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Sample records for bio-diesel initiatives potential

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Bio-diesel Production—A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R.; Sharma, V.; Mukherjee, S.; Kumar, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work deals with the comparative analysis of environmental impacts of bio-diesel produced from Jatropha curcas, Rapeseed and Palm oil by applying the life cycle assessment and eco-efficiency concepts. The environmental impact indicators considered in the present paper include global warming potential (GWP, CO2 equivalent), acidification potential (AP, SO2 equivalent) and eutrophication potential (EP, NO3 equivalent). Different weighting techniques have been used to present and evaluate the environmental characteristics of bio-diesel. With the assistance of normalization values, the eco-efficiency was demonstrated in this work. The results indicate that the energy consumption of bio-diesel production is lowest in Jatropha while AP and EP are more in case of Jatropha than that of Rapeseed and Palm oil.

  2. Optimization of bio-diesel production from soybean and wastes of cooked oil: combining dielectric microwave irradiation and a SrO catalyst.

    PubMed

    Koberg, Miri; Abu-Much, Riam; Gedanken, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    This work offers an optimized method in the transesterification of pristine (soybean) oil and cooked oil to bio-diesel, based on microwave dielectric irradiation as a driving force for the transesterification reaction and SrO as a catalyst. This combination has demonstrated excellent catalytic activity and stability. The transesterification was carried out with and without stirring. According to 1H NMR spectroscopy and TLC results, this combination accelerates the reaction (to less than 60 s), maintaining a very high conversion (99%) and high efficiency. The catalytic activity of SrO under atmospheric pressure in the presence of air and under the argon atmosphere is demonstrated. The optimum conversion of cooked oil (99.8%) is achieved under MW irradiation of 1100 W output with magnetic stirring after only 10 s. The optimum method decreases the cost of bio-diesel production and has the potential for industrial application in the transesterification of cooked oil to bio-diesel. PMID:20833538

  3. [Particle emission characteristics of diesel bus fueled with bio-diesel].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), a study on the characteristics of particle emissions was carried out on a China-IV diesel bus fueled with blends of 5% , 10% , 20% , 50% bio-diesel transformed from restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure bio-diesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0). The results indicated that particulate number (PN) and mass (PM) emissions of bio-diesel blends increased with the increase in bus speed and acceleration; with increasing bio-diesel content, particulate emissions displayed a relevant declining trend. In different speed ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) was bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD showed a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation was switched from decelerating to accelerating status. Bio-diesel blends with higher mixture ratios showed significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and the particulate number emission peaks moved towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes; reduction also occurred in particle geometric diameter (Dg). PMID:24364288

  4. Optimization of Biomass Gasification Process for F-T Bio-Diesel Synthesys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae Hun; Sung, Yeon Kyung; Yu, Tae U.; Choi, Young Tae; Lee, Uen Do

    The characteristics of biomass steam gasification were investigated to make an optimum syngas for Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of bio-diesel. Korean pine wood chip was used as a fuel and the experiment was conducted in a lab scale bubbling fluidized bed (0.1m LD. x 3.Omheight). Gas composition was evaluated by changing operating parameters such as gasifier temperature, and steam to fuel ratio. Major syngas was monitored by on-line gas analyzer (ND-IR spectroscopy) and gas chromatography (GC). As the temperature of gasifier increases hydrogen in the syngas increases while CO in the product gas decreases. The low concentration of sulfur compound and nitrogen in the product gas shows the potential advantages in the purification process of the syngas for F-T process. Optimum operating condition of the gasifier was found concerning the following gas cleaning and F-T process; H2-CO ratio and total gas yield increase while decreasing methane and CO2 concentrations in the syngas.

  5. Storage Tanks and Dispensers for E85 and Bio-Diesel

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Michael; Frederick, Justin

    2014-02-10

    Project objective is to improve the District's alternative fueling infrastructure by installing storage tanks and dispensers for E-85 and Bio-Diesel at the existing Blackwell Forest Preserve Alternative Fuel Station. The addition of E-85 and Bio-Diesel at this station will continue to reduce our dependency on foreign oil, while promoting the use of clean burning, domestically produced, renewable alternative fuels. In addition, this station will promote strong intergovernmental cooperation as other governmental agencies have expressed interest in utilizing this station.

  6. [Determination of lead in microemulsified rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil by GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-qing; He, Xiao-min; Du, Ping; Wang, Min; Chen, Hao; Wu, Mou-cheng

    2008-10-01

    Bio-diesel oil has attracted much attention as a substitutable energy sources for its renewable and eco-friendly property. However, problems of lead contamination in fuel are also emphasized increasingly at present. So it was of quite significance to determine the contents of lead in bio-diesel oil and its raw material rapeseed oil. An effective method was developed for the rapid determination of lead in rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after their stabilization as microemulsions. In this research work, polyethyleneglycol octyl phenyl ether and n-butanol were used for emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifying agent, respectively. For Pb, efficient thermal stabilization was obtained using NH4H2PO4 as matrix modifier. Sample stabilization was necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately after sampling. Excellent long-term sample stabilization and the influence of the microemulsion composition on the GFAAS response were observed by mixing different organic solvents. The ashing and atomization temperature and ramp rate influenced the sensitivity obtained for Ph. Take this into account, the optimum conditions of the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Pb in rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil samples were investigated. The results showed that the microemulsion was quite stable when the value of V(20% polyethyleneglycol octyl phenyl ether), V(n-butanol), V(oil) and V(water) was 0.1: 8.9: 0.5: 0.5, without matrix interference effect. The determination limit of the proposed method was 126.2 microg x L(-1) for Pb, comfortably below the values found in the analyzed samples. The recoveries were from 81.8% to 109.0%, which performed using the addition of different concentrations of lead to bio-diesel oil, rapeseed oil and petrochemical diesel samples. The relative standard deviation of determination was 5.84%. This work showed the great efficiency of the microemulsion

