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Sample records for bio safety level

  1. Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation for the Proposed Bio Safety Level 3 (BSl-3) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T J; Nguyen, S N

    2003-09-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct a biosafety level (BSL-3) facility at Site 200 in Livermore, California. Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is a designation assigned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes Health (NIH) for handling infectious organisms based on the specific microorganisms and associated operations. Biosafety levels range from BSL-1 (lowest hazard) to BSL-4 (highest hazard). Details about the BSL-3 criteria are described in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s publication ''Biosafety Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories'' (BMBL), 4th edition (CDC 1999): The BSL-3 facility will be built in accordance with the required BMBL guidelines. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) for the proposed BSL-3 facility has been prepared in accordance with the current contractual requirements at LLNL. This includes the LLNL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (ES&H Manual) and applicable Work Smart Standards, including the biosafety standards, such as the aforementioned BMBL and the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules: The proposed BSL-3 facility is a 1,100 ft{sup 2}, one-story permanent prefabricated facility, which will have three individual BSL-3 laboratory rooms (one of which is an animal biosafety level-3 [ABSL-3] laboratory to handle rodents), a mechanical room, clothes-change and shower rooms, and small storage space (Figure 3.1). The BSL-3 facility will be designed and operated accordance with guidelines for BSL-3 laboratories established by the CDC and the NIH. No radiological, high explosives, fissile, or propellant material will be used or stored in the proposed BSL-3 facility. The BSL-3 facility will be used to develop scientific tools to identify and understand the pathogens of medical, environmental, and forensic importance. Microorganisms that are to be handled in this

  2. Nuclear power: levels of safety.

    PubMed

    Lidsky, L M

    1988-02-01

    The rise and fall of the nuclear power industry in the United States is a well-documented story with enough socio-technological conflict to fill dozens of scholarly, and not so scholarly, books. Whatever the reasons for the situation we are now in, and no matter how we apportion the blame, the ultimate choice of whether to use nuclear power in this country is made by the utilities and by the public. Their choices are, finally, based on some form of risk-benefit analysis. Such analysis is done in well-documented and apparently logical form by the utilities and in a rather more inchoate but not necessarily less accurate form by the public. Nuclear power has failed in the United States because both the real and perceived risks outweigh the potential benefits. The national decision not to rely upon nuclear power in its present form is not an irrational one. A wide ranging public balancing of risk and benefit requires a classification of risk which is clear and believable for the public to be able to assess the risks associated with given technological structures. The qualitative four-level safety ladder provides such a framework. Nuclear reactors have been designed which fit clearly and demonstrably into each of the possible qualitative safety levels. Surprisingly, it appears that safer may also mean cheaper. The intellectual and technical prerequisites are in hand for an important national decision. Deployment of a qualitatively different second generation of nuclear reactors can have important benefits for the United States. Surprisingly, it may well be the "nuclear establishment" itself, with enormous investments of money and pride in the existing nuclear systems, that rejects second generation reactors. It may be that we will not have a second generation of reactors until the first generation of nuclear engineers and nuclear power advocates has retired. PMID:3340728

  3. Toward a patient safety upper level ontology.

    PubMed

    Souvignet, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Patient Safety (PS) standardization is the key to improve interoperability and expand international share of incident reporting system knowledge. By aligning the Patient Safety Categorial Structure (PS-CAST) to the Basic Formal Ontology version 2 (BFO2) upper level ontology, we aim to provide more rigor on the underlying organization on the one hand, and to share instances of concepts of categorial structure on the other hand. This alignment is a big step in the top-down approach, to build a complete and standardized domain ontology in order to facilitate the basis to a WHO accepted new information model for Patient Safety. PMID:25991122

  4. Many Variables Determine Campus Safety Staffing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    College and university administrators must take into account a number of variables in determining the appropriate staffing levels for their campus public safety function, according to a white paper released by International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA). The report is entitled, "Establishing Appropriate Staffing…

  5. Behavioral integrity for safety, priority of safety, psychological safety, and patient safety: a team-level study.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Anseel, Frederik; Simons, Tony; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; McCaughey, Deirdre; Savage, Grant T; Sels, Luc

    2012-11-01

    This article clarifies how leader behavioral integrity for safety helps solve follower's double bind between adhering to safety protocols and speaking up about mistakes against protocols. Path modeling of survey data in 54 nursing teams showed that head nurse behavioral integrity for safety positively relates to both team priority of safety and psychological safety. In turn, team priority of safety and team psychological safety were, respectively, negatively and positively related with the number of treatment errors that were reported to head nurses. We further demonstrated an interaction effect between team priority of safety and psychological safety on reported errors such that the relationship between team priority of safety and the number of errors was stronger for higher levels of team psychological safety. Finally, we showed that both team priority of safety and team psychological safety mediated the relationship between leader behavioral integrity for safety and reported treatment errors. These results suggest that although adhering to safety protocols and admitting mistakes against those protocols show opposite relations to reported treatment errors, both are important to improving patient safety and both are fostered by leaders who walk their safety talk. PMID:22985115

  6. Sig2BioPAX: Java tool for converting flat files to BioPAX Level 3 format

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Wide Web plays a critical role in enabling molecular, cell, systems and computational biologists to exchange, search, visualize, integrate, and analyze experimental data. Such efforts can be further enhanced through the development of semantic web concepts. The semantic web idea is to enable machines to understand data through the development of protocol free data exchange formats such as Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL). These standards provide formal descriptors of objects, object properties and their relationships within a specific knowledge domain. However, the overhead of converting datasets typically stored in data tables such as Excel, text or PDF into RDF or OWL formats is not trivial for non-specialists and as such produces a barrier to seamless data exchange between researchers, databases and analysis tools. This problem is particularly of importance in the field of network systems biology where biochemical interactions between genes and their protein products are abstracted to networks. Results For the purpose of converting biochemical interactions into the BioPAX format, which is the leading standard developed by the computational systems biology community, we developed an open-source command line tool that takes as input tabular data describing different types of molecular biochemical interactions. The tool converts such interactions into the BioPAX level 3 OWL format. We used the tool to convert several existing and new mammalian networks of protein interactions, signalling pathways, and transcriptional regulatory networks into BioPAX. Some of these networks were deposited into PathwayCommons, a repository for consolidating and organizing biochemical networks. Conclusions The software tool Sig2BioPAX is a resource that enables experimental and computational systems biologists to contribute their identified networks and pathways of molecular interactions for integration and reuse with the

  7. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  8. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  9. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level A. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level A guide contains materials for teachers of grades K-1. Emphasis is on development of perceptual skills, especially in regard to pedestrian safety. Four units are included: Pedestrian Safety, Bicycle Safety,…

  10. Opportunities for bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle foods.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2006-09-01

    It has been well documented that vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging materials, made from polyethylene- or other plastic-based materials, have been found to improve the stability and safety of raw or further processed muscle foods. However, recent research developments have demonstrated the feasibility, utilization, and commercial application of a variety of bio-based polymers or bio-polymers made from a variety of materials, including renewable/sustainable agricultural commodities, and applied to muscle foods. A variety of these bio-based materials have been shown to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation and improve flavor attributes, as well as enhancing the handling properties, color retention, and microbial stability of foods. With consumers demanding more environmentally friendly packaging and a desire for more natural products, bio-based films or bio-polymers will continue to play an important role in the food industry by improving the quality of many products, including fresh or further processed muscle foods. PMID:22062722

  11. Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei; Osman, Ahmad; Kim, Dongsoo; Goldstein, Brian; Huang, Chenxi; Martini, Berin; Pieribone, Vincent A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential amplifier offers a gain of 53 dB within a bandwidth of 200 Hz-20 kHz. The input-referred rms noise is 2.8 µV. In the asynchronous level crossing ADC, the minimum delta resolution is 4 mV. The input signal frequency of the ADC is up to 5 kHz. The system was fabricated using the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS process. The chip size is 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm. The power consumption of the 4-channel system from a 3.3 V supply is 118.8 µW in the static state and 501.6 µW with a 240 kS/s sampling rate. The conversion efficiency is 1.6 nJ/conversion. PMID:24163640

  12. Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Osman, Ahmad; Kim, Dongsoo; Goldstein, Brian; Huang, Chenxi; Martini, Berin; Pieribone, Vincent A; Culurciello, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential amplifier offers a gain of 53 dB within a bandwidth of 200 Hz-20 kHz. The input-referred rms noise is 2.8 µV. In the asynchronous level crossing ADC, the minimum delta resolution is 4 mV. The input signal frequency of the ADC is up to 5 kHz. The system was fabricated using the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS process. The chip size is 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm. The power consumption of the 4-channel system from a 3.3 V supply is 118.8 µW in the static state and 501.6 µW with a 240 kS/s sampling rate. The conversion efficiency is 1.6 nJ/conversion. PMID:24163640

  13. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level B. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level B guide contains materials for teachers of grades 2-3. Content includes pedestrian, bicycle, school bus, and passenger safety units in which perceptual and judgmental skills are emphasized. Bicycle safety is…

  14. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level C. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level C guide contains materials for teachers of grades 4-6. Four units in pedestrian, bicycle, school bus, and passenger safety are presented, and minicycle and optional farm vehicle safety units are introduced.…

  15. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  16. The effects of error management climate and safety communication on safety: a multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Cigularov, Konstantin P; Chen, Peter Y; Rosecrance, John

    2010-09-01

    Work in the construction industry is considered inherently dangerous, despite the technological improvements regarding the safety of work conditions and equipment. To address the urgent need to identify organizational predictors of safety performance and outcomes among construction workers, the present study examined multi-level effects of two important indicators of safety climate, namely contractor error management climate and worker safety communication, on safety behavior, injury, and pain among union construction workers. Data were collected from 235 union construction workers employed by 15 contractors in Midwest and Northwest regions of the United States. Results revealed significant main effects for safety communication and error management climate on safety behaviors and pain, but not on injuries. Our findings suggest that positive safety communication and error management climate are important contributors to improving workplace safety. Specific implications of these results for organizational safety research and practice are discussed. PMID:20538106

  17. Comparative bio-safety and in vivo evaluation of native or modified locust bean gum-PVA IPN microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kaity, Santanu; Ghosh, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Strategically developed natural polymer-based controlled release multiparticulate drug delivery systems have gained special interest for “spatial placement” and “temporal delivery” of drug molecules. In our earlier study, locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (LBG-PVA IPN), carboxymethylated locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (CMLBG-PVA IPN) and acrylamide grafted locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN) were prepared and characterized. The present study deals with accelerating stability testing, comparative bio-safety and single dose in vivo pharmacokinetic study of all three IPN microspheres for controlled oral delivery of buflomedil hydrochloride (BH). From the stability study, it was observed that the particles were stable throughout the study period. From toxicity and biodegradability study it was proved that the microspheres were safe for internal use and complied with bio-safety criterion. From the in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits, it was observed that the CMLBG-PVA IPN microspheres possessed almost similar Tmax value with BH oral suspension. However, in comparison between the LBG-PVA and Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN microspheres, the later showed well controlled release property than the first in biological condition. Thus, this type of delivery system might be useful to achieve the lofty goals of the controlled release drug delivery. PMID:25307127

  18. Criticality safety considerations for low-level-waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.

    1995-04-01

    The nuclear criticality safety for handling and burial of certain special nuclear materials (SNM) at low-level-waste (LLW) facilities is licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Recently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff assisted the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Low-Level-Waste and Decommissioning Projects Branch, in developing technical specifications for the nuclear criticality safety of {sup 235}U and {sup 235}Pu in LLW facilities. This assistance resulted in a set of nuclear criticality safety criteria that can be uniformly applied to the review of LLW package burial facility license applications. These criteria were developed through the coupling of the historic surface-density criterion with current computational technique to establish safety criteria considering SNM material form and reflector influences. This paper presents a summary of the approach used to establish and to apply the criteria to the licensing review process.

  19. Recent developments in nanowires for bio-applications from molecular to cellular levels.

    PubMed

    Rahong, Sakon; Yasui, Takao; Kaji, Noritada; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2016-04-01

    This review highlights the most promising applications of nanowires for bioanalytical chemistry and medical diagnostics. The materials discussed here are metal oxide and Si semiconductors, which are integrated with various microfluidic systems. Nanowire structures offer desirable advantages such as a very small diameter size with a high aspect ratio and a high surface-to-volume ratio without grain boundaries; consequently, nanowires are promising tools to study biological systems. This review starts with the integration of nanowire structures into microfluidic systems, followed by the discussion of the advantages of nanowire structures in the separation, manipulation and purification of biomolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins). Next, some representative nanowire devices are introduced for biosensors from molecular to cellular levels based on electrical and optical approaches. Finally, we conclude the review by highlighting some bio-applications for nanowires and presenting the next challenges that must be overcome to improve the capabilities of nanowire structures for biological and medical systems. PMID:26928289

  20. CoDA: Collaborative Data Aggregation in Emerging Sensor Networks Using Bio-Level Voronoi Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chengpei; Yang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    To implement minimum power consumption of the link, cluster heads adopt the multi-hop manner for inter-cluster communication so as to forward the aggregation data to the relay nodes. This paper proposes a collaborative data aggregation in emerging sensor networks using a bio-level Voronoi diagram, which is an energy-efficient data aggregation protocol that integrates topology control, Multiple Access Control (MAC) and routing. The sensor nodes situated in the lower level of the diagram are responsible for listening and gathering data, and should be organized by optimal clustering node. In the inter-cluster communication stage, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is addressed to seek optimal transmission path which could simultaneously achieve the minimization of the maximum next hop distance between two nodes in the routing path and the minimization of the maximum hop count, so the minimization of whole network energy consumption is realized. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation results show that energy efficiency and synchronization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be much better than with traditional routing protocols, and the energy consumption of nodes in the whole network can be more balanced. PMID:27527181

  1. K-9 Traffic Safety Resource Curriculum. Level D. Professional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Raleigh, NC.

    One of four curriculum guides designed to aid teachers of grades K-9 in implementing a balanced, dynamic traffic safety program, this level D guide contains materials for teachers of grades 7-9. Emphasis is on preparation for the driving task and content is in three units. More sophisitcated approaches to pedestrian, bicycle, and school bus…

  2. In vivo bio-safety evaluations and diagnostic/therapeutic applications of chemically designed mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2013-06-18

    The remarkable progress of nanotechnology and its application in biomedicine have greatly expanded the ranges and types of biomaterials from traditional organic material-based nanoparticles (NPs) to inorganic biomaterials or organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites due to the unprecedented advantages of the engineered inorganic material-based NPs. Colloidal mesoporous silica NPs (MSNs), one of the most representative and well-established inorganic materials, have been promoted into biology and medicine, and shifted from extensive in vitro research towards preliminary in vivo assays in small-animal disease models. In this comprehensive review, the recent progresses in chemical design and engineering of MSNs-based biomaterials for in vivo biomedical applications has been detailed and overviewed. Due to the intrinsic structural characteristics of elaborately designed MSNs such as large surface area, high pore volume and easy chemical functionalization, they have been extensively investigated for therapeutic, diagnostic and theranostic (concurrent diagnosis and therapy) purposes, especially in oncology. Systematic in vivo bio-safety evaluations of MSNs have revealed the evidences that the in vivo bio-behaviors of MSNs are strongly related to their preparation prodecures, particle sizes, geometries, surface chemistries, dosing parameters and even administration routes. In vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics further demonstrated the effectiveness of MSNs as the passively and/or actively targeted drug delivery systems (DDSs) for cancer chemotherapy. Especially, the advance of nano-synthetic chemistry enables the production of composite MSNs for advanced in vivo therapeutic purposes such as gene delivery, stimuli-responsive drug release, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, ultrasound therapy, or anti-bacteria in tissue engineering, or as the contrast agents for biological and diagnostic imaging. Additionally, the critical issues and potential challenges

  3. Measuring Safety Levels in Playgrounds Using Environment Assessment Scales: The Issue of Playground Safety in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsoglou, Kafenia; Hrisikou, Spyridoula; Kakana, Domna Mika

    2011-01-01

    Playgrounds beget an unrivalled context which, through play activity, can foster children's growth. The foremost function of all playgrounds is to provide for safety. In the present study, our primary focus is to determine the degree of adequacy as far as playground equipment is concerned, including estimates of imminent dangers and the level of…

  4. Application of Low Level, Uniform Ultrasound Field for Acceleration of Enzymatic Bio-processing of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that th...

