidation by glucose is specific for metal ion-dependent oxidation and involves increased metal ion reduction. These results provide one potential mechanism for enhanced LDL oxidation in diabetes. PMID:11063907

  8. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0

  9. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.; Webster, E.T.; Xu, Q.

    1994-08-30

    A method for formation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation. 4 figs.

  10. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Webster, Elizabeth T. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  11. Magnetic correlations in doped transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Aeppli, G. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Bao, W.; Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-15

    The authors review recent reactor- and spallation-source-based neutron scattering experiments on the magnetic fluctuations and order in a variety of doped transition metal oxides. In particular, data are shown for the NiO chain compound, Y{sub 2{minus}x}Ca{sub x}BaNiO{sub 5}, the two-dimensional cuprate superconductors La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} O{sub 6+x}, and the classical three-dimensional ``Mott-Hubbard`` system V{sub 2{minus}y}O{sub 3}.

  12. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides.

  13. Near room temperature lithographically processed metal-oxide transistors

    E-print Network

    Tang, Hui, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    A fully lithographic process at near-room-temperature was developed for the purpose of fabricating transistors based on metal-oxide channel materials. The combination of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the source/drain electrodes, ...

  14. FUNCTIONALIZED METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES: ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFORMATIONS AND ECOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will provide fundamental information on alterations in the surface chemistry of commercially important functionalized metal oxide NPs under environmentally relevant oxidative and reductive conditions, as well as needed data on the inherent and photo-enhanced toxicit...

  15. Nanostructured transition metal oxides for aqueous hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Cottineau; M. Toupin; T. Delahaye; T. Brousse; D. Bélanger

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we wish to present an overview of the research carried out in our laboratories with low-cost transition metal\\u000a oxides (manganese dioxide, iron oxide and vanadium oxide) as active electrode materials for aqueous electrochemical supercapacitors.\\u000a More specifically, the paper focuses on the approaches that have been used to increase the capacitance of the metal oxides\\u000a and the cell

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Pantoya, M; Jr., J S; Zhao, L; Shea, K; Simpson, R; Clapsaddle, B

    2003-11-18

    In the field of composite energetic materials, properties such as ingredient distribution, particle size, and morphology, affect both sensitivity and performance. Since the reaction kinetics of composite energetic materials are typically controlled by the mass transport rates between reactants, one would anticipate new and potentially exceptional performance from energetic nanocomposites. We have developed a new method of making nanostructured energetic materials, specifically explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, using sol-gel chemistry. A novel sol-gel approach has proven successful in preparing metal oxide/silicon oxide nanocomposites in which the metal oxide is the major component. Two of the metal oxides are tungsten trioxide and iron(III) oxide, both of which are of interest in the field of energetic materials. Furthermore, due to the large availability of organically functionalized silanes, the silicon oxide phase can be used as a unique way of introducing organic additives into the bulk metal oxide materials. As a result, the desired organic functionality is well dispersed throughout the composite material on the nanoscale. By introducing a fuel metal into the metal oxide/silicon oxide matrix, energetic materials based on thermite reactions can be fabricated. The resulting nanoscale distribution of all the ingredients displays energetic properties not seen in its microscale counterparts due to the expected increase of mass transport rates between the reactants. The synthesis and characterization of these metal oxide/silicon oxide nanocomposites and their performance as energetic materials will be discussed.

  17. Metal Oxide Composite Enabled Nanotextured Si Photoanode for Efficient Solar Driven Water Oxidation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Metal Oxide Composite Enabled Nanotextured Si Photoanode for Efficient Solar Driven Water Oxidation oxide composite modified n-Si photoanode for efficient and stable water oxidation. This sputter of operation, the oxide composite provides a simple method to enable unstable photoanode materials for solar

  18. Fluidized reduction of oxides on fine metal powders without sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1985-01-01

    In the process of reducing extremely fine metal particles (av. particle size or = 1000 angstroms) covered with an oxide layer, the metal particles are fluidized by a gas flow contg. H, heated, and reduced. The method uniformly and easily reduces surface oxide layers of the extremely fine metal particles without causing sintering. The metal particles are useful for magnetic recording materials, conductive paste, powder metallurgy materials, chem. reagents, and catalysts.

  19. Breakdown of ultrathin anodic valve metal oxide films in metal-insulator-metal-contacts compared with metal-insulator-electrolyte contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim W. Hassel; Detlef Diesing

    2002-01-01

    The anodic breakdown of thin valve metal oxide films on aluminium, hafnium, niobium, titanium, tantalum and zirconium in the system valve-metal\\/valve-metal-oxide\\/silver was investigated. For all systems valve metal wires covered by an anodically formed oxide with an evaporated silver film were used. For comparison three different types of oxide were used in the case of aluminium: anodic oxide, gas phase

  20. Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study on the oxidation mechanism of binary and ternary alloy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Yu; Liu, Shiyang; Li, De-Jun; Wang, Sanwu; Guo, Jing; Shen, Yaogen

    2015-02-14

    Utilizing a combination of ab initio density-functional theory and thermodynamics formalism, we have established the microscopic mechanisms for oxidation of the binary and ternary alloy surfaces and provided a clear explanation for the experimental results of the oxidation. We construct three-dimensional surface phase diagrams (SPDs) for oxygen adsorption on three different Nb-X(110) (X = Ti, Al or Si) binary alloy surfaces. On the basis of the obtained SPDs, we conclude a general microscopic mechanism for the thermodynamic oxidation, that is, under O-rich conditions, a uniform single-phase SPD (type I) and a nonuniform double-phase SPD (type II) correspond to the sustained complete selective oxidation and the non-sustained partial selective oxidation by adding the X element, respectively. Furthermore, by revealing the framework of thermodynamics for the oxidation mechanism of ternary alloys through the comparison of the surface energies of two separated binary alloys, we provide an understanding for the selective oxidation behavior of the Nb ternary alloy surfaces. Using these general microscopic mechanisms, one could predict the oxidation behavior of any binary and multi-component alloy surfaces based on thermodynamics considerations. PMID:25681933

  1. Alkane activation on crystalline metal oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jason F; Hakanoglu, Can; Antony, Abbin; Asthagiri, Aravind

    2014-11-21

    Advances in the fundamental understanding of alkane activation on oxide surfaces are essential for developing new catalysts that efficiently and selectively promote chemical transformations of alkanes. In this tutorial review, we discuss the current understanding of alkane activation on crystalline metal oxide surfaces, and focus mainly on summarizing our findings on alkane adsorption and C-H bond cleavage on the PdO(101) surface as determined from model ultrahigh vacuum experiments and theoretical calculations. These studies show that alkanes form strongly-bound ?-complexes on PdO(101) by datively bonding with coordinatively-unsaturated Pd atoms and that these molecularly adsorbed species serve as precursors for C-H bond activation on the oxide surface. In addition to discussing the binding and properties of alkane ?-complexes on PdO(101), we also summarize recent advances in kinetic models to predict alkane dissociation rates on solid surfaces. Lastly, we highlight computations which predict that the formation and facile C-H bond activation of alkane ?-complexes also occurs on RuO2 and IrO2 surfaces. PMID:24480977

  2. Iron-manganese binary oxide coated functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for arsenic removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we report, iron-manganese based amorphous binary oxide coated functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) as an efficient adsorbent for arsenic removal. The Fe-Mn binary oxide/f-MWNTs (FeMn/f-MWNT) has been synthesized by co-precipitation of both oxides in the presence of f-MWNTs and characterized. The arsenic (both arsenate and arsenite) adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite has been studied by batch adsorption method at pH around 7. Langmuir and Elovich equations were used to extract the isotherm and kinetic constants, respectively. This nanocomposite shows fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity.

  3. The characteristics of some metallic oxides prepared in high vacuum by ion beam sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Chung Lee; Jin-Cherng Hsu; Daw-Heng Wong

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of ion beam sputtered metallic oxides deposited in high vacuum are analyzed by X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscopy, spectrophotometer and ellipsometer. The metallic oxide thin films include aluminum oxide, niobium oxide, silicon oxide, tantalum oxide, zirconium oxide, and titanium oxide. The structure, surface morphology and optical constant are described. An oxide film with low surface roughness, low extinction

  4. Comparative study of metal or oxide capped indiumtin oxide anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    E-print Network

    ­tin oxide capped with a variety of nanometer-thick metal or oxide buffer layers has been investigated, organic anode buffer layers ABLs such as copper II phthalocyanine CuPc Ref. 15 with suitable highest of OLEDs with anodes consisting of ITO capped with a variety of nanometer-thick metals and oxides

  5. Synthesis of Metallic Iridium Oxide Nanowires via Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Fengyan ZHANG

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Synthesis of Metallic Iridium Oxide Nanowires via Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Fengyan, U.S.A. (Received December 9, 2004; accepted February 3, 2005; published March 4, 2005) Iridium oxide) iridium (I) as the precursor on Si or SiO2 substrate with and without metal nanoparticles as catalysts

  6. Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals. II. Thermodynamics of Sulfur Oxides on Platinum(111)

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xi

    Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals. II. Thermodynamics of Sulfur Oxides on Platinum-containing molecules on transition metal catalysts has been of interest to scientists for more than 2 decades.1. How- ever, sulfur chemistry on transition metal surfaces is so complicated that it remains far from

  7. A General Approach to Noble Metal-Metal Oxide Dumbbell Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic Application for CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Wang, Chao [Brown University; Yin, Hongfeng [ORNL; Sun, Shouheng [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous dumbbell-like nanoparticles represent an important type of composite nanomaterial that has attracted growing interest. Here we report a general approach to noble metal-metal oxide dumbbell nanoparticles based on seed-mediated growth. Metal oxides are grown over the presynthesized noble metal seeds by thermal decomposition of metal carbonyl followed by oxidation in air. The as-synthesized dumbbell nanoparticles have intrinsic epitaxial linkage between the metal and the oxide, providing enhanced heterojunction interactions. Moreover, the properties of one component are readily modified by the other in these nanoparticles, as demonstrated by the enhanced catalytic activity toward CO oxidation of such dumbbell nanoparticles in comparison with their counterparts prepared by conversional methods. The heterojunction effects provided in such nanostructures thus offer another degree of freedom for tailoring material properties. The developed synthetic strategy could also be generalized to other systems and thus represent a general approach to heterogeneous nanomaterials for various functional applications.

  8. Prediction of electron energies in metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aron; Butler, Keith T

    2014-02-18

    The ability to predict energy levels in metal oxides is paramount to developinguseful materials, such as in the development of water photolysis catalysts and efficient photovoltaic cells. The binding energy of electrons in materials encompasses a wealth of information concerning their physicochemistry. The energies control the optical and electrical properties, dictating for which kinds of chemistry and physics a particular material is useful. Scientists have developed theories and models for electron energies in a variety of chemical systems over the past century. However, the prediction of quantitative energy levels in new materials remains a major challenge. This issue is of particular importance in metal oxide research, where novel chemistries have opened the possibility of a wide range of tailored systems with applications in important fields including light-emitting diodes, energy efficient glasses, and solar cells. In this Account, we discuss the application of atomistic modeling techniques, covering the spectrum from classical to quantum descriptions, to explore the alignment of electron energies between materials. We present a number of paradigmatic examples, including a series of oxides (ZnO, In2O3, and Cu2O). Such calculations allow the determination of a "band alignment diagram" between different materials and can facilitate the prediction of the optimal chemical composition of an oxide for use in a given application. Throughout this Account, we consider direct computational solutions in the context of heuristic models, which are used to relate the fundamental theory to experimental observations. We review a number of techniques that have been commonly applied in the study of electron energies in solids. These models have arisen from different answers to the same basic question, coming from solid-state chemistry and physics perspectives. We highlight common factors, as well as providing a critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of each, emphasizing the difficulties in translating concepts from molecular to solid-state systems. Finally, we stress the need for a universal description of the alignment of band energies for materials design from first-principles. By demonstrating the applicability and challenges of using theory to calculate the relevant quantities, as well as impressing the necessity of a clarification and unification of the descriptions, we hope to provide a stimulus for the continued development of this field. PMID:24066925

  9. Laser-assisted formation of metallic oxide microtubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nanai, L. [Department of Experimental Physics, Jozsef Attila University, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); George, T.F. [Office of the Chancellor/Departments of Chemistry and Physics Astronomy, University of Wisconsin--Stevens Point, Stevens Point, Wisconsin 54481-3897 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The fabrication of metallic oxide microtubes is possible directly, without any support structure, by continuous wave infrared laser-assisted oxidation of the metal in air. The particular case presented is the growth of tube-like vanadium pentoxide microcrystals grown in our laboratories. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Preparation of bioactive titanium metal via anodic oxidation treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bangcheng Yang; Masaiki Uchida; Hyun-Min Kim; Xingdong Zhang; Tadashi Kokubo

    2004-01-01

    Titania with specific structures of anatase and rutile was found to induce apatite formation in vitro. In this study, anodic oxidation in H2SO4 solution, which could form anatase and rutile on titanium metal surface by conditioning the process, was employed to modify the structure and bioactivity of biomedical titanium. After the titanium metal was subjected to anodic oxidation treatment, thin

  11. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY: OXIDATION OF DISACCHARIDES TO SYNTHESIZE TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carbohydrate trehalose was a preliminary test model to be used as a replacement conjugate in an alternate transition-metal complex. Using an oxidant, we hypothesized that if the primary alcohols formed aldehyde functional groups upon oxidation then the transition metal could complex with the tr...

  12. Detection of chemical warfare agents using nanostructured metal oxide sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey A. Tomchenko; Gregory P. Harmer; Brent T. Marquis

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of thick-film chemical sensors based on various semiconductor metal oxides to reliably detect chemical warfare agents has been studied. Nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) powders were used as initial materials for the sensors’ fabrication. The thick films were prepared using a simple drop-coating technique accompanied with in situ annealing of the deposited films by a heater that is

  13. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  14. Conductive metal oxide film and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F. (Kennewick, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method for reducing a dopant in a film of a metal oxide wherein the dopant is reduced and the first metal oxide is substantially not reduced. The method of the present invention relies upon exposing the film to reducing conditions for a predetermined time and reducing a valence of the metal from a positive valence to a zero valence and maintaining atoms with a zero valence in an atomic configuration within the lattice structure of the metal oxide. According to the present invention, exposure to reducing conditions may be achieved electrochemically or achieved in an elevated temperature gas phase.

  15. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  16. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  17. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  18. Oxidized film structure and method of making epitaxial metal oxide structure

    DOEpatents

    Gan, Shupan [Richland, WA; Liang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-02-25

    A stable oxidized structure and an improved method of making such a structure, including an improved method of making an interfacial template for growing a crystalline metal oxide structure, are disclosed. The improved method comprises the steps of providing a substrate with a clean surface and depositing a metal on the surface at a high temperature under a vacuum to form a metal-substrate compound layer on the surface with a thickness of less than one monolayer. The compound layer is then oxidized by exposing the compound layer to essentially oxygen at a low partial pressure and low temperature. The method may further comprise the step of annealing the surface while under a vacuum to further stabilize the oxidized film structure. A crystalline metal oxide structure may be subsequently epitaxially grown by using the oxidized film structure as an interfacial template and depositing on the interfacial template at least one layer of a crystalline metal oxide.

  19. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...chemical substance identified generically as nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide....

  20. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...chemical substance identified generically as nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide....

  1. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...chemical substance identified generically as nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide....

  2. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...chemical substance identified generically as nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide....

  3. 40 CFR 721.5315 - Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5315 Nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide (generic...chemical substance identified generically as nickel, cobalt mixed metal oxide....

  4. Oxidation energies of transition metal oxides within the GGA+U framework Lei Wang, Thomas Maxisch, and Gerbrand Ceder*

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Oxidation energies of transition metal oxides within the GGA+U framework Lei Wang, Thomas Maxisch; published 4 May 2006 The energy of a large number of oxidation reactions of 3d transition metal oxides error makes it possible to address the correlation effects in 3d transition metal oxides with the GGA

  5. The MSFC complementary metal oxide semiconductor (including multilevel interconnect metallization) process handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouldin, D. L.; Eastes, R. W.; Feltner, W. R.; Hollis, B. R.; Routh, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The fabrication techniques for creation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuits at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Examples of C-MOS integrated circuits manufactured at MSFC are presented with functional descriptions of each. Typical electrical characteristics of both p-channel metal oxide semiconductor and n-channel metal oxide semiconductor discrete devices under given conditions are provided. Procedures design, mask making, packaging, and testing are included.

  6. Electronic properties of metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures composed of carbon nanotube film on silicon

    E-print Network

    Ural, Ant

    Electronic properties of metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide- semiconductor structures composed and experimentally characterize the electrical properties of metal-semiconductor MS and metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS previ- ously. Such metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS structures could have applications in electronic

  7. Laboratory studies of refractory metal oxide smokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Nelson, R. N.; Donn, Bertram

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the properties of refractory metal oxide smokes condensed from a gas containing various combinations of SiH4, Fe(CO)5, Al(CH3)3, TiCl4, O2 and N2O in a hydrogen carrier stream at 500 K greater than T greater than 1500 K were performed. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra of pure, amorphous SiO(x), FeO(x), AlO(x) and TiO(x) smokes are discussed, as well as the spectra of various co-condensed amorphous oxides, such as FE(x)SiO(y) or Fe(x)AlO(y). Preliminary studies of the changes induced in the infrared spectra of iron-containing oxide smokes by vacuum thermal annealing suggest that such materials become increasingly opaque in the near infrared with increased processing: hydration may have the opposite effect. More work on the processing of these materials is required to confirm such a trend: this work is currently in progress. Preliminary studies of the ultraviolet spectra of amorphous Si2O3 and MgSiO(x) smokes revealed no interesting features in the region from 200 to 300 nm. Studies of the ultraviolet spectra of both amorphous, hydrated and annealed SiO(x), TiO(x), AlO(x) and FeO(x) smokes are currently in progress. Finally, data on the oxygen isotopic composition of the smokes produced in the experiments are presented, which indicate that the oxygen becomes isotopically fractionated during grain condensation. Oxygen in the grains is as much as 3 percent per amu lighter than the oxygen in the original gas stream. The authors are currently conducting experiments to understand the mechanism by which fractionation occurs.

  8. Mixed-metal oxide nanopowders for structural and photonic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Ray Hinklin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses liquid feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) to synthesize and process mixed-metal nano oxides with well-defined structural and photonic properties. LF-FSP combusts a metal oxide precursor solution and oxygen aerosol to produce nanoparticles with the same metal ratio as the precursor solution. The ability to tailor compositions and morphologies of the resultant nanopowders through the use of multiple

  9. Solid-liquid phase diagrams for binary metallic alloys: Adjustable interatomic potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-S. Nam; M. I. Mendelev; D. J. Srolovitz

    2007-01-01

    We develop an approach to determining Lennard-Jones embedded-atom method potentials for alloys and use these to determine the solid-liquid phase diagrams for binary metallic alloys using Kofke's Gibbs-Duhem integration technique combined with semigrand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We demonstrate that it is possible to produce a wide range of experimentally observed binary phase diagrams (with no intermetallic phases) by reference

  10. Solid-liquid phase diagrams for binary metallic alloys: Adjustable interatomic potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-S. Nam; M. I. Mendelev; D. J. Srolovitz

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new approach to determining LJ-EAM potentials for alloys and use\\u000athese to determine the solid-liquid phase diagrams for binary metallic alloys\\u000ausing Kofke's Gibbs-Duhem integration technique combined with semigrand\\u000acanonical Monte Carlo simulations. We demonstrate that it is possible to\\u000aproduce a wide-range of experimentally observed binary phase diagrams (with no\\u000aintermetallic phases) by reference to the

  11. Oxidation energies of transition metal oxides within the GGA+U framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Wang; Thomas Maxisch; Gerbrand Ceder

    2006-01-01

    The energy of a large number of oxidation reactions of 3d transition metal oxides is computed using the generalized gradient approach (GGA) and GGA+U methods. Two substantial contributions to the error in GGA oxidation energies are identified. The first contribution originates from the overbinding of GGA in the O2 molecule and only occurs when the oxidant is O2 . The

  12. Metal-oxide Nanowires for Toxic Gas Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Devineni; S. Stormo; W. Kempf; J. Schenkel; R. Behanan; Alan S. Lea; David W. Galipeau

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of using Electric field enhanced oxidation (EFEO) to fabricate metal-oxide nanowires for sensing toxic gases was investigated. The effects of fabrication parameters such as film thickness, ambient relative humidity, atomic force microscope (AFM) tip bias voltage, force, scan speed and number of scans on the growth of nanowires were determined. The chemical composition of indium-oxide nanowires was verified

  13. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  14. Biomimetic metal oxides for the extraction of nanoparticles from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    Contamination of nanomaterials in the environment will pose significant health risks in the future. A viable purification method is necessary to address this problem. Here we report the synthesis and application of a series of metal oxides prepared using a biological template for the removal of nanoparticles from the aqueous environment. A simple synthesis of metal oxides such as ZnO, NiO, CuO, Co3O4 and CeO2 employing eggshell membrane (ESM) as a biotemplate is reported. The morphology of the metal oxide powders was characterized using electron microscopes and the lattice structure was established using X-ray diffraction methods. Extraction of nanoparticles from water was carried out to compare the efficiency of metal oxides. NiO showed good extraction efficiency in removing gold and silver nanoparticles from spiked water samples within an hour. Easy access and enhanced stability of metal oxides makes them interesting candidates for applications in industrial effluent treatments and water purifications.Contamination of nanomaterials in the environment will pose significant health risks in the future. A viable purification method is necessary to address this problem. Here we report the synthesis and application of a series of metal oxides prepared using a biological template for the removal of nanoparticles from the aqueous environment. A simple synthesis of metal oxides such as ZnO, NiO, CuO, Co3O4 and CeO2 employing eggshell membrane (ESM) as a biotemplate is reported. The morphology of the metal oxide powders was characterized using electron microscopes and the lattice structure was established using X-ray diffraction methods. Extraction of nanoparticles from water was carried out to compare the efficiency of metal oxides. NiO showed good extraction efficiency in removing gold and silver nanoparticles from spiked water samples within an hour. Easy access and enhanced stability of metal oxides makes them interesting candidates for applications in industrial effluent treatments and water purifications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD and EDS analysis of the prepared metal oxides, EDS analysis of nanoparticles adsorbed on the surface of metal oxides and SEM micrographs of metal oxides are included. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34221b

  15. Solution-mediated strategies for synthesizing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystals as reactive precursors 

    E-print Network

    Henkes, Amanda Erin

    2009-05-15

    ) the solution-mediated diffusion of phosphorus into a nanocrystalline metal to form target metal phosphides. To form multi-metal oxides using the first strategy, metal oxide nanoparticle precursors are mixed in stoichiometric ratios in solution to form a...

  16. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  17. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

    2004-07-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  18. The Close Binary Frequency of Wolf-Rayet Stars as a Function of Metallicity in M31 and M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Here we investigate whether the inability of the Geneva evolutionary models to predict a large enough WC/WN ratio at high metallicities (while succeeding at lower metallicities) is due to their single star nature. We hypothesize that Roche-lobe overflow in close binary systems may produce a greater number of WC stars at higher metallicities. But, this would suggest that the frequency of close massive binaries is metallicity dependent. We now present our results based on observations of ~100 Wolf-Rayet binaries in the varying metallicity environments of M31 and M33.

  19. The Chromospheric Activity, Age, Metallicity, and Space Motions of 36 Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. K.; Oswalt, T. D.; Rudkin, M.; Zhao, G.; Chen, Y. Q.

    2011-04-01

    We present the chromospheric activity (CA) levels, metallicities, and full space motions for 41 F, G, K, and M dwarf stars in 36 wide binary systems. Thirty-one of the binaries contain a white dwarf (WD) component. In such binaries, the total age can be estimated by adding the cooling age of the WD to an estimate of the progenitor's main-sequence lifetime. To better understand how CA correlates to stellar age, 14 cluster member stars were also observed. Our observations demonstrate for the first time that, in general, CA decays with age from 50 Myr to at least 8 Gyr for stars with 1.0 <= V - I <= 2.4. However, little change occurs in the CA level for stars with V - I < 1.0 between 1 Gyr and 5 Gyr, consistent with the results of Pace et al. Our sample also exhibits a negative correlation between the stellar age and metallicity, a positive correlation between the stellar age and W space velocity component, and the W velocity dispersion increases with age. Finally, the population membership of these wide binaries is examined based upon their U, V, W kinematics, metallicity, and CA. We conclude that wide binaries are similar to field and cluster stars in these respects. More importantly, they span a much more continuous range in age and metallicity than is afforded by nearby clusters.

  20. Criteria for formation of interpenetrating oxide/metal composites by immersing sacrificial oxide preforms in molten metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Metallforschung] [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Metallforschung; Koester, U. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to developing interpenetrating ceramic/metal composites which are comprised of a continuous ceramic network interpenetrated by a continuous network of reinforcing metals. Since each constituent phase in the composites is topologically interconnected throughout the microstructure, it is expected that each phase can contribute its own properties to the macroscopic properties of the composites. One of the processing techniques to fabricate interpenetrating ceramic/metal composites is reactive metal infiltration. In this paper, the authors shall first deal with the formation mechanism of interpenetrating oxide/metal composites by immersing sacrificial oxide preforms in molten metals. Then they shall put forward the formation criteria and give a diagrammatic description of them. Finally, they shall use the proposed formation-condition-diagrams to predict some oxide/metal composite forming systems.

  1. Development of a regenerable metal oxide CO removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A regenerable metal oxide carbon dioxide (CO2) removal system was developed to replace the current means of a nonreusable chemical, lithium hydroxide, for removing the metabolic CO2 of an astronaut in a space suit. Testing indicates that a viable low-volume metal oxide concept can be used in the portable life support system for CO2 removal during Space Station extravehicular activity (EVA). A canister of nearly the same volume as that used for the Space Shuttle, containing 0.10 cu ft of silver-oxide-based pellets, was tested; test data analysis indicates that 0.18 cu ft of the metal oxide will result in an 8-hour EVA capability. The testing suggests that the metal oxide technology offers a low-volume approach for a reusable CO2 removal concept applicable for at least 40 EVA missions. The development and testing of the breadboard regeneration package is also described.

  2. Experimental determination of systems suitable for study as monotectic binary metallic alloy solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Transparent binary metallic alloy solidification models are important in attempts to understand the processes causing liquid-liquid and solid-liquid phase transformations in metallic alloy systems. These models permit visual observation of the phase transformation and the processes proceding solidification. The number of these transparent monotectic binary models needs to be expanded to distinguish between the unique and general phenomena observed. The expansion of the number of accurately determined monotectic phase diagrams of model systems, and contribution to a data base for eventual use with UNIFAC group contribution methods is examined.