  7. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  8. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    PubMed

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions. PMID:19409477

  9. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  10. Performance and emission characteristics of a low heat rejection engine with different air gap thicknesses with Jatropha oil based bio-diesel.

    PubMed

    Murali Krishna, M V S; Sarita, G; Seshagiri Rao, V V R; Chowdary, R P; Ramana Reddy, Ch V

    2010-04-01

    The research work on alternate fuels has been the topic of wider interest in the context of depletion of fossil fuels and increasing of pollution levels of the engines with conventional fossil fuels. Alcohols and vegetable oils are considered to replace diesel fuels as they are renewable in nature. However, use of alcohols in internal combustion engines is limited in India, as these fuels are diverted to PetroChemical industries and hence much emphasis is given to the non-edible vegetable oils as alternate fuels in internal combustion engines. However, the drawbacks of low volatility and high viscosity associated with non-edible vegetable oils call for hot combustion chamber, provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Investigations are carried out on a LHR diesel engine with varied air gap thicknesses and injection pressures with jatropha oil based bio-diesel at normal temperature. Performance is improved with high degree of insulation with LHR engine with vegetable oil in comparison with conventional engine (CE) with pure diesel operation. PMID:21114115

  11. Comparative mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particles and aerosols emitted by the combustion of standard vs. rapeseed methyl ester supplemented bio-diesel fuels: impact of after treatment devices: oxidation catalyst and particulate filter.

    PubMed

    André, V; Barraud, C; Capron, D; Preterre, D; Keravec, V; Vendeville, C; Cazier, F; Pottier, D; Morin, J P; Sichel, F

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhausts are partly responsible for the deleterious effects on human health associated with urban pollution, including cardiovascular diseases, asthma, COPD, and possibly lung cancer. Particulate fraction has been incriminated and thus largely investigated for its genotoxic properties, based on exposure conditions that are, however, not relevant for human risk assessment. In this paper, original and more realistic protocols were used to investigate the hazards induced by exhausts emitted by the combustion of standard (DF0) vs. bio-diesel fuels (DF7 and DF30) and to assess the impact of exhaust treatment devices (DOC and DPF). Mutagenicity and genotoxicity were evaluated for (1) resuspended particles ("off line" exposure that takes into account the bioavailability of adsorbed chemicals) and for (2) the whole aerosols (particles+gas phase components) under continuous flow exposure ("on line" exposure). Native particles displayed mutagenic properties associated with nitroaromatic profiles (YG1041), whereas PAHs did not seem to be involved. After DOC treatment, the mutagenicity of particles was fully abolished. In contrast, the level of particle deposition was low under continuous flow exposure, and the observed mutagenicity in TA98 and TA102 was thus attributable to the gas phase. A bactericidal effect was also observed in TA102 after DOC treatment, and a weak but significant mutagenicity persisted after DPF treatment for bio-diesel fuels. No formation of bulky DNA-adducts was observed on A549 cells exposed to diesel exhaust, even in very drastic conditions (organic extracts corresponding to 500 μg equivalent particule/mL, 48 h exposure). Taken together, these data indicate that the exhausts issued from the bio-diesel fuels supplemented with rapseed methyl ester (RME), and generated by current diesel engines equipped with after treatment devices are less mutagenic than older ones. The residual mutagenicity is linked to the gas phase and could be due to pro

  12. Universal potential-barrier penetration by initially confined wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2007-07-15

    The dynamics of an initially sharp-boundary wave packet in the presence of an arbitrary potential barrier is investigated. It is shown that the penetration through the barrier is universal in the sense that it depends only on the values of the wave function and its derivatives at the boundary. The dependence on the derivatives vanishes at long distances from the barrier, where the dynamics is governed solely by the initial value of the wave function at the boundary.

