Science.gov

Sample records for bio-chemical sensing applications

  1. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  2. Slow-light enhanced absorption for bio-chemical sensing applications: potential of low-contrast lossy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, J.; Xiao, S.; Mortensen, N. A.

    2008-02-01

    Slow-light enhanced absorption in liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals has recently been proposed as a route to compensate for the reduced optical path in typical lab-on-a-chip systems for bio-chemical sensing applications. A simple perturbative expression has been applied to ideal structures composed of lossless dielectrics. In this work we study the enhancement in structures composed of lossy dielectrics such as a polymer. For this particular sensing application we find that the material loss has an unexpected limited drawback and surprisingly, it may even add to increase the bandwidth for low-index contrast systems such as polymer devices.

  3. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  4. Chalcogenide glass fibers: Optical window tailoring and suitability for bio-chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Pierre; Coleman, Garrett J.; Jiang, Shibin; Luo, Tao; Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    Glassy materials based on chalcogen elements are becoming increasingly prominent in the development of advanced infrared sensors. In particular, infrared fibers constitute a desirable sensing platform due to their high sensitivity and versatile remote collection capabilities for in-situ detection. Tailoring the transparency window of an optical material to the vibrational signature of a target molecule is important for the design of infrared sensor, and particularly for fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy. Here we review the basic principles and recent developments in the fabrication of chalcogenide glass infrared fibers for application as bio-chemical sensors. We emphasize the challenges in designing materials that combine good rheological properties with chemical stability and sufficiently wide optical windows for bio-chemical sensing. The limitation in optical transparency due to higher order overtones of the amorphous network vibrations is established for this family of glasses. It is shown that glasses with wide optical window suffer from higher order overtone absorptions. Compositional engineering with heavy elements such as iodine is shown to widen the optical window but at the cost of lower chemical stability. The optical attenuations of various families of chalcogenide glass fibers are presented and weighed for their applications as chemical sensors. It is then shown that long-wave infrared fibers can be designed to optimize the collection of selective signal from bio-molecules such as cells and tissues. Issues of toxicity and mechanical resistance in the context of bio-sensing are also discussed.

  5. Design and Fabrication of Piezoresistive Based Encapsulated Poly-Si Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, N. P. Vamsi; Murthy, T. R. Srinivasa; Reddy, K. Jayaprakash; Sangeeth, K.; Hegde, G. M.

    Cantilever-based sensing is a growing research field not only within micro regime but also in nano technology. The technology offers a method for rapid, on-line and in-situ monitoring of specific bio/chemical substances by detecting the nanomechanical responses of a cantilever sensor. Cantilever with piezoresistive based detection scheme is more attractive because of its electronics compatibility. Majority of commercially available micromachined piezoresistive sensors are bulk micromachined devices and are fabricated using single crystal silicon wafers. As substrate properties are not important in surface micromachining, the expensive silicon wafers can be replaced by cheaper substrates, such as poly-silicon, glass or plastic. Here we have designed SU-8 based bio/chemical compatible micro electro mechanical device that includes an encapsulated polysilicon piezoresistor for bio/chemical sensing. In this paper we report the design, fabrication and analysis of the encapsulated poly-Si cantilevers. Design and theoretical analysis are carried out using Finite Element Analysis software. For fabrication of poly-silicon piezoresistive cantilevers we followed the surface micromachining process steps. Preliminary characterization of the cantilevers is presented.

  6. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Maria; Keller, Stephan; Lillemose, Michael; Johansson, Alicia; Dohn, Søren; Haefliger, Daniel; Blagoi, Gabriela; Havsteen-Jakobsen, Mogens; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, we show that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly with receptor molecules for analyte detection, thereby avoiding gold-thiol chemistry.

  7. Label-Free Optical Ring Resonator Bio/Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongying; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    Optical micro-ring resonator sensors are an emerging category of label-free optical sensors for bio/chemical sensing that have recently been under intensive investigation. Researchers of this technology have been motivated by a tremendous breadth of different applications, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, homeland security, and food quality control, which require sensitive analytical tools. Ring resonator sensors use total internal reflection to support circulating optical resonances called whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGMs have an evanescent field of several hundred nanometers into the surrounding medium, and can therefore detect the refractive index change induced when the analyte binds to the resonator surface. Despite the small physical size of a resonator, the circulating nature of the WGM creates extremely long effective lengths, greatly increasing light-matter interaction and improving its sensing performance. Moreover, only small sample volume is needed for detection because the sensors can be fabricated in sizes well below 100 μm. The small footprint allows integration of those ring resonator sensors onto lab-on-a-chip types of devices for multiplexed detection.

  8. Diatoms: self assembled silica nanostructures, and templates for bio/chemical sensors and biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenrong; Lopez, Pascal J; Rosengarten, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this review we highlight recent advances in the understanding of biosilica production, biomodification of diatom frustules and their subsequent applications in bio/chemical sensors, and as a model membrane for filtration and separation. PMID:20931107

  9. Silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit for label-free bio/chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Song, Junfeng; Luo, Xianshu; Kee, Jack Sheng; Han, Kyungsup; Li, Chao; Park, Mi Kyoung; Tu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Qing; Jia, Lianxi; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2013-07-29

    We demonstrate a silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) for label-free bio/chemical sensing application. Such on-chip OEIC sensor system consists of optical grating couplers for vertical light coupling into silicon waveguides, a thermal-tunable microring as a tunable filter, an exposed microring as an optical label-free sensor, and a Ge photodetector for a direct electrical readout. Different from the conventional wavelength-scanning method, we adopt low-cost broadband ASE light source, together with the on-chip tunable filter to generate sliced light source. The effective refractive index change of the sensing microring induced by the sensing target is traced by scanning the supplied electrical power applied onto the tracing microring, and the detected electrical signal is read out by the Ge photodetector. For bulk refractive index sensing, we demonstrate using such OEIC sensing system with a sensitivity of ~15 mW/RIU and a detection limit of 3.9 μ-RIU, while for surface sensing of biotin-streptavidin, we obtain a surface mass sensitivity of S(m) = ~192 µW/ng·mm(-2) and a surface detection limit of 0.3 pg/mm(2). The presented OEIC sensing system is suitable for point-of-care applications. PMID:23938665

  10. REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies applications research supports the ORD Landscape Sciences Program (LSP) in two separate areas: operational remote sensing, and remote sensing research and development. Operational remote sensing is provided to the LSP through the use of current and t...

  11. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  12. Field-effect-based multifunctional hybrid sensor module for the determination of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans

    2002-02-01

    Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-situ electrochemical generation of chemical tracers is presented. Due to the fast response of the ISFET (usually in the millisecond range), an ISFET-based flow sensor is suitable for the measurement of the flow velocity in a wide range. With regard to practical applications, pH measurements with this ISFET were performed in rain droplets.

  13. Metamaterials Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial media structured on a size scale smaller than wavelength of external stimuli, and they can exhibit a strong localization and enhancement of fields, which may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors, and open new degrees of freedom in sensing design aspect. This paper mainly presents the recent progress concerning metamaterials-based sensing, and detailedly reviews the principle, detecting process and sensitivity of three distinct types of sensors based on metamaterials, as well as their challenges and prospects. Moreover, the design guidelines for each sensor and its performance are compared and summarized. PMID:22736975

  14. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  15. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  16. Development of label-free microsphere optical resonator bio/chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanumegowda, Niranjan M.; White, Ian M.; Stica, Caleb J.; Patel, Bijal C.; Oveys, Hesam; Fan, Xudong

    2005-11-01

    Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) in microsphere ring resonators enable excellent sensitivity due to the high Q-factor (> 10 6) that significantly increases the light-matter interaction. The analytes attached to the sphere surface change the local refractive index, leading to a spectral shift in the resonances of the WGM. A practical microsphere-based sensor must detect minute changes in the refractive index. In addition, the microsphere surface should be functionalized for subsequent binding of bio/chemical molecules. Both functionalization and binding processes should be monitored in order to better anchor the captured molecules and to acquire quantitative and kinetic binding information. In this work, we have carried out a series of experiments towards developing highly sensitive fused silica microsphere based sensors. A fiber prism is used to couple the light from a tunable diode laser to the sphere. A fluidic well is built to allow for injection and withdrawal of samples. The sensor sensitivity of refractive index is characterized by using the mixture of water and alcohol. It is shown that our system is able to detect changes in refractive index as low as 10 -7. We further monitor the kinetics of layer deposition when the sphere surface is functionalized with silane solution. Finally we monitor the protein binding to and peptide cleavage from the functionalized microsphere. Our results should lead to highly sensitive microsphere bio/chemical sensor arrays with applications in biomedical sciences, environmental monitoring, and drug discovery.

  17. Bio-chemical sensor based on imperfected plastic optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babchenko, Anatoly; Chernyak, Valeri; Maryles, Jonathan

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we report results for an intrinsic evanescent field sensor based on not-regular plastic optical fiber with polymer film containing Malachite Green MG +([PhC(C 6H 4NMe II) 3] +) as an absorption reagent, which coats the fiber's imperfected area. A theoretical model was developed which shows that changes of light in such structure result from the attenuation of light in the strait and bent imperfected fiber. In this model, the imperfected area with malachite green polymer film is replaced by a uniform layer with a complex refractive index. The changes in color and absorption characteristics of the polymer film depend on the acidic and basic environmental properties in the sensing area. Additional increase of the evanescent field interaction can be achieved by decrease the bending radius of the fiber with the coated imperfection area at the middle of the bent fiber. An imperfected plastic optical fiber with Malachite Green coating has been presented for the detection of ammonia vapor. The initial results show that depending on the sensing application demands, it is possible to design a high sensitive sensor with a relatively long response time, while when the demands require fast response times the sensor with less sensitivity can be used. In addition, the sensors' sensitivity can be calibrated in real-time by changing the bending radius.

  18. Combinatorial Chemistry for Optical Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, M. E.; Luis, G. Pina; Rivero-Espejel, I. A.

    The recent interest in combinatorial chemistry for the synthesis of selective recognition materials for optical sensing applications is presented. The preparation, screening, and applications of libraries of ligands and chemosensors against molecular species and metal ions are first considered. Included in this chapter are also the developments involving applications of combinatorial approaches to the discovery of sol-gel and acrylic-based imprinted materials for optical sensing of antibiotics and pesticides, as well as libraries of doped sol-gels for high-throughput optical sensing of oxygen. The potential of combinatorial chemistry applied to the discovery of new sensing materials is highlighted.

  19. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance with Five-Branched Gold Nanostars in a Plastic Optical Fiber for Bio-Chemical Sensor Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, Nunzio; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Donà, Alice; Dacarro, Giacomo; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a refractive index sensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), is presented and experimentally tested. LSPR is achieved exploiting five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) obtained using Triton X-100 in a seed-growth synthesis. They have the uncommon feature of three localized surface plasmon resonances. The strongest LSPRs fall in two ranges, one in the 600–900 nm range (LSPR 2) and the other one in the 1,100–1,600 nm range (LSPR 3), both sensible to refractive index changes. Anyway, due to the extremely strong attenuation (>102 dB/m) of the employed POF in the 1,100–1,600 nm range, only LSPR 2 will be exploited for refractive index change measurements, useful for bio-chemical sensing applications, as a proof of principle of the possibility of realizing a compact, low cost and easy-to-use GNS based device. PMID:24172284

  20. UAS remote sensing missions for rangeland applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands cover about 50% of the earth’s land surface, are in remote areas and have low population densities, all of which provide an ideal opportunity for remote sensing applications from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). In this paper, we describe a proven workflow for UAS-based remote sensing, an...

  1. (Bio)Chemical Tailoring of Biogenic 3-D Nanopatterned Templates with Energy-Relevant Functionalities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhage, Kenneth H; Kroger, Nils

    2014-09-08

    The overall aim of this research has been to obtain fundamental understanding of (bio)chemical methodologies that will enable utilization of the unique 3-D nanopatterned architectures naturally produced by diatoms for the syntheses of advanced functional materials attractive for applications in energy harvesting/conversion and storage. This research has been conducted in three thrusts: Thrust 1 (In vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom biosilica) is directed towards elucidating the fundamental mechanism(s) underlying the cellular processes of in vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom silica. Thrust 2 (Shape-preserving reactive conversion of diatom biosilica into porous, high-surface area inorganic replicas) is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of shape preservation and nanostructural evolution associated with the reactive conversion and/or coating-based conversion of diatom biosilica templates into porous inorganic replicas. Thrust 3 (Immobilization of energy-relevant enzymes in diatom biosilica and onto diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas) involves use of the results from both Thrust 1 and 2 to develop strategies for in vivo and in vitro immobilization of enzymes in/on diatom biosilica and diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas, respectively. This Final Report describes progress achieved in all 3 of these thrusts.

  2. CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector for bio-chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guo-Neng; Courcier, Thierry; Mamdy, Bastien; Feruglio, Sylvain; Charette, Paul G.; Aimez, Vincent; Romain, Olivier; Pittet, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The CMOS buried multi-junction (BMJ) detector with multiple outputs has distinct spectral responses that may be exploited for applications such as bio-chemical analysis. We tackle here dark current issue by identifying different components inside the detector structure. The identification methods are based on the observation of bias and temperature dependence, as well as measurements of test detector chip integrating different design variations. Surface thermal generation may become predominant when the detector size shrinks, thus causing dark current degradation. To prevent this effect, we propose a low-sized detector structure with passivation of all its surrounding Si/SiO2 interface areas. Also for the detector readout, we present a multi-channel charge-amplifier architecture with noise analysis. Effects of noise coming from amplifiers and related to the coupled detector's dynamic conductances are illuminated. To pick up weak signals, synchronous detection can be implemented. A BDJ (Buried Double Junction) detector chip designed with a switched-phase architectural approach gives a minimum detectable signal of 15μlx@555nm or 1μlx@555nm at 27°C or - 10°C, for an integration time of 3s or 45s respectively.

  3. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  4. Remote-sensing applications to geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of two day workshop on applications of remote sensing to geology are summarized in report. Topics discussed are environmental analysis, crop classification, plant epidemics and diseases, irrigation reform, and soil surveys.

  5. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  6. Analysis of Compressive Sensing for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioceanu, Maria

    Compressive Sensing (CS) systems capture data with fewer measurements than traditional sensors assuming that imagery is redundant and compressible in the spectral and spatial dimensions. This thesis utilizes a model of the Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imager-Dual Disperser (CASSI-DD) to simulate CS measurements from traditionally sensed HyMap images. A novel reconstruction algorithm that combines spectral smoothing and spatial total variation (TV) is used to create high resolution hyperspectral imagery from the simulated CS measurements. This research examines the effect of the number of measurements, which corresponds to the percentage of physical data sampled, on the quality of simulated CS data as estimated through performance of spectral image processing algorithms. The effect of CS on the data cloud is explored through principal component analysis (PCA) and endmember extraction. The ultimate purpose of this thesis is to investigate the utility of the CS sensor model and reconstruction for various hyperspectral applications in order to identify the strengths and limitations of CS. While CS is shown to create useful imagery for visual analysis, the data cloud is altered and per-pixel spectral fidelity declines for CS reconstructions from only a small number of measurements. In some hyperspectral applications, many measurements are needed in order to obtain comparable results to traditionally sensed HSI, including atmospheric compensation and subpixel target detection. On the other hand, in hyperspectral applications where pixels must be dramatically altered in order to be misclassified, such as land classification or NDVI mapping, CS shows promise.

  7. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  8. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  9. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  10. Thermal remote sensing: theory, sensors, and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of thermal infrared remote sensing for Earth science research are both varied and wide in scope. They range from understanding thermal energy responses that drive land-atmosphere energy exchanges in the hydrologic cycle, to measurement of dielectric surface properties for snow, ice, an...

  11. Second Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L. (Editor); Witt, R. G. (Editor); Kugelmann, D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Participants from state and local governments share experiences in remote sensing applications with one another and with users in the Federal government, universities, and the private sector during technical sessions and forums covering agriculture and forestry; land cover analysis and planning; surface mining and energy; data processing; water quality and the coastal zone; geographic information systems; and user development programs.

  12. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  13. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  14. Integrated optical sensor platform for multiparameter bio-chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lützow, Peter; Pergande, Daniel; Heidrich, Helmut

    2011-07-01

    There is growing demand for robust, reliable, low cost, and easy to use sensor systems that feature multiparameter analysis in many application areas ranging from safety and security to point of care and medical diagnostics. Here, we highlight the theory and show first experimental results on a novel approach targeting the realization of massively multiplexed sensor arrays. The presented sensor platform is based on arrays of frequency-modulated integrated optical microring resonators (MRR) fed by a single bus waveguide combined with lock-in detection to filter out in a reliable and simple manner their individual response to external stimuli. The working principle is exemplified on an array of four thermo-optically modulated MRR. It is shown that with this technique tracking of individual resonances is possible even in case of strong spectral overlap. PMID:21747482

  15. Wavefront sensing applications of binary optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1994-02-01

    The advent of micro- or binary optics technology has made possible the fabrication of a variety of new optical devices. Optical fabrication is no longer limited by surfaces that can be made by grinding and polishing, or even diamond turning. In fact, optics with no symmetry, no smooth surfaces, and that perform multiple functions can be readily fabricated. While these optics have a large number of applications, they are extremely useful for systems that require arrays of small optics or aperture multiplexing, since these are fabricated using computer controlled photo-lithography and etching processes. We have applied binary optics technology to construct various wavefront sensing using four mask processes to create 16 level optics. They are binary in the sense that they use discrete phase levels, not in the sense of using only two levels (they might more properly be called digital optics). We have found that 16 levels is adequate for most systems, giving greater than 99% of efficiency.

  16. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  17. Magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, Evangelos; Ktena, Aphrodite

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, after an introduction to the basics of magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials, some of their uses and applications are presented. New position sensors based on the magnetostriction effect and the magnetostrictive delay-line technique are presented with respect to their applicability in engineering systems. It is also shown that the magnetostriction effect can be used in measuring the M( H) and λ( H) functions as well as their uniformity response. Finally, the so-called magnetoelectric effect is discussed as one of the major future trends of magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials for sensing applications.

  18. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  19. Silica Nanowires: Growth, Integration, and Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Huey, Eric; Bhansali, Shekhar; Nair, Narayana; Nanir, Madhavan

    2014-01-01

    This review (with 129 refs.) gives an overview on how the integration of silica nanowires (NWs) into micro-scale devices has resulted, in recent years, in simple yet robust nano-instrumentation with improved performance in targeted application areas such as sensing. This has been achieved by the use of appropriate techniques such as di-electrophoresis and direct vapor-liquid-growth phenomena, to restrict the growth of NWs to site-specific locations. This also has eliminated the need for post-growth processing and enables nanostructures to be placed on pre-patterned substrates. Various kinds of NWs have been investigated to determine how their physical and chemical properties can be tuned for integration into sensing structures. NWs integrated onto interdigitated micro-electrodes have been applied to the determination of gases and biomarkers. The technique of directly growing NWs eliminates the need for their physical transfer and thus preserves their structure and performance, and further reduces the costs of fabrication. The biocompatibility of NWs also has been studied with respect to possible biological applications. This review addresses the challenges in growth and integration of NWs to understand related mechanism on biological contact or gas exposure and sensing performance for personalized health and environmental monitoring. PMID:25382871

  20. A new concept and practice of remote sensing information application: post remote sensing application technology and application case to geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dechang; Ye, Fawang; Huang, Xianfang; Zhang, Jielin; Zhao, Yingjun; Huang, Shutao; Zhang, Jingbo

    2006-04-01

    Based on the status of remote sensing information application in China, from the aspect of geologic exploration, and new thinking of remote sensing information application, a new concept-"post-remote sensing application technology" has been put forward. The argument, the connotation, the technology construction, the research content and the application thinking are expounded and discussed in the paper. Taking uranium resources exploration in the north of Ordos basin for example, some key geologic problems have been studied and important achievements have been obtained. The practice indicates that the post-remote sensing application technology is of more values and better effect than these of single remote sensing technology. The new thinking of modern information technology in combination with traditional methods can also be used for reference to other fields of geosciences.

  1. Polymer planar Bragg grating for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberger, M.; Hartlaub, N.; Koller, G.; Belle, S.; Schmauss, B.; Hellmann, R.

    2013-05-01

    Bragg gratings have become indispensable as optical sensing elements and are already used for a variety of technical applications. Mainly silica fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been extensively studied over the last decades and are nowadays commercially available. Bragg grating sensors consisting of other materials like polymers, however, have only recently come into the focus of fundamental and applied research. Polymers exhibit significantly different properties advantageous for many sensing applications and therefore provide a good alternative to silica based devices. In addition, polymer materials are inexpensive, simple to handle as well as available in various forms like liquid resists or bulk material. Accordingly, polymer integrated optics attract increasing interest and can serve as a substitute for optical fibers. We report on the fabrication of a planar Bragg grating sensor in bulk Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The sensor consists of an optical waveguide and a Bragg grating, both written simultaneously into a PMMA chip by a single writing step, for which a phase mask covered by an amplitude mask is placed on top of the PMMA and exposed to the UV radiation of a KrF excimer laser. Depending on the phase mask period, different Bragg gratings reflecting in the telecommunication wavelength range are fabricated and characterized. Reflection and transmission measurements show a narrow reflection band and a high reflectivity of the polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG). After connecting to a single mode fiber, the portable PPBG based sensor was evaluated for different measurands like humidity and strain. The sensor performance was compared to already existing sensing systems. Due to the obtained results as well as the rapid and cheap fabrication of the sensor chip, the PPBG qualifies for a low cost sensing element.

  2. Long-wavelength VCSELs for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortsiefer, M.; Rosskopf, J.; Neumeyr, C.; Gründl, T.; Grasse, C.; Chen, J.; Hangauer, A.; Strzoda, R.; Gierl, C.; Meissner, P.; Küppers, F.; Amann, M.-C.

    2012-03-01

    Long-wavelength VCSELs with emission wavelengths beyond 1.3 μm have seen a remarkable progress over the last decade. This success has been accomplished by using highly advanced device concepts which effectively overcome the fundamental technological drawbacks related with long-wavelength VCSELs such as inferior thermal properties and allow for the realization of lasers with striking device performance. In this presentation, we will give an overview on the state of the technology for long-wavelength VCSELs in conjunction with their opportunities in applications for optical sensing. While VCSELs based on InP are limited to maximum emission wavelengths around 2.3 μm, even longer wavelengths up to the mid-infrared range beyond 3 μm can be achieved with VCSELs based on GaSb. For near-infrared InP-based VCSELs, the output characteristics include sub-mA threshold currents, up to several milliwatts of singlemode output power and ultralow power consumption. New concepts for widely tunable VCSELs with tuning ranges up to 100 nm independent from the material system for the active region are also presented. Today, optical sensing by Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy is a fast emerging market. Gas sensing systems are used for a wide range of applications such as industrial process control, environmental monitoring and safety applications. With their inherent and compared to other laser types superior properties including enhanced current tuning rates, wavelength tuning ranges, modulation frequencies and power consumption, long-wavelength VCSELs are regarded as key components for TDLS applications.

  3. Applications of Remote Sensing to Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Laguette, S.; Seelan, S.; Lawrence, R.; Henry, M.; Maynard, C.; Dalsted, K.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) has changed agricultural practices in the following ways: (1) farmers and ranchers have become partners with, not clients of, researchers; (2) experiments are carried out in the field rather than on small experimental plots; (3) the field is considered an agro-ecosystem, with all the complexities of multiple interactions, rather than attempting to isolate certain parameters and vary only a few; (4) both economic benefit to the producer and sound environmental stewardship for society are achievable. This approach has revealed that information is as significant an input to farm or ranch management as seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage. Accurate, timely information equips producers with the ability to make decisions during a growing season that optimize the yield at harvest time. An invaluable source of in-season information is imagery acquired from sensors on satellites or aircraft. In addition to sensing reflected sunlight in wavebands outside the visible, remote sensing's overview also reveals anomalous patterns in the vegetation cover that are difficult to spot on the ground. Anomalies can be caused by weeds, disease, water stress, inadequate nutrients, or other causes. Often, anomalies must be detected early or they spread too quickly to be addressed. The paper will demonstrate how remote sensing has been applied to (1) define management zones in farm fields, (2) prescribe variable rate applications of fertilizer, (3) detect pest infestations, and (4) manage cattle grazing according to forage available. The applications were possible because data were processed within 4-5 days of acquisition by the satellite, and then delivered by high-bandwidth satellite links to farmers, ranchers, and tribal government officials in minimal transit time. The applications research described was part of NASA's Synergy Program.

  4. Gated Silica Mesoporous Materials in Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Sancenón, Félix; Pascual, Lluís; Oroval, Mar; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-08-01

    Silica mesoporous supports (SMSs) have a large specific surface area and volume and are particularly exciting vehicles for delivery applications. Such container-like structures can be loaded with numerous different chemical substances, such as drugs and reporters. Gated systems also contain addressable functions at openings of voids, and cargo delivery can be controlled on-command using chemical, biochemical or physical stimuli. Many of these gated SMSs have been applied for drug delivery. However, fewer examples of their use in sensing protocols have been reported. The approach of applying SMSs in sensing uses another concept-that of loading pores with a reporter and designing a capping mechanism that is selectively opened in the presence of a target analyte, which results in the delivery of the reporter. According to this concept, we provide herein a complete compilation of published examples of probes based on the use of capped SMSs for sensing. Examples for the detection of anions, cations, small molecules and biomolecules are provided. The diverse range of gated silica mesoporous materials presented here highlights their usefulness in recognition protocols. PMID:26491626

  5. Application of Remote Sensing in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarczyk, Jan

    2014-12-01

    With increasing intensity of agricultural crop production increases the need to obtain information about environmental conditions in which this production takes place. Remote sensing methods, including satellite images, airborne photographs and ground-based spectral measurements can greatly simplify the monitoring of crop development and decision-making to optimize inputs on agricultural production and reduce its harmful effects on the environment. One of the earliest uses of remote sensing in agriculture is crop identification and their acreage estimation. Satellite data acquired for this purpose are necessary to ensure food security and the proper functioning of agricultural markets at national and global scales. Due to strong relationship between plant bio-physical parameters and the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected (in certain ranges of the spectrum) from plants and then registered by sensors it is possible to predict crop yields. Other applications of remote sensing are intensively developed in the framework of so-called precision agriculture, in small spatial scales including individual fields. Data from ground-based measurements as well as from airborne or satellite images are used to develop yield and soil maps which can be used to determine the doses of irrigation and fertilization and to take decisions on the use of pesticides.

  6. Gated Silica Mesoporous Materials in Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sancenón, Félix; Pascual, Lluís; Oroval, Mar; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Silica mesoporous supports (SMSs) have a large specific surface area and volume and are particularly exciting vehicles for delivery applications. Such container-like structures can be loaded with numerous different chemical substances, such as drugs and reporters. Gated systems also contain addressable functions at openings of voids, and cargo delivery can be controlled on-command using chemical, biochemical or physical stimuli. Many of these gated SMSs have been applied for drug delivery. However, fewer examples of their use in sensing protocols have been reported. The approach of applying SMSs in sensing uses another concept—that of loading pores with a reporter and designing a capping mechanism that is selectively opened in the presence of a target analyte, which results in the delivery of the reporter. According to this concept, we provide herein a complete compilation of published examples of probes based on the use of capped SMSs for sensing. Examples for the detection of anions, cations, small molecules and biomolecules are provided. The diverse range of gated silica mesoporous materials presented here highlights their usefulness in recognition protocols. PMID:26491626

  7. Geometrical Detector Considerations in Laser Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killinger, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the geometrical interaction of different detectors with the impinging optical/laser received beam for a wide range of laser sensing applications. Although different techniques apply, it is found that similar aspects of geometrical physics plays a role in direct detection of a range-resolved large M(sup 2) OPO atmospheric Lidar, heterodyne multi-detector reception of atmospheric turbulence distorted coherent lidar type laser sensing, and the distribution and summation of laser induced fluorescence signals after being spectrally resolved with a spectrometer and detected by a column summing CCD detector. In each of these systems, the focused received light is spatially and spectrally distributed due to several factors including Field-of-View considerations, laser beam quality/divergence, multi-detector aspects, and hardware and software summation (coherent and non-coherent) of multi-element or spatially integrated signals. This invited talk will present some of our recent results in these areas and show the similarities in the detector spatial and temporal summation techniques of these different laser sensing systems.

  8. Multimodal sensing-based camera applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordallo López, Miguel; Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, J. Olli; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2011-02-01

    The increased sensing and computing capabilities of mobile devices can provide for enhanced mobile user experience. Integrating the data from different sensors offers a way to improve application performance in camera-based applications. A key advantage of using cameras as an input modality is that it enables recognizing the context. Therefore, computer vision has been traditionally utilized in user interfaces to observe and automatically detect the user actions. The imaging applications can also make use of various sensors for improving the interactivity and the robustness of the system. In this context, two applications fusing the sensor data with the results obtained from video analysis have been implemented on a Nokia Nseries mobile device. The first solution is a real-time user interface that can be used for browsing large images. The solution enables the display to be controlled by the motion of the user's hand using the built-in sensors as complementary information. The second application is a real-time panorama builder that uses the device's accelerometers to improve the overall quality, providing also instructions during the capture. The experiments show that fusing the sensor data improves camera-based applications especially when the conditions are not optimal for approaches using camera data alone.

  9. Active structural waveguide for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Karol; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    In the article a microstructural active optical fiber for sensing application was presented. Construction consists of three hexagonal rings and a core made of SiO2 - Al2O3 - Sb2O3 glass co-doped with 1Yb2O3/0.1Tm2O3 [mol%]. Developed optical fiber is characterized by upconversion luminescence (λp=980nm) at 480nm (Tm3+: 1G4→3H6) and 650 nm (Tm3+ : 1G4→3F4). Population of thulium levels was attained in result of the Yb 3+→Tm3+ upconversion energy transfer. Sensing application of elaborated active photonic structure was presented on the example of aqueous fluorescein solution. Fabricated microstructural optical fiber enables to measure of the fluorescein solutions with the concentration of (0.25 - 5.42)·10-4 [mol%]. Sensitivity of the elaborated measurement setup is 1.51·104 [1/mol%].

  10. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  11. Terahertz electronics for sensing and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Short channel field effect transistors can detect terahertz radiation. Such detection is enabled by the excitation of the plasma waves rectified due to the device nonlinearities. The resulting response has nanometer scale spatial resolution and can be modulated in the sub THz range. This technology could enable a variety of sensing, imaging, and wireless communication applications, including detection of biological and chemical hazardous agents, cancer detection, shortrange covert communications (in THz and sub-THz windows), and applications in radio astronomy. Field effect transistors implemented using III-V, III-N, Si, SiGe, and graphene have been used to detect THz radiation. Using silicon transistors in plasmonic regimes is especially appealing because of compatibility with standard readout silicon VLSI components.

  12. Layered classification techniques for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.

    1975-01-01

    The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.

  13. Nanostructured detector technologies for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Welser, Roger E.; Puri, Yash R.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Polla, Dennis L.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Dubey, Madan

    2014-05-01

    Optical sensing technology is critical for optical communication, defense and security applications. Advances in optoelectronics materials in the UV, Visible and Infrared, using nanostructures, and use of novel materials such as CNT and Graphene have opened doors for new approaches to apply device design methodology that are expected to offer enhanced performance and low cost optical sensors in a wide range of applications. This paper is intended to review recent advancements and present different device architectures and analysis. The chapter will briefly introduce the basics of UV and Infrared detection physics and various wave bands of interest and their characteristics [1, 2] We will cover the UV band (200-400 nm) and address some of the recent advances in nanostructures growth and characterization using ZnO/MgZnO based technologies and their applications. Recent advancements in design and development of CNT and Graphene based detection technologies have shown promise for optical sensor applications. We will present theoretical and experimental results on these device and their potential applications in various bands of interest.

  14. The cross time and space features in remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Song, W. L.; Qu, W.; Fu, J. E.; Pang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    Remote sensing is one subject of the modern geomatics, with a high priority for practical applications in which cross time and space analysis is one of its significant features. Object recognition and/or parameter retrieval are normally the first step in remote sensing applications, whereas cross time and space change analysis of those surface objects and/or parameters will make remote sensing applications more valuable. Based on a short review on the historic evolution of remote sensing and its current classification system, the cross time and space features commonly existing in remote sensing applications were discussed. The paper, aiming at improving remote sensing applications and promoting development of the remote sensing subject from a new vision, proposed a methodology based subject classification approach for remote sensing and then suggest to establish the theory of cross time and space remote sensing applications. The authors believe that such a new cross time and space concept meets the demand for new theories and new ideas from remote sensing subject and is of practical help to future remote sensing applications.

  15. Applications of remote sensing to hydrologic planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H., Jr.; Fowler, T.; Castruccio, P.

    1978-01-01

    The transfer of LANDSAT remote sensing technology from the research sector to user operational applications requires demonstration of the utility and accuracy of LANDSAT data in solving real problems. This report describes such a demonstration project in the area of water resources, specifically the estimation of non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutants were estimated from land cover data from LANDSAT images. Classification accuracies for three small watersheds were above 95%. Land cover was converted to pollutant loads for a fourth watershed through the use of coefficients relating significant pollutants to land use and storm runoff volume. These data were input into a simulator model which simulated runoff from average rainfall. The result was the estimation of monthly expected pollutant loads for the 17 subbasins comprising the Magothy watershed.

  16. Amorphous magnetostrictive wires used in delay lines for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we give a review on the use of amorphous magnetostrictive wires in delay lines for sensing applications. Initially, we demonstrate the engineering model of the operation of magnetostrictive delay lines (MDL), illustrating the micro-strain generation, propagation and detection. Accordingly, we present the developed sensing elements based on this technique. The sensing elements are based on the parameters affecting the operation of the MDL, which are the ambient field, the interrogating electromagnetic field and the mechanical action on the magnetic element. Finally, we discuss on the development of a new magnetostrictive device, which incorporate the excitation and sensing means and can be used in sensing applications.

  17. Application of remote sensing for planning purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Types of remotely sensed data are many and varied but, all are primarily dependent on the sensor platform and the kind of sensing system used. A sensor platform is the type of aircraft or satellite to which a sensing system is attached; each platform has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Selected attributes of several current or recently used platforms are outlined. Though sensing systems are highly varied, they may be divided into various operational categories such as cameras, electromechanical scanners, and radars.

  18. Microring bio-chemical sensor with integrated low dark current Ge photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Kai; Zhang, Dengke; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Xiaochi; Lu, Ching-Ying; Fei, Edward T.; Kamins, Theodore I.; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yidong; Harris, James S.

    2015-03-01

    An integrated Ge photodetector of very low dark current density is demonstrated in an optoelectronic integrated circuit label-free biosensing system. The sensor system consists of a microring for optical sensing and a monolithically integrated Ge detector. For point-of-care applications, integration of Ge detector increases the reliability of measurement by eliminating mechanical-optical alignment of output signals. Optimizing Ge detector performance will further enhance system signal-noise ratio and reliability. For homogeneous sensing, the system has a sensitivity of ˜18.8 nm/RIU and a detection limit of 3.50 × 10-5.

  19. MODIS Direct Broadcast and Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard both Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). Equipped with direct broadcast capability, the MODIS measurements can be received worldwide real time. There are 82 ingest sites (over 900 users, listed on the Direct Readout Portal) around the world for Terra/Aqua-MODIS Direct Broadcast DB) downlink. This represents 27 (6 from EOS science team members) science research organizations for DB land, ocean and atmospheric processing, and 53 companies that base their application algorithms and value added products on DB data. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of aerosol/cloud optical properties, especially optical thickness and effective particle size. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional-to-global climatic effects.

  20. Short-pulse electromagnetics for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felsen, Leopold B.; Vecchi, G.; Carin, Lawrence; Bertoni, H. L.

    1991-08-01

    Recent developments make it possible to radiate and coherently detect electromagnetic pulses consisting of a few half-cycles of a sine wave having a period on the order of 10 ps. The antennas involved are compact, typically consisting of conducting films on thin dielectric substrates having lateral dimensions of about 2 cm. Short, broadband pulse technology can be used for position sensing, object identification, and for monitoring the state of an object. Such target interrogation may have application to robotics. This possibility is explored here, and an example of the dependence of the scattered pulse on the internal state of an object is presented. The short electromagnetic pulses (SEP) permit position sensing of objects with spatial resolution on the order of 1 mm. They also permit identification of objects and the monitoring of their state. This follows because, depending on its size, shape, and the materials from which it is constructed, an object will exhibit a series of resonant frequencies at which it strongly reflects electromagnetic waves of harmonic time dependence. When illuminated by SEP, having frequency content spread over a wide bandwidth, these resonances will be excited. The resonances appear in the late-time tail of the scattered pulse. This late-time response is almost independent of the orientation of the object, and can therefore be used for identification. For targets that involve conducting bodies with aperture coupling to internal cavities the externally observed resonances can be especially useful in monitoring changes in the internal structure. The illustrative example demonstrating this aspect involves a slit- coupled closed shell with an internal load. If the shell and load are good conductors it is shown that the resulting high-Q resonances are highly sensitive to changes in the locatio of the load.

  1. Graphene Hybrid Materials in Gas Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, a two dimensional structure of carbon atoms, has been widely used as a material for gas sensing applications because of its large surface area, excellent conductivity, and ease of functionalization. This article reviews the most recent advances in graphene hybrid materials developed for gas sensing applications. In this review, synthetic approaches to fabricate graphene sensors, the nano structures of hybrid materials, and their sensing mechanism are presented. Future perspectives of this rapidly growing field are also discussed. PMID:26690156

  2. State-of-the-Art of (Bio)Chemical Sensor Developments in Analytical Spanish Groups

    PubMed Central

    Plata, María Reyes; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    (Bio)chemical sensors are one of the most exciting fields in analytical chemistry today. The development of these analytical devices simplifies and miniaturizes the whole analytical process. Although the initial expectation of the massive incorporation of sensors in routine analytical work has been truncated to some extent, in many other cases analytical methods based on sensor technology have solved important analytical problems. Many research groups are working in this field world-wide, reporting interesting results so far. Modestly, Spanish researchers have contributed to these recent developments. In this review, we summarize the more representative achievements carried out for these groups. They cover a wide variety of sensors, including optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric or electro-mechanical devices, used for laboratory or field analyses. The capabilities to be used in different applied areas are also critically discussed. PMID:22319260

  3. Applications of remote sensing in resource management in Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    The project is reported for studying the application of remote sensing in land use classification and delineation of major tectonic lineaments in Nebraska. Other research reported include the use of aircraft and ERTS-1 satellite imagery in detecting and estimating the acreage of irrigated land, and the application of remote sensing in estimating evapotranspiration in the Platte River Basin.

  4. Structured materials for catalytic and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokenek, Selma

    The optical and chemical properties of the materials used in catalytic and sensing applications directly determine the characteristics of the resultant catalyst or sensor. It is well known that a catalyst needs to have high activity, selectivity, and stability to be viable in an industrial setting. The hydrogenation activity of palladium catalysts is known to be excellent, but the industrial applications are limited by the cost of obtaining catalyst in amounts large enough to make their use economical. As a result, alloying palladium with a cheaper, more widely available metal while maintaining the high catalytic activity seen in monometallic catalysts is, therefore, an attractive option. Similarly, the optical properties of nanoscale materials used for sensing must be attuned to their application. By adjusting the shape and composition of nanoparticles used in such applications, very fine changes can be made to the frequency of light that they absorb most efficiently. The design, synthesis, and characterization of (i) size controlled monometallic palladium nanoparticles for catalytic applications, (ii) nickel-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles and (iii) silver-palladium nanoparticles with applications in drug detection and biosensing through surface plasmon resonance, respectively, will be discussed. The composition, size, and shape of the nanoparticles formed were controlled through the use of wet chemistry techniques. After synthesis, the nanoparticles were analyzed using physical and chemical characterization techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy- Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry (STEM-EDX). The Pd and Ni-Pd nanoparticles were then supported on silica for catalytic testing using mass spectrometry. The optical properties of the Ag-Pd nanoparticles in suspension were further investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). Monometallic palladium particles have

  5. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  6. Application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The following conclusions were reached concerning the applications of remote sensing to water resources problems: (1) Remote sensing methods provide the most practical method of obtaining data for many water resources problems; (2) the multi-disciplinary approach is essential to the effective application of remote sensing to water resource problems; (3) there is a correlation between the amount of suspended solids in an effluent discharged into a water body and reflected energy; (4) remote sensing provides for more effective and accurate monitoring, discovery and characterization of the mixing zone of effluent discharged into a receiving water body; and (5) it is possible to differentiate between blue and blue-green algae.

  7. A selected bibliography of remote sensing applications to soil science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Carter, Daniel B.; Draeger, William C.

    1979-01-01

    The bibliography contains approximately 200 references dealing with the application of remote sensing technology to the identification and analysis of soils. The scientific papers and reports listed describe procedures and methods used in data collection and include specific applications of those data to soil studies. Most citations discuss current work from 1970 to 1978 and all references are categorized according to the type of remotely sensed data used and their application.

  8. Applications of remote sensing surveys in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.

  9. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  10. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  11. Field Data Collection: an Essential Element in Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, L. R.

    1971-01-01

    Field data collected in support of remote sensing projects are generally used for the following purposes: (1) calibration of remote sensing systems, (2) evaluation of experimental applications of remote sensing imagery on small test sites, and (3) designing and evaluating operational regional resource studies and inventories which are conducted using the remote sensing imagery obtained. Field data may be used to help develop a technique for a particular application, or to aid in the application of that technique to a resource evaluation or inventory problem for a large area. Scientists at the Forestry Remote Sensing Laboratory have utilized field data for both purposes. How meaningful field data has been collected in each case is discussed.

  12. Remote sensing for mined area reclamation: Application inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Applications of aerial remote sensing to coal mined area reclamation are documented, and information concerning available data banks for coal producing areas in the east and midwest is given. A summary of mined area information requirements to which remote sensing methods might contribute is included.

  13. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  14. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1980-01-01

    Citations of 165 selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications on remote sensing applications for wildlife management are presented in a bibliography. These materials summarize developments in the use of remotely sensed data for wildlife habitat mapping, habitat inventory, habitat evaluation, and wildlife census. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1947 and 1979.

  15. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  16. Application of Multi-Dimensional Sensing Technologies in Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Hisae; Kimachi, Akira; Suwa, Masaki; Niwakawa, Makoto; Okuda, Haruhisa; Hashimoto, Manabu

    Multi-dimensional sensing has been used for various purposes in the field of production systems. The members of the IEEJ MDS committee investigated the trends in sensing technologies and their applications. In this paper, the result of investigations of auto-guided vehicles, cell manufacturing robots, safety, maintenance, worker monitoring, and sensor networks are discussed.

  17. Practical applications of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.

  18. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are becoming available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data ...

  19. Remote sensing applications of the extended radiosity method

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Borel, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we describe the progress made in the last three years on developing the radiosity method for remote sensing applications. The research covered canopy modeling, volumetric scattering and atmospheric corrections for future analysis of EOS imaging spectrometer data.