  5. Assessment of bio-safety of low-cost polyurethane urologic stents used in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nobhojit; Waingankar, Santosh; Aggarwal, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ureteral stents, despite their ubiquitous use, have not been evaluated for their safety and strength after removal from the patient. While literature is available from the industry with regards to manufacturing and specifications of stents, what happens to a stent after it is inserted into the body, still needs to be explored. Materials and Methods: We conducted a methodical study of 153 consecutive patients with urological problems who were stented with inexpensive polyurethane stents. Once removed from the patients, the stents were analyzed for breakload, tensile strength, elongation, pH, decomposition temperature, residue as well as diameter change. Results: There was no significant change in the physical and mechanical properties of the stent after clinical use and the variance was within the acceptable range of biomaterials. There was minimal leaching of material and color change in all stents. Conclusion: The cheap polyurethane stents were found to be safe for use in patients, for the short time periods of in situ stenting. The degradation of physical and chemical properties of the stent was not significant. Thus it can be safely said that the stents currently in widespread use are cost-effective and physically safe for short spans of time. PMID:22919135

  6. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on safety issues related to general aviation on June 19-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event,...

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property...

  8. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property...

  9. Bio-enhancing Effect of Piperine with Metformin on Lowering Blood Glucose Level in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atal, Shubham; Atal, Sarjana; Vyas, Savita; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper) is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal) diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL), Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg), Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg), and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg). All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28). Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg) showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14th and 28th day (P < 0.05). Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg) showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg) alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects. SUMMARY Piperine is known for its bioenhancing property. This study evaluates the effect of piperine in combination with oral antidiabetic drug metformin. Drugs were administered for 28 days in alloxan induced diabetic mice and blood glucose lowering effect was seen. Results showed significantly better effect of combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin in comparison to metformin alone. Piperine

  10. Implementing District Safety Standards at the Site Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Ethan; Webb-Dempsey, Jaci; Moore, Lucas C.; McClellan, Craig S.; Friebel, Carl H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 9/11 and Columbine, school safety has become a prevalent issue in education policy in the United States. As a result, states and school districts have responded with innumerable efforts to improve school safety. Harrison County Schools, located in West Virginia, received federal funding to supplement surveillance equipment at middle and high…

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life safety evaluation is to be performed by a qualified fire...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life safety evaluation is to be performed by a qualified fire...

  13. Criticality safety of high-level tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    Radioactive waste containing low concentrations of fissile isotopes is stored in underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The goal of criticality safety is to ensure that this waste remains subcritical into the indefinite future without supervision. A large ratio of solids to plutonium provides an effective way of ensuring a low plutonium concentration. Since the first waste discharge, a program of audits and appraisals has ensured that operations are conducted according to limits and controls applied to them. In addition, a program of surveillance and characterization maintains watch over waste after discharge.

  14. Measuring the level of activity in community built bio-ontologies.

    PubMed

    Malone, James; Stevens, Robert

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we explore the measurement of activity in ontology projects as an aspect of community ontology building. When choosing whether to use an ontology or whether to participate in its development, having some knowledge of how actively that ontology is developed is an important issue. Our knowledge of biology grows and changes and an ontology must adapt to keep pace with those changes and also adapt with respect to other ontologies and organisational principles. In essence, we need to know if there is an 'active' community involved with a project or whether a given ontology is inactive or moribund. We explore the use of additions, deletions and changes to ontology files, the regularity and frequency of releases, and the number of ontology repository updates to an ontology as the basis for measuring activity in an ontology. We present our results of this study, which show a dramatic range of activity across some of the more prominent community ontologies, illustrating very active and mature efforts through to those which appear to have become dormant for a number of possible reasons. We show that global activity within the community has remained at a similar level over the last 2 years. Measuring additions, deletions and changes, together with release frequency, appear to be useful metrics of activity and useful pointers towards future behaviour. Measuring who is making edits to ontologies is harder to capture; this raises issues of record keeping in ontology projects and in micro-credit, although we have identified one ontologist that appears influential across many community efforts; a Super-Ontologist. We also discuss confounding factors in our activity metric and discuss how it can be improved and adopted as an assessment criterion for community ontology development. Overall, we show that it is possible to objectively measure the activity in an ontology and to make some prediction about future activity. PMID:22554701

  15. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Zarogouldis, Paul; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Huang, Haidong; Hohenforst-Schimdt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P.; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano-vehicle. These formulations are multifunctional; they can be used as either local therapy or carrier for an effective inhaled gene therapy for lung cancer. Herein, we present current and future perspectives of nanocomplexes for inhaled gene therapy treatment in lung cancer. PMID:23109824

  16. Evaluation of the safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. throughout the food production chain in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sauli, I; Danuser, J; Wenk, C; Stärk, K D C

    2003-07-01

    In Switzerland. the safeguarding of food is the responsibility of industry, organizations, and governmental authorities. The dispersion of the tasks and the diversity of implemented safety measures among involved stakeholders do not allow a general overview of the national safety assurance level provided. A comprehensive evaluation of the level of safety assurance provided for foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. is therefore lacking, and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. at various points in the food production chain is not known. The objectives of this study were to (i) collect data on safety measures implemented throughout the food production chain in Switzerland regarding Salmonella spp.; (ii) evaluate the safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. at each step of the production chain for chicken meat, pork, beef, and milk and dairy products (bovine origin); and (iii) gather data on the prevalence of the pathogen at each step. Data on implemented safety assurance measures for Salmonella spp. were gathered from the various stakeholders in the food production chain. The data were analyzed by a semiquantitative method that considered the quality and relevance of the implemented safety measures for Salmonella spp. The safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. was evaluated from "no safety assurance" to "very good safety assurance." Available results of testing for Salmonella spp. from 1998 to 2000 were used for calculating the prevalence of the pathogen throughout the food production chain. The results showed a varying safety assurance level for Salmonella spp. throughout the food production chain. Strengths (e.g., feed production for chickens) and weaknesses (e.g., pork production) were observed. These results serve as a basis for a rational optimization of the system. PMID:12870745

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What must an...

  18. Multi-Level Aspects of Social Cohesion of Secondary Schools and Pupils' Feelings of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Background: School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. Aims: To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social…

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an...

  20. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question. PMID:25727733

  1. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms: a critical discussion about ''safety levels''

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, K.R.

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as ''safety level'' and ''safety factor'' for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  2. Towards Better Precision Medicine: PacBio Single-Molecule Long Reads Resolve the Interpretation of HIV Drug Resistant Mutation Profiles at Explicit Quasispecies (Haplotype) Level

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Da Wei; Raley, Castle; Jiang, Min Kang; Zheng, Xin; Liang, Dun; Rehman, M Tauseef; Highbarger, Helene C.; Jiao, Xiaoli; Sherman, Brad; Ma, Liang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Skelly, Thomas; Troyer, Jennifer; Stephens, Robert; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Pau, Alice; Lempicki, Richard A; Tran, Bao; Nissley, Dwight; Lane, H Clifford; Dewar, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Development of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (HDRMs) is one of the major reasons for the clinical failure of antiretroviral therapy. Treatment success rates can be improved by applying personalized anti-HIV regimens based on a patient’s HDRM profile. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the HDRM profile is limited by the methods used for detection. Sanger-based sequencing technology has traditionally been used for determining HDRM profiles at the single nucleotide variant (SNV) level, but with a sensitivity of only ≥ 20% in the HIV population of a patient. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies offer greater detection sensitivity (~ 1%) and larger scope (hundreds of samples per run). However, NGS technologies produce reads that are too short to enable the detection of the physical linkages of individual SNVs across the haplotype of each HIV strain present. In this article, we demonstrate that the single-molecule long reads generated using the Third Generation Sequencer (TGS), PacBio RS II, along with the appropriate bioinformatics analysis method, can resolve the HDRM profile at a more advanced quasispecies level. The case studies on patients’ HIV samples showed that the quasispecies view produced using the PacBio method offered greater detection sensitivity and was more comprehensive for understanding HDRM situations, which is complement to both Sanger and NGS technologies. In conclusion, the PacBio method, providing a promising new quasispecies level of HDRM profiling, may effect an important change in the field of HIV drug resistance research. PMID:26949565

  3. Application of a low level, uniform ultrasound field for the acceleration of enzymatic bio-processing of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that th...

  4. Synthesizing Safety Conditions for Code Certification Using Meta-Level Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusterbrock, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    In code certification the code consumer publishes a safety policy and the code producer generates a proof that the produced code is in compliance with the published safety policy. In this paper, a novel viewpoint approach towards an implementational re-use oriented framework for code certification is taken. It adopts ingredients from Necula's approach for proof-carrying code, but in this work safety properties can be analyzed on a higher code level than assembly language instructions. It consists of three parts: (1) The specification language is extended to include generic pre-conditions that shall ensure safety at all states that can be reached during program execution. Actual safety requirements can be expressed by providing domain-specific definitions for the generic predicates which act as interface to the environment. (2) The Floyd-Hoare inductive assertion method is refined to obtain proof rules that allow the derivation of the proof obligations in terms of the generic safety predicates. (3) A meta-interpreter is designed and experimentally implemented that enables automatic synthesis of proof obligations for submitted programs by applying the modified Floyd-Hoare rules. The proof obligations have two separate conjuncts, one for functional correctness and another for the generic safety obligations. Proof of the generic obligations, having provided the actual safety definitions as context, ensures domain-specific safety of program execution in a particular environment and is simpler than full program verification.

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of...

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of...

  7. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  8. Patient safety in maternal healthcare at secondary and tertiary level facilities in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Choure, Ankita; Singh, Baljit

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is insufficient information on causes of unsafe care at facility levels in India. This study was conducted to understand the challenges in government hospitals in ensuring patient safety and to propose solutions to improve patient care. Materials and Methods: Desk review, in-depth interviews, and focused group discussions were conducted between January and March 2014. Healthcare providers and nodal persons for patient safety in Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of government health facilities from Delhi state of India were included. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methods and presented adopting the “health system approach.” Results: The patient safety was a major concern among healthcare providers. The key challenges identified were scarcity of resources, overcrowding at health facilities, poor communications, patient handovers, delay in referrals, and the limited continuity of care. Systematic attention on the training of care providers involved in service delivery, prescription audits, peer reviews, facility level capacity building plan, additional financial resources, leadership by institutional heads and policy makers were suggested as possible solutions. Conclusions: There is increasing awareness and understanding about challenges in patient safety. The available local information could be used for selection, designing, and implementation of measures to improve patient safety at facility levels. A systematic and sustained approach with attention on all functions of health systems could be beneficial. Patient safety could be used as an entry point to improve the quality of health care services in India. PMID:26985411

  9. Multi-level aspects of social cohesion of secondary schools and pupils' feelings of safety.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. AIMS. To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social cohesion between and within schools, in order to explain a pupil's feelings of safety at school. SAMPLES. Data were collected aided by a national Dutch survey in secondary education carried out via the Internet. In 2008, digital questionnaires were completed by about 78,800 pupils, 6,200 teachers and educational support staff, and 600 school managers. METHODS. Data were checked for reliability and representativity. Social cohesion was indicated by self-reported measures of individual pupils and by aggregating scale and item scores of school managers, teachers, and other support staff within schools. Multi-level analysis using individual pupil data and school-level data was performed using MLwiN. RESULTS. A pupil's age, educational attainment level, experience of mild physical violence, prosocial rules of conduct and joint control of these rules, and school measures against playing truant, show positive influences on a pupil's feelings of safety at school. Negative influences are exerted by not feeling most at home in The Netherlands, peers taking drugs and weapons into school, and by experiencing social violence, severe physical violence, and sexual violence. Negative school effects exist simultaneously in severe physical violence experienced by teachers and other staff, and in curriculum differentiation applied by teachers and other staff; a positive school effect is school size. Some interaction effects between pupil and school-level variables were explored. CONCLUSIONS. The variance at school level is relatively low compared with the variance at pupil level. However, a much higher percentage of variance at school level than at

  10. Criticality safety criteria for license review of low-level waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Odegaarden, R.H.; Parks, C.V.; Fox, P.B.

    1995-03-01

    The handling and burial of specified quantities of special nuclear material (SNM) at low-level-waste (LLW) facilities require a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). With assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff, the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Low-Level-Waste and Decommissioning Projects Branch, has developed technical specifications for the nuclear criticality safety of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in LLW facilities. The objective of the development of these technical specifications was to establish a set of review criteria that are rigorously defensible that can be applied uniformly to all license applications, and that conservatively ensures that buried SNM will not pose a criticality safety concern.

  11. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  12. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-08-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  13. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  14. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  15. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  16. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-05-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What must an equivalent... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of...

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must an equivalent... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of...

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What must an equivalent... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of...

  20. SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine. PMID:26979136

  2. Advances in bio-lubricant development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-lubricants are those based on natural sources such as those harvested from farms. There is a great deal of interest in bio-lubricants because of their potential to provide a number of environmental, health, safety, and economic benefits over petroleum-based products. It is anticipated that wid...

  3. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  4. Comparison of the N Reactor and Ignalina Unit No. 2 Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.; McKay, S.L.

    1995-06-01

    A multilateral team recently completed a full-scope Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) on the Ignalina Unit No. 2 reactor plant in Lithuania. This allows comparison of results to those of the PSA for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) N Reactor. The N Reactor, although unique as a Western design, has similarities to Eastern European and Soviet graphite block reactors.

  5. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  6. State-level clustering of safety measures and its relationship to injury mortality.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Bell, N; Conrad, P; Howland, J; Lang, M

    1997-01-01

    This article proposes a social model of investigating injury mortality. The authors hypothesize that (1) state-level laws and regulations on safety cluster together in one or more groupings; (2) groupings of safety measures play a significant role in injury mortality; and (3) injury mortality is very highly associated with social structural variables. There is a clustering of safety policies, with five factors explaining 67 percent of variance, although no "master factor" was discovered. The strongest factor, explaining 21 percent of variance, includes three gun laws and low speed limits before the 1973 federal law. One factor is the most global in that it taps three distinct areas, including helmet laws, minor blood alcohol levels, and smoke detectors, though it only explains 7.5 percent of variance. The only factor that remains in a regression for injury mortality is one that includes strong seat belt laws and strong enforcement of those laws, though in the direction opposite to that hypothesized. This factor, along with percentage rural and environmental spending per capita, is significant for both motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle mortality. For motor vehicle mortality alone, deaths are higher in states with higher percentages of Hispanics and fewer people receiving food stamps and AFDC. Many factors that usually predict individual injury mortality do not hold at the state level, suggesting the usefulness of looking at social factors for new insights into injury mortality and prevention. PMID:9142606

  7. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

    2014-02-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  8. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  9. [Use of the ion-exchange substrate to optimize mineral nutrition of plants within a bio-engineering life support system with a high level of closure].