  13. Liquefaction Potential of Unsaturated Nevada Sand at Different Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiting

    It has been tacitly assumed that liquefaction does not occur in unsaturated soils during seismic events, because pore air behaves as a cushion and excess pore water pressure is difficult to accumulate. During recent earthquakes, some slopes composed of unsaturated soils experienced large deformation similar to fluid flow. One explanation for this phenomenon is that the unsaturated slopes completely lost their effective stress and reached a state of liquefaction. The field observation shows controversial phenomenon against current understanding on soil liquefaction. This work was motivated to solve this controversy by experimentally studying the following two questions: 1) are unsaturated soils liquefiable? and 2) how do the initial conditions, including relative density, effective confining pressure, and degree of saturation affect the liquefaction potential of unsaturated soils? To answer the above questions, a series of strain-controlled undrained cyclic loading triaxial tests on saturated and unsaturated Nevada sand were conducted. The index properties studied included particle size distribution, maximum and minimum void ratios, and specific gravity. To provide data for future numerical modeling on unsaturated Nevada sand, hysteretic soil water characteristics curves under different relative densities were also measured. For triaxial tests on saturated Nevada sand, the effects of initial relative density (i.e. Dr=30%, 50%, and 70%) and effective confining pressure (i.e. s'c0 =50 kPa, 100 kPa, and 200 kPa) on soil liquefaction were studied. For unsaturated soil tests, besides initial relative density (Dr=50%) and effective confining pressure ( s'c0 =100 kPa), the effects of initial degree of saturation (S r0=90%, 95%) on liquefaction were also investigated. For saturated Nevada sand, the liquefaction potential decreased with an increase of relative density and effective confining pressure. When the other initial conditions were the same, the cycles needed to make

  14. Potential GTCC LLW sealed radiation source recycle initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D

    1992-04-01

    This report suggests 11 actions that have the potential to facilitate the recycling (reuse or radionuclide) of surplus commercial sealed radiation sources that would otherwise be disposed of as greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The suggestions serve as a basis for further investigation and discussion between the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agreement States, and the commercial sector. Information is also given that describes sealed sources, how they are used, and problems associated with recycling, including legal concerns. To illustrate the nationwide recycling potential, Appendix A gives the estimated quantity and application information for sealed sources that would qualify for disposal in commercial facilities if not recycle. The report recommends that the Department of Energy initiate the organization of a forum to explore the suggested actions and other recycling possibilities.

  15. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  16. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  17. Evaluating the potential effectiveness of proposed environmental justice initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, N.L.; Namovicz, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    Congress directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to create the Technical Assistance Grant (TAG) program to address the concerns of these citizens and, thereby improve community relations at Superfund sites. TAGs provide funding to allow affected residents to hire independent scientific and technical consultants to help them understand the issues at the site and better participate in remedy selection. This study will not directly assess the experience of Environmental Justice sites within the Superfund program. Rather, this study examines existing data on TAGs and the applicability of an expanded TAG program in addressing expressed Environmental Justice concerns. Specifically, the study compares the characteristics of sites with TAGs to a matched control group of sites/communities without TAGs. The study establishes a rigorous statistical baseline upon which it can evaluate the marginal contribution of outreach initiatives to the needs and concerns of minority and low income communities. The results of these analyses will serve as a foundation for evaluating proposed changes in the scope and emphasis of Superfund`s community relations and Environmental Justice outreach programs.

  18. Action Potentials Initiate in the Axon Initial Segment and Propagate Through Axon Collaterals Reliably in Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Foust, Amanda; Popovic, Marko; Zecevic, Dejan; McCormick, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Purkinje neurons are the output cells of the cerebellar cortex and generate spikes in two distinct modes, known as simple and complex spikes. Revealing the point of origin of these action potentials, and how they conduct into local axon collaterals, is important for understanding local and distal neuronal processing and communication. By utilizing a recent improvement in voltage sensitive dye imaging technique that provided exceptional spatial and temporal resolution, we were able to resolve the region of spike initiation as well as follow spike propagation into axon collaterals for each action potential initiated on single trials. All fast action potentials, for both simple and complex spikes, whether occurring spontaneously or in response to a somatic current pulse or synaptic input, initiated in the axon initial segment. At discharge frequencies of less than approximately 250 Hz, spikes propagated faithfully through the axon and axon collaterals, in a saltatory manner. Propagation failures were only observed for very high frequencies or for the spikelets associated with complex spikes. These results demonstrate that the axon initial segment is a critical decision point in Purkinje cell processing and that the properties of axon branch points are adjusted to maintain faithful transmission. PMID:20484631

  19. Action potentials in retinal ganglion cells are initiated at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickenscheidt, Max; Zeck, Günther

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The initiation of an action potential by extracellular stimulation occurs after local depolarization of the neuronal membrane above threshold. Although the technique shows remarkable clinical success, the site of action and the relevant stimulation parameters are not completely understood. Approach. Here we identify the site of action potential initiation in rabbit retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) interfaced to an array of extracellular capacitive stimulation electrodes. We determine which feature of the extracellular potential governs action potential initiation by simultaneous stimulation and recording RGCs interfaced in epiretinal configuration. Stimulation electrodes were combined to areas of different size and were presented at different positions with respect to the RGC. Main results. Based on stimulation by electrodes beneath the RGC soma and simultaneous sub-millisecond latency measurement we infer axonal initiation at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential. Stimulation by electrodes at different positions along the axon reveals a nearly constant threshold current density except for a narrow region close to the cell soma. These findings are explained by the concept of the activating function modified to consider a region of lower excitability close to the cell soma. Significance. We present a framework how to estimate the site of action potential initiation and the stimulus required to cross threshold in neurons tightly interfaced to capacitive stimulation electrodes. Our results underscore the necessity of rigorous electrical characterization of the stimulation electrodes and of the interfaced neural tissue.