  3. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  4. Synthesis of nanostructured manganese oxides from a dipolar binary liquid (water\\/benzene) system and hydrogen storage ability research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Men; Peng Gao; Yuzeng Sun; Yujin Chen; Xiaona Wang; Longqiang Wang

    2010-01-01

    A new dipolar binary liquid strategy has been developed to manganese oxide nanostructure’s synthesis, in which different manganese oxide nanostructures have been easily obtained without using any templates or catalysts. It has been found that the reaction temperatures, alkali precipitators’ concentrations and Mn2+ concentrations play a significant role in our dipolar binary liquid technique. This novel approach can be potentially

  5. Kinetics of Catalytic Combustion of Propane on Transition Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAVI PRASAD; LAWRENCE A. KENNEDY; ELI RUCKENSTEIN

    1982-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine the global kinetics for lean-fuel propane oxidation on a transition metal oxide catalyst. The catalyst used was composed of chromium and cobalt oxides (Cr2O3, CO3O4) deposited on alumina washcoated honeycomb ceramic substrates.The heterogeneous propane oxidation was modelled by a global mechanism consisting of the following three first order reactions;To determine the rate parameters it

  6. Glucose enhancement of LDL oxidation is strictly metal ion dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiro-Omi Mowri; Balz Frei; John F Keaney Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lipoprotein oxidation is increased in diabetes, however, the mechanism(s) for such observations are not clear. We examined the effect of glucose on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation using metal ion–dependent and –independent oxidation systems. Pathophysiological concentrations of glucose (25 mM) enhanced copper-induced LDL oxidation as determined by conjugated diene formation or relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) on agarose

  7. Nanostructured fumed metal oxides for thermal interface pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuangang Lin; D. D. L. Chung

    2007-01-01

    Fumed metal oxides (13 nm aluminum oxide particles and 20–25 nm zinc oxide particles), which are in the form of porous agglomerates\\u000a of nanoparticles, are effective as thermally conductive solid components in thermal pastes. They are as effective as carbon\\u000a black, but are advantageous in their electrical non-conductivity. Without fuming, the oxides are less effective. By coating\\u000a with silane, which decreases the

  8. Polymer-assisted deposition of metal-oxide films.

    PubMed

    Jia, Q X; McCleskey, T M; Burrell, A K; Lin, Y; Collis, G E; Wang, H; Li, A D Q; Foltyn, S R

    2004-08-01

    Metal oxides are emerging as important materials for their versatile properties such as high-temperature superconductivity, ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, piezoelectricity and semiconductivity. Metal-oxide films are conventionally grown by physical and chemical vapour deposition. However, the high cost of necessary equipment and restriction of coatings on a relatively small area have limited their potential applications. Chemical-solution depositions such as sol-gel are more cost-effective, but many metal oxides cannot be deposited and the control of stoichiometry is not always possible owing to differences in chemical reactivity among the metals. Here we report a novel process to grow metal-oxide films in large areas at low cost using polymer-assisted deposition (PAD), where the polymer controls the viscosity and binds metal ions, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of metal precursors in the solution and the formation of uniform metal-organic films. The latter feature makes it possible to grow simple and complex crack-free epitaxial metal-oxides. PMID:15258574

  9. Multiscale model of metal alloy oxidation at grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, Maria L.; Alexandrov, Vitaly; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2015-06-01

    High temperature intergranular oxidation and corrosion of metal alloys is one of the primary causes of materials degradation in nuclear systems. In order to gain insights into grain boundary oxidation processes, a mesoscale metal alloy oxidation model is established by combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) and mesoscopic Poisson-Nernst-Planck/classical DFT with predictions focused on Ni alloyed with either Cr or Al. Analysis of species and fluxes at steady-state conditions indicates that the oxidation process involves vacancy-mediated transport of Ni and the minor alloying element to the oxidation front and the formation of stable metal oxides. The simulations further demonstrate that the mechanism of oxidation for Ni-5Cr and Ni-4Al is qualitatively different. Intergranular oxidation of Ni-5Cr involves the selective oxidation of the minor element and not matrix Ni, due to slower diffusion of Ni relative to Cr in the alloy and due to the significantly smaller energy gain upon the formation of nickel oxide compared to that of Cr2O3. This essentially one-component oxidation process results in continuous oxide formation and a monotonic Cr vacancy distribution ahead of the oxidation front, peaking at alloy/oxide interface. In contrast, Ni and Al are both oxidized in Ni-4Al forming a mixed spinel NiAl2O4. Different diffusivities of Ni and Al give rise to a complex elemental distribution in the vicinity of the oxidation front. Slower diffusing Ni accumulates in the oxide and metal within 3 nm of the interface, while Al penetrates deeper into the oxide phase. Ni and Al are both depleted from the region 3-10 nm ahead of the oxidation front creating voids. The oxide microstructure is also different. Cr2O3 has a plate-like structure with 1.2-1.7 nm wide pores running along the grain boundary, while NiAl2O4 has 1.5 nm wide pores in the direction parallel to the grain boundary and 0.6 nm pores in the perpendicular direction providing an additional pathway for oxygen diffusion through the oxide. The proposed theoretical methodology provides a framework for modeling metal alloy oxidation processes from first principles and on the experimentally relevant length scales.

  10. Multiscale model of metal alloy oxidation at grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Sushko, Maria L; Alexandrov, Vitaly; Schreiber, Daniel K; Rosso, Kevin M; Bruemmer, Stephen M

    2015-06-01

    High temperature intergranular oxidation and corrosion of metal alloys is one of the primary causes of materials degradation in nuclear systems. In order to gain insights into grain boundary oxidation processes, a mesoscale metal alloy oxidation model is established by combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) and mesoscopic Poisson-Nernst-Planck/classical DFT with predictions focused on Ni alloyed with either Cr or Al. Analysis of species and fluxes at steady-state conditions indicates that the oxidation process involves vacancy-mediated transport of Ni and the minor alloying element to the oxidation front and the formation of stable metal oxides. The simulations further demonstrate that the mechanism of oxidation for Ni-5Cr and Ni-4Al is qualitatively different. Intergranular oxidation of Ni-5Cr involves the selective oxidation of the minor element and not matrix Ni, due to slower diffusion of Ni relative to Cr in the alloy and due to the significantly smaller energy gain upon the formation of nickel oxide compared to that of Cr2O3. This essentially one-component oxidation process results in continuous oxide formation and a monotonic Cr vacancy distribution ahead of the oxidation front, peaking at alloy/oxide interface. In contrast, Ni and Al are both oxidized in Ni-4Al forming a mixed spinel NiAl2O4. Different diffusivities of Ni and Al give rise to a complex elemental distribution in the vicinity of the oxidation front. Slower diffusing Ni accumulates in the oxide and metal within 3 nm of the interface, while Al penetrates deeper into the oxide phase. Ni and Al are both depleted from the region 3-10 nm ahead of the oxidation front creating voids. The oxide microstructure is also different. Cr2O3 has a plate-like structure with 1.2-1.7 nm wide pores running along the grain boundary, while NiAl2O4 has 1.5 nm wide pores in the direction parallel to the grain boundary and 0.6 nm pores in the perpendicular direction providing an additional pathway for oxygen diffusion through the oxide. The proposed theoretical methodology provides a framework for modeling metal alloy oxidation processes from first principles and on the experimentally relevant length scales. PMID:26049486

  11. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  12. Oxidation of tunnel barrier metals in magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. Joshua; Ladwig, Peter F.; Yang Ying; Ji Chengxiang; Chang, Y. Austin; Liu, Feng X.; Pant, Bharat B.; Schultz, Allan E. [Department of Materials Science and Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Recording Head Operations, Seagate Technology, Bloomington, Minnesota 55431 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The oxidation of an ultrathin metal layer (<1 nm) to form an oxide tunnel barrier is of critical importance for the fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with low product of resistance and area (RxA). Nonuniform and excessive or insufficient oxidation will occur by using conventional plasma, air, or O{sub 2} and noble gas mixtures as oxidation methods. An oxidation method was investigated to oxidize only an ultrathin layer of metal (such as Y) without oxidizing adjacent ferromagnetic thin film layers. We have now demonstrated that a gas mixture of H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} with a fixed chemical potential of oxygen determined by the relative amounts of the two gases can oxidize Y and Ta thin layers while simultaneously keeping a Co ferromagnetic layer completely unoxidized. This universal method can be used to preferentially oxidize a host of other metals with high tendency to form oxides, such as Zr, Hf, Nb, rare earth metals, etc. and may allow us to access the feasible lower limit of barrier thickness in MTJs.

  13. Electromagnetic modes of the asymmetric metal-oxide-metal tunnel junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdi, B. N.; Hall, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of the modes of an Al-Al2O3-Ag tunnel junction are analyzed, and the way in which the field profiles, the propagation constant, and the attenuation depend on the thickness of the oxide layer is described. The significance of these results for investigations of light emission from metal-oxide-metal tunnel junctions is discussed.

  14. Mesoporous mn- and la-doped cerium oxide/cobalt oxide mixed metal catalysts for methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Susan M; Gholami, Rahman; Smith, Kevin J; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    New precious-metal-free mesoporous materials were investigated as catalysts for the complete oxidation of methane to carbon dioxide. Mesoporous cobalt oxide was first synthesized using KIT-6 mesoporous silica as a hard template. After removal of the silica, the cobalt oxide was itself used as a hard template to construct cerium oxide/cobalt oxide composite materials. Furthermore, cerium oxide/cobalt oxide composite materials doped with manganese and lanthanum were also prepared. All of the new composite materials retained the hierarchical long-range order of the original KIT-6 template. Temperature-programmed oxidation measurements showed that these cerium oxide/cobalt oxide and doped cerium oxide/cobalt oxide materials are effective catalysts for the total oxidation of methane, with a light-off temperature (T50%) of ?400 °C observed for all of the nanostructured materials. PMID:26000732

  15. The oxidative transformation of methane over the nickel-based catalysts modified by alkali metal oxide and rare earth metal oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Miao; Guoxing Xiong; Shishan Sheng; Wei Cui; Xiexian Guo

    1996-01-01

    Two completely different behaviors of the oxidative transformation of methane were performed over the nickel-based catalysts because of the different modifications by alkali metal oxide and rare earth metal oxide and the different interactions between nickel and supports, and two types of catalysts, namely the LiNiLaOx catalyst with a good Oxidative Coupling of Methane (OCM) performance and the LiNiLaOx\\/Al2O3 supported

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy of transition metal oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegenhagen, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper we review applications of the photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) technique to the investigation of transition metal oxide (TMO) interfaces. We summarize very briefly some of the principle, specific characteristics of TMOs. Because of the buried nature of the interfaces, the photoelectrons must penetrate certain thicknesses of material, which is easier with higher kinetic energies in the keV range. Thus, we also briefly summarize some of the hallmarks of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), before presenting four explicit samples of the analysis of TMO interfaces: The LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (0 0 1) interface, which had attracted attention because of the discovery of a sheet of high mobility electrons below the thin layer of LaAlO3; superlattices of the two insulators CaCuO2 and SrTiO3, which can be prepared to become superconducting at about 40 K; epitaxial films of the 90 K superconductor GdBa2Cu3O7-? on NdGaO3; and finally the analysis of the nucleation of the 90 K superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-? on SrTiO3 (0 0 1). The latter two cases of the investigation of the superconducting films are examples of photoelectron spectroscopy by X-ray standing wave (XSW) excitation. Because of this, the bare essential features of the XSW technique are also briefly reviewed.

  17. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C. (4745 Trinity Dr., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kodas, Toivo T. (5200 Noreen Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  18. Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures using

    E-print Network

    Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPÕGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures 8 December 2003; accepted 20 January 2004 InAIP native oxide/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS.1063/1.1669078 INTRODUCTION III­V compound semiconductor metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Clapsaddle, B; Gash, A; Plantier, K; Pantoya, M; Jr., J S; Simpson, R

    2004-04-27

    In the field of composite energetic materials, properties such as ingredient distribution, particle size, and morphology affect both sensitivity and performance. Since the reaction kinetics of composite energetic materials are typically controlled by the mass transport rates between reactants, one would anticipate new and potentially exceptional performance from energetic nanocomposites. We have developed a new method of making nanostructured energetic materials, specifically explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, using sol-gel chemistry. A novel sol-gel approach has proven successful in preparing metal oxide/silicon oxide nanocomposites in which the metal oxide is the major component. By introducing a fuel metal, such as aluminum, into the metal oxide/silicon oxide matrix, energetic materials based on thermite reactions can be fabricated. Two of the metal oxides are tungsten trioxide and iron(III) oxide, both of which are of interest in the field of energetic materials. In addition, due to the large availability of organically functionalized silanes, the silicon oxide phase can be used as a unique way of introducing organic additives into the bulk metal oxide materials. These organic additives can cause the generation of gas upon ignition of the materials, therefore resulting in a composite material that can perform pressure/volume work. Furthermore, the desired organic functionality is well dispersed throughout the composite material on the nanoscale with the other components, and is therefore subject to the same increased reaction kinetics. The resulting nanoscale distribution of all the ingredients displays energetic properties not seen in its microscale counterparts due to the expected increase of mass transport rates between the reactants. The synthesis and characterization of iron(III) oxide/organosilicon oxide nanocomposites and their performance as energetic materials will be discussed.

  20. Reactive Ion Etching Process of Transition-Metal Oxide for Resistance Random Access Memory Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Fumiyoshi; Shima, Hisashi; Muramatsu, Hidenobu; Kokaze, Yutaka; Nishioka, Yutaka; Suu, Koukou; Kishi, Hirofumi; Buntimil Arboleda, Nelson, Jr.; David, Melanie; Roman, Tanglaw; Kasai, Hideaki; Akinaga, Hiro

    2008-08-01

    The reactive ion etching (RIE) of the binary transition-metal oxides (TMOs) NiO, CuO and CoO, which are expected to be key materials of resistance random access memory (RRAMTM), was investigated. We found that inductively coupled plasma using CHF3-based discharge, which is highly compatible with conventional semiconductor RIE, is effective for the TMOs studied here. Furthermore, device fabrication using Pt/CoO/Pt trilayers is carried out, and a large change in resistance, which is an essential functionality of RRAM, was successfully observed. This should be definite evidence of a successful RIE realized in the present device fabrication.

  1. Ba and Ni speciation in a nodule of binary Mn oxide phase composition from Lake Baikal

    E-print Network

    Ba and Ni speciation in a nodule of binary Mn oxide phase composition from Lake Baikal Alain in a ferromanganese nodule from Lake Baikal were charac- terized by X-ray microfluorescence, microdiffraction layer sites in the interlayer. Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. INTRODUCTION Lake Baikal

  2. Oxidation of phenol and hexanol in their binary mixtures on illuminated titania: Kinetic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Zmudzi?ski; Anna Sobczy?ska; Andrzej Sobczy?ski

    2007-01-01

    Kinetics of phenol and hexanol oxidation on illuminated TiO2 was studied both in separate solutions and in mixtures. It was found that the kinetic behavior of the components of the binary\\u000a mixtures could be well described using kinetic constants estimated for the single-component solutions.

  3. Electrolytic separation of crystals of transition-metal oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnott, R. J.; Feretti, A.; Kunnamann, W.

    1969-01-01

    Versatile flux system grows large, well-formed, stoichiometric single crystals of mixed oxides of the transition-metal elements. These crystals have important uses in the microwave field, and applications as lasers and masers in communications.

  4. Charge, orbital and magnetic ordering in transition metal oxides 

    E-print Network

    Senn, Mark Stephen

    2013-06-29

    Neutron and x-ray diffraction has been used to study charge, orbital and magnetic ordering in some transition metal oxides. The long standing controversy regarding the nature of the ground state (Verwey structure) of the ...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    . (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN P-99-511) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses...

  6. Magnetic Properties of Mesoporous and Nano-particulate Metal Oxides 

    E-print Network

    Hill, Adrian H

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the first row transition metal oxides are wide and varied and have been studied extensively since the 1930’s. Observations that the magnetic properties of these material types change with the ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    . (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN P-99-511) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    . (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN P-99-511) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses...

  9. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  10. Quantum-chemical studies of metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P.; Bergström, R.; Ojamäe, L.; Lunell, S.

    A review of recent research, as well as new results, are presented on transition metal oxide clusters, surfaces, and crystals. Quantum-chemical calculations of clusters of first row transition metal oxides have been made to evaluate the accuracy of ab initio and density functional calculations. Adsorbates on metal oxide surfaces have been studied with both ab initio and semi-empirical methods, and results are presented for the bonding and electronic interactions of large organic adsorbates, e.g. aromatic molecules, on Ti02 and ZnO. Defects and intercalation, notably of H, Li, and Na in Ti02 have been investigated theoretically. Comparisons with experiments are made throughout to validate the calculations. Finally, the role of quantum-chemical calculations in the study of metal oxide based photoelectrochemical devices, such as dyesensitized solar cells and electrochromic displays. is discussed.

  11. Chemical aspects of solution routes to perovskite-phase mixed-metal oxides from metal-organic precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clive D. Chandler; Christophe. Roger; Mark J. Hampden-Smith

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this article is to review the reaction chemistry occurring in solution routes to multicomponent metal oxides (i.e. containing two or more metals) from metal-organic precursors. In this context, the metal-organic precursor is usually a metal alkoxide, metal [beta]-diketonate or metal carboxylate compound. In the preparation of multicomponent metal oxide compounds, a number of key issues should be

  12. Extraction of rare earth metals from nitrate solutions with a binary extractant based on Cyanex 272

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Belova; A. A. Voshkin; N. S. Egorova; A. I. Khol’kin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms for the extraction of rare earth metals with a binary extracting agent based on bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic\\u000a acid with the formation of various complexes in the organic phase were proposed. The compositions of the extracted compounds\\u000a were determined, and the distribution of these compounds was adequately described by calculated curves.

  13. Strong configurational dependence of elastic properties for a binary model metallic glass

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    in a Cu­Zr binary metallic glass assessed by molecular dynamics simulations is reported. By directly evaluating the temperature dependence and configurational potential energy dependence of elastic constants-Rahman formalism22 to calculate elastic stiffness coefficients by con- stant temperature and constant volume nvt

  14. Thermochemical analyses of the oxidative vaporization of metals and oxides by oxygen molecules and atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Leisz, D. M.; Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Equilibrium thermochemical analyses are employed to describe the vaporization processes of metals and metal oxides upon exposure to molecular and atomic oxygen. Specific analytic results for the chromium-, platinum-, aluminum-, and silicon-oxygen systems are presented. Maximum rates of oxidative vaporization predicted from the thermochemical considerations are compared with experimental results for chromium and platinum. The oxidative vaporization rates of chromium and platinum are considerably enhanced by oxygen atoms.

  15. Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides. Atmospheric-relevant processes and mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian. Brandt; Rudi. van Eldik

    1995-01-01

    The transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides has been known for more than 100 years. There is a significant lack of information on the actual role of the transition metal-catalyzed reactions, and much of the earlier work was performed without a detailed knowledge of the chemical system. For this reason attention is focused on the role of transition metal ions

  16. Metal Oxide Heterovalence Multijunctions for Third Generation Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Tao

    2006-01-01

    An approach to third-generation solar cells with a much better figure of merit, i.e., the efficiency\\/cost ratio, is proposed. It combines the advantages of low-cost wet-chemical fabrication and high-efficiency inorganic crystalline solar cells. The materials which allow wet-chemical fabrication of inorganic crystalline solar cells are semiconducting metal oxides. An analysis is presented on the challenges in utilizing metal oxides for

  17. Efficient photocarrier injection in a transition metal oxide heterostructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Muraoka; T Yamauchi; Y Ueda; Z Hiroi

    2002-01-01

    An efficient method for doping a transition metal oxide (TMO) with hole carriers is presented: photocarrier injection (PCI) in an oxide heterostructure. It is shown that an insulating vanadium dioxide (VO2) film is rendered metallic under light irradiation by PCI from an n-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) substrate doped with Nb. Consequently, a large photoconductivity, which is exceptional for TMOs, is

  18. Mechanism for bipolar resistive switching in transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Rozenberg; Maria Jose Sanchez; Ruben Weht; Carlos Acha; Fernando Gomez-Marlasca; Pablo Levy

    2010-01-01

    Resistive andom access memories (RRAM) composed of a transtition metal oxide dielectric in a capacitor-like structure is a candidate technology for next generation non-volatile memory devices. We introduce a model that accounts for the bipolar resistive switching phenomenom observed in many perovskite transition metal oxides. It qualitatively describes the electric field-enhanced migration of oxygen vacancies at the nano-scale. The numerical

  19. Electronic structure systematics of 3d transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zimmermann; P. Steiner; R. Claessen; F. Reinert; S. Hüfner

    1998-01-01

    The electronic structure of a series of 3d transition metal oxides is investigated by core-level and valence band photoemission spectroscopy. The results are analyzed in terms of metal–ligand interactions and on-site correlation energies, using a simple cluster model approach. For some oxides we also present a comparison with band structure calculations. It is shown that the electronic structure of the

  20. Taurine inhibition of metal-stimulated catecholamine oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RALPH DAWSON JR; Deron Baker; Baerbel Eppler; Elisa Tang; Debbie Shih; Hunter Hern; Ming Hu

    2000-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid found in mammalian tissues and it has been suggested to have cyto-protective functions.\\u000a The aim of the present study was to determine if taurine had the potential to reduce oxidative stress associated with metal-stimulated\\u000a catecholamine oxidation. Taurine and structural analogs of taurine were tested for their ability to inhibit metal-stimulated\\u000a quinone formation from dopamine

  1. Polymer-assisted deposition of metal-oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. X. Jia; T. M. McCleskey; A. K. Burrell; Y. Lin; G. E. Collis; H. Wang; A. D. Q. Li; S. R. Foltyn

    2004-01-01

    Metal oxides are emerging as important materials for their versatile properties such as high-temperature superconductivity, ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, piezoelectricity and semiconductivity. Metal-oxide films are conventionally grown by physical and chemical vapour deposition. However, the high cost of necessary equipment and restriction of coatings on a relatively small area have limited their potential applications. Chemical-solution depositions such as sol-gel are more cost-effective,

  2. Developments in hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven F. Durrant; Benedito C. Trasferetti; Jair Scarmínio; Celso U. Davanzo; Francisco P. M. Rouxinol; Rogério V. Gelamo; Mario A. Bica de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) is a variant of conventional hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) recently developed in our laboratory and successfully used to obtain high-quality, uniform films of MOx, WOx and VOx. The method employs the controlled oxidation of a filament of a transition metal heated to 1000 °C or more in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (typically, of about 1 Pa).

  3. Surface oxygen bond energy of Period IV transition metal oxides in the oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Marshneva; G. K. Boreskov

    1974-01-01

    The bond energies of oxygen have been determined by thermodesorption from Period IV transition metal oxides, both after treatment with oxygen and under steady state conditions of the catalytic oxidation of CO. With the exception of V2O5, there are several (2–3) forms of adsorbed oxygen with different bond energies on the surface of the oxide treated with oxygen.

  4. Chromia on metal oxide catalysts for the oxidation of methane to methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Lyons; V. A. Durante; D. W. Walker

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the direct conversion of light alkanes to alcohols comprising contacting said light alkanes with an oxidant in the presence of catalyst comprising a surface oxide chromate in which chromium is chemically bound to oxygen of a metal oxide support surface.

  5. Route to transition metal carbide nanoparticles through cyanamide and metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Li; M. Lei; W. H. Tang

    2008-01-01

    We have designed an efficient route to the synthesis of transition metal carbide nanoparticles starting from an organic reagent cyanamide and transition metal oxides. Four technologically important metal carbide nanoparticles such as tungsten carbide, niobium carbide, tantalum carbide and vanadium carbide were synthesized successfully at moderate temperatures. It is found that cyanamide is an efficient carburization reagent and that the

  6. Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Morrell; Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN), Ripley; Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-05-05

    A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

  7. Fe–Mn binary oxide incorporated into diatomite as an adsorbent for arsenite removal: Preparation and evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fangfang Chang; Jiuhui Qu; Huijuan Liu; Ruiping Liu; Xu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Fe–Mn binary oxide incorporated into diatomite (FMBO-diatomite) was prepared by a simple coating method, and exhibited high oxidation and adsorption ability for arsenite [As(III)]. After being incorporated by Fe–Mn binary oxide, the surface area of diatomite increased 36%, and the pore volume increased five times. The pHzpc of FMBO-diatomite was determined to be 8.1. These characteristics are responsible for the

  8. Creation of Exotic Features in Metal Oxides by Surface Treatment for Enhanced Gas Sensing

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Creation of Exotic Features in Metal Oxides by Surface Treatment for Enhanced Gas Sensing Majed of oxide ceramics, we have developed a technique based on rigorous thermodynamic consideration of the metal/metal or air, the metal oxide of interest is reduced and re-oxidized by exposing it to a well-defined pO2

  9. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  10. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  11. Printed array of thin-dielectric metal-oxide-metal (MOM) tunneling diodes Mario Barei,1,a)

    E-print Network

    Grundler, Dirk

    of different materials (e.g., metals and insulators8,9 ) was prepared on a stamp and then transferred ontoPrinted array of thin-dielectric metal-oxide-metal (MOM) tunneling diodes Mario Bareiß,1,a) Andreas area array of metal-oxide-metal (MOM) tunneling diodes with an ultrathin dielectric ($3.6 nm aluminum

  12. Magnetism and transport properties of transition metal oxides and nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dane Thomas Gillaspie

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is devoted to the study of the properties of transition metal oxides in both thin film and nanocrystalline forms. The first section is devoted to the transport properties of manganese oxide thin film samples. The colossal magnetoresistance in these materials is usually explained using double-exchange, but this explanation is only partially correct. Recent theoretical and experimental work has

  13. Light emission and detection by metal oxide silicon tunneling diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Liu; M. H. Lee; C. F. Lin; I. C. Lin; W. T. Liu; H. H. Lin

    1999-01-01

    Both NMOS and PMOS light-emitting diodes and photodetectors are demonstrated. For the ultrathin gate oxide, the tunneling gate of metal oxide silicon (MOS) diodes can be utilized as both emitters for light emitting devices and collectors for light detectors. An electron-hole plasma model is used to fit the emission spectra. A surface band bending is responsible for the bandgap reduction

  14. Field-induced resistive switching in metal-oxide interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tsui; A. Baikalov; J. Cmaidalka; B. Lorenz; Y. Q. Wang; C. W. Chu; A. J. Jacobson

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the polarity-dependent field-induced resistive switching phenomenon driven by electric pulses in perovskite oxides. Our data show that the switching is a common occurrence restricted to an interfacial layer between a deposited metal electrode and the oxide. We determine through impedance spectroscopy that the interfacial layer is no thicker than 10 nm and that the switch is accompanied by

  15. Vapor growth of electrochromic thin films of transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Gesheva; T. Ivanova; B. Marsen; G. Zollo; M. Kalitzova

    2008-01-01

    Mixed oxide films of transition metals gain considerable much attention due to their interesting optoelectronic properties. The low temperature chemical vapor growth processing of thin films of mixed W and Mo oxides is presented. The investigation is related to optimization of films structure and the related optoelectronic properties in dependence on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process parameters. Their electrochromic

  16. Kinetic Parameters of Binary Iron\\/Oxidant Pyrolants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Shamsipur; Seied Mahdi Pourmortazavi; Manochehr Fathollahi

    2012-01-01

    The thermal properties of pyrotechnic mixtures containing iron powder as fuel and KNO3, KClO3, and KClO4 as oxidants are reported. The thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis results for pure components and corresponding pyrotechnic mixtures revealed that the melting point, decomposition temperature, and rate of oxygen releasing of the oxidants have dominant effects on ignition reaction of the pyrotechnic mixtures. The apparent activation

  17. Metal Oxide Nanowires As Promising Materials For Miniaturised Electronic Noses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Comini; G. Faglia; M. Ferroni; A. Ponzoni; G. Sberveglieri

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is in continuous evolution leading to production of quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) structures in a variety of morphologies: nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanorods, nanorings, hierarchical structures. In particular, metal oxides represent an appealing category of materials with properties from metals to semiconductors and covering practically all aspects of material science and physics in areas including superconductivity and magnetism. MOX nanowires are

  18. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-01-17

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  19. A rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal approach to lower-valent transition metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Moorhead-Rosenberg, Zachary; Harrison, Katharine L; Turner, Travis; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-11-18

    A green, rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal process using tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as a reducing agent has been explored as a soft-chemistry route for the preparation of various lower-valent transition metal oxides. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, lower-valent binary oxides such as V4O9, Mn3O4 or MnO, CoO, and Cu2O have been obtained within a short reaction time of 30 min by reducing, respectively, V2O5, MnO2, Co3O4, and CuO with TEG at <300 °C. Moreover, the approach has been used to extract oxygen from ternary oxides such as LaFeO3, SrMnO3, LaCoO3, LaNiO3, and La4Ni3O10. The oxidation state of the transition metal ions and the oxygen content in these ternary oxides could be tuned by precisely controlling the reaction temperatures from 160 to 300 °C. The products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and iodometric titration. The versatility of this novel technique is demonstrated by the facile synthesis of V4O9, which has only been produced recently in single-phase form. PMID:24191765

  20. Interactions of Hydrogen Isotopes and Oxides with Metal Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2008-08-01

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results.