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, N A; Ushakova, S A; Kudenko, Yu A; Anishchenko, O V; Tikhomirov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to test manageability of nutrient solutions containing mineralized human exometabolites by using an ion-exchange substrate (IES) for cultivating wheat in a bio-engineering life support system with a high level of closure. Object of the investigation was wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Lysovsky cv. l. 232). Crops were raised on clayite in a growth chamber of a hydroponic conveyor system under continuous light. Correction of nutrient solution was to lift the limits of crop supply with minerals. The experimental crop grew in nutrient solution with immersed IES "BIONA-312"; nutrient solution for the control crop was corrected by adding mineral salts. Solution correction did not have a noteworthy effect on the yield, CO2-gas exchange or mineral composition of wheat plants. IES makes simple the technology of plant cultivation on solutions enriched with human exometabolites. PMID:26035997

  10. Sense and avoid requirements for unmanned aircraft systems using a target level of safety approach.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Richard; Schrage, Daniel; Volovoi, Vitali; Jimenez, Hernando

    2014-10-01

    One of the most critical challenges to full integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) is the requirement to comply with CFR 14 Part 91.113 to "see and avoid" other aircraft. Various attempts have been made to develop systems to "sense and avoid" other aircraft so UAS can comply with the intent of the regulation. This article proposes a framework to develop effectiveness requirements for any SAA system by linking UAS characteristics and operating environments to midair collision risk quantified by a fatality rate. The framework consists of a target level of safety (TLS) approach using an event tree format. Safety has been identified as the most important consideration in the UAS integration process. While safety can be defined in many ways, the authors propose using a fatality rate metric that follows other statistics used in the industry. This metric allows for the use of a TLS approach to the development of SAA requirements for system certification. Failure to adequately link system requirements to safety could result in the implementation of SAA systems that either do not adequately mitigate the risk associated with UAS operations or are overdesigned, resulting in increased cost and complexity. This article demonstrates the use of the proposed framework to develop specific SAA effectiveness standards based on UAS weight and airspace class combinations. PMID:24724619

  11. Safety assurance of assistive devices based on a two-level checking scheme.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Chu; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chiou, Ying-Han; Lai, Jin-Shin; Kuog, T-S

    2005-01-01

    The increasing number of physically challenged individuals has boosted the demand of powered wheelchairs. This paper is on the subject of a DSP (Digital Signal Processors) based assistive system, which is associated with a two-level checking scheme. The assistive system takes on the M3S (Multiple Master Multiple Slave) regulation for the assurance of safety. The CAN (Control Area Networks) embedded module in the DSP provides robust transmission of information within the system. The hardware interfaces based on the two-level checking scheme is implemented in input devices (e.g. joystick, head control apparatus) and in output devices (e.g. manipulator, prime mover motors). PMID:17281868

  12. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that

  13. Prediction of the safety level to an installation of the tritium process through predictive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V.

    2008-07-15

    The safety level for personnel and environment to a nuclear installation is given in generally by the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and in particular by a lot of technical, technological, economic and human factors. The maintenance role is fundamental because it has to quantify all the technical, economic and human elements as an integrated system for it creates an important feedback for activities concerning the life cycle of the nuclear installation. In maintenance activities as in any dynamic area, new elements appear continuously which, sometimes require new approaches. The theory of fuzzy logic and the software LabVIEW supplied to the Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) is part of National Research and Development Inst. for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT, Rm.Valcea, used for predictive maintenance to assure safety operation. The final aim is to achieve the best practices for maintenance of the Plant that processes tritium. (authors)

  14. Sense-and-Avoid Equivalent Level of Safety Definition for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Revision 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a pilot on-board the aircraft, they cannot literally comply with the "see and avoid" requirement beyond a short distance from the location of the unmanned pilot. No performance standards are presently defined for unmanned Sense and Avoid systems, and the FAA has no published approval criteria for a collision avoidance system. Before the FAA can develop the necessary guidance (rules / regulations / policy) regarding the see-and-avoid requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), a concise understanding of the term "equivalent level of safety" must be attained. Since this term is open to interpretation, the UAS industry and FAA need to come to an agreement on how this term can be defined and applied for a safe and acceptable collision avoidance capability for unmanned aircraft. Defining an equivalent level of safety (ELOS) for sense and avoid is one of the first steps in understanding the requirement and developing a collision avoidance capability. This document provides a functional level definition of see-and-avoid as it applies to unmanned aircraft. The sense and avoid ELOS definition is intended as a bridge between the see and avoid requirement and the system level requirements for unmanned aircraft sense and avoid systems. Sense and avoid ELOS is defined in a rather abstract way, meaning that it is not technology or system specific, and the definition provides key parameters (and a context for those parameters) to focus the development of cooperative and non-cooperative sense and avoid system requirements.

  15. Multi-level Bayesian safety analysis with unprocessed Automatic Vehicle Identification data for an urban expressway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Yu, Rongjie

    2016-03-01

    In traffic safety studies, crash frequency modeling of total crashes is the cornerstone before proceeding to more detailed safety evaluation. The relationship between crash occurrence and factors such as traffic flow and roadway geometric characteristics has been extensively explored for a better understanding of crash mechanisms. In this study, a multi-level Bayesian framework has been developed in an effort to identify the crash contributing factors on an urban expressway in the Central Florida area. Two types of traffic data from the Automatic Vehicle Identification system, which are the processed data capped at speed limit and the unprocessed data retaining the original speed were incorporated in the analysis along with road geometric information. The model framework was proposed to account for the hierarchical data structure and the heterogeneity among the traffic and roadway geometric data. Multi-level and random parameters models were constructed and compared with the Negative Binomial model under the Bayesian inference framework. Results showed that the unprocessed traffic data was superior. Both multi-level models and random parameters models outperformed the Negative Binomial model and the models with random parameters achieved the best model fitting. The contributing factors identified imply that on the urban expressway lower speed and higher speed variation could significantly increase the crash likelihood. Other geometric factors were significant including auxiliary lanes and horizontal curvature. PMID:26722989

  16. Safety analysis report vitrified high level waste type B shipping cask

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Safety Analysis Report describes the design, analyses, and principle features of the Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) Cask. In preparing this report a detailed evaluation of the design has been performed to ensure that all safety, licensing, and operational goals for the cask and its associated Department of Energy program can be met. The functions of this report are: (1) to fully document that all functional and regulatory requirements of 10CFR71 can be met by the package; and (2) to document the design and analyses of the cask for review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The VHLW Cask is the reusable shipping package designed by GNSI under Department of Energy contract DE-AC04-89AL53-689 for transportation of Vitrified High Level Waste, and to meet the requirements for certification under 10CFR71 for a Type B(U) package. The VHLW cask has been designed as packaging for transport of canisters of Vitrified High Level Waste solidified at Department of Energy facilities.

  17. A study of improved MHR 50/100 toward a higher level of inherent safety

    SciTech Connect

    Minatsuki, I.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, K.; Oyama, S.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kunitomi, K.

    2012-07-01

    A new concept of the Mitsubishi small-sized High temperature gas-cooled modular Reactors (MHR-50/100) had been developed and published in papers. The study results of the first design concept show that the MHR-50/100 can achieve the inherent safety level set as a design target in case of water ingress during steam generator tube rupture accident. And more specifically, the reactor was shown to remain stable during long-term station black out (SBO) with protection of only passive devices during a depressurization accident and with additional motion of steam dump system during a water ingress accident. Recently greater requirements for safety of future nuclear plants including the MHR-50/100 have been expected. This study has thus made a key design improvement for the MHR-50/100 in order to secure the inherent safety aspect without reliance on active steam dump system in case of a water ingress accident. The innovative technologies listed below have been created and investigated to achieve the improved MHR-50/100 design; (1) Design improvement of steam generator, (2) Heat balance optimization of steam cycle, (3) Control system design of differential pressure between primary helium gas and water/steam, (4) Study on operation procedure during a water ingress accident. (authors)

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  20. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  2. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  4. Behavior of mercury in bio-systems. II. Depuration of /sup 203/Hg/sup 2 +/ in various trophic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdy, M.K.; Prabhu, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Using radiotracer techniques, the depuration rates for methylmercury at three trophic levels in an aquatic ecosystem are examined. Bacteria (decomposers), mosquito larvae (primary consumers), and fish (secondary consumers) were studied. Results indicated that depuration rates for mercury were temperature dependent - the rate of depuration increased with increase in temperature (up to 45/sup 0/C)

  5. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  6. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  7. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity.

    PubMed

    Ren, L; Robertson, W D; Reimer, R; Heinze, C; Schneider, C; Eggert, D; Truschow, P; Hansen, N-O; Kroetz, P; Zou, J; Miller, R J D

    2015-07-17

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics. PMID:26111866

  8. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Robertson, W. D.; Reimer, R.; Heinze, C.; Schneider, C.; Eggert, D.; Truschow, P.; Hansen, N.-O.; Kroetz, P.; Zou, J.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2015-07-01

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics.

  9. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

    1984-11-01

    This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

  10. A hazard and probabilistic safety analysis of a high-level waste transfer process

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Sasser, M.K.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes a safety analysis of a transfer process for high-level radioactive and toxic waste. The analysis began with a hazard assessment that used elements of What If, Checklist, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Hazards and Operability Study (HAZOP) techniques to identify and rough-in accident sequences. Based on this preliminary analysis, the most significant accident sequences were developed further using event trees. Quantitative frequency estimates for the accident sequences were based on operational data taken from the historical record of the site where the process is performed. Several modeling challenges were encountered in the course of the study. These included linked initiating and accident progression events, fire propagation modeling, accounting for administrative control violations, and handling mission-phase effects.

  11. Endogenous estimation of safety coefficient for optimal design of biochemical reactors at industrial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siontorou, Christina G.; Karydi, Angeliki

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with the endogenous estimation of the Safety Coefficient Ge = Vd/Vm, where Vd is the design volume and Vm is the mean volume of liquid of a biochemical reactor operating at industrial level. The Vd-value is estimated through Monte Carlo simulation while Vm-value is obtained by means of material balances and biochemical kinetics. A case example on waste water biological treatment is presented, referring to a well-mixed bioreactor followed by a clarifier. The Ge-values finally estimated are in the lower part of the (exogenously determined) region as suggested in the relevant technical literature, implying a significant saving of investment capital, which forms the principle component of fixed cost. Similar applications are also mentioned in brief.

  12. The Feasibility of Establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research Centers at University-Level Institutions. Final Report, Volume I: Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorness, Maury H.; And Others

    To examine the feasibility of establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research (HSMDR) Centers at university-level institutions which would produce three types of manpower--safety specialists, safety professionals, and research manpower, previous National Highway Safety Bureau research studies and approximately 50 federally funded…

  13. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States. PMID:26219354

  14. Bacterial quality and safety of packaged fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nousiainen, L-L; Joutsen, S; Lunden, J; Hänninen, M-L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of packaged fresh leafy vegetables, which are convenient ready-to-eat products, has increased during the last decade. The number of foodborne outbreaks associated with these products has concurrently increased. In our study, (1) label information, (2) O2/CO2 composition, (3) bacterial quality and (4) safety of 100 fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level were studied in Finland during 2013. Bacterial quality was studied using aerobic bacteria (AB) and coliform bacteria (CB) counts, and searching for the presence of Escherichia coli, Listeria and Yersinia. The safety was studied by the presence of Salmonella, ail-positive Yersinia, stx-positive E. coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes using PCR and culturing. Important label information was unavailable on several packages originating from different companies. The packaging date was missing on all packages and the date of durability on 83% of the packages. Storage temperature was declared on 62% of the packages and 73% of the packages contained information about prewashing. The batch/lot number was missing on 29% of the packages. Very low oxygen (O2) (<1%) and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) (2-22%) concentrations were measured in all packages labelled to contain a protective atmosphere. O2 and CO2 concentrations varied widely in the rest of the packages. AB and CB counts were high in the leafy vegetable samples varying between 6.2 and 10.6 and 4.2-8.3logcfu/g, respectively. In most of the samples, the AB and CB counts exceeded 10(8) and 10(6)cfu/g, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between the AB and CB counts. E. coli was isolated from 15% of the samples and Yersinia from 33%. L. monocytogenes was isolated from two samples and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in one. Using PCR, STEC was detected in seven samples, and Salmonella and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in two samples each. The AB and CB mean values of products originating from different companies varied widely. High AB and CB

  15. A checklist for patient safety rounds at the care pathway level

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Cordula; Thompson, Caroline A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Groene, Oliver; Klazinga, Niek S.; Dersarkissian, Maral; Suñol, Rosa; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define a checklist that can be used to assess the performance of a department and evaluate the implementation of quality management (QM) activities across departments or pathways in acute care hospitals. Design We developed and tested a checklist for the assessment of QM activities at department level in a cross-sectional study using on-site visits by trained external auditors. Setting and participants A sample of 292 hospital departments of 74 acute care hospitals across seven European countries. In every hospital, four departments for the conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, hip fracture and deliveries participated. Main Outcome Measures Four measures of QM activities were evaluated at care pathway level focusing on specialized expertise and responsibility (SER), evidence-based organization of pathways (EBOP), patient safety strategies and clinical review (CR). Results Participating departments attained mean values on the various scales between 1.2 and 3.7. The theoretical range was 0–4. Three of the four QM measures are identical for the four conditions, whereas one scale (EBOP) has condition-specific items. Correlations showed that every factor was related, but also distinct, and added to the overall picture of QM at pathway level. Conclusion The newly developed checklist can be used across various types of departments and pathways in acute care hospitals like AMI, deliveries, stroke and hip fracture. The anticipated users of the checklist are internal (e.g. peers within the hospital and hospital executive board) and external auditors (e.g. healthcare inspectorate, professional or patient organizations). PMID:24615594

  16. Importance of transparency and traceability in building a safety case for high-level nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sitakanta; Sagar, Budhi

    2002-02-01

    The complexity of the safety case for a high-level nuclear waste repository makes it imperative that deliberate and significant effort be made to incorporate in it a high level of transparency and traceability. Diverse audiences, from interested members of the public to highly trained subject matter experts, make this task difficult. A systematic study of the meaning of transparency and traceability and the implementation of the associated principles in preparing the safety case is, therefore, required. In this article, we review the existing knowledge and propose topics for further investigation. PMID:12017364

  17. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  18. The Effects of a Low-Level Uniform Ultrasound Field on Enzymatic Bio-Processing of Cotton: An Investigation of Three Fabric Weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that t...