  20. Time evolution of initial states that extend beyond the potential interaction region in quantum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Calderón, Gastón; Villavicencio, Jorge; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto; Romo, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the decay of initial states that possess a tail that extends beyond the interaction potential region, for potentials of arbitrary shape that vanish exactly after a distance. This is the case for a relevant class of artificial quantum structures. We obtain that along the internal interaction region, the time evolution of the decaying wave function is formed by two terms. The first one refers to the proper decay of the internal portion of the initial state, whereas the second one, that arises from the external tail, yields a transient contribution that tunnels into the internal region, builds up to a value, and then decays. We obtain that depending on the parameters of the initial state, the nonexponential tail decaying contribution may be larger than the contribution of the proper nonexponential term. These results are illustrated by an exactly solvable model and the Heidelberg potential for decay of ultracold atoms and open the possibility to control initial states in artificial decaying systems.

  1. 45 CFR 150.303 - Basis for initiating an investigation of a potential violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plan that is a group health plan as defined in section 2791(a)(1) of the PHS Act and 45 CFR § 144.103... potential violation. 150.303 Section 150.303 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for initiating an investigation of a potential violation. (a) Information. Any information...

  2. Neuronal adaptation involves rapid expansion of the action potential initiation site.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ricardo S; Henneberger, Christian; Padmashri, Ragunathan; Anders, Stefanie; Jensen, Thomas P; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2014-01-01

    Action potential (AP) generation is the key to information-processing in the brain. Although APs are normally initiated in the axonal initial segment, developmental adaptation or prolonged network activity may alter the initiation site geometry thus affecting cell excitability. Here we find that hippocampal dentate granule cells adapt their spiking threshold to the kinetics of the ongoing dendrosomatic excitatory input by expanding the AP-initiation area away from the soma while also decelerating local axonal spikes. Dual-patch soma-axon recordings combined with axonal Na(+) and Ca(2+) imaging and biophysical modelling show that the underlying mechanism involves distance-dependent inactivation of axonal Na(+) channels due to somatic depolarization propagating into the axon. Thus, the ensuing changes in the AP-initiation zone and local AP propagation could provide activity-dependent control of cell excitability and spiking on a relatively rapid timescale. PMID:24851940

  3. Neuronal adaptation involves rapid expansion of the action potential initiation site

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ricardo S.; Henneberger, Christian; Padmashri, Ragunathan; Anders, Stefanie; Jensen, Thomas P.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.

    2014-01-01

    Action potential (AP) generation is the key to information-processing in the brain. Although APs are normally initiated in the axonal initial segment, developmental adaptation or prolonged network activity may alter the initiation site geometry thus affecting cell excitability. Here we find that hippocampal dentate granule cells adapt their spiking threshold to the kinetics of the ongoing dendrosomatic excitatory input by expanding the AP-initiation area away from the soma while also decelerating local axonal spikes. Dual-patch soma–axon recordings combined with axonal Na+ and Ca2+ imaging and biophysical modelling show that the underlying mechanism involves distance-dependent inactivation of axonal Na+ channels due to somatic depolarization propagating into the axon. Thus, the ensuing changes in the AP-initiation zone and local AP propagation could provide activity-dependent control of cell excitability and spiking on a relatively rapid timescale. PMID:24851940

  4. Relationship between Initial Telomere Length, Initial Telomerase Activity, Age, and Replicative Capacity of Nucleus Pulposus Chondrocytes in Human Intervertebral Discs: What Is a Predictor of Replicative Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Jeong, Seo-Won; Cho, Sung-Wook; Juhn, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Ki-Won

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and age are related to the replicative potential of human nucleus pulposus chondrocytes (NPCs). However, it has not yet been established if any of these factors can serve as predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs. To establish predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs, we evaluated potential relationships between replicative capacity of NPCs, initial TL (telomere length at the first passage), initial TA (telomerase activity at the first passage), and age. Nucleus pulposus specimens were obtained from 14 patients of various ages undergoing discectomy. NPCs were serially cultivated until the end of their replicative lifespans. Relationships among cumulative population doubling level (PDL), initial TL, initial TA, and age were analyzed. Initial TA was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.674, P = 0.008). However, no correlation between initial TL and age was observed. Cumulative PDL was also negatively correlated with age (r = -0.585, P = 0.028). Although the cumulative PDL appeared to increase with initial TL or initial TA, this trend was not statistically significant. In conclusion, age is the sole predictor of the replicative potential of human NPCs, and replicative potential decreases with age. Initial TL and initial TA are not predictors of replicative potential, and can serve only as reference values. PMID:26633809

  5. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. 1945.19 Section 1945.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY...

  6. Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation.