  1. Mechanisms for Metal-Nonmental Transitions in Transition-Metal Oxides and Sulfides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Adler

    1968-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides and sulfides can be insulators, semiconductors, or metals, or undergo metal-nonmetal transitions. The experimental situation in these materials is briefly reviewed. Pure Bloch-Wilson theory predicts that many of the insulators should be metallic, so this class cannot be explained in terms of pure band theory. However, it now appears likely that band theory can be adapted to describe

  2. Metal-oxide-metal point contact junction detectors. [detection mechanism and mechanical stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, J.; Havemann, R. H.; Fults, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The detection mechanism(s) and design of a mechanically stable metal-oxide-metal point contact junction detector are considered. A prototype for a mechanically stable device has been constructed and tested. A technique has been developed which accurately predicts microwave video detector and heterodyne mixer SIM (semiconductor-insulator-metal) diode performance from low dc frequency volt-ampere curves. The difference in contact potential between the two metals and geometrically induced rectification constitute the detection mechanisms.

  3. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  4. Emerging Applications of Liquid Metals Featuring Surface Oxides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and several of its alloys are liquid metals at or near room temperature. Gallium has low toxicity, essentially no vapor pressure, and a low viscosity. Despite these desirable properties, applications calling for liquid metal often use toxic mercury because gallium forms a thin oxide layer on its surface. The oxide interferes with electrochemical measurements, alters the physicochemical properties of the surface, and changes the fluid dynamic behavior of the metal in a way that has, until recently, been considered a nuisance. Here, we show that this solid oxide “skin” enables many new applications for liquid metals including soft electrodes and sensors, functional microcomponents for microfluidic devices, self-healing circuits, shape-reconfigurable conductors, and stretchable antennas, wires, and interconnects. PMID:25283244

  5. CRC Handbook of Electrical Resistivitives of Binary Metallic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, K.

    1983-01-01

    Material design engineers often require a tabulation of physical properties in order to select the appropriate material for use, while developmental engineers need to be aware of basic principles and systemic trends that can be utilized as a guide for developing future materials and alloys. The trade-off in conductivity that results when metals are replaced by alloys for strength and stability purposes becomes an important consideration for both types of engineers. This handbook presents an extensive, updated and comprehensive compilation of the electrical resistivities of metallic alloys.

  6. Partial oxidation of methane to syngas over nickel-based catalysts modified by alkali metal oxide and rare earth metal oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Miao; Guoxing Xiong; Shishan Sheng; Wei Cui; Ling Xu; Xiexian Guo

    1997-01-01

    The NiO\\/Al2O3 catalyst was modified by alkali metal oxide (Li, Na, K) and rare-earth metal oxide (La, Ce, Y, Sm) in order to improve the thermal stability and the carbon-deposition resistance during the partial oxidation of methane to syngas (POM) reaction at high temperature. The reaction performance, thermal stability, structure, dispersity of nickel and carbon-deposition of the modified NiO\\/Al2O3 catalyst

  7. Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Their Gas Sensing Properties: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called “small size effect”, yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given. PMID:22736968

  8. The close binary frequency of Wolf-Rayet stars as a function of metallicity in M31 and M33

    SciTech Connect

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Massive star evolutionary models generally predict the correct ratio of WC-type and WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars at low metallicities, but underestimate the ratio at higher (solar and above) metallicities. One possible explanation for this failure is perhaps single-star models are not sufficient and Roche-lobe overflow in close binaries is necessary to produce the 'extra' WC stars at higher metallicities. However, this would require the frequency of close massive binaries to be metallicity dependent. Here we test this hypothesis by searching for close Wolf-Rayet binaries in the high metallicity environments of M31 and the center of M33 as well as in the lower metallicity environments of the middle and outer regions of M33. After identifying ?100 Wolf-Rayet binaries based on radial velocity variations, we conclude that the close binary frequency of Wolf-Rayets is not metallicity dependent and thus other factors must be responsible for the overabundance of WC stars at high metallicities. However, our initial identifications and observations of these close binaries have already been put to good use as we are currently observing additional epochs for eventual orbit and mass determinations.

  9. Liquid-metal binary cycles for stationary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutstein, M.; Furman, E. R.; Kaplan, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    The use of topping cycles to increase electric power plant efficiency is discussed, with particular attention to mercury and alkali metal Rankine cycle systems that could be considered for topping cycle applications. An overview of this technology, possible system applications, the required development, and possible problem areas is presented.

  10. Effects of NOM on oxidative reactivity of manganese dioxide in binary oxide mixtures with goethite or hematite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huichun; Taujale, Saru; Huang, Jianzhi; Lee, Gang-Juan

    2015-03-10

    MnO2 typically coexists with iron oxides as either discrete particles or coatings in soils and sediments. This work examines the effect of Aldrich humic acid (AHA), alginate, and pyromellitic acid (PA) as representative natural organic matter (NOM) analogues on the oxidative reactivity of MnO2, as quantified by pseudo-first-order rate constants of triclosan oxidation, in mixtures with goethite or hematite. Adsorption studies showed that there was low adsorption of the NOMs by MnO2, but high (AHA and alginate) to low (PA) adsorption by the iron oxides. Based on the ATR-FTIR spectra obtained for the adsorbed PA on goethite or goethite + MnO2, the adsorption of PA occurred mainly through formation of outer-sphere complexes. The Fe oxides by themselves inhibited MnO2 reactivity through intensive heteroaggregation between the positively charged Fe oxides and the negatively charged MnO2; the low solubility of the iron oxides limited surface complexation of soluble Fe(3+) with MnO2. In ternary mixtures of MnO2, Fe oxides, and NOM analogues, the reactivity of MnO2 varied from inhibited to promoted as compared with that in the respective MnO2 + NOM binary mixtures. The dominant interaction mechanisms include an enhanced extent of homoaggregation within the Fe oxides due to formation of oppositely charged patches within the Fe oxides but an inhibited extent of heteroaggregation between the Fe oxide and MnO2 at [AHA] < 2-4 mg-C/L or [alginate/PA] < 5-10 mg/L, and an inhibited extent of heteroaggregation due to the largely negatively charged surfaces for all oxides at [AHA] > 4 mg-C/L or [alginate/PA] > 10 mg/L. PMID:25652230

  11. Metal-oxide Nanowires for Toxic Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Devineni, D. P.; Stormo, S.; Kempf, W.; Schenkel, J.; Behanan, R.; Lea, Alan S.; Galipeau, David W.

    2007-01-02

    The feasibility of using Electric field enhanced oxidation (EFEO) to fabricate metal-oxide nanowires for sensing toxic gases was investigated. The effects of fabrication parameters such as film thickness, ambient relative humidity, atomic force microscope (AFM) tip bias voltage, force, scan speed and number of scans on the growth of nanowires were determined. The chemical composition of indium-oxide nanowires was verified using Auger electron spectroscopy. It was found that oxygen to indium ration was 1.69, 1.72, 1.71 and 1.84 at depths of 0, 1.3, 2.5, and 3.8 nm, which was near the 1.5:1 expected for stoichiometric indium-oxide film. Future work will include characterizing the electrical and gas sensing properties of the metal-oxide nanowires.

  12. CO-oxidation catalysts: Low-temperature CO oxidation over Noble-Metal Reducible Oxide (NMRO) catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Oxidation of CO to CO2 is an important reaction technologically and environmentally and a complex and interesting reaction scientifically. In most cases, the reaction is carried out in order to remove CO as an environmental hazard. A major application of heterogeneous catalysts is catalytic oxidation of CO in the exhaust of combustion devices. The reaction over catalysts in exhaust gas is fast and often mass-transfer-limited since exhaust gases are hot and O2/CO ratios are high. The main challenges to catalyst designers are to control thermal sintering and chemical poisoning of the active materials. The effect of the noble metal on the oxide is discussed, followed by the effect of the oxide on the noble metal, the interaction of the noble metal and oxide to form unique catalytic sites, and the possible ways in which the CO oxidation reaction is catalyzed by the NMRO materials.

  13. Implantation and deposition of adherent metal-oxide ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.P.; Henins, I.; Bartsch, R.R.; Walter, K.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Firing a cathodic-arc at a pulse biased target in a low pressure background of oxygen allows very adherent coatings of metal-oxide ceramics to be deposited. Due to the high density of the metal-ion plasma and the high voltage of the pulse bias (50 kV), a relatively conformal implant can be achieved. This implanted metal layer stitches the metal-oxide coating to the surface and provides a graded interface which resists delamination. The authors present characterization of the metal-ion and carbon plasmas created by a cathodic-arc, discuss the effect of varying the relative phase of the cathodic-arc and target bias pulses, examine the conformality of ceramic and diamond-like-carbon films deposited on complicated shapes, and provide evidence of increased adherence due to the implantation step.

  14. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  15. Application of a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Wisner, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for applying a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate for the creation of a robust, high temperature catalyst system for use in decomposing propellants, particularly hydrogen peroxide propellants, for use in propulsion systems. The method begins by forming a prepared substrate material consisting of a metallic inner substrate and a bound layer of a noble metal intermediate. Alternatively, a bound ceramic coating, or frit, may be introduced between the metallic inner substrate and noble metal intermediate when the metallic substrate is oxidation resistant. A high-activity catalyst slurry is applied to the surface of the prepared substrate and dried to remove the organic solvent. The catalyst layer is then heat treated to bind the catalyst layer to the surface. The bound catalyst layer is then activated using an activation treatment and calcinations to form the high-activity catalyst system.

  16. REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE WITH METAL SULFIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of research to determine the technical feasibility of using metal sulfide for the chemical reduction of NOx to N2. Nineteen different metal sulfides were investigated, using a test gas of pure NO. Although most sulfides resulted in some NO reduction, BaS,...

  17. Metal dyshomeostasis and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Mark A; Camakaris, James; Bush, Ashley I

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and is defined by two pathological hallmarks; the accumulation of aggregated amyloid beta and excessively phosphorylated Tau proteins. The etiology of Alzheimer's disease progression is still debated, however, increased oxidative stress is an early and sustained event that underlies much of the neurotoxicity and consequent neuronal loss. Amyloid beta is a metal binding protein and copper, zinc and iron promote amyloid beta oligomer formation. Additionally, copper and iron are redox active and can generate reactive oxygen species via Fenton (and Fenton-like chemistry) and the Haber-Weiss reaction. Copper, zinc and iron are naturally abundant in the brain but Alzheimer's disease brain contains elevated concentrations of these metals in areas of amyloid plaque pathology. Amyloid beta can become pro-oxidant and when complexed to copper or iron it can generate hydrogen peroxide. Accumulating evidence suggests that copper, zinc, and iron homeostasis may become perturbed in Alzheimer's disease and could underlie an increased oxidative stress burden. In this review we discuss oxidative/nitrosative stress in Alzheimer's disease with a focus on the role that metals play in this process. Recent studies have started to elucidate molecular links with oxidative/nitrosative stress and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we discuss metal binding compounds that are designed to cross the blood brain barrier and restore metal homeostasis as potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. PMID:22982299

  18. Biomimetic metal oxides for the extraction of nanoparticles from water.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2013-04-21

    Contamination of nanomaterials in the environment will pose significant health risks in the future. A viable purification method is necessary to address this problem. Here we report the synthesis and application of a series of metal oxides prepared using a biological template for the removal of nanoparticles from the aqueous environment. A simple synthesis of metal oxides such as ZnO, NiO, CuO, Co3O4 and CeO2 employing eggshell membrane (ESM) as a biotemplate is reported. The morphology of the metal oxide powders was characterized using electron microscopes and the lattice structure was established using X-ray diffraction methods. Extraction of nanoparticles from water was carried out to compare the efficiency of metal oxides. NiO showed good extraction efficiency in removing gold and silver nanoparticles from spiked water samples within an hour. Easy access and enhanced stability of metal oxides makes them interesting candidates for applications in industrial effluent treatments and water purifications. PMID:23471156

  19. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF DIMETHYL SULFIDE WITH OZONE: EFFECT OF PROMOTER AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports improved catalytic activities and stabilities for the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a major pollutant of pulp and paper mills. Ozone was used as an oxidant and Cu, Mo, V, Cr and Mn metal oxides, and mixed metal oxides support on y-alumina as catalysts ov...

  20. Sinogram preprocessing and binary reconstruction for determination of the shape and location of metal objects in computed tomography (CT)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bowen; Wang, Jing; Xing, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a binary image reconstruction method for the autolocalization of metallic object(s) in CT with sparse projections. Methods: The authors divide the system into two types of contents: Metal(s) and nonmetal(s). The boundaries of metallic objects are obtained by using a penalized weighted least-squares algorithm with the adequate intensity gradient-controlled. A novel mechanism of “amplifying” the difference between metal(s) and nonmetallic substances is introduced by preprocessing the sinogram data, which is shown to be necessary in dealing with a case with sparse projection data. A series of experimental studies are performed to evaluate the proposed approach. Results: A novel binary CT image reconstruction formalism is established for the autodetermination of the shape and location of metallic objects in the presence of limited number of projections. Experimental studies reveal that the presented algorithm works well even when the embedded metal object(s) has different shape(s). It is also shown that when the projection data are sparse, a differential manipulation of projection data can greatly facilitate the binary reconstruction process and allow the authors to obtain accurate binary CT images that would otherwise be unattainable. Conclusions: Binary CT reconstruction provides a viable method for determining the geometric distribution information of the implanted metal objects in CT imaging. PMID:21158299

  1. Initial stages of high temperature metal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The application of XPS and UPS to the study of the initial stages of high temperature (> 350/sup 0/C) electrochemical oxidation of iron and nickel is discussed. In the high temperature experiments, iron and nickel electrodes were electrochemically oxidized in contact with a solid oxide electrolyte in the uhv system. The great advantages of this technique are that the oxygen activity at the interface may be precisely controlled and the ability to run the reactions in uhv allows the simultaneous observation of the reactions by XPS.

  2. New solid state routes to lithium transition metal oxides via reactions with lithium oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco D. Aguas; Graham C. Coombe; Ivan P. Parkin

    1998-01-01

    Thermolysis of a mixture of lithium oxide and transition metal halides MXn (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Fe, Mn) at 800°C for 2–12 h produces crystalline lithium transition metal oxides Li2MO3 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Mn), Li3MO4 (M = V, Nb, Ta), Li2MnO3 Li2Fe3O4 and Li2MO4 (M = Mo, W). For M = Cr,

  3. A metallic metal oxide (Ti5O9)-metal oxide (TiO2) nanocomposite as the heterojunction to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, L H; Deng, Z X; Xiao, J X; Yang, G W

    2015-06-26

    Coupling titanium dioxide (TiO2) with other semiconductors is a popular method to extend the optical response range of TiO2 and improve its photon quantum efficiency, as coupled semiconductors can increase the separation rate of photoinduced charge carriers in photocatalysts. Differing from normal semiconductors, metallic oxides have no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels, but they can excite electrons between bands to create a high carrier mobility to facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here, we propose the first metallic metal oxide-metal oxide (Ti5O9-TiO2) nanocomposite as a heterojunction for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and we demonstrate that this hybridized TiO2-Ti5O9 nanostructure possesses an excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance in the process of photodegrading dyes. The TiO2-Ti5O9 nanocomposites are synthesized in one step using laser ablation in liquid under ambient conditions. The as-synthesized nanocomposites show strong visible-light absorption in the range of 300-800 nm and high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of rhodamine B. They also exhibit excellent cycling stability in the photodegrading process. A working mechanism for the metallic metal oxide-metal oxide nanocomposite in the visible-light photocatalytic process is proposed based on first-principle calculations of Ti5O9. This study suggests that metallic metal oxides can be regarded as partners for metal oxide photocatalysts in the construction of heterojunctions to improve photocatalytic activity. PMID:26040400

  4. A metallic metal oxide (Ti5O9)-metal oxide (TiO2) nanocomposite as the heterojunction to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. H.; Deng, Z. X.; Xiao, J. X.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-06-01

    Coupling titanium dioxide (TiO2) with other semiconductors is a popular method to extend the optical response range of TiO2 and improve its photon quantum efficiency, as coupled semiconductors can increase the separation rate of photoinduced charge carriers in photocatalysts. Differing from normal semiconductors, metallic oxides have no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels, but they can excite electrons between bands to create a high carrier mobility to facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here, we propose the first metallic metal oxide–metal oxide (Ti5O9–TiO2) nanocomposite as a heterojunction for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and we demonstrate that this hybridized TiO2–Ti5O9 nanostructure possesses an excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance in the process of photodegrading dyes. The TiO2–Ti5O9 nanocomposites are synthesized in one step using laser ablation in liquid under ambient conditions. The as-synthesized nanocomposites show strong visible-light absorption in the range of 300–800 nm and high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of rhodamine B. They also exhibit excellent cycling stability in the photodegrading process. A working mechanism for the metallic metal oxide–metal oxide nanocomposite in the visible-light photocatalytic process is proposed based on first-principle calculations of Ti5O9. This study suggests that metallic metal oxides can be regarded as partners for metal oxide photocatalysts in the construction of heterojunctions to improve photocatalytic activity.

  5. Oxide-supported metal clusters Mingshu Chen and D. Wayne Goodman*

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Wayne

    Chapter 5 Oxide-supported metal clusters Mingshu Chen and D. Wayne Goodman* Department of Chemistry of oxide surfaces by enabling the synthesis of metal clusters on oxide films [2-141. Furthermore such as metal cluster size effects and the role of the support. Representative oxide thin films have been shown

  6. Calorimetric study of the oxygen bond energy in a binary V?Ti catalyst and individual vanadium and titanium oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Bondareva; T. V. Andrushkevich; Yu. D. Pankratiev

    1997-01-01

    Bond energy of oxygen in a binary V?Ti catalyst and individual V and Ti oxides has been studied by the calorimetric method.\\u000a The samples studied were shown to be significantly different in bond energy, homogeneity of surface oxygen and mobility of\\u000a the bulk one. Vanadium and titanium oxides appeared to interact in the binary system to form an active surface

  7. Secondary organic aerosol coating of synthetic metal-oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Donahue, Neil M

    2011-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the ?-pinene + ozone reaction readily coats TiO(2) and CeO(2) metal-oxide nanoparticles in smog-chamber experiments under atmospherically relevant conditions. Otherwise identical experiments compared bare nanoparticles and nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The PAA-coated particles result in significantly higher new-particle formation rates, suggesting that the SOA vapors coat bare metal oxide more readily than the PAA. After particles begin to grow via SOA coating, however, all particles, independent of size or the presence of a metal-oxide core, grow with a rate proportional to their surface area, modified to account for gas-phase diffusion in the transition regime between the kinetic and bulk-flow regimes. This suggests that SOA condensational growth may be modeled based on the size distribution of the condensational sink in the atmosphere. PMID:21534558

  8. Engineering metal oxide structures for efficient photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concina, Isabella; Selopal, Gurpreet S.; Milan, Riccardo; Vomiero, Alberto; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    Metal oxide-based photoanodes are critical components of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which are photoelectrochemical cells for the conversion of solar energy, promising to have several benefits as compared with their traditional counterparts. A careful engineering of the wide band gap metal oxide composing the photoanode, as well as their process design, is strategic for improving device performances and for planning a near future production scale up, especially devoted to reducing the environmental impact of the device fabrication. Herein, we present the application of ZnO hierarchical structures as efficient materials to be applied as photoanodes in DSSC, in the perspective of looking for alternative to TiO2 nanoparticles, currently the most exploited metal oxide in these devices.

  9. Microplasma-based synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Koh, Travis L; O'Hara, Evan C; Gordon, Michael J

    2012-10-26

    Vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures (e.g., wires, needles, pillars and trees) of CuO, PdO and NiO were synthesized on several substrates (e.g., Si and ITO (indium tin oxide)) using a high-pressure (~Torr) microplasma-based growth technique. Organometallic precursors were dissociated in the hollow cathode region of a supersonic plasma jet creating a directed flux of metal species (e.g., atoms, metastables, etc) which react with an oxygen background to form crystalline metal oxide films having a variety of nanomorphologies. Spiral-like growth fronts were seen in some cases for CuO, suggesting that nanowire growth may involve screw dislocations. Large area, nanowire films >1 cm(2) with good adhesion and electrical connection to ITO substrates were deposited by raster-scanning a single jet. Details of the microplasma operation, the dynamics of the growth process and the resulting materials are discussed. PMID:23037639

  10. Metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures for energy and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jae Su; Ko, Yeong Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The growth and structural/optical properties of metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures by a simple, low-cost, and large-scalable fabrication method were studied. These nanostructures were applied to energy and optoelectronic devices, such as piezoelectric nanogenerators and photodetective sensors, to improve the device performance. The morphologies and crystallinity of the fabricated nanostructures were observed from scanning electron microscope/transmission electron microscope images, respectively. The piezoelectric output current and photoresponse property were characterized by manufacturing the nanogenerators and photodetectors with prepared metal oxide nanostructures. These results can provide a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms for improving the device performance in applications of metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures for energy and sensing devices.

  11. Plasmons at the interface between a corrugated semiconductor film and a binary metallic superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobo-Escobar, J. H.; Saldaña, Xóchitl I.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate the minigaps of the dispersion relation of plasmon polaritons that propagate at the interface between a corrugated semiconductor film and a binary metallic superlattice. Minima of the reflectivity for p-polarized light are calculated and their frequencies are used to obtain the 'optical' dispersion relations which are compared with the corresponding electromagnetic dispersion curves, in the effective medium theory. Results show that the minigap enlarges with the corrugation strength.

  12. Anaerobic Nitrate-Dependent Metal Bio-Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, K.; Knox, T.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Direct biological oxidation of reduced metals (Fe(II) and U(IV)) coupled to nitrate reduction at circumneutral pH under anaerobic conditions has been recognized in several environments as well as pure culture. Several phylogentically diverse mesophilic bacteria have been described as capable of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation (NFOx). Our recent identification of a freshwater mesophilic, lithoautotroph, Ferrutens nitratireducens strain 2002, capable of growth through NFOx presents an opportunity to further study metal bio- oxidation. Continuing physiological studies revealed that in addition to Fe(II) oxidation, strain 2002 is capable of oxidizing U(IV) (4 ?M) in washed cell suspensions with nitrate serving as the electron acceptor. Pasteurized cultures exhibited abiotic oxidation of 2 ?M U(IV). Under growth conditions, strain 2002 catalyzed the oxidation of 12 ?M U(IV) within a two week period. Cultures amended with sodium azide, an electron transport inhibitor, demonstrated limited oxidation (7 ?M) similar to pasteurized cultures, supporting the direct role of electron transport in U(IV) bio-oxidation. The oxidation of U(IV) coupled denitrification at circumneutral pH would yield enough energy to support anaerobic microbial growth (?G°'= -460.36 kJ/mole). It is currently unknown whether or not strain 2002 can couple this metabolism to growth. The growth of F. nitratireducens strain 2002 utilizing Fe(II) as the sole electron donor was previously demonstrated. The amount of U(IV) (~12 ?M) that strain 2002 oxidized under similar autotrophic growth conditions yields 0.0019 kJ, enough energy for the generation of ATP (5.3 x 10-20 kJ ATP-1), but not enough energy for cell replication as calculated for nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing conditions (0.096 kJ) assuming a similar metabolism. In addition to F. nitratireducens strain 2002, a nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing bacterium isolated from U contaminated groundwater, Diaphorobacter sp. strain TPSY, was also capable of nitrate- dependent U(IV) oxidation (8 ?M over 24 hours, pseudo first order rate constant of 0.12 ± 0.02 hr-1) in washed cell suspensions. Further biochemical investigation of nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidation in strain TPSY revealed the expression of several putative high molecular weight proteins specific to this metabolism. Together with the previously described metabolic ability of Geobacter metallireducens (Finneran et al. 2002) and Thiobacillus denitrificans (Beller 2005), these data indicate that anaerobic, metal oxidation may be a ubiquitous microbial metabolism.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of rare-earth-based binary and ternary oxides for microelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, C.; Lamagna, L.; Fanciulli, M.

    2012-07-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been established as a powerful method for the growth of very thin and conformal films to be used in ultra-scaled conventional and novel microelectronic devices. We report the most recent advancements in the field of ALD of rare-earth-based oxides to be implemented as active dielectrics. The review is balanced between the development of new ALD processes and the assessment and the discussion of fundamental scientific issues related to the structural, chemical and electrical properties of thin films of rare-earth-based oxides. The deposition process of binary lanthanide oxides is critically reviewed focusing on the first (La) and last (Lu) element of the series. Concomitantly, the integration of rare earth elements as dopant atoms in HfO2 and ZrO2 is also systematically reported. A final overview is dedicated to the results obtained by ALD of more innovative lanthanum-based ternary oxides.