  19. Psychological Safety and Social Support in Groupware Adoption: A Multi-Level Assessment in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepers, J.; de Jong, A.; Wetzels, M.; de Ruyter, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose that psychological safety, a sense of interpersonal trust and being valued in a work team, is an important determinant of groupware technology adoption in an educational setting. They develop and test a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety. Data were collected from 361 university…

  20. Willingness to use safety belt and levels of injury in car accidents.

    PubMed

    de Lapparent, Matthieu

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we develop a bivariate ordered Probit model to analyze the decision to fasten the safety belt in a car and the resulting severity of accidents if it happens. The approach takes into account the fact that the decision to fasten the safety belt has a direct causal effect on the category of injury if an accident happens. Our application to a sample drawn from the database of French accident reports in 2003 for three populations of car users (drivers, front passengers, rear passengers) shows that fastening the safety belt is significantly related to a decrease in severe injuries but it shows also that these car users compensate partly for this safety benefit. Furthermore, it is observed that demographic characteristics of car users, as well as transport facilities, play important roles in decisions to fasten safety belts and in the eventual resulting accident injuries. PMID:18460371

  1. Transparent tools for uncertainty analysis in high level waste disposal facilities safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Helmuth, Karl-Heinz; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-07-01

    In this paper some results of a further development of a technical cooperation project, initiated in 2004, between the CDTN/CNEN, The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission, and the STUK, The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, are presented. The objective of this project is to study applications of fuzzy logic, and artificial intelligence methods, on uncertainty analysis of high level waste disposal facilities safety assessment. Uncertainty analysis is an essential part of the study of the complex interactions of the features, events and processes, which will affect the performance of the HLW disposal system over the thousands of years in the future. Very often the development of conceptual and computational models requires simplifications and selection of over conservative parameters that can lead to unrealistic results. These results can mask the existing uncertainties which, consequently, can be an obstacle to a better understanding of the natural processes. A correct evaluation of uncertainties and their rule on data interpretation is an important step for the improvement of the confidence in the calculations and public acceptance. This study focuses on dissolution (source), solubility and sorption (sink) as key processes for determination of release and migration of radionuclides. These factors are affected by a number of parameters that characterize the near and far fields such as pH; temperature; redox conditions; and other groundwater properties. On the other hand, these parameters are also consequence of other processes and conditions such as water rock interaction; pH and redox buffering. Fuzzy logic tools have been proved to be suited for dealing with interpretation of complex, and some times conflicting, data. For example, although some parameters, such as pH and carbonate, are treated as independent, they have influence in each other and on the solubility. It is used the technique of fuzzy cognitive mapping is used for analysis of

  2. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety. Volume II of II. A Curriculum Manual for Elementary Level. A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual for the elementary school level is the first in a series on alcohol and alcohol safety and is designed as a teacher's activities guide. Each activity provided is a self-contained learning experience which requires varying numbers of class period and focuses on one or more objectives. Activities are numbered consecutively and…

  3. Fast, automatically darkening welding filter offering an improved level of safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen

    1996-03-01

    A mode of operation is introduced for the standard 90 degrees twisted nematic (TN) liquid-crystal cell when placed together with an interference filter and positioned between crossed polarizers such that a small stimulating voltage of between 2.0 and 3.0 V is required in order to attain the light state. Further incrementation of the driving electronics reverts the system back to a darker phase. Such cells offer advantages over those of the standard 90 degrees TN device operating in the normally white mode, in that the unit maintains the fast response time from the light to the dark state associated with the employment of TN cells placed between crossed polarizers. In addition, a low transmittance state is achieved when the unit is in the inactivated phase; this is an effect usually correlated with the normally black mode of operation. These cells are therefore ideal candidates for incorporation into fast, automatically darkening, welding filters that are designed to change rapidly from the light to the dark protective state, while offering an improved level of safety by not holding in a potentially hazardous light state should the controlling electronics malfunction. The requirement for this phenomenon to be observed is that the cell displays a low optical transmittance over the green wavelengths of the visible spectrum when in the inactivated phase and placed between crossed polarizers. The presence of an interference filter that possesses a peak transmittance over the central part of the visible spectrum is also necessary. It is shown that there are only two possible cell types that satisfy this criteria, and the optical properties of such cells are analyzed in some detail.

  4. A randomized, controlled trial of efficacy and safety of Anbainuo, a bio-similar etanercept, for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis inadequately responding to methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Zhan-Guo; Wu, Hua-Xiang; Zhao, Dong-Bao; Li, Xing-Fu; Xu, Jian-Hua; Tao, Yi; Yang, Nan-Ping; Hu, Shao-Xian; Huang, An-Bin; Jiang, Lin-di; Wang, Guo-Chun; Zhang, Xiao; Bao, Chun-de

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etanercept (Anbainuo) treatment in Chinese moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR); 600 patients (360 in phase III-1 and 240 in phase III-2) poorly responding to MTX were enrolled in the study and randomized at a ratio of 2:1 into an Anbainuo treatment or control group. The study was designed as a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled period followed by a 12-week open-label study. The primary endpoint was the ACR20 response rate at week 12. Secondary endpoints included the ACR50, ACR70, ACR-N, and safety. At week 12, ACR20 response was observed in 60.9 % of the Anbainuo group-significantly higher than that of the control group (20.6 %). At week 24, the ACR20 response in the Anbainuo group increased to 70.2 %; there was no significant difference compared with that of the control group (61.8 %, P > 0.05). At week 12, the ACR50 and ACR70 responses of the Anbainuo group increased to 25.6 and 6.8 %, compared to 4 and 1 % in the control group (P < 0.001, P = 0.002). The ACR-N was 2.85 ± 6.73 vs. -3.24 ± 8.78 % in the control group (P < 0.001). During the first 12 weeks of treatment, 66 adverse events (AE) were reported in the Anbainuo group (15.6 %) and 21 AEs (10.5 %) occurred in the control group, whereby the rate of the Anbainuo group was slightly higher than the control group (P = 0.042). Severe adverse events (SAEs) occurred in the Anbainuo group (1.3 %) and one (SAE) occurred in the control group (0.5 %) (P = 0.19). Anbainuo displays a rapid onset of efficacy as well as good tolerance and safety in MTX-IR patients having moderate to severe RA. PMID:27184046

  5. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  6. WASTE CONTAINER AND WASTE PACKAGE PERFORMANCE MODELING TO SUPPORT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-06-30

    Prior to subsurface burial of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, a demonstration that disposal of the wastes can be accomplished while protecting the health and safety of the general population is required. The long-time frames over which public safety must be insured necessitates that this demonstration relies, in part, on computer simulations of events and processes that will occur in the future. This demonstration, known as a Safety Assessment, requires understanding the performance of the disposal facility, waste containers, waste forms, and contaminant transport to locations accessible to humans. The objective of the coordinated research program is to examine the state-of-the-art in testing and evaluation short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste packages (container and waste form) in near surface repository conditions. The link between data collection and long-term predictions is modeling. The objective of this study is to review state-of-the-art modeling approaches for waste package performance. This is accomplished by reviewing the fundamental concepts behind safety assessment and demonstrating how waste package models can be used to support safety assessment. Safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level wastes is a complicated process involving assumptions about the appropriate conceptual model to use and the data required to support these models. Typically due to the lack of long-term data and the uncertainties from lack of understanding and natural variability, the models used in safety assessment are simplistic. However, even though the models are simplistic, waste container and waste form performance are often central to the case for making a safety assessment. An overview of waste container and waste form performance and typical models used in a safety assessment is supplied. As illustrative examples of the role of waste container and waste package performance, three sample test cases are provided. An example of the impacts of

  7. Exposure to "low-level" aggression in school: associations with aggressive behavior, future expectations, and perceived safety.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Edwards-Leeper, Laura; Goldstein, Sara E; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Dubow, Eric F

    2003-12-01

    Examined associations with witnessing and being victimized by "low-level" aggressive acts (e.g., pushing, gossip) and three indicators of psychosocial functioning in a sample of 771 elementary school students from one urban and one suburban school district. Results indicated that exposure to low-level aggression appears to relate to psychosocial functioning in ways similar to more severe forms of aggression. Students who were exposed to higher levels of both witnessing and victimization by low-level aggression reported the highest levels of engagement in aggression, the lowest levels of positive expectations for the future, and the lowest levels of perceived safety. Findings are discussed in the context of research on exposure to aggression in general, with suggestions offered for future studies. Implications of the findings for school-based intervention programs are raised. PMID:15109121

  8. Bio-Functional Au/Si Nanorods for Pathogen Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabr...

  9. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    Global demand for food, feedstock and bio-fuel crops is expanding rapidly due to population growth, increasing consumption of these products (especially in developing countries), and more recently skyrocketing use of these crops to produce ethanol as a bio-fuel. As a result, there are growing concerns, both in the US and world wide, about the ability to meet the projected demand for agricultural/bio-fuel crops without expanding production areas into environmentally sensitive regions. Concurrently, there are increasing concerns over the negative impact of global warming on crop yields. Accurate ecophysiological crop models have been developed for many of the food and bio-fuel crops and serve as the back-bone in sophisticated Decision Support Systems (DSS). These DSS's are increasingly being used to address the balance between the need to increase production/efficiency and environmental concerns, as well as the impact of global warming on crop production. Realistic application of these agricultural DSS's requires accurate environmental data on time scales ranging from hours to decades. To date only sparse surface measurements are used that typically do not measure solar irradiance. NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project, which has as one of its objectives the development of data products for agricultural applications, currently provides a climatological data base of meteorological parameters and surface solar energy fluxes on a global 1-degree latitude by 1- degree longitude grid. NASA is also developing capabilities to produce near-real time data sets specifically designed for application by agricultural DSS's. In this presentation, we discuss the development of 1-degree global data products which combine the climatological data in the POWER project archive (http://earth-www.larc.nasa.gov/power), near real time (2 to 3 day lag) meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) quick-look products, and global solar energy

  10. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Nitrate to Early Life Stages of Zebrafish--Setting Nitrate Safety Levels for Zebrafish Rearing.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, Cândida; Carvalho, António Paulo

    2015-08-01

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) have been widely used for zebrafish rearing, allowing holding of many thousands of fish at high densities. Water quality in RAS largely depends on biofilters that ultimately convert the extremely toxic ammonia excreted by fish into the much less toxic nitrate. However, when water renewal is minimal in RAS, nitrate can accumulate to high enough levels to negatively impact fish welfare and performance. Therefore, the setting of safety levels of nitrate for zebrafish should be a priority to avoid unwanted effects in both the intensive production of this species and research outputs. The present study aimed to define nitrate safety levels for zebrafish based on acute and chronic toxicity bioassays in early life stages of this species. Acute bioassays revealed ontogenetic changes in response to high nitrate levels. Based on NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values, safety levels should be set at 1450, 1855, and 1075 mg/L NO3(-)-N to prevent acute lethal effects in embryos, newly-hatched larvae, and swim-up larvae, respectively. In the chronic bioassay, larvae were exposed to nitrate concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/L NO3(-)-N during the entire larval period (23 days). No negative effects were observed either on larval performance or condition at concentrations up to 200 mg/L NO3(-)-N. However, at 400 mg/L NO3(-)-N, survival drastically decreased and fish showed reduced growth and evidence of morphological abnormalities. Accordingly, a safety level of 200 mg/L NO3(-)-N is recommended during the larval rearing of zebrafish to prevent negative impacts on juvenile production. PMID:25996778

  11. An Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) to Increase Safety and Security Levels in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, M.; Rahman, Khalil Ur; Hassan, Mehmood Ul

    2013-12-01

    The main idea of this research is to develop an Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) based on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). The article highlights the essential features and functions of ORMS. The basic models and modules such as, Reliability Data Update Model (RDUM), running time update, redundant system unavailability update, Engineered Safety Features (ESF) unavailability update and general system update have been described in this study. ORMS not only provides quantitative analysis but also highlights qualitative aspects of risk measures. ORMS is capable of automatically updating the online risk models and reliability parameters of equipment. ORMS can support in the decision making process of operators and managers in Nuclear Power Plants.

  12. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, L.H.; MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM).

  13. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  14. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level I (Grades (K-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Twelve activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  15. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  16. Developing Science-based Approaches to Reduce Produce Safety Risks at the End-user Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increasing number of food-borne illness outbreaks associated with the consumption of contaminated fresh and fresh-cut produce significantly impacted public health and consumer confidence. The urgent need to improve produce safety demands actions from growers, processors and consumers. The main ob...

  17. Teaching Occupational Safety and Health at the Secondary and College Level. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    The activities in this guide are designed to provide a framework for instruction on safety and health on the job. The guide consists of three chapters. Chapter one introduces the guide, discusses how to use it, and explains the goals and objectives of the course. The second chapter contains detailed learning activities. Chapter three provides an…

  18. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; Bay, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  19. Governing patient safety: lessons learned from a mixed methods evaluation of implementing a ward-level medication safety scorecard in two English NHS hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Angus I G; Turner, Simon; Cavell, Gillian; Oborne, C Alice; Thomas, Rebecca E; Cookson, Graham; Fulop, Naomi J

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about how scorecards presenting performance indicators influence medication safety. We evaluated the effects of implementing a ward-level medication safety scorecard piloted in two English NHS hospitals and factors influencing these. Methods We used a mixed methods, controlled before and after design. At baseline, wards were audited on medication safety indicators; during the ‘feedback’ phase scorecard results were presented to intervention wards on a weekly basis over 7 weeks. We interviewed 49 staff, including clinicians and managers, about scorecard implementation. Results At baseline, 18.7% of patients (total n=630) had incomplete allergy documentation; 53.4% of patients (n=574) experienced a drug omission in the preceding 24 h; 22.5% of omitted doses were classified as ‘critical’; 22.1% of patients (n=482) either had ID wristbands not reflecting their allergy status or no ID wristband; and 45.3% of patients (n=237) had drugs that were either unlabelled or labelled for another patient in their drug lockers. The quantitative analysis found no significant improvement in intervention wards following scorecard feedback. Interviews suggested staff were interested in scorecard feedback and described process and culture changes. Factors influencing scorecard implementation included ‘normalisation’ of errors, study duration, ward leadership, capacity to engage and learning preferences. Discussion Presenting evidence-based performance indicators may potentially influence staff behaviour. Several practical and cultural factors may limit feedback effectiveness and should be considered when developing improvement interventions. Quality scorecards should be designed with care, attending to evidence of indicators’ effectiveness and how indicators and overall scorecard composition fit the intended audience. PMID:24029440

  20. Leveraging Quality and Safety Education for Nurses to Enhance Graduate-Level Nursing Education and Practice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jean; Drenkard, Karen; Emard, Esther; McGuinn, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about the efforts to educate faculty teaching in graduate programs about the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies, provide examples of teaching strategies for each graduate competency, and finally provide information about the outcomes of the graduate-faculty QSEN project. Examples are given of the critical QSEN work that remains to be done to ensure that care for patients and communities is high quality, safe, and reliable. PMID:25997153

  1. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: A multivariable model including system level factors

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of ‘partially’ immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138– 13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151 – 6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017 – 10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075 – 7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144 - 0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598 – 23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057 – 0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477

  2. BioBlend.objects: metacomputing with Galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Simone; Pireddu, Luca; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Lianas, Luca; Soranzo, Nicola; Afgan, Enis; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Summary: BioBlend.objects is a new component of the BioBlend package, adding an object-oriented interface for the Galaxy REST-based application programming interface. It improves support for metacomputing on Galaxy entities by providing higher-level functionality and allowing users to more easily create programs to explore, query and create Galaxy datasets and workflows. Availability and implementation: BioBlend.objects is available online at https://github.com/afgane/bioblend. The new object-oriented API is implemented by the galaxy/objects subpackage. Contact: simone.leo@crs4.it PMID:24928211

  3. Resolution of safety issues associated with the storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, G.B. ); Tseng, J.C. )

    1992-08-01

    A number of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) safety issues have been identified at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Resolution of these issues is one of the Highest Priorities of the US Department of Energy. The most urgent issues are the potential for explosions in certain tanks (due to periodic venting of large quantities of flammable gases, or the presence of substantial quantities of ferrocyanide and/or organic compounds in combination with nitrates-nitrites). Other safety issues have been identified as well, such as the requirement for periodic water additions to one tank to control its temperature and the release of noxious vapors from a number of tanks. Substantial progress has been made toward safety issue resolution. Potential mechanisms have been identified for the generation, retention and periodic venting of flammable gas mixtures; potential methods for controlling the periodic release behavior have been identified and in-tank testing will be initiated in 1992. Research is being conducted to determine the initiation temperatures, energetics, reaction sequences and effects of catalysts and initiators on ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite reactions; waste characterization on a tank-by-tank basis will be required to identify whether ferrocyanide-containing wastes are safe to store as-is or will require further treatment to eliminate safety concerns. Resolution of all of the Hanford Site HLW safety issues will be accomplished as an integral part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, that has been established to manage the storage of these wastes and their preparation for disposal.