  20. Remote sensing applications of the extended radiosity method

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Borel, C.C.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe the progress made in the last three years on developing the radiosity method for remote sensing applications. The research covered canopy modeling, volumetric scattering and atmospheric corrections for future analysis of EOS imaging spectrometer data.

  1. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  2. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems. [Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Carter, B. D.; Solomon, J. L.; Williams, S. G.; Powers, J. S.; Clark, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: remote sensing applications to land use planning Lowndes County, applications of LANDSAT data to strip mine inventory and reclamation, white tailed deer habitat evaluation using LANDSAT data, remote sensing data analysis support system, and discrimination of unique forest habitats in potential lignite areas of Mississippi. Other projects discussed include LANDSAT change discrimination in gravel operations, environmental impact modeling for highway corridors, and discrimination of fresh water wetlands for inventory and monitoring.

  3. Spaceborne laser development for future remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Harding, David J.; Riris, Haris; Li, Steven X.; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Camp, Jordan

    2011-09-01

    At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we are developing the next generation laser transmitters for future remote sensing applications including a micropulse altimeter for ice-sheet monitoring, laser spectroscopic measurements and high resolution mapping of the Earth's surface as well as potential missions to other planets for trace gas measurement and mapping. In this paper we will present an overview of the spaceborne laser programs and offer insights into future spaceborne lasers for remote sensing applications.

  4. Bio- chemical and physical characterizations of mesenchymal stromal cells along the time course of directed differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Wu, Yi-Chang; del Álamo, Juan C.; Chiou, Arthur; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biophysical properties are novel biomarkers of cell phenotypes which may reflect the status of differentiating stem cells. Accurate characterizations of cellular biophysical properties, in conjunction with the corresponding biochemical properties could help to distinguish stem cells from primary cells, cancer cells, and differentiated cells. However, the correlated evolution of these properties in the course of directed stem cells differentiation has not been well characterized. In this study, we applied video particle tracking microrheology (VPTM) to measure intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Our results showed that osteogenesis not only increased both elastic and viscous moduli, but also converted the intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating hMSCs from viscous-like to elastic-like. In contrast, adipogenesis decreased both elastic and viscous moduli while hMSCs remained viscous-like during the differentiation. In conjunction with bio- chemical and physical parameters, such as gene expression profiles, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton arrangement, we demonstrated that VPTM is a unique approach to quantify, with high data throughput, the maturation level of differentiating hMSCs and to anticipate their fate decisions. This approach is well suited for time-lapsed study of the mechanobiology of differentiating stem cells especially in three dimensional physico-chemical biomimetic environments including porous scaffolds. PMID:27526936

  5. Membrane process designs in the recovery of bio-fuels and bio-chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this presentation, the emerging membrane unit operations and process designs that can be used in recovery of fuels and organic chemicals produced via bioconversion are briefly summarized. Product recovery costs are a major barrier to increased use of bioconversion for the production of fuels and chemicals. The integration of developing membrane unit operations into product recovery schemes may reduce process energy requirements and cost. Membrane unit operations that are used or studied in recovery of bio-fuels and organic chemicals include pervaporation (PV), vapor permeation (VPe), reverse osmosis (RO), membrane extraction, and electrodialysis (ED). Although it can be argued that ultrafiltration (UF) is used to purify bio-fuels and bio-chemicals, UF is not included in this survey for two reasons: (1) the primary uses of UF in bioprocessing are to clarify fermentation broth and to retain cells/enzymes in bioreactors and (2) the literature on UF in biotechnology is expansive. Products of bioconversion for which data are compiled include ethanol, acetone, butanol, glycerol, isopropanol, ethyl acetate, fusel oils, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid. 13 refs.

  6. Tailoring (bio)chemical activity of semiconducting nanoparticles: critical role of deposition and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chernyshova, Irina V; Ponnurangam, Sathish; Somasundaran, Ponisseril

    2011-06-22

    The impact of deposition and aggregation on (bio)chemical properties of semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) is perhaps among the least studied aspects of aquatic chemistry of solids. Employing a combination of in situ FTIR and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and using the Mn(II) oxygenation on hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) and anatase (TiO(2)) NPs as a model catalytic reaction, we discovered that the catalytic and sorption performance of the semiconducting NPs in the dark can be manipulated by depositing them on different supports or mixing them with other NPs. We introduce the electrochemical concept of the catalytic redox activity to explain the findings and to predict the effects of (co)aggregation and deposition on the catalytic and corrosion properties of ferric (hydr)oxides. These results offer new possibilities for rationally tailoring the technological performance of semiconducting metal oxide NPs, provide a new framework for modeling their fate and transport in the environment and living organisms, and can be helpful in discriminating between weakly and strongly adsorbed species in spectra. PMID:21557599

  7. Flow Type Bio-Chemical Calorimeter with Micro Differential Thermopile Sensor.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masataka; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    Bio-chemical calorimeters with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) thermopile sensor have been studied for monitoring detailed processes of the biochemical reactions of a minute sample with a high temporal resolution. The bio-calorimeters are generally divided into a batch-type and a flow-type. We developed a highly sensitive batch-type calorimeter which can detect a 100 nW level thermal reaction. However it shows a long settling time of 2 hours because of the heat capacity of a whole calorimeter. Thus, the flow-type calorimeters in passive and active mode have been studied for measuring the thermal reactions in an early stage after starting an analysis. The flow-type calorimeter consists of the MEMS differential thermopile sensor, a pair of micro channel reactor in a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sheet in a three-fold thermostat chamber. The calorimeter in the passive mode was tested with dilution reactions of ethanol to water and NaCl aqueous solution to water. It was shown that the calorimeter detects exo- and endothermic reaction over 250 nW at solution flow rate of 0.05 ~ 1 µl/min with a settling time of about 4 minutes. In the active mode, a response test was conducted by using heat removal by water flow from the reactor channel. The active calorimetry enhances the response time about three to four times faster. PMID:26353514

  8. Bio- chemical and physical characterizations of mesenchymal stromal cells along the time course of directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Wu, Yi-Chang; Del Álamo, Juan C; Chiou, Arthur; Lee, Oscar K

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biophysical properties are novel biomarkers of cell phenotypes which may reflect the status of differentiating stem cells. Accurate characterizations of cellular biophysical properties, in conjunction with the corresponding biochemical properties could help to distinguish stem cells from primary cells, cancer cells, and differentiated cells. However, the correlated evolution of these properties in the course of directed stem cells differentiation has not been well characterized. In this study, we applied video particle tracking microrheology (VPTM) to measure intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Our results showed that osteogenesis not only increased both elastic and viscous moduli, but also converted the intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating hMSCs from viscous-like to elastic-like. In contrast, adipogenesis decreased both elastic and viscous moduli while hMSCs remained viscous-like during the differentiation. In conjunction with bio- chemical and physical parameters, such as gene expression profiles, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton arrangement, we demonstrated that VPTM is a unique approach to quantify, with high data throughput, the maturation level of differentiating hMSCs and to anticipate their fate decisions. This approach is well suited for time-lapsed study of the mechanobiology of differentiating stem cells especially in three dimensional physico-chemical biomimetic environments including porous scaffolds. PMID:27526936

  9. Inorganic/polymer hybrid nanoparticles for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Martin, Benjamin; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews a wide set of sensing applications based on the special properties associated with inorganic/polymer composite nanoparticles. We first describe optical sensing applications performed with hybrid nanoparticles and hybrid microgels with special emphasis on photoluminescence detection and imaging. Analyte detection with molecularly imprinted polymers and HPLC-based sensing using hybrid nanoparticles as stationary phase is also summarized. The final part is devoted to the study of ultra-sensitive molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using core-shell hybrid materials composed of noble metal nanoparticles and cross-linked polymers. PMID:26782148

  10. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephanie; He, Wenbo; Groat, Michael; Edwards, Benjamin; Horey, James L

    2013-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.

  11. Application of remote sensing in forestry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in forestry studies is investigated. In particular, inventory, monitoring, detection, and management are discussed. Data show that infrared imagery appears to be the best technique for forestry studies. Data also show that color photographs are more easily interpreted than black and white ones.

  12. Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

  13. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  14. Robotic vision/sensing for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar; Graham, Olin; De Figueiredo, Rui J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of efforts currently in progress at the NASA/Johnson Space Center and Rice University, the accomplishments to date, and some of the anticipated future developments. Both systems and algorithms are discussed. The evolution of future vision/sensing is projected to included the fusion of multisensors ranging from microwave to optical with multimode capability to include position, attitude, recognition, and motion parameters. The algorithms for information extraction are expected to incorporate aspects of intelligence and knowledge for the interpolation and extrapolation of the needed data. The key features of the overall system design will be small size and weight, fast signal processing, robust algorithms, and accurate parameter determination. These aspects of vision/sensing are also discussed.

  15. Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The roles and activities of NASA and the National Conference of State Legislatures in fostering remote sensing technology utilization by the states and in promoting interstate communication and cooperation are reviewed. The reduction and interpretation of LANDSAT MSS and aerial reconnaissance data for resources management and environment assessment are described as well as resource information systems, and the value of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT 4 data.

  16. International workshop on remote-sensing applications to fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, Marie-Hélène; Petit, Michel A.; Ramos, Antonio Gonzalez; Andrefouet, Serge; Dupouy, Cécile; Lotlikar, Aneesh; Hampton, John

    2009-01-01

    A workshop on fisheries was held in Noumea on November 21, 2008 to address remote-sensing applications to fisheries adapted to the particular needs and problems of Western and Central Pacific Island countries. During the workshop, presentations and discussions covered various topics related to remote sensing of coastal and open ocean waters and its applications to fisheries. Participants were introduced to remote sensing of ocean colour and its significance vis-à-vis the marine food web. Applications to fisheries included improvements of fisheries operations to increase efficiency of fishing effort, assessment of fish stocks health, growth and recruitment, and ecosystem dynamics. A project on the Societal Applications in Fisheries & Aquaculture using Remote Sensing Imagery (SAFARI) and a global Network for marine ecosystem management (ChloroGIN) were also presented. The particular issues arising in the use of remote sensing for fisheries in the tropical island regimes were reviewed and recommendations on the use of remote sensing in the context of fisheries were presented.

  17. Physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around seafloor cold seepages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Monoe, D.; Oomi, T.; Nakata, K.; Fukushima, T.

    2007-12-01

    Natural cold seepages are characterized as rapid upward transports of methane from deeper part of geological structures to the seafloors. Prior to reach the seafloors, when methane meets downwards diffusing seawater sulfate, it is oxidized anaerobically by a consortium of microorganisms that use sulfate as an oxidant, producing sulfide. The anaerobic oxidation of methane and anaerobic sulfate reduction are clarified as a coupled biological activity. A significant portion of the bicarbonate produced after the sulfate reduction as authigenic carbonate, mainly aragonite and high-Mg calcite, near the seafloor. Where the methane fluxes are much, these anaerobic reactions occur just beneath the seafloor. There, usually sulfur oxidizing microorganisms are visible on the seafloor just above the coupled consortium of microorganisms. They are called bacterial mats. When the fluxes too much, direct methane bubbling occurs and chemosynthesis-immobilization communities such as tubeworms and clams distribute around the bubbling locations with the bacterial mats. The physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around cold seepages on seafloor and in water column has been studied by the authors and some preliminary results were reported (Yamazaki et al., 2005 and 2006; Takeuchi et al., 2007). The approach is to analyze the existing field observation and numerical modeling studies of cold seepages and to create a new physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model in the environment. The model is separated into three parts. They are methane supply, seafloor ecosystem, and water column units. The seafloor ecosystem unit has been improved to analyze the unsteady formation processes of the ecosystem. The time dependencies of formations of the consortium of microorganisms (AOM), the chemosynthetic community, and bicarbonates examined with the improved model are introduced. After the bubbling from seafloor, the methane bubble jet blows up in the water column due to the buoyancy. Then the

  18. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  19. Application of compressed sensing to the simulation of atomic systems

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Xavier; Sanders, Jacob N.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-01-01

    Compressed sensing is a method that allows a significant reduction in the number of samples required for accurate measurements in many applications in experimental sciences and engineering. In this work, we show that compressed sensing can also be used to speed up numerical simulations. We apply compressed sensing to extract information from the real-time simulation of atomic and molecular systems, including electronic and nuclear dynamics. We find that, compared to the standard discrete Fourier transform approach, for the calculation of vibrational and optical spectra the total propagation time, and hence the computational cost, can be reduced by approximately a factor of five. PMID:22891294

  20. Microfiber-Based Bragg Gratings for Sensing Applications: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Jun-Long; Ding, Ming; Feng, Jing; Lu, Yan-Qing; Xu, Fei; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Microfiber-based Bragg gratings (MFBGs) are an emerging concept in ultra-small optical fiber sensors. They have attracted great attention among researchers in the fiber sensing area because of their large evanescent field and compactness. In this review, the basic techniques for the fabrication of MFBGs are introduced first. Then, the sensing properties and applications of MFBGs are discussed, including measurement of refractive index (RI), temperature, and strain/force. Finally a summary of selected MFBG sensing elements from previous literature are tabulated. PMID:23012522

  1. RF modulated fiber optic sensing systems and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Eustace, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic sensing system with an intensity sensor and a Radio Frequency (RF) modulated source was shown to have sensitivity and resolution much higher than a comparable system employing low modulating frequencies or DC mode of operation. Also the RF modulation with an appropriate configuration of the sensing system provides compensation for the unwanted intensity losses. The basic principles and applications of a fiber optic sensing system employing an RF modulated source are described. In addition the paper discusses various configurations of the system itself, its components, and modulation and detection schemes. Experimental data are also presented.

  2. Live Cell Optical Sensing for High Throughput Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ye

    Live cell optical sensing employs label-free optical biosensors to non-invasively measure stimulus-induced dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) in live cells within the sensing volume of the biosensor. The resultant DMR signal is an integrated cellular response, and reflects cell signaling mediated through the cellular target(s) with which the stimulus intervenes. This article describes the uses of live cell optical sensing for probing cell biology and ligand pharmacology, with an emphasis of resonant waveguide grating biosensor cellular assays for high throughput applications.

  3. Applications of remote sensing to estuarine management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.; Hennigar, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was used in the resolution of estuarine problems facing federal and Virginia governmental agencies. A prototype Elizabeth River Surface Circulation Atlas was produced from photogrammetry to aid in oil spill cleanup and source identification. Aerial photo analysis twice led to selection of alternative plans for dredging and spoil disposal which minimized marsh damage. Marsh loss due to a mud wave from a highway dyke was measured on sequential aerial photographs. An historical aerial photographic sequence gave basis to a potential Commonwealth of Virginia legal claim to accreting and migrating coastal islands.

  4. Satellite remote sensing facility for oceanograhic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. H.; Kent, S. S.; Seidman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The project organization, design process, and construction of a Remote Sensing Facility at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at LaJolla, California are described. The facility is capable of receiving, processing, and displaying oceanographic data received from satellites. Data are primarily imaging data representing the multispectral ocean emissions and reflectances, and are accumulated during 8 to 10 minute satellite passes over the California coast. The most important feature of the facility is the reception and processing of satellite data in real time, allowing investigators to direct ships to areas of interest for on-site verifications and experiments.

  5. Application of remote sensing to hydrological problems and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of remote sensors to hydrology are identified as well as the principal spectral bands and their advantages and disadvantages. Some examples of LANDSAT data applications to flooding-risk evaluation are cited. Because hydrology studies the amount of moisture and water involved in each phase of hydrological cycle, remote sensing must be emphasized as a technique for hydrological data acquisition.

  6. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  7. A hybrid classifier for remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, G S; Schardt, M; Balzuweit, G; Hussain, M

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents a hybrid-unsupervised and supervised-classifier for land use classification of remote sensing images. The entire satellite image is quantized by an unsupervised Neural Gas process and the resulting codebook is labeled by a supervised majority voting process using the ground truth. The performance of the classifier is similar to that of Maximum Likelihood and is only a little worse than Multilayer Perceptions while training and classifying requires no expert knowledge after collecting the ground truth. The hybrid classifier is much better suited to classifications with complex non-normally distributed classes than Maximum Likelihood. The main advantage of the Neural Gas classifier, however, is that it requires much less user interaction than other classifiers, especially Maximum Likelihood. PMID:9228578

  8. Applications of remote sensing to water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Analyses were made of selected long-term (1985 and beyond) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and to develop alternative solutions to any potential problems. One long-term objective selected for analysis was Water Availability Forecasting. A brief overview was scheduled in FY-77 of the objective -- primarily a fact-finding study to allow Data Management personnel to gain adequate background information to perform subsequent data system analyses. This report, includes discussions on some of the larger problems currently encountered in water measurement, the potential users of water availability forecasts, projected demands of users, current sensing accuracies, required parameter monitoring, status of forecasting modeling, and some measurement accuracies likely to be achievable by 1980 and 1990.

  9. Advanced laser diodes for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    VAWTER,GREGORY A.; MAR,ALAN; CHOW,WENG W.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed diode lasers for short pulse duration and high peak pulse power in the 0.01--100.0 m pulsewidth regime. A primary goal of the program was producing up to 10 W while maintaining good far-field beam quality and ease of manufacturability for low cost. High peak power, 17 W, picosecond pulses have been achieved by gain switching of flared geometry waveguide lasers and amplifiers. Such high powers area world record for this type of diode laser. The light emission pattern from diode lasers is of critical importance for sensing systems such as range finding and chemical detection. They have developed a new integrated optical beam transformer producing rib-waveguide diode lasers with a symmetric, low divergence, output beam and increased upper power limits for irreversible facet damage.

  10. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  11. Remote sensing application to regional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.

  12. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  13. Correlated electron perovskite films for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Andrew M.; Brown, Thomas D.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2015-10-01

    Advanced power generation technologies including solid oxide fuel cells require advancements in sensor technologies for efficient operation. Gas sensors for SOFC anode streams must be stable in high temperature and under reducing atmospheres. Optical sensing technologies offer the potential for good stability and sensing response under harsh conditions but are relatively new as compared to alternative sensing approaches and require significant developments in underlying device and enabling materials technology. In this paper, the near infrared optical sensing response of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3, a representative correlated perovskite material, is presented. Hydrogen sensing performance was measured in laboratory scale sensing experiments in the range of 1-4% hydrogen. The effect of oxygen on sensor recovery behavior was also examined. The films show a large, recoverable response to the introduction of hydrogen to the gas stream. The results presented here suggest this unique class of materials is a strong candidate for future sensor development efforts targeted at optical sensor applications but also requires additional fundamental research to understand the mechanistic origin of observed optical sensing responses.

  14. Piezotronic Effect: An Emerging Mechanism for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Kory; Nguyen, Vu; Zhu, Ren; Yang, Rusen

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced polarization charges in a piezoelectric semiconductor effectively modulate the band structure near the interface and charge carrier transport. Fundamental investigation of the piezotronic effect has attracted broad interest, and various sensing applications have been demonstrated. This brief review discusses the fundamentals of the piezotronic effect, followed by a review highlighting important applications for strain sensors, pressure sensors, chemical sensors, photodetectors, humidity sensors and temperature sensors. Finally, the review offers some perspectives and outlook for this new field of multi-functional sensing enabled by the piezotronic effect. PMID:26378536

  15. Agricultural applications of remote sensing: A true life adventure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaller, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study of agricultural applications of remote sensing with a major US agricultural firm was undertaken in mid-1973. The study continued for eighteen months, and covered the areas of crop monitoring and management as well as large scale crop inventories. Pilot programs in the application of aircraft remote sensing and LANDSAT data were conducted. An operational aircraft survey program for ranch management has subsequently been implemented by the agricultural firm. LANDSAT data was successfully used to produce a ninety-seven percent accurate inventory of cotton over 4.8 million acres of California's San Joaquin Valley.

  16. Application of remote sensing in aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Foad

    I utilized state the art remote sensing and GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques to study large scale biological, physical and ecological processes of coastal, nearshore, and offshore waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. These processes ranged from chlorophyll alpha and primary production time series analysies in Lake Michigan to coastal stamp sand threats on Buffalo Reef in Lake Superior. I used SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) satellite imagery to trace various biological, chemical and optical water properties of Lake Michigan during the past decade and to investigate the collapse of early spring primary production. Using spatial analysis techniques, I was able to connect these changes to some important biological processes of the lake (quagga mussels filtration). In a separate study on Lake Superior, using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, we examined natural coastal erosion in Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and discussed a variety of geological features that influence general sediment accumulation patterns and interactions with migrating tailings from legacy mining. These sediments are moving southwesterly towards Buffalo Reef, creating a threat to the lake trout and lake whitefish breeding ground.

  17. Environmental monitoring: civilian applications of remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.; Lapp, M.; Vitko, J. Jr.; Phipps, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to explore how best to utilize Sandia`s defense-related sensing expertise to meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ever-growing needs for environmental monitoring. In particular, we focused on two pressing DOE environmental needs: (1) reducing the uncertainties in global warming predictions, and (2) characterizing atmospheric effluents from a variety of sources. During the course of the study we formulated a concept for using unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) for making key 0798 climate measurements; designed a highly accurate, compact, cloud radiometer to be flown on those UAVs; and established the feasibility of differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) to measure atmospheric effluents from waste sites, manufacturing processes, and potential treaty violations. These concepts have had major impact since first being formulated in this ,study. The DOE has adopted, and DoD`s Strategic Environmental Research Program has funded, much of the UAV work. And the ultraviolet DIAL techniques have already fed into a major DOE non- proliferation program.

  18. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Groat, Michael; Forrest, Stephanie; Horey, James L; Edwards, Benjamin; He, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share local and personal data with others to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy is an important consideration, and lack of privacy could discourage widespread adoption of many exciting applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme for multidimensional data which uses negative surveys. Multidimensional data, such as vectors of attributes that include location and environment fields, pose a particular challenge for privacy protection and are common in participatory sensing applications. When reporting data in a negative survey, an individual participant randomly selects a value from the set complement of the sensed data value, once for each dimension, and returns the negative values to a central collection server. Using algorithms described in this paper, the server can reconstruct the probability density functions of the original distributions of sensed values, without knowing the participants actual data. As a consequence, complicated encryption and key management schemes are avoided, conserving energy. We study trade-offs between accuracy and privacy, and their relationships to the number of dimensions, categories, and participants. We introduce dimensional adjustment, a method that reduces the magnification of error associated with earlier work. Two simulation scenarios illustrate how the approach can protect the privacy of a participant's multidimensional data while allowing useful population information to be aggregated.

  19. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing-Sensors and Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral remote sensors have been traditionally used to map and monitor anthropogenic and environmental changes in the biosphere. While these sensors have proven robust for many applications, they often lack the spectral resolution necessary to differentiate characteristics of the Earth’s surfa...

  20. Remote sensing applications to precision farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional mechanized agriculture treats large fields with uniform agronomic practices. Precision agriculture/precision farming brings a new concept to manage in-field variability with variable rate application of fertilizers and pesticides, site-specific water management, as well as planting, etc....

  1. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Land Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land applications, in particular soil moisture retrieval, have been hampered by the lack of low frequency passive microwave observations and the coarse spatial resolution of existing sensors. The next decade could see several improved operational and exploratory missions using new technologies as w...

  2. Visible transmission response of nanoscale complementary metamaterials for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Sun, Yimin; Yang, Haifang; Chen, Rongyan; Liu, Baoli; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2012-07-01

    Metamaterials (MMs) have shown huge potential in sensing applications by detecting their optical properties, which can be designed to operate at frequencies from visible to mid-IR. Here we constructed complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) based metamaterials in nanoscale with unit length of 100 nm and slit width of 30 nm, and observed obvious responses in the visible waveband from 600 to 900 nm. These visible responses show a good tunability with the structure’s geometry, and are well suited for dielectric detection. We demonstrated good refractive index sensing of CSRR based metamaterials in the visible region under both 0° and 90° polarized incidence. Our results extend the study of CSRR based metamaterials to the visible region, which is expected to deepen the understanding of the response mechanism of CSRRs and benefit their sensing applications in the visible region.

  3. Visible transmission response of nanoscale complementary metamaterials for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Sun, Yimin; Yang, Haifang; Chen, Rongyan; Liu, Baoli; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2012-07-11

    Metamaterials (MMs) have shown huge potential in sensing applications by detecting their optical properties, which can be designed to operate at frequencies from visible to mid-IR. Here we constructed complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) based metamaterials in nanoscale with unit length of 100 nm and slit width of 30 nm, and observed obvious responses in the visible waveband from 600 to 900 nm. These visible responses show a good tunability with the structure's geometry, and are well suited for dielectric detection. We demonstrated good refractive index sensing of CSRR based metamaterials in the visible region under both 0° and 90° polarized incidence. Our results extend the study of CSRR based metamaterials to the visible region, which is expected to deepen the understanding of the response mechanism of CSRRs and benefit their sensing applications in the visible region. PMID:22706679

  4. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in geography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ripple, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains 82 citations of selected publications and technical reports.  The references deal with the application of remote sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of geographic data.  All of the citations were published between January 1968 and July 1977.

  5. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draeger, William C.; McClelland, David T.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains nearly 300 citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of remote-sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of agricultural information. Most of the items included were published between January 1968 and December 1975, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  6. A three stage sampling model for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual model and an empirical application of the relationship between the manner of selecting observations and its effect on the precision of estimates from remote sensing are reported. This three stage sampling scheme considers flightlines, segments within flightlines, and units within these segments. The error of estimate is dependent on the number of observations in each of the stages.

  7. A Coaxial Cable Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Wang, Tao; Hua, Lei; Fan, Jun; Xiao, Hai; Luo, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel coaxial cable Fabry-Perot interferometer for sensing applications. The sensor is fabricated by drilling two holes half-way into a coaxial cable. The device physics was described. The temperature and strain responses of the sensor were tested. The measurement error was calculated and analyzed. PMID:24212121

  8. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  9. Remote sensing applications for range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  10. Practical Remote Sensing Application for Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aerial surveys of plant health in row crops are converted into crucial farm management information plots for each field. These plots are delivered overnight to subscribing farmers. After review, the plots are converted to machinery control discs and installed on farm equipment to manage the appropriate applications of seed, chemicals and water when and where needed. The process is repeated throughout the crop planting, growing and harvesting season. This entire operation has been installed and tested on four Mississippi Delta farms. Its use demonstrated operational cost savings of more than fifty dollars per acre and increased cotton production by ten percent on average.

  11. Single crystal diamond for infrared sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Majdi, S. Kovi, K. K.; Isberg, J.; Kolahdouz, M.; Moeen, M.; Radamson, H. H.; Balmer, R. S.

    2014-10-20

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal infrared (IR) detection has been an intensive research area in recent years. Among new semiconductor materials, synthetic diamond has the ability to function even under very high temperature and high radiation conditions. In the present work, diamond Schottky diodes with boron concentrations in the range of 10{sup 14 }< B < 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} are presented as candidates for IR thermal sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (−8.42%/K) and very low noise levels around 6.6 × 10{sup −15} V{sup 2}/Hz. This enables huge performance enhancements for a wide variety of systems, e.g., automotive and space applications.

  12. Magnetoelectric excitations in hexaferrites utilizing solenoid coil for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-11-01

    We have developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric hexaferrite materials in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel excitation method incorporating solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed and tested for sensor detections. For H-field sensing we obtained sensitivity of about 3000 V/mG and for E-field sensing the sensitivity was 10-4 G/Vm-1. Tunability of about 0.1% was achieved for tunable inductor applications. However, the proposed designs lend themselves to significant (~106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability.

  13. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    The International Symposium on Geotechnical Applications of Remote Sensing and Remote Data Transmission was held January 31, 1986, at Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was organized by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and the International Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission (ICRSDT) of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Cochairs for the symposium were Ivan Johnson of A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Arvada, Colo., and Bernt Pettersson of Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Tex. Johnson is President of ICRSDT and Pettersson is Chairman of ASTM D18 Subcommittee on Surface and Subsurface Reconnaissance.

  14. Applications of biological pores in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Majd, Sheereen; Yusko, Erik C; Billeh, Yazan N; Macrae, Michael X; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Biological protein pores and pore-forming peptides can generate a pathway for the flux of ions and other charged or polar molecules across cellular membranes. In nature, these nanopores have diverse and essential functions that range from maintaining cell homeostasis and participating in cell signaling to activating or killing cells. The combination of the nanoscale dimensions and sophisticated – often regulated – functionality of these biological pores make them particularly attractive for the growing field of nanobiotechnology. Applications range from single-molecule sensing to drug delivery and targeted killing of malignant cells. Potential future applications may include the use of nanopores for single strand DNA sequencing and for generating bio-inspired, and possibly, biocompatible visual detection systems and batteries. This article reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming peptides and proteins in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics. PMID:20561776

  15. Application of remote sensing image interpretation in seismic safety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wei, Wen-xia; Wang, Gang

    2005-10-01

    As one of essential design gist in important engineering projects, the seismic safety evaluation on choosing engineering site has been applied widely. Using remote sensing images, the analysis to regional seismotectonic environment can bring macroscopic, integrative, dynamic and high efficiency information, so the application of remote sensing technology in seismic safety evaluation of engineering site has fine prospect and will bring great benefit. In this paper, based on remote sensing interpretation to Landsat7 ETM images, also using GIS and field geological investigations, as a case study in Qingdao City, we analyze the physiognomy environment, new tectonic movement, faults activities, and the distributing of deleterious geological objects around the site. Then we find this method can provide good basic geological information for seismic safety evaluation.

  16. The importance of geobotany in geological remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Collins, W.; Elvidge, C.; Lyon, R. J. P.; Labovitz, M. L.; Milton, N. M.; Parrish, J.; Rock, B. N.; Wickland, D. E.; Arp, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    A description of the different effects of variations in ground cover vegetation on remote sensing data in geological and prospecting applications is presented. The different variations are divided into three categories: structural; taxonomic and spectral. Structural variations include changes in the physical appearance of ground cover which may be detectable by a remote sensing instrument. Taxonomic variations occur in those plant communities which are associated with specific geological regions. Spectral variations are due to specific geochemical stresses which may be useful in characterizing geological features at a site. The need for a general scheme for the interpretation of geobotanical remote sensing data is discussed: Geosat data for the field reflectance spectra of different tree species in West Virginia are presented as examples.

  17. Remote sensing of marine oil spills and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Ma, Long; Yu, Shui-ming; Li, Chuan-long; Li, Qi-jun

    2008-11-01

    Remote sensing is an effective tool to monitor oil spills. The theory of oil spill remote sensing is based on the differences between oil slick and other environmental objects. For optical sensor, the ability of different bands to find oil film at sea is different. Oil spill object could be intensified by composing appropriate bands. In addition, image enhancements could also strengthen oil spill features. For SAR, image characteristics of oil spill are crucial to oil detection. Applications show that sensors loaded on satellite can find oil slick at sea. Optical sensor and SAR have their own advantages, and play different roles in oil spill remote sensing. It is necessary to integrate them to establish an all-weather, omnidirectional 3-D monitoring network for monitoring oil spills and illicit vessel discharges.

  18. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  19. C-MEMS for bio-sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yin; Agrawal, Richa; Wang, Chunlei

    2015-05-01

    Developing highly sensitive, selective, and reproducible miniaturized bio-sensing platforms require reliable biointerface which should be compatible with microfabrication techniques. In this study, we have fabricated pyrolyzed carbon arrays with high surface area as a bio-sensing electrode, and developed the surface functionalization methods to increase biomolecules immobilization efficiency and further understand electrochemical phenomena at biointerfaces. The carbon microelectrode arrays with high aspect ratio have been fabricated by carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) and nanomaterials such as graphene have been integrated to further increase surface area. To achieve the efficient covalent immobilization of biomolecules, various oxidation and reduction functionalization methods have been investigated. The oxidation treatment in this study includes vacuum ultraviolet, electrochemical activation, UV/Ozone and oxygen RIE. The reduction treatment includes direct amination and diazonium grafting. The developed bio-sensing platform was then applied for several applications, such as: DNA sensor; H2O2 sensor; aptamer sensor and HIV sensor.

  20. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  1. Novel developments in mobile sensing based on the integration of microfluidic devices and smartphones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2016-03-21

    Portable electronic devices and wireless communication systems enable a broad range of applications such as environmental and food safety monitoring, personalized medicine and healthcare management. Particularly, hybrid smartphone and microfluidic devices provide an integrated solution for the new generation of mobile sensing applications. Such mobile sensing based on microfluidic devices (broadly defined) and smartphones (MS(2)) offers a mobile laboratory for performing a wide range of bio-chemical detection and analysis functions such as water and food quality analysis, routine health tests and disease diagnosis. MS(2) offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed and control, low cost, mobility, ease-of-operation and data management. These improvements put MS(2) in a promising position in the fields of interdisciplinary basic and applied research. In particular, MS(2) enables applications to remote in-field testing, homecare, and healthcare in low-resource areas. The marriage of smartphones and microfluidic devices offers a powerful on-chip operating platform to enable various bio-chemical tests, remote sensing, data analysis and management in a mobile fashion. The implications of such integration are beyond telecommunication and microfluidic-related research and technology development. In this review, we will first provide the general background of microfluidic-based sensing, smartphone-based sensing, and their integration. Then, we will focus on several key application areas of MS(2) by systematically reviewing the important literature in each area. We will conclude by discussing our perspectives on the opportunities, issues and future directions of this emerging novel field. PMID:26899264

  2. Remote sensing applications to support sustainable natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Charles Kenneth

    The original design of this dissertation project was relatively simple and straightforward. It was intended to produce one single, dynamic, classification and mapping system for existing vegetation that could rely on commonly available inventory and remote sensing data. This classification and mapping system was intended to provide the analytical basis for resource planning and management. The problems encountered during the first phase of the original design transformed this project into an extensive analysis of the nature of these problems and a decade-long remote sensing applications development endeavor. What evolved from this applications development process is a portion of what has become a "system of systems" to inform and support natural resource management. This dissertation presents the progression of work that sequentially developed a suite of remote sensing applications designed to address different aspects of the problems encountered with the original project. These remote sensing applications feature different resource issues, and resource components and are presented in separate chapters. Chapter one provides an introduction and description of the project evolution and chapter six provides a summary of the work and concluding discussion. Chapters two through five describe remote sensing applications that represent related, yet independent studies that are presented essentially as previously published. Chapter two evaluates different approaches to classifying and mapping fire severity using multi-temporal Landsat TM data. The recommended method currently represents the analytical basis for fire severity data produced by the USDA Forest Service and the US Geological Survey. Chapter three also uses multi-temporal Landsat data and compares quantitative, remote-sensing-based change detection methods for forest management related canopy change. The recommended method has been widely applied for a variety of forest health and disaster response applications

  3. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  4. Remote sensing applications for transportation and traffic engineering studies: A review of the literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epps, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current references were surveyed for the application of remote sensing to traffic and transportation studies. The major problems are presented that concern traffic engineers and transportation managers, and the literature references that discuss remote sensing applications are summarized.

  5. Boron doped polycrystalline diamond films for strain sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wur, D.; Davidson, J.L.; Kang, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    It has been recently established in our work and others that boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films (PDF) have piezoresistivity (PZR). This property opens PDF to the field of sensor applications using strain sensing. Polycrystalline diamond films have been prepared with microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and boron-doped to p-type semiconductors. In addition, by combining the piezoresistive effect in doped PDF and the insulating property of undoped PDF, whereby doped diamond resistors reside on a dielectric diamond substrate diaphragm, a monolithic all-diamond microstructure for examining the strain response of patterned p-doped diamond PZRs was fabricated and characterized. This work examines some critical issues of diamond for strain sensing applications such as its rupture stress and edge stress of diamond diaphragm and the high temperature responses of a diamond strain sensor.

  6. Optimization of NV-Diamond for Ensemble Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Linh; Alsid, Scott; Cappellaro, Paola; Braje, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising spin system for a number of quantum sensing applications; in recent years, NV centers have been employed to measure temperature, electric field, and magnetic field. In bulk diamond sensors, which take advantage of probing an ensemble of NV centers for improved measurement sensitivity, the sensitivity may be further enhanced by increasing the concentration of NV centers through electron irradiation and annealing. We study the effects of a range of electron irradiation dosages and annealing recipes on the conversion of native substitutional nitrogen defects to negatively-charged NV centers and on NV spin coherence properties such as T2* and T2, in order to optimize NV properties in bulk diamond for a range of quantum sensing applications.

  7. On a magnetic-luminescent nanocomposite for oxygen sensing application: Construction, characterization and sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tieyu; Dai, Henry; Peng, Xing

    2015-11-01

    This paper was devoted to the construction of a magnetic-luminescence nanocomposite for oxygen sensing application, where superparamagnetic Fe3O4 and silica molecular sieve MCM-41 were chosen as the inner core and the outer shell, respectively. A Ru(II) complex was grafted into MCM-41 shell through a coupling ligand N1-(5H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dipyridin-5-ylidene)benzene-1,4-diamine (denoted as Dafo-Ph-NH2). The final composite was analyzed by electron microscope images, XRD, IR spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption. Oxygen sensing performance of this composite was evaluated. Sensitivity of 5.8 (the ratio of emission intensity in pure N2 to that in pure O2) and response time of 16s were obtained with good photostability. PMID:26099825

  8. Some applications of remote sensing in atmospheric monitoring programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A. N.; Bryson, J. C.; Vasuki, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The applications of remote sensing in atmospheric monitoring programs are described. The organization, operations, and functions of an air quality monitoring network at New Castle County, Delaware is discussed. The data obtained by the air quality monitoring network ground stations and the equipment used to obtain atmospheric data are explained. It is concluded that correlation of the information obtained by the network will make it possible to anticipate air pollution problems in the Chesapeake Bay area before a crisis develops.

  9. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F. (Principal Investigator); Tingle, J.; Wright, L. H.; Tebbs, B.

    1984-01-01

    Progress was made in the hydroclimatology, habitat modeling and inventory, computer analysis, wildlife management, and data comparison programs that utilize LANDSAT and SEASAT data provided to Mississippi researchers through the remote sensing applications program. Specific topics include water runoff in central Mississippi, habitat models for the endangered gopher tortoise, coyote, and turkey Geographic Information Systems (GIS) development, forest inventory along the Mississipppi River, and the merging of LANDSAT and SEASAT data for enhanced forest type discrimination.

  10. The Application of Remote Sensing Techniques to Urban Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques useful in acquiring data concerning housing quality is discussed. Conclusions reached from the investigation were: (1) Use of individuals with a higher degree of training in photointerpretation should significantly increase the percentage of successful classifications. (2) Small area classification of urban housing quality can definitely be accomplished via high resolution aerial photography. Such surveys, at the levels of accuracy demonstrated, can be of major utility in quick look surveys. (3) Survey costs should be significantly reduced.

  11. Interpretation of remotely sensed data and its applications in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Tanaka, K.; Inostroza, H. M.; Verdesio, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology of interpretation of remote sensing data and its oceanographic applications are described. The elements of image interpretation for different types of sensors are discussed. The sensors utilized are the multispectral scanner of LANDSAT, and the thermal infrared of NOAA and geostationary satellites. Visual and automatic data interpretation in studies of pollution, the Brazil current system, and upwelling along the southeastern Brazilian coast are compared.

  12. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The procedures used as well as the results obtained and conclusions derived are described for the following applications of remote sensing in South Dakota: (1) sage grouse management; (2) censusing Canada geese; (3) monitoring grasshopper infestation in rangeland; (4) detecting Dutch elm disease in an urban environment; (5) determining water usage from the Belle Fourche River; (6) resource management of the Lower James River; and (7) the National Model Implantation Program: Lake Herman watershed.

  13. Studies of metal/gallium nitride gas sensors: Sensing response, morphology and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Barrett Kai-Bong

    Reliable gas sensors with excellent sensitivity and robustness are important for the development of advanced technological applications while ensuring a safe environment in both industrial and household security. The chemically and mechanically robust gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising semiconductor for these important applications, especially for use at high temperatures and in extreme environments. When a metal is in contact with a semiconductor surface, a space charge region and Schottky barrier are formed on the semiconductor side. In this thesis, the sensing response of Pt and GaN to gaseous H2 and CO and the dependence of the response on Pt and GaN surface morphologies are explored. The sensing opportunities are expanded when GaN is decorated with Ag and the structure is used for small molecule analysis using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Combining the high surface area of nanoporous GaN with Pt nanoparticles deposited by electroless chemical deposition, the sensing performance of the well-known H-mediated Schottky barrier based on the Pt/GaN sensor is studied. The H2 sensing performance of, as defined by the limit of detection (LOD), Pt-decorated porous GaN measured by AC four-point probe resistance measurements is more than an order of magnitude better than planar GaN sensors based on the same Pt/GaN Schottky barrier height concept. The potential utility of high surface area porous GaN was realized by decorating the confined nanopores with metal (Pt), thus increasing the surface area available for sensing and lowering the LOD. Pt/GaN structures can also be used to detect CO at high temperature. The CO sensing response is also dependent on the Pt morphology. For continuous films, CO signal increases as the thickness of the metal film decreases. In discontinuous Pt films, increasing Pt surface area also increases the CO signal when the Pt/GaN interfacial area remains constant. A model is proposed, in which the influence of the adsorbed CO on Pt

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE: Magnetostrictive delay lines: engineering theory and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.

    2003-02-01

    A review of the engineering theory and the sensing element applications of the magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) technique is presented. The state of the art of magnetic materials and effects used in sensor design is overviewed and the operation of MDLs and their basic engineering properties are discussed. The resulting position, stress and field sensors based on this technique as well as their most significant applications are demonstrated. Finally, the industrialization process and the integration of the sensors with electronic circuitry as well as their evaluation with respect to the state of the art are discussed.

  15. Contributed Review: Quartz force sensing probes for micro-applications.

    PubMed

    Abrahamians, Jean-Ochin; Pham Van, Laurent; Régnier, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    As self-sensing and self-exciting probes, quartz sensors present many advantages over silicon cantilevers for microscopy, micro-robotics, and other micro-applications. Their development and use is further bolstered by the fact that they can be manufactured from common quartz components. This paper therefore reviews applications of the increasingly popular quartz tuning fork probes as force sensors in the literature and examines the options for higher-frequency quartz probes using the other available types of flexional, thickness-shear or length-extensional resonators. PMID:27475541

  16. Contributed Review: Quartz force sensing probes for micro-applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamians, Jean-Ochin; Pham Van, Laurent; Régnier, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    As self-sensing and self-exciting probes, quartz sensors present many advantages over silicon cantilevers for microscopy, micro-robotics, and other micro-applications. Their development and use is further bolstered by the fact that they can be manufactured from common quartz components. This paper therefore reviews applications of the increasingly popular quartz tuning fork probes as force sensors in the literature and examines the options for higher-frequency quartz probes using the other available types of flexional, thickness-shear or length-extensional resonators.