  14. Synthesis and NMR characterization of ligand-capped metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Ligand-capped metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have some interesting and useful physical properties that are not present in their respective bulk materials. These properties are of research interest in many applications such as catalysis, drug delivery, biological imaging, and plasmonics. In such applications, it is critical to understand the surface structure of NPs and the roles played by the surface

  15. Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Yongfei Zheng (Goettingen Univ. (Germany))

    1991-08-01

    A theoretical model calculating the thermodynamic isotope factors of oxygen in metal oxides of geochemcial interest is presented for temperatures between 0 and 1200C on the basis of the modified increment method. The following order of [sup 18]O-enrichment is obtained: cassiterite [gt] rutile [gt] magnetite [gt] ilmenite [gt] ulvoespinel [gt] hematite [gt] uraninite [gt] chromite [gt] corundum [gt] spinel. The results are expressed as 10[sup 3] ln [alpha] = A [times] 10[sup 6]/T[sup 2] + B [times] 10[sup 3]/T + C, which compare well with existing theoretical, experimental, and empirical calibrations on quartz-oxides and oxides-water systems. The present calculations enable not only estimation of the oxygen isotope composition of fluids from which the metal oxides were precipitated when independent temperature information is available, but can also be applied as oxygen isotope geothermometers to igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  16. Utilization of Metal Oxides and Chalcogenides Stabilized in Organic Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Lester; Flaig, Robby; Camacho, Jorge; Hamilton, James

    2011-03-01

    Metal oxides and metal chalcogenides are important materials for a variety of applications including photocatalysis for decomposition of water, conductive and optical coatings, catalysts, photovoltaics, pryoelectrics, self-cleaning surfaces, pigments, and high efficiency Li-insertion materials in batteries among many other applications. Fundamental discoveries of surprising solubility of insoluble materials such as single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene has lead us to discover that certain metal oxides and metal chalcogenides such as TiO2 are soluble in certain solvents. Due to the industrial importance of TiO2, discovering stable pure solvent systems demonstrates a possibility to avoid surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles by use materials such as of (3-methacryloxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane and various other methods of artificial stabilization. We have created thin films of TiO2, transparent ultraviolet (UV) --absorptive polymers, and Li-ion battery anodes with graphene-TiO2 hybrid materials.

  17. The Strength of the Metal. Aluminum Oxide Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    The strength of the interface between metals and aluminum oxide is an important factor in the successful operation of devices found throughout modern technology. One finds the interface in machine tools, jet engines, and microelectronic integrated circuits. The strength of the interface, however, should be strong or weak depending on the application. The diverse technological demands have led to some general ideas concerning the origin of the interfacial strength, and have stimulated fundamental research on the problem. Present status of our understanding of the source of the strength of the metal - aluminum oxide interface in terms of interatomic bonds are reviewed. Some future directions for research are suggested.

  18. Monolithic oxide-metal composite thermoelectric generators for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuichi Funahashi; Takanori Nakamura; Keisuke Kageyama; Hideharu Ieki

    2011-01-01

    Monolithic oxide-metal composite thermoelectric generators (TEGs) were fabricated using multilayer co-fired ceramic technology. These devices consisted of Ni0.9Mo0.1 and La0.035Sr0.965TiO3 as p- and n-type thermoelectric materials, and Y0.03Zr0.97O2 was used as an insulator, sandwiched between p- and n-type layers. To co-fire dissimilar materials, p-type layers contained 20 wt. % La0.035Sr0.965TiO3; thus, these were oxide-metal composite layers. The fabricated device had

  19. Criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This standard establishes safety criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and plutonium oxides at DOE facilities; materials packaged to meet these criteria should not need subsequent repackaging to ensure safe storage for at least 50 years or until final disposition. The standard applied to Pu metals, selected alloys (eg., Ga and Al alloys), and stabilized oxides containing at least 50 wt % Pu; it does not apply to Pu-bearing liquids, process residues, waste, sealed weapon components, or material containing more than 3 wt % {sup 238}Pu. Requirements for a Pu storage facility and safeguards and security considerations are not stressed as they are addressed in detail by other DOE orders.

  20. Electronic Hamiltonian for transition-metal oxide compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin Müller-Hartmann; Elbio Dagotto

    1996-01-01

    An effective electronic Hamiltonian for transition-metal oxide compounds is presented. For Mn oxides, the Hamiltonian contains spin-2 ``spins'' and spin-3\\/2 ``holes'' as degrees of freedom. The model is constructed from the Kondo-lattice Hamiltonian for mobile eg electrons and localized t2g spins, in the limit of a large Hund's coupling. The effective electron-bond-hopping amplitude fluctuates in sign as the total spin

  1. Vapor growth of electrochromic thin films of transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesheva, K. A.; Ivanova, T.; Marsen, B.; Zollo, G.; Kalitzova, M.

    2008-04-01

    Mixed oxide films of transition metals gain considerable much attention due to their interesting optoelectronic properties. The low temperature chemical vapor growth processing of thin films of mixed W and Mo oxides is presented. The investigation is related to optimization of films structure and the related optoelectronic properties in dependence on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process parameters. Their electrochromic behavior and photoelectrode properties were studied.

  2. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, G G [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  3. Electronic structure of double-perovskite transition-metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Moritomo; Sh. Xu; A. Machida; T. Akimoto; E. Nishibori; M. Takata; M. Sakata

    2000-01-01

    Electronic structure has been investigated by reflectivity measurement for ordered-perovskite transition-metal oxides, Sr2MMoO6 (M=Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co). The ground states of the Co and Mn compounds are paramagnetic insulators, making a sharp contrast with the ferrimagnetic metallic Sr2FeMoO6. For all the compounds, we have observed intense optical transition at ~2 eV, which has been ascribed to the charge-transfer excitation

  4. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  5. Utilization of Metal Oxides and Chalcogenides Stabilized in Organic Solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lester Lampert; Robby Flaig; Jorge Camacho; James Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxides and metal chalcogenides are important materials for a variety of applications including photocatalysis for decomposition of water, conductive and optical coatings, catalysts, photovoltaics, pryoelectrics, self-cleaning surfaces, pigments, and high efficiency Li-insertion materials in batteries among many other applications. Fundamental discoveries of surprising solubility of insoluble materials such as single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene has lead us

  6. Hybrid Metal Oxide–Polymer Nanostructured Composites: Structure and Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alla Pivkina; Sergey Zavyalov; Joop Schoonman

    Within metal (metal oxide)\\/polymer nanocomposites, nanoparticles reveal specific interparticle interactions and interactions\\u000a with the matrix they are dispersed in [1, 2]. Nanostructured anatase titanium dioxide has attracted widespread attention as\\u000a a photo-electrode in an advanced regenerative dye-sensitised solar cell, referred to as the Grätzel cell [3]. It has been\\u000a shown also that the nanostructured anatase material exhibits an enhancement factor

  7. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  8. Catalytic Oxidation of 1,2Dichlorobenzene over Supported Transition Metal Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sundaram Krishnamoorthy; Juan A. Rivas; Michael D. Amiridis

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene has been systematically investigated over a series of transition metal oxides (i.e., Cr2O3, V2O5, MoO3, Fe2O3, and Co3O4) supported on TiO2 and Al2O3. The activity of the different catalysts for this reaction depends on the nature of the transition metal oxide used, with Cr2O3-and V2O5-based catalysts being the most active ones. With the exception of

  9. Metallicity dependence of high-mass X-ray binary populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douna, V. M.; Pellizza, L. J.; Mirabel, I. F.; Pedrosa, S. E.

    2015-07-01

    Context. High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) might have contributed a non-negligible fraction of the energy feedback to the interstellar and intergalactic media at high redshift, becoming important sources for the heating and ionization history of the Universe. However, the importance of this contribution depends on the hypothesized increase in the number of HMXBs formed in low-metallicity galaxies and in their luminosities. Aims: In this work we test the aforementioned hypothesis, and quantify the metallicity dependence of HMXB population properties. Methods: We compile from the literature a large set of data on the sizes and X-ray luminosities of HMXB populations in nearby galaxies with known metallicities and star formation rates. We use Bayesian inference to fit simple Monte Carlo models that describe the metallicity dependence of the size and luminosity of the HMXB populations. Results: We find that HMXBs are typically ten times more numerous per unit star formation rate in low-metallicity galaxies (12 + log (O / H) < 8, namely <20% solar) than in solar-metallicity galaxies. The metallicity dependence of the luminosity of HMXBs is small compared to that of the population size. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that HMXBs are more numerous in low-metallicity galaxies, implying the need to investigate the feedback in the form of X-rays and energetic mass outflows of these high-energy sources during cosmic dawn.

  10. Laboratory SIP signatures associated with oxidation of disseminated metal sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Binley, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Oxidation of metal sulfide minerals is responsible for the generation of acidic waters rich in sulfate and metals. When associated with the oxidation of sulfide ore mine waste deposits the resulting pore water is called acid mine drainage (AMD); AMD is a known environmental problem that affects surface and ground waters. Characterization of oxidation processes in-situ is challenging, particularly at the field scale. Geophysical techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) in particular, may provide a means of such investigation. We performed laboratory experiments to assess the sensitivity of the SIP method to the oxidation mechanisms of common sulfide minerals found in mine waste deposits, i.e., pyrite and pyrrhotite, when the primary oxidant agent is dissolved oxygen. We found that SIP parameters, e.g., phase shift, the imaginary component of electrical conductivity and total chargeability, decrease as the time of exposure to oxidation and oxidation degree increase. This observation suggests that dissolution-depletion of the mineral surface reduces the capacitive properties and polarizability of the sulfide minerals. However, small increases in the phase shift and imaginary conductivity do occur during oxidation. These transient increases appear to correlate with increases of soluble oxidizing products, e.g., Fe2 + and Fe3 + in solution; precipitation of secondary minerals and the formation of a passivating layer to oxidation coating the mineral surface may also contribute to these increases. In contrast, the real component of electrical conductivity associated with electrolytic, electronic and interfacial conductance is sensitive to changes in the pore fluid chemistry as a result of the soluble oxidation products released (Fe2 + and Fe3 +), particularly for the case of pyrrhotite minerals.

  11. Population synthesis of binary carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Glebbeek, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Pols, O. R.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars constitute approximately one fifth of the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ? -2) population but their origin is not well understood. The most widely accepted formation scenario, at least for the majority of CEMP stars which are also enriched in s-process elements, invokes mass-transfer of carbon-rich material from a thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TPAGB) primary star to a less massive main-sequence companion which is seen today. Recent studies explore the possibility that an initial mass function biased toward intermediate-mass stars is required to reproduce the observed CEMP fraction in stars with metallicity [Fe/H]<-2.5. These models also implicitly predict a large number of nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor (NEMP) stars which is not seen. In this paper we investigate whether the observed CEMP and NEMP to extremely metal-poor (EMP) ratios can be explained without invoking a change in the initial mass function. We construct binary-star populations in an attempt to reproduce the observed number and chemical abundance patterns of CEMP stars at a metallicity [Fe/H]˜-2.3. Our binary-population models include synthetic nucleosynthesis in TPAGB stars and account for mass transfer and other forms of binary interaction. This approach allows us to explore uncertainties in the CEMP-star formation scenario by parameterization of uncertain input physics. In particular, we consider the uncertainty in the physics of third dredge up in the TPAGB primary, binary mass transfer and mixing in the secondary star. We confirm earlier findings that with current detailed TPAGB models, in which third dredge up is limited to stars more massive than about 1.25~M?, the large observed CEMP fraction cannot be accounted for. We find that efficient third dredge up in low-mass (less than 1.25~M?), low-metallicity stars may offer at least a partial explanation for the large observed CEMP fraction while remaining consistent with the small observed NEMP fraction. Appendices A-E are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Metal current collect protected by oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-05-25

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

  13. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Ni, and where M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  14. Electrochromic displays with transition-metal oxide as counterelectrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Kuwabara; Shoichi Ichikawa; Kohzo Sugiyama

    1987-01-01

    Amorphous WO3 electrochromic displays (ECD) with transition-metal oxides were investigated to determine fundamental factors for developing all-solid-state ECDs. The oxides examined were coO, NiO, SnO, Fe3O4, Co3O4, Ir2O3, VO2 and MnO2. Layers of solid electrolyte (tin phosphate) and each oxide were prepared by a spray method. The ECDs with VO2, Ir2O3 and MnO2 were found to give excellent characteristics such

  15. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-04-22

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates.

  16. A Green Strategy to Prepare Metal Oxide Superstructure from Metal-Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yonghai; Li, Xia; Wei, Changting; Fu, Jinying; Xu, Fugang; Tan, Hongliang; Tang, Juan; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Metal or metal oxides with diverse superstructures have become one of the most promising functional materials in sensor, catalysis, energy conversion, etc. In this work, a novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-directed method to prepare metal or metal oxide superstructure was proposed. In this strategy, nodes (metal ions) in MOFs as precursors to form ordered building blocks which are spatially separated by organic linkers were transformed into metal oxide micro/nanostructure by a green method. Two kinds of Cu-MOFs which could reciprocally transform by changing solvent were prepared as a model to test the method. Two kinds of novel CuO with three-dimensional (3D) urchin-like and 3D rods-like superstructures composed of nanoparticles, nanowires and nanosheets were both obtained by immersing the corresponding Cu-MOFs into a NaOH solution. Based on the as-formed CuO superstructures, a novel and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed. The small size, hierarchical superstructures and large surface area of the resulted CuO superstructures eventually contribute to good electrocatalytic activity of the prepared sensor towards the oxidation of glucose. The proposed method of hierarchical superstructures preparation is simple, efficient, cheap and easy to mass production, which is obviously superior to pyrolysis. It might open up a new way for hierarchical superstructures preparation. PMID:25669731

  17. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2004-01-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal

  18. A novel microstructured metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, R.; Hernández, E.; Savvin, S.; Núñez, P.; Makradi, A.; Sabaté, N.; Esquivel, J. P.; Ruiz-Morales, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    An innovative design, alternative to the conventional metal supported fuel cells (MSC) is proposed. This new design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), comprises a 200 ?m layer of a honeycomb-metallic framework with hexagonal cells which supports a 250 ?m layer of electrolyte. Each hexagonal cell is further functionalized with a thin 5-10 ?m of Ni-YSZ anode. This new design allows a reduction of ?65% of the metallic supporting material, rendering performances over 300 mW cm-2 under pure hydrogen at 850 °C, with an OCV of ?1.1 V.

  19. All-alkoxide synthesis of strontium-containing metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method for making strontium-containing metal-oxide ceramic thin films from a precursor liquid by mixing a strontium neo-pentoxide dissolved in an amine solvent and at least one metal alkoxide dissolved in a solvent, said at least one metal alkoxide selected from the group consisting of alkoxides of calcium, barium, bismuth, cadmium, lead, titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, antimony, chromium and thallium, depositing a thin film of the precursor liquid on a substrate, and heating the thin film in the presence of oxygen at between 550 and 700.degree. C.

  20. Lithium vanadium oxide: A heavy fermion transition metal oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichiro Kondo

    1998-01-01

    LiVsb2Osb4 has the face-centered-cubic normal-spinel structure and is a metal. The preparative method and characterization of high-purity polycrystalline samples are herein reported. The intrinsic susceptibility chi, electronic heat capacity Csbe, nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal expansion measurements revealed that LiVsb2Osb4 shows a crossover from high temperature T localized magnetic moment behavior to low-T heavy Fermi liquid behavior. chi follows the

  1. Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured ZnO-ZrO? binary oxide using fluorometric method.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M M

    2015-06-15

    Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-ZrO2 nanomaterials using fluorescence based technique has rarely been reported. In the present work, ZnO-ZrO2 mixed oxides coupled with various ZnO dosages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70wt%) were prepared by impregnation method. These nanomaterials were characterized by studying their structural, surface and optical properties. The photocatalytic activity in term of quantitative determination of the active oxidative species (OH) produced on the surface of binary oxide was evaluated using fluorescent probe method. The interaction between ZnO and ZrO2 was affected on the photocatalytic efficiency of mixture. The results show that, the addition of ZnO to ZrO2 decreased the electron-hole recombination and increased the rate of OH radicals formation. 50 wt% ZnO-ZrO2 photocatalyst exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity. The profound effect of binary oxide catalyst was generally considered due to the high surface area, small particle size, high monoclinic phase of ZrO2 content, low band gap and the presence of surface OH groups. PMID:25797223

  2. TiO2-Al2O3 binary mixed oxide surfaces for photocatalytic NOx abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, Asli Melike; Polat, Meryem; Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Say, Zafer; Y?ld?r?m, Cansu; Birer, Özgür; Ozensoy, Emrah

    2014-11-01

    TiO2-Al2O3 binary oxide surfaces were utilized in order to develop an alternative photocatalytic NOx abatement approach, where TiO2 sites were used for ambient photocatalytic oxidation of NO with O2 and alumina sites were exploited for NOx storage. Chemical, crystallographic and electronic structure of the TiO2-Al2O3 binary oxide surfaces were characterized (via BET surface area measurements, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and DR-UV-Vis Spectroscopy) as a function of the TiO2 loading in the mixture as well as the calcination temperature used in the synthesis protocol. 0.5 Ti/Al-900 photocatalyst showed remarkable photocatalytic NOx oxidation and storage performance, which was found to be much superior to that of a Degussa P25 industrial benchmark photocatalyst (i.e. 160% higher NOx storage and 55% lower NO2(g) release to the atmosphere). Our results indicate that the onset of the photocatalytic NOx abatement activity is concomitant to the switch between amorphous to a crystalline phase with an electronic band gap within 3.05-3.10 eV; where the most active photocatalyst revealed predominantly rutile phase together and anatase as the minority phase.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured ZnO-ZrO2 binary oxide using fluorometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-ZrO2 nanomaterials using fluorescence based technique has rarely been reported. In the present work, ZnO-ZrO2 mixed oxides coupled with various ZnO dosages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70 wt%) were prepared by impregnation method. These nanomaterials were characterized by studying their structural, surface and optical properties. The photocatalytic activity in term of quantitative determination of the active oxidative species (radOH) produced on the surface of binary oxide was evaluated using fluorescent probe method. The interaction between ZnO and ZrO2 was affected on the photocatalytic efficiency of mixture. The results show that, the addition of ZnO to ZrO2 decreased the electron-hole recombination and increased the rate of radOH radicals formation. 50 wt% ZnO-ZrO2 photocatalyst exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity. The profound effect of binary oxide catalyst was generally considered due to the high surface area, small particle size, high monoclinic phase of ZrO2 content, low band gap and the presence of surface OH groups.

  4. Metal-accelerated oxidation in plant cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M. (National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-05-01

    Cadmium and mercury toxicity is further enhanced by external oxidizing conditions O[sub 3] or inherent plant processes. Lepidium sativum L, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or Phaseolus vulgaris L, were grown inpeat-lite to maturity under continuous cadmium exposure followed by one oxidant (O[sub 3]-6 hr. 30 pphm) exposure, with or without foliar calcium pretreatments. In comparison, Daucus carota, L and other species grown in a 71-V suspension, with or without 2,4-D were exposed continuously to low levels of methylmercury during exponential growth and analyzed in aggregates of distinct populations. Proteins were extracted and analyzed. Mechanisms of toxicity and eventual cell death are Ca-mediated and involve chloroplast, stomatal-water relations and changes in oxidant-anti-oxidant components in cells. Whether the metal-accelerated oxidative damage proceeds to cell death, depends on the species and its differential biotransformation system and cell association component.

  5. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE. II. Binary Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] \\lt -3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  6. Simulation of the formation of nanosize oxide structures by local anode oxidation of the metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilov, V. I.; Ageev, O. A.; Blinov, Yu. F.; Konoplev, B. G.; Polyakov, V. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a complex model of local anode oxidation of metals taking into account the processes occurring in the probe-substrate system in dry air, in water vapor, and in the water film adsorbed on the substrate surface. It is shown that local anode oxidation occurs due to generation of oxygen ions as a result of decomposition of water molecules in an electric field; the predominant source of oxidizer is the film of water adsorbed on the substrate surface. The results of numerical simulation of local anode oxidation of titanium demonstrate good correlation with experimental dependences of the height of oxide nanostructures on the duration of local anode oxidation, which confirms the effectiveness of the proposed model. Our results can be used in the development of technological processes of formation of elements of nanoelectronics by local anode oxidation.

  7. Thermochemistry of rare-earth-metal-alkaline-earth-metal-copper oxide superconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lester R. Morss; David C. Sonnenberger; R. J. Thorn

    1988-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation of the perovskite-related oxides LaâCuOâ, La\\/sub 1.85\\/Sr\\/sub 0.15\\/CuOâ, and YBaâCuâO\\/sub y\\/(y = 6.25, 6.47, 6.69, and 6.93) have been determined at 298.15 K by solution calorimetry. Room-temperature stabilities of these compounds have been assessed in terms of the parent binary oxides and of the oxygen content. High-temperature (to 900\\/degree\\/C) thermal behavior of YBaâCuâO\\/sub y\\/ has been used

  8. Metal Permeation into Multi-layered Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Chikako; Koinuma, Michio; Hatakeyama, Kazuto; Tateishi, Hikaru; Asrori, Mohamad Zainul; Taniguchi, Takaaki; Funatsu, Asami; Matsumoto, Yasumichi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the chemical and physical properties of metal/graphene oxide (M/GO) interfaces is important when GO is used in electronic and electrochemical devices because the metal layer must be firmly attached to GO. Here, permeation of metal from the surface into GO paper bulk at the M/GO interface was observed at room temperature for metals such as Cu, Ag, Ni, Au, and Pt. Cu, Ag, and Ni quickly permeated GO as ions into the bulk under humid conditions. At first, these metals changed to hydrated ions as a result of redox reactions (with reduction of GO) at the surface, and then permeated the interlayers. Au and Pt were observed to permeate GO as atoms into the GO bulk at room temperature, although the permeation rates were low. These surprising results are considered to be due to the presence of many defects and/or edges with oxygenated groups in the GO paper. PMID:24413270

  9. Disorder driven quantum phase transitions in transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohjiro Kobayashi; Nandini Trivedi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effect of disorder on a class of transition metal oxides described by a single orbital Hubbard model at half filling and away from half filling. The phases are characterized by the nature of the electronic and spin excitations. We calculate the local density of states, frequency and temperature-dependent conductivity and spin susceptibility as functions of disorder and

  10. Quadrupole terms in defect energies in transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Stoneham; M. J. L. Sangster; J. H. Harding

    1990-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that, for defects in transition metal oxides, there was evidence for an additional term in the potential energy beyond the usual monopole and dipole terms of the shell model. This appeared to be a quadrupole term in which the open 3d shells of the host ions, as well as any impurities, responded to

  11. Novel Extended Solids Composed of Transition Metal Oxide Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ishaque Khan

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal oxide clusters and their derivatives offer an unmatched variety of structural motifs that are potential building blocks for the design and development of extended solids. In view of the proven applications of these clusters in catalysis, molecular recognition, environmental decontamination, clinical and analytical processes, materials science, nanotechnology, and medicine, their usage as building blocks promises the development of

  12. Oxidation resistant filler metals for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using essentially pure trinickel aluminide and trinickel aluminide containing small amounts of carbon. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  13. Opportunities in nano-structured metal oxides based biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B D Malhotra; Maumita Das; Pratima R Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials are presently at the critical stage of the next technological revolution in solid-state electronics and are emerging as new structural materials, to serve as systems for controlled drug delivery, biomolecular electronics and are considered to have considerable impact in practically all domains of science. Among the various types of nanomaterials that have been developed, nanostructured metal oxides (NSMOs) have

  14. The Extraction of Metals from Their Oxides and Sulphides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Alun H.

    1980-01-01

    Briefly describes the application of thermodynamics (system at equilibrium) to the study of the extraction of metals from their oxides (dynamic situation). It is more relevant to study the temperature variation of the equilibrium constants of the reaction than to study the free energy approach. (Author/SK)

  15. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the...

  18. Facile self-assembly and stabilization of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Cecile; Holliman, Peter J; Davies, Matthew L; Watson, Trystan M; Worsley, David A

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes a facile method of self-assembling different metal oxide nanoparticles into nanostructured materials via di-carboxylate linkers (oxalic acid) using TiO2 as an example. In this method, the di-carboxylate linkers react with surface hydroxyls on metal oxide nanoparticles forming covalent, ester-like bonds, which enable the binding of two metal oxide particles, one at either end of the linker and facilitates efficient self-assembly of one group of metal oxide nanoparticles homogeneously distributed onto the surface of another group. The oxalate linkers can then be removed by thermal decomposition. This approach is shown to be effective using differently-sized TiO2 nanoparticles, namely in-house synthesized 3-5nm anatase nanocrystals and Degussa P25 titania particles (mean 21nm particle size). Our data show that the application of a high temperature heat treatment (450°C for 30min), conventionally applied to achieve a stable porous structure by thermal decomposition of the linker molecules and by inducing inter-particle necking, damages the surface area of the nanostructured material. However, here we show that sintering at 300°C for 30min or by flash near infrared radiation sintering for 12s efficiently decomposes the oxalate linkers and stabilizes the nanostructure of the material whilst maintaining its high surface area. PMID:25525978

  19. Molten-Metal Electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, A.; Vohs, J. M.; Gorte, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Molten In, Pb, and Sb were examined as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) that operate between 973 and 1173 K. The results for these metals were compared with those reported previously for molten Sn electrodes. Cells were operated under “battery” conditions, with dry He or N2 flow in the anode compartment, to characterize the electrochemical oxidation of the metals at the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-electrolyte interface. In most cases, the open-circuit voltages (OCVs) were close to that based on equilibrium between the metals and their oxides. With Sn and In, the cell impedances increased dramatically at all temperatures after drawing current due to formation of insulating, oxide barriers at the electrolyte interface. Similar results were observed for Pb at 973 and 1073 K, but the impedance remained low even after PbO formation at 1173 K because this is above the melting temperature of PbO. Similarly, the impedances of molten Sb electrodes at 973 K were low and unaffected by current flow because of the low melting temperature of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The potential of using molten-metal electrodes for direct-carbon fuel cells and for energy-storage systems is discussed.

  20. Anti-microbial activities of aerosolized transition metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhipeng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Bing; Horst, Angela; Kang, Yisheng; Tang, Yinjie J; Chen, Da-Ren

    2010-07-01

    This study used the electrospray method to create airborne droplets of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and examined their anti-microbial activities, employing Escherichia coli as a model microbial species. We tested the anti-microbial activities of six metal oxide NPs (NiO, ZnO, Fe(2)O(3), Co(3)O(4), CuO, and TiO(2)) in both an aqueous culture medium and an aerosol exposure mode (spraying the particles directly onto the cell surface). In the aqueous medium, the both NPs and stressed E. coli cells severely aggregated. Only NiO NPs (>20 mgL(-1)) showed significant growth inhibition of E. coli ( approximately 30%). In contrast to aqueous exposure, where the direct interactions between NPs and bacteria were limited, aerosol exposure of three metal oxide NPs to E. coli enhanced NP toxicity to cells and dramatically reduced cellular viability. Electrospraying NiO, CuO, or ZnO NPs (20 nm, 20 microg, in 10 min) reduced the total number of living E. coli by more than 88%, 77% and 71%, respectively (compared to the control experiments). However, TiO(2), Co(3)O(4), and Fe(2)O(3) NPs showed no significant antibacterial activities in either the aqueous exposure mode or the aerosol exposure mode. The above observations suggest the potential application of electrosprayed metal oxide NPs to disinfect airborne pathogens. PMID:20478610

  1. ADSORPTION OF TRACE METALS BY HYDROUS FERRIC OXIDE IN SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adsorption of trace metals by amorphous hydrous ferric oxide in seawater is studied with reference to simple model systems designed to isolate the factors which may have an effect on the isotherms. Results show that the complex system behaves in a remarkably simple way and th...