  4. Impact of bio-fertilizers and different levels of cadmium on the growth, biochemical contents and lipid peroxidation of Plantago ovata Forsk.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Irfana; Faizan, Shahla; Perveen, Rubina; Kausar, Saima

    2014-09-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk. (isabgol) is a valuable medicinal plant; its seeds and shell have a significant role in pharmacy as a laxative compound. Increasing soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) is one of the major concerns and is responsible for toxic effects in plants. This investigation was aimed to analyze the role of biofertilizers in alleviation of cadmium stress, given at the rate of 0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. The plants of isabgol, were grown in pots with and without application of AM fungi and Azotobacter (alone and combination). Cadmium showed negative effect on growth and biochemical component whereas proline and MDA content increase with increasing cadmium concentration. Addition of bio-fertilizer showed better growth and higher pigment concentration under cadmium stress as compared to the control. The dual inoculation of AM fungi and Azotobacter was found to be the best in reduction of cadmium stress and promotion of growth parameters. PMID:25183940

  5. Impact of bio-fertilizers and different levels of cadmium on the growth, biochemical contents and lipid peroxidation of Plantago ovata Forsk

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Irfana; Faizan, Shahla; Perveen, Rubina; Kausar, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk. (isabgol) is a valuable medicinal plant; its seeds and shell have a significant role in pharmacy as a laxative compound. Increasing soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) is one of the major concerns and is responsible for toxic effects in plants. This investigation was aimed to analyze the role of biofertilizers in alleviation of cadmium stress, given at the rate of 0, 50, and 100 mg kg−1 of soil. The plants of isabgol, were grown in pots with and without application of AM fungi and Azotobacter (alone and combination). Cadmium showed negative effect on growth and biochemical component whereas proline and MDA content increase with increasing cadmium concentration. Addition of bio-fertilizer showed better growth and higher pigment concentration under cadmium stress as compared to the control. The dual inoculation of AM fungi and Azotobacter was found to be the best in reduction of cadmium stress and promotion of growth parameters. PMID:25183940

  6. BioMOL: a computer-assisted biological modeling tool for complex chemical mixtures and biological processes at the molecular level.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael T; Hou, Gang; Quann, Richard J; Wei, Wei; Liao, Kai H; Yang, Raymond S H; Campain, Julie A; Mazurek, Monica A; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    A chemical engineering approach for the rigorous construction, solution, and optimization of detailed kinetic models for biological processes is described. This modeling capability addresses the required technical components of detailed kinetic modeling, namely, the modeling of reactant structure and composition, the building of the reaction network, the organization of model parameters, the solution of the kinetic model, and the optimization of the model. Even though this modeling approach has enjoyed successful application in the petroleum industry, its application to biomedical research has just begun. We propose to expand the horizons on classic pharmacokinetics and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK), where human or animal bodies were often described by a few compartments, by integrating PBPK with reaction network modeling described in this article. If one draws a parallel between an oil refinery, where the application of this modeling approach has been very successful, and a human body, the individual processing units in the oil refinery may be considered equivalent to the vital organs of the human body. Even though the cell or organ may be much more complicated, the complex biochemical reaction networks in each organ may be similarly modeled and linked in much the same way as the modeling of the entire oil refinery through linkage of the individual processing units. The integrated chemical engineering software package described in this article, BioMOL, denotes the biological application of molecular-oriented lumping. BioMOL can build a detailed model in 1-1,000 CPU sec using standard desktop hardware. The models solve and optimize using standard and widely available hardware and software and can be presented in the context of a user-friendly interface. We believe this is an engineering tool with great promise in its application to complex biological reaction networks. PMID:12634134

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  8. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-05-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  9. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  10. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Atmospheric Formaldehyde Levels in an Academic Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausz, John C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether improved ventilation and use of "formaldehyde-free" biological specimens could reduce the levels of formaldehyde in air to which students and faculty would be exposed. Both methods were found to be effective in reducing formaldehyde levels in air. (JN)

  11. A framework for evaluating safety-net and other community-level factors on access for low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Pamela L; Andersen, Ronald M; Wyn, Roberta; Brown, E Richard

    2004-01-01

    The framework presented in this article extends the Andersen behavioral model of health services utilization research to examine the effects of contextual determinants of access. A conceptual framework is suggested for selecting and constructing contextual (or community-level) variables representing the social, economic, structural, and public policy environment that influence low-income people's use of medical care. Contextual variables capture the characteristics of the population that disproportionately relies on the health care safety net, the public policy support for low-income and safety-net populations, and the structure of the health care market and safety-net services within that market. Until recently, the literature in this area has been largely qualitative and descriptive and few multivariate studies comprehensively investigated the contextual determinants of access. The comprehensive and systematic approach suggested by the framework will enable researchers to strengthen the external validity of results by accounting for the influence of a consistent set of contextual factors across locations and populations. A subsequent article in this issue of Inquiry applies the framework to examine access to ambulatory care for low-income adults, both insured and uninsured. PMID:15224958

  12. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  13. Bio-methanol from Bio-oil Reforming Syngas Using Dual-reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tong-qi; Yan, Shi-zhi; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Song-bai; Liu, Yong; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-08-01

    A dual-reactor, assembled with the on-line syngas conditioning and methanol synthesis, was successfully applied for high efficient conversion of rich CO2 bio-oil derived syngas to bio-methanol. In the forepart catalyst bed reactor, the catalytic conversion can effectively adjust the rich-CO2 crude bio-syngas into the CO-containing bio-syngas using the CuZnAlZr catalyst. After the on-line syngas conditioning at 450 °C, the CO2/CO ratio in the bio-syngas significantly decreased from 6.3 to 1.2. In the rearward catalyst bed reactor, the conversion of the conditioned bio-syngas to bio-methanol shows the maximum yield about 1.21 kg/(kgcatal·h) MeOH with a methanol selectivity of 97.9% at 260 °C and 5.05 MPa using conventional CuZnAl catalyst, which is close to the level typically obtained in the conventional methanol synthesis process using natural gas. The influences of temperature, pressure and space velocity on the bio-methanol synthesis were also investigated in detail.

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  15. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  16. INCREASING SAFETY AND REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE RISK FROM AGING HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding of the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stage...

  17. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  18. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-15

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  19. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.

    2005-06-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

  20. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  1. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  3. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy

  4. Marked enhancement of the immune response to BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) by the TLR9 agonist CPG 7909 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rynkiewicz, Dianna; Rathkopf, Melinda; Sim, Iain; Waytes, A Thomas; Hopkins, Robert J; Giri, Lallan; DeMuria, Deborah; Ransom, Janet; Quinn, James; Nabors, Gary S; Nielsen, Carl J

    2011-08-26

    Immunization with BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) is a safe and effective means of preventing anthrax. Animal studies have demonstrated that the addition of CpG DNA adjuvants to BioThrax can markedly increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine, increasing both serum anti-protective antigen (PA) antibody and anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibody (TNA) concentrations. The immune response to CpG-adjuvanted BioThrax in animals was not only stronger, but was also more rapid and led to higher levels of protection in spore challenge models. The B-class CpG DNA adjuvant CPG 7909, a 24-base synthetic, single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide, was evaluated for its safety profile and adjuvant properties in a Phase 1 clinical trial. A double-blind study was performed in which 69 healthy subjects, age 18-45 years, were randomized to receive three doses of either: (1) BioThrax alone, (2) 1 mg of CPG 7909 alone or (3) BioThrax plus 1 mg of CPG 7909, all given intramuscularly on study days 0, 14 and 28. Subjects were monitored for IgG to PA by ELISA and for TNA titers through study day 56 and for safety through month 6. CPG 7909 increased the antibody response by 6-8-fold at peak, and accelerated the response by 3 weeks compared to the response seen in subjects vaccinated with BioThrax alone. No serious adverse events related to study agents were reported, and the combination was considered to be reasonably well tolerated. The marked acceleration and enhancement of the immune response seen by combining BioThrax and CPG 7909 offers the potential to shorten the course of immunization and reduce the time to protection, and may be particularly useful in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:21624418

  5. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem; Mehr, Ali Farhang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a two-level multidisciplinary design approach is described to optimize the effectiveness of ISHM s. At the top level, the overall safety of the mission consists of system-level variables, parameters, objectives, and constraints that are shared throughout the system and by all subsystems. Each subsystem level will then comprise of these shared values in addition to subsystem-specific variables, parameters, objectives and constraints. A hierarchical structure will be established to pass up or down shared values between the two levels with system-level and subsystem-level optimization routines.

  6. Synthesis and in vitro Efficacy Studies of Silver Carbene Complexes on Biosafety Level 3 Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Panzner, Matthew J.; Deeraksa, Arpaporn; Smith, Alyssa; Wright, Brian D.; Hindi, Khadijah M.; Kascatan-Nebioglu, Aysegul; Torres, Alfredo G.; Judy, Barbara M.; Hovis, Christine E.; Hilliard, Julia K.; Mallett, Rebekah J.; Cope, Emily; Estes, D. Mark; Cannon, Carolyn L.; Leid, Jeff G.; Youngs, Wiley J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene silver complexes have been synthesized and tested against the select group of bio-safety level 3 bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, Bacillus anthracis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia pestis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal and killing assays demonstrated the exceptional efficacy of the complexes against these potentially weaponizable pathogens. PMID:20160993

  7. Synthesis and in vitro Efficacy Studies of Silver Carbene Complexes on Biosafety Level 3 Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panzner, Matthew J; Deeraksa, Arpaporn; Smith, Alyssa; Wright, Brian D; Hindi, Khadijah M; Kascatan-Nebioglu, Aysegul; Torres, Alfredo G; Judy, Barbara M; Hovis, Christine E; Hilliard, Julia K; Mallett, Rebekah J; Cope, Emily; Estes, D Mark; Cannon, Carolyn L; Leid, Jeff G; Youngs, Wiley J

    2009-05-01

    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene silver complexes have been synthesized and tested against the select group of bio-safety level 3 bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, Bacillus anthracis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia pestis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal and killing assays demonstrated the exceptional efficacy of the complexes against these potentially weaponizable pathogens. PMID:20160993

  8. A Survey of Business Trends at BioOne Publishing Partners and its Implications for BioOne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Todd A.; Joseph, Heather; Waltham, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of BioOne participating publishers that was conducted during the fall of 2003. In that survey, BioOne collected data from 18 not-for-profit publishers on circulation levels, scholarly output in terms of pages and articles produced, revenues, and expenditures. From eight of the publishers, complete profit, loss, and…

  9. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  10. Gonadal histology and serum vitellogenin levels of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus from the Northern Pacific Ocean--absence of endocrine disruption bio-indicators.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Kurihara, Ryo; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Yamasaki, Tsugiko; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Hara, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2003-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals such as organochlorines have been detected in a large number of marine fish. Histological observation of the gonads, measurement of serum vitellogenin (VTG) level and of liver polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content were performed to evaluate the reproductive health and the contamination with endocrine disruptors in bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus, collected in the northern Pacific Ocean in 1999 and 2000. Abnormalities commonly found in species affected by endocrine disruptors such as the presence of oocytes in the testis or elevated serum VTG levels were not found in any of males examined. Both males and females had only small amounts of liver PCB content. The results suggest that currently there is little if any risk of organochlorine contamination or endocrine disruption of gonadal function in bigeye tuna from the northern Pacific Ocean. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the health status of the open sea fishery resources. PMID:12705919

  11. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    SciTech Connect

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  12. How Events at the Nano/Bio Interface Determine Good and Adverse Biological Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Andre

    2014-03-01

    We have come to recognize that much of biology is executed at the nanoscale level, therefore providing a rational approach to using discovery about the structure and function of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) at the nano/bio interface for interrogation of disease, diagnosis, treatment, and imaging at levels of sophistication not possible before. Moreover, the behavior of ENM's at the nano/bio interface also constitutes the basis for hazard generation and is therefore key for understanding the safety assessment and safer design of nanomaterials. In this overview, I will discuss how discovery at the molecular, cellular, organ and systemic nano/bio interfaces has helped us to my progress progress in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. I will explain how the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relate to nanoscale interactions at the membrane, intracellular organelles, tissues and organs in response to exposure to a variety of commercial ENMs as well as for therapeutic nanocarriers. I will delineate how the use of high throughput screening to establish structure-activity relationships can be used for the design of improved nanocarriers for cancer treatment as well as hazard and risk ranking of large categories of commercial ENMs on their way to the marketplace.

  13. Charophytes as bio-indicators for lake level high stand at “Trou au Natron”, Tibesti, Chad, during the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulié-Märsche, I.; Bieda, S.; Lafond, R.; Maley, J.; M'Baitoudji; Vincent, P. M.; Faure, Hugues

    2010-07-01

    The present paper deals with the charophytes collected by H. Faure and P. M. Vincent from outcrops of lacustrine deposits inside the caldera "Trou au Natron" at an altitude of 1875 m above sea level. Characeae represent up to 93% of these carbonates and characterise a new type of sediment, defined as "Characeite". The remains consist in vegetative (thallus) fragments and in gyrogonites (the calcified fructifications of the Characeae). The presence of both these types of materials and their high frequency indicate in situ fossilisation of the former fresh water vegetation, termed a "charophyte meadow". The topographical position of the deposits corresponds to a rocky plateau or bench on the slopes of the caldera, located c. 300 m above the present-day floor of the caldera. The development and preservation of the charophytes lead to conclude that the lake was at least 300 m deep at the time when the plants grew. Radiocarbon dating of the thallus fragments provided an age of 14,260 ± 300 yr B.P. This age is consistent with analyses obtained previously on gastropod shells from Trou au Natron and indicates high lake level in the Tibesti Mountains during the Late Pleistocene.

  14. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. PMID:25086439

  15. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  16. Molecular level biodegradation of phenol and its derivatives through dmp operon of Pseudomonas putida: A bio-molecular modeling and docking analysis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sujay; Banerjee, Arundhati

    2015-10-01

    Participation of Pseudomonas putida-derived methyl phenol (dmp) operon and DmpR protein in the biodegradation of phenol or other harmful, organic, toxic pollutants was investigated at a molecular level. Documentation documents that P. putida has DmpR protein which positively regulates dmp operon in the presence of inducers; like phenols. From the operon, phenol hydroxylase encoded by dmpN gene, participates in degrading phenols after dmp operon is expressed. For the purpose, the 3-D models of the four domains from DmpR protein and of the DNA sequences from the two Upstream Activation Sequences (UAS) present at the promoter region of the operon were demonstrated using discrete molecular modeling techniques. The best modeled structures satisfying their stereo-chemical properties were selected in each of the cases. To stabilize the individual structures, energy optimization was performed. In the presence of inducers, probable interactions among domains and then the two independent DNA structures with the fourth domain were perused by manifold molecular docking simulations. The complex structures were made to be stable by minimizing their overall energy. Responsible amino acid residues, nucleotide bases and binding patterns for the biodegradation, were examined. In the presence of the inducers, the biodegradation process is initiated by the interaction of phe50 from the first protein domain with the inducers. Only after the interaction of the last domain with the DNA sequences individually, the operon is expressed. This novel residue level study is paramount for initiating transcription in the operon; thereby leading to expression of phenol hydroxylase followed by phenol biodegradation. PMID:26456616

  17. Diamond bio electronics.

    PubMed

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions. PMID:19745488

  18. [Effect of course intake of bio-active flavonoids-containing plant preparation Extralife on the level of anxiety and sensorimotor reactivity in rats].