  17. Luminescent AIE materials for high-performance sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chris Wai Tung; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Luminescent materials have been widely applied in chemo- and bio-sensing applications because these luminescent materials offer high signal-to-background ratio, superior sensitivity and broad dynamic ranges in various detections. Conventional luminogens suffer from aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect due to strong π-π stacking interaction upon aggregate formation of the luminogens with analytes. Such ACQ effect limits the scope of practical sensing applications. Luminogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics enjoy high emission efficiency in solid or aggregated state while they are non-emissive in solution. AIE luminogens (AIEgens) tackle the lethal problem of ACQ materials in the sensing applications. Siloles and tetraphenylethene (TPE) are archetypal AIE cores and possess advantages of facile synthesis and readily functionalization. AIEgens have been utilized to develop various fluorescent chemosensors. For example, hyperbranched AIE polymers with different topologies can be worked as turn-off explosive sensor with high sensitivity. The explosive detections can be done in solid film, which facilitates practical usage. The AIEgens can also be used as sensors for volatile organic compounds and metal ions through alternating fluorescence on/off mechanisms. Besides chemosensor, the AIEgens have been applied in the fields of biology. Water-soluble AIEgens have been developed for quantifying nucleic acids and proteins. They can serve as bioprobes for real-time monitoring and studying the kinetic of protein conformational changes, making them promising for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. These demonstrations significantly expand the scope of analysis applications of AIEgens and offer new strategies to the design of new fluorescent chemo- and bio-sensors.

  18. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  19. Application of L3 technology to wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulloch, Simon M.

    2004-10-01

    The new L3 Technology CCDs from E2V combine sub-electron read noise with high pixel rates. This makes them ideal candidates for wavefront sensing. ING's NAOMI adaptive optics instrument is currently limited by the readout noise of its wavefront sensor CCDs. Upgrading to L3 detectors has the potential to give a large increase in performance; simulations suggest a 2 magnitude improvement to the guide star limit. At ING we have explored the behaviour of various L3 devices in applications ranging from fast photometry, fast spectroscopy through to wavefront sensing. The investigations have been done using our own cryogenic cameras containing L3 devices coupled to an SDSU controller. An integral Peltier packaged CCD60 has also been purchased specifically for the WFS upgrade. This paper describes the progress we have made to date on the L3 wavefront sensor upgrade and our future plans for its use with a Rayleigh laser beacon.

  20. Functionalized DNA materials for sensing and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight L.; Jensen, James O.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Army has strong interests in nanoscale architectures that enable enhanced extraction and controllable multiplication of the THz/IR regime spectral signatures associated with specific bio-molecular targets. Emerging DNAbased nano-assemblies (i.e., either materials or structural devices) will be discussed that realize novel sensing paradigms through the incorporation of organic and/or biological molecules such that they effect highly predictable and controllable changes into the electro-optical properties of the resulting superstructures. Results will be given to illustrate the utility of functionalized DNA materials in biological (and chemical) sensing, and to demonstrate how the basic science can be leveraged to study and develop synthetic antibodies, reporters and vaccines for future medical applications.

  1. Fano resonances in integrated silicon Bragg reflectors for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Solgaard, Olav

    2013-11-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally Fano resonances in integrated silicon Bragg reflectors. These asymmetric resonances are obtained by interference between light reflected from the Bragg waveguide and from the end facet. The Bragg reflectors were designed and modeled using the 1D transfer matrix method, and they were fabricated in standard silicon wafers using a CMOS-compatible process. The results show that the shape and asymmetry of the Fano resonances depend on the relative phase of the reflected light from the Bragg reflectors and end facet. This phase relationship can be controlled to optimize the lineshapes for sensing applications. Temperature sensing in these integrated Bragg reflectors are experimentally demonstrated with a temperature sensitivity of 77 pm/°C based on the thermo-optic effect of silicon. PMID:24216944

  2. Advanced aerospace remote sensing systems for global resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The Landsat program, which was concerned with testing the use of satellite data for global resource observations, has been an unqualified success, and users of Landsat data demand now that repetitive global multispectral data be provided on a routine basis for a wide variety of applications. A review is provided of the current status of NASA's land observation program, new developments in advanced aerospace remote sensing techniques, and issues related to the development and testing of new prototype systems by the U.S. The current Landsat program is considered along with developments in solid-state imaging technology, short wave infrared research using the Space Shuttle, the Shuttle Orbiter camera payload system large format camera, and advanced research in thermal remote sensing. Attention is also given to the potential of imaging radar for global resource observations, and research related to geopotential field mapping.

  3. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 μW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  4. A CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  5. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  6. Tailored draw tower fiber Bragg gratings for various sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Eric; Mörbitz, Julia; Chojetzki, Christoph; Becker, Martin; Brückner, Sven; Schuster, Kay; Rothhardt, Manfred; Willsch, Reinhardt; Bartelt, H.

    2012-02-01

    The idea of fabricating fiber Bragg gratings during the drawing process of an optical fiber dates back almost 20 years. The application of a transverse holographic writing method on a fiber draw tower offers a promising solution for a highly effective Bragg grating production. Because of the high technology requirements it took more than 10 years to develop the method into a reliable process. The improvements in the technical development during the last five years enable today a cost efficient industrial production of draw tower grating (DTG®) arrays. In this paper we report about new possibilities of the improved process with respect to the grating type (type I gratings, type II gratings), the coating type (2ORMOCER®, metals) and the fiber diameter (125μm, 80μm and below). Furthermore, we present an example for the application of draw tower fiber Bragg gratings in sensing technologies for medical applications.

  7. The Application of NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    With the help of satellites, the Earth's environment can be monitored from a distance. Earth observing satellites and sensors collect data and survey patterns that supply important information about the environment relating to its affect on human health. Combined with ground data, such patterns and remote sensing data can be essential to public health applications. Remote sensing technology is providing information that can help predict factors that affect human health, such as disease, drought, famine, and floods. A number of public health concerns that affect Earth's human population are part of the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Applications Plan to provide remotely gathered data to public health decision-makers to aid in forming and implementing policy to protect human health and preserve well-being. These areas of concern are: air quality; water quality; weather and climate change; infectious, zoonotic, and vector-borne disease; sunshine; food resource security; and health risks associated with the built environment. Collaborations within the Earth Science Applications Plan join local, state, national, or global organizations and agencies as partners. These partnerships engage in projects that strive to understand the connection between the environment and health. The important outcome is to put this understanding to use through enhancement of decision support tools that aid policy and management decisions on environmental health risks. Future plans will further employ developed models in formats that are compatible and accessible to all public health organizations.

  8. Evaluation and Application of Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, J.; Crow, W.; Zhan, X.; Jackson, T.; Reynolds, C.; Rodell, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in-situ measurements of soil moisture are very accurate, achieving accurate regional soil moisture estimates derived solely from point measurements is difficult because of the dependence upon the density of the gauge network and the proper upkeep of these instruments, which can be costly. Microwave remote sensing is the only technology capable of providing timely direct measurements of regional soil moisture in areas that are lacking in-situ networks. Soil moisture remote sensing technology is well established has been successfully applied in many fashions to Earth Science applications. Since the microwave emission from the soil surface has such a high dependency upon the moisture content within the soil, we can take advantage of this relationship and combined with physically-based models of the land surface, derive accurate regional estimates of the soil column water content from the microwave brightness temperature observed from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. However, there still remain many questions regarding the most efficient methodology for evaluating and applying satellite-based soil moisture estimates. As discussed below, we to use satellite-based estimates of soil moisture dynamics to improve the predictive capability of an optimized hydrologic model giving more accurate root-zone soil moisture estimates.

  9. Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lingxuan; Zhang, Tongyi

    2015-08-10

    We propose an ultranarrow bandwidth perfect infrared absorber consisting of a metal periodic structured surface with nanoslits, a spacer dielectric, and a metal back plate. Its bandwidth and aborption are respectively about 8 nm and 95%. The thickness of the nanobars and the spacer, and the width of the nanoslits are primary factors determining the absorption performance. This structure not only has narrow bandwidth but also can obtain the giant electric field enhancement in the tiny volume of the nanoslits. Operated as a refractive index sensor, this structure has figure of merit as high as 25. It has potential in biomedical and sensing applications. PMID:26367923

  10. Tunable resistive pulse sensing: potential applications in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An accurate characterization of nanomaterials used in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics is of paramount importance to realize the full potential of nanotechnology in medicine and to avoid unexpected and potentially harmful toxic effects due to these materials. A number of technical modalities are currently in use to study the physical, chemical and biological properties of nanomaterials but they all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we discuss the potential of a relative newcomer, tunable resistive pulse sensing, for the characterization of nanomaterials and its applications in nanodiagnostics. PMID:27480794

  11. Calculations of atmospheric refraction for spacecraft remote-sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the refraction integrals appropriate for ray trajectories along slant paths through the atmosphere are derived in this paper. This type of geometry is commonly encountered in remote-sensing applications utilizing an occultation technique. The solutions are obtained by evaluating higher-order terms from expansion of the refraction integral and are dependent on the vertical temperature distributions. Refraction parameters such as total refraction angles, air masses, and path lengths can be accurately computed. It is also shown that the method can be used for computing refraction parameters in astronomical refraction geometry for large zenith angles.

  12. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems. [mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Powers, J. S.; Clark, J. R.; Solomon, J. L.; Williams, S. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The methods and procedures used, accomplishments, current status, and future plans are discussed for each of the following applications of LANDSAT in Mississippi: (1) land use planning in Lowndes County; (2) strip mine inventory and reclamation; (3) white-tailed deer habitat evaluation; (4) remote sensing data analysis support systems; (5) discrimination of unique forest habitats in potential lignite areas; (6) changes in gravel operations; and (7) determining freshwater wetlands for inventory and monitoring. The documentation of all existing software and the integration of the image analysis and data base software into a single package are now considered very high priority items.

  13. Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

  14. Novel diode laser-based sensors for gas sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittel, F. K.; Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The development of compact spectroscopic gas sensors and their applications to environmental sensing will be described. These sensors employ mid-infrared difference-frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystals pumped by two single-frequency solid state lasers such as diode lasers, diode-pumped solid state, and fiber lasers. Ultrasensitive, highly selective, and real-time measurements of several important atmospheric trace gases, including carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde [correction of formaldehye], and methane, have been demonstrated.

  15. Ultrafast laser inscribed fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on femtosecond infrared laser-material processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This tutorial paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments.

  16. Methodology of remote sensing data interpretation and geological applications. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Veneziani, P.; Dosanjos, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Elements of photointerpretation discussed include the analysis of photographic texture and structure as well as film tonality. The method used is based on conventional techniques developed for interpreting aerial black and white photographs. By defining the properties which characterize the form and individuality of dual images, homologous zones can be identified. Guy's logic method (1966) was adapted and used on functions of resolution, scale, and spectral characteristics of remotely sensed products. Applications of LANDSAT imagery are discussed for regional geological mapping, mineral exploration, hydrogeology, and geotechnical engineering in Brazil.

  17. Research investigations in and demonstrations of remote sensing applications to urban environmental problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, J. U.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing to transportation and traffic analysis, urban quality, and land use problems is discussed. Other topics discussed include preliminary user analysis, potential uses, traffic study by remote sensing, and urban condition analysis using ERTS.

  18. New Optical Sensing Materials for Application in Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S.; Klimant, I.

    2012-04-01

    Optical chemosensors are versatile analytical tools which find application in numerous fields of science and technology. They proved to be a promising alternative to electrochemical methods and are applied increasingly often in marine research. However, not all state-of-the- art optical chemosensors are suitable for these demanding applications since they do not fully fulfil the requirements of high luminescence brightness, high chemical- and photochemical stability or their spectral properties are not adequate. Therefore, development of new advanced sensing materials is still of utmost importance. Here we present a set of novel optical sensing materials recently developed in the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry which are optimized for marine applications. Particularly, we present new NIR indicators and sensors for oxygen and pH which feature high brightness and low level of autofluorescence. The oxygen sensors rely on highly photostable metal complexes of benzoporphyrins and azabenzoporphyrins and enable several important applications such as simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and chlorophyll or ultra-fast oxygen monitoring (Eddy correlation). We also developed ulta-sensitive oxygen optodes which enable monitoring in nM range and are primary designed for investigation of oxygen minimum zones. The dynamic range of our new NIR pH indicators based on aza-BODIPY dyes is optimized for the marine environment. A highly sensitive NIR luminescent phosphor (chromium(III) doped yttrium aluminium borate) can be used for non-invasive temperature measurements. Notably, the oxygen, pH sensors and temperature sensors are fully compatible with the commercially available fiber-optic readers (Firesting from PyroScience). An optical CO2 sensor for marine applications employs novel diketopyrrolopyrrol indicators and enables ratiometric imaging using a CCD camera. Oxygen, pH and temperature sensors suitable for lifetime and ratiometric imaging of analytes

  19. Application of synthetic aperture radar remote sensing in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunxia; Deng, Fanghui; Wan, Lei; Wang, Zemin; E, Dongchen; Zhou, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) delivers high-resolution radar images day or night, and in all weather conditions. It also offers the capability for penetrating materials. These unique capabilities boost the application of SAR remote sensing techniques in Antarctica. Based on the key area of Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) - PANDA (Prydz Bay, Amery Ice Shelf and Dome A) section, this paper summarized the typical applications of SAR data, and discussed the crevasse detection with semi-variance analysis in the SAR images of the Grove Mountains area, DEM generation with InSAR pairs and ICESat GLAS data of the Grove Mountains area and nearby areas, and ice flow velocity derivation from D-InSAR and offset tracking of the Grove Mountains area and downstream areas in East Antarctica. The studies provide important information for Antarctic fieldwork and scientific researches. It is further confirmed that Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing has tremendous potential in the field of glacial geomorphology, topographic mapping and glacier dynamics, etc.

  20. Spaceflight laser development for future remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.; Harding, David J.; Riris, Haris; Li, Steven X.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Graham R.; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T.; Camp, Jordan B.

    2011-11-01

    At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center we are developing next generation laser transmitters for future spaceflight, remote instruments including a micropulse altimeter for ice-sheet and sea ice monitoring, laser spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric CO2 and an imaging lidar for high resolution mapping of the Earth's surface. These laser transmitters also have applicability to potential missions to other solar-system bodies for trace gas measurements and surface mapping. In this paper we review NASA spaceflight laser transmitters used to acquire measurements in orbit around Mars, Mercury, Earth and the Moon. We then present an overview of our current spaceflight laser programs and describe their intended uses for remote sensing science and exploration applications.

  1. Visualization of remotely sensed heliospheric plasmas for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Bailey, Mike

    2004-02-01

    We demonstrate a software application designed for the display and interactive manipulation of 3D heliospheric volume data, such as solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. The Volume Explorer software exploits the capabilities of the Volume Pro 1000 (from TeraRecon, Inc.), a low-cost 64-bit PCI board capable of rendering a 512-cubed array of volume data in real time at up to 30 frames per second on a standard PC. The application allows stereo and perspective views, and animations of time-sequences. We show examples of three-dimensional heliospheric volume data derived from tomographic reconstructions based on heliospheric remote sensing observations of the heliospheric density and velocity structure. Currently these reconstructions are based on archival IPS and Thomson scattering data. In the near future we expect to add reconstructions based on the all-sky observations from the recently launched Solar Mass Ejection Imager.

  2. Application of telecom planar lightwave circuits for homeland security sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldhuis, Gert J.; Elders, Job; van Weerden, Harm; Amersfoort, Martin

    2004-03-01

    Over the past decade, a massive effort has been made in the development of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) for application in optical telecommunications. Major advances have been made, on both the technological and functional performance front. Highly sophisticated software tools that are used to tailor designs to required functional performance support these developments. In addition extensive know-how in the field of packaging, testing, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been built up in the struggle for meeting the stringent Telcordia requirements that apply to telecom products. As an example, silica-on-silicon is now a mature technology available at several industrial foundries around the world, where, on the performance front, the arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) has evolved into an off-the-shelf product. The field of optical chemical-biological (CB) sensors for homeland security application can greatly benefit from the advances as described above. In this paper we discuss the currently available technologies, device concepts, and modeling tools that have emerged from the telecommunications arena and that can effectively be applied to the field of homeland security. Using this profound telecom knowledge base, standard telecom components can readily be tailored for detecting CB agents. Designs for telecom components aim at complete isolation from the environment to exclude impact of environmental parameters on optical performance. For sensing applications, the optical path must be exposed to the measurand, in this area additional development is required beyond what has already been achieved in telecom development. We have tackled this problem, and are now in a position to apply standard telecom components for CB sensing. As an example, the application of an AWG as a refractometer is demonstrated, and its performance evaluated.

  3. Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyacinthe, Berg P.

    2006-05-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

  4. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  5. Potential rainwater harvesting improvement using advanced remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A

    2014-01-01

    The amount of water on earth is the same and only the distribution and the reallocation of water forms are altered in both time and space. To improve the rainwater harvesting a better understanding of the hydrological cycle is mandatory. Clouds are major component of the hydrological cycle; therefore, clouds distribution is the keystone of better rainwater harvesting. Remote sensing technology has shown robust capabilities in resolving challenges of water resource management in arid environments. Soil moisture content and cloud average distribution are essential remote sensing applications in extracting information of geophysical, geomorphological, and meteorological interest from satellite images. Current research study aimed to map the soil moisture content using recent Landsat 8 images and to map cloud average distribution of the corresponding area using 59 MERIS satellite imageries collected from January 2006 to October 2011. Cloud average distribution map shows specific location in the study area where it is always cloudy all the year and the site corresponding soil moisture content map came in agreement with cloud distribution. The overlay of the two previously mentioned maps over the geological map of the study area shows potential locations for better rainwater harvesting. PMID:25114973

  6. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Carré, Christiane; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique; Vignaud, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core layer and PMATRIFE polymer as lower cladding layer. The refractive index of the polymers and of the waveguide structure as a function of the wavelength is presented. Using these results, a theoretical study of the coupling between ring and straight waveguides has been undertaken in order to define the MR design. Sub-micronic gaps of 0.5 μm to 1 μm between the ring and the straight waveguides have been successfully achieved with UV (i-lines) photolithography. Different superstrates such as air, water, and aqueous solutions with glucose at different concentrations have been studied. First results show a good normalized transmission contrast of 0.98, a resonator quality factor around 1.5 × 104 corresponding to a coupling ratio of 14.7%, and ring propagation losses around 5 dB/cm. Preliminary sensing experiments have been performed for different concentrations of glucose; a sensitivity of 115 ± 8 nm/RIU at 1550 nm has been obtained with this couple of polymers.

  7. Potential Rainwater Harvesting Improvement Using Advanced Remote Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of water on earth is the same and only the distribution and the reallocation of water forms are altered in both time and space. To improve the rainwater harvesting a better understanding of the hydrological cycle is mandatory. Clouds are major component of the hydrological cycle; therefore, clouds distribution is the keystone of better rainwater harvesting. Remote sensing technology has shown robust capabilities in resolving challenges of water resource management in arid environments. Soil moisture content and cloud average distribution are essential remote sensing applications in extracting information of geophysical, geomorphological, and meteorological interest from satellite images. Current research study aimed to map the soil moisture content using recent Landsat 8 images and to map cloud average distribution of the corresponding area using 59 MERIS satellite imageries collected from January 2006 to October 2011. Cloud average distribution map shows specific location in the study area where it is always cloudy all the year and the site corresponding soil moisture content map came in agreement with cloud distribution. The overlay of the two previously mentioned maps over the geological map of the study area shows potential locations for better rainwater harvesting. PMID:25114973

  8. Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Krehel, Marek; Rossi, René M.; Bona, Gian-Luca; Scherer, Lukas J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, different polymer optical fibres for applications in force sensing systems in textile fabrics are reported. The proposed method is based on the deflection of the light in fibre waveguides. Applying a force on the fibre changes the geometry and affects the wave guiding properties and hence induces light loss in the optical fibre. Fibres out of three different elastic and transparent copolymer materials were successfully produced and tested. Moreover, the influence of the diameter on the sensing properties was studied. The detectable force ranges from 0.05 N to 40 N (applied on 3 cm of fibre length), which can be regulated with the material and the diameter of the fibre. The detected signal loss varied from 0.6% to 78.3%. The fibres have attenuation parameters between 0.16–0.25 dB/cm at 652 nm. We show that the cross-sensitivies to temperature, strain and bends are low. Moreover, the high yield strength (0.0039–0.0054 GPa) and flexibility make these fibres very attractive candidates for integration into textiles to form wearable sensors, medical textiles or even computing systems. PMID:24021967

  9. Compressive rendering: a rendering application of compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Sen, Pradeep; Darabi, Soheil

    2011-04-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in compressed sensing (CS), the new theory that shows how a small set of linear measurements can be used to reconstruct a signal if it is sparse in a transform domain. Although CS has been applied to many problems in other fields, in computer graphics, it has only been used so far to accelerate the acquisition of light transport. In this paper, we propose a novel application of compressed sensing by using it to accelerate ray-traced rendering in a manner that exploits the sparsity of the final image in the wavelet basis. To do this, we raytrace only a subset of the pixel samples in the spatial domain and use a simple, greedy CS-based algorithm to estimate the wavelet transform of the image during rendering. Since the energy of the image is concentrated more compactly in the wavelet domain, less samples are required for a result of given quality than with conventional spatial-domain rendering. By taking the inverse wavelet transform of the result, we compute an accurate reconstruction of the desired final image. Our results show that our framework can achieve high-quality images with approximately 75 percent of the pixel samples using a nonadaptive sampling scheme. In addition, we also perform better than other algorithms that might be used to fill in the missing pixel data, such as interpolation or inpainting. Furthermore, since the algorithm works in image space, it is completely independent of scene complexity. PMID:21311092

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Applications of WO3 Nanobricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jingkun; Song, Chengwen; Dong, Wei; Li, Chen; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Song, Mingyan

    2015-08-01

    WO3 nanobricks are fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Morphology and structure of the WO3 nanobricks are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Gas sensing properties of the as-prepared WO3 sensor are systematically investigated by a static gas sensing system. The results show that the WO3 nanobricks with defect corners demonstrate good crystallinity, and the mean edge length and wall thickness are 1-1.5 and 400 nm, respectively. The WO3 sensor achieves its maximum sensitivity to 100 ppm ethanol at the optimal operating temperature of 300 °C. Ultra-fast response time (2-3 s) and fast recovery time (4-11 s) of the WO3 sensor toward 100 ppm ethanol are also observed at this optimal operating temperature. Moreover, the WO3 sensor exhibits high selectivity to other gases such as methanol, benzene, hexane, and dichloromethane, indicating its excellent potential application as a gas sensor for ethanol detection.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  12. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  13. High-Temperature Strain Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony; Richards, Lance W.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are utilizing advanced materials that operate at temperatures that exceed abilities to measure structural performance. Robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F are needed but do not exist. These shortcomings hinder the ability to validate analysis and modeling techniques and hinders the ability to optimize structural designs. This presentation examines high-temperature strain sensing for aerospace applications and, more specifically, seeks to provide strain data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Efforts have been made to develop sensor attachment techniques for relevant structural materials at the small test specimen level and to perform laboratory tests to characterize sensor and generate corrections to apply to indicated strains. Areas highlighted in this presentation include sensors, sensor attachment techniques, laboratory evaluation/characterization of strain measurement, and sensor use in large-scale structures.

  14. An impulse based sensor for medical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Dinh, A; Teng, D; Chen, L; Ko, S B; Shi, Y; Dal Bello-Haas, V; Basran, J

    2008-01-01

    This work designs a non-coherent impulse basedtransceiver operating in a frequency range of 3.1-10.6 GHz for medical sensing applications. The transmitter consists of an ON/OFF Keying data modulator, a Gaussian pulse generator, and a variable gain amplifier to control the transmitting pulse level. The receiver consists of an LNA, a multiplier, an integrator, and a comparator. The IC is designed using 0.18 microm CMOS technology with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The simulated pulse width is 0.2 ns and the maximum pulse rate is over 1 GHz. A heart motion detection performance was demonstrated with high precision for an overall power consumption of 40 mW. This design can also be modified to be used in wireless UWB data communications to build a complete low power wireless sensor node. PMID:19164020

  15. Atmospheric effects on cluster analyses. [for remote sensing application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Ground reflected radiance, from which information is extracted through techniques of cluster analyses for remote sensing application, is altered by the atmosphere when it reaches the satellite. Therefore it is essential to understand the effects of the atmosphere on Landsat measurements, cluster characteristics and analysis accuracy. A doubling model is employed to compute the effective reflectivity, observed from the satellite, as a function of ground reflectivity, solar zenith angle and aerosol optical thickness for standard atmosphere. The relation between the effective reflectivity and ground reflectivity is approximately linear. It is shown that for a horizontally homogeneous atmosphere, the classification statistics from a maximum likelihood classifier remains unchanged under these transforms. If inhomogeneity is present, the divergence between clusters is reduced, and correlation between spectral bands increases. Radiance reflected by the background area surrounding the target may also reach the satellite. The influence of background reflectivity on effective reflectivity is discussed.

  16. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  17. Active Sensing and Its Application to Sensor Node Reconfiguration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a perturbation/correlation-based active sensing method and its application to sensor node configuration for environment monitoring. Sensor networks are widely used as data measurement tools, especially in dangerous environments. For large scale environment monitoring, a large number of nodes is required. For optimal measurements, the placement of nodes is very important. Nonlinear spring force-based configuration is introduced. Perturbation/correlation-based estimation of the gradient is developed and it is much more robust because it does not require any differentiation. An algorithm for tuning the stiffness using the estimated gradient for node reconfiguration is presented. The performance of the proposed algorithm is discussed with simulation results. PMID:25299949

  18. Corps of Engineers applications for remote sensing of the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, M. K., Jr.; Jarman, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    An objective overview is presented of the application of remote sensing technology in the Corps of Engineers. Examples are given of attempts to use the current state of the art to achieve particular disciplinary or mission oriented goals. The Corps, presently engaged in both research and development and technology transfer, has encountered some interesting situations. Practical operational utilization depends not only on technology, but also economic benefit/cost factors and some unprecedented legal, political, and social issues. Yet, at a time when increased agency commitment to operational usage is being sought, an assessment of the state of the art reveals that sensor technology, data processing and analysis, and models still require further development. There is a challenge in synchronizing technology push with the demand pull of dimly perceived user needs. They should complement each other rather than oppose. The goal is to use the combined push-pull effect to lead to increased productivity and responsiveness by the Corps.

  19. Hierarchical Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Bo; Ding, Ailing; Liu, Yuqing; Diao, Jianglin; Razal, Joselito; Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, Roderick; Li, Changming; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m-1, and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g-1 after reduction. Therefore, NECAG monoliths performed well as a gas sensor and as a biosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. The remarkable sensitivity of 8.52 × 103 μA mM-1 cm-2 was obtained in dopamine (DA) detection, which is two orders of magnitude better than the literature reported values using graphene aerogel electrodes made from a porous Ni template. These outstanding properties make the NECAG a promising electrode candidate for a wide range of applications. Further in-depth investigations are being undertaken to probe the structure-property relationship of NECAG monoliths prepared under various conditions.This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m-1, and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g-1 after reduction. Therefore, NECAG

  20. Application of remote sensing to arthropod vector surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Washino, R K; Wood, B L

    1994-01-01

    A need exists to further develop new technologies, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems analysis, for estimating arthropod vector abundance in aquatic habitats and predicting adult vector population outbreaks. A brief overview of remote sensing technology in vector surveillance and control is presented, and suggestions are made on future research opportunities in light of current and proposed remote sensing systems. PMID:8024079

  1. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  2. Triplet excited States as a source of relevant (bio)chemical information.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and α1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation. PMID:25515745

  3. Efficient Characterization of Parametric Uncertainty of Complex (Bio)chemical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schillings, Claudia; Sunnåker, Mikael; Stelling, Jörg; Schwab, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Parametric uncertainty is a particularly challenging and relevant aspect of systems analysis in domains such as systems biology where, both for inference and for assessing prediction uncertainties, it is essential to characterize the system behavior globally in the parameter space. However, current methods based on local approximations or on Monte-Carlo sampling cope only insufficiently with high-dimensional parameter spaces associated with complex network models. Here, we propose an alternative deterministic methodology that relies on sparse polynomial approximations. We propose a deterministic computational interpolation scheme which identifies most significant expansion coefficients adaptively. We present its performance in kinetic model equations from computational systems biology with several hundred parameters and state variables, leading to numerical approximations of the parametric solution on the entire parameter space. The scheme is based on adaptive Smolyak interpolation of the parametric solution at judiciously and adaptively chosen points in parameter space. As Monte-Carlo sampling, it is “non-intrusive” and well-suited for massively parallel implementation, but affords higher convergence rates. This opens up new avenues for large-scale dynamic network analysis by enabling scaling for many applications, including parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and systems design. PMID:26317784

  4. How valence bond theory can help you understand your (bio)chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Shurki, Avital; Derat, Etienne; Barrozo, Alexandre; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-03-01

    Almost a century has passed since valence bond (VB) theory was originally introduced to explain covalent bonding in the H2 molecule within a quantum mechanical framework. The past century has seen constant improvements in this theory, with no less than two distinct Nobel prizes based on work that is essentially developments in VB theory. Additionally, ongoing advances in both methodology and computational power have greatly expanded the scope of problems that VB theory can address. In this Tutorial Review, we aim to give the reader a solid understanding of the foundations of modern VB theory, using a didactic example of a model SN2 reaction to illustrate its immediate applications. This will be complemented by examples of challenging problems that at present can only be efficiently addressed by VB-based approaches. Finally, the ongoing importance of VB theory is demonstrated. It is concluded that VB will continue to be a major driving force for chemistry in the century to come. PMID:25352378

  5. Flue gas compounds and microalgae: (bio-)chemical interactions leading to biotechnological opportunities.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Flue gases are a resource yet to be fully utilised in microalgal biotechnology, not only to moderate the anthropogenic effects on our climate, but also to steer microalgal resource management towards innovative applications of microalgal biomass compounds. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. To better steer and engineer flue gas-fed microalgal cultures, all these compounds need to be considered. Therefore, here, we review (i) the chemical composition and treatment technologies of flue gas, (ii) the uptake pathways and removal of the different compounds in microalgae reactors, and (iii) the tolerance and effects on microalgae of all flue gas compounds. By emphasising the interactions between microalgae and flue gas compounds, we envisage new pathways for microalgal biomass valorisation such as enzyme production for environmental technology, novel biogas production and biosequestration of minerals. Furthermore, we highlight fundamental and applied research niches that merit further investigation. PMID:22425735

  6. Efficient Characterization of Parametric Uncertainty of Complex (Bio)chemical Networks.

    PubMed

    Schillings, Claudia; Sunnåker, Mikael; Stelling, Jörg; Schwab, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Parametric uncertainty is a particularly challenging and relevant aspect of systems analysis in domains such as systems biology where, both for inference and for assessing prediction uncertainties, it is essential to characterize the system behavior globally in the parameter space. However, current methods based on local approximations or on Monte-Carlo sampling cope only insufficiently with high-dimensional parameter spaces associated with complex network models. Here, we propose an alternative deterministic methodology that relies on sparse polynomial approximations. We propose a deterministic computational interpolation scheme which identifies most significant expansion coefficients adaptively. We present its performance in kinetic model equations from computational systems biology with several hundred parameters and state variables, leading to numerical approximations of the parametric solution on the entire parameter space. The scheme is based on adaptive Smolyak interpolation of the parametric solution at judiciously and adaptively chosen points in parameter space. As Monte-Carlo sampling, it is "non-intrusive" and well-suited for massively parallel implementation, but affords higher convergence rates. This opens up new avenues for large-scale dynamic network analysis by enabling scaling for many applications, including parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and systems design. PMID:26317784

  7. Remote sensing applications in evaluation of cadmium pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma-Bognar, Veronika; Martin, Gizella; Berke, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    According to the 21st century developments in information technology the remote sensing applications open new perspectives to the data collection of our environment. Using the images in different spectral bands we get more reliable and accurate information about the condition, process and phenomena of the earth surface compared to the traditional aircraft image technologies (RGB images). The effects of particulate pollution originated from road traffic were analysed by the research team of Department of Meteorology and Water Management (University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty) with the application of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared remote sensing aircraft images. In the scope of our research was to detect and monitor the effects of heavy metal contamination in plant-atmosphere system under field experiments. The testing area was situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely (Hungary), where maize crops were polluted once a week (0,5 M concentration) by cadmium. In our study we simulated the effects of cadmium pollution because this element is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in our environment. During two growing seasons (2011, 2012) time-series analyses were carried out based on the remote sensing data and parallel collected variables of field measurement. In each phenological phases of plant we took aerial images, in order to follow the changes of the structure and intensity values of plots images. The spatial resolution of these images were under 10x10 cm, which allowed to use a plot-level evaluation. The structural and intensity based measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research activities also focused on the examination of the influence of the irrigation and the comparison of aerial and terrain parameters. As conclusion, it could be determined the quantification of cadmium pollution effects is possible on maize plants by using remote

  8. Characterization of POF for liquid level and concentration sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumanta, B. G.; Candidato, R. T., Jr.; Reserva, R. L.

    2015-06-01

    Measuring liquid level and solution concentration play an important role in commercial and technological applications. For years, polymer optical fibers (POFs) have been very attractive for industrial applications because of their unique characteristics. In this work, we created simple, low cost and efficient set-up for sensing liquid level and solution concentration using POFs. We have calculated the acceptance angle of the POF to be 30°from numerical aperture (NA) measurements (NA ≈ 0.500).Images of a single POF showed the presence of impurities within the fiber which can contribute to power loss of the transmitted light. Light leakage was also observed when the fiber was bent to a tight radius, i.e. beyond its minimum bend radius of 15 mm. The experimental results show that as liquid level increases, the output power decreases. Furthermore, when the liquid concentration was increased, its response showed a greater loss of optical power due to the light rays in the submerged region of the POF tend to be refracted out of the fiber instead of being totally internally reflected and transmitted when index of refraction of the surrounding liquid medium is increased.

  9. Application of database technology to red tide remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Xiuhua; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2003-05-01

    The red tide spectrum database is the basis and prerequisite for red tide hyperspectral remote sensing, a technical support for the field investigation on red tide and the main technical measure for red tide data management and application. The data in the database mentioned in this paper come mainly from the red tide mesocosm experiment, and include the simultaneously collected biological, chemical, hydrographic and meteorological data besides the spectrum data of red tide dominant species. The database has not only the conventional functions for data query, retrieval and plotting, but also the algorithmic functions for the ground object spectrum data processing in the Visual FoxPro system environment and the biological information extraction using the ground object spectrum data. This system is not only an effective application system for detecting the red tide organism, identifying the red tide dominant species and analyzing the characteristic amount of red tide organism, but also a powerful tool for the marine environmental protection and the red tide disaster reduction in the future.

  10. Diamond micro-milling of lithium niobate for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Dehong; Jie Choong, Zi; Shi, Yilun; Hedley, John; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a crystalline material which is widely applied in surface acoustic wave, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and optical devices, owing to its superior physical, optical, and electronic properties. Due to its low toughness and chemical inactivity, LiNbO3 is considered to be a hard-to-machine material and has been traditionally left as as an inert substrate upon which other micro structures are deposited. However, in order to make use of its superior material properties and increase efficiency, the fabrication of microstructures directly on LiNbO3 is in high demand. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the micro machinability of LiNbO3 via micro milling with the aim of obtaining optimal process parameters. Machining of micro slots was performed on Z-cut LiNbO3 wafers using single crystal diamond tools. Surface and edge quality, cutting forces, and the crystallographic effect were examined and characterized. Ductile mode machining of LiNbO3 was found to be feasible at a low feed rate and small depth of cut. A strong crystallographic effect on the machined surface quality was also observed. Finally, some LiNbO3 micro components applicable to sensing applications were fabricated.

  11. Hierarchical Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Weng, Bo; Ding, Ailing; Liu, Yuqing; Diao, Jianglin; Razal, Joselito; Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, Roderick; Li, Changming; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-14

    This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m(-1), and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g(-1) after reduction. Therefore, NECAG monoliths performed well as a gas sensor and as a biosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. The remarkable sensitivity of 8.52 × 10(3)μA mM(-1) cm(-2) was obtained in dopamine (DA) detection, which is two orders of magnitude better than the literature reported values using graphene aerogel electrodes made from a porous Ni template. These outstanding properties make the NECAG a promising electrode candidate for a wide range of applications. Further in-depth investigations are being undertaken to probe the structure-property relationship of NECAG monoliths prepared under various conditions. PMID:26791962

  12. Sensing applications based on plasmonic nanopores: The hole story.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Andreas B

    2015-07-21

    A review of sensing applications based on plasmonic nanopores is given. Many new types of plasmonic nanopores have recently been fabricated, including pores penetrating multilayers of thin films, using a great variety of fabrication techniques based on either serial nanolithography or self-assembly. One unique advantage with nanopores compared to other plasmonic sensors is that sample liquids can flow through the surface, which increases the rate of binding and improves the detection limit under certain conditions. Also, by utilizing the continuous metal films, electrical control can be implemented for electrochemistry, dielectrophoresis and resistive heating. Much effort is still spent on trying to improve sensor performance in various ways, but the literature uses inconsistent benchmark parameters. Recently plasmonic nanopores have been used to analyse targets of high clinical or academic interest. Although this is an important step forward, one should probably reflect upon whether the same results could have been achieved with another optical technique. Overall, this critical review suggests that the research field would benefit by focusing on applications where plasmonic nanopores truly can offer unique advantages over similar techniques. PMID:25675146

  13. Automated image processing and fusion for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabuawala, Sakina; Wei, Hai; Raju, Chaitanya; Ray, Nilanjan; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-02-01

    The ever increasing volumes and resolutions of remote sensing imagery have not only boosted the value of image-based analysis and visualization in scientific research and commercial sectors, but also introduced new challenges. Specifically, processing large volumes of newly acquired high-resolution imagery as well as fusing them against existing imagery (for correction, update, and visualization) still remain highly subjective and labor-intensive tasks, which has not been fully automated by the existing GIS software tools. This calls for the development of novel computational algorithms to automate the routine image processing tasks involved in various remote sensing based applications. In this paper, a suite of efficient and automated computational algorithms has been proposed and developed to address the aforementioned challenge. It includes a segmentation algorithm to achieve the automatic "cleaning" (i.e. segmenting out the valid pixels) of any newly acquired ortho-photo image, automatic feature point extraction, image alignment by maximization of mutual information and finally smoothing/feathering the edges of the imagery at the join zone. The proposed algorithms have been implemented and tested using practical large-scale GIS imagery/data. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the corresponding capability of fully automated segmentation, registration and fusion, which allows the end-user to bring together image of heterogeneous resolution, projection, datum, and sources for analysis and visualization. The potential benefits of the proposed algorithms include great reduction of the production time, more accurate and reliable results, and user consistency within and across organizations.

  14. Soil surface roughness characterization for microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-04-01

    With this poster we present a simple and efficient method to measure soil surface roughness in an agricultural environment. Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. In recent studies it is strongly recognized that soil surface roughness significantly influences the backscatter of agricultural surface, especially on bare fields. Indeed, while different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscattering. In this study, we introduce a photogrammetric system which consists of a customized consumer grade Canon EOS 5d camera and a reference frame providing ground control points. With the system one can generate digital surface models (DSM) with a minimum size of 1 x 2.5 m2, extendable to any desired size, with a ground x,y- resolution of 2 mm. Using this approach, we generated a set of DSM with sizes ranging from 2.5 m2 to 22 m2, acquired over different roughness conditions representing ploughed, harrowed as well as crusted fields on different test sites. For roughness characterization we calculated in microwave remote sensing common roughness indices such as the RMS- height s and the autocorrelation length l. In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behavior of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes of the proposed method. Results indicate, compared to results from profiles generated out of the dataset, that using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust in their estimation. In addition, a strong directional dependency of the proposed roughness indices was observed which could be related to the orientation of the seedbed rows to the acqusition direction. In a geostatistical analysis, we decomposed the acquired roughness indices into different scales, yielding a roughness quantity

  15. Remote sensing applications in water resources - An opportunity for research in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menenti, M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of first-hand experience with remote sensing research in developing countries to illustrate the inherent semiempirical basis of remote sensing applications. This task is accomplished by means of examples drawn from actual research work. Results of case studies in different farming systems and countries are summarized to exemplify the relative, application-dependent, weight of satellite versus ground information.

  16. Integrated Photonic Comb Generation: Applications in Coherent Communication and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, John S.

    Integrated photonics combines many optical components including lasers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors in close proximity via homogeneous (monolithic) or heterogeneous (using multiple materials) integration. This improves stability for interferometers and lasers, reduces the occurrence of unwanted reflections, and it avoids coupling losses between different components as they are on the same chip. Thus, less power is needed to compensate for these added losses, and less heat needs to be removed due to these power savings. In addition, integration allows the many components that comprise a system to be fabricated together, thereby reducing the cost per system and allowing rapid scaling in production throughput. Integrated optical combs have many applications including: metrology, THz frequency generation, arbitrary waveform generation, optical clocks, photonic analog-to-digital converters, sensing (imaging), spectroscopy, and data communication. A comb is a set of optical sources evenly spaced in frequency. Several methods of comb generation including mode-locking and optical parametric oscillation produce phase-matched optical outputs with a fixed phase relationship between the frequency lines. When the absolute frequency of a single comb line is stabilized along with the frequency spacing between comb lines, absolute phase and frequency precision can be achieved over the entire comb bandwidth. This functionality provides tremendous benefits to many applications such as coherent communication and optical sensing. The goals for this work were achieving a broad comb bandwidth and noise reduction, i.e., frequency and phase stability. Integrated mode-locked lasers on the InGaAsP/InP material platform were chosen, as they could be monolithically integrated with the wide range of highly functional and versatile photonic integrated circuits (PICs) previously demonstrated on this platform at UCSB. Gain flattening filters were implemented to increase the comb

  17. Proceedings of the Conference on Practical Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers dealing with the principles of remote sensing are summarized. Summaries cover problem solving capabilities within the realms of urbanism, agriculture, forestry, and environmental impact assessment.

  18. Applications for fiber optic sensing in the upstream oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Chris S.

    2015-05-01

    Fiber optic sensing has been used in an increasing number of applications in the upstream oil and gas industry over the past 20 years. In some cases, fiber optic sensing is providing measurements where traditional measurement technologies could not. This paper will provide a general overview of these applications and describe how the use of fiber optic sensing is enabling these applications. Technologies such as Bragg gratings, distributed temperature and acoustic sensing, interferometric sensing, and Brillouin scattering will be discussed. Applications for optic sensing include a range of possibilities from a single pressure measurement point in the wellbore to multizone pressure and flow monitoring. Some applications make use of fully distributed measurements including thermal profiling of the well. Outside of the wellbore, fiber optic sensors are used in applications for flowline and pipeline monitoring and for riser integrity monitoring. Applications to be described in this paper include in-flow profiling, well integrity, production monitoring, and steam chamber growth. These applications will cover well types such as injectors, producers, hydraulic fracturing, and thermal recovery. Many of these applications use the measurements provided by fiber optic sensing to improve enhanced oil recovery operations. The growing use of fiber optic sensors is providing improved measurement capabilities leading to the generation of actionable data for enhanced production optimization. This not only increases the recovered amount of production fluids but can also enhance wellbore integrity and safety.