    PubMed

    Cotel, Florence; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Perrier, Jean-François

    2013-03-19

    Motor fatigue induced by physical activity is an everyday experience characterized by a decreased capacity to generate motor force. Factors in both muscles and the central nervous system are involved. The central component of fatigue modulates the ability of motoneurons to activate muscle adequately independently of the muscle physiology. Indirect evidence indicates that central fatigue is caused by serotonin (5-HT), but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. In a slice preparation from the spinal cord of the adult turtle, we found that prolonged stimulation of the raphe-spinal pathway--as during motor exercise--activated 5-HT1A receptors that decreased motoneuronal excitability. Electrophysiological tests combined with pharmacology showed that focal activation of 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS), but not on other motoneuronal compartments, inhibited the action potential initiation by modulating a Na(+) current. Immunohistochemical staining against 5-HT revealed a high-density innervation of 5-HT terminals on the somatodendritic membrane and a complete absence on the AIS. This observation raised the hypothesis that a 5-HT spillover activates receptors at this latter compartment. We tested it by measuring the level of extracellular 5-HT with cyclic voltammetry and found that prolonged stimulations of the raphe-spinal pathway increased the level of 5-HT to a concentration sufficient to activate 5-HT1A receptors. Together our results demonstrate that prolonged release of 5-HT during motor activity spills over from its release sites to the AIS of motoneurons. Here, activated 5-HT1A receptors inhibit firing and, thereby, muscle contraction. Hence, this is a cellular mechanism for central fatigue. PMID:23487756

  7. Fast and reliable identification of axons, axon initial segments and dendrites with local field potential recording

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Anders V.; Johansen, Emil Ø.; Perrier, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is an essential neuronal compartment. It is usually where action potentials are initiated. Recent studies demonstrated that the AIS is a plastic structure that can be regulated by neuronal activity and by the activation of metabotropic receptors. Studying the AIS in live tissue can be difficult because its identification is not always reliable. Here we provide a new technique allowing a fast and reliable identification of the AIS in live brain slice preparations. By simultaneous recording of extracellular local field potentials and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of neurons, we can detect sinks caused by inward currents flowing across the membrane. We determine the location of the AIS by comparing the timing of these events with the action potential. We demonstrate that this method allows the unequivocal identification of the AIS of different types of neurons from the brain. PMID:26578887

  8. Initial conditioning of polymer eelectrolyte membrane fuel cell by temperature and potential cycling.

    PubMed

    Bezmalinović, Dario; Radošević, Jagoda; Barbir, Frano

    2015-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells need initial conditioning, activation or break-in the first time they are operated after being assembled. During this period performance of the fuel cell improves until it reaches its nominal performance. The exact mechanism of this initial conditioning is not completely understood, but it is assumed that during the conditioning process the polymer membrane, as well as the polymer in the catalyst layer, get humidified, and the number of active catalyst sites increases. Activation procedure proposed here consists of temperature and potential cycling. Temperature cycling is a new approach for the conditioning and the idea is to rapidly cool the running cell at some point to allow the membrane to equilibrate with condensed water which should result in higher intake of water within the membrane. The results show that proposed procedure is better or at least comparable to some conventional procedures for the initial conditioning. PMID:25830963

  9. How initial confirmatory experience potentiates the detrimental influence of bad advice.

    PubMed

    Staudinger, Markus R; Büchel, Christian

    2013-08-01

    In everyday life, expert advice has a great impact on individual decision making. Although often beneficial, advice may sometimes be misleading and cause people to pursue actions that entail suboptimal outcomes. This detrimental effect may diminish over time, when individuals have gathered sufficient contradicting evidence. Given the strong influence initial information has on opinion and personality impression formation, we aimed to investigate whether initial advice-confirmatory experience potentiates the rigidity with which persons stick to misleading advice. Furthermore, we intended to characterize the neuronal basis of such putative primacy effect. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants selected between probabilistically reinforced symbols and were given the misleading tip that two low-probability symbols had a high reinforcement probability. One of these symbols initially received manipulated advice-congruent positive feedback (PF), the other one advice-incongruent negative feedback. Behaviorally, participants were impaired at learning to avoid advice-receiving symbols and overvalued them in terms of willingness to pay (WTP) in an auction market. Crucially, initial PF potentiated all effects. Greater ventral pallidal response to initial but not later PF during learning predicted higher behavioral WTP. Our results demonstrate that the nature of the very first advice-related experience already determines how strongly misleading advice will influence learning and ensuing decision making-an effect that is mediated by the ventral pallidum. Thus, in contrast to conventional reinforcement learning, learning under the influence of advice is susceptible to primacy effects. The present findings advance our understanding of why false beliefs are particularly difficult to change once they have been reinforced. PMID:23507392

  10. Initiation and blocking of the action potential in an axon in weak ultrasonic or microwave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of the redistribution of the transmembrane ion channels in an axon caused by longitudinal acoustic vibrations of the membrane. These oscillations can be excited by an external source of ultrasound and weak microwave radiation interacting with the charges sitting on the surface of the lipid membrane. It is shown, using the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the axon, that the density redistribution of transmembrane sodium channels may reduce the threshold of the action potential, up to its spontaneous initiation. At the significant redistribution of sodium channels in the membrane, the rarefaction zones of the transmembrane channel density are formed, blocking the propagation of the action potential. Blocking the action potential propagation along the axon is shown to cause anesthesia in the example case of a squid axon. Various approaches to experimental observation of the effects considered in this paper are discussed.

  11. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  12. Electrostatic potential generated during extracorporeal pump prime circulation before cardiopulmonary bypass initiation.