    PubMed

    Krupina, N A; Orlova, I N; Lukyanova, L D

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data evidence the need to search for new substances for treatment and prevention of increased anxiety associated with emotional and neurotic breakdown and worsening clinical prognosis of psychosomatic diseases. Of particular interest are the drugs of plant origin, which are generally well tolerated under prolonged use, and treat- ment is cheaper as compared with modem anxiolytics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of course taking a flavonoid-containing plant preparation Extralife (water-soluble extract Pentaphylloides fruticosa, 40 mg/kg per day for 1 month) in and inbred albino rats sampled in the population using a multi-parameter method for evaluating anxiety-phobic states. This method was also used for evaluating the severity of anxiety (state anxiety) in rats in the dynamics of the survey. Sensorimotor reactivity (emotionality) was assessed by the parameters of the acoustic startle response. Extralife did not prevent the increase in state anxiety in rats and did not change the level of anxiety in the animals. However, the drug reduced the amplitude of the acoustic startle response in the animals and increased startle response latency in both and rats, that is reduced the symptoms of anxiety caused by alarm sound stimuli in terms of sensorimotor reactivity. The data testify to the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Extralife more pronounced in the animals. In a course intake of Extralife rats demonstrated transient decrease in the pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, probably associated with the occurrence of transient disturbances in the psycho-emotional sphere. The findings suggest that Extralife in a course taking may have negative side effects on the emotionality of animals that determines the need to incorporate the features of mental and emotional status of the

  19. An Exploratory Analysis of University Safety Through an Examination Of Students' Self-Perceptions of Campus and Community Violence Levels and Student Learning Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore areas of research in regards to how students learn about violent crime on university campuses and what level of awareness they hold regarding their personal safety. A combination of databases was used to measure reported rates of violent crime on campus and in the community and these were compared with…

  20. The PM/S module and the BIO/TSR requirements comparison report summary

    SciTech Connect

    PEERY, B.Q.

    1999-02-24

    This report summarizes the comparison between the Preventive Maintenance/Surveillance System (PM/S) database and the requirements identified in the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001); the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR's) (HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006); The Tank Farms Administrative Controls Manual, (HNF-IP-1266); and The TWRS Facility Safety Equipment List, (HNF-SD-WM-SEL-0404). Corrective actions identified are completed or in process.

  1. Safety in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Addresses workplace safety needs and tips for helping an organization achieve a high level of safety. Tips include showing administration commitment, establishing retribution-free reporting of safety problems and violations, rewarding excellent safety effort, and allowing no compromises in following safety procedures. (GR)

  2. Bio-functional Au/Si Nanrods for Pathogen Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabricated by glancing a...

  3. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  4. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  5. BioReactor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  6. Challenges and methodology for safety analysis of a high-level waste tank with large periodic releases of flammable gas

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R.; Stewart, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 10,000 ft{sup 3} of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest-priority DOE operational safety problems. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The mitigation method selected for the tank was to install a pump that would mix the tank contents and eliminate the sludge layer believed to be responsible for the gas retention and periodic releases. This report will describe the principal analysis methodologies used to prepare the safety assessment for the installation and operation of the pump, and because this activity has been completed, it will describe the results of pump operation.

  7. Negative transcriptional control of biotin metabolism genes by the TetR-type regulator BioQ in biotin-auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    PubMed

    Brune, Iris; Götker, Susanne; Schneider, Jessica; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Tauch, Andreas

    2012-06-15

    Genomic context analysis in actinobacteria revealed that biotin biosynthesis and transport (bio) genes are co-localized in several genomes with a gene encoding a transcription regulator of the TetR protein family, now named BioQ. Comparative analysis of the upstream regions of bio genes identified the common 13-bp palindromic motif TGAAC-N3-GTTAC as candidate BioQ-binding site. To verify the role of BioQ in controlling the transcription of bio genes, a deletion in the bioQ coding region (cg2309) was constructed in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, resulting in the mutant strain C. glutamicum IB2309. Comparative whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and subsequent expression analyses by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR revealed enhanced transcript levels of all bio genes in C. glutamicum IB2309, when compared with the wild-type strain ATCC 13032. Accordingly, the BioQ protein of C. glutamicum acts as a repressor of ten genes that are organized in four transcription units: bioA-bioD, cg2884-cg2883, bioB-cg0096-cg0097, and bioY-bioM-bioN. DNA band shift assays with an intein-tagged BioQ protein demonstrated the specific binding of the purified protein to DNA fragments containing the candidate BioQ-binding sites, which were located within the mapped promoter regions of bioA, cg2884, bioB, and bioY. These data confirmed the direct regulatory role of BioQ in the control of biotin biosynthesis and transport genes in C. glutamicum. Differential expression of bio genes in C. glutamicum IB2309 was moreover complemented by bioQ genes cloned from other corynebacterial genomes. PMID:22178235

  8. Neighborhood Crime and Perception of Safety as Predictors of Victimization and Offending Among Youth: A Call for Macro-Level Prevention and Intervention Models

    PubMed Central

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M.; Rine, Christine M.; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2012-01-01

    This paper is one of two in a series that reports detailed findings from a larger study that simultaneously explored individual, family and neighborhood level predictors of victimization and offending among youth. The current analysis aims to identify which neighborhood level factors have better predictive power with regard to type of victimization (direct and vicarious measures) and total offending overtime (Wave 1 and Wave 2). Methods: Path analysis was conducted using data from a multi-wave, panel study (N=625) of youth ages 16–19 at Wave 1. A best fitting model was determined showing causal pathways from neighborhood level factors including crime and perception of safety, to direct and vicarious victimization through exposure to violence, and subsequent offending. Findings: Neighborhood crime significantly predicted property victimization. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety significantly predicted vicarious victimization by exposure to violence in the neighborhood. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety were significantly associated with Wave 1 offending. Findings highlight the need for professionals who work with youth to be cognizant of how their environments influence their lives. Prevention and intervention models seeking to create sustainable change among youth should consider mezzo and macro level components that build and strengthen neighborhood capacity through community partnerships. PMID:23049152

  9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration perspective of the inclusion of effects of low-level exposures in safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gaylor, D W; Bolger, P M; Schwetz, B A

    1998-01-01

    A brief overview is provided of some of the general safety and risk assessment procedures used by the different centers of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to evaluate low-level exposures. The U.S. FDA protects public health by regulating a wide variety of consumer products including foods, human and animal drugs, biologics, and medical devices under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The diverse legal and regulatory standards in the act allow for the consideration of benefits for some products (e.g., drugs) but preclude them from others (e.g., food additives). When not precluded by statutory mandates (e.g., Delaney prohibition), the U.S. FDA considers both physiologic adaptive responses and beneficial effects. For the basic safety assessment paradigm as presently used, for example in the premarket approval of food additives, the emphasis is on the identification of adverse effects and no observed adverse effect level(s) (NOAEL). Generally, the NOAEL is divided by safety factors to establish an acceptable exposure level. This safety assessment paradigm does not preclude the consideration of effects whether they are biologically adaptive or beneficial at lower dose levels. The flexibility to consider issues such as mechanisms of action and adaptive and beneficial responses depends on the product under consideration. For carcinogenic contaminants and radiation from medical devices, the U.S. FDA considers the potential cancer risk at low exposure levels. This generally involves downward extrapolation from the observed dose-response range. The consideration of adverse effects of other toxicologic end points (e.g., reproductive, immunologic, neurologic, developmental) associated with low exposure levels is also becoming more of a reality (e.g., endocrine disrupters). The evaluation of the biologic effects of low-level exposures to toxic substances must include whether the effect is adverse or a normal physiologic adaptive response and also

  10. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who has...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who has...

  13. An empirical tool to evaluate the safety of cyclists: Community based, macro-level collision prediction models using negative binomial regression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Lovegrove, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Today, North American governments are more willing to consider compact neighborhoods with increased use of sustainable transportation modes. Bicycling, one of the most effective modes for short trips with distances less than 5km is being encouraged. However, as vulnerable road users (VRUs), cyclists are more likely to be injured when involved in collisions. In order to create a safe road environment for them, evaluating cyclists' road safety at a macro level in a proactive way is necessary. In this paper, different generalized linear regression methods for collision prediction model (CPM) development are reviewed and previous studies on micro-level and macro-level bicycle-related CPMs are summarized. On the basis of insights gained in the exploration stage, this paper also reports on efforts to develop negative binomial models for bicycle-auto collisions at a community-based, macro-level. Data came from the Central Okanagan Regional District (CORD), of British Columbia, Canada. The model results revealed two types of statistical associations between collisions and each explanatory variable: (1) An increase in bicycle-auto collisions is associated with an increase in total lane kilometers (TLKM), bicycle lane kilometers (BLKM), bus stops (BS), traffic signals (SIG), intersection density (INTD), and arterial-local intersection percentage (IALP). (2) A decrease in bicycle collisions was found to be associated with an increase in the number of drive commuters (DRIVE), and in the percentage of drive commuters (DRP). These results support our hypothesis that in North America, with its current low levels of bicycle use (<4%), we can initially expect to see an increase in bicycle collisions as cycle mode share increases. However, as bicycle mode share increases beyond some unknown 'critical' level, our hypothesis also predicts a net safety improvement. To test this hypothesis and to further explore the statistical relationships between bicycle mode split and overall road

  14. Initial Development of a Metric to Describe the Level of Safety Associated with Piloting an Aircraft with Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glabb, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. A combination of subjective and objective data measures were used to quantify the relationship between selected components of safety that are associated with flying an approach. Four information display methods ranging from a "round dials" baseline through a fully integrated SVS package that includes terrain, pathway based guidance, and a strategic navigation display, were investigated in this high fidelity simulation experiment. In addition, a broad spectrum of pilots, representative of the GA population, were employed for testing in an attempt to enable greater application of the results and

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground Environmental Surveillance Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D. H.; Eddy, P. A.; Hawley, K. A.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.

    1981-07-01

    This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 11 Technology, Safety and Costs of DecolliTlissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground, 11 NUREG/ CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are reference facilities considered in this Addendum, and as described in the parent document (NUREG/CR-0570). The two sites are assumed to have the same capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology, and hydrology of the two reference sites are typical of existing western and eastern sites, altnough a single population distribution was chosen for both. Each reference burial ground occupies about 70 hectares and includes 180 trenches filled with a total of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In acldition, there are 10 slit trenches containing about 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of high beta-gamma activity waste. In this Addendum environmental surveillance programs are described for the several periods in the life of a LLWBG: preoperational (prior to nuclear waste receipt); operational (including interim trench closures); post-operational (after all nuclear waste is received), for both short-term {up to three years) and long-term (up to 100 years) storage and custodial care; and decommissioning (only for the special case of waste removal). The specific

  16. Bio-tribology.

    PubMed

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field. PMID:23285619

  17. Bio-coal briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

  18. Initial development of a metric to describe the level of safety associated with piloting an aircraft with synthetic vision systems (SVS) displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glaab, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Throughout the course of recent SVS research, significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. The previous piloted simulations and flight tests have shown better SA and path precision is achievable with SVS displays without causing an increase in workload, however none of the previous SVS research attempted to fully capture the significance of SVS displays in terms of their contribution to safety or operational benefits. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. Such a comparison was the focus of the SVS-ES experiment conducted under the Aviation Safety and Security Program's (AvSSP) GA Element of the SVS Project at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A combination of

  19. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  20. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  1. New challenges and opportunities in nonclinical safety testing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Andreas; Flagella, Kelly; Forster, Roy; de Haan, Lolke; Kronenberg, Sven; Locher, Mathias; Richter, Wolfgang F; Theil, Frank-Peter; Todd, Marque

    2014-07-01

    New challenges and opportunities in nonclinical safety testing of biologics were discussed at the 3rd European BioSafe Annual General Membership meeting in November 2013 in Berlin: (i)Approaches to refine use of non-human primates in non-clinical safety testing of biologics and current experience on the use of minipigs as alternative non-rodent species.(ii)Tissue distribution studies as a useful tool to support pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) assessment of biologics, in that they provide valuable mechanistic insights at drug levels at the site of action.(iii)Mechanisms of nonspecific toxicity of antibody drug conjugates (ADC) and ways to increase the safety margins.(iv)Although biologics toxicity typically manifests as exaggerated pharmacology there are some reported case studies on unexpected toxicity.(v)Specifics of non-clinical development approaches of noncanonical monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), like bispecifics and nanobodies. PMID:24755365

  2. Bio-nano interactions detected by nanochannel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Luan, Binquan

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have been widely used in industry and are present in many consumer products. However, their bio-safeties especially in a long term are largely unknown. Here, a nanochannel-electrophoresis-based method is proposed for detecting the potential bio-nano interactions that may further lead to damages to human health and/or biological environment. Through proof-of-concept molecular dynamics simulations, it was demonstrated that the transport of a protein-nanoparticle complex is very different from that of a protein along. By monitoring the change of ionic currents induced by a transported analyte as well as the transport velocities of the analyte, the complex (with bio-nano interaction) can be clearly distinguished from the protein alone (with no interaction with tested nanoparticles). PMID:27334561

  3. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Alvi, Azhar Z; Mirajkar, Abdur; Imani, Zahabia; Gamalevych, Yuliya; Shaikh, Nisar A; Jackowski, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) procedures. Comparisons between supplements' final forms, oil source and n-3 PUFA concentration quartiles, as measures of product formulations and delivery forms, were compared using ANOVA. Of the products successfully tested, 50 % exceeded the voluntary recommended levels for markers of oxidation. Another 18 % of products were approaching the limits with 1-3 years before expiration. Encapsulated products without flavour additives had significantly lower secondary and TOTOX levels than bulk oils and flavoured products (P < 0·05). Children's products had significantly higher primary, secondary and TOTOX levels compared with all other products (P < 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between oil sources (P > 0·05), with the exception of krill oil products having higher secondary oxidation levels than plant-based products (P > 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between n-3 PUFA supplement concentration quartiles. Consumers may be at risk of exposure to higher levels of oxidative products. New regulatory mandates need to be introduced to ensure that all n-3 PUFA products, used as nutritional supplements, regardless of their formulation or delivery form, can be tested for oxidative safety and compliance. PMID:26688721

  4. Comparison of efficacy, safety and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients of major depressive disorder, treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, R; Gupta, R; Bhatia, M S; Tripathi, A K; Gupta, L K

    2015-12-01

    This randomized, open label, prospective, observational study compared clinical efficacy, safety alongwith plasma BDNF levels in outpatients of depression treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine. Patients (aged 18-60 years) with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥14, who were prescribed fluoxetine or desvenlafaxine were included (n=30 in each group). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks for evaluation of clinical efficacy, safety along with BDNF levels. In the fluoxetine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 19±4.09 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 9.24±3.98 at 12 weeks. In the desvenlafaxine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 18±3.75 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 10±3.75 at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the fluoxetine group were 775.32±30.38pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 850.3±24.92pg/ml at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the desvenlafaxine group were 760.5±28.53pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 845.8±32.82pg/ml at 12 weeks. Both the antidepressants were found to be safe and well tolerated. The efficacy and the safety profile of desvenlafaxine is comparable to fluoxetine in patients of MDD. BDNF levels were significantly increased post-treatment with both the antidepressive agents. Whether BDNF may have a prognostic value in predicting treatment response to antidepressant drugs needs to be investigated in a larger patient population. PMID:26514447

  5. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  6. The BioPAX community standard for pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Mustafa H

    2010-01-01

    Biological Pathway Exchange (BioPAX) is a standard language to represent biological pathways at the molecular and cellular level and to facilitate the exchange of pathway data. The rapid growth of the volume of pathway data has spurred the development of databases and computational tools to aid interpretation; however, use of these data is hampered by the current fragmentation of pathway information across many databases with incompatible formats. BioPAX, which was created through a community process, solves this problem by making pathway data substantially easier to collect, index, interpret and share. BioPAX can represent metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular and genetic interactions and gene regulation networks. Using BioPAX, millions of interactions, organized into thousands of pathways, from many organisms are available from a growing number of databases. This large amount of pathway data in a computable form will support visualization, analysis and biological discovery.