  2. Investigation of lithium intercalation metal oxides for thermal batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-E. Bolster; R. J. Staniewicz

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of new, high voltage cathode materials for thermal batteries included a group of lithium intercalation metal oxide compounds. The authors present the experimental results of this high voltage cathode study and discuss the applicability of these materials to thermal batteries. The intent of this research work was to discover new positive electrodes that by virtue of higher discharge

  3. The effect of nitrogen oxides in atmospheric corrosion of metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Arroyave; M. Morcillo

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a state of the art survey on the current understanding of the effect of the atmospheric nitrogen oxides on structural materials. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, its chemistry, and its effect on metals are considered, particularly on steel, copper and zinc. It is shown that the detrimental effects of nitrogen dioxide are not well known. A number of conclusions

  4. Metal Oxide Laser Ioniza2on Mass Spectrometry for the Direct Profiling of Pyrolysis Oil Cons2tuents

    E-print Network

    Metal Oxide Laser Ioniza2on Mass Spectrometry for the Direct Profiling direct upgrading, and processing for transportaGon applicaGons. ·Metal oxide and Lewis acid/ base sites on a metal oxide.3 MOLI MS is a separa

  5. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tripkovi?, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO(2), SnO(2), NbO(2), ZrO(2), SiO(2), Ta(2)O(5) and Nb(2)O(5)) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in detail; however, due to different operating conditions it is not straightforward to link the chemical and the electrochemical environment. The largest differences reflect in (1) the oxidation state of the surface (the oxygen species coverage), (2) temperature and (3) the possibility of platinum dissolution at high potentials and the interference of redispersion with normal working potential of the PEMFC cathode. We have calculated the PtO(x) (x = 0, 1, 2) adsorption energies on different metal oxides' surface terminations as well as inside the metal oxides' bulk, and we have concluded that NbO(2) might be a good support for platinum redispersion at PEMFC cathodes. PMID:23358311

  6. Requirements for modeling trace metal partitioning in oxidized estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; Davis, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The fate of particulate-bound metals is of particular importance in estuaries because major biological energy flows involve consumption of detrital particles. The biological impact of particulate-bound metals is strongly influenced by the partitioning of metals among sediment components at the oxidized sediment-water interface. Adequate methods for directly measuring this partitioning are not available, thus a modeling approach may be most useful. Important requirements for such a model include: (1) determinations of metal binding intensities which are comparable among sediment components important in oxidized sediments; (2) comparable determinations of the binding capacities of the several forms of each component; (3) operational determinations of the abundance in natural sediments of components of defined binding capacity; (4) assessments of the influence of particle coatings and multicomponent aggregation on the available binding capacity of each substrate; (5) consideration of the effect of Ca and Mg competition on binding to different components; and (6) determinations of the kinetics of metal redistribution among components in oxidized sediments. ?? 1983.

  7. Biocidal properties of metal oxide nanoparticles and their halogen adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggstrom, Johanna A.; Klabunde, Kenneth J.; Marchin, George L.

    2010-03-01

    Nanosized metal oxide halogen adducts possess high surface reactivities due to their unique surface morphologies. These adducts have been used as reactive materials against vegetative cells, such as Escherichia coli as well as bacterial endospores, including Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis (? Sterne strain). Here we report high biocidal activities against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and endospores. The procedure consists of a membrane method. Transmission electron micrographs are used to compare nanoparticle-treated and untreated cells and spores. It is proposed that the abrasive character of the particles, the oxidative power of the halogens/interhalogens, and the electrostatic attraction between the metal oxides and the biological material are responsible for high biocidal activities. While some activity was demonstrated, bacterial endospores were more resistant to nanoparticle treatment than the vegetative bacteria.

  8. Integrated fab process for metal oxide EUV photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenville, Andrew; Anderson, Jeremy T.; Clark, Benjamin L.; De Schepper, Peter; Edson, Joseph; Greer, Michael; Jiang, Kai; Kocsis, Michael; Meyers, Stephen T.; Stowers, Jason K.; Telecky, Alan J.; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2015-03-01

    Inpria is developing directly patternable, metal oxide hardmasks as robust, high-resolution photoresists for EUV lithography. Targeted formulations have achieved 13nm half-pitch at 35 mJ/cm2 on an ASML's NXE:3300B scanner. Inpria's second-generation materials have an absorbance of 20/?m, thereby enabling an equivalent photon shot noise compared to conventional resists at a dose lower by a factor of 4X. These photoresists have ~40:1 etch selectivity into a typical carbon underlayer, so ultrathin 20nm films are possible, mitigating pattern collapse. In addition to lithographic performance, we review progress in parallel advances required to enable the transition from lab to fab for such a metal oxide photoresist. This includes considerations and data related to: solvent compatibility, metals cross-contamination, coat uniformity, stability, outgassing, and rework.

  9. Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2000-05-18

    The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

  10. Oxidation kinetics of Ni metallic films: Formation of NiO-based resistive switching structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Courtade; Ch. Turquat; Ch. Muller; J. G. Lisoni; L. Goux; D. J. Wouters; D. Goguenheim; P. Roussel; L. Ortega

    2008-01-01

    Resistive switching controlled by external voltage has been reported in many Metal\\/Resistive oxide\\/Metal (MRM) structures in which the resistive oxide was simple transition metal oxide thin films such as NiO or TiO2 deposited by reactive sputtering. In this paper, we have explored the possibility to form NiO-based MRM structures from the partial oxidation of a blanket Ni metallic film using

  11. Mechanistic aspects of photooxidation of polyhydroxylated molecules on metal oxides

    PubMed Central

    Shkrob, Ilya A.; Marin, Timothy M.; Chemerisov, Sergey D.; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxylated molecules, including natural carbohydrates, are known to undergo photooxidation on wide-gap transition metal oxides irradiated by ultraviolet light. In this study, we examine mechanistic aspects of this photoreaction on aqueous TiO2, ?-FeOOH, and ?-Fe2O3 particles using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and site-selective deuteration. We demonstrate that the carbohydrates are oxidized at sites involved in the formation of oxo-bridges between the chemisorbed carbohydrate molecule and metal ions at the oxide surface. This bridging inhibits the loss of water (which is the typical reaction of the analogous free radicals in bulk solvent) promoting instead a rearrangement that leads to elimination of the formyl radical. For natural carbohydrates, the latter reaction mainly involves carbon-1, whereas the main radical products of the oxidation are radical arising from H atom loss centered on carbon-1, -2, and -3 sites. Photoexcited TiO2 oxidizes all of the carbohydrates and polyols, whereas ?-FeOOH oxidizes some of the carbohydrates, and ?-Fe2O3 is unreactive. These results serve as a stepping stone for understanding the photochemistry on mineral surfaces of more complex biomolecules such as nucleic acids. PMID:21532934

  12. Mechanistic aspects of photooxidation of polyhydroxylated molecules on metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Marin, Timothy M; Chemerisov, Sergey D; Sevilla, Michael D

    2011-03-24

    Polyhydroxylated molecules, including natural carbohydrates, are known to undergo photooxidation on wide-gap transition metal oxides irradiated by ultraviolet light. In this study, we examine mechanistic aspects of this photoreaction on aqueous TiO(2), ?-FeOOH, and ?-Fe(2)O(3) particles using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and site-selective deuteration. We demonstrate that the carbohydrates are oxidized at sites involved in the formation of oxo-bridges between the chemisorbed carbohydrate molecule and metal ions at the oxide surface. This bridging inhibits the loss of water (which is the typical reaction of the analogous free radicals in bulk solvent) promoting instead a rearrangement that leads to elimination of the formyl radical. For natural carbohydrates, the latter reaction mainly involves carbon-1, whereas the main radical products of the oxidation are radical arising from H atom loss centered on carbon-1, -2, and -3 sites. Photoexcited TiO(2) oxidizes all of the carbohydrates and polyols, whereas ?-FeOOH oxidizes some of the carbohydrates, and ?-Fe(2)O(3) is unreactive. These results serve as a stepping stone for understanding the photochemistry on mineral surfaces of more complex biomolecules such as nucleic acids. PMID:21532934

  13. Oxidized Metal Powders for Mechanical Shock and Crush Safety Enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    GARINO, TERRY J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of oxidized metal powders in mechanical shock or crush safety enhancers in nuclear weapons has been investigated. The functioning of these devices is based on the remarkable electrical behavior of compacts of certain oxidized metal powders when subjected to compressive stress. For example, the low voltage resistivity of a compact of oxidized tantalum powder was found to decrease by over six orders of magnitude during compaction between 1 MPa, where the thin, insulating oxide coatings on the particles are intact, to 10 MPa, where the oxide coatings have broken down along a chain of particles spanning the electrodes. In this work, the behavior of tantalum and aluminum powders was investigated. The low voltage resistivity during compaction of powders oxidized under various conditions was measured and compared. In addition, the resistivity at higher voltages and the dielectric breakdown strength during compaction were also measured. A key finding was that significant changes in the electrical properties persist after the removal of the stress so that a mechanical shock enhancer is feasible. This was verified by preliminary shock experiments. Finally, conceptual designs for both types of enhancers are presented.

  14. Mechanistic aspects of photooxidation of polyhydroxylated molecules on metal oxides.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. M.; Sevilla, M. D.; Chemerisov, S. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Benedictine Univ.); (Oakland Univ.)

    2011-03-24

    Polyhydroxylated molecules, including natural carbohydrates, are known to undergo photooxidation on wide-gap transition-metal oxides irradiated by ultraviolet light. In this study, we examine mechanistic aspects of this photoreaction on aqueous TiO{sub 2}, {alpha}-FeOOH, and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and site-selective deuteration. We demonstrate that the carbohydrates are oxidized at sites involved in the formation of oxo bridges between the chemisorbed carbohydrate molecule and metal ions at the oxide surface. This bridging inhibits the loss of water (which is the typical reaction of the analogous free radicals in bulk solvent) promoting instead a rearrangement that leads to elimination of the formyl radical. For natural carbohydrates, the latter reaction mainly involves carbon-1, whereas the main radical products of the oxidation are radical arising from H atom loss centered on carbon-1, -2, and -3 sites. Photoexcited TiO{sub 2} oxidizes all of the carbohydrates and polyols, whereas {alpha}-FeOOH oxidizes some of the carbohydrates, and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is unreactive. These results serve as a stepping stone for understanding the photochemistry on mineral surfaces of more complex biomolecules such as nucleic acids.

  15. Fundamentals of electrochromism in metal oxide bronzes

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, T.E.; Goldner, R.B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The phenomenon of electrochromism as described here is clearly a property to be associated with a material. The material must be capable of reversible oxidation and reduction, and have an accompanying spectral change. However, since it requires a chemical change of oxidation state to occur, there must be a corresponding second material to serve as the source/sink of electrons and charge compensating ions. In short, electrochromism is observable only in a device, not in an isolated material. In its essence an electrochromic device is simply a reversible electrochemical cell, consisting of electronic conductors (the wires for an external electronic pathway), two electrodes at which the electron transfer, the oxidation and reduction, takes place, and an ion conducting and electron blocking electrolyte separating the electrode materials. There are numerous ways to combine these fundamental components and the phenomenon of electrochromism into practical devices, several of which will be described in this book. The structure of the so-called smart window has the components of the electrochemical cell assembled in the form of thin films on a transparent substrate, and is intended to be viewed in transmission. The electronic conductors in this case must be transparent, thus are labeled TC (transparent conductor). The electrochromic layer, EC, consists of a material which undergoes the color change giving rise to the electrochromic designation. The ionic conductor, IC, serves as the electrolyte to allow ion transfer and block electron transfer, preventing shorting out of the device and permitting the memory feature of retaining the coloration state upon opening the external circuit of the device. The counterelectrode layer may be either optically passive or may behave in a complementary fashion to the EC layer, e.g., be anodically coloring to the EC layer that cathodically colors. The authors study WO{sub 3} as the electrochromatic material in a smart window application.

  16. Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2014-08-01

    The dissolution of Ag (citrate, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone and chitosan coated), ZnO, CuO and carbon coated Cu nanoparticles (with two nominal sizes each) has been studied in artificial aqueous media, similar in chemistry to environmental waters, for up to 19 days. The dissolved fraction was determined using DGT (Diffusion Gradients in Thin films), dialysis membrane (DM) and ultrafiltration (UF). Relatively small fractions of Ag nanoparticles dissolved, whereas ZnO dissolved nearly completely within few hours. Cu and CuO dissolved as a function of pH. Using DGT, less dissolved Ag was measured compared to UF and DM, likely due to differences in diffusion of organic complexes. Similar dissolved metal concentrations of ZnO, Cu and CuO nanoparticles were determined using DGT and UF, but lower using DM. The results indicate that there is a need to apply complementary techniques to precisely determine dissolution of nanoparticles in aqueous media. PMID:24832924

  17. Role of Electronic Structure in the Susceptibility of Metastable Transition-Metal Oxide Structures to Transformation

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Role of Electronic Structure in the Susceptibility of Metastable Transition-Metal Oxide Structures transition-metal ions in an oxide and how these factors in turn affect the resistance of metastable 3d transition-metal oxides against transformation. This is a relevant topic to the Li rechargeable battery field

  18. Electronic structure of high-k transition metal oxides and their silicate and aluminate alloys

    E-print Network

    Electronic structure of high-k transition metal oxides and their silicate and aluminate alloys G alloys of: i group IIIB, IVB, and VB transition metal TM oxides and ii first row RE oxides with SiO2 addresses differences between the electronic structure of: i alternative high-k transition metal TM rare

  19. Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget

    E-print Network

    Alexander, Becky

    Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur(IV)) oxidation by O2 catalyzed by transition metals. Due to the lack of photochemically produced OH and H2O2), Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget, J

  20. VO2 films with strong semiconductor to metal phase transition prepared by the precursor oxidation process

    E-print Network

    Luryi, Serge

    VO2 films with strong semiconductor to metal phase transition prepared by the precursor oxidation, the precursor oxidation process, for making VO2 films with strong semiconductor-to-metal phase transition. Sputter-deposited metal precursor V films were oxidized in situ in the deposition chamber for 2.5­7 h

  1. Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory

    E-print Network

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory-phase transition metal oxide cations can convert methane to methanol. Methane activation by MO+ is discussed-phase transition metal oxides with methane are thus a simple model system for the direct conversion of methane

  2. Physica B 403 (2008) 14011403 Probing nanoscale inhomogeneities in transition metal oxides with

    E-print Network

    2008-01-01

    Physica B 403 (2008) 1401­1403 Probing nanoscale inhomogeneities in transition metal oxides the universality of phase coexistence in complex transition metal oxides. r 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance in transition metal oxides is an intense area of contemporary

  3. Sorption and filtration of metals using iron-oxide-coated sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Benjamin; Ronald S. Sletten; Robert P. Bailey; Thomas Bennett

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxides are good adsorbents for uncomplexed metals, some metal-ligand complexes, and many metal oxyanions. However, the adsorbent properties of these oxides are not fully exploited in wastewater treatment operations because of difficulties associated with their separation from the aqueous phase. This paper describes experiments in which iron oxides were coated onto the surface of ordinary filter sand, and this

  4. Surfactant Organic Molecules Restore Magnetism in Metal-Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Surfactant Organic Molecules Restore Magnetism in Metal-Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces Juan Salafranca ingredient in the fabrication of nanoparticles with optimal magnetic properties. KEYWORDS: Ferrites, metal-oxide nanoparticles, magnetism, electron magnetic chiral dichroism, electron energy loss spectroscopy Metal-oxide

  5. Open layers based on metal-oxide chains linked by cyclohexanedicarboxylate ligands

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiqu

    Open layers based on metal-oxide chains linked by cyclohexanedicarboxylate ligands Inn Hoe Kim a Accepted 8 October 2009 Available online 29 October 2009 Keywords: Metal-oxide organic compounds Indium hydroxide Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid Synthesis Crystal structure a b s t r a c t Three layered metal-oxide

  6. Integrated color pixels in 0.18-m complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology

    E-print Network

    Wandell, Brian A.

    Integrated color pixels in 0.18- m complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology Peter B Following the trend of increased integration in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sen is the de- velopment of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors. These sensors

  7. The Effect of the Metal Oxidation on the Vacuum Chamber Impedance Andranik Tsakanian

    E-print Network

    1 The Effect of the Metal Oxidation on the Vacuum Chamber Impedance Andranik Tsakanian Hamburg for various thicknesses of the metallic layer and oxidation depth. Based on the obtained results the impedance as a sum of oxide and metal surface impedances. Based on this solution the monopole impedances

  8. Noncontact probing of metal-oxide-semiconductor inversion layer mobility Joo-Hiuk Son,a)

    E-print Network

    Bokor, Jeffrey

    Noncontact probing of metal-oxide-semiconductor inversion layer mobility Joo-Hiuk Son,a) Seongtae measured absorption of terahertz radiation pulses by metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS inversion layers of the most important device parameters in metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS technology. The mobility is usually

  9. Stellar evolution at low metallicity under the influence of binary interaction and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mink, S. E.

    2010-04-01

    The chapters of this thesis have been published in the following journals. Ch. 2: "Fluorine in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: a binary scenario", Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters, 484, 27, 2008, M. Lugaro, S.E. de Mink, R.G. Izzard, S.W. Campbell, A. I. Karakas, S. Cristallo, O.R. Pols, J.C. Lattanzio, O. Straniero, R. Gallino, and T.C. Beers Ch. 3: "Efficiency of mass transfer in massive close binaries. Tests from double-lined eclipsing binaries in the SMC", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 467, 1181, 2007, S.E. de Mink, O.R. Pols, and R.W. Hilditch Ch. 4: "Rotational mixing in massive binaries: detached short-period systems", Astronomy and Astrophysics 497, 243, 2009, S.E. de Mink, M. Cantiello, N. Langer and O.R. Pols, I. Brott and S.-Ch Yoon Ch. 5: "Massive binaries as the source of globular cluster abundance patterns", Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters, 507, 1, 2009, S.E. de Mink, O.R. Pols, N. Langer, R.G. Izzard Ch. 6: "The Effect of Stellar Rotation on Colour-Magnitude Diagrams: On the apparent presence of multiple populations in intermediate age stellar clusters", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 398, 11, 2009, N. Bastian and S.E. de Mink Ch. 7: "The evolution of runaway stellar collision products", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 497, 255, 2009. E. Glebbeek, E. Gaburov, S.E. de Mink, O.R. Pols, and S.F. Portegies Zwart

  10. The Close Binary Frequency of Wolf-Rayet Stars as a Function of Metallicity in M31 and M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Massive star evolutionary models generally predict the correct ratio of WC-type and WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars at low metallicities, but underestimate the ratio at higher (solar and above) metallicities. One possible explanation for this failure is perhaps single-star models are not sufficient and Roche-lobe overflow in close binaries is necessary to produce the "extra" WC stars at higher metallicities. However, this would require the frequency of close massive binaries to be metallicity dependent. Here we test this hypothesis by searching for close Wolf-Rayet binaries in the high metallicity environments of M31 and the center of M33 as well as in the lower metallicity environments of the middle and outer regions of M33. After identifying ~100 Wolf-Rayet binaries based on radial velocity variations, we conclude that the close binary frequency of Wolf-Rayets is not metallicity dependent and thus other factors must be responsible for the overabundance of WC stars at high metallicities. However, our initial identifications and observations of these close binaries have already been put to good use as we are currently observing additional epochs for eventual orbit and mass determinations. The spectroscopic observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. MMT telescope time was granted by NOAO, through the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP). TSIP is funded by the National Science Foundation. This paper uses data products produced by the OIR Telescope Data Center, supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  11. Oxide Reduction in Advanced Metal Stacks for Microelectronic Applications Wentao Qin, Alex A. Volinsky1

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Oxide Reduction in Advanced Metal Stacks for Microelectronic Applications Wentao Qin, Alex A used for microelectronic interconnect applications. Interfacial oxides can cause device performance degradation and failure by significantly increasing electrical resistance. Interfacial oxide layers found

  12. Preparation of superacids by metal oxides for reactions of butanes and pentanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazushi Arata

    1996-01-01

    Recent works on preparation of solid superacid catalysts which are active for reactions of butanes and pentanes are reviewed. Sulfated metal oxides are obtained by adsorbing sulfate ion onto amorphous oxides of Fe, Ti, Zr, Hf, Sn, and Si followed by calcination in air; a superacid of Al2O3 is prepared from the crystallized oxide. Superacids by metal oxides are synthesized

  13. CHARGE BURSTS THROUGH DIELECTRIC LAYERS OF 4H-SIC/SIO2 METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITORS

    E-print Network

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    CHARGE BURSTS THROUGH DIELECTRIC LAYERS OF 4H-SIC/SIO2 METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITORS M of inversion layer charge in 4H-SiC metal oxide semiconductor capacitors leak through the oxide layer leading power devices, it has the same native oxide as silicon ­ silicon dioxide. Consequently, intense research

  14. Density Functional Theory Studies of Metal Oxide Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veliah, Shanmuga Sundaram

    The density functional theory which was first developed for solid-state calculations has been recently applied to a wide range of molecular electronic structure problems. In this work, this method is applied to study the structure and energetics of metal oxide clusters. The systems chosen, large clusters of magnesia, an alkaline earth oxide and microclusters of chromia, a transition metal oxide, were diverse in their size and electronic structure. Geometry optimization was performed on all the clusters to determine their minimum energy configuration within a given symmetry. Calculations on magnesia reveal the binding energy and near neighbor separation to show a progressive approach towards their corresponding bulk crystalline values with increasing cluster size. Charge density contours of the surface and inner layer show the presence of covalent effects on the surface of the 64 atom MgO cluster. In chromium oxide microclusters, the oxygen to metal ratio strongly influences the structural and electronic properties. Inclusion of non-local effects was found to be important to accurately determine the energies although reasonable structural configurations can be obtained using the local functionals. Ionization induced structural changes were found to be significant but were not found to affect the overall geometry of the clusters. The dissociation energy, bond length, dipole moment, vibrational frequency, ionization energy and the ground state electronic configuration of the neutral and ionized CrO molecule was found to be in excellent agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results.

  15. Novel Extended Solids Composed of Transition Metal Oxide Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishaque Khan, M.

    2000-06-01

    Transition metal oxide clusters and their derivatives offer an unmatched variety of structural motifs that are potential building blocks for the design and development of extended solids. In view of the proven applications of these clusters in catalysis, molecular recognition, environmental decontamination, clinical and analytical processes, materials science, nanotechnology, and medicine, their usage as building blocks promises the development of new materials whose properties could be rationalized in terms of their constituents. Although the technique of assembling appropriate transition metal oxide clusters to generate new solids is still underdeveloped, recent progress made in this direction is promising. During our ongoing research program focused on this aspect, we have been able to prepare and characterize a series of novel framework materials, composed of well defined vanadium oxide clusters {V18O42(XO4)} (X=V, S, Cl). We have also prepared three-dimensional composite solids by incorporating organic ligands into the transition metal oxide framework. Some of the results of this work are reviewed with reference to the synthesis, structure, and physicochemical properties of the newly prepared extended solids.

  16. Electronic entanglement in late transition metal oxides

    E-print Network

    Thunström, Patrik; Eriksson, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a study of the entanglement in the electronic structure of the late transition metal monoxides - MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO - obtained by means of density-functional theory in the local density approximation combined with dynamical mean-field theory (LDA+DMFT). The impurity problem is solved through Exact Diagonalization (ED), which grants full access to the thermally mixed many-body ground state density operator. The quality of the electronic structure is affirmed through a direct comparison between the calculated electronic excitation spectrum and photoemission experiments. Our treatment allows for a quantitative investigation of the entanglement in the electronic structure. Two main sources of entanglement are explicitly resolved through the use of a fidelity based geometrical entanglement measure, and additional information is gained from a complementary entropic entanglement measure. We show that the interplay of crystal field effects and Coulomb interaction causes the entanglement in CoO to ...

  17. Thin and thick films of metal oxides and metal phthalocyanines as gamma radiation dosimeters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalil Arshak; Arousian Arshak; Saleh Zleetni; Olga Korostynska

    2004-01-01

    Numerous efforts were devoted to investigating the influence of radiation on metal oxides and polymer materials for dosimetry applications. Metal oxides, such as NiO, LaFeO3, CeO2, TeO2, In2O3, SiO and MnO, and polymers, such as CuPc, NiPc, MnPc and CoPc, were used as the active constituents in the fabrication of ?-radiation sensors. Thin and thick film devices were made in

  18. Synthesis and structural, magnetic, thermal, and transport properties of several transition metal oxides and aresnides

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Supriyo

    2010-05-16

    Oxide compounds containing the transition metal vanadium (V) have attracted a lot of attention in the field of condensed matter physics owing to their exhibition of interesting properties including metal-insulator transitons, structural transitions, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings, and heavy fermion behavior. Binary vanadium oxides V{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} where 2 {le} n {le} 9 have triclinic structures and exhibit metal-insulator and antiferromagnetic transitions. The only exception is V{sub 7}O{sub 13} which remains metallic down to 4 K. The ternary vanadium oxide LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has the normal spinel structure, is metallic, does not undergo magnetic ordering and exhibits heavy fermion behavior below 10 K. CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has an orthorhombic structure with the vanadium spins forming zigzag chains and has been suggested to be a model system to study the gapless chiral phase. These provide great motivation for further investigation of some known vanadium compounds as well as to explore new vanadium compounds in search of new physics. This thesis consists, in part, of experimental studies involving sample preparation and magnetic, transport, thermal, and x-ray measurements on some strongly correlated eletron systems containing the transition metal vanadium. The compounds studied are LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}, YV{sub 4}O{sub 8}, and YbV{sub 4}O{sub 8}. The recent discovery of superconductivity in RFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (R = La, Ce, Pr, Gd, Tb, Dy, Sm, and Nd), and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = Ba, Sr, Ca, and Eu) doped with K, Na, or Cs at the A site with relatively high T{sub c} has sparked tremendous activities in the condensed matter physics community and a renewed interest in the area of superconductivity as occurred following the discovery of the layered cuprate high T{sub c} superconductors in 1986. To discover more superconductors with hopefully higher T{sub c}'s, it is extremely important to investigate compounds having crystal structures related to the compounds showing high T{sub c} superconductivity. Along with the vanadium oxide compounds described before, this thesis describes our investigations of magnetic, structural, thermal and transport properties of EuPd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} single crystals which have a crystal structure closely related to the AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds and also a study of the reaction kinetics of the formation of LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}.