    PubMed

    Newton, Haley S; Niles, Scott D; Ploessl, James; Richenbacher, Wayne

    2007-03-01

    The development of electrostatic potentials generated during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures using polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubing in conjunction with roller pumps has been previously documented. The resulting damage from the electrostatic discharge (ESD) has been reported to affect gas transfer devices, but details of potential damage to electronic components commonly used during extracorporeal circulation have not been similarly described. The purpose of this study was to measure the ability of a triboelectric potential to be generated from a primed, circulating, adult CPB pump before the initiation of CPB. Two identical adult CPB circuits were assembled: one incorporating a roller pump and the second incorporating a centrifugal pump mechanism. Primed pumps were circulated (1-6 LPM), and evidence of generated triboelectric potentials was evaluated using a digital multimeter (Fluke 8062 A). The ESD generated from an adult CPB circuit using a roller head configuration elicited a charge in excess of 600 DC V. An identical circuit constructed with a centrifugal pump mechanism did not produce any measurable charge. Sensitive electrical components in the CPB hardware platform may be damaged by ESD potential spikes of this magnitude. Preventative measures, such as circuit charge dissipation, may reduce the potential for such damage when using PVC tubing. PMID:17486872

  13. Axon initial segment Ca2+ channels influence action potential generation and timing

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Kevin J.; Trussell, Laurence O.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although action potentials are typically generated in the axon initial segment (AIS), the timing and pattern of action potentials is thought to depend on inward current originating in somatodendritic compartments. Using 2-photon imaging, we show that T- and R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are co-localized with Na+ channels in the AIS of dorsal cochlear nucleus interneurons, and that activation of these Ca2+ channels is essential to the generation and timing of action potential bursts known as complex spikes. During complex spikes, where Na+-mediated spikelets fire atop slower depolarizing conductances, selective block of AIS Ca2+ channels delays spike timing and raises spike threshold. Furthermore, AIS Ca2+ channel block can decrease the number of spikelets within a complex spike, and even block single, simple spikes. Similar results were found in cortex and cerebellum. Thus, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at the site of spike initiation play a key role in generating and shaping spike bursts. PMID:19186168

  14. Critical role of canonical transient receptor potential channel 7 in initiation of seizures.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Kevin D; Shwe, U Thaung; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Zheng, Fang

    2014-08-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening disease that has been recognized since antiquity but still causes over 50,000 deaths annually in the United States. The prevailing view on the pathophysiology of SE is that it is sustained by a loss of normal inhibitory mechanisms of neuronal activity. However, the early process leading to the initiation of SE is not well understood. Here, we show that, as seen in electroencephalograms, SE induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in mice is preceded by a specific increase in the gamma wave, and genetic ablation of canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) 7 significantly reduces this pilocarpine-induced increase of gamma wave activity, preventing the occurrence of SE. At the cellular level, TRPC7 plays a critical role in the generation of spontaneous epileptiform burst firing in cornu ammonis (CA) 3 pyramidal neurons in brain slices. At the synaptic level, TRPC7 plays a significant role in the long-term potentiation at the CA3 recurrent collateral synapses and Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, but not at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Taken together, our data suggest that epileptiform burst firing generated in the CA3 region by activity-dependent enhancement of recurrent collateral synapses may be an early event in the initiation process of SE and that TRPC7 plays a critical role in this cellular event. Our findings reveal that TRPC7 is intimately involved in the initiation of seizures both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, this contribution to initiation of seizures is the first identified functional role for the TRPC7 ion channel. PMID:25049394

  15. Critical role of canonical transient receptor potential channel 7 in initiation of seizures

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Kevin D.; Shwe, U Thaung; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Zheng, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening disease that has been recognized since antiquity but still causes over 50,000 deaths annually in the United States. The prevailing view on the pathophysiology of SE is that it is sustained by a loss of normal inhibitory mechanisms of neuronal activity. However, the early process leading to the initiation of SE is not well understood. Here, we show that, as seen in electroencephalograms, SE induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in mice is preceded by a specific increase in the gamma wave, and genetic ablation of canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) 7 significantly reduces this pilocarpine-induced increase of gamma wave activity, preventing the occurrence of SE. At the cellular level, TRPC7 plays a critical role in the generation of spontaneous epileptiform burst firing in cornu ammonis (CA) 3 pyramidal neurons in brain slices. At the synaptic level, TRPC7 plays a significant role in the long-term potentiation at the CA3 recurrent collateral synapses and Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, but not at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Taken together, our data suggest that epileptiform burst firing generated in the CA3 region by activity-dependent enhancement of recurrent collateral synapses may be an early event in the initiation process of SE and that TRPC7 plays a critical role in this cellular event. Our findings reveal that TRPC7 is intimately involved in the initiation of seizures both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, this contribution to initiation of seizures is the first identified functional role for the TRPC7 ion channel. PMID:25049394

  16. A potential-energy scaling model to simulate the initial stages of thin-film growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.; Walker, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solid on solid (SOS) Monte Carlo computer simulation employing a potential energy scaling technique was used to model the initial stages of thin film growth. The model monitors variations in the vertical interaction potential that occur due to the arrival or departure of selected adatoms or impurities at all sites in the 400 sq. ft. array. Boltzmann ordered statistics are used to simulate fluctuations in vibrational energy at each site in the array, and the resulting site energy is compared with threshold levels of possible atomic events. In addition to adsorption, desorption, and surface migration, adatom incorporation and diffusion of a substrate atom to the surface are also included. The lateral interaction of nearest, second nearest, and third nearest neighbors is also considered. A series of computer experiments are conducted to illustrate the behavior of the model.