  7. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  8. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals. PMID:24370629

  9. Bio-photonics workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Dam, Jeppe S.; Palima, Darwin Z.

    2007-01-01

    We outline the specifications of a portable Bio-photonics Workstation we have developed that utilizes just a single spatial light modulator to generate an array of up to 100 reconfigurable laser-traps with adjustable power ratios making 3D real-time optical manipulation possible with the click of a laptop mouse. We employ a simple patented optical mapping approach from a fast spatial light modulator to obtain reconfigurable intensity patterns corresponding to two independently addressable regions relayed to the sample volume where the optical manipulation of a plurality of nano-featured micro-objects takes place. The stand-alone Biophotonics Workstation is currently being tested by external partners with micro-biologic and chemistry expertise.

  10. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  11. Thermal implications of high SAR's in the body extremities at the ANSI-recommended MF-VHF safety levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.Y.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1988-06-01

    Surface temperature elevation of the wrist and the ankle sections were measured for a healthy human subject at room temperature (22-25/sup 0/C) for a variety of RF currents and SAR's in the frequency band 1-50 MHz. The observed highest rates of temperature increase in /sup 0/C/min are given by the best-fit relationships: 0.0045 x SAR in W/kg for the ankle section and 0.0048 x SAR for the wrist section, the latter being involved for conditions of contact with undergrounded bodies like cars, trucks, fences, etc. Since ankle-section SAR's on the order of 182-243 W/kg and wrist-section SAR's as high as 1045 W/kg have previously been projected for the E fields recommended in the ANSI C95.1-1982 safety guide, fairly high rates of temperature increase are therefore anticipated.

  12. Assessing farm tractor incidents and awareness levels of operators for tractor safety issues in the Hatay province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, S Görücü; Keskin, M; Soysal, Y

    2012-04-01

    Studies and statistical data on safety issues related to farm tractors and machinery are very limited in developing countries, including Turkey. This study was carried out to investigate tractor-related incidents in the Hatay province, located in the mid-south of Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted with 107 tractor operators using face-to-face interviews. Data were evaluated according to the incident type, machinery involved, and mechanism of injury or fatality. A total of 101 incidents were reported by 77 of the 107 respondents. Most of the incidents were due to tractor rollovers (65.4%), 14.8% of the incidents were due to entanglement of body parts in moving machinery, and 12.9% involved crashing into other vehicles or obstacles. The leading cause of the incidents was personal mistakes (60.4%). Fatalities resulted from 25.7% of the incidents, while 45.5% of the incidents caused non-fatal injuries. Only 5.6% of the tractors had a ROPS-enclosed cab. The percentage of ROPS-equipped tractors was 19.6%, while 41.3% of the tractors had a shade cover and 33.6% had no protective structure. Only one of the respondents used a seatbelt, although 44.9% of them stated that seatbelts should be used. It was also found that only 13.5% of the operators had training in work safety, while 95.1% stated that incidents might be reduced if people were trained. Development of appropriate policies and training programs are needed for safer operation of agricultural machinery to reduce injuries and fatalities due to farm accidents. PMID:22655521

  13. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming less useful…

  14. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express 3D

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Derek W.; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J.; Freeman, Tom C.

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express 3D is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an ‘Advanced’ query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools. PMID:25949802

  15. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express (3D).

    PubMed

    Wright, Derek W; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express (3D) is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an 'Advanced' query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools. PMID:25949802

  16. Integration of Nevada Test Site (NTS) Work Control Programs and Incorporating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) into Activity Level Work Planning and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Kinney and Kevin Breen

    2008-08-30

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to improve the planning and execution of work activities utilizing an Activity Level Work Control process in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2004-1, Oversight of Complex, High-Hazard Nuclear Operations. The process was initially developed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2007, and implementation is commencing during the fourth quarter of FY 2008. This process will significantly enhance the flexibility and the appropriate rigor in the performance of work activities.

  17. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  18. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  19. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

  20. Physical activity among elderly people in a city population: the influence of neighbourhood level violence and self perceived safety

    PubMed Central

    Piro, Fredrik Niclas; Nœss, Øyvind; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2006-01-01

    Study objective To study the associations between neighbourhood level violence/fear of violence and physical activity among elderly people, accounting for somatic health. Design Self reported data from the Oslo health study, a cross sectional study conducted in 2000, were linked with sociodemographic and social security data from Statistics Norway. A multilevel regression analysis was conducted by MlwiN using contextual level variables provided by the Oslo City Council. Setting Oslo, Norway. Participants 3499 inhabitants aged 74/5 (53.2% of all invitees). Main results 20.5% of the elderly were physically active less than one hour a week. Somatic health was clearly associated with physical activity among both men and women. Neighbourhood level violence was associated with physical activity only for men, while fear of violence was only associated with physical activity for women. Differences in somatic health did not explain differences in physical activity between neighbourhoods. These differences were explained by socioeconomic variables, and neighbourhood level violence/fear of violence. Conclusions In a sample of presumably healthy 75/76 year olds in Oslo, the associations between neighbourhood level violence and physical activity (among men), and fear of violence and physical activity (among women), are of the same sizes as those between somatic health and physical activity. These two dimensions of violence have, in contrast with somatic health, an explanatory function in exploring differences in physical activity between neighbourhoods in Oslo. PMID:16790836

  1. Review of Bio-EMC Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Soichi; Wake, Kanako; Fukunaga, Kaori; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2001-12-01

    Biological aspects of electromagnetic compatibility (Bio-EMC) have been studied by EMC Research Group of CRL. There are two main subjects in the field. One is related to rules and regulations of electromagnetic-wave hazards, especially development of standard estimation methods of electromagnetic power deposited in human bodies exposed to microwaves from cellular telephones or VHF-band radio waves. Another is development of exposure setups for laboratory animals used in biological studies on health effects of electromagnetic waves and their dosimetry. Novel phantoms are also being developed in order to perform highly accurate dosimetry in above studies. It is expected that these studies contribute development of compliance tests for radiofrequency protection guidelines and improvement of rationale of those guidelines, which consequently provides safety environment including appropriate radio wave applications.

  2. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  3. Adult Basic Education. Adult Performance Level Curriculum Handbook: Occupational Knowledge, Consumer Economics, Health and Safety, Government and Law, Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Mildred; Thomas, Claire

    Beginning with a brief project report, this curriculum guide is intended to enable teachers to work effectively with Adult Performance Level (APL) programs. The manual (1) clarifies the concept of APL, (2) describes the APL-ABE (Adult Basic Education) curriculum at Florida Junior College (FJC), (3) provides examples of effective lesson plans for…

  4. Low-Level Violence in Schools: Is There an Association between School Safety Measures and Peer Victimization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low-level violent behavior, particularly school bullying, remains a critical public health issue that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based prevention programs, while a valuable line of defense to stave off bullying, have shown inconsistent results in terms of decreasing bullying. This…

  5. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2) has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, the safety information needs to be confirmed. For the feasibility of H2 treatment in these patients, delivery of H2 by inhalation method needs to be checked for consistency. Methods Hydrogen concentration (HC) in the arterial and venous blood was measured by gas chromatography on 3 patients, before, during and after 4% (case 1) and 3% (case2,3) H2 gas inhalation with simultaneous monitoring of physiological parameters. For a consistency study, HC in the venous blood of 10 patients were obtained on multiple occasions at the end of 30-min H2 inhalation treatment. Results The HC gradually reached a plateau level in 20 min after H2 inhalation in the blood, which was equivalent to the level reported by animal experiments. The HC rapidly decreased to 10% of the plateau level in about 6 min and 18 min in arterial and venous blood, respectively after H2 inhalation was discontinued. Physiological parameters on these 3 patients were essentially unchanged by use of hydrogen. The consistency study of 10 patients showed the HC at the end of 30-min inhalation treatment was quite variable but the inconsistency improved with more attention and encouragement. Conclusion H2 inhalation of at least 3% concentration for 30 min delivered enough HC, equivalent to the animal experiment levels, in the blood without compromising the safety. However, the consistency of H2 delivery by inhalation needs to be improved. PMID:22916706

  6. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to accurately

  7. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  8. Patient safety's missing link: using clinical expertise to recognize, respond to and reduce risks at a population level

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Peter D.; Healey, Frances; Lamont, Tara; Marela, William M.; Warner, Bruce; Runciman, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although incident reporting systems are widespread in health care as a strategy to reduce harm to patients, the focus has been on reporting incidents rather than responding to them. Systems containing large numbers of incidents are uniquely placed to raise awareness of, and then characterize and respond to infrequent, but significant risks. The aim of this paper is to outline a framework for the surveillance of such risks, their systematic analysis, and for the development and dissemination of population-based preventive and corrective strategies using clinical and human factors expertise. Requirements for a population-level response The framework outlines four system requirements: to report incidents; to aggregate them; to support and conduct a risk surveillance, review and response process; and to disseminate recommendations. Personnel requirements include a non-hierarchical multidisciplinary team comprising clinicians and subject-matter and human factors experts to provide interpretation and high-level judgement from a range of perspectives. The risk surveillance, review and response process includes searching of large incident and other databases for how and why things have gone wrong, narrative analysis by clinical experts, consultation with the health care sector, and development and pilot testing of corrective strategies. Criteria for deciding which incidents require a population-level response are outlined. Discussion The incremental cost of a population-based response function is modest compared with the ‘reporting’ element. Combining clinical and human factors expertise and a systematic approach underpins the creation of credible risk identification processes and the development of preventive and corrective strategies. PMID:26573789

  9. Bio-oil deoxygenation by catalytic pyrolysis: new catalysts for the conversion of biomass into densified and deoxygenated bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Aimaro; Andrésen, John M

    2012-10-01

    This work proposes an innovative catalytic pyrolysis process that converts bio-refinery residues, such as spent grains, into intermediate bio-oil with improved properties compared to traditional bio-oils, which allows the use of existing crude-oil refinery settings for bio-oil upgrading into fuels. The integration of bio-oil into a crude-oil refinery would decrease the economic disadvantage of biomass compared to fossil fuels. The catalytic pyrolysis was able to produce bio-oil with a lower O and N content and high levels of aliphatics and H by using activated serpentine and olivine at 430-460 °C. The activated materials seem to be beneficial to the bio-oil energy content by increasing it from less than 20 MJ kg(-1) in the original biomass to 26 MJ kg(-1). Approximately 70-74 % of the starting energy remains in the bio-oil using activated olivine (ACOL) and activated serpentine (ACSE) at 430 °C, whereas only 52 % is retained using alumina (ALU) at the same temperature. There was a strong reduction of the O content in the bio-oils, and the deoxygenation power decreased in the following order: ACOL>ACSE>ALU. In particular, ACOL at 430-460 °C was able to reduce the O content of the bio-oil by 40 %. The oxygenated bio-oil macromolecules interact in the catalyst's active sites with the naturally present metallic species and undergo decarboxylation with the formation of C(5)-C(6) O-depleted species. PMID:22899352

  10. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  12. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  13. Hair flow sensors: from bio-inspiration to bio-mimicking—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Junliang; (Bill Yu, Xiong

    2012-11-01

    A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts.

  14. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Paula M.; Yeung, Chun L.; Preece, Jon A.

    2007-08-01

    Bio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  15. Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

    2012-08-01

    Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

  16. Risk assessment strategies as a tool in the application of the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) and Food Safety Objective (FSO) by risk managers.

    PubMed

    Gkogka, E; Reij, M W; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2013-10-01

    In the course of the last decade, the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), the Food Safety Objective (FSO) and their associated metrics have been proposed by the World Trade Organization and Codex Alimentarius as a means for competent authorities to ultimately translate governmental public health policy regarding food safety into risk-based targets for the food industry. The industry needs to meet these targets through the effective choice of control measures that are part of its operational food safety management system. The aim of this study was to put the practical application of ALOP and FSO to the test in the case of Salmonella in chicken meat in the Netherlands. Two different risk assessment approaches were applied to derive potential ALOP and FSO values, a 'top-down' approach based on epidemiological data and a 'bottom-up' approach based on food supply chain data. To this end, two stochastic models specific to the Dutch situation were built. Comparisons between 23 countries in Europe were also made using the top-down model. The mean estimated current Level Of Protection values were similar for the two approaches applied, with the bottom-up model yielding 87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year (95% CI: 0.03, 904) and the top-down model 71 (95% CI: 9.9, 155). The estimated FSO values on the other hand were considerably different with the mean 'top down' FSO being -4.6 log CFU/g (95% CI: -5.4, -4.1) and the mean 'bottom-up' FSO -6.0 log CFU/g (95% CI: -8.1, -2.9) reflecting major differences in the output distributions of this parameter obtained with the two approaches. Significant differences were observed between current LOP values for different EU countries, although it was not clear whether this was due to actual differences in the factors influencing the risk of salmonellosis or due to the quality of the available data. PMID:23726259

  17. Risk assessment of low-level chemical exposures from consumer products under the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission chronic hazard guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, M A

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent regulatory agency that was created in 1973. The CPSC has jurisdiction over more the 15,000 types of consumer products used in and around the home or by children, except items such as food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, pesticides, certain radioactive materials, products that emit radiation (e.g., microwave ovens), and automobiles. The CPSC has investigated many low-level exposures from consumer products, including formaldehyde emissions from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation and pressed wood products, CO and NO2 emmissions from combustion appliances, and dioxin in paper products. Many chemical hazards are addressed under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), which applies to acute and chronic health effects resulting from high- or low-level exposures. In 1992 the Commission issued guidelines for assessing chronic hazards under the FHSA, including carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, exposure, bioavailability, risk assessment, and acceptable risk. The chronic hazard guidelines describe a series of default assumptions, which are used in the absence of evidence to the contrary. However, the guidelines are intended to be sufficiently flexible to incorporate the latest scientific information. The use of alternative procedures is permissible, on a case-by-case basis, provided that the procedures used are scientifically defensible and supported by appropriate data. The application of the chronic hazard guidelines in assessing the risks from low-level exposures is discussed. PMID:9539035

  18. To evaluate the safety and efficiency of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in treating decubitus ulcers: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ambereen

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Pressure sores (decubitus ulcer) are a serious problem in health care management, especially for middleaged to older people who are bed-ridden. Although preventative measures are used, the condition remains common and development of novel, improved treatment methods are desirable. This article reviews the application of laser-based methods, previously shown to be effective in accelerating wound-healing in animal models and in the treatment of decubitus ulcers in humans. Methods: About 23 scientific articles on the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in animals and humans from 2000-2014 were reviewed. Additionally, results of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed, and compared with other treatment methods available. Results: Whilst carefully controlled, laboratory-based animal studies indicated that LLLT can reduce healing time for several types of injuries, however similar studies in humans failed to demonstrate consistent beneficial effects in the clinical setting. An acceleration of decubitus ulcer healing has been occasionally found, although limited to certain wavelengths and sometimes only in combination with other types of therapies. Indeed, some of the clinical articles indicated that certain laser wavelengths can have detrimental effects on time of healing. Conclusions: To date, there remains no convincing evidence that LLLT has consistent medical benefit in treating decubitus ulcers. Caution should be applied when considering LLLT since only certain wavelengths utilized have shown beneficial effects. It is concluded that, more RCTs are needed since, there is no clinical justification for LLLT, alone or in combination with other methods, in treating decubitus ulcers.

  19. BlenX4Bio - BlenX for Biologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priami, Corrado; Ballarini, Paolo; Quaglia, Paola

    We introduce BlenX4Bio, a high-level interface for the programming language BlenX. BlenX4Bio allows biologists to write BlenX programs without having any programming skills. The main elements of a biological model are specified by filling in a number of tables. Such tables include descriptions of both static and dynamic aspects of the biological system at hand and can then be automatically mapped to BlenX programs for simulation and analysis by means of the CoSBi Lab software platform. In this paper we illustrate the main characteristics of BlenX4Bio through examples taken from biology textbooks.