  19. Transition-metal-catalyzed oxidation of metallic Sn in NiO/SnO2 nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hua, Chunxiu; Fang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-04-25

    It is well accepted that metallic tin as a discharge (reduction) product of SnO(x) cannot be electrochemically oxidized below 3.00?V versus Li(+)/Li(0) due to the high stability of Li2O, though a similar oxidation can usually occur for a transition metal formed from the corresponding oxide. In this work, nanosized Ni2 SnO4 and NiO/SnO2 nanocomposite were synthesized by coprecipitation reactions and subsequent heat treatment. Owing to the catalytic effect of nanosized metallic nickel, metallic tin can be electrochemically oxidized to SnO2 below 3.00?V. As a result, the reversible lithium-storage capacities of the nanocomposite reach 970?mAh?g(-1) or above, much higher than the theoretical capacity (ca. 750?mAh?g(-1)) of SnO2, NiO, or their composites. These findings extend the well-known electrochemical conversion reaction to non-transition-metal compounds and may have important applications, for example, in constructing high-capacity electrode materials and efficient catalysts. PMID:24648283

  20. Factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides Kisuk Kang and Gerbrand Ceder*

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides Kisuk Kang and Gerbrand in layered lithium transition metal oxides are systematically studied in this paper by means of first, and the nature of the metal ion in the transition metal layer have all been proposed to influence the Li mobility

  1. Rapid and continuous hydrothermal crystallization of metal oxide particles in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadafumi Adschiri; Katsuhito Kanazawa; Kunio Arai

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on hydrolysis of 10 metal salt aqueous solutions of 6 metal oxides that was conducted in supercritical water. Continuous and rapid production of metal oxide fine particles was achieved by mixing a metal salt aqueous solution with preheated water fed from another line. The reaction time required was less than 2 min. Particle size, morphology, and crystal

  2. A high temperature potentiometric CO 2 sensor mixed with binary carbonate and glassy ceramic oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Satyanarayana; Whyo Sup Noh; Woon Young Lee; Gwang Hu Jin; Jin Seong Park

    2009-01-01

    A high temperature (700°C) lithium ion-based CO2 sensor was fabricated using Li2CO3–BaCO3 binary carbonate and SiO2:B2O3:P2O5 (1:2:1mol%) amorphous glassy ceramic oxide as sensing electrode. The sensor works efficiently at 700°C without any degradation of the sensing material. The electro motive force (EMF) of the sensor is very stable and follows perfect Nernstian behavior with the logarithm of CO2 concentration in

  3. Three-dimensional Metal Nano Pattern Transfer on PET using Metal Oxide Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Jun

    There is a strong need for a fine three-dimensional metal patterning technique for fabricating next-generation devices such as patterned media and plasmon photonic and nano-scale electrodes. In addition, flexible and transparent electronic devices on plastic substrates are desired for wearable devices and flexible thin-film displays. Therefore, a technique for patterning metals onto plastic substrates is required. Nanotransfer printing (nTP) has received much attention recently because of its high throughput and high resolution compared to inkjet printing. However, it is difficult to create sub-100 nm metal patterns using nTP because the PDMS stamp is deformed by transfer pressure. Therefore, we have developed a technique for transferring three-dimensional metal patterns onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by nanoimprint lithography using a metal oxide release layer. The three-dimensional nanoimprint mold was fabricated by control of acceleration voltage electron beam lithography (CAV-EBL) with spin-on-glass (SOG). As a result, three-dimensional metal nano patterns were obtained using a metal oxide release layer. Moreover, the metal moth-eye structure, which has a very high aspect ratio, was transferred onto a PET substrate by applying our process to the moth-eye structure on glassy carbon.

  4. Surface plasmon dispersion analysis in the metal-oxide-metal tunnel diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, J. F.; Wang, E. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed model of surface plasmon dispersion in the metal-oxide-metal tunnel diode is presented in order to clarify the spectral emission from this diode. The model predicts the location of the spectral peaks and the emission between the peaks by considering the effects of retardation on the surface plasmon. A nonradiative mode is found to play a major role in the transition from the visible to UV peaks in the diode spectra.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of reduced transition metal oxides and nanophase metals with hydrazine in aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhou Gui; Rong Fan; Weiqin Mo; Xianhui Chen; Ling Yang; Yuan Hu

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of the first row (3d) transition metal complexes in aqueous solution using hydrazine as the reducing agent has been investigated systematically. Nanoscale reduced metal oxides such as VO2(B), Cr2O3 were obtained through hydrazine reduction followed by proper thermal treatments. Nanocrystalline ?-Mn2O3 was synthesized directly through aqueous phase reduction at room temperature. Nanoclusters of cobalt, copper and the one-dimensional single

  6. Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Gustafson, T. K.; Izawa, T.

    1975-01-01

    Direct detection experiments have demonstrated the coherent coupling of 10.6 micrometer radiation into photolithographically fabricated metal-oxide-metal tunnel junctions. A CO2 laser beam mechanically chopped at 1 KHz was focused at a variable angle of incidence with a power density of about 10 W/sq cm at the diodes. Diodes in which the junction resistance was much greater than the lead resistance displayed angular characteristics dominated by coherent antenna coupling.

  7. Thin metal and metal oxide films deposited by the anodic vacuum arc technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Markschläger; W. Lukhaub

    1996-01-01

    Thin metal (e.g., Al, Cu, Ag) and metal oxide films (e.g., SiOx, AlyOx, SnyOx) were deposited on synthetic materials using a vacuum arc with a consumable anode. In constrast to a cathodic vacuum arc, the anodic vacuum arc generates a droplet free, only the evaporated anode material consisting of plasma in the entire volume. The degree of ionization can easily

  8. Transition Metal Exchanged Zeolite Layers for Selectivity Enhancement of Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic P. Mann; Keith F. E. Pratt; Themis Paraskeva; Ivan P. Parkin; David E. Williams

    2007-01-01

    A novel method of improving the selectivity of metal oxide gas sensors has been developed by using catalytically active molecular sieve materials. They have been successfully introduced into a proprietary sensor array. The cracking patterns of linear alkanes over transition metal exchanged zeolite Y have been measured using a zeolite bed\\/GC\\/MS experimental set-up within a temperature range of 300degC to

  9. Reactions of metal ions at surfaces of hydrous iron oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Cu, Ag and Cr concentrations in natural water may be lowered by mild chemical reduction involving ferric hydroxide-ferrous ion redox processes. V and Mo solubilities may be controlled by precipitation of ferrous vanadate or molybdate. Concentrations as low as 10-8.00 or 10-9.00 M are readily attainable for all these metals in oxygen-depleted systems that are relatively rich in Fe. Deposition of manganese oxides such as Mn3O4 can be catalyzed in oxygenated water by coupling to ferrous-ferric redox reactions. Once formed, these oxides may disproportionate, giving Mn4+ oxides. This reaction produces strongly oxidizing conditions at manganese oxide surfaces. The solubility of As is significantly influenced by ferric iron only at low pH. Spinel structures such as chromite or ferrites of Cu, Ni, and Zn, are very stable and if locally developed on ferric hydroxide surfaces could bring about solubilities much below 10-9.00 M for divalent metals near neutral pH. Solubilities calculated from thermodynamic data are shown graphically and compared with observed concentrations in some natural systems. ?? 1977.

  10. IVb Transition Metal Oxides and Silicates: An Ab Initio Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian-Marco Rignanese

    Using density-functional theory, we investigate the structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of group IVb transition\\u000a metals (M=Hf, Zr, Ti) oxides and silicates which have drawn considerable attention as alternative high-k materials. For the\\u000a oxides, three crystalline phases of dioxide are considered. The first two are the cubic and tetragonal structures which exist\\u000a for hafnia HfO2 or zirconia ZrO2, while it

  11. Sol-flame synthesis: a general strategy to decorate nanowires with metal oxide/noble metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunzhe; Cho, In Sun; Rao, Pratap M; Cai, Lili; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-03-13

    The hybrid structure of nanoparticle-decorated nanowires (NP@NW) combines the merits of large specific surface areas for NPs and anisotropic properties for NWs and is a desirable structure for applications including batteries, dye-sensitized solar cells, photoelectrochemical water splitting, and catalysis. Here, we report a novel sol-flame method to synthesize the NP@NW hybrid structure with two unique characteristics: (1) large loading of NPs per NW with the morphology of NP chains fanning radially from the NW core and (2) intimate contact between NPs and NWs. Both features are advantageous for the above applications that involve both surface reactions and charge transport processes. Moreover, the sol-flame method is simple and general, with which we have successfully decorated various NWs with binary/ternary metal oxide and even noble metal NPs. The unique aspects of the sol-flame method arise from the ultrafast heating rate and the high temperature of flame, which enables rapid solvent evaporation and combustion, and the combustion gaseous products blow out NPs as they nucleate, forming the NP chains around NWs. PMID:22494023

  12. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF DIMETHYL SULFIDE WITH OZONE: EFFECTS OF PROMOTER AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports improved catalytic activities and stabilities for the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a major pollutant of pulp and paper mills. Ozone was used as an oxidant and activities of Cu, Mo, Cr and Mn oxides, and mixed metal oxides supported on -alumina, were tes...

  13. Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress and Plant Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Keunen, Els; Remans, Tony; Bohler, Sacha; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2011-01-01

    A general status of oxidative stress in plants caused by exposure to elevated metal concentrations in the environment coincides with a constraint on mitochondrial electron transport, which enhances ROS accumulation at the mitochondrial level. As mitochondria are suggested to be involved in redox signaling under environmental stress conditions, mitochondrial ROS can initiate a signaling cascade mediating the overall stress response, i.e., damage versus adaptation. This review highlights our current understanding of metal-induced responses in plants, with focus on the production and detoxification of mitochondrial ROS. In addition, the potential involvement of retrograde signaling in these processes will be discussed. PMID:22072926

  14. Catalytic oxidation of carbon nanotubes with noble metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kaname; Arai, Shigeo; Sasaki, Yukichi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic oxidation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNCTs) with some noble metal nanoparticles was observed by environmental transmission electron microscopy (E-TEM). Amoeba-like movement of the nanoparticles was observed even at a temperature of ?400°C, which is much lower than the melting points of any of the metals. In particular, rhodium particles reacted intensely with MWCNTs, and assumed a droplet-like shape. On the other hand, gold particles caused very little erosion of the MWCNTs under the conditions of this study. PMID:26025589

  15. Electronic entanglement in late transition metal oxides

    E-print Network

    Patrik Thunström; Igor Di Marco; Olle Eriksson

    2013-01-28

    Here we present a study of the entanglement in the electronic structure of the late transition metal monoxides - MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO - obtained by means of density-functional theory in the local density approximation combined with dynamical mean-field theory (LDA+DMFT). The impurity problem is solved through Exact Diagonalization (ED), which grants full access to the thermally mixed many-body ground state density operator. The quality of the electronic structure is affirmed through a direct comparison between the calculated electronic excitation spectrum and photoemission experiments. Our treatment allows for a quantitative investigation of the entanglement in the electronic structure. Two main sources of entanglement are explicitly resolved through the use of a fidelity based geometrical entanglement measure, and additional information is gained from a complementary entropic entanglement measure. We show that the interplay of crystal field effects and Coulomb interaction causes the entanglement in CoO to take a particularly intricate form.

  16. Energetics of lithium transition metal oxides applied as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Miaojun

    In this work, high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry was employed to investigate the thermodynamic properties of several representative lithium transition metal oxide systems applied as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries: layered alpha-NaFeO2 structure LiNi1-x COxO2 solid solution, Li1+xMn 2-xO4 spinel, LiMO2 (M = Mn, Fe and Co), and chemically delithiated LixCoO2. The enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of mixing for LiNi1-x COxO2 solid solution series (0 ? x ? 1) were determined using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The enthalpies of formation at 298 K from binary oxides (Li2O, NiO and CoO) and O2, and the lattice parameters decrease approximately linearly with the Co content x in LiNi1-xCOxO 2. The solid solution deviates slightly positively from ideality. Lithium substituted spinel Li1+xMn2-xO 4 (0 ? x ? 1/3) samples synthesized are stoichiometric at x < 0.25, and oxygen deficient at x ? 0.25. The enthalpy of formation from binary oxides (Li2O, Mn2O3 and MnO2 ) becomes more exothermic with x in Li1+xMn2-x O4 for stoichiometric compounds, and deviates endothermically from this trend for oxygen deficient compounds. This energetic trend is related to two competing substitution mechanisms of lithium for manganese (oxidation of Mn3+ to Mn4+ versus formation of oxygen vacancies). LiMO2 samples (M = Mn, Fe, and Co) with different structures were synthesized and their enthalpies of formation from oxides (Li2O and M2O3) or oxides (Li2O and MO) plus oxygen at 298 K were determined. The relative stability of the polymorphs of LiMO 2 was established based on their enthalpies of formation. Phase transformations in LiFeO2 were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The gamma phase is the stable form of LiFeO2 at room temperature and the a phase is stable at high temperature. Energetics of chemically delithiated LixCoO2 samples (0.5 ? x ? 1.0) with the alpha-NaFeO2 structure (O 3 type) was studied. The enthalpies of formation from binary oxides (Li2O and CoO) and oxygen vary linearly with x and LixCoO 2 becomes less stable with decreasing x. The enthalpies of formation from oxides and oxygen for monoclinic Li0.5CoO2 and O3-CoO2 were estimated by extrapolation from the linear trend.

  17. Taurine inhibition of metal-stimulated catecholamine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Dawson, R; Baker, D; Eppler, B; Tang, E; Shih, D; Hern, H; Hu, M

    2000-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid found in mammalian tissues and it has been suggested to have cytoprotective functions. The aim of the present study was to determine if taurine had the potential to reduce oxidative stress associated with metal-stimulated catecholamine oxidation. Taurine and structural analogs of taurine were tested for their ability to inhibit metal-stimulated quinone formation from dopamine or L-dopa. Oxidative damage to proteins and lipids were also assessed in vitro and the effects of taurine were determined. Taurine (20 mM) was found to decrease significantly ferric iron (50-500 microM)- and manganese (10 microM)-stimulated L-dopa or dopamine oxidation. Taurine had no effect on zinc-induced dopamine oxidation and slightly potentiated copper- and NaIO(4)-stimulated quinone formation. Ferric iron-stimulated lipid peroxidation was not affected by taurine (1-20 mM). Protein carbonyl formation induced by ferric iron (500 microM) and L-dopa (500 microM) was significantly reduced by 10 mM taurine. The cytotoxicity of L-dopa (250 microM) and ferric chloride (75 microM) to LLC-PK(1) cells was attenuated by 10 mM taurine or hypotaurine. Homotaurine alone stimulated L-dopa oxidation and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of ferric iron. Homotaurine was found to be cytotoxic when combined with L-dopa or L-dopa/iron. In contrast, hypotaurine inhibited quinone formation and protected LLC-PK(1) cells. These studies suggest that taurine may exhibit cytoprotective effects against the oxidation products of catecholamines by acting as a scavenger for free radicals and cytotoxic quinones. PMID:15545001

  18. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  19. Modelling the observed properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars using binary population synthesis

    E-print Network

    Abate, C; Stancliffe, R J; Izzard, R G; Karakas, A I; Beers, T C; Lee, Y S

    2015-01-01

    The stellar population in the Galactic halo is characterised by a large fraction of CEMP stars. Most CEMP stars are enriched in $s$-elements (CEMP-$s$ stars), and some of these are also enriched in $r$-elements (CEMP-$s/r$ stars). One formation scenario proposed for CEMP stars invokes wind mass transfer in the past from a TP-AGB primary star to a less massive companion star which is presently observed. We generate low-metallicity populations of binary stars to reproduce the observed CEMP-star fraction. In addition, we aim to constrain our wind mass-transfer model and investigate under which conditions our synthetic populations reproduce observed abundance distributions. We compare the CEMP fractions and the abundance distributions determined from our synthetic populations with observations. Several physical parameters of the binary stellar population of the halo are uncertain, e.g. the initial mass function, the mass-ratio and orbital-period distributions, and the binary fraction. We vary the assumptions in o...

  20. Hydrogen generation using sodium borohydride solution and metal catalyst coated on metal oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitsugu Kojima; Ken-ichirou Suzuki; Kazuhiro Fukumoto; Megumi Sasaki; Toshio Yamamoto; Yasuaki Kawai; Hiroaki Hayashi

    2002-01-01

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reacted slowly with water to liberate 4mol of hydrogen\\/mol of the compound at room temperature. Hydrogen generation was accelerated by applying metal–metal oxide catalysts such as Pt–TiO2, Pt–CoO and Pt–LiCoO2. As the metal crystallites size decreased and the amount increased, the hydrogen generation rate increased. It was indicated that the hydrogen generation rates using Pt and LiCoO2

  1. Understanding Organic Film Behavior on Alloy and Metal Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Aparna; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Barriger, Lisa; Eastman, Rachel; Parsi, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Native oxide surfaces of stainless steel 316L and Nitinol alloys and their constituent metal oxides namely, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iron and titanium were modified with long chain organic acids to better understand organic film formation. The adhesion and stability of films of octadecylphosphonic acid, octadecylhydroxamic acid, octadecylcarboxylic acid and octadecylsulfonic acid on these substrates was examined in this study. The films formed on these surfaces were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. The effect of the acidity of the organic moiety and substrate composition on the film characteristics and stability is discussed. Interestingly, on the alloy surfaces, the presence of less reactive metal sites does not inhibit film formation. PMID:20039608

  2. Study of growth characteristics and interfaces of oxides and oxide-metal heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yadavalli, S.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal films of oxides have been synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy using methods developed in this thesis research and the growth characteristics of oxides and oxide-metal heterostructures have been studied. Studies of the structure of the oxide-metal interfaces using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy and high resolution electron microscopy are presented. The surface structure of the oxide and metal films are also characterized by Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction during growth. Low temperature growth studies of oxides show that epitaxial growth of oxide films with smooth surfaces is possible even at scaled growth temperatures as low as 0.1T[sub m]. This is similar to the growth characteristics of alkali halides. Epitaxially grown bcc metal films are known to exhibit a rigid three-dimensional orientation relationship with respect to sapphire substrates. This orientation relationship is confirmed in the case of vanadium. Also, V (001) exhibits a range of tilts with respect to the sapphire substrate normal. The magnitude of the tilt is found to depend on the growth temperature and growth rate. MgO (001) grown on tilted V (001) also exhibits a misorientation with respect to the sapphire substrate normal with the same sense of rotation as vanadium. Growth and characterization of V-MgO superlattices are also discussed. The two components exhibit transitive tilts such that each grows in a fixed orientation which differs from that of the other. A [open quotes]flexible sheet[close quotes] model is proposed to explain the tilt of the MgO and the V layers in the superlattice when growth occurs in the step-flow mode by ledge motion. The tilt of MgO (001) is influenced by the vicinal vanadium sublayer and the lattice mixmatch between the two along the direction normal to the surface.

  3. Pressure induced quantum phase transitions in metallic oxides and pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah Tafti, Fazel

    Quantum phase transitions occur as a result of competing ground states. The focus of the present work is to understand quantum criticality and its consequences when the competition is between insulating and metallic ground states. Metal-insulator transitions are studied by means of electronic transport measurements and quantum critical points are approached by applying hydrostatic pressure in two different compounds namely Eu2Ir22O 7 and FeCrAs. The former is a ternary metal oxide and the latter is a ternary metal pnictide. A major component of this work was the development of the ultra-high pressure measurements by means of Anvil cells. A novel design is introduced which minimizes the alignment accessory components hence, making the cell more robust and easier to use. Eu2Ir22O7 is a ternary metal oxide and a member of the pyrochlore iridate family. Resistivity measurements under pressure in moissanite anvil cells show the evolution of the ground state of the system from insulating to metallic. The quantum phase transition at Pc ˜ 6 GPa appears to be continuous. A remarkable correspondence is revealed between the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on Eu2Ir22O7 and the effect of chemical pressure by changing the R size in the R2Ir2O7 series. This suggests that in both cases the tuning parameter controls the t2g bandwidth of the iridium 5d electrons. Moreover, hydrostatic pressure unveils a curious cross-over from incoherent to conventional metallic behaviour at a T* > 150 K in the neighbourhood of Pc, suggesting a connection between the high and low temperature phases. The possibility of a topological semi-metallic ground state, predicted in recent theoretical studies, is explained. FeCrAs is a ternary metal pnictide with Fermi liquid specific heat and susceptibility behaviour but non-metallic non-Fermi liquid resistivity behaviour. Characteristic properties of the compound are explained and compared to those of superconducting pnictides. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) order sets in at ˜125 K with the magnetic moments residing on the Cr site. Pressure measurements are carried out in moissanite and diamond anvil cells in order to suppress the AFM order and resolve the underlying electronic transport properties. While AFM order is destroyed by pressure, the non-metallic non-Fermi liquid behaviour is shown to be robust against pressure.

  4. Absolute dimensions of detached eclipsing binaries - I. The metallic-lined system WW Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Claret, A.; Etzel, P. B.

    2005-10-01

    WW Aurigae is a detached eclipsing binary composed of two metallic-lined A-type stars orbiting each other every 2.5 d. We have determined the masses and radii of both components to accuracies of 0.4 and 0.6 per cent, respectively. From a cross-correlation analysis of high-resolution spectra we find masses of 1.964 +/- 0.007 Msolar for the primary star and 1.814 +/- 0.007 Msolar for the secondary star. From an analysis of photoelectric uvby and UBV light curves we find the radii of the stars to be 1.927 +/- 0.011 Rsolar and 1.841 +/- 0.011 Rsolar, where the uncertainties have been calculated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Fundamental effective temperatures of the two stars have been derived, using the Hipparcos parallax of WW Aur and published ultraviolet, optical and infrared fluxes; these are 7960 +/- 420 and 7670 +/- 410 K. The masses, radii and effective temperatures of WW Aur are only matched by theoretical evolutionary models for a fractional initial metal abundance, Z, of approximately 0.06 and an age of roughly 90 Myr. This seems to be the highest metal abundance inferred for a well-studied detached eclipsing binary, but we find no evidence that it is related to the metallic-lined nature of the stars. The circular orbit of WW Aur is in conflict with the circularization time-scales of both the Tassoul and the Zahn tidal theories and we suggest that this is due to pre-main-sequence evolution or the presence of a circular orbit when the stars were formed.

  5. Absolute dimensions of detached eclipsing binaries. I. The metallic-lined system WW Aurigae

    E-print Network

    John Southworth; B Smalley; P F L Maxted; A Claret; P B Etzel

    2005-07-27

    WW Aurigae is a detached eclipsing binary composed of two metallic-lined A-type stars orbiting each other every 2.5 days. We have determined the masses and radii of both components to accuracies of 0.4 and 0.6 percent, respectively. From a cross-correlation analysis of high-resolution spectra we find masses of 1.964 +/- 0.007 Msun for the primary star and 1.814 +/- 0.007 Msun for the secondary star. From an analysis of photoelectric uvby and UBV light curves we find the radii of the stars to be 1.927 +/- 0.011 Rsun and 1.841 +/- 0.011 Rsun, where the uncertainties have been calculated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Fundamental effective temperatures of the two stars have been derived, using the Hipparcos parallax of WW Aur and published ultraviolet, optical and infrared fluxes, and are 7960 +/- 420 and 7670 +/- 410 K. The masses, radii and effective temperatures of WW Aur are only matched by theoretical evolutionary models for a fractional initial metal abundance, Z, of approximately 0.06 and an age of roughly 90 Myr. This seems to be the highest metal abundance inferred for a well-studied detached eclipsing binary, but we find no evidence that it is related to the metallic-lined nature of the stars. The circular orbit of WW Aur is in conflict with the circularization timescales of both the Tassoul and the Zahn tidal theories and we suggest that this is due to pre-main-sequence evolution or the presence of a circular orbit when the stars were formed.

  6. Colossal dielectric constants in transition-metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lunkenheimer; S. Krohns; S. Riegg; S. G. Ebbinghaus; A. Reller; A. Loidl

    2009-01-01

    .  \\u000a Many transition-metal oxides show very large (“colossal”) magnitudes of the dielectric constant and thus have immense potential\\u000a for applications in modern microelectronics and for the development of new capacitance-based energy-storage devices. In the\\u000a present work, we thoroughly discuss the mechanisms that can lead to colossal values of the dielectric constant, especially\\u000a emphasising effects generated by external and internal interfaces,

  7. Surface Ionization Gas Detection on Platinum and Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hackner; A. Habauzit; G. Muller; E. Comini; G. Faglia; G. Sberveglieri

    2009-01-01

    Surface ionization (SI) gas detection experiments have been performed on platinum (Pt) and metal oxide (MOX) films. The probability of surface ion emission varies with temperature in an Arrhenius-type manner. Among all hydrocarbons studied so far those with amine functional groups exhibited the lowest activation energies allowing detection in the ppm concentration range at emitter operation temperatures of about 400degC.

  8. Interface studies of tungsten gate metal-oxide-silicon capacitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiling Shang; Marvin H. White; Kathryn W. Guarini; Paul Solomon; Eduard Cartier; Fenton R. McFeely; John J. Yurkas; Wen-Chin Lee

    2001-01-01

    The Si\\/SiO2 interface in 100-nm-thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures exhibits high interface state densities (Dit0>5×1011\\/cm2 eV) after conventional forming gas anneals over varying temperatures and times. In this letter, we show this is a consequence of the low diffusivity and solubility of molecular hydrogen in tungsten and the high temperature CVD process. We have discovered

  9. Ion beam sputter deposition of refractory metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, B.E.; Dinges, H.W.; Poecker, A. [Deutsche Bundespost Telekom Forschungs- und Technologiezentrum, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Oxides of hafnium, niobium, tantalum, and zirconium are deposited by ion beam sputtering of the pure metal targets using CO{sub 2} as working gas. The resulting thin films are amorphous, featureless smooth and of excellent adherence to semiconductor substrates. Despite a certain content of carbon they are highly transparent in the visible and near infrared wavelength range as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Their wide range of refractive indices makes them suitable for multilayer optical filter design.

  10. Metal oxide varistor polarization from an initial transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilland, David H.

    1987-08-01

    Metal oxide varistors (MOV's) are polarized by the initial transient shunted. This effect is seen in the early part of the current - voltage (I-V) curve as a decrease in clamping voltage and increase in standby current. The magnitude of degradation is a function of the measured polarity relative to the pulse polarity of the initial transient. This report presents alpha and I-V degradation curves for all sizes of MOVs tested.

  11. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  12. Development and Validation of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Cu Cation/Water Interactions and Copper Metal/Metal Oxide/Metal Hydroxide Condensed Phases

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Development and Validation of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Cu Cation/Water Interactions and Copper Metal/Metal Oxide/Metal Hydroxide Condensed Phases Adri C. T. van Duin,*, Vyacheslav S. Bryantsev-scale reactive dynamic simulations of copper oxide/water and copper ion/water interactions we have extended

  13. A versatile sol-gel synthesis route to metal-silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites that contain metal oxides as the major phase

    SciTech Connect

    Clapsaddle, B J; Sprehn, D W; Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Simpson, R L

    2003-12-08

    The general synthesis of metal-silicon mixed oxide nanocomposite materials, including a variety of both main group and transition metals, in which the metal oxide is the major component is described. In a typical synthesis, the metal oxide precursor, MCl{sub x}{times}{sub y}H{sub 2}O (x=3-6, y=0-7), was mixed with the silica precursor, tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS), in ethanol and gelled using an organic epoxide. The successful preparation of homogeneous, monolithic materials depended on the oxidation state of the metal as well as the epoxide chosen for gelation. The composition of the resulting materials was varied from M/Si=1-5 (mol/mol) by adjusting the amount of TMOS added to the initial metal oxide precursor solution. Supercritical processing of the gels in CO{sub 2} resulted in monolithic, porous aerogel nanocomposite materials with surface areas ranging from 100 - 800 m{sup 2}/g. The bulk materials are composed of metal oxide/silica particles that vary in size from 5 - 20 nm depending on the epoxide used for gelation. Metal oxide and silica dispersion throughout the bulk material is extremely uniform on the nanoscale. The versatility and control of the synthesis method will be discussed as well as the properties of the resulting metal-silicon mixed oxide nanocomposite materials.