  19. Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Nanowires: Design, Fabrication and Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Dhawan, Anuj; Norton, Stephen J.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Misra, Veena; Gerhold, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study involves two aspects of our investigations of plasmonics-active systems: (i) theoretical and simulation studies and (ii) experimental fabrication of plasmonics-active nanostructures. Two types of nanostructures are selected as the model systems for their unique plasmonics properties: (1) nanoparticles and (2) nanowires on substrate. Special focus is devoted to regions where the electromagnetic field is strongly concentrated by the metallic nanostructures or between nanostructures. The theoretical investigations deal with dimers of nanoparticles and nanoshells using a semi-analytical method based on a multipole expansion (ME) and the finite-element method (FEM) in order to determine the electromagnetic enhancement, especially at the interface areas of two adjacent nanoparticles. The experimental study involves the design of plasmonics-active nanowire arrays on substrates that can provide efficient electromagnetic enhancement in regions around and between the nanostructures. Fabrication of these nanowire structures over large chip-scale areas (from a few millimeters to a few centimeters) as well as FDTD simulations to estimate the EM fields between the nanowires are described. The application of these nanowire chips using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of chemicals and labeled DNA molecules is described to illustrate the potential of the plasmonics chips for sensing. PMID:24839505

  20. Application of Terrestrial Microwave Remote Sensing to Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W. T.; Bolten, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Root-zone soil moisture information is a valuable diagnostic for detecting the onset and severity of agricultural drought. Current attempts to globally monitor root-zone soil moisture are generally based on the application of soil water balance models driven by observed meteorological variables. Such systems, however, are prone to random error associated with: incorrect process model physics, poor parameter choices and noisy meteorological inputs. The presentation will describe attempts to remediate these sources of error via the assimilation of remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals from satellite-based passive microwave sensors into a global soil water balance model. Results demonstrate the ability of satellite-based soil moisture retrieval products to significantly improve the global characterization of root-zone soil moisture - particularly in data-poor regions lacking adequate ground-based rain gage instrumentation. This success has lead to an on-going effort to implement an operational land data assimilation system at the United States Department of Agriculture's Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) to globally monitor variations in root-zone soil moisture availability via the integration of satellite-based precipitation and soil moisture information. Prospects for improving the performance of the USDA FAS system via the simultaneous assimilation of both passive and active-based soil moisture retrievals derived from the upcoming NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive mission will also be discussed.

  1. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  2. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  3. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  4. Tellurium based glasses for bio-sensing and space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Allison Anne

    2009-12-01

    Te2As3Se5 (TAS) fibers are often used in bio-sensing applications requiring direct contact between the fiber and live cells. However, the toxicity and stability of chalcogenide glasses typically used in such bio-sensing applications are not well known. The stability and toxicity of TAS glass fibers were therefore examined. The surface of TAS fibers stored for up to three years in air were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is shown that an oxide layer develops on the surface of TAS fibers stored in air. This oxide layer is highly soluble in water and therefore easily removed. Additional studies using cyclic voltammetry show that the fresh TAS glass surface is insoluble in water for at least a few days, and attenuation measurements show that oxidation does not affect the transmission properties of the glass fibers. It was also determined that old, oxidized fibers pose a toxic threat to cells, while washed and new fibers show no toxic effect. Therefore, it is concluded that a soluble oxide layer forms on the surface of TAS fibers stored in air and that this layer has a toxic effect on cells in an aqueous environment. However, through etching, the oxide layer and the toxicity can be easily removed. In other applications of telluride glasses, such as the search for possible signs of life on exoplanets, a glass transmitting further into the IR is required in order to detect molecules, such as CO2. A new family of Tellurium based glasses from the Ge-Te-I ternary system has therefore been investigated for use in space and bio-sensing applications. A systematic series of compositions has been synthesized in order to explore the ternary phase diagram in an attempt to optimize the glass composition for the fiber drawing and molding process. The resulting glass transition temperature range lies between 139°C and 174°C, with DeltaT values between 64°C and 124

  5. Applications of UAVs for Remote Sensing of Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Brass, James; Schoenung, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The surveillance of critical facilities and national infrastructure such as waterways, roadways, pipelines and utilities requires advanced technological tools to provide timely, up to date information on structure status and integrity. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are uniquely suited for these tasks, having large payload and long duration capabilities. UAVs also have the capability to fly dangerous and dull missions, orbiting for 24 hours over a particular area or facility providing around the clock surveillance with no personnel onboard. New UAV platforms and systems are becoming available for commercial use. High altitude platforms are being tested for use in communications, remote sensing, agriculture, forestry and disaster management. New payloads are being built and demonstrated onboard the UAVs in support of these applications. Smaller, lighter, lower power consumption imaging systems are currently being tested over coffee fields to determine yield and over fires to detect fire fronts and hotspots. Communication systems that relay video, meteorological and chemical data via satellite to users on the ground in real-time have also been demonstrated. Interest in this technology for infrastructure characterization and mapping has increased dramatically in the past year. Many of the UAV technological developments required for resource and disaster monitoring are being used for the infrastructure and facility mapping activity. This paper documents the unique contributions from NASA;s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program to these applications. ERAST is a UAV technology development effort by a consortium of private aeronautical companies and NASA. Details of demonstrations of UAV capabilities currently underway are also presented.

  6. Hydrological Application of Remote Sensing: Surface States -- Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing research of snow cover has been accomplished for nearly 40 years. The use of visible, near-infrared, active and passive-microwave remote sensing for the analysis of snow cover is reviewed with an emphasis on the work on the last decade.

  7. Background and principle applications of remote sensing in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, J. A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing, or the collection of information from objectives at a distance, crystallizes the interest in implementing techniques which assist in the search for solutions to the problems raised by the detection, exploitation, and conservation of the natural resources of the earth. An attempt is made to present an overview of the studies and achievements which have been obtained with remote sensing in Mexico.

  8. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  9. Two Dimensional Materials for Sensing and Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuru, Cihan

    Since the discovery of graphene in 2004, two dimensional materials (2D) have become the focus of tremendous research owing to their unprecedented properties. Atomically thin nature of 2D materials gives rise to unique physicochemical properties, which makes them attractive for flexible electronics, chemical and biological sensing, energy storage, and solar cells. In this dissertation, sensing and energy related applications of 2D materials are studied. In chapter 1, graphene based ammonia sensors are presented, in which nano-structuring graphene significantly improves the sensitivity towards ammonia due to the formation of highly reactive edge defects. It was found that sensitivity could be further enhanced by decoration of Pd nanoparticles on the nano-structured graphene. In chapter 2, hydrogen sensors based on solution processed transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) nanosheets-Pd nanoparticles composites are introduced. The sensors can detect hydrogen at room temperature with high sensitivities. The ease of fabrication holds a great potential for low-cost and scalable manufacturing of chemical sensors. In chapter 3, the fabrication and characterization of graphene/Si heterojunction solar cells are described and various methods to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) are presented. A single layer graphene is highly transparent; therefore suitable as a transparent Schottky electrode for solar cells. However, the PCEs of the pristine graphene/Si solar cells are low due to the high sheet resistance of graphene as well as the low Schottky barrier height between pristine graphene and Si. We improved the PCE by a magnitude of order (achieving 9% PCE) with Au nanoparticle decoration followed by a nitric acid treatment owing to the dramatic reduction in the series resistance of the cells and the enhanced Schottky barrier height. Furthermore, we used NiO as a transparent and stable hole doping material for graphene, in which NiO doped cell shows enhanced PCE

  10. Plasmonic Manipulation of Light for Sensing and Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani Khakestar, Heidar

    Plasmonics is a successful new field of science and technology that exploits the exclusive optical properties of metallic nanostructures to manipulate and concentrate light at nano-meter length scales. When light hits the surface of gold or silver nanoparticles it can excite collective oscillations of the conduction electrons called surface plasmons. This surface plasmon undergoes two damping processes; it can decay into photon and reemit the plasmon energy as scattered energy or decay into electron-hole pair with the excitation energy equal to the energy of the plasmon resonance, known as absorption. This high energy electron subsequently undergoes into the carrier multiplication and eventually scatters into the electrons with lower energy. We used Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and Finite-Element Method (Comsol) to design nanoscale structures to act as nanoantenna for light harvesting and consequently manipulating radiative and absorption properties of them for Sensing and Photovoltaic applications. To manipulate near and far field we designed our structures in a way that the bright and dark plasmon modes overlap and couple to each other. This process is called Fano resonance and introduces a transparency window in the far-field spectra. At the same time it increases the near-field enhancement. We applied the changes in near-field and far-field to SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) and LSPR (Localized Surface plasmon Resonance) shift for sensing purposes. We modeled Fano resonances with classical harmonic oscillator and reproduced the same feature with a simple equation of motion. We used this model to replicate scattering spectra from different geometries and explain the cathodoluminescence results obtained from nanoscale gold clusters structure. All of these nanoantenna optical properties and applications are due to the reemission ability of the plasmon energy to the vacuum and confining optical field, but the plasmon energy can decay into a high

  11. Novel Magnetic Materials for Sensing and Cooling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Anurag

    2011-12-01

    The overall goals of the present PhD research are to explore the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) and giant magnetocaloric (GMC) effects in functional magnetic materials and provide guidance on the optimization of the material properties for use in advanced magnetic sensor and refrigeration applications. GMI has attracted growing interest due to its promising applications in high-performance magnetic sensors. Research in this field is focused on the development of new materials with properties appropriate for practical GMI sensor applications. In this project, we have successfully set up a new magneto-impedance measurement system in the Functional Materials Laboratory at USF. We have established, for the first time, the correlation between sample surface, magnetic softness, critical length, and GMI in Co-based amorphous ribbon materials, which provide a good handle on selecting the suitable operating frequency range of magnetic materials for GMI-based field sensor applications. The impact of field-induced magnetic anisotropy on the GMI effect in Co-based nanocrystalline ribbon materials has also been investigated, providing an important understanding of the correlation between the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy, and GMI in these materials. We have shown that coating a thin layer of magnetic metal on the surface of a magnetic ribbon can reduce stray fields due to surface irregularities and enhance the magnetic flux paths closure of the bilayer structure, both of which, in effect, increase the GMI and its field sensitivity. This finding provides a new way for tailoring GMI in surface-modified soft ferromagnetic ribbons for use in highly sensitive magnetic sensors. We have also introduced the new concepts of incorporating GMI technology with superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biosensing applications and with carbon nanotubes for gas and chemical sensing applications. GMC forms the basis for developing advanced magnetic refrigeration technology and research in this

  12. Development of fiber-optic current sensing technique and its applications in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the development and applications of a fiber-optic electric current sensing technique with the stable properties and compact, simple, and flexible structure of the sensing device. The special characteristics of the sensors were achieved by use of the special low birefringence fiber as the Faraday-effect sensing element and were also achieved with creation of sensing schemes which matched with the features of the fiber. Making use of the excellent features of the sensing technique, various current monitoring devices and systems were developed and applied practically for the control and maintenance in the electric power facility. In this paper, the design and performance of the sensing devices are introduced first. After that, examples of the application systems practically applied are also introduced, including fault section/point location systems for power transmission cable lines.

  13. Wide dynamic range microwave planar coupled ring resonator for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2016-06-01

    A highly sensitive, microwave-coupled ring resonator with a wide dynamic range is studied for use in sensing applications. The resonator's structure has two resonant rings and, consequently, two resonant frequencies, operating at 2.3 and 2.45 GHz. Inductive and capacitive coupling mechanisms are explored and compared to study their sensing performance. Primary finite element analysis and measurement results are used to compare the capacitive and inductive coupled ring resonators, demonstrating sensitivity improvements of up to 75% and dynamic range enhancement up to 100% in the capacitive coupled structure. In this work, we are proposing capacitive coupled planar ring resonators as a wide dynamic range sensing platform for liquid sensing applications. This sensing device is well suited for low-cost, real-time low-power, and CMOS compatible sensing technologies.

  14. Nano-Assembled Plasmonic Crystals Devices for Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yi

    The ability of plasmonic nano-structures to concentrate light into sub-wavelength volumes offers the potential for developing new devices and applications. Surface plasmons are electron oscillations that propagate on a metal surface. The interaction of light with surface plasmons can be tailored by periodic nano-structures on a surface, thus allowing miniaturized photonic devices with length scales much smaller than those currently achieved. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a low cost self-assembly method to fabricate large area plasmonic crystals and study the physical properties of surface plasmons. Several plasmonic devices are designed using the self-assembled gold nanobump arrays. A polystyrene sphere self-assembly technique was developed for fabricating holes or bumps as small as 150 nm with spacing controlled by the sphere diameter (typically 500--700 nm). Several applications were developed, which were based on the sensitivity of the photon-plasmons coupling to 1) the surface dielectric and 2) the incident angle. A sensitivity to refractive index changes of about 100 nm per refractive index units was demonstrated by varying the surrounding dielectric environment with several chemicals for sensing applications. An increasing variation in the color of a vanadium oxides thermochromic device was observed by using surface plasmons to enhance the variation in reflection. Surface plasmons were also used in an optical modulator, where excitation by one wavelength was used to changes the transmission at a different wavelength. Using the angular sensitivity of the nano-structured plasmonic thin films, an angle of arrival sensor was fabricated. This sensor can be used to track the position of the sun or other collimated light sources like lasers. The polarization dependency of the device was studied and its behavior was explained by the lattice momentum matching mechanism. Inspired by the novel concept of this angle of arrival sensor, a wavefront sensor

  15. An Update of NASA Public Health Applications Projects using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth s environment from space which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The session will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications. This session will an overview of many of the NASA public health applications using Remote Sensing Data and will also discuss opportunities to become a research collaborator with NASA.

  16. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchillon, C. W.; Miller, W. F.; Landphair, H.; Zitta, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques to help the state of Mississippi recognize and solve its environmental, resource, and socio-economic problems through inventory, analysis, and monitoring is suggested.

  17. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  18. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  19. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  20. Remote Sensing Sensors and Applications in Environmental Resources Mapping and Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Weng, Qihao; S.Thenkabail, Prasad; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2007-01-01

    The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.

  1. Boronic acids for sensing and other applications - a mini-review of papers published in 2013.

    PubMed

    Lacina, Karel; Skládal, Petr; James, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Boronic acids are increasingly utilised in diverse areas of research. Including the interactions of boronic acids with diols and strong Lewis bases as fluoride or cyanide anions, which leads to their utility in various sensing applications. The sensing applications can be homogeneous assays or heterogeneous detection. Detection can be at the interface of the sensing material or within the bulk sample. Furthermore, the key interaction of boronic acids with diols allows utilisation in various areas ranging from biological labelling, protein manipulation and modification, separation and the development of therapeutics. All the above uses and applications are covered by this mini-review of papers published during 2013. PMID:25371705

  2. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  3. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1496A Rochon*, G., Szlag*, D., Daniel*, F.B., and Chifos**, C. Remote Sensing Applications for Sustainable Watershed Management and Food Security. Proceedings of the 21st European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Symposium, Marne-La-Valle, France, 5/14-16/200...

  4. Applications of remote sensing techniques to county land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.; Conn, J. S.; Miller, D. A.; Mouat, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in Arizona is discussed. Land use and flood hazard mapping completed by the Applied Remote Sensing Program is described. Areas subject to periodic flood inundation are delineated and land use maps monitoring the growth within specific counties are provided.

  5. A transportable executive system for use with remote sensing applications software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wie, P.; Fischel, D.; Howell, D.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a transportable software executive system under development. This executive will facilitate user access to data and programs used in remote sensing applications and will provide the necessary system control, bookkeeping, operating system interface, man-machine communications and other services needed to make the computer an effective and economical tool for the remote sensing investigator.

  6. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, A.; Holman, R. A.; Chickadel, C.; Elgar, S.; Farquharson, G.; Haller, M. C.; Kurapov, A. L.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.; Raubenheimer, B.; Thomson, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    DARLA is 5-year collaborative project that couples state-of-the-art remote sensing and in situ measurements with advanced data assimilation (DA) modeling to (a) evaluate and improve remote sensing retrieval algorithms for environmental parameters, (b) determine the extent to which remote sensing data can be used in place of in situ data in models, and (c) infer bathymetry for littoral environments by combining remotely-sensed parameters and data assimilation models. The project uses microwave, electro-optical, and infrared techniques to characterize the littoral ocean with a focus on wave and current parameters required for DA modeling. In conjunction with the RIVET (River and Inlets) Project, extensive in situ measurements provide ground truth for both the remote sensing retrieval algorithms and the DA modeling. Our goal is to use remote sensing to constrain data assimilation models of wave and circulation dynamics in a tidal inlet and surrounding beaches. We seek to improve environmental parameter estimation via remote sensing fusion, determine the success of using remote sensing data to drive DA models, and produce a dynamically consistent representation of the wave, circulation, and bathymetry fields in complex environments. The objectives are to test the following three hypotheses: 1. Environmental parameter estimation using remote sensing techniques can be significantly improved by fusion of multiple sensor products. 2. Data assimilation models can be adequately constrained (i.e., forced or guided) with environmental parameters derived from remote sensing measurements. 3. Bathymetry on open beaches, river mouths, and at tidal inlets can be inferred from a combination of remotely-sensed parameters and data assimilation models. Our approach is to conduct a series of field experiments combining remote sensing and in situ measurements to investigate signature physics and to gather data for developing and testing DA models. A preliminary experiment conducted at

  7. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems. [for Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Bouchillon, C. W.; Harris, J. C.; Carter, B.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, R.

    1974-01-01

    The primary purpose of the remote sensing applications program is for various members of the university community to participate in activities that improve the effective communication between the scientific community engaged in remote sensing research and development and the potential users of modern remote sensing technology. Activities of this program are assisting the State of Mississippi in recognizing and solving its environmental, resource and socio-economic problems through inventory, analysis, and monitoring by appropriate remote sensing systems. Objectives, accomplishments, and current status of the following individual projects are reported: (1) bark beetle project; (2) state park location planning; and (3) waste source location and stream channel geometry monitoring.

  8. Performance analysis of wireless sensor networks in geophysical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uligere Narasimhamurthy, Adithya

    Performance is an important criteria to consider before switching from a wired network to a wireless sensing network. Performance is especially important in geophysical sensing where the quality of the sensing system is measured by the precision of the acquired signal. Can a wireless sensing network maintain the same reliability and quality metrics that a wired system provides? Our work focuses on evaluating the wireless GeoMote sensor motes that were developed by previous computer science graduate students at Mines. Specifically, we conducted a set of experiments, namely WalkAway and Linear Array experiments, to characterize the performance of the wireless motes. The motes were also equipped with the Sticking Heartbeat Aperture Resynchronization Protocol (SHARP), a time synchronization protocol developed by a previous computer science graduate student at Mines. This protocol should automatically synchronize the mote's internal clocks and reduce time synchronization errors. We also collected passive data to evaluate the response of GeoMotes to various frequency components associated with the seismic waves. With the data collected from these experiments, we evaluated the performance of the SHARP protocol and compared the performance of our GeoMote wireless system against the industry standard wired seismograph system (Geometric-Geode). Using arrival time analysis and seismic velocity calculations, we set out to answer the following question. Can our wireless sensing system (GeoMotes) perform similarly to a traditional wired system in a realistic scenario?

  9. Application of Remote Sensing to the Chesapeake Bay Region. Volume 2: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. T. (Editor); Freas, G. W., Jr. (Editor); Hickman, G. D. (Editor); Pemberton, D. A. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. D. (Editor); Adler, I. (Editor); Laurie, V. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A conference was held on the application of remote sensing to the Chesapeake Bay region. Copies of the papers, resource contributions, panel discussions, and reports of the working groups are presented.

  10. A forestry application simulation of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.

    1976-01-01

    The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry applications example are simulated. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.

  11. Application of Sensing Techniques to Cellular Force Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Wang, James H.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Cell traction forces (CTFs) are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research. PMID:22163449

  12. Transmission properties and molecular sensing application of CGPW.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jingjing; Deng, Wei; Mao, Fuchun; Huang, Ming

    2015-12-14

    In this paper, a cylindrical graphene plasmon waveguide (CGPW), which consists of two rolled graphene ribbons, a dielectric core and a dielectric interlayer is proposed, and its use for molecular sensing is investigated. First, an analytical model for the surface plasmon modes supported by this graphene geometry is presented and verified by finite element method simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate a large tunability of the modes behavior by varying the Fermi level of the graphene, the coupling distance between the two sheets and the radius of the cylinder. Finally, a molecular sensing scheme based on the CGPW is proposed. Broadband spectroscopy of ethanol and toluene thin layers is realized by recording the changes in spectral intensity of the propagating mode. Due to the broadband localization capability of graphene plasmon mode which leads to a strong light-matter interaction in the midinfrared and terahertz regime, the proposed sensing scheme may provide an effective way for detecting nanometric-size molecules. PMID:26699019

  13. Computational Imaging, Sensing and Diagnostics for Global Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    In this Review, we summarize some of the recent work in emerging computational imaging, sensing and diagnostics techniques, along with some of the complementary non-computational modalities that can potentially transform the delivery of health care globally. As computational resources are becoming more and more powerful, while also getting cheaper and more widely available, traditional imaging, sensing and diagnostic tools will continue to experience a revolution through simplification of their designs, making them compact, light-weight, cost-effective, and yet quite powerful in terms of their performance when compared to their bench-top counterparts. PMID:24484875

  14. Resource analysis applications in Michigan. [NASA remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schar, S. W.; Enslin, W. R.; Sattinger, I. J.; Robinson, J. G.; Hosford, K. R.; Fellows, R. S.; Raad, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    During the past two years, available NASA imagery has been applied to a broad spectrum of problems of concern to Michigan-based agencies. These demonstrations include the testing of remote sensing for the purposes of (1) highway corridor planning and impact assessments, (2) game management-area information bases, (3) multi-agency river basin planning, (4) timber resource management information systems, (5) agricultural land reservation policies, and (6) shoreline flooding damage assessment. In addition, cost accounting procedures have been developed for evaluating the relative costs of utilizing remote sensing in land cover and land use analysis data collection procedures.

  15. Applications of Microwaves to Remote Sensing of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey and study was conducted to define the role that microwaves may play in the measurement of a variety of terrain-related parameters. The survey consisted of discussions with many users and researchers in the field of remote sensing. In addition, a survey questionnaire was prepared and replies were solicited from these and other users and researchers. The results of the survey, and associated bibliography, were studied and conclusions were drawn as to the usefulness of radiometric systems for remote sensing of terrain.

  16. AmericaView - A State-Based Remote Sensing Initiative Integrating Remote Sensing Data Into Geospatial Education and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, R. L.; Lawrence, R.

    2007-12-01

    AmericaView (AV) is a national program created to advance the availability, timely distribution, and widespread use of land remote sensing data, especially among users within the university and government communities. Since the 1970s the federal government and private sector have spent billions of dollars on satellite-based earth observing systems, but distribution of data and development of real-world applications have been tough issues for the government and the academic research communities. It has often been hard for researchers to use or even access the data, particularly at smaller schools or research facilities, hindering applied research and current and future workforce development. Many state and local agencies working with applied research programs have not been able to effectively integrate remote sensing data into their geospatial management or decision-support programs. AV addresses these issues through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and the AmericaView Consortium, which is a 501c3 non-profit comprised of university-led, state-based consortia. AmericaView is the federal government's partner in achieving the program vision and goals, which focus both on making data available in usable, cost-effective formats and on helping the university, secondary-education, and public sectors in each state identify, develop, and implement the kinds of remote sensing applications each state needs most. AV is developing applied remote sensing research programs in each of its thirty StateViews. Partner academic institutions are creating internships programs involving students and faculty with applications development, in cooperation with local, state, and federal government agencies. Education and training outreach programs are improving workforce preparation at K-12, post-secondary, and professional levels. Data distribution and sharing infrastructure that leverages funding and avoids duplication is enabling practical archive expansion and distribution

  17. [Development and application of quantum cascade laser based gas sensing system].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-yu; Wang, Ling-fang; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an ideal mid-infrared source for gas sensing in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 25 microm, due to its fast response, high sensitivity and selectivity for gas detecting. Prototypes of gas sensing system based on QCL have been developed by worldwide research groups. They have great potential in many applications, such as environment monitoring, space exploration, anti-terrorism and so on. The present paper gives a broad review of QCL gas sensing system, including the basic working principle, existing systems, and its application and future development. PMID:20939303

  18. Applications of remote sensing to alien invasive plant studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cho-Ying; Asner, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions. PMID:22408558

  19. Applications of Remote Sensing to Alien Invasive Plant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cho-ying; Asner, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions. PMID:22408558

  20. Site specific N application and remote sensing of cotton crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A spatial variable nitrogen (N) rate trial and remote sensing of cotton crop was conducted during 2003 at Paul Good Farms, Mississippi, USA. The N rate trial consisted of three, 8-row transects at the east and west side of the field that were selected to represent variable soil and elevation feature...

  1. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours. PMID:25982991

  2. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An airborne remote sensing system was developed and tested for recording aerial images of field crops, which were analyzed for variations of crop health or pest infestation. The multicomponent system consists of a multi-spectral camera system, a camera control system, and a radiometer for normalizi...

  3. Effective application of optical sensing technology for sustainable liquid level sensing and rainfall measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Muhammad Hassan Bin

    2015-05-01

    Rainfall measurement is performed on regular basis to facilitate effectively the weather stations and local inhabitants. Different types of rain gauges are available with different measuring principle for rainfall measurement. In this research work, a novel optical rain sensor is designed, which precisely calculate the rainfall level according to rainfall intensity. This proposed optical rain sensor model introduced in this paper, which is basically designed for remote sensing of rainfall and it designated as R-ORMS (Remote Optical Rainfall Measurement sensor). This sensor is combination of some improved method of tipping bucket rain gauge and most of the optical hydreon rain sensor's principle. This optical sensor can detect the starting time and ending time of rain, rain intensity and rainfall level. An infrared beam from Light Emitting Diode (LED) through powerful convex lens can accurately determines the diameter of each rain drops by total internal reflection principle. Calculations of these accumulative results determine the rain intensity and rainfall level. Accurate rainfall level is determined by internal optical LED based sensor which is embedded in bucket wall. This internal sensor is also following the total internal reflection (TIR) principle and the Fresnel's law. This is an entirely novel design of optical sensing principle based rain sensor and also suitable for remote sensing rainfall level. The performance of this proposed sensor has been comprehensively compared with other sensors with similar attributes and it showed better and sustainable result. Future related works have been proposed at the end of this paper, to provide improved and enhanced performance of proposed novel rain sensor.

  4. Perspectives in remote sensing in Brazil. An approach of the remote sensing applications to Earth resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Novaes, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Since the systematic use of earth surface data collection by orbital sensor systems started in 1972 with the launching of the North American LANDSAT satellite, a great effort has been made to assimilate, develop and transfer remote sensing technology (data acquisition and analysis) in its many applications in Brazil. The availability of sensor systems and existing data is considered approached, as well as those which will soon be available to the Brazilian researchers. The new systems of the LANDSAT-4, of the Columbia space shuttle and of the French satellites of the SPOT series are discussed. Some characteristics of the sensor system for the first Brazilian remote sensing satellite, to be launched by the end of the decade, are presented. Some LANDSAT-4 and SPOT simulation products are shown, emphasizing how the data obtained by these new satellites can be applied.

  5. Remote Sensing Applications to the Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, E.; Warnick, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Inventory demonstrated the effective use of remote sensing techniques within the context of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The inventory combined data from field work, a literature search, and photointerpretation to fulfill both State and Federal requirements. A primary project objective was to accurately identify and map all surface features and disturbances from abandoned surface and underground mining. Black-and-white aerial photographs were used to record pits, contour benches, highwalls, spoil material, graded and recontoured areas, impounded water, and serious erosion and slide prone areas. In addition, vegetation cover estimates and surrounding land uses were noted. The inventory data base provides Pennsylvania with a valuable resource management tool that should be systematically updated. The utilization of remotely sensed data from SPOT or LANDSAT-D satellites may prove valuable in the anticipated updating and monitoring of the Pennsylvania AML inventory over the next several years.

  6. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  7. Application of air remote sensing in investigation of engineering environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kejie, L.

    1996-11-01

    Engineering environment is a research field with broad scope in which air remote sensing can play an important role. Longtan Reservoir is located in a mountainous region with high ridges and deep canyons. Air remote sensing technique was used to evaluate engineering environment of the reservoir area. Various types of land use were interpreted and mapped on a scale of 1:10000 by using infrared color orthophoto, and selecting training samples, meanwhile types and dimensions of slumps and landslides were recognized and measured within the reservoir area. Furthermore an evaluation and regionalization of slope stability of reservoir bank were carried out. Finally a precision over 90% was given for the results of this investigation by field sampling checking. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  9. Remote sensing applications to Missouri environmental resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    An efficient system for retrieval of remotely sensed data to be used by natural resources oriented agencies, and a natural resources data system that can meet the needs of state agencies were studied. To accomplish these objectives, natural resources data sources were identified, and study of systems already in operation which address themselves to the more efficient utilization of natural resources oriented data was prepared.

  10. Finite element analysis of (SA) mechanoreceptors in tactile sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Syamimi; Yahud, S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the structural design of a fingertip model in order to analyse the sensory function of slow adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors by using the finite element analysis (FEA) method. A biologically inspired tactile sensor was designed to mimic a similar response of the human mechanoreceptors in the human glabrous skin. The simulation work was done by using COMSOL Multiphysics. The artificial skin was modelled as a solid square block of silicone elastomer with a semi cylinder protrusion on top. It was modelled as a nearly incompressible and linear hyperelastic material defined by Neo Hookean constitutive law. The sensing element on the other hand was modelled by using constantan alloy mimicking the SA1 receptor. Boundary loads of 1 N/m² to 4 N/m² with the increment of 1 N/m² were applied to the top surface of the protrusion in z and x-direction for normal and shear stress, respectively. The epidermal model base was constrained to maintain the same boundary conditions throughout all simulations. The changes of length experienced by the sensing element were calculated. The simulations result in terms of strain was identified. The simulated result was plotted in terms of sensing element strain against the boundary load and the graph should produce a linear response.

  11. A stochastic atmospheric model for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    There are many factors which reduce the accuracy of classification of objects in the satellite remote sensing of Earth's surface. One important factor is the variability in the scattering and absorptive properties of the atmospheric components such as particulates and the variable gases. For multispectral remote sensing of the Earth's surface in the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum the atmospheric particulates are a major source of variability in the received signal. It is difficult to design a sensor which will determine the unknown atmospheric components by remote sensing methods, at least to the accuracy needed for multispectral classification. The problem of spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric quantities which can affect the measured radiances are examined. A method based upon the stochastic nature of the atmospheric components was developed, and, using actual data the statistical parameters needed for inclusion into a radiometric model was generated. Methods are then described for an improved correction of radiances. These algorithms will then result in a more accurate and consistent classification procedure.

  12. Application of radar remote sensing in landslide geohazard risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Dongjian; He, Zhengwei; Hu, Deyong

    2011-10-01

    It is the difficulties to radar image interpretation, present remote sensing investigation and assessment of geohazard is mainly dependent on the high-resolution optical images, resulting in limited ability to extract surface information. The main advantage of radar is that it provides superior penetration capability under any type of weather condition, and can be used in the day or night time, rich image information and so on for the risk assessment of landslide, especially in geohazard emergency; optical image cannot match this advantage. The use of the "5.12" earthquake-induced landslide hazard for the research prototype, elaborate unique advantages and technical support role of remote sensing technology in landslide investigation and risk assessment, from the basic terrain data acquisition, disaster background analysis, interpretation of landslide hazard, monitoring, mapping, etc. Use of airborne and satellite radar remote sensing and Multi-source data to composite analysis of hazard information, indicates that the better interpretation effect by field investigation. The research results of this paper have great reference value to emergency disaster prevention and reduction of occurred frequent and dangerous geohazard.

  13. Using NASA Using Remote Sensing in Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety.

  14. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Miragliotta, Joseph; Osiander, Robert; Burnett, Jennifer; Dikmelik, Yamac; McEnnis, Caroline; Spicer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications. PMID:22399883

  15. New trends and applications of optical fiber sensing technologies at the NEL-FOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minghong; Huang, Chujia; Yuan, Yinquan; Ding, Liyun; Zhou, Ciming

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the recent development of optical fiber sensors at the National Engineering Laboratory for Optic Fiber Sensing Technologies (NEL-FOST) at Wuhan University of Technology. Integration of optical fiber with sensitive thin films will new possibilities for industry application, such as optical fiber hydrogen sensors based on Pt-doped WO3 coatings, fiber humidity sensors with porous oxide coating and high-temperature sapphire fiber sensors based on multilayer coating on fiber tip. Ultra-weak FBG array with thousand of FBGs with on-line draw tower technology will enable FBG sensing network with large capacity, also improved sensing performance and mechanical stability.

  16. The application of remote sensing techniques to selected inter and intra urban data acquisition problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    The utility of remote sensing techniques to urban data acquisition problems in several distinct areas was identified. This endeavor included a comparison of remote sensing systems for urban data collection, the extraction of housing quality data from aerial photography, utilization of photographic sensors in urban transportation studies, urban change detection, space photography utilization, and an application of remote sensing techniques to the acquisition of data concerning intra-urban commercial centers. The systematic evaluation of variable extraction for urban modeling and planning at several different scales, and the model derivation for identifying and predicting economic growth and change within a regional system of cities are also studied.

  17. The application of remote sensing to resource management and environmental quality programs in Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.; Martinko, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Activities of the Kansas Applied Remote Sensing Program (KARS) designed to establish interactions on cooperative projects with decision makers in Kansas agencies in the development and application of remote sensing procedures are reported. Cooperative demonstration projects undertaken with several different agencies involved three principal areas of effort: Wildlife Habitat and Environmental Analysis; Urban and Regional Analysis; Agricultural and Rural Analysis. These projects were designed to concentrate remote sensing concepts and methodologies on existing agency problems to insure the continued relevancy of the program and maximize the possibility for immediate operational use. Completed projects are briefly discussed.

  18. Self-sensing piezoresistive cantilever and its magnetic force microscopy applications.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ando, Kazunori; Shirakawabe, Yoshiharu

    2002-05-01

    A newly developed Si self-sensing piezoresistive cantilever is presented. Si piezoresistive cantilevers for scanning microscopy are fabricated by Si micro-machining technique. The sensitivity of the piezoresistive cantilever is comparable to the current laser detecting system. Topographic images are successfully obtained with the piezoresistive cantilever and some comparisons are made with the laser detecting system. Furthermore, the magnetic film (Co-Cr-Pt) is coated on the tip of the piezoresistive cantilever for magnetic force microscopy (MFM) application. The magnetic images are successfully obtained with the self-sensing MFM piezoresistive cantilever. The self-sensing piezoresistive cantilevers have been successfully applied in scanning probe microscopy and MFM. PMID:12211485

  19. The application of remote sensing techniques to inter and intra urban analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    This is an effort to assess the applicability of air and spaceborne photography toward providing data inputs to urban and regional planning, management, and research. Through evaluation of remote sensing inputs to urban change detection systems, analyzing an effort to replicate an existing urban land use data file using remotely sensed data, estimating population and dwelling units from imagery, and by identifying and evaluating a system of urban places ultilizing space photography, it was determined that remote sensing can provide data concerning land use, changes in commercial structure, data for transportation planning, housing quality, residential dynamics, and population density.

  20. Investigation of the application of remote sensing technology to environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Activities and results are reported of a project to investigate the application of remote sensing technology developed for the LACIE, AgRISTARS, Forestry and other NASA remote sensing projects for the environmental monitoring of strip mining, industrial pollution, and acid rain. Following a remote sensing workshop for EPA personnel, the EOD clustering algorithm CLASSY was selected for evaluation by EPA as a possible candidate technology. LANDSAT data acquired for a North Dakota test sight was clustered in order to compare CLASSY with other algorithms.

  1. Enhanced modes excitation in photonic crystal fiber by long-period gratings for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijie; Zhu, Yinian

    2016-03-01

    Evanescent-wave sensing platform is proposed by two interrogating schemes, core-cladding coupling and core-cladding-core coupling and re-coupling, in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) with long-period gratings (LPGs). The sensing characteristics are experimentally investigated by stress relaxation technique and point-by-point grating inscription via CO2 laser. It shows that the evanescent wave in cladding mode is significantly increased due to LPGs, compared with in core mode only. The introduced concept will further help explore the PCF evanescent-wave sensing and its applications.

  2. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing in Response to Meteorological Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Bell, Jordan R.; Schultz, Lori A.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Short-­-term Predic1on Research and Transi1on (SPoRT) Center supports the transi1on of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasing community. Our primary partners are NOAA's National Weather Service, their Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs), and National Centers. These organizations predict natural hazards and also assist in the disaster assessment process, benefiting from remotely sensed data. In 2013, SPoRT continued to transition high resolution satellite imagery, derived products, and value-­-added analysis to WFO partners and NASA's Applied Sciences Program.

  3. Synthesis and sensing application of large scale bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung Ju; Yoo, Jung Hoon; Baek, Seung Jae; Park, Yung Woo

    2012-02-01

    We have synthesized large scale bilayer graphene by using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) in atmospheric pressure. Bilayer graphene was grown by using CH4, H2 and Ar gases. The growth temperature was 1050^o. Conventional FET measurement shows ambipolar transfer characteristics. Results of Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force microscope (AFM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) indicate the film is bilayer graphene. Especially, adlayer structure which interrupt uniformity was reduced in low methane flow condition. Furthermore, large size CVD bilayer graphene film can be investigated to apply sensor devices. By using conventional photolithography process, we have fabricated device array structure and studied sensing behavior.

  4. Applications of densitometry in remote sensing learning experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of densitometry in remote sensing courses is provided. The use of a densitometer provides the student with a type of hands on experience in which direct manipulation of image products is involved, and the procedures are easily and quickly learned facilitating the collection and analysis of quantitative data on the radiometric properties of aerial photographs and satellite images. These data can then be used for examining relationships between image tones or colors and ground conditions. Suggestions regarding the selection of equipment and imagery are made.

  5. Remote sensing applications in marine science programs at VIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. H.; Penney, M. E.; Byrne, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Scientists at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) utilized remote sensing in three programs: (1) tonal variations in imagery of wetlands; (2) use of the thermal infrared to delineate the discharge cooling water at the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) nuclear power station on the James River; and (3) the use of aerial photography to determine the volume storage function for water in the marsh-bay complex fed by Wachapreague Inlet on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Details of the investigations are given, along with significant results.

  6. Wireless Structural Sensing for Health Monitoring and Control Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    The economic and societal impact of civil structures under-performing during large earthquakes can be significant. While in recent years the structural engineering community has made great strides in advancing knowledge of structural behavior under extreme loads, a need still exists for the rapid assessment of structural performance during seismic events. Numerous options are commercially available to facility owners who wish to install a structural monitoring system within their structures. However, these structural monitoring systems are defined by their use of coaxial cables for the transfer of response measurements from sensors to centralized data servers. The installation and maintenance of cables within a civil structure often drive system costs high thereby preventing widespread industry adoption. In response to these limitations, the integration of information technologies such as wireless communications and microcontrollers have been explored for the creation of alternative structural monitoring systems defined by low installation costs and decentralized computational frameworks. In particular, a novel wireless structural monitoring system assembled from a dense network of inexpensive wireless sensing units has been designed and fabricated. The wireless sensing unit architecture consists of three functional components: a data acquisition interface for the collection of data from attached sensors, a computational core for data interrogation, and a wireless communication channel for the transfer of data to the sensor network. The use of wireless modems drastically reduces the efforts and costs of system installations rendering the technology attractive for widespread adoption in a broad class of civil structures. A second innovation of the system is the inclusion of computational power within each wireless sensing unit allowing for local execution of embedded engineering analyses. In particular, analyses for the detection of damage in structures (structural

  7. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

  8. The application of remote sensing techniques: Technical and methodological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Capabilities and limitations of modern imaging electromagnetic sensor systems are outlined, and the products of such systems are compared with those of the traditional aerial photographic system. Focus is given to the interface between the rapidly developing remote sensing technology and the information needs of operational agencies, and communication gaps are shown to retard early adoption of the technology by these agencies. An assessment is made of the current status of imaging remote sensors and their potential for the future. Public sources of remote sensor data and several cost comparisons are included.

  9. Unmanned aircraft missions for rangeland remote sensing applications in the US National Airspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  10. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  11. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  12. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Dario; Belli, Claudio; Gioli, Beniamino; Miglietta, Franco; Ronchi, Cesare; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS) composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented.

  13. Applications of remote-sensing data in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    Public and private agencies were introduced to the use of remotely sensed data obtained by both satellite and aircraft, and benefitted from facilities for data processing enhancement and interpretation as well as from the institute's data library. Cooperative ventures involving the performance of operational activities included assistance to the Bureau of Land Management in the suppression of wildfires; the selection of sites for power line right-of-way; the mapping of leads in sea ice; determination of portions of public lands to be allocated for small scale farming; the identification of areas for large scale farming of barley; the observation of coastal processes and sediment transport near Prudhoe Bay; the establishment of a colar infrared file of the entire state; and photomapping for geological surveys. Monitoring of the outer continental shelf environment and reindeer herds was also conducted. Institutional constraints to full utilization of satellite remote sensing in the state are explored and plans for future activites include the generation of awareness by government agencies, the training of state personnel, and improving coordination and communication with users.

  14. Amorphous photonic membranes for broadband chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Sonja P.; Whaley, Ralph D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    While there has been extensive development on integrated sensors in the near-IR region due to the maturation of Si, SOI, and III-V materials, these technologies are not easily translated into the visible and near-UV regions which are critical for the detection of many chemicals of environmental and security interest. This work focuses on the use of wide bandgap, amorphous materials, specifically, amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO), amorphous hafnium oxide (a-HfO2) and amorphous beryllium zinc oxide (a-BeZnO), in the development of broadband chemical sensors operating at critical absorption lines spanning the near-UV (200 nm) to the near-IR (1.55 μm). The architecture employed for this research is a nanoscale membrane (typically 40 - 100 nm thick) that supports a guided low optical overlap mode (LOOM) - an optical mode in which approximately 1% of the electric field is confined to the lossy core region. The resulting extended mode has a greatly enhanced analyte overlap, yielding a device sensitivity (~70%) that is over an order of magnitude higher than current high-performance, dielectric evanescent wave sensors (~2%) as modeled by analytical and finite element methods. Due to the extended nature of the LOOM, sensing across the entire spectral range can be achieved with a single waveguide design - critical for multi-point chemical sensing architectures.