  20. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2015-06-15

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  1. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S.; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H.; Vijay-Shanker, K.; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W. John; Comeau, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein–protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators’ feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/ PMID:27589962

  2. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/. PMID:27589962

  3. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  4. Bio-sorption based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the highly efficient enrichment of trace-level bisphenol A from water samples prior to its determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Seyed Ammar

    2016-08-15

    In this study, biosorption based dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (Bio-DLLME) has been developed as a new method for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from water samples. In this technique, the BPA is extracted into a stable cloudy phase. The colloidal phase is composed of micro-particles made from rhaminolipid biosurfactant and methanol, which dispersed in the water samples and facilitated the breakdown of analyte matrix bonds and provided high extraction yields. Rhaminolipid biosurfactants form a thin molecular interfacial film. This layer is formed between donor and recipient phase. This molecular layer, lowers the interfacial tension between immiscible phases (aqueous solution: colloidal particles) and allow dissimilar phases to mix and interact more easily. So the equilibrium state is achieved quickly and, therefore, the extraction time is very short. The attraction of the proposed method is that the extraction is fast, simple and can be done without toxic organic solvents. Also bioaggregates have several advantages such as higher environmental compatibility and biodegradability. Experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, relative recoveries of BPA were in the ranges of 98-103.3%. The calibration plot is linear in the range between 1 and 1000μgL(-1) (R(2)=0.998), and the relative standard deviation (RSD, for n=6) is 3.24%. PMID:27362996

  5. Multi-scale groundwater flow modeling during temperate climate conditions for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Steven; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Forsmark in Sweden has been proposed as the site of a geological repository for spent high-level nuclear fuel, to be located at a depth of approximately 470 m in fractured crystalline rock. The safety assessment for the repository has required a multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate the impact of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conditions close to the repository and in a wider regional context. Assessing the consequences of potential radionuclide releases requires quantitative site-specific information concerning the details of groundwater flow on the scale of individual waste canister locations (1-10 m) as well as details of groundwater flow and composition on the scale of groundwater pathways between the facility and the surface (500 m to 5 km). The purpose of this article is to provide an illustration of multi-scale modeling techniques and the results obtained when combining aspects of local-scale flows in fractures around a potential contaminant source with regional-scale groundwater flow and transport subject to natural evolution of the system. The approach set out is novel, as it incorporates both different scales of model and different levels of detail, combining discrete fracture network and equivalent continuous porous medium representations of fractured bedrock.

  6. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  7. BioImaging Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  8. Introduction of customized inserts for streamlined assembly and optimization of BioBrick synthetic genetic circuits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background BioBrick standard biological parts are designed to make biological systems easier to engineer (e.g. assemble, manipulate, and modify). There are over 5,000 parts available in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts that can be easily assembled into genetic circuits using a standard assembly technique. The standardization of the assembly technique has allowed for wide distribution to a large number of users -- the parts are reusable and interchangeable during the assembly process. The standard assembly process, however, has some limitations. In particular it does not allow for modification of already assembled biological circuits, addition of protein tags to pre-existing BioBrick parts, or addition of non-BioBrick parts to assemblies. Results In this paper we describe a simple technique for rapid generation of synthetic biological circuits using introduction of customized inserts. We demonstrate its use in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) at pre-calculated relative levels and to add an N-terminal tag to GFP. The technique uses a new BioBrick part (called a BioScaffold) that can be inserted into cloning vectors and excised from them to leave a gap into which other DNA elements can be placed. The removal of the BioScaffold is performed by a Type IIB restriction enzyme (REase) that recognizes the BioScaffold but cuts into the surrounding sequences; therefore, the placement and removal of the BioScaffold allows the creation of seamless connections between arbitrary DNA sequences in cloning vectors. The BioScaffold contains a built-in red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter; successful insertion of the BioScaffold is, thus, accompanied by gain of red fluorescence and its removal is manifested by disappearance of the red fluorescence. Conclusions The ability to perform targeted modifications of existing BioBrick circuits with BioScaffolds (1) simplifies and speeds up the iterative design-build-test process through direct

  9. Bio-diversity: an effective safety net against environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2003-01-01

    Biodiversity is the feedstock for the biotechnology industry. Hence, the conservation, enhancement and sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity should be accorded high priority in all national environment protection programmes. Lichens serve as useful indicators of environmental health. Similarly, several blue green algae help to sequester salt from water. There is need for the more widespread use of such biomonitoring and bioremediation agents. Bioprospecting research designed to identify novel metabolites must be rooted in the principle of equity in sharing benefits with the holders of traditional knowledge. There is need for greater vigil against alien invasive species, since with growing world trade in food grains and other agricultural commodities, there is an increasing possibility of introducing new pests, weeds and harmful micro-organisms. Finally, biological scientists should place emphasis on their ethical responsibility for the consequences of their research, since otherwise bioterrorism could become a major threat to human security. PMID:12963289

  10. Bio Risk Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-07-22

    The Biosecurity Risk Assessment Tool (BRAT) is a new type of computer application for the screening-level assessment of risk to dairy operations. BRAT for Dairies is designed to be intuitive and easy to use. Users enter basic data-property address, feed management, employee population, and so on - into the interface. Using these data and rules found in an expert system. BRAT for Dairies consults appropriate sections of its database. The expert system determines the riskmore » implications of the basic data, e.g. diseases are closely tied to pen location with respect to the outside world, When the analysis is complete, BRAT for Dairies evaluates and allocates the risk for each hazard, ranks the risks, and displays the results graphically.« less

  11. Bio Risk Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, Phillip

    2004-07-22

    The Biosecurity Risk Assessment Tool (BRAT) is a new type of computer application for the screening-level assessment of risk to dairy operations. BRAT for Dairies is designed to be intuitive and easy to use. Users enter basic data-property address, feed management, employee population, and so on - into the interface. Using these data and rules found in an expert system. BRAT for Dairies consults appropriate sections of its database. The expert system determines the risk implications of the basic data, e.g. diseases are closely tied to pen location with respect to the outside world, When the analysis is complete, BRAT for Dairies evaluates and allocates the risk for each hazard, ranks the risks, and displays the results graphically.

  12. Knowledge and willingness to provide research biospecimens among foreign-born Latinos using safety-net clinics.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Christopher A; Luta, Gheorghe; Wallington, Sherrie; Makgoeng, Solomon B; Selsky, Claire; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2013-08-01

    Latinos tend to be under-represented in cancer research and in bio-repositories. We conducted a Spanish-language, interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey of 331 foreign-born Latinos from Central and South America attending safety-net clinics in order to describe factors associated with knowledge about and intention to provide bio-specimens for research purposes. We used logistic regression and multiple imputation methods to evaluate associations between socio-cultural measures, medical trust, demographics, as well as knowledge about and intentions to provide bio-specimens. Almost half (47 %) of respondents knew what bio-specimens were, and 67 % said that they would provide a specimen after being given information about what this involved; this increased to 72 % among those with prior knowledge. Controlling for covariates, Latinos with a high school education and above were more likely to know what a bio-specimen was and to say they would provide bio-specimens than were those with lower levels of education [adjusted OR (aOR) 2.85, 95 % CI 1.37-5.96; and 3.49, 95 % CI 1.41-8.63, p ≤ 0.01, respectively]. Those with greater social integration were more likely to know about bio-specimens than those with less integration (aOR 2.54, 95 % CI 1.45-4.46, p = 0.001). Higher endorsement of family values was independently associated with intent to give bio-specimens (aOR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.02-1.20, p = 0.017 per five-point increase in "familism" score). Medical mistrust was not related to intentions to provide specimens. Our results suggest that interventions to increase willingness to provide bio-specimens could leverage trusted clinics or social networks and should consider individuals' education and socio-cultural perspectives. PMID:23543371

  13. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xianmin; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. Incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing storage and control is needed if more food is grown.

  14. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xian-Min; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing, storage, and control is needed if more food is grown.

  15. Levels of Reflective Thinking and Patient Safety: An Investigation of the Mechanisms that Impact on Student Learning in a Single Cohort over a 5 Year Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Lucy J.; Ker, Jean S.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research into learning about patient safety focuses on identifying how educational interventions improve educational outcomes but few studies offer evidence that inform educators about the mechanisms involved in learning about patient safety. The current evidence based in undergraduates is also limited to outcomes that relate to knowledge…

  16. Summertime Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Summertime Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature ...

  17. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  18. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  19. Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part 1. Flammability and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oasmaa, Anja; Kalli, Anssi; Lindfors, Christian; Elliott, Douglas C.; Springer, David L.; Peacocke, Cordner; Chiaramonti, David

    2012-05-04

    An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or 'bio-oil', is coming into the market. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for specifications and supporting documentation. Bio-oil is different from conventional liquid fuels, and therefore must overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. A comprehensive Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required, backed with independent testing and certification. In order to standardise bio-oil quality specifications are needed. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM (D7544) was approved in 2009. CEN standardisation has been initiated in Europe. In the EU a new chemical regulation system, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) is being applied. Registration under REACH has to be made if bio-oil is produced or imported to the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under TOSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act). In this paper the state of the art on standardisation is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

  20. Acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Danner, K

    1997-01-01

    For hundreds of years bacterial and viral vaccines have been-in a way-bioengineered and were generally well received by the public, the authorities, and the medical profession. Today, additional tools, e.g. molecular biology, enable new approaches to the development of better and safer products. Various vaccines derived from gene technology have now been licensed for commercial use and are acknowledged within the scientific community. Acceptance by the public and the politicians is, however, negatively influenced by the discussions encompassing gene manipulation in man and animals, transgenic plant, and "novel food". Lack of information leads to confusion and fear. Concurrently, the absence of spectacular and life-threatening epidemics limits the perceived value of immune prophylaxis and its benefits. Scientists in institutes and industry are in a position to stimulate acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines by following some simple rule: (1) adherence to the principles of safety; (2) establishment of analytical and control methods; (3) well functioning regulatory and reporting systems; (4) demonstration of usefulness and economic benefits; (5) open communication; and (6) correct and prudent wording. PMID:9023035

  1. Efficacy and safety of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: A randomized trial of two different levels of dosing on maternal and neonatal Vitamin D outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid; Shafi, Shafia; Hameed, Iqra; Dar, Maqsood Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Parveen, Shameema; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Shah, Parviz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant women represent a typical group susceptible to dietary and mineral deficiencies. This study was sought to assess the efficacy and safety of various doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation during pregnancy and ratify the inadequacy of the recommended daily allowance for Vitamin D in vulnerable groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women were included in this open-label, parallel group, prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. Study subjects were assigned to four treatment groups: Group 1 (n = 26), 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily; Group 2 (n = 21), 30,000 IU of Vitamin D monthly; Group 3 (n = 27), 2000 IU of Vitamin D daily; and Group 4 (n = 26), 60,000 IU Vitamin D monthly. Group 1 and 2 were further analyzed together as Group 1K (1000 IU daily and 30,000 IU monthly), and Group 3 and 4 as Group 2K (2000 IU daily and 60,000 IU monthly). The analysis was done on an intention to treat basis. Results: A total of 87 patients completed the study; 21 in Group 1, 25 in Group 2, 18 in Group 3, and 23 in Group 4. The levels of 25(OH)D at baseline ranged from 1.3 to 58.0 with a mean of 24.2 ± 15.1 ng/ml. Postsupplementation, 25(OH)D levels ranged from 11.5 to 70.3 with a mean of 40.2 ± 12.2 ng/ml. The postsupplementation levels of 25(OH)D were higher in Group 2K (42.86 ± 12.83) than in Group 1K (36.96 ± 10.56) with P value of 0.023. Conclusion: We concluded that Vitamin D supplementation with 2000 IU/day or 60,000 IU/month is very effective and safe in achieving Vitamin D sufficiency in pregnant women. PMID:27186550

  2. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  3. Dynamic Model of the BIO-Plex Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory; Meyers, Karen; Duffield, Bruce; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BIO-Plex facility will need to support a variety of life support system designs and operation strategies. These systems will be tested and evaluated in the BIO-Plex facility. An important goal of the life support program is to identify designs that best meet all size and performance constraints for a variety of possible future missions. Integrated human testing is a necessary step in reaching this goal. System modeling and analysis will also play an important role in this endeavor. Currently, simulation studies are being used to estimate air revitalization buffer and storage requirements in order to develop the infrastructure requirements of the BIO-Plex facility. Simulation studies are also being used to verify that the envisioned operation strategy will be able to meet all performance criteria. In this paper, a simulation study is presented for a nominal BIO-Plex scenario with a high-level of crop growth. A general description of the dynamic mass flow model is provided, along with some simulation results. The paper also discusses sizing and operations issues and describes plans for future simulation studies.

  4. Improved performance of the PacBio SMRT technology for 16S rDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Bowman, Brett; Bernberg, Erin L; Shevchenko, Olga; Kan, Jinjun; Korlach, Jonas; Kaplan, Louis A

    2014-09-01

    Improved sequencing accuracy was obtained with 16S amplicons from environmental samples and a known pure culture when upgraded Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) hardware and enzymes were used for the single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform. The new PacBio RS II system with P4/C2 chemistry, when used with previously constructed libraries (Mosher et al., 2013) surpassed the accuracy of Roche/454 pyrosequencing platform. With accurate read lengths of >1400 base pairs, the PacBio system opens up the possibility of identifying microorganisms to the species level in environmental samples. PMID:24978594

  5. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  6. BioCapacitor: A novel principle for biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sode, Koji; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Lee, Inyoung; Hanashi, Takuya; Tsugawa, Wakako

    2016-02-15

    Studies regarding biofuel cells utilizing biocatalysts such as enzymes and microorganisms as electrocatalysts have been vigorously conducted over the last two decades. Because of their environmental safety and sustainability, biofuel cells are expected to be used as clean power generators. Among several principles of biofuel cells, enzyme fuel cells have attracted significant attention for their use as alternative energy sources for future implantable devices, such as implantable insulin pumps and glucose sensors in artificial pancreas and pacemakers. However, the inherent issue of the biofuel cell principle is the low power of a single biofuel cell. The theoretical voltage of biofuel cells is limited by the redox potential of cofactors and/or mediators employed in the anode and cathode, which are inadequate for operating any devices used for biomedical application. These limitations inspired us to develop a novel biodevice based on an enzyme fuel cell that generates sufficient stable power to operate electric devices, designated "BioCapacitor." To increase voltage, the enzyme fuel cell is connected to a charge pump. To obtain a sufficient power and voltage to operate an electric device, a capacitor is used to store the potential generated by the charge pump. Using the combination of a charge pump and capacitor with an enzyme fuel cell, high voltages with sufficient temporary currents to operate an electric device were generated without changing the design and construction of the enzyme fuel cell. In this review, the BioCapacitor principle is described. The three different representative categories of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are introduced. Further, the recent challenges in the developments of self-powered stand-alone biodevices employing enzyme fuel cells combined with charge pumps and capacitors are introduced. Finally, the future prospects of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are addressed. PMID:26278505

  7. Bio-functional Au/Si nanorods for pathogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Fu, Junxue; Zhao, Yiping; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabricated by glancing angle deposition method and the gold was sputtered onto the silica nanorods. Alexa488-succinimide dye was immobilized onto the annealed Si nanorods via the attachment between dye ester and primary amine group supplied by the 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The anti-Salmonella was conjugated to gold via Dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] self-assembly monolayer. Due to the high aspect ratio nature of the Si nanorods, hundreds or thousands of dye molecules attached to the Si nanorods produced enhanced fluorescence signal. These biologically functionalized nanorods can be used to detect Salmonella with fluorescent microscopic imaging. This new nanoscale biosensor will be able to detect other foodborne pathogenic bacteria for food safety and security applications.

  8. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from

  9. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  10. Idaho Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This manual is intended to help teachers, administrators, and local school boards develop and institute effective safety education as a part of all vocational instruction in the public schools of Idaho. This guide is organized in 13 sections that cover the following topics: introduction to safety education, legislation, levels of responsibility,…