  14. Joint effects of heavy metal binary mixtures on seed germination, root and shoot growth, bacterial bioluminescence, and gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Kong, In Chul

    2013-05-01

    This investigation was to assess the joint effects of metal binary mixtures on seed germination, root and shoot growth, bacterial bioluminescence, and gene mutation based on the one toxic unit (1 TU) approach. Different sensitivities and orders of toxicity of metal mixtures were observed among the bioassays. In general, mostly additive or antagonistic effects were observed, while almost no synergistic effects by the binary metal mixtures in all bioassays. Therefore, the combined effects of heavy metals in the different bioassays were difficult to generalize since they were dependent on both chemical type and the organism used in each bioassay. However, these results indicate that a battery of bioassays with mixture chemicals as opposed to just a single assay with single metal is a better strategy for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. PMID:24218818

  15. Oxidative deamination by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of metals.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Suyama, Kyozo

    2002-01-01

    Various amines, including lysine residue of bovine serum albumin, were oxidatively deaminated to form the corresponding aldehydes by a H2O2/Cu2+ oxidation system at physiological pH and temperature. The resulting aldehydes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. We investigated the effects of metal ions, pH, inhibitors, and O2 on the oxidative deamination of benzylamine by H202. The formation of benzaldehyde was the greatest with Cu2+, and catalysis occurred with Co2+, VO2+, and Fe3+. The reaction was greatly accelerated as the pH value rose and was markedly inhibited by EDTA and catalase. Dimethyl sulfoxide and thiourea, which are hydroxyl radical scavengers, were also effective in inhibiting the generation of benzaldehyde, indicating that the reaction is a hydroxyl radical-mediated reaction. Superoxide dismutase greatly stimulated the reaction, probably due to the formation of hydroxyl radicals. O2 was not required in the oxidation, and instead slightly inhibited the reaction. We also examined several oxidation systems. Ascorbic acid/O2/Cu2+ and hemoglobin/H2O2 systems also converted benzylamine to benzaldehyde. The proposed mechanism of the oxidative deamination by H2O2/Cu2+ system is discussed. PMID:11999699

  16. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  17. Imaging metal oxide nanoparticles in biological structures with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Moger, Julian; Johnston, Blair D; Tyler, Charles R

    2008-03-01

    Metal oxide nanomaterials are being used for an increasing number of commercial applications, such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and as drug delivery vehicles. The effects of these nanoparticles on the physiology of animals and in the environment are largely unknown and their potential associated health risks are currently a topic of hot debate. Information regarding the entry route of nanoparticles into exposed organisms and their subsequent localization within tissues and cells in the body are essential for understanding their biological impact. However, there is currently no imaging modality available that can simultaneously image these nanoparticles and the surrounding tissues without disturbing the biological structure. Due to their large nonlinear optical susceptibilities, which are enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance, metal oxides are efficient sources of coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS). We show that CARS microscopy can provide localization of metal oxide nanoparticles within biological structures at the cellular level. Nanoparticles of 20 - 70 nm in size were imaged within the fish gill; a structure that is a primary site of pollutant uptake into fish from the aquatic environment. PMID:18542432

  18. Catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide on metal exchange zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Armor, J.N.; Cook, P.J.; Farris, T.S.; Battavio, P.J.; Braymer, T.A.; Li, Yuejin [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is now considered to be an environmental pollutant because it contributes to catalytic ozone destruction in the stratosphere and is a greenhouse gas. With increasing concerns about the environment, there is a need to develop catalytic methods to avoid emission of N{sub 2}O into the atmosphere. Earlier catalysts work produced a variety of metal oxide catalysts that were often too slow or operated at too high a temperature to be of commercial significance. The authors have discovered a family of metal loaded zeolite catalysts that have high activity and selectivity for the decomposition of N{sub 2}O into only N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Cu and Co exchanged ZSM-5, mordenite, zeolite beta, ZSM-11 and ferrierite are much more active than other cation-exchanged zeolites (Cu-Y, Co-Y, Co-erionite, Cu-L, Co-L, Ni-ZSM-5, Mn-ZSM-5) and metal oxides (CuO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CoO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). These improved catalysts readily destroy N{sub 2}O at both low (ppm) and high (30%) levels in the presence of 2% water vapor. The catalysts possess remarkable life and stability over a broad temperature range. The authors shall focus on the performance of these catalysts under a variety of process streams.

  19. Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fine, George F.; Cavanagh, Leon M.; Afonja, Ayo; Binions, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition. PMID:22219672

  20. High-temperature oxidation behaviour of base metal elements in nickel-base alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Wakasa; M. Yamaki

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of non-precious metals nickel, chromium and copper, nickel-base alloys in an air atmosphere was studied under differential thermal analysis. The results suggest that adding chromium and copper to high-purity nickel metal reduces the amount of oxidation and gives a slower oxidation than in untreated high-purity metals. It is then shown that the activation energy for oxidation in nickel-base alloys

  1. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  2. The Development of Metal Oxide Chemical Sensing Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; VanderWal,R. L.; Xu, J. C.; Evans, L. J.; Berger, G. M.; Kulis, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures and microsystems technology. While nanostructures such as nanowires show significant potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of significant technical challenges remain. This paper discusses development to address each of these technical barriers: 1) Improved contact and integration of the nanostructured materials with microsystems in a sensor structure; 2) Control of nanostructure crystallinity to allow control of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by fabricating multiple nanostructured materials. A sensor structure composed of three nanostructured oxides aligned on a single microsensor has been fabricated and tested. Results of this testing are discussed and future development approaches are suggested. It is concluded that while this work lays the foundation for further development, these are the beginning steps towards realization of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostructures.

  3. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  5. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  6. Dual-environment effects on the oxidation of metallic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

    2006-08-01

    Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e., H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e., air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual-environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single-environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air-air, H2-air, and H2-Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

  7. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  8. Tunable and responsive plasmonic properties of metal oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliron, Delia

    2015-03-01

    Degenerately doped metal oxide semiconductors, like ITO, exhibit plasmonic resonance at near and mid-infrared wavelengths tunable by varying their composition. Nanocrystals of many such materials have now been synthesized and applications are emerging that leverage the responsiveness of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to electronic charging and discharging. For example, electrochromic glass that can dynamically control heat loads in buildings is under development. In biological systems, plasmonic oxide nanocrystals can act as remote sensors, where changes in their optical absorption indicates biochemical redox has occurred. Nonetheless, significant fundamental questions remain open regarding the nature of the infrared optical response in these doped oxides. Dopant impurities influence the optoelectronic properties beyond simply donating free carriers. For example, the distribution of Sn in ITO was found to dramatically influence the line shape of the LSPR and the effective electron mobility. In addition, by post-synthetically modifying carrier concentrations (through photodoping or electrochemical doping), we have observed that aliovalent doping and electronic doping each modify LSPR spectra, providing access to a broad range of tunable optical properties. Heterogeneous broadening, uncovered by single nanocrystal spectroscopy, also contributes to ensemble line shapes, complicating direct interpretation of LSPR spectra. Finally, the possibility of electric field enhancement by metal oxide LSPRs is critically examined to suggest what future applications might be on the horizon.

  9. Orbital reconstruction in nonpolar tetravalent transition-metal oxide layers

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Nikolay A.; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Romhányi, Judit; Yushankhai, Viktor; Kataev, Vladislav; Büchner, Bernd; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    A promising route to tailoring the electronic properties of quantum materials and devices rests on the idea of orbital engineering in multilayered oxide heterostructures. Here we show that the interplay of interlayer charge imbalance and ligand distortions provides a knob for tuning the sequence of electronic levels even in intrinsically stacked oxides. We resolve in this regard the d-level structure of layered Sr2IrO4 by electron spin resonance. While canonical ligand-field theory predicts g||-factors less than 2 for positive tetragonal distortions as present in Sr2IrO4, the experiment indicates g|| is greater than 2. This implies that the iridium d levels are inverted with respect to their normal ordering. State-of-the-art electronic-structure calculations confirm the level switching in Sr2IrO4, whereas we find them in Ba2IrO4 to be instead normally ordered. Given the nonpolar character of the metal-oxygen layers, our findings highlight the tetravalent transition-metal 214 oxides as ideal platforms to explore d-orbital reconstruction in the context of oxide electronics. PMID:26105992

  10. Orbital reconstruction in nonpolar tetravalent transition-metal oxide layers.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Nikolay A; Katukuri, Vamshi M; Romhányi, Judit; Yushankhai, Viktor; Kataev, Vladislav; Büchner, Bernd; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    A promising route to tailoring the electronic properties of quantum materials and devices rests on the idea of orbital engineering in multilayered oxide heterostructures. Here we show that the interplay of interlayer charge imbalance and ligand distortions provides a knob for tuning the sequence of electronic levels even in intrinsically stacked oxides. We resolve in this regard the d-level structure of layered Sr2IrO4 by electron spin resonance. While canonical ligand-field theory predicts g||-factors less than 2 for positive tetragonal distortions as present in Sr2IrO4, the experiment indicates g|| is greater than 2. This implies that the iridium d levels are inverted with respect to their normal ordering. State-of-the-art electronic-structure calculations confirm the level switching in Sr2IrO4, whereas we find them in Ba2IrO4 to be instead normally ordered. Given the nonpolar character of the metal-oxygen layers, our findings highlight the tetravalent transition-metal 214 oxides as ideal platforms to explore d-orbital reconstruction in the context of oxide electronics. PMID:26105992

  11. Nanomechanical switches based on metal-insulator-metal capacitors from a standard complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Gamarra, J. L.; Uranga, A.; Barniol, N.

    2014-06-01

    We report experimental demonstrations of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtained using a capacitor module based on metal-insulator-metal configuration of a standard commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The developed 2 terminals Titanium Nitride switches operate at low voltages (˜10 V) thanks to its small gap (27 nm), showing an excellent ION/IOFF ratio (104) and abrupt behavior (5 mV/decade, one decade of current change is achieved with a 5 mV voltage variation). A switch configuration is also presented where using two electrodes three different contact mode states can be obtained, adding functionalities to mechanical switches configurations.

  12. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals,; Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-01-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties;\\u000aof f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic;\\u000amagnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the;\\u000achanging importance of electron-electron interactions as;\\u000athe distance between atoms is varied;\\u000acan tune the system through phase transitions;\\u000afrom localized to delocalized electrons,;\\u000afrom screened to unscreened magnetic moments,;\\u000aand from normal

  13. Molecular-level assemblies on metal oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, J.R.; Bignozzi, C. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Meyer, T. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to explore molecular-level assemblies based on polypyridyl transition metal complexes attached to metal oxide surfaces to provide the basis for applications such as energy conversion and electricity generation, photoremediation of hazardous waste, chemical sensors, and optical storage and photorefractive devices for communications and optical computing. We have elucidated the fundamental factors that determine the photochemistry and photophysics of a series of these photoactive inorganic complexes in solution and on metal oxide substrates by exploiting our unique transient laser capabilities. This data is being utilized to design and fabricate molecular-level photonic devices. The rich chemistry of transition metal polypyridyl complexes can be utilized to prepare molecular assemblies having well-defined redox or excited-state properties that can be finely tuned to produce desired materials properties. We plan to explore other novel applications such as photorefractive switches and optical sensors using this molecular engineering approach.

  14. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Friedel, G. (Internationale Atomreaktorbau GmbH (INTERATOM), Bergisch Gladbach (Germany, F.R.)); Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Moreau, J. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)); Perks, M. (UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment (UK)

    1990-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Performance of metal and oxide fuel cores during accidents in large liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Royl, P.H.; Kussmaul, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Cahalan, J.E.; Wigeland, R.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Friedel, G. (Interatom, W-5060 Bergisch-Gladbach 1 (DE)); Moreau, J. (Centre d'Etude Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR)); Perks, M. (AEA-Technology, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6AT (GB))

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports on a cooperative effort among European and U.S. analysts, which is an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a 3500-MW (thermal), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) is performed. The study focuses on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower, and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Core designs with a similar power output that have been previously analyzed in Europe under ULOF accident conditions are also included in this comparison. Emphasis is placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to postulated accident conditions and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than do oxide-fueled reactors of the same design.

  16. Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides

    PubMed Central

    ?rhammar, C.; Pietzsch, Annette; Bock, Nicolas; Holmström, Erik; Araujo, C. Moyses; Gråsjö, Johan; Zhao, Shuxi; Green, Sara; Peery, T.; Hennies, Franz; Amerioun, Shahrad; Föhlisch, Alexander; Schlappa, Justine; Schmitt, Thorsten; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Wallace, Duane C.; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Börje; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous materials represent a large and important emerging area of material’s science. Amorphous oxides are key technological oxides in applications such as a gate dielectric in Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor devices and in Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon and TANOS (TaN-Al2O3-Si3N4-SiO2-Silicon) flash memories. These technologies are required for the high packing density of today’s integrated circuits. Therefore the investigation of defect states in these structures is crucial. In this work we present X-ray synchrotron measurements, with an energy resolution which is about 5–10 times higher than is attainable with standard spectrometers, of amorphous alumina. We demonstrate that our experimental results are in agreement with calculated spectra of amorphous alumina which we have generated by stochastic quenching. This first principles method, which we have recently developed, is found to be superior to molecular dynamics in simulating the rapid gas to solid transition that takes place as this material is deposited for thin film applications. We detect and analyze in detail states in the band gap that originate from oxygen pairs. Similar states were previously found in amorphous alumina by other spectroscopic methods and were assigned to oxygen vacancies claimed to act mutually as electron and hole traps. The oxygen pairs which we probe in this work act as hole traps only and will influence the information retention in electronic devices. In amorphous silica oxygen pairs have already been found, thus they may be a feature which is characteristic also of other amorphous metal oxides.

  17. Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Venkatesh, Koppampatti R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hu, Jianli (Cranbury, NJ); Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

  18. Spectroscopic studies of metal high-k dielectrics: transition metal oxides and silicates, and complex rare earth\\/transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lucovsky; J. G. Hong; C. C. Fulton; Y. Zou; R. J. Nemanich; H. Ade; D. G. Scholm; J. L. Freeouf

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of electronic structure of the transition metal oxides TiO2, ZrO2 and HfO2, Zr and Hf silicate alloys, and the complex oxides, GdScO3, DyScO3 and HfTiO4. Qualitative and quantitative differences are identified between dipole allowed intra-atomic transitions from core p-states to empty d*- and s*-states, and inter-atomic transitions from transition metal and

  19. Degradation mechanisms and stability forecasting and adhesion contacts of metal films with binary dielectric substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyarova, S.; Nemirovsky, Y. [Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Simanovskis, A. [Latvian Univ., Riga (Latvia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors present their conception of degradation and stability on the adhesion contacts of metal films with binary nonmetallic crystals. There are numerous works devoted to the atomic scale determination of adhesion forces and development of adhesion interaction laws. But in the real life the kinetic processes, taking place on the adhesion contact, can lead to such dramatic changes in adhesion strength values that the initial adhesion characteristics do not worth much for practice. Sometimes, adhesion contact with a metal which supposed to be highly adhesive failes in a short period of aging time. What the authors have learned from their studies of the contact processes is that in many cases the aging could not be separately addressed to the individual properties of film metal or to those of the substrate material. It depends mainly on the relationships between the parameters of interacting pair. The question is: what parameters should be taken into account to explain degradation phenomena and to predict them? The purpose of the present work is to show how the relative chemical activity of film metal and substrate cation affects the contact degradation in a vacuum and in different environmental conditions.

  20. THE EFFECT OF STARBURST METALLICITY ON BRIGHT X-RAY BINARY FORMATION PATHWAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kalogera, V.; Sepinsky, J. F. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Prestwich, A.; Zezas, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gallagher, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States)

    2010-12-20

    We investigate the characteristics of young (<20 Myr) and bright (L{sub X} > 1 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and find the population to be strongly metallicity dependent. We separate the model populations among two distinct formation pathways: (1) systems undergoing active Roche lobe overflow (RLO) and (2) wind accretion systems with donors in the (super)giant stage, which we find to dominate the HMXB population. We find metallicity to primarily affect the number of systems which move through each formation pathway, rather than the observable parameters of systems which move through each individual pathway. We discuss the most important model parameters affecting the HMXB population at both low and high metallicities. Using these results, we show that (1) the population of ultra-luminous X-ray sources can be consistently described by very bright HMXBs which undergo stable RLO with mild super-Eddington accretion and (2) the HMXB population of the bright starburst galaxy NGC 1569 is likely dominated by one extremely metal-poor starburst cluster.

  1. Differential genotoxicity of chemical properties and particle size of rare metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Go; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Ishihara, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of rare metal compounds are used in various products. However, their carcinogenicity and genotoxicity have not been sufficiently evaluated. The tumor-initiating and -promoting potentials of four rare metals, indium oxide (In2O3), dysprosium oxide (Dy2O3), tungsten oxide (WO3) and molybdenum (Mo), with a well-defined particle diameter were evaluated. The mutagenicity of these rare metals was investigated by Ames test using five bacteria strains, and transformability of these rare metals was investigated by cell-transformation assay using v-Ha-ras-transfected BALB/c 3T3 cells (Bhas 42 cells). Nano-sized Dy2O3 showed strong mutagenesis in all five bacteria strains tested with and without metabolic activation, while micro-sized particles showed weak mutagenesis in two bacterial strains. Dy2O3 induced transformation colonies of Bhas 42 cell dose-dependently, although there was no difference in the number of transformed foci between nano-sized and micro-sized particles. Nano-sized In2O3 and WO3 showed positive mutagenic response in TA1537 and TA98, respectively, whereas the micro-sized metal oxide particles showed no mutagenesis in the test bacterial strains. Both nano-sized and micro-sized In2O3 showed similar levels of transformability. However, nano-sized and micro-sized WO3 did not show any transformability. Both nano-sized and micro-sized Mo particles showed neither mutagenesis nor transformability. These results suggest that mutagenicity of rare metals depends on their particle size, although transformability depends on their chemical components but not on their particle size. PMID:22162085

  2. A metallic interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Diane Mildred

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrochemically converts the chemical energy of reaction into electrical energy. The commercial success of planar, SOFC stack technology has a number of challenges, one of which is the interconnect that electrically and physically connects the cathode of one cell to the anode of an adjacent cell in the SOFC stack and in addition, separates the anodic and cathodic gases. An SOFC stack operating at intermediate temperatures, between 600°C and 800°C, can utilize a metallic alloy as an interconnect material. Since the interconnect of an SOFC stack must operate in both air and fuel environments, the oxidation kinetics, adherence and electronic resistance of the oxide scales formed on commercial alloys were investigated in air and wet hydrogen under thermal cycling conditions to 800°C. The alloy, Haynes 230, exhibited the slowest oxidation kinetics and the lowest area-specific resistance as a function of oxidation time of all the alloys in air at 800°C. However, the area-specific resistance of the oxide scale formed on Haynes 230 in wet hydrogen was unacceptably high after only 500 hours of oxidation, which was attributed to the high resistivity of Cr2O3 in a reducing atmosphere. A study of the electrical conductivity of the minor phase manganese chromite, MnXCr3-XO4, in the oxide scale of Haynes 230, revealed that a composition closer to Mn2CrO4 had significantly higher electrical conductivity than that closer to MnCr 2O4. Haynes 230 was coated with Mn to form a phase closer to the Mn2CrO4 composition for application on the fuel side of the interconnect. U.S. Patent No. 6,054,231 is pending. Although coating a metallic alloy is inexpensive, the stringent economic requirements of SOFC stack technology required an alloy without coating for production applications. As no commercially available alloy, among the 41 alloys investigated, performed to the specifications required, a new alloy was created and designated DME-A2. The oxide scale formed on DME-A2 at 800°C exhibited extremely high electrical conductivity with respect to the commercially available alloys studied. This new alloy shows great promise for use as an interconnect material for a planar SOFC stack operating at intermediate temperatures.

  3. The close binary properties of massive stars in the Milky Way and low-metallicity Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Maxwell; Di Stefano, Rosanne, E-mail: mmoe@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the rates and properties of Type Ia and Type Ib/c supernovae, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and gamma-ray bursts as a function of galactic environment and cosmic age, it is imperative that we measure how the close binary properties of O- and B-type stars vary with metallicity. We have studied eclipsing binaries with early B main-sequence primaries in three galaxies with different metallicities: the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) and the Milky Way (MW). The observed fractions of early B stars that exhibit deep eclipses 0.25 < ?m (mag) < 0.65 and orbital periods 2 < P (days) < 20 in the MW, LMC, and SMC span a narrow range of (0.7-1.0)%, which is a model-independent result. After correcting for geometrical selection effects and incompleteness toward low-mass companions, we find for early B stars in all three environments (1) a close binary fraction of (22 ± 5)% across orbital periods 2 < P (days) < 20 and mass ratios q = M {sub 2}/M {sub 1} > 0.1, (2) an intrinsic orbital period distribution slightly skewed toward shorter periods relative to a distribution that is uniform in log P, (3) a mass-ratio distribution weighted toward low-mass companions, and (4) a small, nearly negligible excess fraction of twins with q > 0.9. Our fitted parameters derived for the MW eclipsing binaries match the properties inferred from nearby, early-type spectroscopic binaries, which further validates our results. There are no statistically significant trends with metallicity, demonstrating that the close binary properties of massive stars do not vary across metallicities –0.7 < log(Z/Z {sub ?}) < 0.0 beyond the measured uncertainties.

  4. The Close Binary Properties of Massive Stars in the Milky Way and Low-metallicity Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Maxwell; Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the rates and properties of Type Ia and Type Ib/c supernovae, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and gamma-ray bursts as a function of galactic environment and cosmic age, it is imperative that we measure how the close binary properties of O- and B-type stars vary with metallicity. We have studied eclipsing binaries with early B main-sequence primaries in three galaxies with different metallicities: the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) and the Milky Way (MW). The observed fractions of early B stars that exhibit deep eclipses 0.25 < ?m (mag) < 0.65 and orbital periods 2 < P (days) < 20 in the MW, LMC, and SMC span a narrow range of (0.7-1.0)%, which is a model-independent result. After correcting for geometrical selection effects and incompleteness toward low-mass companions, we find for early B stars in all three environments (1) a close binary fraction of (22 ± 5)% across orbital periods 2 < P (days) < 20 and mass ratios q = M 2/M 1 > 0.1, (2) an intrinsic orbital period distribution slightly skewed toward shorter periods relative to a distribution that is uniform in log P, (3) a mass-ratio distribution weighted toward low-mass companions, and (4) a small, nearly negligible excess fraction of twins with q > 0.9. Our fitted parameters derived for the MW eclipsing binaries match the properties inferred from nearby, early-type spectroscopic binaries, which further validates our results. There are no statistically significant trends with metallicity, demonstrating that the close binary properties of massive stars do not vary across metallicities -0.7 < log(Z/Z ?) < 0.0 beyond the measured uncertainties.

  5. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOEpatents

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  6. Inversion capacitance-voltage studies on GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor structure using transparent conducting oxide as metal gate

    E-print Network

    Ye, Peide "Peter"

    Inversion capacitance-voltage studies on GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor structure using transparent A systematic capacitance-voltage C-V study has been performed on GaAs metal- oxide-semiconductor MOS structures. The semiconductor capacitance effect on GaAs MOS devices has also been identified and insightfully discussed based

  7. Custom-designed nanomaterial libraries for testing metal oxide toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Suman; Nel, André E.; Mädler, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Advances in aerosol technology over the past 10 years have provided methods that enable the generation and design of ultrafine nanoscale materials for different applications. The particles are produced combusting a precursor solution and its chemical reaction in the in the gas phase. Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) is a highly versatile technique for single step and scalable synthesis of nanoscale materials. New innovations in particle synthesis using FSP technology and its precursor chemistry have enabled flexible dry synthesis of loosely-agglomerated highly crystalline ultrafine powders (porosity ? 90%) of binary, ternary and mixed binary or ternary oxides. The flame spray pyrolysis lies at the intersection of combustion science, aerosols technology and materials chemistry. The interdisciplinary research is not only inevitable but is becoming increasingly crucial in the design of nanoparticles (NPs) made in the gas phase. The increasing demand especially in the bio-applications for particles with specific material composition, high purity and crystallinity can be often fulfilled with the fast, single step FSP technique. PMID:23194152

  8. High temperature silver-palladium-copper oxide air braze filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsell, Jens Tommy

    The Ag-CuO system is currently being investigated as the basis for an air braze filler metal alloy to be used in SOFC components. The system is of interest because unlike most braze alloys, it is capable of wetting a variety of ceramic materials while being applied in an air. This thesis work examined modification of Ag-CuO filler metal system by alloying with palladium to increase the use temperature of the resulting air braze alloy. Thermal analysis was performed to track changes in the solidus and liquidus temperatures for these alloys and determine equilibrium phase present as a function of temperature and composition. Sessile drop experiments were performed to investigate the effect of palladium addition on braze wetability. The influence of copper-oxide and palladium contents on brazed joint strength was characterized by a combination of four-point bend testing and fractography. From combined thermal analysis and quenched data it was found that both the liquidus and solidus increase with increasing palladium content, and the silver-rich miscibility gap boundary could be shifted by the addition of palladium. This was employed as a tool to study the effects of two-liquid phase formation on wetting behavior. In addition, a mass loss likely attributable to silver volatilization is observed in the Pd-modified filler metals when heated over ˜1100°C. As volatilization should be avoided, the ternary alloys should be limited to 15mol% Pd. It was found by sessile drop wetting experiments that there is a definitive change in wetting behavior that corresponds directly to the miscibility gap boundary for the Pd-Ag-CuO system. The first order transition tracks with changes in the miscibility gap boundary that can be induced by increasing palladium content. This is the first experimental evidence of critical point wetting behavior reported for a metal-oxide system and further confirms that critical point wetting theory is universal. Four-point bend testing and fractography of YSZ-YSZ joints brazed using binary and 5mol% Pd and 15mol% Pd ternary air braze alloys found that the specimens joined using binary Ag-2CuO compositions exhibited the highest average bend strength, 148+/-24MPa. In general increasing additions of palladium appeared to reduce room temperature bend strength. Increases in liquidus and solidus temperatures with palladium additions are expected to improve high temperature strength although this still needs to be verified.