  15. Zinc oxide doped graphene oxide films for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetna, Kumar, Shani; Garg, A.; Chowdhuri, A.; Dhingra, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is analogous to graphene, but presence of many functional groups makes its physical and chemical properties essentially different from those of graphene. GO is found to be a promising material for low cost fabrication of highly versatile and environment friendly gas sensors. Selectivity, reversibility and sensitivity of GO based gas sensor have been improved by hybridization with Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The device is fabricated by spin coating of deionized water dispersed GO flakes (synthesized using traditional hummer's method) doped with Zinc Oxide on standard glass substrate. Since GO is an insulator and functional groups on GO nanosheets play vital role in adsorbing gas molecules, it is being used as an adsorber. Additionally, on being exposed to certain gases the electric and optical characteristics of GO material exhibit an alteration in behavior. For the conductivity, we use Zinc Oxide, as it displays a high sensitivity towards conduction. The effects of the compositions, structural defects and morphologies of graphene based sensing layers and the configurations of sensing devices on the performances of gas sensors were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Keithley Sourcemeter.

  16. Applications of remote sensing to wind power facility siting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, J. E.; Rosenfeld, C. L.; Maule, P. A.

    A method by which wind energy prospectors can use remote sensing to rapidly examine extensive geographical areas to identify potential wind turbine generators' sites is outlined. Remote sensing in wind prospecting is not being considered as a tool for determining wind power potential but, rather, as an aid in identifying terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric characteristics associated with desirable wind power sites. It is noted that locations with interesting features noted in a regional assessment can be more closely evaluated using medium-scale imagery, which can be acquired from a number of different agencies, among them the U.S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, Water and Power Resources and the Soil Conservation Service. Once specific locations have been identified from small- and medium-scale imagery, low-level aerial reconnaissance in a locally chartered aircraft can verify the information obtained. Wind-deformed trees, active slip faces on dunes, snow cornices, snow fences, and the slopes of ridges can be evaluated.

  17. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quorum-sensing of bacteria and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoliang; Su, Mingxia

    2009-12-01

    Quorum sensing, or auto induction, as a cell density dependent signaling mechanism in many microorganisms, is triggered via auto inducers which passively diffuse across the bacterial envelope and therefore intracellulaly accumulate only at higher bacterial densities to regulate specialized processes such as genetic competence, bioluminescence, virulence and sporulation. N-acyl homoserine lactones are the most common type of signal molecules. Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing food-producing industries, but disease outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria are a significant constraint on the development of the sector worldwide. Many of these pathogens have been found to be controlled by their quorum sensing systems. As there is relevance between the pathogenic bacteria's virulence factor expression and their auto inducers, quorum quenching is a new effective anti-infective strategy to control infections caused by bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. The techniques used to do this mainly include the following: (1) the inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis, (2) blocking signal transduction, and (3) chemical inactivation and biodegradation of signal molecules. To provide a basis for finding alternative means of controlling aquatic diseases by quorum quenching instead of treatment by antibiotics and disinfectants, we will discuss the examination, purification and identification of auto inducers in this paper.

  18. Array Independent Component Analysis with Application to Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuyeva, Irina A.

    2012-11-01

    There are three ways to learn about an object: from samples taken directly from the site, from simulation studies based on its known scientific properties, or from remote sensing images. All three are carried out to study Earth and Mars. Our goal, however, is to learn about the second largest storm on Jupiter, called the White Oval, whose characteristics are unknown to this day. As Jupiter is a gas giant and hundreds of millions of miles away from Earth, we can only make inferences about the planet from retrieval algorithms and remotely sensed images. Our focus is to find latent variables from the remotely sensed data that best explain its underlying atmospheric structure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is currently the most commonly employed technique to do so. For a data set with more than two modes, this approach fails to account for all of the variable interactions, especially if the distribution of the variables is not multivariate normal; an assumption that is rarely true of multispectral images. The thesis presents an overview of PCA along with the most commonly employed decompositions in other fields: Independent Component Analysis, Tucker-3 and CANDECOMP/PARAFAC and discusses their limitations in finding unobserved, independent structures in a data cube. We motivate the need for a novel dimension reduction technique that generalizes existing decompositions to find latent, statistically independent variables for one side of a multimodal (number of modes greater than two) data set while accounting for the variable interactions with its other modes. Our method is called Array Independent Component Analysis (AICA). As the main question of any decomposition is how to select a small number of latent variables that best capture the structure in the data, we extend the heuristic developed by Ceulemans and Kiers in [10] to aid in model selection for the AICA framework. The effectiveness of each dimension reduction technique is determined by the degree of

  19. Space-Time Data fusion for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, H.; Cressie, N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been collecting massive amounts of remote sensing data about Earth's systems for more than a decade. Missions are selected to be complementary in quantities measured, retrieval techniques, and sampling characteristics, so these datasets are highly synergistic. To fully exploit this, a rigorous methodology for combining data with heterogeneous sampling characteristics is required. For scientific purposes, the methodology must also provide quantitative measures of uncertainty that propagate input-data uncertainty appropriately. We view this as a statistical inference problem. The true but notdirectly- observed quantities form a vector-valued field continuous in space and time. Our goal is to infer those true values or some function of them, and provide to uncertainty quantification for those inferences. We use a spatiotemporal statistical model that relates the unobserved quantities of interest at point-level to the spatially aggregated, observed data. We describe and illustrate our method using CO2 data from two NASA data sets.

  20. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Economou, Sigrid A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Hemmings, Sarah N.; Kent, Shia T.; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Wade, Gina M.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  1. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Economou, Sigrid A; Estes, Maurice G; Estes, Sue M; Hemmings, Sarah N; Kent, Shia T; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A; Rickman, Douglas L; Wade, Gina M; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  2. Applications of remote sensing data to the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Iller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS program provides a means to overcome the formidable logistic and economic costs of preparing environmental surveys of the vast and relatively unexplored regions of Alaska. There is an excellent potential in satellite remote sensing to benefit Federal, state, local, and private agencies, by providing a new synoptic data base which is necessary for the preparation of the needed surveys and the search for solutions to environmental management problems. One approach in coupling satellite data to Alaskan problems is a major program initiated by the University of Alaska and funded by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This included 12 projects whose aims were to study the feasibility of applying ERTS data to the disciplines of ecology, agriculture, hydrology, wildlife management, oceanography, geology, glaciology, volcanology, and archaeology.

  3. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehr, J. P.; Hewson, I.; Moisander, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity), oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  4. Terahertz antiresonant reflecting hollow-core waveguides for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Borwen; Lu, Ja-Yu; Chan, Chi-Yu; Yu, Chin-Ping; Chen, Hao-Zai; Liu, Tze-An; Peng, Jin-Long

    2011-02-01

    A dielectric hollow-core tube utilized as a terahertz anti-resonant reflecting hollow-core waveguide (THz-ARRHW) sensor has been demonstrated to detect the minute variation of both refractive index and thickness in macromolecule layers, deposited on the tube wall, and to identify liquid vapors from the various core indices. The minimal quantity of macromolecule layers loaded on the tube wall of a polypropylene tube can be detected at 1.2picomole/mm2 and 0.2%, corresponding to the variation of 2.9μm-thickness and 0.001-refractive-index. And the sensing performance of a THz- ARRHW to detect core index variation for identifying volatile liquids is also realized at 0.0001g/cm3- vapor density.

  5. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing, summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    Health and its association with the physical environment was studied based on the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the man-made physical environment and health status of a population. The statistical technique of regression analysis was employed to show the degree of association and aspects of physical environment which accounted for the greater variation in health status. Mortality, venereal disease, tuberculosis, hepatitis, meningitis, shigella/salmonella, hypertension and cardiac arrest/myocardial infarction were examined. The statistical techniques were used to measure association and variation, not necessarily cause and effect. Conclusions drawn show that the association still exists in the decade of the 1970's and that it can be successfully monitored with the methodology of remote sensing.

  6. Remote Sensing of Arizona Monsoons: Application of GOES Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Cerveny, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large, violent thunder and dust storms occur in the Phoenix area during monsoon season. Currently, the best ways to predict these dangerous and potentially damaging storms are not very accurate. The primary goal of this investigation is to attempt to develop a new technique to identify and predict these storms before they reach Phoenix. In order to address this question, two data sets (remote sensing satellite imagery and ground-based weather information) will be analyzed and compared against one another using time as a corresponding variable. The goal is to discern any correlations between data sets which be used as an indicator of imminent large monsoons. The moisture needed for the storms is carried to Arizona by events known as gulf surges (from the California Gulf); these will be the target of investigation. These chutes of moisture surge through Arizona, primarily up through Yuma in a northeasterly direction towards central/south central Arizona. The main goal is to identify if satellite imagery can be used as an accurate identifier of moisture movements preceding a storm in areas where ground measurements are not available. Presently, ground measurements of dew points are the primary technique by which these moisture surges are identified. However, while these measurements do have a fairly high temporal resolution (once an hour) they cover an awfully poor spacial range. Furthermore, it is suspected that because of interference to the instruments, the ground point data may not be as accurate as is preferred. On the other hand, satellite imagery such as GOES - the instrument used in this investigation - has both a remarkably high temporal resolution and spacial coverage. If a correlation can be demonstrated, then the high temporal resolution of the remote sensing data could be used as an identifier of oncoming monsoon storms. In order to proceed in this research, a software package known as Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS) for

  7. Application of an ADS-B Sense and Avoid Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Kotcher, Robert; Cavalin, Moshe; Dandachy, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California is leading a program aimed towards integrating unmanned aircraft system into the national airspace system (UAS in the NAS). The overarching goal of the program is to reduce technical barriers associated with related safety issues as well as addressing challenges that will allow UAS routine access to the national airspace. This research paper focuses on three novel ideas: (1) A design of an integrated UAS equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast that constructs a more accurate state-based airspace model; (2) The use of Stratway Algorithm in a real-time environment; and (3) The verification and validation of sense and avoid performance and usability test results which provide a pilot's perspective on how our system will benefit the UAS in the NAS program for both piloted and unmanned aircraft.

  8. Remote Sensing Application in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Oleg; Aloltsov, Alexander; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The main environmental problems of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (a federal subject of Russia) related to the activities of oil and gas industry (82 active companies which hold 77,000 oil wells). As on the 1st of January 2013 the subject produces more than 50% of all oil in Russia. The principle of environmental responsibility makes it necessary to minimize human impact and ecological impact. One of the most effective tools for environmental monitoring is remote sensing. The main advantages of such approach are: wide coverage of areas of interest, high temporal resolution, precise location, automatic processing, large set of extracted parameters, etc. Authorities of KhMAO are interested in regular detection of the impact on the environment by processing satellite data and plan to increase the coverage from 434.9 to 659.9 square kilometers with resolution not less than 10 m/pixel. Years of experience of our company shows the significant potential to expand the use of such remote sensing data in the solution of environmental problems. The main directions are: monitoring of rational use of associated petroleum gas (detection of all gas flares and volumes of burned gas), monitoring of soil pollution (detection of areas of oil pollution, assess of the extent of pollution, planning of reclamation activities and assessment of their efficiency, detection of potential areas of pipelines corrosion), monitoring of status of sludge pits (inventory of all sludge pits, assessment of their liquidation), monitoring of technogenic impact (detection of changes), upgrading of a geospatial database (topographic map of not less than 1:50000 scale). Implementation of modeling, extrapolation and remote analysis techniques based on satellite images will help to reduce unnecessary costs for instrumental methods. Thus, the introduction of effective remote monitoring technology to the activity of oil and gas companies promotes environmental responsibility of these companies.

  9. Application of Remote Sensing Technologies for Forest Cover Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agoltsov, Alexander; Sizov, Oleg; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Today we don't have full and reliable information about forests in Russia, so it is impossible to make any well-timed decision for forest management. Update of all this information by means of traditional methods (fieldwork) is a time-consuming and in fact impossible task. Also we do not think that using of the reports without objective information for cameral data actualization is an appropriate method in such situation. So our company uses remote sensing data and technologies to resolve this problem. Nowadays numerous satellites record numerous images every day. Remote sensing data are widespread and accessible, so we can use them as the source of actual and reliable information about current status of the Forest Fund. Furthermore regular monitoring allows extracting the information about the location and intensity of forests' changes like degradation and destruction. First of all we create a georeferenced data set to cover the area of interest with orthomosaic in targeting scale depending on the goals of the project (1:25 000 - 1:10 000). For example, we can do a mosaic from RapidEye (Germany) imagery with GSD = 6.5 m or from WorldView-2 (USA) imagery with GSD = 0.5 m. The next step is to create vector layers to describe the content of images. We use visual and contemporary automatic interpretation techniques. The benefit of such approach that we can extract not only information about forests (like boundary) but also the information about roads, hydrographic objects, power lines and so on. During vectorization except relevant orthomosaic we can use multi-temporal composites of images based on archive of satellite imagery. This helps us not only to detect general changes but detect illegal logging, areas affected by fires, windfalls. Then this information can be used for different products e.g. forest cover statistics, forest cover change statistics, maps of forest management and also we can analyze transport accessibility and economic assessment of forests.

  10. National space programmes and application of the remote sensing data in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarch, Mendbayariin

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the remote sensing satellite data application in Mongolia is presented. The application area is as follows: (1) the operation of meteorological satellite data acquisition station in receiving data from the U.S. and former USSR satellites; (2) establishment and operation of the meteorological rocket exploration station; and (3) establishment of the National Remote Sensing Center. An overview of the activities of the Center in the following areas is presented: (1) development of domestic capability to examine, classify, and monitor the natural resources; (2) monitoring of natural disasters such as cyclones, drought, forest fires, hurricanes, and air pollution; and (3) examples of remote sensing data application to natural disaster monitoring, geology, hydrology, and environment control.

  11. NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory - Seventeen years of using remotely sensed satellite data in land applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cashion, Kenneth D.; Whitehurst, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The activities of the Earth Resources Laboratoy (ERL) for the past seventeen years are reviewed with particular reference to four typical applications demonstrating the use of remotely sensed data in a geobased information system context. The applications discussed are: a fire control model for the Olympic National Park; wildlife habitat modeling; a resource inventory system including a potential soil erosion model; and a corridor analysis model for locating routes between geographical locations. Some future applications are also discussed.

  12. Application of remote sensing to state and regional problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Clark, J. R.; Solomon, J. L.; Duffy, B.; Minchew, K.; Wright, L. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The objectives, accomplishments, and future plans of several LANDSAT applications projects in Mississippi are discussed. The applications include land use planning in Lowandes County, strip mine inventory and reclamation, white tailed deer habitat evaluation, data analysis support systems, discrimination of forest habitats in potential lignite areas, changes in gravel operations, and determination of freshwater wetlands for inventory and monitoring. In addition, a conceptual design for a LANDSAT based information system is discussed.

  13. Applications of high-resolution remote sensing image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Leckie, D.; Miller, J.; Buxton, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are many situations in which the image resolution of satellite data is insufficient to provide the detail required for resource management and environmental monitoring. This paper will focus on applications of high-resolution (0.4 to 10 m) airborne multispectral and imaging spectrometer data acquired in Canada using the MEIS II multispectral line imager and the PMI imaging spectrometer. Applications discussed will include forestry, mapping, and geobotany.

  14. Integration of thin films with fiber micro-structures for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minghong; Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilin

    2013-06-01

    The combination of fiber optics with micro-structure technologies and sensitive thin films offers great potential for the realization of novel sensor concepts. Minitured optical fiber sensors with thin films as sensitive elements could open new fields for optical fiber sensor applications. Thin films work as sensitive elements and transducer to get response and feedback from environments, optical fiber here are employed to signal carrier. This paper reviews some works on the integration of thin films with fiber micro-structures for sensing application, which are currently conducted at the National Engineering Laboratory for Fiber Optic Sensing Technologies, Wuhan University of Technology.

  15. Distributed sensing with OFDR and its application to structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hideaki; Igawa, Hirotaka; Omichi, Koji; Machijima, Yuichi

    2011-05-01

    Optical fiber sensors are promised candidates as sensor elements in structural health monitoring (SHM). Especially fiber-optic distributed strain sensors that return a strain value as a function of linear position along an optical fiber have been attractive for people in the field of SHM. We have developed a distributed strain sensing system using long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). We employ long-length FBGs whose length is about 100 mm and the sensing region, in other words the gauge length, can be expanded up to more than 1 m by serially-cascaded long-length FBGs. This sensing system has the high spatial resolution of less than 1 mm. In this paper the distributed sensing system with OFDR and its application to SHM are described.

  16. Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-east Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast Asia is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast Asia; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.

  17. Research On Fiber Optic Sensing Systems And Their Application As Final Repository Monitoring Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Jobmann, M.; Biurrun, E.

    2003-02-24

    For several years, fiber-optic sensing devices had been used for straightforward on/off monitoring functions such as presence and position detection. Recently, they gained interest as they offer a novel, exciting technology for a multitude of sensing applications. In the deep geological environment most physical properties, and thus most parameters important to safety, can be measured with fiber-optic technology. Typical examples are displacements, strains, radiation dose and dose rate, presence of some gases, temperature, pressure, etc. Their robustness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, as well as their large bandwidths and data rates ensure high reliability and superior performance. Moreover, the networking capabilities of meanwhile available fiber-optic sensors allow for efficient management of large sensor systems. Distributed sensing with multiple sensing locations on a single fiber reduces significantly the number of cables and connecting points. Reliable, cost effective, and maintenance-free solutions can thus be implemented.

  18. On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This research is directed toward development of a practical, operational remote sensing water quality monitoring system. To accomplish this, five fundamental aspects of the problem have been under investigation during the past three years. These are: (1) development of practical and economical methods of obtaining, handling and analyzing remote sensing data; (2) determination of the correlation between remote sensed imagery and actual water quality parameters; (3) determination of the optimum technique for monitoring specific water pollution parameters and for evaluating the reliability with which this can be accomplished; (4) determination of the extent of masking due to depth of penetration, bottom effects, film development effects, and angle falloff, and development of techniques to eliminate or minimize them; and (5) development of operational procedures which might be employed by a municipal, state or federal agency for the application of remote sensing to water quality monitoring, including space-generated data.

  19. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  20. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Monitoring the Ancient Countryside: Remote Sensing and GIS at the Chora of Chersonesos (Crimea, Ukraine). Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Management Decision Support in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Republic of Benin). Monitoring of deforestation invasion in natural reserves of northern Madagascar based on space imagery. Cartography of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Cartography and Land Use Change of World Heritage Areas and the Benefits of Remote Sensing and GIS for Conservation. Assessing and Monitoring Vegetation in Nabq Protected Area, South Sinai, Egypt, using combine approach of Satellite Imagery and Land Surveys. Evaluation of forage resources in semi-arid savannah environments with satellite imagery: contribution to the management of a protected area (Nakuru National Park) in Kenya. SOGHA, the Surveillance of Gorilla Habitat in World Heritage sites using Space Technologies. Application of Remote Sensing to monitor the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (France). Application of Remote Sensing & GIS for the Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Social and Environmental monitoring of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: Case Study over the Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald Parks using Corona and Spot Imagery. Satellite Remote Sensing as tool to Monitor Indian Reservation in the Brazilian Amazonia. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Monitoring UNESCO World Heritage Sites - A Pilot Project. Urban Green Spaces: Modern Heritage. Monitoring of the technical condition of the St. Sophia Cathedral and related monastic buildings in Kiev with Space Applications, geo-positioning systems and GIS tools. The Murghab delta palaeochannel Reconstruction on the Basis of Remote Sensing from Space. Acquisition, Registration and Application of IKONOS Space Imagery for the cultural World Heritage site at Mew, Turkmenistan. Remote Sensing and VR applications for the reconstruction of archaeological landscapes

  1. Stimuli-responsive photoacoustic nanoswitch for in vivo sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenneth K; Shakiba, Mojdeh; Huynh, Elizabeth; Weersink, Robert A; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2014-08-26

    Photoacoustic imaging provides high-resolution images at depths beyond the optical diffusion limit. To broaden its utility, there is need for molecular sensors capable of detecting environmental stimuli through alterations in photoacoustic signal. Photosynthetic organisms have evolved ingenious strategies to optimize light absorption through nanoscale ordered dye aggregation. Here, we use this concept to synthesize a stimuli-responsive nanoswitch with a large optical absorbance and sensing capabilities. Ordered dye aggregation between light-harvesting porphyrins was achieved through intercalation within thermoresponsive nanovesicles. This causes an absorbance red-shift of 74 nm and a 2.7-fold increase in absorptivity of the Qy-band, with concomitant changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. This spectral feature can be reversibly switched by exceeding a temperature threshold. Using this thermochromic property, we noninvasively determined a localized temperature change in vivo, relevant for monitoring thermal therapies of solid tumors. Similar strategies may be applied alongside photoacoustic imaging, to detect other stimuli such as pH and enzymatic activity. PMID:25046406

  2. New spectral methods in cloud and aerosol remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. Sebastian; McBride, Patrick; Pilewskie, Peter; Feingold, Graham; Jiang, Hongli

    2010-05-01

    We present new remote sensing techniques that rely on spectral observations of clouds and aerosols in the solar wavelength range. As a first example, we show how the effects of heterogeneous clouds, aerosols of changing optical properties, and the surface within one pixel can be distinguished by means of their spectral signatures. This example is based on data from the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS, Houston, Texas, 2006), Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of polluted boundary layer clouds, and 3-dimensional radiative transfer calculations. In a second example, we show that the uncertainty of cloud retrievals can be improved considerably by exploiting the spectral information around liquid water absorption features in the near-infrared wavelength range. This is illustrated with spectral transmittance data from the NOAA International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT, 2008). In contrast to reflected radiance, transmitted radiance is only weakly sensitive to cloud effective drop radius, and only cloud optical thickness can be obtained from the standard dual-channel technique. We show that effective radius and liquid water path can also be retrieved with the new spectral approach, and validate our results with microwave liquid water path measurements.

  3. Geological applications of machine learning on hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, C. H.; Li, Yi-liang; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2015-02-01

    The CRISM imaging spectrometer orbiting Mars has been producing a vast amount of data in the visible to infrared wavelengths in the form of hyperspectral data cubes. These data, compared with those obtained from previous remote sensing techniques, yield an unprecedented level of detailed spectral resolution in additional to an ever increasing level of spatial information. A major challenge brought about by the data is the burden of processing and interpreting these datasets and extract the relevant information from it. This research aims at approaching the challenge by exploring machine learning methods especially unsupervised learning to achieve cluster density estimation and classification, and ultimately devising an efficient means leading to identification of minerals. A set of software tools have been constructed by Python to access and experiment with CRISM hyperspectral cubes selected from two specific Mars locations. A machine learning pipeline is proposed and unsupervised learning methods were implemented onto pre-processed datasets. The resulting data clusters are compared with the published ASTER spectral library and browse data products from the Planetary Data System (PDS). The result demonstrated that this approach is capable of processing the huge amount of hyperspectral data and potentially providing guidance to scientists for more detailed studies.

  4. Background data collection suite for atmospheric remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarevich, A. K.; Oursler, D. A.; Baldwin, K. C.

    2006-05-01

    In developing algorithms for remote sensing of chemical and biological warfare agents, it is imperative to have a good understanding of the background radiance signal and environmental characteristics that influence detection. Factors such as thermal contrast, interferent atmospheric constituents, spatial clutter, and temporal variations should all be investigated for both the development and performance modeling of field sensors. To aid in the investigation of these topics as well as to provide data for current simulation tools, JHU/APL has constructed an automated data collection suite capable of simultaneous radiometric measurements in the longwave IR (8μm - 12μm) and midwave IR (3μm - 5μm) while also measuring a host of relevant atmospheric parameters. The primary radiometric sensor, an ABB Bomem MR304, is mounted on a pan/tilt system that is used to scan regions of interest while periodically generating calibration data. This paper describes the system design requirements, specifications of the individual components, and the overall system performance. In addition, data from field exercises are presented.

  5. Remote sensing for forest resource assessment: applications to carbon management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, S. J.; Conn, C.; Wolf, J.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service and the State of Maryland's Department of Natural Resources have initiated an assessment of forest resources in Maryland, and across the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. This Strategic Forest Lands Assessment (SFLA) uses remote sensing and geographic information systems analyses to conduct ecological, socioeconomic and vulnerability assessments in support of resource management activities and forest product based economies. As part of this activity we are modeling net primary productivity of the region, and producing maps of land cover type - including the proportion of subpixel tree cover from Landsat7 imagery. These map products are being used in several programs to assess forest cover change, relationships with standing carbon stocks, and to target lands for a combination of ecological protection and economic resource extraction, as well as carbon sequestration. These efforts not only provide critical data sets and derived products used as decision tools for forest conservation, restoration and enhancement, but also advance efforts to promote sustainable forestry activities. The forest management efforts are designed to optimize carbon sink strategies and reduce atmospheric carbon pools. By using a combination of estimated, simulated and measured biomass and productivity, and timber removal estimates from Forest Inventory Analysis, we can determine where carbon sequestration can be maximized and sustainable forestry activities can be encouraged. The effects of these forest management activities, both past and present, and changes in forest cover, can have substantial impacts on regional carbon sequestration.

  6. High T(sub c) leads for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selim, R.; Caton, R.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Hooker, M. W.; Wise, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Several NASA programs designed to monitor the Earth's atmosphere from space utilize infrared detectors which operate at or below 4.2 K for optimum performance. At present, the detectors are maintained at cryogenic temperatures by a stored volume of liquid helium. These detectors must be electrically linked to amplification electronics data storage instruments maintained at 80 K. The electrical connections over the temperature gradient account for approximately 20% of the total heat load on the Dewar for some systems, accelerating the boil-off of liquid helium cryogen and reducing the operational lifetime of the space-borne instruments. The recent discovery of high temperature superconductors has provided an opportunity to develop electrically conductive, thermally insulating links to bridge this thermal gradient. This paper describes the modelling of the thermal transport properties of thick film, high T(sub c) electrical bridges across a 4.2-80 K temperature gradient and the impact of such devices on a spaceborne remote sensing system.

  7. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications.

    PubMed

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Sonkusale, Sameer; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin's physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic nonhealing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous pH measurement can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, pH-responsive hydrogel fibers are presented that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. pH-responsive dyes are loaded into mesoporous microparticles and incorporated into hydrogel fibers using a microfluidic spinning system. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel-based wound dressings with clinically relevant dimensions. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process. PMID:26799457

  8. Optimization of a radiative membrane for gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Anthony; Boutami, Salim; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Benisty, Henri

    2014-05-01

    To engineer a cheap, portable and low-power optical gas sensor, incandescent sources are more suitable than expensive quantum cascade lasers and low-efficiency light-emitting diodes. Such sources of radiation have already been realized, using standard MEMS technology, consisting in free standing circular micro-hotplates. This paper deals with the design of such membranes in order to maximize their wall-plug efficiency. Specification constraints are taken into account, including available energy per measurement and maximum power delivered by the electrical supply source. The main drawback of these membranes is known to be the power lost through conduction to the substrate, thus not converted in (useful) radiated power. If the membrane temperature is capped by technological requirements, radiative flux can be favored by increasing the membrane radius. However, given a finite amount of energy, the larger the membrane and its heat capacity, the shorter the time it can be turned on. This clearly suggests that an efficiency optimum has to be found. Using simulations based on a spatio-temporal radial profile, we demonstrate how to optimally design such membrane systems, and provide an insight into the thermo-optical mechanisms governing this kind of devices, resulting in a nontrivial design with a substantial benefit over existing systems. To further improve the source, we also consider tailoring the membrane stack spectral emissivity to promote the infrared signal to be sensed as well as to maximize energy efficiency.

  9. Advanced Magnetoresistance Sensing of Rotation Rate for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, Marioara; Volmer, Marius; Avram, Andrei

    2008-06-01

    We propose to build a non-Newtonian fluids viscosimeter, in order to measure the viscosity of biological fluids such as blood. The system is based on a rotating microgear wheel and a magnetoresistive sensor with a non-contacting transduction mechanism to transform the rotor rotation rate into an electrical signal. As the rotor turns, the field from this microscopic magnet will modulate the resistance of a bar of a low coercitivity material such as Permalloy, with an in-plane uniaxial magnetization, placed nearby, close to the rotor flanges. The change in resistivity provides an electrical signal with frequency proportional to the rotation rate, and hence the fluid velocity. The rotor is fabricated from polysilicon and coated with a soft magnetic material. The magnetoresistive sensor is formed of two Wheatstone bridges orientated on the X and Y axes. As the microgear wheel rotates, a tooth passing by the sensing GMR of the Wheatstone bridge changes the magnetic field, thus enabling us to measure the velocity of the gear wheel. The gear wheel has the outer diameter of 200 μm and is obtained by using the cut and refill technique. The basis for fabrication of movable parts is the use of sacrificial layers that act both as spacers and also to keep the parts attached to the silicon wafer during fabrication.

  10. GMG - A guaranteed global optimization algorithm: Application to remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    D'Helon, Cassius; Protopopescu, Vladimir A; Wells, Jack C; Barhen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the role of additional information in reducing the computational complexity of the global optimization problem (GOP). Following this approach, we develop GMG -- an algorithm to find the Global Minimum with a Guarantee. The new algorithm breaks up an originally continuous GOP into a discrete (grid) search problem followed by a descent problem. The discrete search identifies the basin of attraction of the global minimum after which the actual location of the minimizer is found upon applying a descent algorithm. The algorithm is first applied to the golf course problem, which serves as a litmus test for its performance in the presence of both complete and degraded additional information. GMG is further assessed on a set of standard benchmark functions. We then illustrate the performance of the the validated algorithm on a simple realization of the monocular passive ranging (MPR) problem in remote sensing, which consists of identifying the range of an airborne target (missile, plane, etc.) from its observed radiance. This inverse problem is set as a GOP whereby the difference between the observed and model predicted radiances is minimized over the possible ranges and atmospheric conditions. We solve the GOP using GMG and report on the performance of the algorithm.

  11. Renewable resource applications of remote sensing in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R. M.; Calabrese, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A number of renewable resource applications in the areas of agriculture, land, and water are summarized; and some of the current and future research efforts designed to enhance the utility of this tool are explored. Programs to incorporate microwave sensors with higher resolutions into the resource planning and management processes are also considered. Particular consideration is given to experience with LACIE and AgRISTARS; the current hydrologic land use, watershed physiography, and snow covered area applications of Landsat; and land cover mapping with MSS technology. Needed improvements are discussed with regard to goals of fundamental research, data acquisition requirements, and data handling and merging with other data sources.

  12. Engineered nanomaterials for biophotonics applications: improving sensing, imaging, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    West, Jennifer L; Halas, Naomi J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in chemistry and physics are providing an expanding array of nanostructured materials with unique and powerful optical properties. These nanomaterials provide a new set of tools that are available to biomedical engineers, biologists, and medical scientists who seek new tools as biosensors and probes of biological fluids, cells, and tissue chemistry and function. Nanomaterials are also being used to develop optically controlled devices for applications such as modulated drug delivery as well as optical therapeutics. This review discusses applications that have been successfully demonstrated using nanomaterials including semiconductor nanocrystals, gold nanoparticles, gold nanoshells, and silver plasmon resonant particles. PMID:14527314

  13. Developing Remote Sensing Applications Through an Engineering Life Cycle Development Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, S.; Gilruth, P.

    2005-12-01

    Remote sensing applications have become an integral part of several federal and state government agencies for the monitoring and management of natural resources, land use planning and disaster mitigation. Traditionally, remote sensing applications were developed within the academic research community and these algorithms were adopted by the users for various applications. However, it is not a common practice within the academic environment to involve the end users in all stages of the research and development process. During 2000-2005, NASA funded several remote sensing application development projects under the Synergy program to promote the use of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite data within the federal, state and local agencies. Several universities were funded around the US to develop applications in precision agriculture, management of water and other natural resources, urban planning, disaster mitigation and human health. Each application was aimed at providing spatial datasets derived from EOS satellites as decision aid tools for users within various agencies. One of the important lessons learned within this project was that a planned life cycle development improves the transition of remote sensing research to operations. The application lifecycle can be broadly divided into three stages: user needs and technical feasibility analysis, prototype development, and production and deployment. There are several checks within each phase to ensure that the final operational system adequately meets users needs. Metrics were instituted to track how the applications were being used and to plan improvements. While metrics such as web hits and data downloads could be automated and quantified, other metrics such as benefits to society and environment, impacts on policy, and other institutional benefits were difficult to quantify and monetize. Nonetheless, the metrics were useful for project management and to achieve project goals. Specific examples of applications

  14. Application of remote sensing to state and regional programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Carter, B. D.; Pettry, D. E.; Higgs, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    The problem includes data acquisition and transformation to products acceptable to the users. Optimized institutionalization of data management, product transfer, and education of the user community are also of major concern. With respect to the lattice, various structures were suggested and the fields of application are presented.

  15. Application of terrestrial microwave remote sensing to agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-zone soil moisture information is a valuable diagnostic for detecting the onset and severity of agricultural drought. Current attempts to globally monitor root-zone soil moisture are generally based on the application of soil water balance models driven by observed meteorological variables. Suc...

  16. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x < 2) currently used in the bolometer industry have a magnitude of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 2%/K -- 3%/K. In contrast, thin films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity < 2,300 O--cm and a normalized Hooge's parameter 'alphaH/n' < 2 x 10-20 cm3. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have

  17. Optimization of design parameters for bulk micromachined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belwanshi, Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Finite element analysis study has been carried out to optimize the design parameters for bulk micro-machined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing applications. The design is targeted for measurement of pressure up to 200 bar for nuclear reactor applications. The mechanical behavior of bulk micro-machined silicon membranes in terms of deflection and stress generation has been simulated. Based on the simulation results, optimization of the membrane design parameters in terms of length, width and thickness has been carried out. Subsequent to optimization of membrane geometrical parameters, the dimensions and location of the high stress concentration region for implantation of piezoresistors have been obtained for sensing of pressure using piezoresistive sensing technique.

  18. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Platforms: Engineered Surface Chemistry and Structure for Optical Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kumeria, Tushar; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical anodization of pure aluminum enables the growth of highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) structures. This has made NAA one of the most popular nanomaterials with applications including molecular separation, catalysis, photonics, optoelectronics, sensing, drug delivery, and template synthesis. Over the past decades, the ability to engineer the structure and surface chemistry of NAA and its optical properties has led to the establishment of distinctive photonic structures that can be explored for developing low-cost, portable, rapid-response and highly sensitive sensing devices in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and reflective interference spectroscopy (RIfS) techniques. This review article highlights the recent advances on fabrication, surface modification and structural engineering of NAA and its application and performance as a platform for SPR- and RIfS-based sensing and biosensing devices. PMID:25004150

  19. Practical applications of low, medium, and high altitude aircraft remote sensing data to land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drackett, K.; Gregg, T. W. D.; Bale, J.

    1975-01-01

    Remotely sensed data is gaining wider acceptance in land use planning activities because of several inherent advantages offered by the technology. Scope of applications have increased to meet planners broadening responsibilities and needs for more comprehensive and specific information in response to new legislative mandates. Specific data needs associated with the land use planning process are varied. To illustrate how remote sensing surveys can be designed to meet a variety of goals at several planning levels, specific examples of the use of remotely sensed data and analysis techniques in four planning oriented land use surveys are discussed. These examples illustrate the use of aerial photography at the state planning level in Maryland and county level in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. Special applications of aerial photography are demonstrated by energy planning in San Bernardino County, California and water management planning in New Castle County, Delaware.

  20. Advances in the development of remote sensing technology for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, J. E.; Erb, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Macdonald, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of remote sensing technology to crop forecasting is discussed. The importance of crop forecasts to the world economy and agricultural management is explained, and the development of aerial and spaceborne remote sensing for global crop forecasting by the United States is outlined. The structure, goals and technical aspects of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) are presented, and main findings on the accuracy, efficiency, applicability and areas for further study of the LACIE procedure are reviewed. The current status of NASA crop forecasting activities in the United States and worldwide is discussed, and the objectives and organization of the newly created Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing (AgRISTARS) program are presented.

  1. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Flynn, Eric B; Mascarenas, David L; Todd, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A new wireless sensing network paradigm is presented for structural monitoring applications. In this approach, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to sensor nodes to perform intended interrogations, which can alleviate several limitations of the traditional sensing networks. Furthermore, the mobile agent provides computational power to make near real-time assessments on the structural conditions. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which are used to interrogate impedance-based sensors for structural health monitoring applications. Our wireless sensor node is specifically designed to accept various energy sources, including wireless energy transmission, and to be wirelessly triggered on an as-needed basis by the mobile agent or other sensor nodes. The capabilities of this proposed sensing network paradigm are demonstrated in the laboratory and the field.

  2. Polyaniline-lead titanate composites for humidity sensing and EMI shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, Aarushi; Thomas, Jocelyn T.; Fathima, Hana; V, Suveetha; Faisal, Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports the humidity sensing and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of synthesized polyaniline-lead titanate (PANi/PbTiO3) composites. The humidity sensing of the PAni/PbTiO3 composites was discussed in terms of change in direct current (DC) resistance with respect to percentage relative humidity (% RH) ranging from 20% to 90%. The EMI shielding properties of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz (X-band), relevant for practical applications. The composites showed shielding effectiveness (SE) in the range -29 dB to -34 dB and the variations in the shielding effectiveness with the frequency was minimal at a fixed composition. The observed effective humidity sensing and EMI shielding properties highlights the prospects of multifunctional applications of these composites.

  3. REVIEW OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES AND DATA FOR DOE-EM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    Various governmental agencies and private companies throughout the world are involved in remote sensing activities. Remote sensing is a technology used for the purpose of monitoring the earth's environment, keeping track of the earth's resources, and for agricultural vegetation monitoring, among other things. There is a vast number of remote sensing technologies and data already commercially available for different applications (e.g., environmental, agricultural, and so on). Many entities are actively conducting research to generate new technologies and data (e.g., NASA). In addition, some of DOE's offices and programs have engaged in collection and analysis of remote sensing data. It is likely that some of these technologies and data could be useful for characterization and monitoring of EM's sites. Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) has reviewed remote sensing technologies and data that are currently available or in an advanced research state. The review focused on the technologies and data applicable to the environmental field. DOE has over 800 national laboratories and sites dispersed throughout the United States. involved in some current and past remote sensing projects. FIU-HCET personnel have searched governmental agency databases (e.g., DOE, NASA), the Internet, and library resources to obtain information about these technologies and generated a user-friendly database. This review km also produced an inventory and will be available on the Internet and on a CD-ROM that can be distributed to individuals or entities requesting information on remote sensing technologies and data for environmental applications. This database contains information regarding each technology, such as type of sensor, applications, and technical specifications (e.g., resolution). To the best of FIU-HCET's knowledge, a database of this type and with this level of detail does not exist within DOE. With the amount of remote

  4. Suspended core photonic microcells for sensing and device applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Jin, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Ying; Ho, Hoi Lut; Shi, Xin

    2013-06-01

    In-line fiber-optic microcells are fabricated by postprocessing NKT LMA10 photonic crystal fibers. The cells are suspended core (SC) elements created by locally inflating some of the air holes while the core is being tapered. Based on a SC microcell with six air holes, a cantilever beam accelerometer is demonstrated. The microcells could also be used as gain and absorption cells for amplifier and spectroscopy applications. PMID:23722776

  5. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

    2004-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

  6. Application of the Development in Environment Measurement and Sensibility Nano-Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kazutoshi; Aizawa, Hidenobu

    Recently, environmental pollution is social problem with nano materials and food contamination is a new social problem. On the other hand, the complaint related to the offensive odor in Japan exceeded 20,000 affairs in 1998, and these problems are not solved. The odor sensing system for detecting and control an offensive odor at an early stage is required. The sensing system using the sense of odor known as one of the fifth senses of human is proposed to these demands. Especially as for e-NOSE system, application will be expected from now on in many fields, such as medical diagnosis, health monitoring, environment, food, robot and a car. The sensing technology in which an electrochemical sensor called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is mainly used is making detection mechanisms, such as an electrode and a detection thin film on the nano-level. Therefore, detection films of sensor depend on the characteristic of the sensing devices using on material and processing technology. That the new technology sensor is asked can detect extremely low concentration from ppm to ppb level, and it is the sensor with low influence of environment, such as a gas of the outside for detection, temperature and humidity.

  7. Ultra High Quality Factor Microtoroid for Chemical and Biomedical Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woosung

    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities have drawn attentions in various types of sensing, such as chemical- and bio-sensing. Even though various types of microcavity geometries have been investigated, research about on-chip WGM toroidal resonator has been discontinued for the sensing applications in aquatic environment. The strong benefits of the microtoroid are ultra-high-Q and small mode volume leading to high sensitivity to small change of environment, surrounding media refractive index change or light scatterer induced effective refractive index change. By using this ultra high-Q WGM resonator, radius >75nm polystyrene nanoparticle are detected in aquatic environment. In addition to polystyrene nanoparticle sensing, individual synthetic hemozoin crystals are detected and its size is measured. The hemozoin crystal sensing ultimately leads to malaria infection diagnose. A sol-gel method fabricated microlaser, co-work with Lina He, extended the sensing capability, detecting >30nm radius polystyrene nanoparticle. Since the water experiment is challenging and tackling the difficulty is main task, theoretical investigations are performed about WGM resonance quality factor, resonator mode volume, and noise to minimum detectable particle size. The research described in this dissertation will shed light on advanced chemical- and bio-sensor developments.

  8. The application of remote sensing to the development and formulation of hydrologic planning models: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the reduction of remotely sensed data and its application in hydrologic land use assessment, surface water inventory, and soil property studies are presented. LANDSAT data is used to provide quantitative parameters and coefficients to construct watershed transfer functions for a hydrologic planning model aimed at estimating peak outflow from rainfall inputs.

  9. Remote-sensing applications as utilized in Florida's coastal zone management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Land use maps were developed from photomaps obtained by remote sensing in order to develop a comprehensive state plan for the protection, development, and zoning of coastal regions. Only photographic remote sensors have been used in support of the coastal council's planning/management methodology. Standard photointerpretation and cartographic application procedures for map compilation were used in preparing base maps.

  10. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in land-use and land-cover inventory tasks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.

    1978-01-01

    The bibliography contains more than 300 citations of selected publications on the application of remote-sensing techniques to regional and metropolitan land-use and land-cover inventroy and analysis tasks.  Most of the citations were published between January 1968 and June 1977, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  11. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare pixel sampling with plot-scale metrics for the remo...