  9. ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Oxidation kinetics of Ni metallic films: formation of NiO-based resistive switching structures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) structures in which the resistive oxide was simple transition metal oxide thin films such as NiO or TiO2) to inorganic materials (e.g. chalcogenide alloys, perovskite-type oxides or transition metal oxides (i.e. ON state). Among transition metal oxides, NiO is a promising material due to its compatibility

  10. Characterization, sorption, and exhaustion of metal oxide nanoparticles as metal adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engates, Karen Elizabeth

    Safe drinking water is paramount to human survival. Current treatments do not adequately remove all metals from solution, are expensive, and use many resources. Metal oxide nanoparticles are ideal sorbents for metals due to their smaller size and increased surface area in comparison to bulk media. With increasing demand for fresh drinking water and recent environmental catastrophes to show how fragile water supplies are, new approaches to water conservation incorporating new technologies like metal oxide nanoparticles should be considered as an alternative method for metal contaminant adsorbents from typical treatment methods. This research evaluated the potential of manufactured iron, anatase, and aluminum nanoparticles (Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3) to remove metal contaminants (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) in lab-controlled and natural waters in comparison to their bulk counterparts by focusing on pH, contaminant and adsorbent concentrations, particle size, and exhaustive capabilities. Microscopy techniques (SEM, BET, EDX) were used to characterize the adsorbents. Adsorption experiments were performed using 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5 g/L nanoparticles in pH 8 solution. When results were normalized by mass, nanoparticles adsorbed more than bulk particles but when surface area normalized the opposite was observed. Adsorption was pH-dependent and increased with time and solid concentration. Aluminum oxide was found to be the least acceptable adsorbent for the metals tested, while titanium dioxide anatase (TiO2) and hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) showed great ability to remove individual and multiple metals from pH 8 and natural waters. Intraparticle diffusion was likely part of the complex kinetic process for all metals using Fe2O3 but not TiO 2 nanoparticles within the first hour of adsorption. Adsorption kinetics for all metals tested were described by a modified first order rate equation used to consider the diminishing equilibrium metal concentrations with increasing metal oxides, showing faster adsorption rates for nanoparticles compared to bulk particles. Isotherms were best fit with most correlations of r=0.99 or better using the Langmuir-Freundlich equation which describes a heterogeneous surface with monolayer adsorption. Calculated rate constants and distribution coefficients (Kd) showed TiO2 nanoparticles were very good sorbents and more rapid in removing metals than other nanoparticles studied here and reported in the literature. Desorption studies concluded Pb, Cd, and Zn appear to be irreversibly sorbed to TiO2 surfaces at pH 8. TiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles were capable of multiple metal loadings, with exhaustion for both adsorbents at pH 6. Exhaustion studies at pH 8 showed hematite exhausted after four consecutive cycles while anatase showed no exhaustion after 8 cycles. Their bulk counterparts exhausted in earlier cycles indicating the lack of ability to adsorb much of the multiple metals in solution. The increased surface area of TiO2 and Fe 2O3 nanoparticles, coupled with strong adsorption at the pH of most natural waters and resistance to desorption of some metals, may offer a potential remediation method for removal of metals from water in the future.

  11. Transition metal oxides deposited on rhodium and platinum: Surface chemistry and catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boffa, A B [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-07-01

    The surface chemistry and catalytic reactivity of transition metal oxides deposited on Rh and Pt substrates has been examined in order to establish the role of oxide-metal interactions in influencing catalytic activity. The oxides investigated included titanium oxide (TiOx), vanadium oxide (VOx), iron oxide (FeOx), zirconium oxide (ZrOx), niobium oxide (NbOx), tantalum oxide (TaOx), and tungsten oxide (WOx). The techniques used to characterize the sample included AES, XPS, LEED, TPD, ISS, and STM. After characterization of the surface in UHV, the sample was enclosed in an atmospheric reaction cell to measure the influence of the oxide deposits on the catalytic activity of the pure metal for CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. The oxide deposits were found to strongly enhance the reactivity of the Rh foil. The rates of methane formation were promoted by up to 15 fold with the maximum in rate enhancement occurring at oxide coverages of approximately 0.5 ML. TiOx TaOx, and NbOx were the most effective promoters and were stable in the highest oxidation states during both reactions (compared to VOx, WOx, and FeOx). The trend in promoter effectiveness was attributed to the direct relationship between oxidation state and Lewis acidity. Bonding at the metal oxide/metal interface between the oxygen end of adsorbed CO and the Lewis acidic oxide was postulated to facilitate C-O bond dissociation and subsequent hydrogenation. 192 refs.

  12. Carbon nanotube–metal–oxide nanocomposites: microstructure, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. FLAHAUT; A. PEIGNEY; Ch. LAURENT; Ch. MARLIERE; F. CHASTEL; A. ROUSSET

    2000-01-01

    Carbon nanotube–metal–oxide composites (metal=Fe, Co or Fe\\/Co alloy; oxide=Al2O3, MgO or MgAl2O4) have been prepared by hot-pressing the corresponding composite powders, in which the carbon nanotubes, mostly single or double-walled, are very homogeneously dispersed between the metal–oxide grains. For the sake of comparison, ceramic and metal–oxide nanocomposites have also been prepared. The microstructure of the specimens has been studied and

  13. The effect of doping electrochromic molybdenum oxide with other metal oxides: Correlation of optical and kinetic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. S. Monk; Tejmel Ali; Robert D. Partridge

    1995-01-01

    The properties of electrochromic molybdenum oxide (as a thin film) has been adjusted by incorporating the oxides of Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, W or Zn; films were made by cathodic electrodeposition. The deposition solutions employed were prepared by dissolving powdered molybdenum metal in hydrogen peroxide solutions. Such films were robust and showed a good contrast ratio. Addition of other metal

  14. Improved electrochemical biosensor response via metal oxide pre-oxidation of chemical interferents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseknecht, Jamie G.; Tapsak, Mark A.

    2007-09-01

    Typical biological samples are inherently complicated. They may contain a myriad of compounds that are electroactive at the same potential as that used in many electrochemical biosensors. Therefore, a biosensor design feature must be included that either eliminates or blocks the interferents from generating false positive signals. The ability to use an insoluble compound, that of MnO II, in order to oxidize interferents such as ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and uric acid, was investigated in a prototype sensor system at a bias potential of 0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl. Unlike previous work with these materials, a difference between the ability for the metal oxide to oxidize the interferents was observed. Most effective was the capability of MnO II to oxidize uric acid. Alternatively, the MnO II had little effect on acetaminophen. The study is both introduced and results are discussed within the context of an implantable glucose sensor.

  15. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62...metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits...affected facility any gases that contain nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62...metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits...affected facility any gases that contain nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62...metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits...affected facility any gases that contain nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62...metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits...affected facility any gases that contain nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission...

  19. Adsorption and oxidation of methanol and ethanol on the surface of metallic and ceramic catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sviatoslav A.; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis E.; Romanova, Irina V.

    2003-06-01

    A short review of results obtained in latest infrared and Raman studies, with special reference to in situ measurements and first-principles quantum-mechanical investigations of adsorption and oxidation of alcohol molecules over different (metallic, semiconductor and oxide) surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces is presented, and differences and similarities in the behaviour of methanol and ethanol are discussed.

  20. The role of noncrystalline films in the oxidation and corrosion of metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Revesz; F. P. Fehlner

    1981-01-01

    The role of oxide perfection is a major factor in controlling the rate of oxidation and corrosion of metals. Studies of the reactivity of tantalum, silicon, and amorphous metals are particularly revealing in this regard. Two states of oxide perfection are found: single crystal and vitreous. The former is seldom encountered in practice because it requires epitaxial growth of a

  1. Combinatorial search for improved metal oxide oxygen evolution electrocatalysts in acidic electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Seley, David; Ayers, Katherine; Parkinson, B A

    2013-02-11

    A library of electrocatalysts for water electrolysis under acidic conditions was created by ink jet printing metal oxide precursors followed by pyrolysis in air to produce mixed metal oxides. The compositions were then screened in acidic electrolytes using a pH sensitive fluorescence indicator that became fluorescent due to the pH change at the electrode surface because of the release of protons from water oxidation. The most promising materials were further characterized by measuring polarization curves and Tafel slopes as anodes for water oxidation. Mixed metal oxides that perform better than the iridium oxide standard were identified. PMID:23298465

  2. Nanostructured iron(III)-copper(II) binary oxide: a novel adsorbent for enhanced arsenic removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Ren, Zongming; Zhang, Xiwang; Chen, Jing

    2013-08-01

    To obtain a highly efficient and low-cost adsorbent for arsenic removal from water, a novel nanostructured Fe-Cu binary oxide was synthesized via a facile co-precipitation method. Various techniques including BET surface area measurement, powder XRD, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the synthetic Fe-Cu binary oxide. It showed that the oxide was poorly crystalline, 2-line ferrihydrite-like and was aggregated with many nanosized particles. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, pH adsorption edge and regeneration of spent adsorbent. The results indicated that the Fe-Cu binary oxide with a Cu: Fe molar ratio of 1:2 had excellent performance in removing both As(V) and As(III) from water, and the maximal adsorption capacities for As(V) and As(III) were 82.7 and 122.3 mg/g at pH 7.0, respectively. The values are favorable, compared to those reported in the literature using other adsorbents. The coexisting sulfate and carbonate had no significant effect on arsenic removal. However, the presence of phosphate obviously inhibited the arsenic removal, especially at high concentrations. Moreover, the Fe-Cu binary oxide could be readily regenerated using NaOH solution and be repeatedly used. The Fe-Cu binary oxide could be a promising adsorbent for both As(V) and As(III) removal because of its excellent performance, facile and low-cost synthesis process, and easy regeneration. PMID:23571113

  3. MAGNETIC COLLAPSE AND THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSITION METAL OXIDES: FeO AT HIGH PRESSURES

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    MAGNETIC COLLAPSE AND THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSITION METAL OXIDES: FeO AT HIGH PRESSURES ** *** ****R- putations using the GGA (PW91) [8] and the LMTO-ASA method [9] were performed on the transition metal oxides insulator. Implications for geophysics are discussed. At low pressures transition metal ions such as ferrous

  4. Understanding the NMR shifts in paramagnetic transition metal oxides using density functional theory calculations

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Understanding the NMR shifts in paramagnetic transition metal oxides using density functional­14 however, no such studies, to our knowledge, have been performed in transition metal oxides or other of the lithium local environment and electronic configuration of the transition metal ions. We focus

  5. A Surface Precipitation Model for the Sorption of Cations on Metal Oxides

    E-print Network

    Morel, François M. M.

    A Surface Precipitation Model for the Sorption of Cations on Metal Oxides KEVIN J. FARLEY, ~ DAVID metallic oxides, as homogeneous phases or more commonly as coatings on other solid particles, are dominant to describethe equilibrium sorption of metal cations on amorphous iron hydroxide is demonstrated. The model can

  6. Mixed-metal oxide nanopowders for structural and photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray

    This dissertation uses liquid feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) to synthesize and process mixed-metal nano oxides with well-defined structural and photonic properties. LF-FSP combusts a metal oxide precursor solution and oxygen aerosol to produce nanoparticles with the same metal ratio as the precursor solution. The ability to tailor compositions and morphologies of the resultant nanopowders through the use of multiple liquid based metal-oxide precursors lends itself to combinatorial studies of composition and morphology, which is highly useful in property optimization. We first chose to investigate the effects of different aluminum oxide precursors on the morphology of the resulting alumina nanoparticles. This study showed that the metal ligand strongly influences the particle morphology based on the mechanisms of ligand decomposition. We successfully applied flame spray pyrolysis for the first time to synthesize combinatorially MgO:Al 2O3 with MgO concentrations in the range 0.005--50 mol%. The investigation provide a complete picture of the physical phase structure and associated native defect content over the full concentration range allowed by thermodynamics, but controlled by kinetics resulting in novel metastable phase formation and optimization the novel UV emission behavior. To demonstrate how the choice of ligand depends on the desired property, two different ceria ligands were used to alter the ceria doping mechanism of the alumina nanoparticles. The use of combustible, cerium propionate increased in the theta-alumina phase stability through increased dopant homogeneity and nano-domain development compared to the nitrite derived nanopowder. While the inorganic, cerium nitrate appears to favor Ce3+ in the Ce3+/4+ redox couple providing novel incoherent lasing. Previous combinatorial upconversion emission studies on co-doped yttria (Y0.86Yb0.11Er0.03)2O3 provided nanopowders that could be densified to give the first example of a submicron transparent upconversion ceramic sintered at 1400°C with unprecedented dopant concentrations of > 10 mol% allowing new photonic application to be realized. In addition, these sintering studies demonstrated the exceptional sinterability of LF-FSP powders. In toto, this dissertation demonstrates many experimental firsts that have only been predicted previously; including, the furthest extension of the magnesium spinel phase field, incoherent lasing, submicron transparent upconversion ceramics and reduced sintering parameters due to unaggregated nanocrystalline powders.

  7. Wannier function analysis of charge states in transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren

    2015-03-01

    The charge (or oxidation) state of a cation has been a crucial concept in analyzing the electronic and magnetic properties of oxides as well as interpreting ``charge ordering'' metal-insulator transitions. In recent years a few methods have been proposed for the objective identification of charge states, beyond the conventional (and occasionally subjective) use of projected densities of states, weighted band structures (fatbands), and Born effective charges. In the past two decades Wannier functions (WFs) and particularly maximally localized WFs (MLWFs), have become an indispensable tool for several different purposes in electronic structure studies. These developments have motivated us to explore the charge state picture from the perspective of MLWFs. We will illustrate with a few transition metal oxide examples such as AgO and YNiO3 that the shape, extent, and location of the charge centers of the MLWFs provide insights into how cation-oxygen hybridization determines chemical bonding, charge distribution, and ``charge ordering.'' DOE DE-FG02-04ER46111.

  8. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Dunlap, Bobby D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Veal, Boyd W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

  9. (S)TEM analysis of functional transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Miaofang

    Perovskite vanadates (AVO3) form an ideal family to study the structure-property relationships in transition metal oxides because their physical properties can easily be tailored by varying the A-site cations. (S)TEM is an ideal tool for this type of study due to its capacity for simultaneous imaging and chemical analysis. Determination of the oxidation state of vanadium in complex oxides have been carried out by electron energy loss spectroscopy. SrVO3/LaAlO3 is then studied both experimentally and theoretically as a prototype system. Extra electrons have been detected on the interface layer, and further proven to originate mainly from a change in the local bonding configuration of V at the La-O terminated substrate surface. Cr-containing stainless steel deposited with a LaCrO3 thin-film layer is a promising interconnect material of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Our investigation on its microstructural evolution reveals that the LaCrO 3 thin film plays a role in inhibiting the growth of an oxide layer on the metal surface and thus protects the surface of the stainless steel. Ca-doped LaCoO3 is a promising SOFC cathode material. The domain structures and the oxidation state of Co in Ca-doped LaCoO3, which are directly related to its mechanical properties and electronic conductivity, are investigated by in-situ TEM and EELS. The formation of microcracks is observed during thermal cycles. Ca-doping in LaCoO3 is shown to not only improve the electronic conductivity of the material, but is also likely to strengthen the grain boundaries. The realization of its application in SOFCs depends on depressing the ferroelastisity to reduce strain formation during thermal cycles. The application of the (S)TEM techniques used for studying the perovskite systems are further extended to other compounds containing transition metal elements. The refractory minerals from Comet 81 P/Wild-2 are studied to investigate the formation of the early solar system. A relatively high Ti3+/Ti 4+ ratio in fassaite and the presence of osbornite indicate that the Comet refractory minerals formed in the inner solar nebula and were later transported to the outer solar system where the comet formed. This implies a much more dynamic and perhaps more violent solar nebula than was previously suspected.

  10. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-G.; Nagase, T.; Yasuda, H.; Mori, H.

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis of metal silicide at the metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A platinum silicide, ?-Pt2Si, was successfully formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface under 25-200 keV electron irradiation. This is of interest since any platinum silicide was not formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface by simple thermal annealing under no-electron-irradiation conditions. From the electron energy dependence of the cross section for the initiation of the silicide formation, it is clarified that the silicide formation under electron irradiation was not due to a knock-on atom-displacement process, but a process induced by electronic excitation. It is suggested that a mechanism related to the Knotek and Feibelman mechanism may play an important role in silicide formation within the solid. Similar silicide formation was also observed at the palladium/silicon oxide and nickel/silicon oxide interfaces, indicating a wide generality of the silicide formation by electronic excitation.

  11. On the Correlation of the Activity of the Components of Binary Alloys of Alkali Metals with the Diagram of State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Shpil'rain; S. N. Skovorod'ko; A. G. Mozgovoi

    2002-01-01

    In analyzing the behavior of the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys of alkali metals as a function of temperature and composition, attention should be focused first of all on the type of their fusibility diagram. In binary systems of alkali metals, two types of the diagram of state are mainly realized: those with an eutectic point (Na?K, Na?Rb, and Na?Cs

  12. Synthesis and NMR characterization of ligand-capped metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    Ligand-capped metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have some interesting and useful physical properties that are not present in their respective bulk materials. These properties are of research interest in many applications such as catalysis, drug delivery, biological imaging, and plasmonics. In such applications, it is critical to understand the surface structure of NPs and the roles played by the surface bound ligands. To characterize surface environment, ligand dynamics, and exchange kinetics, ligand-capped metal and metal-oxide NPs are synthesized and studied by multinuclear NMR. Phosphines and phosphonic acids are used to passivate metal (gold and silver) and metal-oxide (tin dioxide) NPs in different sizes (1-5 nm) by following published procedures or original synthesis methods. In both solution and solid state NMR, the 31P chemical shift of surface-bound ligands are distinctly different from those observed for free ligands. Additionally, NMR line widths in surface-bound ligands are highly broadened compared to those of free ligands. The lines are broadened due to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening mechanisms, determined through hole burning NMR and spin-spin relaxation measurements. In small particles (< 2 nm), the main source of line broadening is inhomogeneous and originates due to structural heterogeneity and underlying chemical shift distributions. In large particles (> 2 nm), both inhomogeneous and homogeneous line broadening mechanisms are present. When the particles' sizes increase from small to large, the homogeneous broadening mechanism becomes dominant due to strong nuclear-electron interaction and reintroduction of residual dipolar coupling as shown by a combination of 1H, 13C and 31P NMR. Results from a series of ligand exchange experiments in silver and gold NPs further indicate the presence of Au(I) and Ag(I) on the particle surfaces.

  13. Transition Metal Oxide Catalyzed Carbon Black Oxidation: A Study with 18O 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Mul; Freek Kapteijn; Ciska Doornkamp; Jacob A. Moulijn

    1998-01-01

    Physical mixtures of carbon black and several transition metal oxides (Cr2O3, Co3O4, Fe2O3, MoO3, V2O5, and K2MoO4) were treated batchwise in18O2at 625–675 K in a high-vacuum batch reactor. Three reaction mechanisms are proposed to be operative in the catalyzed oxidation of carbon black. The isotopic reaction product composition (C16O, C18O, C16O2, C16O18O, and C18O2) in experiments, in which18O2and16O2were fed alternately,

  14. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Dapeng

    2010-12-15

    The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on the nucleation and growth of metal thin films on multimetallic surfaces. First, we have investigated the Ag film growth on a bulk metallic glass surface. Next, we have examined the coarsening and decay of bilayer Ag islands on NiAl(110) surface. Third, we have investigated the Ag film growth on NiAl(110) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). At last, we have reported our investigation on the epitaxial growth of Ni on NiAl(110) surface. Some general conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, Ag, a bulk-crystalline material, initially forms a disordered wetting layer up to 4-5 monolayers on Zr-Ni-Cu-Al metallic glass. Above this coverage, crystalline 3D clusters grow, in parallel with the flatter regions. The cluster density increases with decreasing temperature, indicating that the conditions of island nucleation are far-from-equilibrium. Within a simple model where clusters nucleate whenever two mobile Ag adatoms meet, the temperature-dependence of cluster density yields a (reasonable) upper limit for the value of the Ag diffusion barrier on top of the Ag wetting layer of 0.32 eV. Overall, this prototypical study suggests that it is possible to grow films of a bulk-crystalline metal that adopt the amorphous character of a glassy metal substrate, if film thickness is sufficiently low. Next, the first study of coarsening and decay of bilayer islands has been presented. The system was Ag on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 185 K to 250 K. The coarsening behavior, has some similarities to that seen in the Ag(110) homoepitaxial system studied by Morgenstern and co-workers. At 185 K and 205 K, coarsening of Ag islands follows a Smoluchowski ripening pathway. At 205 K and 250 K, the terrace diffusion limited Ostwald ripening dominants. The experimental observed temperature for the transition from SR to OR is 205 K. The SR exhibits anisotropic island diffusion and the OR exhibits 1D decay of island length while keeping the corresponding island width constant. Third, LEED indicates that, up to about 6 BL (12 ML), the Ag film adopts the (110) structure on lattice matched NiAl(110) surface, supporting the previous assignment based upon island heights measured in STM. Starting at 4.5 to 6 BL, (111) diffraction pattern is detected. This is also in agreement with previous STM study. Careful examinations of the LEED patterns reveal the slight difference in lattice constants between bulk Ag and bulk NiAl. At last, we performed STM studies of Ni deposition on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 200 K to 400 K. Ni forms 'dense' Ni(100)-like islands on NiAl(110) with a zig-zag shaped stripe feature which is probably due to strain relief. DFT analysis provides insights into the island growth shapes, which are rationalized by the thermodynamics and kinetics of the film growth process. For thick Ni films (coverage exceeding 6 ML), a Ni(111)-like structure developed. Traditional MF theory is applied to analyze island density at 200 K. Deviation from homogeneous nucleation behavior for island size distribution and island density reveals the presence of heterogeneous nucleation mediated by the Ni antisite point defects on NiAl(110) surface.

  15. [Preparation of cobalt oxide mesoporous metallic oxide-clay composites and their catalytic performance in the oxidation of benzene].

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhen; Ma, Chun-Yan; Cheng, Jie; Li, Jin-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Laponite clays composited with alumina, ceria and zirconia etc. were prepared using polyoxocations or simple metal ions as precursors, and then cobalt oxide was loaded onto them to obtain the catalysts. The results showed that compared with laponite clays, the as-prepared laponite had wide range of pore size distribution and increased pore volume. The pore volumes of laponite clays composited with alumina and ceria were more than 0.75 cm3 · g(-1). N2 isotherm type was maintained after Co3O4 loading, however, the N2 adsorption decreased with the increase of Co3 O4 loading, indicating the decrease of pore volume, which was caused by the blockage of metallic oxide/clay composites support. Furthermore, dispersion and catalytic performance of the catalysts were significantly influenced by the composited metallic elements. It was shown that according to the diffraction peak half-width of 311 crystal facet and scherrer equation, when the Co loading was 21.3% at laponite clays composited with Fe, Zr, Ce, Al, the average sizes of Co3O4 were 17.2, 16.0, 16.5 and 18.0 nm, respectively. Alumina composited clay with 21.3% Co loading showed high catalytic activity, the complete conversion temperature of benzene was 350°C. Among metallic oxide/laponite composites, the ZrO composited laponite with 21.3% Co loading exhibited the best catalytic performance, which could completely convert benzene at 310°C. PMID:25693410

  16. Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals. III. Oxidation of SO2 and Self-Diffusion of O, SO2, and SO3 on Pt(111)

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xi

    Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals. III. Oxidation of SO2 and Self-Diffusion of O, SO2 to be an efficient ap- proach to determining the thermodynamics of sulfur oxides on transition metals such as Cu10 to be an effective SO2 oxidation and reduction catalyst. Interest in the chemistry of sulfur oxides on transition

  17. Growth of Thin InAlP Native Oxides for GaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices Mr. Ying Cao1

    E-print Network

    Growth of Thin InAlP Native Oxides for GaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices Mr. Ying Cao1 ; Ms thermal native oxides towards thicknesses suitable for use in GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices, we observed that thin 7 nm oxide films showed Schottky-diode-like behavior with relatively large

  18. Low temperature synthesis of transition metal oxides containing surfactant ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janauer, Gerald Gilbert

    1998-11-01

    Recently there has been much interest in reacting vanadium oxides hydrothermally with cationic surfactants to form novel layered compounds. A series of new transition metal oxides, however, has also been formed at or near room temperature in open containers. Synthesis, characterization, and proposed mechanisms of formation are the focus of this work. Low temperature reactions of vanadium pentoxide and ammonium transition metallates with long chain amine surfactants, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide yielded interesting new products many of which are layered phases. DTAsb4\\ Hsb2Vsb{10}Osb{28}. 8Hsb2O, a layered highly crystalline phase, is the first such phase for which a single crystal X-ray structure has been determined. The unit cell for this material was found to be triclinic with space group P1-, cell parameters a=9.8945(3)A, b=11.5962(1)A, c=21.9238(2)A, alpha=95.153(2)sp°,\\ beta=93.778(1)sp°, and gamma=101.360(1)sp°. Additionally, a novel tungsten, a molybdenum and a dichromate phase will be discussed. Both the tungsten and the dichromate materials were indexed from their powder diffraction patterns yielding monoclinic unit cells. The tungsten material was found to have a=50.56(4)A, b=54.41(4)A, c=13.12(1)A, and beta=99.21sp°. The dichromate compound was determined to have a=26.757(5)A, b=10.458(2)A, c=14.829(3)A and beta=98.01(1)sp°. Interlayer spacings for the lamellar dichromate and molybdenum phases were d001 = 28.7 A, and d001 = 22.9 A. The synthesis, characterization, composition, and structure of these transition metal oxide-surfactant materials will be discussed.

  19. Biofouling of various metal oxides in marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougo, T.; Kuroda, D.; Wada, N.; Ikegai, H.; Kanematsu, H.

    2012-03-01

    Biofouling has induced serious problems in various industrial fields such as marine structures, bio materials, microbially induced corrosion (MIC) etc. The effects of various metals on biofouling have been investigated so far and the mechanism has been clarified to some extent(1,2), and we proposed that Fe ion attracted lots of bacteria and formed biofilm very easily(3). In this study, we investigated the possibility for biofouling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various metal oxides such as Fe2O3, TiO2, WO3, AgO, Cr2O3 etc. And in addition of such a model experiment on laboratory scale, they were immersed into actual sea water as well as artificial sea water. As for the preparation of metal oxides, commercial oxide powders were used as starting material and those whose particle sizes were under 100 micrometers were formed into pellets by a press. Some of them were heated to 700 °C and sintered for 10 hours at the temperatures. After the calcinations, they were immersed into the culture of P. aeruginosa at 35 °C in about one week. After the immersion, they were taken out of the culture and the biofouling behaviors were observed by optical microscopy, low pressure scanning electron microscopy (low pressure SEM) etc. Biofouling is generally classified into several steps. Firstly, conditioning films composed of organic matters were formed on specimens. Then bacterial were attached to the specimen's surfaces, seeking for conditioning films as nutrition. Then bacteria formed biofilm on the specimens. In marine environment, more larger living matters such as shells etc would be attached to biofilms. However, in the culture media, only biofilms were formed.

  20. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Metals and Some Refractory Oxide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.

    1959-01-01

    A description of the apparatus and methods used for obtaining total hemispherical emissivity is presented, and data for several stably oxidized metals are included. The metals which were tested included type 347 stainless steel, tungsten, and Haynes alloys B, C, X, and 25. No values of emissivity were obtained for tungsten or Haynes alloy B because of the nature of the oxides produced. The refractory oxide coatings tested were flame-sprayed alumina and zirconia. The results of the investigation indicate that strongly adherent, oxidized surfaces of a high stable emissivity can be produced on type 347 stainless steel for which the total hemispherical emissivity varied from 0.87 to 0.91 for temperatures from 600 F to 2,000 F. For this same temperature range, the Haynes alloys tested showed values of total hemispherical emissivity from 0.90 to 0.96 for alloy C, from 0.85 to 0.88 for alloy X, and from 0.85 to 0.89 for alloy 25. Haynes alloy B and tungsten formed nonadherent oxides at elevated temperatures and, therefore, stable emissivities were not obtained. The results obtained for the flame-sprayed ceramics (alumina and zirconia) showed considerably higher values of total emissivity than those measured for coatings applied by other methods. Emissivity values ranging from 0.69 to 0.44 for aluminum oxide and from 0.62 to 0.44 for zirconium oxide were measured for temperatures from 800 F to 2,000 F.