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing for water quality applications in Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water quality measurements are relevant to control and prevent the pollution of surface water essential for human use. Previous studies have used standard methods of water sampling to estimate water quality parameters. Nevertheless those methods are extremely expensive and time-consuming and do not provide information for an entire water body. Hence it is important to implement techniques that allow for the monitoring of water quality parameters in a timely and cost-effective manner, and remote sensing represents a feasible alternative. This study focuses on the largest algal bloom affecting Lake Atitlan, located in Guatemala, by using the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion on board the EO-1 satellite. This algal bloom had a life span that extended for a little more than a month and had a maximum coverage of approximately 40% of the lake's 137 square kilometer surface. This algal bloom occurred at the end of the year 2009, with November being the most critical month. Different satellite sensors were used to monitor the extent of the algal bloom, including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). However, Hyperion images were used to distinguish the characteristics of the vegetation populating the algal bloom. Hyperion satellite images provided a more complete spectral profile of the algal bloom affecting the lake due to its high spectral resolution characteristics. This enabled the identification of unique peaks of reflectance and absorption features of the spectral signature obtained from the algal bloom. The algal bloom was formed mainly by the cyanobacteria Lyngbya robusta. Hyperion satellite images were used to characterize the algal bloom and the unique pigments of cyanobacteria such as phycocyanin. Atmospheric correction was critical to obtain the pure reflectance of the algal bloom and differentiate the spectral features unique to the cyanobacteria

  13. Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, MengRu

    2015-04-01

    Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China Remote sensing technology , is one of the pillars of the space information technology in the 21st century ,play an important role in the study of vegetation. Vegetation coverage as an important parameter reflecting surface information, has been an important research topic in the field of vegetation remote sensing. Administrative region in zhejiang Province as the study area, use of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing technology, combined with the related data, to survey the area of forest resources in zhejiang Province, establishes an index system of sustainable forest resources management ability in zhejiang, and to evaluate its ability. Remote Sensing is developed in the 1960 s of the earth observation technology, comprehensive instruments refers to the application, not contact with the object detection phase, the target characteristics of electromagnetic waves recorded from a distance, through the analysis, reveals the characteristics of the object properties and changes of comprehensive detection technology. Investigation of vegetation is an important application field of remote sensing investigation. Vegetation is an important factor of environment, and also is one of the best sign to reflect the regional ecological environment, at the same times is the interpretation of soil, hydrological elements such as logo, individual or prospecting indicator plant. Vegetation imaging and interpretation of research results for environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, forestry and other relevant departments to provide information services.Microwave remote sensing hyperspectral remote sensing technology and application in the research of vegetation is an important direction of remote sensing technology in the future. This paper introduces the principle of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote

  14. Paper as a platform for sensing applications and other devices: a review.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Walus, Konrad; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-04-29

    Paper is a ubiquitous material that has various applications in day to day life. A sheet of paper is produced by pressing moist wood cellulose fibers together. Paper offers unique properties: paper allows passive liquid transport, it is compatible with many chemical and biochemical moieties, it exhibits piezoelectricity, and it is biodegradable. Hence, paper is an attractive low-cost functional material for sensing devices. In recent years, researchers in the field of science and engineering have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of research contributions that focus on the development of cost-effective and scalable fabrication methods and new applications of paper-based devices. In this review article, we highlight recent advances in the development of paper-based sensing devices in the areas of electronics, energy storage, strain sensing, microfluidic devices, and biosensing, including piezoelectric paper. Additionally, this review includes current limitations of paper-based sensing devices and points out issues that have limited the commercialization of some of the paper-based sensing devices. PMID:25745887

  15. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  16. Mid-wave/long-wave infrared lasers and their sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. K.; Shori, R.; Miller, J. K.; Sharma, S.

    2011-06-01

    Many advances have been made recently in both solid-state and semiconductor based mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) laser technologies, and there is an ever growing demand for these laser sources for Naval, DOD and homeland security applications. We will present various current and future programs and efforts at Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) on the development of high-power, broadly tunable MWIR/LWIR lasers for sensing applications.

  17. Remote Sensing Applications for Antrim Shale Fracture Characterization, Michigan Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuuskraa, Vello

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research International (ARI) sent seven staff members to the 1997 International Coalbed Methane Symposium, held in Tuscaloosa, Alabama from May 12-17. ARI gave a short course on risk reduction strategies, including remote fracture detection, for coalbed methane exploration and development that was attended by about 25 coalbed methane industry professionals; and presented a paper entitled 'Optimizing coalbed methane cavity completion operations with the application of a new discrete element model.' We met with many potential clients and discussed our fracture detection services. China has vast coalbed methane resources, but is still highly dependent on coal-and wood-burning. This workshop, sponsored by the United Nations, was intended to help China develop its less-polluting energy reserves. ARI is successfully finding new applications for its fracture detection services. Coalbed methane exploration became an important market in this quarter, with the inception of a joint industry/government collaboration between ARI, Texaco and DOE to use remote fracture detection to identify areas with good potential for coalbed methane production in the Ferron Coal Trend of central Utah. Geothermal energy exploration is another emerging market for ARI, where fracture detection is applied to identify pathways for groundwater recharge, movement, and the locations of potential geothermal reservoirs. Ari continued work on two industry/government collaborations to demonstrate fracture detection to potential clients. Also completed the technical content layout for multimedia CD-ROM that describes our remote fracture detection services.

  18. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  19. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  20. A hybrid silicon-PDMS optofluidic platform for sensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Bernini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid silicon-poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS) optofluidic platform for lab-on-a-chip applications is proposed. A liquid-core waveguide with a self-aligned solid-core waveguide and a microfluidic device are integrated with a multilayer approach, resulting in a three-dimensional device assembly. The optofluidic layer was fabricated with a hybrid silicon-polymer technology, whereas the microfluidic layer was fabricated with a soft lithography technique. The combination of different materials and fabrication processes allows a modular approach, enabling both the benefits from the high optical quality achievable with silicon technology and the low cost of polymer processing. The proposed chip has been tested for fluorescence measurements on Cy5 water solutions, demonstrating the possibility to obtain a limit of detection of 2.5 nM. PMID:24575337

  1. Adaptive Sensing of Time Series with Application to Remote Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Furlong, Michael; Hardgrove, Craig; Low, Bryan K. H.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Wettergreen, David

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive informationoptimal data collection in time series. Here a remote sensor or explorer agent throttles its sampling rate in order to track anomalous events while obeying constraints on time and power. This problem is challenging because the agent has limited visibility -- all collected datapoints lie in the past, but its resource allocation decisions require predicting far into the future. Our solution is to continually fit a Gaussian process model to the latest data and optimize the sampling plan on line to maximize information gain. We compare the performance characteristics of stationary and nonstationary Gaussian process models. We also describe an application based on geologic analysis during planetary rover exploration. Here adaptive sampling can improve coverage of localized anomalies and potentially benefit mission science yield of long autonomous traverses.

  2. VHF NEMS-CMOS piezoresistive resonators for advanced sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcamone, Julien; Dupré, Cécilia; Arndt, Grégory; Colinet, Eric; Hentz, Sébastien; Ollier, Eric; Duraffourg, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    This work reports on top-down nanoelectromechanical resonators, which are among the smallest resonators listed in the literature. To overcome the fact that their electromechanical transduction is intrinsically very challenging due to their very high frequency (100 MHz) and ultimate size (each resonator is a 1.2 μm long, 100 nm wide, 20 nm thick silicon beam with 100 nm long and 30 nm wide piezoresistive lateral nanowire gauges), they have been monolithically integrated with an advanced fully depleted SOI CMOS technology. By advantageously combining the unique benefits of nanomechanics and nanoelectronics, this hybrid NEMS-CMOS device paves the way for novel breakthrough applications, such as NEMS-based mass spectrometry or hybrid NEMS/CMOS logic, which cannot be fully implemented without this association.

  3. Upconversion Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing. PMID:22736958

  4. Heterogeneously integrated optical detection platform for on-chip sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Ritesh Ray; Song, Youngsik; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a resonant waveguide grating (RWG) integrated with a photodetector for on-chip sensing applications. An inverted thin film indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector is heterogeneously integrated on silicon dioxide (SiO2)/ silicon substrate using fluidic self-assembly. The inverted optical waveguide and the RWG structure are subsequently fabricated utilizing layer-by-layer post-processing techniques. Detailed electrical, optical, and optoelectronic characterization were performed to analyze the functionality of the sensing platform. This approach can open new avenues allowing the development of low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible integrated optical sensors.

  5. Stainless steel component with compressed fiber Bragg grating for high temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinesh, Mathew; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2016-05-01

    A smart metal component having the potential for high temperature strain sensing capability is reported. The stainless steel (SS316) structure is made by selective laser melting (SLM). A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is embedded in to a 3D printed U-groove by high temperature brazing using a silver based alloy, achieving an axial FBG compression of 13 millistrain at room temperature. Initial results shows that the test component can be used for up to 700°C for sensing applications.

  6. Application of Hadamard transform to fiber-optic smart-skin sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Yin, Shizhuo; Ruffin, Paul B.

    1993-09-01

    An analysis is conducted of the Hadamard transform with a view to increasing the signal processing capability of the type of fiber-array sensor typical of 'smart skin' sensor applications. By this means, only one detector will be required, and the S/N of the fiber-array sensor will be improved by a factor of sq rt-N/2; N being the number of sensing fibers. The illustrative case presented is of a 127 sensing fiber array; it is demonstrated that calculated results are in agreement with the analytical model employed.

  7. The application of remote sensing to resource management and environmental quality programs in Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Specific assistance to state agencies and public bodies on over 15 remote sensing projects concerned with (1) urban and regional analysis, (2) rural development, and (3) habitat management and environmental analysis is discussed. Specific problems of officials are considered and a basis for communication by demonstration is provided. In addition to data products in support of specific agency projects; consultation and training in use of satellite and aircraft imagery is provided to personnel from several state, regional, and county agencies. Effective communication and confidence is established through these efforts and users now routinely seek information and advice about the application of remote sensing technology to solution of their agency problems.

  8. Activities of the US Geological Survey in Applications of Remote Sensing in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in the Chesapeake Bay region has been a central concern of three project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey: two are developmental, and one is operational. The two developmental activities were experiments in land-use and land-cover inventory and change detection using remotely sensed data from aircraft and from the LANDSAT and Skylab satellites. One of these is CARETS (Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site). The other developmental task is the Census Cities Experiment in Urban Change Detection. The present major concern is an operational land-use and land-cover data-analysis program, including a supporting geographical information system.

  9. Applications of remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing technology to the study of coastal marine environments are reviewed, emphasizing water quality and biological measurements. Parameters measurable by airborne or spaceborne remote sensors include particulates, measured by visual or multispectral photography, chlorophyll a, measured by the Ocean Color Scanner or Coastal Zone Color Scanner, temperature distributions, by IR or microwave sensors, and salinity, by means of microwave radiometers. Research projects in which wide area synoptic or repetitive remote sensing can make a major contribution include the study of estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, marine pollutant transport, marine phytoplankton dynamics and ocean fronts.

  10. Aspect ratio control and sensing applications for a slot waveguide with a multimode stub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihui; Peng, Yongyi; Li, Boxun; Chen, Zhiquan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei; Li, Hongjian

    2016-07-01

    We report the aspect ratio control and sensing applications for metal–dielectric–metal (MDM) slot waveguides with a multimode stub. By adjusting the aspect ratio r = h/w of the stub, five types of optical evolutions in various aspect ratio r ranges are defined. We can realize a single or double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) as well as Fano resonances. In addition, the figure of merit (FOM), which can describe the sensing performance of structures, is discussed in our paper. We can find up to three FOM peaks in our proposed structure. These findings provide guidance for the fundamental research of integrated plasmonic sensors.

  11. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  12. Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopic Line Mixing in Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the ECS (Energy-Corrected Sudden) and IOS (Infinite-Order Sudden) models are commonly used. Recently, while scrutinizing the development of the RB formalism, we have found that these authors applied the isolated line approximation in their evaluating matrix elements of the Liouville scattering operator given in exponential form. Since the criterion of this assumption is so stringent, it is not valid for many systems of interest in atmospheric applications. Furthermore, it is this assumption that blocks the possibility to calculate the whole relaxation matrix at all. By eliminating this unjustified application, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism. With this new formalism, we are now able not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to remove a once insurmountable obstacle to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on

  13. Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Campanella, Clarissa Martina; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; Armenise, Mario Nicola

    2013-03-01

    For a number of years, the scientific community has been paying growing attention to the monitoring and enhancement of public health and the quality of life through the detection of all dangerous agents for the human body, including gases, proteins, virus, and bacterial agents. When these agents are detected through label-free biochemical sensors, the molecules are not modified structurally or functionally by adding fluorescent or radioactive dyes. This work focuses on label-free optical ring resonator-based configurations suited for bio-chemical sensing, highlighting their physical aspects and specific applications. Resonant wavelength shift and the modal splitting occurring when the analyte interacts with microresonant structures are the two major physical aspects analyzed in this paper. Competitive optical platforms proposed in the literature are also illustrated together with their properties and performance.

  14. Direct laser deposition of nanostructured tungsten oxide for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Filipescu, Mihaela; Schneider, Christof W.; Antohe, Stefan; Ossi, Paolo M.; Radnóczi, György; Dinescu, Maria; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency (RF) assisted PLD onto interdigitated sensor structures. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy shows the WO3 films are polycrystalline, with a pure monoclinic phase for the PLD grown films. The as-fabricated WO3 sensors are tested for ammonia (NH3) detection, by measuring the electrical response to NH3 at different temperatures. Sensors based on WO3 deposited by RF-PLD do not show any response to NH3. In contrast, sensors fabricated by PLD operating at 100 °C and 200 °C show a slow recovery time whilst at 300 °C, these sensors are highly sensitive in the low ppm range with a recovery time in the range of a few seconds. The microstructure of the films is suggested to explain their excellent electrical response. Columnar WO3 thin films are obtained by both deposition methods. However, the WO3 films grown by PLD are porous, (which may allow NH3 molecules to diffuse through the film) whereas RF-PLD films are dense. Our results highlight that WO3 thin films deposited by PLD can be applied for the fabrication of gas sensors with a performance level required for industrial applications.

  15. Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Thomas W; Globus, Tatiana; Woolard, Dwight L; Hesler, Jeffrey L

    2004-02-15

    Terahertz spectroscopy has long been used as an important measurement tool in fields such as radio astronomy, physical chemistry, atmospheric studies and plasma research. More recently terahertz technology has been used to develop an exciting new technique to investigate the properties of a wide range of biological materials. Although much research remains before a full understanding of the interaction between biomaterials and terahertz radiation is developed, these initial studies have created a compelling case for further scientific study. Also, the potential development of practical tools to detect and identify biological materials such as biological-warfare agents and food contaminants, or of medical diagnostic tools, is driving the need for improved terahertz technology. In particular, improved terahertz sources and detectors that can be used in practical spectroscopy systems are needed. This paper overviews some of the recent measurements of the terahertz spectra of biomaterials and the ongoing efforts to create an all-solid-state technology suitable not only for improved scientific experiments but also for military and commercial applications. PMID:15306526

  16. Fluorescent copper nanoparticles: recent advances in synthesis and applications for sensing metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongming; Cao, Fengpu; Lei, Xiaoling; Mang, Lianghong; Cheng, Shengjuan; Song, Jintong

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent copper nanoparticles (F-CuNPs) have received great attention due to their attractive features, such as water solubility, wide availability, ease of functionalization and good biocompatibility, and considerable efforts have been devoted to the preparation and applications of F-CuNPs. This review article comprises three main parts. In the first part, we briefly present the fluorescence properties of F-CuNPs. Then we cover the fabrication strategies of various F-CuNPs functionalized by different ligands. In the third part, we focus on the applications of F-CuNPs for sensing metal ions, including Hg2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Fe3+ and other metal ions. Lastly, we further discuss the opportunities and challenges of F-CuNPs in the synthetic strategies and applications for sensing metal ions.

  17. A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

  18. Factors influencing polyelectrolyte-aptamer multilayered films with target-controlled permeability for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Malile, Brian; Chen, Jennifer I L

    2016-06-01

    Portable, easy-to-use and cost-effective sensing devices are desirable in healthcare, environmental monitoring and food safety. Herein we employ polyelectrolyte-aptamer (PE-aptamer) multilayered films that exhibit target-responsive permeability for colorimetric and electrochemical sensing. We present the quantitative detection of an exemplary small molecule, quinine, and address the potential for detection in complex media by examining interference effects. We optimize the film composition and investigate the importance of the structural-switching ability of the aptamer. The results from both platforms are corroborated to provide an outlook on the applicability of the PE-aptamer film for sensing. The label-free detection combined with the readily adaptive assembly process could be invaluable for diverse analytical fields. PMID:26688863

  19. Application of remote sensing to monitoring and studying dispersion in ocean dumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed wide area synoptic data provides information on ocean dumping that is not readily available by other means. A qualitative approach has been used to map features, such as river plumes. Results of quantitative analyses have been used to develop maps showing quantitative distributions of one or more water quality parameters, such as suspended solids or chlorophyll a. Joint NASA/NOAA experiments have been conducted at designated dump areas in the U.S. coastal zones to determine the applicability of aircraft remote sensing systems to map plumes resulting from ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial wastes. A second objective is related to the evaluation of previously developed quantitative analysis techniques for studying dispersion of materials in these plumes. It was found that plumes resulting from dumping of four waste materials have distinctive spectral characteristics. The development of a technology for use in a routine monitoring system, based on remote sensing techniques, is discussed.

  20. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  1. Quantifying and mapping ecosystem services supplies and demands: a review of remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ayanu, Yohannes Zergaw; Conrad, Christopher; Nauss, Thomas; Wegmann, Martin; Koellner, Thomas

    2012-08-21

    Ecosystems provide services necessary for the livelihoods and well-being of people. Quantifying and mapping supplies and demands of ecosystem services is essential for continuous monitoring of such services to support decision-making. Area-wide and spatially explicit mapping of ecosystem services based on extensive ground surveys is restricted to local scales and limited due to high costs. In contrast, remote sensing provides reliable area-wide data for quantifying and mapping ecosystem services at comparatively low costs, and with the option of fast, frequent, and continuous observations for monitoring. In this paper, we review relevant remote sensing systems, sensor types, and methods applicable in quantifying selected provisioning and regulatory services. Furthermore, opportunities, challenges, and future prospects in using remote sensing for supporting ecosystem services' quantification and mapping are discussed. PMID:22816512

  2. High resolution remote sensing image processing technology and its application to uranium geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie-lin

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral and high spatial resolution remote sensing technology take important role in uranium geological application, data mining and knowledge discovery methods are key to character spectral and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors. Based on curvelet transform algorithm, this paper developed the image fusion technology of hyperspectral (Hyperion) and high spatial data (SPOT5), and results demonstrated that fusion image had advantage in denoising, enhancing and information identification. Used discrete wavelet transform, the spectral parameters of uranium mineralization factors were acquired, the spectral identification pedigrees of typical quadrivalence and hexavalence uranium minerals were established. Furthermore, utilizing hyperspectral remote sensing observation technology, this paper developed hyperspectral logging of drill cores and trench, it can quickly processed lots of geological and spectral information, and the relationship between radioactive intensity and abnormal spectral characteristics of Fe3+ was established. All those provided remote sensing technical bases to uranium geology, and the better results have been achieved in Taoshan uranium deposits in south China.

  3. Crosswell Magnetic Sensing of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Subsurface Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Athey, A.; Wilt, M.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Stable dispersions of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, already used in biomedicine as image-enhancing agents, have potential in subsurface applications. The surface-coated nanoparticles are capable of flowing through micron-size pores across long distances in a reservoir with minimal retention in rock. These particles change the magnetic permeability of the flooded region, and when added to the injected fluid during enhanced oil recovery processes, they can be used to tag the flood. In this paper, we model the propagation of a "ferrofluid" slug in a reservoir and its response to a crosswell magnetic tomography system. The magnetic response to these contrast agents can thus help characterize the formation and fluid displacement mechanisms. The monitoring of fluid injections into reservoirs builds upon the established EM conductivity monitoring technology. In this work, however, particular attention is paid to distinguish the injected and resident fluids when they have similar conductivities but different magnetic permeabilities. Specifically, we focus on low-frequency (less than 100 Hz) magnetic excitations generated by a vertical magnetic dipole source positioned at the injection well. At such low frequencies, the induction effect is small, the casing effect is manageable, and the crosswell response originates purely from the magnetic contrast in the formation. In this study, we assume a 2d axisymmetric model and track a donut-shaped ferrofluid slug of magnetic permeability 2 as it propagates toward an observatory well, housing magnetic field receivers and located 100 m away from the injection well. We apply vertical magnetic dipole source and receivers at multiple levels within the tomography section. A non-magnetic and non-conductive casing is assumed for both wells. The ferrofluid slug volume is conserved throughout the dispersionless propagation and confined within a 20 m thick reservoir layer at a depth of 1 Km. We compare the response of a conductive slug

  4. A new application of compressive sensing in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Lenti, Flavia; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Image formation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the procedure which allows the generation of the image starting from data acquired in the so called k-space. At the present, many image formation techniques have been presented, working with different k-space filling strategies. Recently, Compressive Sampling (CS) has been successfully used for image formation from non fully sampled k-space acquisitions, due to its interesting property of reconstructing signal from highly undetermined linear systems. The main advantage consists in greatly reducing the acquisition time. Within this manuscript, a novel application of CS to MRI field is presented, named Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA). The idea is to achieve the so-called super resolution, i.e. the possibility of distinguish anatomical structures smaller than the spatial resolution of the image. For this aim, multiple Spin Echo images acquired with different Echo Times are required. The output of the algorithm is the estimation of the number of contributions present in the same pixel, i.e. the number of tissues inside the same voxel, and their spin-spin relaxation times. This allows us not only to identify the number of involved tissues, but also to discriminate them. At the present, simulated case studies have been considered, obtaining interesting and promising results. In particular, a study on the required number of images, on the estimation noise and on the regularization parameter of different CS algorithms has been conducted. As future work, the method will be applied to real clinical datasets, in order to validate the estimations.

  5. 3D sensing for machine guidance in meat cutting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Wayne; Britton, Doug; Usher, Colin; Diao, Mamadou; Ruffin, Kevin

    2005-11-01

    Most cutting and deboning operations in meat processing require accurate cuts be made to obtain maximum yield and ensure food safety. This is a significant concern for purveyors of deboned product. This task is made more difficult by the variability that is present in most natural products. The specific application of interest in this paper is the production of deboned poultry breast. This is typically obtained from a cut of the broiler called a 'front half' that includes the breast and the wings. The deboning operation typically consists of a cut that starts at the shoulder joint and then continues along the scapula. Attentive humans with training do a very good job of making this cut. The breast meat is then removed by pulling on the wings. Inaccurate cuts lead to poor yield (amount of boneless meat obtained relative to the weight of the whole carcass) and increase the probability that bone fragments might end up in the product. As equipment designers seek to automate the deboning operation, the cutting task has been a significant obstacle to developing automation that maximizes yield without generating unacceptable levels of bone fragments. The current solution is to sort the bone-in product into different weight ranges and then to adjust the deboning machines to the average of these weight ranges. We propose an approach for obtaining key cut points by extrapolation from external reference points based on the anatomy of the bird. We show that this approach can be implemented using a stereo imaging system, and the accuracy in locating the cut points of interest is significantly improved. This should result in more accurate cuts and with this concomitantly improved yield while reducing the incidence of bones. We also believe the approach could be extended to the processing of other species.

  6. Single Mode SU8 Polymer Based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Bio-Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiragi, Indrajit; Kundu, Sushanta; Makkar, Roshan; Chalapathi, Krishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    This paper explains the influence of different parameters to the sensitivity of an optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for real time detection of biomolecules. The sensing principle is based on the interaction of evanescence field with the biomolecules that get immobilized on sensing arm. The sensitivity has been calculated by varying the sensing window length, wavelength and concentration of bio-analyte. The maximum attainable sensitivity for the preferred design is the order of 10-8 RIU at 840 nm wavelength with a sensing window length of 1cm. All the simulation work has been carried out with Opti-BPMCAD for the optimization of MZI device parameters. The SU8 polymers are used as a core and clad material to fabricate the waveguide. The refractive index of cladding layer is optimized by varying the curing temperature for a fixed time period and the achieved index difference between core and clad is Δn = 0.0151. The fabricated MZI device has been characterized with LASER beam profiler at 840 nm wavelength. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the different parameter to the sensitivity of a single mode optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for bio-sensing application.

  7. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle films for optical sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark

    2013-07-31

    The ability to monitor gas species selectively, sensitively, and reliably in extreme temperatures and harsh conditions is critically important for more efficient energy production using conventional fossil energy based production technologies, enabling advanced technologies for fossil based power plants of the future, and improving efficiency in domestic manufacturing industries. Optical waveguide based sensing platforms have become increasingly important but a need exists for materials that exhibit useful changes in optical properties in response to changing gas atmospheres at high temperatures. In this manuscript, the onset of a near-IR absorption associated with an increase in free carrier density in doped metal oxide nanoparticles to form so-called conducting metal oxides is discussed in the context of results obtained for undoped and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticle based films. Detailed film characterization results are presented along with measured changes in optical absorption resulting from various high temperature treatments in a range of gas atmospheres. Optical property changes are also discussed in the context of a simple model for optical absorption in conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and thin films. The combination of experimental results and theoretical modeling presented here suggests that such materials have potential for high temperature optical gas sensing applications. Simulated sensing experiments were performed at 500 °C and a useful, rapid, and reproducible near-IR optical sensing response to H{sub 2} confirms that this class of materials shows great promise for optical gas sensing.

  8. 2.5D heterogeneously integrated microsystem for high-density neural sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Tsang; Wu, Shang-Lin; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Chou, Lei-Chun; Huang, Teng-Chieh; Wang, Tang-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Rou; Cheng, Chuan-An; Shen, Wen-Wei; Chuang, Ching-Te; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hwang, Wei; Tong, Ho-Ming

    2014-12-01

    Heterogeneously integrated and miniaturized neural sensing microsystems are crucial for brain function investigation. In this paper, a 2.5D heterogeneously integrated bio-sensing microsystem with μ-probes and embedded through-silicon-via (TSVs) is presented for high-density neural sensing applications. This microsystem is composed of μ-probes with embedded TSVs, 4 dies and a silicon interposer. For capturing 16-channel neural signals, a 24 × 24 μ-probe array with embedded TSVs is fabricated on a 5×5 mm(2) chip and bonded on the back side of the interposer. Thus, each channel contains 6 × 6 μ -probes with embedded TSVs. Additionally, the 4 dies are bonded on the front side of the interposer and designed for biopotential acquisition, feature extraction and classification via low-power analog front-end (AFE) circuits, area-power-efficient analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), configurable discrete wavelet transforms (DWTs), filters, and a MCU. An on-interposer bus ( μ-SPI) is designed for transferring data on the interposer. Finally, the successful in-vivo test demonstrated the proposed 2.5D heterogeneously integrated bio-sensing microsystem. The overall power of this microsystem is only 676.3 μW for 16-channel neural sensing. PMID:25576575

  9. Development of techniques required for the application of a laser to three dimensional visual sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Arthur M.; Gerhardt, Lester A.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing vision research at the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) is directed toward identifying and addressing the relevant issues involved in applying visual sensing to space assembly tasks. A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to passive sensing techniques such as using multiple cameras to identify objects in a scene. To compliment the capabilities of the passive visual system in the CIRSSE robotics testbed, research is being conducted in active sensing techniques. This report is description of the research associated with the testbed's laser scanner and its application as an active sensing device. The report is comprised of five major topics. First is a brief description of the CIRSSE visual system and a summary of the active sensing research that has been conducted up to this point. Second, some of the methods currently used to calibrate CIRSSE's laser scanner are described as well as an appraisal of the effectiveness of these methods. Third, is a discussion of how the laser scanner can be employed in concert with a camera to provide a three dimensional point estimation capability. Fourth, there is a description of methods that can be used to detect the presence of the laser beam in a cluttered camera image. Finally, there is a summary of the current state of this research and a description of research planned for the future.

  10. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  11. The NASA CYGNSS mission: a pathfinder for GNSS scatterometry remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Randy; Gleason, Scott; Ruf, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based scatterometry offers breakthrough opportunities for wave, wind, ice, and soil moisture remote sensing. Recent developments in electronics and nano-satellite technologies combined with modeling techniques developed over the past 20 years are enabling a new class of remote sensing capabilities that present more cost effective solutions to existing problems while opening new applications of Earth remote sensing. Key information about the ocean and global climate is hidden from existing space borne observatories because of the frequency band in which they operate. Using GNSS-based bi-static scatterometry performed by a constellation of microsatellites offers remote sensing of ocean wave, wind, and ice data with unprecedented temporal resolution and spatial coverage across the full dynamic range of ocean wind speeds in all precipitating conditions. The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space borne mission being developed to study tropical cyclone inner core processes. CYGNSS consists of 8 GPS bi-static radar receivers to be deployed on separate micro-satellites in October 2016. CYGNSS will provide data to address what are thought to be the principle deficiencies with current tropical cyclone intensity forecasts: inadequate observations and modeling of the inner core. The inadequacy in observations results from two causes: 1) Much of the inner core ocean surface is obscured from conventional remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the eye wall and inner rain bands. 2) The rapidly evolving (genesis and intensification) stages of the tropical cyclone life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. It is anticipated that numerous additional Earth science applications can also benefit from the cost effective high spatial and temporal sampling capabilities of GNSS remote sensing. These applications include monitoring of rough and

  12. Public health applications of remote sensing of the environment, an evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The available techniques were examined in the field of remote sensing (including aerial photography, infrared detection, radar, etc.) and applications to a number of problems in the wide field of public health determined. The specific areas of public health examined included: air pollution, water pollution, communicable disease, and the combined problems of urban growth and the effect of disasters on human communities. The assessment of the possible applications of remote sensing to these problems was made primarily by examination of the available literature in each field, and by interviews with health authorities, physicists, biologists, and other interested workers. Three types of programs employing remote sensors were outlined in the air pollution field: (1) proving ability of sensors to monitor pollutants at three levels of interest - point source, ambient levels in cities, and global patterns; (2) detection of effects of pollutants on the environment at local and global levels; and (3) routine monitoring.

  13. Eighth year projects and activities of the Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (ERSAL). [Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Projects completed for the NASA Office of University Affairs include the application of remote sensing data in support of rehabilitation of wild fire damaged areas and the use of LANDSAT 3 return beam vidicon in forestry mapping applications. Continuing projects for that office include monitoring western Oregon timber clearcut; detecting and monitoring wheat disease; land use monitoring for tax assessment in Umatilla, Lake, and Morrow Counties; and the use of Oregon Air National Guard thermal infrared scanning data. Projects funded through other agencies include the remote sensing inventory of elk in the Blue Mountains; the estimation of burned agricultural acreage in the Willamette Valley; a resource inventory of Deschutes County; and hosting a LANDSAT digital workshop.

  14. Meteorological and Remote Sensing Applications of High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenung, S. M.; Wegener, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are maturing in performance and becoming available for routine use in environmental applications including weather reconnaissance and remote sensing. This paper presents a discussion of UAV characteristics and unique features compared with other measurement platforms. A summary of potential remote sensing applications is provided, along with details for four types of tropical cyclone missions. Capabilities of platforms developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program are reviewed, including the Altus, Perseus, and solar- powered Pathfinder, all of which have flown to over 57,000 ft (17 km). In many scientific missions, the science objectives drive the experimental design, thus defining the sensor payload, aircraft performance, and operational requirements. Some examples of science missions and the requisite UAV / payload system are given. A discussion of technology developments needed to fully mature UAV systems for routine operational use is included, along with remarks on future science and commercial UAV business opportunities.

  15. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices. PMID:26650731

  16. Remote sensing retrieval of water constituents in shallow coastal waters with applications to the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Marani, M.; Albertson, J. D.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lagoons and estuaries worldwide are experiencing accelerated ecosystem degradation due to increased direct and indirect anthropogenic pressure. Monitoring the environmental state and trends in such environment would benefit from the use of remote sensing techniques, which can access a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, most remote sensors are not suitable for monitoring shallow and optically-complex waters, because of their low spatial and spectral-resolution and of the uncertainties associated with the contribution of the bottom sediment to the observed remote sensing signal. We apply here a remote sensing-based approach to mapping suspended sediment and chlorophyll concentrations in the shallow Venice lagoon, which integrates hyperspectral remote sensing data, a simplified radiative transfer model, and in-situ water quality measurements. First, we calibrate and validate the key parameters of the model, such as bottom albedo and absorption/backscattering coefficients of sediment, by comparing remote sensing derived water constituent concentrations with in-situ data. We then determine the statistics of those parameters, and the associated estimation uncertainty, by applying a bootstrapping technique. Finally, the lagoon-wide distribution of water constituent concentrations, and of the estimation uncertainty, is derived by inverting the model. The estimates are consistent with measured concentrations and their known optical properties, particularly for the suspended sediment concentrations, while chlorophyll concentration estimates remain more uncertain. Our analyses show that remote sensing methods can provide reliable water constituent concentrations at the system scale and that uncertainties become overwhelming only in particularly shallow areas (water depths indicatively lower than 1 m in the present application). Importantly, the joint use of radiative transfer models, in situ observations, and statistical techniques allows the production of

  17. Plasmon-resonant microchip emitters and detectors for terahertz sensing and spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Komori, Tsuneyoshi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Suemitsu, Tetsuya; Coquillat, Dominique; Knap, Wojciech

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in emission and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation utilizing two-dimensional plasmons in semiconductor heterostructures and their possible sensing and spectroscopic applications. The device is introduced as a light source into a Fourier-transform THz spectrometer. Water-vapor absorption lines as well as fingerprints of honey and maple syrup of sugar-group materials were successfully observed. Absolute sensitivity characteristics and detection polarization are also presented, showing the possibility of new highly efficient THz detectors.

  18. Development of a quartz digital accelerometer for environmental sensing and navigation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, W.J.; Vianco, P.T.

    1993-03-01

    A quartz digital accelerometer has been developed which uses double ended tuning forks as the active sensing elements. The authors have demonstrated the ability of this accelerometer to be capable of acceleration measurements between {+-}150G with {+-}0.5G accuracy. They have further refined the original design and assembly processes to produce accelerometers with < 1mG stability in inertial measurement applications. This report covers the development, design, processing, assembly, and testing of these devices.

  19. A new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, P.; Cimini, F.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Jankowski, S.

    This work, after a preliminary feasibility study using a Matlab environment simulation, defines the design and the real hardware testing of a new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications. Relying on a single and cheap visible camera sensor, computer vision, bio-inspired and automatic decision algorithms have been adopted and implemented on a specific ARM embedded platform through C++/OpenCV coding. A first data set processing, really captured on flight, has been presented.

  20. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions-From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  1. Application of indicators derived by remote sensing for mapping of landslide hazard and vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidsvig, Unni; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Geiss, Christian; Klotz, Martin; Ekseth, Kristine; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2014-05-01

    The choice and the development of methods for risk assessment of landslides depends on several factors. Important factors are the type of landslide and the elements at risk, the choice of spatial and temporal scale, the purpose of the analysis and the needs of the end-users. In addition, data availability is a major constraint, which greatly affects the type of methods and models that can be developed. Remote sensing is a promising tool for an economical and up-to-date data collection, which also could be applied to monitor the dynamic development of risk. The spatial and temporal distribution of the risk for landslides can be assessed by monitoring hazard indicators (e.g. slope height and slope angle), exposure indicators (e.g. number of houses and the total population) and vulnerability indicators (e.g. population density, settlement structures or indicators related to structural vulnerability). Several of the indicators applicable for landslide risk and vulnerability can be obtained by remote sensing techniques. However, for better results, indicators from remote sensing should be combined with other type of data. In this work, a review on the application of indicators for landslide risk assessment in explicit models as well as an assessment of end user needs was conducted in order to determine the most relevant indicators for landslide hazard and vulnerability. Lists of recommended indicators, mainly derivable from remote sensing, have been developed. These indicators are supposed to be used in risk assessment, e.g. by combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure indicators to produce risk indices. Moreover schemes for ranking, weighting and aggregation of the indicators into hazard- and vulnerability indices are provided. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7-SPACE-2012-1] under Grant agreement No 312972 Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic v

  2. Geospatial Image Stream Processing: Models, techniques, and applications in remote sensing change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda-Velasquez, Carlos Alberto

    Detection of changes in environmental phenomena using remotely sensed data is a major requirement in the Earth sciences, especially in natural disaster related scenarios where real-time detection plays a crucial role in the saving of human lives and the preservation of natural resources. Although various approaches formulated to model multidimensional data can in principle be applied to the inherent complexity of remotely sensed geospatial data, there are still challenging peculiarities that demand a precise characterization in the context of change detection, particularly in scenarios of fast changes. In the same vein, geospatial image streams do not fit appropriately in the standard Data Stream Management System (DSMS) approach because these systems mainly deal with tuple-based streams. Recognizing the necessity for a systematic effort to address the above issues, the work presented in this thesis is a concrete step toward the foundation and construction of an integrated Geospatial Image Stream Processing framework, GISP. First, we present a data and metadata model for remotely sensed image streams. We introduce a precise characterization of images and image streams in the context of remotely sensed geospatial data. On this foundation, we define spatially-aware temporal operators with a consistent semantics for change analysis tasks. We address the change detection problem in settings where multiple image stream sources are available, and thus we introduce an architectural design for the processing of geospatial image streams from multiple sources. With the aim of targeting collaborative scientific environments, we construct a realization of our architecture based on Kepler, a robust and widely used scientific workflow management system, as the underlying computational support; and open data and Web interface standards, as a means to facilitate the interoperability of GISP instances with other processing infrastructures and client applications. We demonstrate our

  3. Potentially efficient forest and range applications of remote sensing using earth orbital space craft, circa 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Sixteen remote sensing applications or groups of related applications judged to be most important of any in the forestry and range disciplines were evaluated. In one application, major land classification, large amounts of useful data are anticipated to be contributed by space sensors in 1980. In four applications moderate amounts are anticipated to be so contributed. These are timber inventory, range inventory, fire weather forecasting, and monitoring snowfields. In the following seven applications small but significant amounts of data are anticipated to be contributed by space sensors: (1) detailed land classification; (2) inventory of wildlife habitat; (3) recreation resource inventory; (4) detecting stresses on the vegetation (5) monitoring air pollution caused by wildfires and prescribed burning; (6) monitoring water cycle, (7) pollution and erosion; and (8) evaluating damage to forests and ranges.

  4. Opportunities for the application of advanced remotely-sensed data in ecological studies of terrestrial animal movement.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Wiebke; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Estes, Anna B; Pidgeon, Anna M; Dettki, Holger; Ericsson, Göran; Radeloff, Volker C

    2015-01-01

    Animal movement patterns in space and time are a central aspect of animal ecology. Remotely-sensed environmental indices can play a key role in understanding movement patterns by providing contiguous, relatively fine-scale data that link animal movements to their environment. Still, implementation of newly available remotely-sensed data is often delayed in studies of animal movement, calling for a better flow of information to researchers less familiar with remotely-sensed data applications. Here, we reviewed the application of remotely-sensed environmental indices to infer movement patterns of animals in terrestrial systems in studies published between 2002 and 2013. Next, we introduced newly available remotely-sensed products, and discussed their opportunities for animal movement studies. Studies of coarse-scale movement mostly relied on satellite data representing plant phenology or climate and weather. Studies of small-scale movement frequently used land cover data based on Landsat imagery or aerial photographs. Greater documentation of the type and resolution of remotely-sensed products in ecological movement studies would enhance their usefulness. Recent advancements in remote sensing technology improve assessments of temporal dynamics of landscapes and the three-dimensional structures of habitats, enabling near real-time environmental assessment. Online movement databases that now integrate remotely-sensed data facilitate access to remotely-sensed products for movement ecologists. We recommend that animal movement studies incorporate remotely-sensed products that provide time series of environmental response variables. This would facilitate wildlife management and conservation efforts, as well as the predictive ability of movement analyses. Closer collaboration between ecologists and remote sensing experts could considerably alleviate the implementation gap. Ecologists should not expect that indices derived from remotely-sensed data will be directly

  5. Linking chlorophyll a fluorescence to photosynthesis for remote sensing applications: mechanisms and challenges.

    PubMed

    Porcar-Castell, Albert; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Atherton, Jon; van der Tol, Christiaan; Flexas, Jaume; Pfündel, Erhard E; Moreno, Jose; Frankenberg, Christian; Berry, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) has been used for decades to study the organization, functioning, and physiology of photosynthesis at the leaf and subcellular levels. ChlF is now measurable from remote sensing platforms. This provides a new optical means to track photosynthesis and gross primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Importantly, the spatiotemporal and methodological context of the new applications is dramatically different compared with most of the available ChlF literature, which raises a number of important considerations. Although we have a good mechanistic understanding of the processes that control the ChlF signal over the short term, the seasonal link between ChlF and photosynthesis remains obscure. Additionally, while the current understanding of in vivo ChlF is based on pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) measurements, remote sensing applications are based on the measurement of the passive solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which entails important differences and new challenges that remain to be solved. In this review we introduce and revisit the physical, physiological, and methodological factors that control the leaf-level ChlF signal in the context of the new remote sensing applications. Specifically, we present the basis of photosynthetic acclimation and its optical signals, we introduce the physical and physiological basis of ChlF from the molecular to the leaf level and beyond, and we introduce and compare PAM and SIF methodology. Finally, we evaluate and identify the challenges that still remain to be answered in order to consolidate our mechanistic understanding of the remotely sensed SIF signal. PMID:24868038

  6. Multiplexed optical operation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) arrays for sensing and signal-processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin

    2014-06-01

    NEMS are rapidly being developed for a variety of sensing applications as well as for exploring interesting regimes in fundamental physics. In most of these endeavors, operation of a NEMS device involves actuating the device harmonically around its fundamental resonance and detecting subsequent motion while the device interacts with its environment. Even though a single NEMS resonator is exceptionally sensitive, a typical application, such as sensing or signal processing, requires the detection of signals from many resonators distributed over the surface of a chip. Therefore, one of the key technological challenges in the field of NEMS is development of multiplexed measurement techniques to detect the motion of a large number of NEMS resonators simultaneously. In this work, we address the important and difficult problem of interfacing with a large number of NEMS devices and facilitating the use of such arrays in, for example, sensing and signal processing applications. We report a versatile, all-optical technique to excite and read-out a distributed NEMS array. The NEMS array is driven by a distributed, intensity-modulated, optical pump through the photothermal effect. The ensuing vibrational response of the array is multiplexed onto a single, probe beam as a high-frequency phase modulation. The phase modulation is optically down converted to a low-frequency, intensity modulation using an adaptive full -field interferometer, and subsequently is detected using a charge-coupled device (CCD) array. Rapid and single-step mechanical characterization of approximately 60 nominally identical, high-frequency resonators is demonstrated. The technique may enable sensitivity improvements over single NEMS resonators by averaging signals coming from a multitude of devices in the array. In addition, the diffraction-limited spatial resolution may allow for position-dependent read-out of NEMS sensor chips for sensing multiple analytes or spatially inhomogeneous forces.

  7. Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenas, David D.; Farrar, Charles R.; Chong, See Yenn; Lee, J.R.; Park, Gyu Hae; Flynn, Eric B.

    2012-06-29

    The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to

  8. Recent Progress and Development on Multi-parameters Remote Sensing Application in Earthquake Monitoring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Hong, Shunying; Jing, Feng; Zhao, Shufan

    2014-05-01

    In the last ten years, a few national research plans and scientific projects on remote sensing application in Earthquake monitoring research are implemented in China. Focusing on advancing earthquake monitoring capability searching for the way of earthquake prediction, satellite electromagnetism, satellite infrared and D-InSAR technology were developed systematically and some remarkable progress were achieved by statistical research on historical earthquakes and summarized initially the space precursory characters, which laid the foundation for gradually promoting the practical use. On the basis of these works, argumentation on the first space-based platform has been finished in earthquake stereoscope observation system in China, and integrated earthquake remote sensing application system has been designed comprehensively. To develop the space-based earthquake observational system has become a major trend of technological development in earthquake monitoring and prediction. We shall pay more emphasis on the construction of the space segment of China earthquake stereoscope observation system and Imminent major scientific projects such as earthquake deformation observation system and application research combined INSAR, satellite gravity and GNSS with the goal of medium and long term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, infrared observation and technical system and application research with the goal of medium and short term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, and satellite-based electromagnetic observation and technical system and application system with the goal of short term and imminent earthquake monitoring.

  9. Changes in speckle patterns induced by load application onto an optical fiber and its possible application for sensing purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Okumura, Jyun-ya; Hyuga, Akio

    2015-08-01

    Speckle patterns to be observed in an output light spot from an optical fiber are known to be changed due to external disturbances applied onto the optical fiber. In order to investigate possibilities of utilizing such changes in speckle patterns for sensing application, a certain load was applied onto a jacket-covered communication-grade multi-mode glass optical fiber through which laser beams emitted from a laser diode were propagating, and observed changes in speckle patterns in the output light spot from the optical fiber were investigated both as image data via a CCD camera and as an output voltage from a photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot. The load was applied via a load application mechanism in which several ridges were provided onto opposite flat plates and a certain number of weights were placed there so that corrugated bending of the optical fiber was intentionally induced via load application due to the ridges. The obtained results showed that the number of speckles in the observed pattern in the output light spot as well as the output voltage from the photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot showed decreases upon load application with relatively satisfactory repeatability. When the load was reduced, i.e., the weights were removed, the number of speckles then showed recovery. These results indicate there is a certain possibility of utilizing changes in speckle patterns for sensing of load application onto the optical fiber.

  10. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  11. Utilizing Remote Sensing Data to Ascertain Soil Moisture Applications and Air Quality Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steve; Teng, William; Friedl, Lawrence; Lynnes, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the significance of NASA remote sensing Earth science data in monitoring and better understanding our planet's natural environment, NASA Earth Applied Sciences has implemented the 'Decision Support Through Earth Science Research Results' program. Several applications support systems through collaborations with benefiting organizations have been implemented. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has participated in this program on two projects (one complete, one ongoing), and has had opportune ad hoc collaborations utilizing NASA Earth science data. GES DISC's understanding of Earth science missions and resulting data and information enables the GES DISC to identify challenges that come with bringing science data to research applications. In this presentation we describe applications research projects utilizing NASA Earth science data and a variety of resulting GES DISC applications support system project experiences. In addition, defining metrics that really evaluate success will be exemplified.

  12. A summary of the history of the development of automated remote sensing for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The research conducted in the United States for the past 20 years with the objective of developing automated satellite remote sensing for monitoring the earth's major food crops is reviewed. The highlights of this research include a National Academy of Science study on the applicability of remote sensing monitoring given impetus by the introduction in the mid-1960's of the first airborne multispectral scanner (MSS); design simulations for the first earth resource satellite in 1969; and the use of the airborne MSS in the Corn Blight Watch, the first large application of remote sensing in agriculture, in 1970. Other programs discussed include the CITAR research project in 1972 which established the feasibility of automating digital classification to process high volumes of Landsat MSS data; the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) in 1974-78, which demonstrated automated processing of Landsat MSS data in estimating wheat crop production on a global basis; and AgRISTARS, a program designed to address the technical issues defined by LACIE.

  13. The use of UAVs for remote sensing applications: case studies in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Lysandrou, V.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for use in remote sensing offer simple and affordable observation from the air. Due to the decreasing size of the sensors, receivers and antennas, it is now possible to create integrated low-altitude airborne systems. Remote sensing technologies on a UAV platform are an efficient, non-invasive and low cost resource for the detection, documentation and monitoring of various environmental (both natural and cultural) features, in high resolution and quality. Different remote sensing techniques can be used alongside to the UAVs, such as field spectroscopy, multispectral cameras, infrared cameras and thermal cameras. This integration in terms of techniques and technologies, contributes further to more solid outcomes depending on the case study. The possibility of adding a variety of sensors to the basic UAV unit amplifies both the application cases and the results. Among the types of camera sensors that can be used with the UAVs are the visible spectrum cameras, the multi-spectral cameras and the hyperspectral cameras. These cameras can extract more detailed information since an entire spectrum is acquired from each pixel of the image. In this paper, various UAVs used for environmental and archaeological applications in different areas of Cyprus are presented.

  14. Development of micronic GMR-magnetoresistive sensors for non-destructive sensing applications (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffrès, Henri; LeMaitre, Yves; Collin, Sophie; Nguyen Vandau, Frédéric; Sergeeva-Chollet, Natalia; Decitre, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    We will present our last development of GMR-based magnetic sensors devoted to sensing application for non-destructive control application. In these first realizations, we have chosen a so-called shape anisotropy - exchange biased strategy to fulfill the field-sensing criteria in the μT range in devices made of micronic single elements. Our devices realized by optical lithography, and whose typical sizes range from 150 μm x 150 μm to 500 μm x 500 μm elements, are made of trilayers GMR-based technology and consist of several circuitries of GMR elements of different lengths, widths and gaps. To obtain a full sensing linearity and reversibility requiring a perpendicular magnetic arrangement between both sensitive and hard layer, the magnetization of the latter have been hardened by pinning it with an antiferromagnetic material. The specific geometry of the design have been engineered in order to optimize the magnetic response of the soft layer via the different magnetic torques exerted on it essentially played by the dipolar fields or shape anisotropy, and the external magnetic field to detect. The smaller dimensions in width and in gap are then respectively of 2 μm and 3 μm to benefit of the full shape anisotropy formatting the magnetic response.

  15. Application of optical distributed sensing and computation to control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    A real time holographic sensing technique is introduced and its advantages are investigated from the filtering and control point of view. A feature of holographic sensing is its capability to make distributed measurements of the position and velocity of moving objects, such as a vibrating flexible space structure. This work is based upon the distributed parameter models of linear time invariant systems, particularly including the linear oscillator equations describing the vibration of large flexible space structures. The general conclusion is that application of optical distributed sensors bring gains in the situation where Kalman filtering is necessary for state estimation. In this case, both steady state and transient filtering error covariance become smaller. This in turn results in smaller cost in the LQG problem.

  16. Application of remote sensing to land and water resource planning: The Pocomoke River Basin, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildesen, S. E.; Phillips, E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Because of the size of the Pocomoke River Basin, the inaccessibility of certain areas, and study time constraints, several remote sensing techniques were used to collect base information on the river corridor, (a 23.2 km channel) and on a 1.2 km wooded floodplain. This information provided an adequate understanding of the environment and its resources, thus enabling effective management options to be designed. The remote sensing techniques used for assessment included manual analysis of high altitude color-infrared photography, computer-assisted analysis of LANDSAT-2 imagery, and the application of airborne oceanographic Lidar for topographic mapping. Results show that each techniques was valuable in providing the needed base data necessary for resource planning.

  17. Dynamic Response of Tapered Optical Multimode Fiber Coated with Carbon Nanotubes for Ethanol Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Shabaneh, Arafat; Girei, Saad; Arasu, Punitha; Mahdi, Mohd; Rashid, Suraya; Paiman, Suriati; Yaacob, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a highly combustible chemical universally designed for biomedical applications. In this paper, optical sensing performance of tapered multimode fiber tip coated with carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film towards aqueous ethanol with different concentrations is investigated. The tapered optical multimode fiber tip is coated with CNT using drop-casting technique and is annealed at 70 °C to enhance the binding of the nanomaterial to the silica fiber tip. The optical fiber tip and the CNT sensing layer are micro-characterized using FESEM and Raman spectroscopy techniques. When the developed sensor was exposed to different concentrations of ethanol (5% to 80%), the sensor reflectance reduced proportionally. The developed sensors showed high sensitivity, repeatability and fast responses (<55 s) towards ethanol. PMID:25946634

  18. Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapsford, Kim E.

    Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. The technologies highlighted in this chapter are continually evolving, taking advantage of emerging advances in microfabrication, lab-on-a-chip, excitation, and detection techniques. This chapter describes many of the underlying principles of TIR-based sensing platforms and additionally focusses on planar TIR fluorescence (TIRF)-based chemical and biological sensors.

  19. Exposed-core chalcogenide microstructured optical fibers for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troles, Johann; Toupin, Perrine; Brilland, Laurent; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Cui, Shuo; Mechin, David; Adam, Jean-Luc

    2013-05-01

    Chemical bonds of most of the molecules vibrate at a frequency corresponding to the near or mid infrared field. It is thus of a great interest to develop sensitive and portable devices for the detection of specific chemicals and biomolecules for various applications in health, the environment, national security and so on. Optical fibers define practical sensing tools. Chalcogenide glasses are known for their transparency in the infrared optical range and their ability to be drawn as fibers. They are consequently good candidates to be used in biological/chemical sensing. For that matter, in the past decade, chalcogenide glass fibers have been successfully implemented in evanescent wave spectroscopy experiments, for the detection of bio-chemical species in various fields of applications including microbiology and medicine, water pollution and CO2 detection. Different types of fiber can be used: single index fibers or microstructured fibers. Besides, in recent years a new configuration of microstructured fibers has been developed: microstructured exposed-core fibers. This design consists of an optical fiber with a suspended micron-scale core that is partially exposed to the external environment. This configuration has been chosen to elaborate, using the molding method, a chalcogenide fiber for chemical species detection. The sensitivity of this fiber to detect molecules such as propan-2-ol and acetone has been compared with those of single index fibers. Although evanescent wave absorption is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter, the result shows that an exposed-core fiber is much more sensitive than a single index fiber having a twice smaller external diameter.

  20. Advanced nanoimprint patterning for functional electronics and biochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao

    Nano-fabrication has been widely used for a variety of disciplines, including electronics, material science, nano-optics, and nano-biotechnology. This dissertation focuses on nanoimprint lithography (NIL) based novel nano-patterning techniques for fabricating functional structures, and discusses their applications in advanced electronics and high-sensitivity molecular sensing. In this dissertation, examples of using nano-fabricated structures for promising electronic applications are presented. For instance, 10 nm and 18 nm features are NIL-fabricated for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling transistors and graphene nano-ribbon transistors, using shadow evaporation and line-width shrinking techniques, respectively. An ultrafast laser melting based method is applied on flexible plastic substrates to correct defects of nano-features. Nano-texturing of sapphire substrate is developed to improve the light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by 70 %. A novel multi-layer nano-patterned Si-mediated catalyst is discovered to grow straight and uniform Si nanowires with optimized properties in size, location, and crystallization on amorphous SiO2 substrate. Nano-structures are also functionalized into highly sensitive bio-chemical sensors. Plasmonic nano-bar antenna arrays are demonstrated to effectively sense infrared molecules >10 times better than conventional plasmonic sensors. As small as 20 nm wide nano-channel fluidic devices are developed to linearize and detect DNA molecules for potential DNA sequencing. An integrated fluidic system is built to incorporate plasmonic nano-structures for 30X-enhanced fluorescence detection of large DNA molecules.

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing application for monitoring and preservation of plant ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas; Petrov, Nikolay; Stoev, Antoniy

    Remote sensing technologies have advanced significantly at last decade and have improved the capability to gather information about Earth’s resources and environment. They have many applications in Earth observation, such as mapping and updating land-use and cover, weather forecasting, biodiversity determination, etc. Hyperspectral remote sensing offers unique opportunities in the environmental monitoring and sustainable use of natural resources. Remote sensing sensors on space-based platforms, aircrafts, or on ground, are capable of providing detailed spectral, spatial and temporal information on terrestrial ecosystems. Ground-based sensors are used to record detailed information about the land surface and to create a data base for better characterizing the objects which are being imaged by the other sensors. In this paper some applications of two hyperspectral remote sensing techniques, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence, for monitoring and assessment of the effects of adverse environmental conditions on plant ecosystems are presented. The effect of stress factors such as enhanced UV-radiation, acid rain, salinity, viral infections applied to some young plants (potato, pea, tobacco) and trees (plums, apples, paulownia) as well as of some growth regulators were investigated. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm and 600-900 nm), respectively. The differences between the reflectance data of healthy (control) and injured (stressed) plants were assessed by means of statistical (Student’s t-criterion), first derivative, and cluster analysis and calculation of some vegetation indices in four most informative for the investigated species regions: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm). Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the

  2. Nanomaterial processing for multifunctional patterned composites for in situ sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Zachary R.

    The increasing performance demands on composite materials have stimulated the development of new approaches and manufacturing techniques to integrate various system functionalities within the composite structure. Opportunity exists to produce smart, self-sensing composites, by altering the microstructure of the composite where sensors can be patterned for assessing damage locality and severity. Introduction of nanomaterials into continuous fiber-reinforced composites either at the fiber/matrix interface or within the polymer matrix enables further tailoring of mechanical and electrical properties. Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively for modifying the mechanical and physical properties of fiber composites. Recently graphene has generated scientific and technical interest due to potential lower raw material costs and ease of processing. This work studies graphene nano-platelet processing parameters to determine the suitability of graphene nanocomposites for in situ sensing applications. Processing parameters for optimizing the piezoresistive response of graphene nano-platelet composites for in situ sensing applications are determined and applied in for the development of a patterning media suitable for deposition onto glass fibers. A new approach to selectively modify the electrical properties of composite fibers is employed to selectively deposit carbon nanotube and graphene nano-platelet enhanced patterning media through an adapted screen printing process. These nano-modified depositions create hierarchical patterns of piezoresistive sensors as fully integrated components and form a distributed sensor network at the fiber/matrix interface. New analysis tools for resistance based sensing techniques are applied to nanocomposites and patterned unidirectional hybrid nanocomposites to assess damage onset and accumulation. The sensitivity of the electrical response for the graphene nano-platelet is compared with the electrical response of the carbon nanotube

  3. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Identifying Tornado and Severe Weather Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, J. E.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.; Cole, T.; Angle, K.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, collaborations between the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the National Weather Service (NWS), and the USGS led to the incorporation of Earth remote sensing imagery within the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT). The DAT is a smartphone, tablet, and web-based application that allows NWS meteorologists to acquire, quality control, and manage various storm damage indicators following a severe weather event, such as a tornado, occurrence of widespread damaging winds, or significant hail. Earth remote sensing supports the damage assessment process by providing a broad overview of how various acquired damage indicators relate to scarring visible from space, ranging from high spatial resolution commercial imagery (~1-4m) acquired via USGS and in collaboration with other federal and private sector partners, to moderate resolution imaging from NASA sensors (~15-30m) such as those aboard Landsat 7 and 8 and Terra's ASTER, to lower resolution but routine imaging from NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, or the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument. In several cases, the acquisition and delivery of imagery in the days after a severe weather event has proven helpful in confirming or in some cases adjusting the preliminary damage track acquired during a ground survey. For example, limited road networks and access to private property may make it difficult to observe the entire length of a tornado track, while satellite imagery can fill in observation gaps to complete a more detailed damage track assessment. This presentation will highlight successful applications of Earth remote sensing for the improvement of damage surveys, discuss remaining challenges, and provide direction on future efforts that will improve the delivery of remote sensing data and use through new automation processes and training opportunities.

  4. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Identifying Tornado and Severe Weather Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, J. E.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.; Cole, T.; Angle, K.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, collaborations between the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the National Weather Service (NWS), and the USGS led to the incorporation of Earth remote sensing imagery within the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT). The DAT is a smartphone, tablet, and web-based application that allows NWS meteorologists to acquire, quality control, and manage various storm damage indicators following a severe weather event, such as a tornado, occurrence of widespread damaging winds, or significant hail. Earth remote sensing supports the damage assessment process by providing a broad overview of how various acquired damage indicators relate to scarring visible from space, ranging from high spatial resolution commercial imagery (~1-4m) acquired via USGS and in collaboration with other federal and private sector partners, to moderate resolution imaging from NASA sensors (~15-30m) such as those aboard Landsat 7 and 8 and Terra's ASTER, to lower resolution but routine imaging from NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, or the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument. In several cases, the acquisition and delivery of imagery in the days after a severe weather event has proven helpful in confirming or in some cases adjusting the preliminary damage track acquired during a ground survey. For example, limited road networks and access to private property may make it difficult to observe the entire length of a tornado track, while satellite imagery can fill in observation gaps to complete a more detailed damage track assessment. This presentation will highlight successful applications of Earth remote sensing for the improvement of damage surveys, discuss remaining challenges, and provide direction on future efforts that will improve the delivery of remote sensing data and use through new automation processes and training opportunities.

  5. Climate Literacy: STEM and Climate Change Education and Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) is a competitive project to promote climate and Earth system science literacy and seeks to increase the access of underrepresented minority groups to science careers and educational opportunities. A three year funding was received from NASA to partnership with JSU and MSU under cooperative agreement "Strengthening Global Climate Change education through Remote Sensing Application in Coastal Environment using NASA Satellite Data and Models". The goal is to increase the number of highschool and undergraduate students at Jackson State University, a Historically Black University, who are prepared to pursue higher academic degrees and careers in STEM fields. A five Saturday course/workshop was held during March/April 2015 at JSU, focusing on historical and technical concepts of math, enginneering, technology and atmosphere and climate change and remote sensing technology and applications to weather and climate. Nine students from meteorology, biology, industrial technology and computer science/engineering of JSU and 19 high scool students from Jackson Public Schools participated in the course/workshop. The lecture topics include: introduction to remote sensing and GIS, introduction to atmospheric science, math and engineering, climate, introduction to NASA innovations in climate education, introduction to remote sensing technology for bio-geosphere, introduction to earth system science, principles of paleoclimatology and global change, daily weather briefing, satellite image interpretation and so on. In addition to lectures, lab sessions were held for hand-on experiences for remote sensing applications to atmosphere, biosphere, earth system science and climate change using ERDAS/ENVI GIS software and satellite tools. Field trip to Barnett reservoir and National weather Service (NWS) was part of the workshop. Basics of Earth System Science is a non-mathematical introductory course designed for high school seniors, high school

  6. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Candid; Cubells-Beltran, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications. PMID:22408486

  7. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing.

    PubMed

    Reig, Candid; Cubells-Beltran, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications. PMID:22408486

  8. Standardized low-power wireless communication technologies for distributed sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Vilajosana, Xavier; Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers. PMID:24518893

  9. Standardized Low-Power Wireless Communication Technologies for Distributed Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vilajosana, Xavier; Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers. PMID:24518893

  10. Molecular-level engineering of THz/IR-sensitive materials for future biological sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight; Recine, Gregory; Bykhovski, Alexei; Zhang, Weidong

    2010-08-01

    While the unique spectral information associated with chemical and biological molecules within the terahertz frequency regime (~ 3.0-3.0 millimeters) motivates its use for practical sensing applications, limiting factors at the macroscale (weak spectral absorption, broad line widths and masking geometrical effects introduced by the samples) provides motivation for man-engineered sensing materials that allow for the transduction of the spectral information about target molecules from the nanoscale. This brief letter will overview work being performed by our research group to define molecular-level functionality that will be useful for realizing "THz/IR-sensitive" materials. Here the goal is to define switchable molecular components that when incorporated into larger DNA-based nanoscaffolds lead to THz and/or IR regime electronic and/or photonic material properties that are dictated in a predictable manner by novel functionality paradigms. In particular, theoretical modeling and design studies are being performed to engineer organic and biological switches that can be incorporated into DNA-based architectures that enable the precise extraction of nanoscale information (e.g., composition, dynamics, conformation) through electronic/photonic transformations to the macroscale. Hence, these studies seek to define new spectral-based sensing modalities useful for characterizing bio-molecules

  11. Report of the Workshop on Geologic Applications of Remote Sensing to the Study of Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Workshop on Geologic Applications of Remote Sensing to the Study of Sedimentary Basins, held January 10 to 11, 1985 in Lakewood, Colorado, involved 43 geologists from industry, government, and academia. Disciplines represented ranged from vertebrate paleontology to geophysical modeling of continents. Deliberations focused on geologic problems related to the formation, stratigraphy, structure, and evolution of foreland basins in general, and to the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area of Wyoming in particular. Geological problems in the Wind River/Bighorn basin area that should be studied using state-of-the-art remote sensing methods were identified. These include: (1) establishing the stratigraphic sequence and mapping, correlating, and analyzing lithofacies of basin-filling strata in order to refine the chronology of basin sedimentation, and (2) mapping volcanic units, fracture patterns in basement rocks, and Tertiary-Holocene landforms in searches for surface manifestations of concealed structures in order to refine models of basin tectonics. Conventional geologic, topographic, geophysical, and borehole data should be utilized in these studies. Remote sensing methods developed in the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area should be applied in other basins.

  12. Investigation of the applicability of using the triple redundant hydrogen sensor for methane sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, J. B.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Application specifications for the methane sensor were assembled and design guidelines, development goals and evaluation criteria were formulated. This was done to provide a framework to evaluate sensor performance and any design adjustments to the preprototype sensor that could be required to provide methane sensitivity. Good response to hydrogen was experimentally established for four hydrogen sensor elements to be later evaluated for methane response. Prior results were assembled and analyzed for other prototype hydrogen sensor performance parameters to form a comparison base. The four sensor elements previously shown to have good hydrogen response were experimentally evaluated for methane response in 2.5% methane-in-air. No response was obtained for any of the elements, despite the high methane concentration used (50% of the Lower Flammability Limit). It was concluded that the preprototype sensing elements were insensitive to methane and were hydrogen specific. Alternative sensor operating conditions and hardware design changes were considered to provide methane sensitivity to the preprototype sensor, including a variety of different methane sensing techniques. Minor changes to the existing sensor elements, sensor geometry and operating conditions will not make the preprototype hydrogen sensor respond to methane. New sensor elements that will provide methane and hydrogen sensitivity require replacement of the existing thermistor type elements. Some hydrogen sensing characteristics of the modified sensor will be compromised (larger in situ calibration gas volume and H2 nonspecificity). The preprototype hydrogen sensor should be retained for hydrogen monitoring and a separate methane sensor should be developed.

  13. Report of the Workshop on Geologic Applications of Remote Sensing to the Study of Sedimentary Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, H.R.

    1985-08-01

    The Workshop on Geologic Applications of Remote Sensing to the Study of Sedimentary Basins, held January 10 to 11, 1985 in Lakewood, Colorado, involved 43 geologists from industry, government, and academia. Disciplines represented ranged from vertebrate paleontology to geophysical modeling of continents. Deliberations focused on geologic problems related to the formation, stratigraphy, structure, and evolution of foreland basins in general, and to the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area of Wyoming in particular. Geological problems in the Wind River/Bighorn basin area that should be studied using state-of-the-art remote sensing methods were identified. These include: (1) establishing the stratigraphic sequence and mapping, correlating, and analyzing lithofacies of basin-filling strata in order to refine the chronology of basin sedimentation, and (2) mapping volcanic units, fracture patterns in basement rocks, and Tertiary-Holocene landforms in searches for surface manifestations of concealed structures in order to refine models of basin tectonics. Conventional geologic, topographic, geophysical, and borehole data should be utilized in these studies. Remote sensing methods developed in the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area should be applied in other basins.

  14. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  15. Designing Zoning of Remote Sensing Drones for Urban Applications: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Alias, A.; Akma, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses on-going research related to zoning regulation for the remote sensing drone in the urban applications. Timestamped maps are presented here follow a citation-based approach, where significant information is retrieved from the scientific literature. The emergence of drones in domestic air raises lots understandable issues on privacy, security and uncontrolled pervasive surveillance that require a careful and alternative solution. The effective solution is to adopt a privacy and property rights approach that create a drone zoning and clear drone legislatures. In providing a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to drones zoning and regulations, but also, discuss on trend remote sensing drones specification in designing a drone zones. Remote sensing drone will specific according to their features and performances; size and endurance, maximum airspeed and altitude level and particular references are made to the drones range. The implementation of laws zoning could lie with the urban planners whereby, a zoning for drone could become a new tactic used to specify areas, where drones could be used, will provide remedies for the harm that arise from drones, and act as a different against irresponsible behaviour. Finally, underlines the need for next regulations on guidelines and standards which can be used as a guidance for urban decision makers to control the drones' operating, thus ensuring a quality and sustainability of resilience cities simultaneously encouraging the revolution of technology.

  16. Distributed fiber-optic sensing system with OFDR and its applications to structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.; Kageyama, K.; Uzawa, K.; Igawa, H.; Omichi, K.; Machijima, Y.

    2009-07-01

    In the field of fiber-optic sensing technology, distributed sensors that return a value of the measurand as a function of linear position along an optical fiber are regarded as a promising sensor which can be applied to structural health monitoring (SHM). We have developed a distributed strain sensing technique using long gauge fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). FBGs functioning as mirrors with wavelengthselective reflectivity have been used as strain or temperature sensors. OFDR is a technique designed to measure backreflections from optical fiber networks and components. In our system, we use a longer gauge FBG whose length is ordinarily more than 100 mm and we can measure strain at an arbitrary position along the FBG. Therefore, we can obtain continuous strain data along the FBG. Furthermore, since the spatial resolution in strain measurements is less than 1 mm, it enables us to measure the strain distribution of stress concentrated area, such as welded and bonded joints, precisely. In this paper, we describe the principle of the distributed sensing technique based on OFDR and the applications to strain monitoring of a bonded joint and a wing box structure.

  17. Inverse filtering of radar signals using compressed sensing with application to meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, Ryan; Close, Sigrid

    2012-10-01

    Compressed sensing, a method which relies on sparsity to reconstruct signals with relatively few measurements, provides a new approach to processing radar signals that is ideally suited to detailed imaging and identification of multiple targets. In this paper, we extend previously published theoretical work by investigating the practical problems associated with this approach. In deriving a discrete linear radar model that is suitable for compressed sensing, we discuss what the discrete model can tell us about continuously defined targets and show how sparsity in the latter translates to sparsity in the former. We provide details about how this problem can be solved when using large data sets. Through comparisons with matched filter processing, we validate our compressed sensing technique and demonstrate its application to meteors, where it has the potential to answer open questions about processes like fragmentation and flares. At the cost of computational complexity and an assumption of target sparsity, the benefits over pulse compression using a matched filter include no filtering sidelobes, noise removal, and higher possible range and Doppler frequency resolution.

  18. Design and application of a field sensing system for ground anchors in slopes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  19. Modeling and design of a 2D photonic crystal microcavity on polymer material for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, C.; Armenise, M. N.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper report on the design of a 2D PBG filter in polymeric material. The filter is a Fabry-Perot cavity having a self-sustained membrane configuration. A deep parametric analysis has been carried out for improving the performance, taking also into account the fabrication tolerances Best performance in terms of lateral confinement have been obtained in case of square lattice. As for materials, polystyrene shown best in terms of refractive index value, length of the photonic crystal structure and attenuation value in the band gap. The filter can be used either in sensing applications or in telecommunication field.

  20. Remote radiation sensing module based on a silicon photomultiplier for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-09-01

    We have designed a silicon-photomultiplier-based remote radiation-sensing module consisting of a master port (displaying radiation information) and a slave port (detects radiation, transmits to master). The master port merges radiation and dose values and displays them. Counting detection efficiency and radiation response simulated using MCNPX were used to calibrate the module. We performed radioactive source tests ((137)Cs, (22)Na, (60)Co, (55)Fe) and compared experimental and simulation results. Remote detection capability was demonstrated and the detection accuracy was determined. Applications abound in the radioactivity industry. PMID:27295513

  1. Atmospheric remote sensing and applications from GNSS: Recent results and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Akgul, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric delay is one of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) errors. Nowadays, the total zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) can be precisely obtained from GNSS, which can be used for weather prediction and atmospheric research as well as space weather. In this paper, recent results and progress on atmospheric remote sensing and applications from GNSS are presented, including ocean tide models and mapping functions effects, high-order ionospheric delay correction, tropoapause variations, ionospheric climatology, seismo-atmospheric anomalies and characteristics. Finally, some possible mechanism on atmospheric anomalies and coupling processes are given and discussed as well as future challenges.

  2. Laser fabrication of large-scale nanoparticle arrays for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Gonçalves, Manuel R; Reinhardt, Carsten; Koroleva, Anastasia; Arnedillo, Maria Luisa; Kiyan, Roman; Marti, Othmar; Chichkov, Boris N

    2011-06-28

    A novel method for high-speed fabrication of large scale periodic arrays of nanoparticles (diameters 40-200 nm) is developed. This method is based on a combination of nanosphere lithography and laser-induced transfer. Fabricated spherical nanoparticles are partially embedded into a polymer substrate. They are arranged into a hexagonal array and can be used for sensing applications. An optical sensor with the sensitivity of 365 nm/RIU and the figure of merit of 21.5 in the visible spectral range is demonstrated. PMID:21539373

  3. Public health applications of remote sensing of vector borne and parasitic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the potential application of remote sensing to various fields of public health are presented. Specific topics discussed include: detection of snail habitats in connection with the epidemiology of schistosomiasis; the detection of certain Anopheles breeding sites, and location of transient human populations, both in connection with malaria eradication programs; and detection of overwintering population sites for the primary screwworm (Cochliomyia americana). Emphasis was placed on the determination of ground truth data on the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of ground waters which would or would not support the growth of significant populations of mosquitoes.

  4. Microscale application of column theory for high resolution force and displacement sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, B. A.; Desai, A. V.; Haque, M. A.

    2005-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and experimental validation of a device which exploits the amplification of displacement and attenuation of structural stiffness in the post-buckling deformation of slender columns to obtain pico-Newton force and nanometer displacement resolution, even under an optical microscope. The extremely small size, purely mechanical sensing scheme and vacuum compatibility of the instrument makes it compatible with existing visualization tools of nanotechnology. The instrument has a wide variety of potential applications ranging from electro-mechanical characterization of one dimensional solids to single biological cells.

  5. Characterisation of an electrical heating method for metallic-coated optical fibres for distributed sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    In several applications a temperature contrast between the sensing fibre and the environment is required to detect changes in the environmental heat capacity. For this purpose the process of electrical heating in metallic-coated fibres is theoretically analysed and modelled in steady-state conditions based on the thermal energy generated by resistive heating and the losses induced by convection and radiation. The impact of ambient temperature and pressure is investigated. The proposed model for the thermal exchange is experimentally validated using a high-resolution Brillouin distributed fibre sensor, which is used to measure the longitudinal profile of the temperature reached by electrical heating along an Alcoated optical fibre.

  6. DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 μm for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Wolfgang; Naehle, Lars; Fuchs, Peter; Gerschuetz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Lars; Koeth, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have shown the importance of tunable semiconductor lasers in optical sensing. We describe the status quo concerning DFB laser diodes between 760 nm and 3,000 nm as well as new developments aiming for up to 80 nm tuning range in this spectral region. Furthermore we report on QCL between 3 μm and 16 μm and present new developments. An overview of the most interesting applications using such devices is given at the end of this paper. PMID:22319259

  7. Tools and Data Services from the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, preparation for and migration of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. These on the other hand require gaining detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation of data reduction, combination and data product production. The time-consuming task must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin and is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets of different formats, structures, and resolutions.

  8. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications.

    PubMed

    Harrer, S; Kim, S C; Schieber, C; Kannam, S; Gunn, N; Moore, S; Scott, D; Bathgate, R; Skafidas, S; Wagner, J M

    2015-05-01

    systems genomics has to be accompanied by an equally strong effort to develop next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug screening and design platforms. In that context lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing nanopore- and nanochannel based resistive pulse-sensing technology for DNA-sequencing and protein screening applications occupy a key role. This paper describes the status quo of resistive pulse sensing technology for these two application areas with a special focus on current technology trends and challenges ahead. PMID:25875197

  9. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    systems genomics has to be accompanied by an equally strong effort to develop next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug screening and design platforms. In that context lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing nanopore- and nanochannel based resistive pulse-sensing technology for DNA-sequencing and protein screening applications occupy a key role. This paper describes the status quo of resistive pulse sensing technology for these two application areas with a special focus on current technology trends and challenges ahead.

  10. Sensing cantilever beam bending by the optical lever technique and its application to surface stress.

    PubMed

    Evans, Drew R; Craig, Vincent S J

    2006-03-23

    Cantilever beams, both microscopic and macroscopic, are used as sensors in a great variety of applications. An optical lever system is commonly employed to determine the deflection and thereby the profile of the cantilever under load. The sensitivity of the optical lever must be calibrated, and this is usually achieved by application of a known load or deflection to the free end of the cantilever. When the sensing operation involves a different type of load or a combination of types of loadings, the calibration and the deflection values derived from it become invalid. Here we develop a master equation that permits the true deflection of the cantilever to be obtained simply from the measurement of the apparent deflection for uniformly distributed loadings and end-moment loadings. These loadings are relevant to the uniform adsorption or application of material to the cantilever or the application of a surface stress to the cantilever and should assist experimentalists using the optical lever, such as in the atomic force microscope, to measure cantilever deflections in a great variety of sensing applications. We then apply this treatment to the experimental evaluation of surface stress. Three forms of Stoney's equation that relate the apparent deflection to the surface stress, which is valid for both macroscopic and microscopic experiments, are derived. Analysis of the errors arising from incorrect modeling of the loading conditions of the cantilever currently applied in experiments is also presented. It is shown that the reported literature values for surface stress in microscopic experiments are typically 9% smaller than their true value. For macroscopic experiments, we demonstrate that the added mass of the film or coating generally dominates the measured deflection and must be accounted for accurately if surface stress measurements are to be made. Further, the reported measurements generally use a form of Stoney's equation that is in error, resulting in an

  11. In-database processing of a large collection of remote sensing data: applications and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikhtenko, Vladimir; Mamash, Elena; Chubarov, Dmitri; Voronina, Polina

    2016-04-01

    Large archives of remote sensing data are now available to scientists, yet the need to work with individual satellite scenes or product files constrains studies that span a wide temporal range or spatial extent. The resources (storage capacity, computing power and network bandwidth) required for such studies are often beyond the capabilities of individual geoscientists. This problem has been tackled before in remote sensing research and inspired several information systems. Some of them such as NASA Giovanni [1] and Google Earth Engine have already proved their utility for science. Analysis tasks involving large volumes of numerical data are not unique to Earth Sciences. Recent advances in data science are enabled by the development of in-database processing engines that bring processing closer to storage, use declarative query languages to facilitate parallel scalability and provide high-level abstraction of the whole dataset. We build on the idea of bridging the gap between file archives containing remote sensing data and databases by integrating files into relational database as foreign data sources and performing analytical processing inside the database engine. Thereby higher level query language can efficiently address problems of arbitrary size: from accessing the data associated with a specific pixel or a grid cell to complex aggregation over spatial or temporal extents over a large number of individual data files. This approach was implemented using PostgreSQL for a Siberian regional archive of satellite data products holding hundreds of terabytes of measurements from multiple sensors and missions taken over a decade-long span. While preserving the original storage layout and therefore compatibility with existing applications the in-database processing engine provides a toolkit for provisioning remote sensing data in scientific workflows and applications. The use of SQL - a widely used higher level declarative query language - simplifies interoperability

  12. Application of unified array calculus to connect 4-D spacetime sensing with string theory and relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauhala, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    Array algebra of photogrammetry and geodesy unified multi-linear matrix and tensor operators in an expansion of Gaussian adjustment calculus to general matrix inverses and solutions of inverse problems to find all, or some optimal, parametric solutions that satisfy the available observables. By-products in expanding array and tensor calculus to handle redundant observables resulted in general theories of estimation in mathematical statistics and fast transform technology of signal processing. Their applications in gravity modeling and system automation of multi-ray digital image and terrain matching evolved into fast multi-nonlinear differential and integral array calculus. Work since 1980's also uncovered closed-form inverse Taylor and least squares Newton-Raphson-Gauss perturbation solutions of nonlinear systems of equations. Fast nonlinear integral matching of array wavelets enabled an expansion of the bundle adjustment to 4-D stereo imaging and range sensing where real-time stereo sequence and waveform phase matching enabled data-to-info conversion and compression on-board advanced sensors. The resulting unified array calculus of spacetime sensing is applicable in virtually any math and engineering science, including recent work in spacetime physics. The paper focuses on geometric spacetime reconstruction from its image projections inspired by unified relativity and string theories. The collinear imaging equations of active object space shutter of special relativity are expanded to 4-D Lorentz transform. However, regular passive imaging and shutter inside the sensor expands the law of special relativity by a quantum geometric explanation of 4-D photogrammetry. The collinear imaging equations provide common sense explanations to the 10 (and 26) dimensional hyperspace concepts of a purely geometric string theory. The 11-D geometric M-theory is interpreted as a bundle adjustment of spacetime images using 2-D or 5-D membrane observables of image, string and

  13. All-silicon monolithic optoelectronic platform for multi-analyte biochemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiakos, K.; Makarona, E.; Raptis, I.; Salapatas, A.; Psarouli, A.; Kakabakos, S.; Petrou, P.; Hoekman, M.; Heideman, R.; Stoffer, R.; Tukkiniemi, K.; Soppanen, M.; Jobst, G.; Nounessis, G.; Budkowski, A.; Rysz, J.

    2013-05-01

    Despite the advances in optical biosensors, the existing technological approaches still face two major challenges: the inherent inability of most sensors to integrate the optical source in the transducer chip, and the need to specifically design the optical transducer per application. In this work, the development of a radical optoelectronic platform is demonstrated based on a monolithic optocoupler array fabricated by standard Si-technology and suitable for multi-analyte detection. The platform has been specifically designed biochemical sensing. In the all-silicon array of transducers, each optocoupler has its own excitation source, while the entire array share a common detector. The light emitting devices (LEDs) are silicon avalanche diodes biased beyond their breakdown voltage and emit in the VIS-NIR part of the spectrum. The LEDs are coupled to individually functionalized optical transducers that converge to a single detector for multiplexed operation. The integrated nature of the basic biosensor scheme and the ability to functionalize each transducer independently allows for the development of miniaturized optical transducers tailored towards multi-analyte tests. The monolithic arrays can be used for a plethora of bio/chemical interactions becoming thus a versatile analytical tool. The platform has been successfully applied in bioassays and binding in a real-time and label-free format and is currently being applied to ultra-sensitive food safety applications.

  14. [Vegetation water content retrieval and application of drought monitoring using multi-spectral remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Tao; Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Fu-Tao

    2011-10-01

    The vegetation is one of main drying carriers. The change of Vegetation Water Content (VWC) reflects the spatial-temporal distribution of drought situation and the degree of drought. In the present paper, a method of retrieving the VWC based on remote sensing data is introduced and analyzed, including the monitoring theory, vegetation water content indicator and retrieving model. The application was carried out in the region of Southwest China in the spring, 2010. The VWC data was calculated from MODIS data and spatially-temporally analyzed. Combined with the meteorological data from weather stations, the relationship between the EWT and weather data shows that precipitation has impact on the change in vegetation moisture to a certain extent. However, there is a process of delay during the course of vegetation absorbing water. So precipitation has a delaying impact on VWC. Based on the above analysis, the probability of drought monitoring and evaluation based on multi-spectral VWC data was discussed. Through temporal synthesis and combined with auxiliary data (i. e. historical data), it will help overcome the limitation of data itself and enhance the application of drought monitoring and evaluation based on the multi-spectral remote sensing. PMID:22250560

  15. The research of a gyro-stabilized platform and POS application technology in airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Du, Qi

    2009-07-01

    The distortion of the collected images usually takes place since the attitude changes along with the flying aerocraft on airborne remote sensing. In order to get original images without distortion, it is necessary to use professional gyro-stabilized platform. In addition to this, another solution of correcting the original image distortion is to utilize later geometric rectification using position & orientation system ( POS ) data. The third way is to utilize medium-accuracy stabilized platform to control the distortion at a tolerant range, and then make use of the data obtained by high-solution posture measure system to correct the low-quality remote sensing images. The third way which takes advantage of both techniques is better than using only one of the two other ways. This paper introduces several kinds of structural forms of gyro-stabilized platforms, and POS acquiring instruments respectively. Then, the essay will make some analysis of their advantages and disadvantages, key technologies and the application experiment of the third method. After the analysis, the thesis discusses the design of the gyro-stabilized platform. The thesis provides crucial information not only for the application technology of gyro-stabilized platform and POS but also for future development.

  16. Water quality monitoring and assessment of an urban Mediterranean lake facilitated by remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Markogianni, V; Dimitriou, E; Karaouzas, I

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of water quality is a major problem worldwide and often leads to serious environmental impacts and concerns about public health. In this study, the water quality monitoring and assessment of the Koumoundourou Lake, a brackish urban shallow lake located in the northeastern part of Elefsis Bay (Greece), were evaluated. A number of water quality parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a concentration) were analyzed in water samples collected bimonthly over a 1-year period from five stations throughout the lake. Moreover, biological quality elements were analysed seasonally over the 1-year period (benthic fauna). Statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the water quality of the lake and distinguish sources of variation measured in the samples. Furthermore, the chemical and trophic status of the lake was evaluated according to the most widely applicable classification schemes. Satellite images of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper were used in order for algorithms to be developed and calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The trophic status of the lake was characterized as oligotrophic based on phosphorus and as mesotrophic-eutrophic based on Chl-a concentrations. The results of the remote sensing application indicated a relatively high coefficient of determination (R (2)) among point sampling results and the remotely sensed data, which implies that the selected algorithm is reliable and could be used for the monitoring of Chl-a concentration in the particular water body when no field data are available. PMID:24705815

  17. Electron heating in superconducting cuprate heterostructures and its application for advanced sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Andrei; Wen, Bo; Yakobov, Roman; Vitkalov, Sergey; Karasik, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Low electron density in superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures containing quasi-two dimensional CuO layers leads to strong reduction of the interaction between electrons and thermal phonons and simultaneously to substantial enhancement of the electron-electron interaction. This hierarchy of kinetic processes provides very effective quasiparticle multiplication and slow quasiparticle relaxation and recombination. Strong heating of quasiparticles in the superconducting and resistive states makes these superconducting nanomaterials to be very attractive for various sensing applications based on electron heating. These nanostructures allow for the managing of quasiparticle relaxation rate from low values determined by the electron-phonon relaxation to high values in short devices with out-diffusion electron cooling. Therefore, LSCO heterostructures are very interesting for applications in sensitive resistive detectors, kinetic inductance detectors, and wideband mixers. We experimentally determined key material parameters, design corresponding sensors and evaluated their parameters. Work is supported by NSF.

  18. [Application of hyper-spectral remote sensing technology in environmental protection].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Qiao; Yao, Yun-Jun; Wang, Zhong-Ting; You, Dai-An

    2013-12-01

    Hyper-spectral remote sensing (RS) technology has been widely used in environmental protection. The present work introduces its recent application in the RS monitoring of pollution gas, green-house gas, algal bloom, water quality of catch water environment, safety of drinking water sources, biodiversity, vegetation classification, soil pollution, and so on. Finally, issues such as scarce hyper-spectral satellites, the limits of data processing and information extract are related. Some proposals are also presented, including developing subsequent satellites of HJ-1 satellite with differential optical absorption spectroscopy, greenhouse gas spectroscopy and hyper-spectral imager, strengthening the study of hyper-spectral data processing and information extraction, and promoting the construction of environmental application system. PMID:24611400

  19. Characterization of piezoelectric materials for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing for ultra-low frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouroz Islam, Mohammad; Seethaler, Rudolf; Shahria Alam, M.

    2015-08-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used extensively in a number of sensing applications ranging from aerospace industries to medical diagnostics. Piezoelectric materials generate charge when they are subjected to strain. However, since measuring charge is difficult at low frequencies, traditional piezoelectric sensors are limited to dynamic applications. In this research an alternative technique is proposed to determine static strain that relies upon the measurement of piezoelectric capacitance and resistance using piezoelectric sensors. To demonstrate the validity of this approach, the capacitance and resistance of a piezoelectric patch sensor was characterized for a wide range of strain and temperature. The study shows that the piezoelectric capacitance is sensitive to both strain and temperature while the resistance is mostly dependent on the temperature variation. The findings can be implemented to obtain thermally compensated static strain from piezoelectric sensors, which does not require an additional temperature sensor.

  20. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications for tropical and subtropical vegetation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography contains 425 citations of selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications covering the general subject of tropical and subtropical vegetation analysis. Functionally related topics that include vegetation analysis are included for completeness, and citations have been organized under the following subheadings for ease of reference: remote sensing application overviews, vegetation (general), forestry, grasslands/savannah/shrublands, agriculture, land use/thematic mapping, and integrated surveys/multiple resource analysis/land systems. The terms "tropics and subtropics" are used in the widest context to include applications related to a broad range of equatorial environments. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1924 and 1978. Many foreign language and non U.S.- source items are included.

  1. Suspended single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistor for gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yukiko; Fujita, Yoshihiro; Takei, Kuniharu; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the pressure dependence of transfer characteristics of suspended single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors. We find that the gate bias around the charge neutral point with low drain current is appropriate for gas sensing application, while the high gate bias condition with high drain current that induces Joule heating in the suspended region for the desorption of the adsorbed molecules is preferable for the vacuum gauge application based on the heat exchange surrounding gas molecules, where the temperature at the suspended channel is investigated based on the simple one-dimensional heat transport model. We also revealed that the pressure dependence of the channel conductance at the gate bias around the charge neutral point can be explained by the Langmuir isotherm.

  2. An Overview of Remote Sensing and Geodesy for Epidemiology and Public Health Application

    PubMed Central

    Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    The techniques of remote sensing (RS) and geodesy have the potential to revolutionize the discipline of epidemiology and its application in human health. As a new departure from conventional epidemiological methods, these techniques require some detailed explanation. This review provides the theoretical background to RS including (i) its physical basis, (ii) an explanation of the orbital characteristics and specifications of common satellite sensor systems, (iii) details of image acquisition and procedures adopted to overcome inherent sources of data degradation, and (iv) a background to geophysical data preparation. This information allows RS applications in epidemiology to be readily interpreted. Some of the techniques used in geodesy, to locate features precisely on Earth so that they can be registered to satellite sensor-derived images, are also included. While the basic principles relevant to public health are presented here, inevitably many of the details must be left to specialist texts. PMID:10997203

  3. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Prabir

    2008-12-31

    Identifying gas species and their quantification is important for optimization of many industrial applications involving high temperatures, including combustion processes. CISM (Center for Industrial Sensors and Measurements) at the Ohio State University has developed CO, O{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2} sensors based on TiO{sub 2} semiconducting oxides, zirconia and lithium phosphate based electrochemical sensors and sensor arrays for high-temperature emission control. The underlying theme in our sensor development has been the use of materials science and chemistry to promote high-temperature performance with selectivity. A review article presenting key results of our studies on CO, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} sensors is described in: Akbar, Sheikh A.; Dutta, Prabir K. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies for Combustion Processes, PowerPlant Chemistry, 9(1) 2006, 28-33.

  4. Crop identification technology assessment for remote sensing (CITARS). Volume 6: Data processing at the laboratory for applications of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Cary, T. K.; Davis, B. J.; Swain, P. H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of classifications and experiments for the crop identification technology assessment for remote sensing are summarized. Using two analysis procedures, 15 data sets were classified. One procedure used class weights while the other assumed equal probabilities of occurrence for all classes. Additionally, 20 data sets were classified using training statistics from another segment or date. The classification and proportion estimation results of the local and nonlocal classifications are reported. Data also describe several other experiments to provide additional understanding of the results of the crop identification technology assessment for remote sensing. These experiments investigated alternative analysis procedures, training set selection and size, effects of multitemporal registration, spectral discriminability of corn, soybeans, and other, and analyses of aircraft multispectral data.

  5. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Thirty-one papers were selected for the database from Volume 2 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 2 include: optics and models; air-sea interactions and sea ice; sensors and information systems; hyperspectral sensors and applications; charting and mapping; and color imagery.

  6. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Sixty-nine papers were selected for the database from Volume 1 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 1 include: oil spills and marine pollution; Florida ecosystems; air-sea interaction and sea ice; living resources; optics and models; hyperspectral sensors and applications; and charting and mapping.

  7. High-efficiency VCSEL arrays for illumination and sensing in consumer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurin, Jean-Francois; Zhou, Delai; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Li, Daizong; Chen, Tong; Guo, Baiming; Ghosh, Chuni

    2016-03-01

    There has been increased interest in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for illumination and sensing in the consumer market, especially for 3D sensing ("gesture recognition") and 3D image capture. For these applications, the typical wavelength range of interest is 830~950nm and power levels vary from a few milli-Watts to several Watts. The devices are operated in short pulse mode (a few nano-seconds) with fast rise and fall times for time-of-flight applications (ToF), or in CW/quasi-CW for structured light applications. In VCSELs, the narrow spectrum and its low temperature dependence allows the use of narrower filters and therefore better signal-to-noise performance, especially for outdoor applications. In portable devices (mobile devices, wearable devices, laptops etc.) the size of the illumination module (VCSEL and optics) is a primary consideration. VCSELs offer a unique benefit compared to other laser sources in that they are "surface-mountable" and can be easily integrated along with other electronics components on a printed circuit board (PCB). A critical concern is the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of the illumination source operating at high temperatures (>50 deg C). We report on various VCSEL based devices and diffuser-integrated modules with high efficiency at high temperatures. Over 40% PCE was achieved in broad temperature range of 0-70 °C for either low power single devices or high power VCSEL arrays, with sub- nano-second rise and fall time. These high power VCSEL arrays show excellent reliability, with extracted mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) of over 500 years at 60 °C ambient temperature and 8W peak output.

  8. Robustness of surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate with a mercaptosilane adhesive layer for in vivo sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Yasuaki; Jans, Hilde; van Dorpe, Pol; Li, Jiaqi; Minamiguchi, Masaru; Shioi, Masahiko; Vlaminck, Lieven; Lagae, Liesbet; Kawamura, Tatsuro

    2015-06-01

    A highly robust surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for in vivo sensing applications is reported. In vivo sensing demands structurally robust substrates with good optical performance. SERS substrates containing gold nanostructures on SiO2 supports often suffer from a low adhesion strength of gold on SiO2. The proposed SERS substrate contains a mercaptosilane adhesive layer, which provides a high robustness without deteriorating the plasmon performance, in contrast to traditional titanium adhesive layers. The mercaptosilane-modified SERS substrate is sufficiently robust for in vivo sensing, as evidenced by its implantation in the animal skin for 2 months.

  9. Bioanalytical applications of affinity-based nanotube membranes for sensing and separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, Hector Mario

    2008-11-01

    Nanotechnology has played an important role in the development of research and technology during the last two decades. The contribution of nanotechnology in different fields, along with the versatility of the constructed nanoscale materials, have made nanotechnology one of the most suitable tools to develop particular nanostructures to realize a desired function and application. A nanostructure is simply an entity at the nanometer scale with one, two or three dimensional features. Since nanotechnology covers a broad range of nanoscale materials, to simplify nanotechnology, it can be classified into two categories based on how the nanostructures are prepared: top-down and bottom-up. In the top-down methods, the nanostructures are constructed by chiseling larger bulk materials into entities of smaller size. Conversely, in the bottom-up case, small units are grown or assembled into their desired size and shape. The nanoporous materials specifically have attracted a lot of attention because they can be used for the synthesis of a variety of functional nanostructures of great usefulness in technology. These porous nanostructures usually combine many of the advantages of the top-down and bottom-up methodologies such as flexibility, size controllability, and cost. The research presented in this work utilizes nanoporous membranes to develop porous nanostructured platforms with potential applications in sensing and separations. In particular, this work is centered in fundamental studies for bioanalytical applications of affinity-based nanotube membranes for sensing and separations. A bottom-up methodology like the template synthesis was used to produce silica nanotubes inside of the pores of alumina membrane. The functionalization of the inside walls of these silica nanotube membranes allowed control of the functional behavior and properties of the nanostructured membrane during membrane-based separations and sensing. The general scheme of the work presented here, is

  10. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-12-01

    dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10-5 RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism.

  11. Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhongping

    1994-01-01

    and value of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient. The simulation was tested for a wide range of water types, including waters from Monterey Bay, the West Florida Shelf, and the Mississippi River plume. Using the simulation, the R(sub rs)-derived in-water absorption coefficients were consistent with the values from in-water measurements (r(exp 2) greater than 0.94, slope approximately 1.0). In the remote-sensing applications, a new approach is suggested for the estimation of primary production based on remote sensing. Using this approach, the calculated primary production (PP) values based upon remotely sensed data were very close to the measured values for the euphotic zone (r(exp 2) = 0.95, slope 1.26, and 32% average difference), while traditional, pigment-based PP model provided values only one-third the size of the measured data. This indicates a potential to significantly improve the accuracy of the estimation of primary production based upon remote sensing.

  12. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-12-21

    dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10{sup –5} RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism.

  13. Semiconductor Reference Oscillator Development for Coherent Detection Optical Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Mansour, Kamjou; Menzies, Robert T.; Qiu, Yueming; Forouhar, Siamak; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Enterprise Advanced Technology Initiatives Program is supporting a program for the development of semiconductor laser reference oscillators for application to coherent optical remote sensing from Earth orbit. Local oscillators provide the frequency reference required for active spaceborne optical remote sensing concepts that involve heterodyne (coherent) detection. Two recent examples of such schemes are Doppler wind lidar and tropospheric carbon dioxide measurement by laser absorption spectrometry, both of which are being proposed at a wavelength of 2.05 microns. Frequency-agile local oscillator technology is important to such applications because of the need to compensate for large platform-induced Doppler components that would otherwise interfere with data interpretation. Development of frequency-agile local oscillator approaches has heretofore utilized the same laser material as the transmitter laser (Tm,Ho:YLF in the case of the 2.05-micron wavelength mentioned above). However, a semiconductor laser-based frequency-agile local oscillator offers considerable scope for reduced mechanical complexity and improved frequency agility over equivalent crystal laser devices, while their potentially faster tuning capability suggest the potential for greater scanning versatility. The program we report on here is specifically tasked with the development of prototype novel architecture semiconductor lasers with the power, tunability, and spectral characteristics required for coherent Doppler lidar. The baseline approach for this work is the distributed feedback (DFB) laser, in which gratings are etched into the semiconductor waveguide structures along the entire length of the laser cavity. However, typical DFB lasers at the wavelength of interest have linewidths that exhibit unacceptable growth when driven at the high currents and powers that are required for the Doppler lidar application. Suppression of this behavior by means of corrugation pitch

  14. Design of a triangular platform piezoresistive affinity microcantilever sensor for biochemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Ribu; Sankar, A. Ravi

    2015-05-01

    Microcantilever platforms with integrated piezoresistors have found versatile applications in the field of clinical analysis and diagnostics. Even though treatise encompasses numerous design details of the cantilever based biochemical sensors, a majority of them focus on the generic slender rectangular cantilever platform mainly due to its evolution from the atomic force microscope (AFM). The reported designs revolve around the aspects of dimensional optimization and variations with respect to the combination of materials for the composite structure. In this paper, a triangular cantilever platform is shown to have better performance metrics than the reported generic slender rectangular and the square cantilever platforms with integrated piezoresistors for biochemical sensing applications. The selection and optimization of the triangular cantilever platform is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the preliminary selection of the cantilever shape is performed based on the initial design obtained by analytical formulae and numerical simulations. The second stage includes the geometrical optimization of the triangular cantilever platform and the integrated piezoresistor. The triangular cantilever platform shows a better performance in terms of the figure of merit (FoM), \\psi = ≤ft(Δ R/R\\right)f02 and the measurement bandwidth. The simulation results show that the magnitude of ψ of the triangular platform is 77.21% and 65.64% higher than that of the slender rectangular and the square cantilever platforms respectively. Moreover, the triangular platform exhibits a measurement bandwidth that is 70.91% and 2.04 times higher than that of the slender rectangular and square cantilever structures respectively. For a better understanding of the 2D nature of the stress generated on the cantilever platform due to the surface stress, its spatial profile has been extracted and depicted graphically. Finally, a set of design rules are provided for optimizing the

  15. Plasmonic Properties of Bimetallic Nanostructures and Their Applications in Hydrogen Sensing and Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruibin

    Noble metal nanocrystals have attracted great interest from a wide range of research fields because of their intriguing properties endowed by their localized surface plasmon resonances, which are the collective oscillations of free electrons. Under resonant excitation, metal nanostructures exhibit very large scattering and absorption cross sections and large near-field enhancement. These extraordinary properties can be used in different applications, such as plasmonic sensing and imaging, plasmon-controlled optics, photothermal therapy, photocatalysis, solar cells, and so on. Gold and Silver nanocrystals have plasmon resonances in the visible and near-infrared regions. However, gold and silver are not suitable for some applications. For example, they are generally inactive for catalyzing chemical reactions. The integration of plasmonic metals with other metals can offer superior or new physical/chemical properties. In this thesis, I prepared Au/Ag and Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures and studied their plasmonic properties and applications in hydrogen sensing and photocatalysis. Seeds have a crucial importance in the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures. I therefore first studied the roles of the crystalline structure and shape of seeds on the overgrowth of bimetallic nanostructures. The overgrowth of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods, multicrystalline Au nanorods, and nanobipyramids were studied under the same conditions for each metal. The growths of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods gave cuboidal nanostructures, while rod-shaped nanostructures were obtained from the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanorods and nanobipyramids. Moreover, the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanobipyramids started at the stepped side facets, while the growths started at the twin boundaries on multicrystalline Au nanorods. These results unambiguously indicate that the crystalline structure of

  16. A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, John David

    This dissertation is concerned with the development of a novel, versatile optical sensor platform for optical metrology and chemical sensing. We demonstrate the feasibility of embedding optical components between bonded silicon wafers with receptor cavities and optical windows to create a self-contained sensor microsystem that can be used for in-situ measurement of hostile environments. Arrays of these sensors internal to a silicon wafer can enable optical sensing for in-situ, real-time mapping and process development for the semiconductor industry in the form of an instrumented substrate. Single-die versions of these optical sensor platforms can also enable point-of-care diagnostics, high throughput disease screening, bio-warfare agent detection, and environmental monitoring. Our first discussion will focus on a single-wavelength interferometry-based prototype sensor. Several applications are demonstrated using this single wavelength prototype: refractive index monitoring, SiO2 plasma etching, chemical mechanical polishing, photoresist cure and dissolution, copper etch end-point detection, and also nanopore wetting phenomena. Subsequent sections of this dissertation will describe efforts to improve the optical sensor platform to achieve multi-wavelength sensing function. We explore the use of an off-the-shelf commercial RGB sensor for colorimetric monitoring of copper and aluminum thin-film etchings. We then expand upon our prior work and concepts to realize a fully integrated, chip-sized microspectrometer with a photon engine based on a diffraction grating. The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a working prototype with dimensions < 1 mm thick using standard planar microfabrication techniques is described. Proof-of-concept demonstrations indicate the working principle of dispersion, although with a low spectral resolution of 120 nm. With working knowledge of the issues of the first prototype, we present an improved 5-channel microspectrometer with a

  17. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  18. Application of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Quantitative Evaluation of Crop Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, J.; Luvall, J.; Rickman, D.; Mask, P.; Wersinger, J.; Sullivan, D.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that thermal infrared emittance (TIR) at the field-scale is largely a function of the integrated crop/soil moisture continuum. Because soil moisture dynamics largely determine crop yields in non-irrigated farming (85 % of Alabama farms are non-irrigated), TIR may be an effective method of mapping within field crop yield variability, and possibly, absolute yields. The ability to map yield variability at juvenile growth stages can lead to improved soil fertility and pest management, as well as facilitating the development of economic forecasting. Researchers at GHCC/MSFC/NASA and Auburn University are currently investigating the role of TIR in site-specific agriculture. Site-specific agriculture (SSA), or precision farming, is a method of crop production in which zones and soils within a field are delineated and managed according to their unique properties. The goal of SSA is to improve farm profits and reduce environmental impacts through targeted agrochemical applications. The foundation of SSA depends upon the spatial and temporal characterization of soil and crop properties through the creation of management zones. Management zones can be delineated using: 1) remote sensing (RS) data, 2) conventional soil testing and soil mapping, and 3) yield mapping. Portions of this research have concentrated on using remote sensing data to map yield variability in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) crops. Remote sensing data have been collected for several fields in the Tennessee Valley region at various crop growth stages during the last four growing seasons. Preliminary results of this study will be presented.

  19. Implementation of Simple and Functional Web Applications at the Alaska Volcano Observatory Remote Sensing Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Web pages are ubiquitous and accessible, but when compared to stand-alone applications they are limited in capability. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) Remote Sensing Group has implemented web pages and supporting server software that provide relatively advanced features to any user able to meet basic requirements. Anyone in the world with access to a modern web browser (such as Mozilla Firefox 1.5 or Internet Explorer 6) and reasonable internet connection can fully use the tools, with no software installation or configuration. This allows faculty, staff and students at AVO to perform many aspects of volcano monitoring from home or the road as easily as from the office. Additionally, AVO collaborators such as the National Weather Service and the Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center are able to use these web tools to quickly assess volcanic events. Capabilities of this web software include (1) ability to obtain accurate measured remote sensing data values on an semi- quantitative compressed image of a large area, (2) to view any data from a wide time range of data swaths, (3) to view many different satellite remote sensing spectral bands and combinations, to adjust color range thresholds, (4) and to export to KML files which are viewable virtual globes such as Google Earth. The technologies behind this implementation are primarily Javascript, PHP, and MySQL which are free to use and well documented, in addition to Terascan, a commercial software package used to extract data from level-0 data files. These technologies will be presented in conjunction with the techniques used to combine them into the final product used by AVO and its collaborators for operational volcanic monitoring.

  20. High-performance mid-infrared GaSb laser diodes for defence and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizbaras, Augustinas; Dvinelis, Edgaras; Trinkunas, Augustinas; Šimonyte, Ieva; Greibus, Mindaugas; Kaušylas, Mindaugas; Žukauskas, Tomas; Songaila, Ramunas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas

    2014-06-01

    Mid-infrared spectral region (2-4 μm) is gaining significant attention recently due to the presence of numerous enabling applications in the field of gas sensing, medical, environmental and defense applications. Major requirement for these applications is the availability of laser sources in the atmospheric transmission window free of water vapor absorption, such as the 2-2.3 μm spectral window. Type-I GaSb-based laser diodes are ideal candidates for these applications being compact, electrically pumped, power efficient and able to operate at room temperature in continuous-wave. Moreover, due to the nature of type-I transition these devices have characteristic low operation voltage, typically below 1 V, resulting in low power consumption, and high-temperature of operation. In this work, we present recent progress of 2.1 μm wavelength single-spatial mode GaSb type-I laser diode development at Brolis Semiconductors. Experimental device structures were grown by solid-source multi-wafer MBE, consisting of an active region with 2 compressively strained (~1.3 %) GaInAsSb quantum wells. Epi-wafers were processed into a ridge-waveguide devices and mounted on Cu or CuW heatsink. Presented devices feature state-of-the art performance in CW mode with < 1.2 W and 30 % WPE for single emitter device as well as 9 W and 28 % WPE for a laser diode bar.

  1. Stratospheric platforms: a novel technological support for Earth observation and remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovis, Fabio; Lo Presti, Letizia; Magli, Enrico; Mulassano, Paolo; Olmo, Gabriella

    2001-12-01

    The international community agrees that the new technology based on the use of Unmanned Air Vehicles High Altitude Very long Endurance (UAV-HAVE) could play an important role for the development of remote sensing and telecommunication applications. A UAV-HAVE vehicle can be described as a low- cost flying infrastructure (compared with satellites) optimized for long endurance operations at an altitude of about 20 km. Due to such features, its role is similar to satellites, with the major advantages of being less expensive, more flexible, movable on demand, and suitable for a larger class of applications. According to this background, Politecnico di Torino is involved as coordinator in an important project named HeliNet, that represent one of the main activities in Europe in the field of stratospheric platforms, and is concerned with the development of a network of UAV-HAVE aircraft. A key point of this project is the feasibility study for the provision of several services, namely traffic monitoring, environmental surveillance, broadband communications and navigation. This paper reports preliminary results on the HeliNet imaging system and its remote sensing applications. In fact, many environmental surveillance services (e.g. regional public services for agriculture, hydrology, fire protection, and more) require very high-resolution imaging, and can be offered at a lower cost if operated by a shared platform. The philosophy behind the HeliNet project seems to be particularly suitable to manage such missions. In particular, we present a system- level study of possible imaging payloads to be mounted on- board of a stratospheric platform to collect Earth observation data. Firstly, we address optical payloads such as multispectral and/or hyperspectral ones, which are a very short-term objective of the project. Secondly, as an example of mid-term on-board payload, we examine the possibility to carry on the platform a light-SAR system. For both types of payload, we show

  2. Application of remote sensing techniques at different scales of observation on wetland evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Chung-Hsin

    The establishment and maintenance of the structure and functions in wetland ecosystems is greatly influenced by hydrologic conditions. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the major output component in the hydrologic water budget. Therefore, in order to provide efficient information for water resources management and the conservation of wetland ecosystems, research on ET is urgently needed. Moreover, to overcome the variable spatial vegetation distribution and the temporal change of wetlands, appropriate remote sensing techniques are also greatly needed. The goal of this research was to study fundamental wetland ET and then with the aid of remote sensing techniques from the micro scale to the macro scale to develop useful wetland ET estimation methods. The study site was located in the Ft. Drum Marsh, Upper St. John's River Basin in Indian River County, Florida. The site is a freshwater marsh with southern cattail ( Typha domingensis Pers.) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) as the dominant vegetation species. There were four stages of the study: (1) a fundamental ET study with a lysimeter system, (2) ground measurements and analyses of spectral responses of wetland vegetation using a field spectroradiometer, (3) wetland vegetation mapping using aerial hyperspectral images, and (4) application of satellite images to delineate wetland vegetation and estimate marsh-wide ET. The results of the fundamental ET study showed the various important vegetation parameters of sawgrass and cattail. A more appropriate estimation method of canopy resistance for sawgrass and cattail was proposed. Among the various ET estimation methods, the Priestley-Taylor method was found to be most applicable. The ground spectral response measurements of sawgrass and cattail demonstrated a distinguishable difference in red wavebands and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which indicated the spectral separability of the two wetland species. Leaf area index and stomatal resistance

  3. [An improved method and its application for agricultural drought monitoring based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Zheng, You-Fei; Cheng, Jin-Xin; Wu, Rong-Jun; Guan, Fu-Lai; Yao, Shu-Ran

    2013-09-01

    From the viewpoint of land surface evapotranspiration, and by using the semi-empirical evapotranspiration model based on the Priestley-Taylor equation and the land surface temperature-vegetation index (LST-VI) triangle algorithm, the current monitoring technology of agricultural drought based on remote sensing was improved, and a simplified Evapotranspiration Stress Index (SESI) was derived. With the application of the MODIS land products from March to November in 2008 and 2009, the triangle algorithm modeling with three different schemes was constructed to calculate the SESI to monitor the agricultural drought in the plain areas of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, in comparison with the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI). The results showed that SESI could effectively simplify the remote sensing drought monitoring method, and there was a good agreement between SESI and surface soil (10 and 20 cm depth) moisture content. Moreover, the performance of SESI was better in spring and autumn than in summer, and the SESI during different periods was more comparable than TVDI. It was feasible to apply the SESI to the continuous monitoring of a large area of agricultural drought. PMID:24417121

  4. A Bayesian approach to optimal sensor placement for structural health monitoring with application to active sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Eric B.; Todd, Michael D.

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for optimal sensor and/or actuator placement for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Starting from a general formulation of Bayes risk, we derive a global optimality criterion within a detection theory framework. The optimal configuration is then established as the one that minimizes the expected total presence of either type I or type II error during the damage detection process. While the approach is suitable for many sensing/actuation SHM processes, we focus on the example of active sensing using guided ultrasonic waves by implementing an appropriate statistical model of the wave propagation and feature extraction process. This example implements both pulse-echo and pitch-catch actuation schemes and takes into account line-of-site visibility and non-uniform damage probabilities over the monitored structure. The optimization space is searched using a genetic algorithm with a time-varying mutation rate. We provide three actuator/sensor placement test problems and discuss the optimal solutions generated by the algorithm.

  5. Microwave-heating synthesis and sensing applications of bright gold nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    He, Ding-Fei; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yu, Xue-Feng

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish a microwave-heating method to synthesize protein-stabilized Au nanoclusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained Au nanoclusters show bright red fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Au nanoclusters can be used as efficient fluorescence probe for Cu{sup 2+} ion sensing. -- Abstract: A rapid microwave-heating method has been developed for the synthesis of bright Au nanoclusters by using bull serum albumin as the template in an aqueous environment. The reaction time needed is only 7.0 min, and the weight of the products at one batch can reach 15 g. The Au nanoclusters exhibit bright fluorescence at {approx}613 nm with quantum yield of {approx}6.0%. By adjusting the pH value, the products can be controlled to precipitate or re-disperse in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the Au nanoclusters have exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity in the determination of Cu{sup 2+} ions in water. These results suggest an efficient method for obtaining metal nanoclusters for the detection and sensing applications.

  6. Simple design of novel triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Sang, Tian

    2016-04-01

    For a general metamaterial absorber, single patterned structure has only one resonance absorption peak. Therefore, a multi-band perfect absorber can be obtained by employing multiple different-sized metallic patterns. However, this kind of design strategy removes the novelty of their resonance mechanism and is also quite troublesome in regard to fabrication. Here, a novel and simple design of a triple-band terahertz absorber formed by only an asymmetric cross is presented. Theoretical results show that the proposed structure has three distinct absorption bands whose peaks are all over 99%. The first two absorption peaks are due to the magnetic resonances of the different sections of the asymmetric cross, and the third peak is based on the surface response of the structure. Moreover, sensing performance of the absorber is investigated in terms of the surrounding index. It is found that the figure of merit and quality factor of the third peak is much larger than those of the first two peaks, which reveals the proposed absorber’s, in particular the third resonance mode of the metamaterial, potential applications in sensing and detection.

  7. The application of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology in the FAST project construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Boqin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing application in Five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) project is to dynamically record the construction process with high resolution image, monitor the environmental impact, and provide services for local environmental protection and the reserve immigrants. This paper introduces the use of UAV remote sensing system and the course design and implementation for the FAST site. Through the analysis of the time series data, we found that: (1) since the year 2012, the project has been widely carried out; (2) till 2013, the internal project begun to take shape;(3) engineering excavation scope was kept stable in 2014, and the initial scale of the FAST engineering construction has emerged as in the meantime, the vegetation recovery went well on the bare soil area; (4) in 2015, none environmental problems caused by engineering construction and other engineering geological disaster were found in the work area through the image interpretation of UAV images. This paper also suggested that the UAV technology need some improvements to fulfill the requirements of surveying and mapping specification., including a new data acquisition and processing measures assigned with the background of highly diverse elevation, usage of telephoto camera, hierarchical photography with different flying height, and adjustment with terrain using the joint empty three settlement method.

  8. Radiative transfer model for aerosols in infrared wavelengths for passive remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Avishai; Embury, Janon F; Davidson, Charles E

    2006-09-10

    A comprehensive analytical radiative transfer model for isothermal aerosols and vapors for passive infrared remote sensing applications (ground-based and airborne sensors) has been developed. The theoretical model illustrates the qualitative difference between an aerosol cloud and a chemical vapor cloud. The model is based on two and two/four stream approximations and includes thermal emission-absorption by the aerosols; scattering of diffused sky radiances incident from all sides on the aerosols (downwelling, upwelling, left, and right); and scattering of aerosol thermal emission. The model uses moderate resolution transmittance ambient atmospheric radiances as boundary conditions and provides analytical expressions for the information on the aerosol cloud that is contained in remote sensing measurements by using thermal contrasts between the aerosols and diffused sky radiances. Simulated measurements of a ground-based sensor viewing Bacillus subtilis var. niger bioaerosols and kaolin aerosols are given and discussed to illustrate the differences between a vapor-only model (i.e., only emission-absorption effects) and a complete model that adds aerosol scattering effects. PMID:16926922

  9. Methodology for classification of geographical features with remote sensing images: Application to tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revollo Sarmiento, G. N.; Cipolletti, M. P.; Perillo, M. M.; Delrieux, C. A.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal flats generally exhibit ponds of diverse size, shape, orientation and origin. Studying the genesis, evolution, stability and erosive mechanisms of these geographic features is critical to understand the dynamics of coastal wetlands. However, monitoring these locations through direct access is hard and expensive, not always feasible, and environmentally damaging. Processing remote sensing images is a natural alternative for the extraction of qualitative and quantitative data due to their non-invasive nature. In this work, a robust methodology for automatic classification of ponds and tidal creeks in tidal flats using Google Earth images is proposed. The applicability of our method is tested in nine zones with different morphological settings. Each zone is processed by a segmentation stage, where ponds and tidal creeks are identified. Next, each geographical feature is measured and a set of shape descriptors is calculated. This dataset, together with a-priori classification of each geographical feature, is used to define a regression model, which allows an extensive automatic classification of large volumes of data discriminating ponds and tidal creeks against other various geographical features. In all cases, we identified and automatically classified different geographic features with an average accuracy over 90% (89.7% in the worst case, and 99.4% in the best case). These results show the feasibility of using freely available Google Earth imagery for the automatic identification and classification of complex geographical features. Also, the presented methodology may be easily applied in other wetlands of the world and perhaps employing other remote sensing imagery.

  10. Bio-Inspired Pressure Sensitive Foam Arrays for use in Hydrodynamic Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Jeff; Triantafyllou, Michael; Lang, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Shallow, turbid, and highly dynamic coastal waters provide a challenging environment for safe and reliable operation of marine vehicles faced with a distinct environmentally driven perceptual deficit. In nature, fish have solved this perplexing sensory problem and exhibit an intimate knowledge of the near-body flow field. This enhanced perception is mediated by the ability to discern and interpret hydrodynamic flow structures through the velocity and pressure sensing capabilities of the fish's lateral line. Taking cues from biological sensory principles, highly conformal pressure sensor arrays have been developed utilizing a novel piezoresistive carbon black-PDMS foam active material. By leveraging the low Young's modulus and watertight structure of closed-cell PDMS (silicone) foam, the sensor arrays are well suited for hydrodynamic sensing applications and prolonged exposure to fluid environments. Prototype arrays were characterized experimentally using hydrodynamic stimuli inspired by biological flows, and were found to exhibit a high degree of sensitivity while improving on the flexibility, robustness, and cost of existing pressure sensors.

  11. On the Application of OPAC in the Remote Sensing of Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, Frank; Maiheu, Bino; Janssen, Stijn; Mensink, Clemens

    2010-05-01

    This paper gives an account of the use of remotely sensed Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) imagery for the determination of particulate matter (PM) concentrations. One of the tasks of the Belgian Interregional Environment Agency is to provide information to the population as well as governmental institutes on the air quality in the country. One approach to reach this goal is to use the data collected by measuring sites and to interpolate these data to produce pollution maps. These maps commonly provide information on the concentrations of O3, NO2, SO2 and PM10 for Belgium. However, when it comes to mapping ultra-fine particulate matter (PM2.5) the required information for interpolation from measuring stations is lacking due to an inadequate amount and spatial spread of measuring stations of PM2.5. A possible approach to still provide information on spatially explicit PM2.5 pollution fields is to make use of satellite observations, more specifically by measuring AOD and the Angstrom coefficient. Many studies have been performed and papers published which investigate the relationship between aerosol optical depth and particulate matter - especially PM2.5 - at field level. This paper gives outcome on what we have learned from the use of the OPAC model (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds) to establish relationships between AOD and PM under cloud-free atmospheric conditions. An example of OPAC model application will be presented. Key words: Remote Sensing, AOD, PM2.5, OPAC

  12. Enhancing spectral shifts of plasmon-coupled noble metal nanoparticles for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Göeken, Kristian L; Subramaniam, Vinod; Gill, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles possess very large scattering cross-sections, which make them useful as tags in biosensing assays with the potential to detect even single binding events. In this study, we investigated the effects of nanoparticle size on the shift in the light scattering spectrum following formation of Au-Au, Ag-Ag or Ag-Au dimers using FDTD simulations. We discuss the use of a color camera to detect these spectral changes for application in a target-induced dimerization sensing assay. Dimerization of Au nanoparticles induced a larger shift in color compared to Ag nanoparticles. Heterodimers composed of 60 nm Ag and 40 nm Au demonstrated an even larger spectral shift and color response compared to the best homodimer pair (80-40 nm Au). The increased spectral shift of the Ag-Au heterodimer was subsequently observed experimentally for the DNA-induced dimerization of nanoparticles, showing that careful selection of nanoparticle size and composition can significantly enhance recognition of nanoparticle dimerization events for use in (color) sensing assays. PMID:25406679

  13. Application of Multitemporal Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture for the Estimation of Soil Physical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattikalli, N. M.; Engman, E. T.; Jackson, T. J.; Ahuja, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of multitemporal soil moisture derived from microwave remote sensing to estimate soil physical properties. The passive microwave ESTAR instrument was employed during June 10-18, 1992, to obtain brightness temperature (TB) and surface soil moisture data in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma. Analyses of spatial and temporal variations of TB and soil moisture during the dry-down period revealed a direct relationship between changes in T and soil moisture and soil physical (viz. texture) and hydraulic (viz. saturated hydraulic conductivity, K(sat)) properties. Statistically significant regression relationships were developed for the ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC) and K(sat), in terms of change components of TB and surface soil moisture. Validation of results using field measured values and soil texture map indicated that both RSC and K(sat) can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. These findings have potential applications of microwave remote sensing to obtain quick estimates of the spatial distributions of K(sat), over large areas for input parameterization of hydrologic models.

  14. The sensitivity of synthetic aperture radiometers for remote sensing applications from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Aperture synthesis offers a means of realizing the full potential of microwave remote sensing from space by helping to overcome the limitations set by antenna size. The result is a potentially lighter, more adaptable structure for applications in space. However, because the physical collecting area is reduced, the signal-to-noise ratio is reduced and may adversely affect the radiometric sensitivity. Sensitivity is an especially critical issue for measurements to be made from low earth orbit because the motion of the platform limits the integration time available for forming an image. The purpose is to develop expression for the sensitivity of remote sensing systems which use aperture synthesis. The objective is to develop basic equations general enough to be used to obtain the sensitivity of the several variations of aperture synthesis which were proposed for sensors in space. The conventional microwave imager (a scanning total power radiometer) is treated as a special case and a comparison of three synthetic aperture configurations with the conventional imager is presented.

  15. Tactile Sensing System Based on Arrays of Graphene Woven Microfabrics: Electromechanical Behavior and Electronic Skin Application.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Hongze; Li, Xinming; Shi, Jidong; He, Yijia; Zheng, Quan-shui; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2015-11-24

    Nanomaterials serve as promising candidates for strain sensing due to unique electromechanical properties by appropriately assembling and tailoring their configurations. Through the crisscross interlacing of graphene microribbons in an over-and-under fashion, the obtained graphene woven fabric (GWF) indicates a good trade-off between sensitivity and stretchability compared with those in previous studies. In this work, the function of woven fabrics for highly sensitive strain sensing is investigated, although network configuration is always a strategy to retain resistance stability. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the ultrahigh mechanosensitivity with gauge factors of 500 under 2% strain is attributed to the macro-woven-fabric geometrical conformation of graphene, which induces a large interfacial resistance between the interlaced ribbons and the formation of microscale-controllable, locally oriented zigzag cracks near the crossover location, both of which have a synergistic effect on improving sensitivity. Meanwhile, the stretchability of the GWF could be tailored to as high as over 40% strain by adjusting graphene growth parameters and adopting oblique angle direction stretching simultaneously. We also demonstrate that sensors based on GWFs are applicable to human motion detection, sound signal acquisition, and spatially resolved monitoring of external stress distribution. PMID:26468735

  16. Broken roll detection, application, algorithm and its basic principles of sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traxler, Gerhard; Klarner, Juergen; Huelble-Koenigsberger, Georg

    2005-02-01

    This paper will describe the distributed industrial inline application "broken roll detection", which is placed in a really harsh industrial environment, with all aspects from the sensing base to algorithm, implementation and technology. In a seamless steel tube production the pipe shells produced in the punch bench are running through many roller stands (3-roll system) to get the final dimension. If one of the rolls is broken, structural voids near the surface are the consequence. So finding the structure voids on the tube means to find broken rolls. Since pipe shells are hot (approximately 900°C) after passing the rolls, temperature distribution on its surface is different when voids happen. This gives a good base for detecting such voids by watching the surface temperature by sensing the radiation at wavelengths from 0,7 to 1.1&mum, which means that standard line scan cameras (3 x 2048 pixels, 10kHz line rate) can be used. Images of up to 600MB are the result for each imaged pipe shell. Evaluation of image data is done stepwise (in a pipeline) and on a separate channel for each camera with the objective to reduce data at each step. Images are detruncated, position-normalized, filtered, segmented and converted into object-descriptions that are sent to another PC for evaluating periodic occurrences. Once found such a periodic occurrence, the system signalizes it to the production line to stop the machine and repair the broken roll.

  17. Evaluation of zinc oxide nano-microtetrapods for biomolecule sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yichen; Karlsson, Mikael; Wang, Qin; Toprak, Muhammet S.

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide tetrapods (ZnO-Ts) were synthesized by flame transport synthesis using Zn microparticles. This work herein reports a systematical study on the structural, optical and electrochemical properties of the ZnO-Ts. The morphology of the ZnO-Ts was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as joint structures of four nano-microstructured legs, of which the diameter of each leg is 0.7-2.2 μm in average from the tip to the stem. The ZnO-Ts were dispersed in glucose solution to study the luminescence as well as photocatalytic activity in a mimicked biological environment. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the ultraviolet (UV) region quenches with linear dependence to increased glucose concentration up to 4 mM. The ZnO-Ts were also attached with glucose oxidase (GOx) and over coated with a thin film of Nafion to form active layers for electrochemical glucose sensing. The attachment of GOx and coating of Nafion were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Furthermore, the current response of the active layers based on ZnO-Ts was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in various glucose concentrations. Stable current response of glucose was detected with linear dependence to glucose concentration up to 12 mM, which confirms the potential of ZnO-Ts for biomolecule sensing applications.

  18. Integrated pressure-sensing microsystem by CMOS IC technology for barometal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minxin; Huang, Qing-An

    2001-10-01

    Most currently integrated silicon microsystems available for pressure sensing are based on preprocessing before CMOS IC technology. These microsystems are generally very sensitive to parasitism effect and not available for IC-compatible process. This limits the accuracy of the microsystem and batch-fabrication. Calibration cost is also increased. To overcome these problems, a new generation of pressure microsystems without preprocessing CMOS IC technology has been proposed. This pressure-sensing system consists of a miniature silicon capacitive sensor, fabricated with silicon-silicon bonding technique, and a detection integrated circuit. Only the standard layers of CMOS process are used to build the system and only several photolithography steps are necessary to achieve the micromachined structure in postprocessing, so a high long-term stability could be assured. The entire system converts absolute pressure changes, in the pressure range useful for barometal applications, to frequency changes. A reference capacitor is used in the system and a (delta) C model is applied to cancel out temperature dependence and to compensate non-linearity. The pressure range of the sensor is from 0.5 bar to 1.5bar and the temperature varies between -25 degree(s)C and -60 degree(s)C. A sensitivity of 50Hz/Torr could be achieved.

  19. Recent Advances in Intracellular and In Vivo ROS Sensing: Focus on Nanoparticle and Nanotube Applications

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, Larissa M.; Hempel, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly being implicated in the regulation of cellular signaling cascades. Intracellular ROS fluxes are associated with cellular function ranging from proliferation to cell death. Moreover, the importance of subtle, spatio-temporal shifts in ROS during localized cellular signaling events is being realized. Understanding the biochemical nature of the ROS involved will enhance our knowledge of redox-signaling. An ideal intracellular sensor should therefore resolve real-time, localized ROS changes, be highly sensitive to physiologically relevant shifts in ROS and provide specificity towards a particular molecule. For in vivo applications issues such as bioavailability of the probe, tissue penetrance of the signal and signal-to-noise ratio also need to be considered. In the past researchers have heavily relied on the use of ROS-sensitive fluorescent probes and, more recently, genetically engineered ROS sensors. However, there is a great need to improve on current methods to address the above issues. Recently, the field of molecular sensing and imaging has begun to take advantage of the unique physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles and nanotubes. Here we discuss the recent advances in the use of these nanostructures as alternative platforms for ROS sensing, with particular emphasis on intracellular and in vivo ROS detection and quantification. PMID:23109815

  20. Drought monitoring with remote sensing based land surface phenology applications and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Vilaly, Mohamed Abd salam M.

    Droughts are a recurrent part of our climate, and are still considered to be one of the most complex and least understood of all natural hazards in terms of their impact on the environment. In recent years drought has become more common and more severe across the world. For more than a decade, the US southwest has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources. The focus of this work is achieving a better understanding of the impact of drought on the lands of the Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation, situated in the Northeastern corner of Arizona. This research explores the application of remote sensing data and geospatial tools in two studies to monitor drought impacts on vegetation productivity. In both studies we used land surface phenometrics as the data tool. In a third related study, I have compared satellite-derived land surface phenology (LSP) to field observations of crop stages at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to achieve a better understanding of the temporal sensitivity of satellite derived phenology of vegetation and understand their accuracy as a tool for monitoring change. The first study explores long-term vegetation productivity responses to drought. The paper develops a framework for drought monitoring and assessment by integrating land cover, climate, and topographical data with LSP. The objective of the framework is to detect long-term vegetation changes and trends in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) related productivity. The second study examines the major driving forces of vegetation dynamics in order to provide valuable spatial information related to inter-annual variability in vegetation productivity for mitigating drought impacts. The third study tests the accuracy of remote sensing-derived LSP by comparing them to the actual seasonal phases of crop growth. This provides a way to compare and validate the various LSP algorithms, and more crucially, helps to