  17. Initial Results from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Swenson, Charles; Thompson, Don; Barjatya, Aroh; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Minow, Joseph; Craven, Paul; Coffey, Victoria; Parker, Linda; Bui, Them

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a multi-probe package designed to measure the floating potential of the 1nternational Space Station (ISS) as well as the density and temperature of the local ionospheric plasma environment. The role oj the FPMU is to provide direct measurements of ISS spacecraft charging as continuing construction leads to dramatic changes in ISS size and configuration. FPMU data are used for refinement and validation of the ISS spacecraft charging models used to evaluate the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. The FPMU data and the models are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed hazard controls. The FPMU consists of four probes: a floating potential probe, two Langmuir probes. and a plasma impedance probe. These probes measure the floating potential of the ISS, plasma density, and electron temperature. Redundant measurements using different probes support data validation by inter-probe comparisons. The FPMU was installed by ISS crewmembers, during an ExtraVehicular Activity, on the starboard (Sl) truss of the ISS in early August 2006, when the ISS incorporated only one 160V US photovoltaic (PV) array module. The first data campaign began a few hours after installation and continued for over five days. Additional data campaigns were completed in 2007 after a second 160V US PV array module was added to the ISS. This paper discusses the general performance characteristics of the FPMU as integrated on ISS, the functional performance of each probe, the charging behavior of the ISS before and after the addition of a second 160V US PV array module, and initial results from model comparisons.

  18. Potential application of LIBS to NNSA next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Barefield Ii, James E; Clegg, Samuel M; Veirs, Douglas K; Browne, Mike; Lopez, Leon; Martinez, Ron; Le, Loan; Lamontagne, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    In a climate in which states and nations have been and perhaps currently are involved in the prol iferation of nuclear materials and technologies, advanced methodologies and improvements in current measurement techniques are needed to combat new threats and increased levels of sophistication. The Department of Energy through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has undertaken a broad review of International Safeguards. The conclusion from that review was that a comprehensive initiative to revitalize international safeguards technology and the human resource base was urgently needed to keep pace with demands and increasingly sophisticated emerging safeguards challenges. To address these challenges, NNSA launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to develop policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and infrastructure necessary to sustain the international safeguards system as its mission evolves for the next 25 years. NGSI is designed to revitalize and strengthen the U.S. safeguards technical base, recognizing that without a robust program the United States of America will not be in a position to exercise leadership or provide the necessary support to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). International safeguards as administrated by the IAEA are the primary vehicle for verifying compliance with the peaceful use and nonproliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy or LIBS has the potential to support the goals of NGSI as follows: by providing (1) automated analysis in complex nuclear processing or reprocessing facilities in real-time or near real-time without sample preparation or removal, (2) isotopic and important elemental ratio (Cm/Pu, Cm/U, ... etc) analysis, and (3) centralized remote control, process monitoring, and analysis of nuclear materials in nuclear facilities at multiple locations within the facility. Potential application of LIBS to international safeguards as

  19. Discontinuity in DNA replication during expression of accumulated initiation potential in dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Helmstetter, C E; Krajewski, C A; Leonard, A C; Weinberger, M

    1986-01-01

    Potential for initiation of chromosome replication present in temperature-sensitive, initiation-defective dnaA5 mutants of Escherichia coli B/r incubated at nonpermissive temperature was expressed by shifting to a more permissive temperature (25 degrees C). Upon expression of initiation potential, the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation varied in a bimodal fashion, i.e., there was an initial burst of incorporation, which lasted 10 to 20 min, then a sudden decrease in incorporation, and finally a second rapid increase in incorporation. Analyses of this incorporation pattern indicated that a round of replication initiated upon expression of initiation potential, but DNA polymerization stopped after replication of 5 to 10% of the chromosome. This round of replication appeared to resume about 30 min later coincident with initiation of a second round of replication. The second initiation was unusually sensitive to low concentrations of novobiocin (ca. 1 microgram/ml) when this inhibitor was added in the presence of chloramphenicol. In the absence of chloramphenicol, novobiocin at this concentration had no detectable effect on DNA replication. It is suggested that cis-acting inhibition, attributable to an attempted second initiation immediately after the first, caused the first round to stall until both it and the second round could resume simultaneously. This DNA replication inhibition, probably caused by overinitiation, could be a consequence of restraints on replication in the vicinity of oriC, possibly topological in nature, which limit the minimum interinitiation interval in E. coli. PMID:3511039

  20. ABCG2 is a potential marker of tumor-initiating cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sicchieri, Renata Danielle; da Silveira, Willian Abraham; Mandarano, Larissa Raquel Mouro; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Carrara, Hélio Humberto Angotti; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; de Andrade, Jurandyr Moreira; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimarães

    2015-12-01

    The existence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) within solid tumors has been hypothesized to explain tumor heterogeneity and resistance to cancer therapy. In breast cancer, the expression of CD44 and CD24 and the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) can be used to selectively isolate a cell population enriched in TICs. However, the ideal marker to identify TICs has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of novel potential markers for TIC in breast carcinoma. We prospectively analyzed the expression of CD44, CD24, ABCG2, and CXCR4, and the activity of ALDH1 by using flow cytometry in 48 invasive ductal carcinomas from locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer patients who were administered primary chemotherapy. A mammosphere assay was employed in 30 samples. The relationship among flow cytometric analyses, ABCG2 gene expression, and clinical and pathological responses to therapy was analyzed. The GSE32646 database was analyzed in silico to identify genes associated with tumors with low and high ABCG2 expression. We observed that the presence of ABCG2(+) cells within the primary tumor was the only marker to predict the formation of mammospheres in vitro (R (2) = 0.15, p = 0.029). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed a positive correlation between ABCG2 expression and the presence of ABCG2(+) cells within the primary tumor. The expression of ABCG2 was predictive of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in our experiments and in the GSE32646 dataset (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively). The in silico analysis demonstrated that ABCG2(Up) breast cancer samples have a slower cell cycle and a higher expression of membrane proteins but a greater potential for chromosomal instability, metastasis, immune evasion, and resistance to hypoxia. Such genetic characteristics are compatible with highly aggressive and resistant tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that the presence of ABCG2

  1. Construction of initial vortex-surface fields and Clebsch potentials for flows with high-symmetry using first integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pengyu; Yang, Yue

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic study on the construction of the explicit, general form of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) and Clebsch potentials in the initial fields with the zero helicity density and high symmetry. The construction methodology is based on finding independent first integrals of the characteristic equation of a given three-dimensional velocity-vorticity field. In particular, we derive the analytical VSFs and Clebsch potentials for the initial field with the Kida-Pelz symmetry. These analytical results can be useful for the evolution of VSFs to study vortical structures in transitional flows. Moreover, the generality of the construction method is discussed with the synthetic initial fields and the initial Taylor-Green field with multiple wavenumbers.

  2. Construction of initial vortex-surface fields and Clebsch potentials for flows with high-symmetry using first integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pengyu; Yang, Yue

    2015-11-01

    We develop a systematic methodology to construct the explicit, general form of vortex-surface fields (Yang and Pullin, J. Fluid Mech., 661, 2010) and Clebsch potentials based on first integrals of the characteristic equation of a given three-dimensional velocity-vorticity field. This methodology is successfully applied to the initial fields with the zero helicity density and high symmetry, e.g., initial fields with the Taylor-Green and the Kida-Pelz symmetries.

  3. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  4. Effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on localized electrochemical deposition of micrometer copper columns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiao, Hongbin; He, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Micrometer copper columns were fabricated via a technology named localized electrochemical deposition (LECD). This paper studies the effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on the LECD process. The surface and cross sectional morphologies, as well as the average deposition rate were investigated to evaluate the quality of the deposited copper columns. Results demonstrated that the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with few voids inside at lower potential (<2.4 V). Whereas,the copper columns tended to be dendriform-shape with lots of voids inside at larger potential (>2.8 V). The average deposition rate increased with the raise of potential. In addition, the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with the initial gap between electrodes to be 10 μm or below. However, the copper columns tended to be cone-shape when the initial gap between electrodes became larger (35 μm or above). The number of voids inside the copper column and the average deposition rate both decreased with the increase of the initial gap. Moreover, the process of LECD under varied electric field has also been simulated using COMSOL software, and the formation of cylindrical and conical copper columns was further explained based on the electric field distribution at the cathode. PMID:27185742

  5. Effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on localized electrochemical deposition of micrometer copper columns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiao, Hongbin; He, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Micrometer copper columns were fabricated via a technology named localized electrochemical deposition (LECD). This paper studies the effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on the LECD process. The surface and cross sectional morphologies, as well as the average deposition rate were investigated to evaluate the quality of the deposited copper columns. Results demonstrated that the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with few voids inside at lower potential (<2.4 V). Whereas,the copper columns tended to be dendriform-shape with lots of voids inside at larger potential (>2.8 V). The average deposition rate increased with the raise of potential. In addition, the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with the initial gap between electrodes to be 10 μm or below. However, the copper columns tended to be cone-shape when the initial gap between electrodes became larger (35 μm or above). The number of voids inside the copper column and the average deposition rate both decreased with the increase of the initial gap. Moreover, the process of LECD under varied electric field has also been simulated using COMSOL software, and the formation of cylindrical and conical copper columns was further explained based on the electric field distribution at the cathode. PMID:27185742

  6. Effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on localized electrochemical deposition of micrometer copper columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiao, Hongbin; He, Hu

    2016-05-01

    Micrometer copper columns were fabricated via a technology named localized electrochemical deposition (LECD). This paper studies the effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on the LECD process. The surface and cross sectional morphologies, as well as the average deposition rate were investigated to evaluate the quality of the deposited copper columns. Results demonstrated that the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with few voids inside at lower potential (<2.4 V). Whereas,the copper columns tended to be dendriform-shape with lots of voids inside at larger potential (>2.8 V). The average deposition rate increased with the raise of potential. In addition, the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with the initial gap between electrodes to be 10 μm or below. However, the copper columns tended to be cone-shape when the initial gap between electrodes became larger (35 μm or above). The number of voids inside the copper column and the average deposition rate both decreased with the increase of the initial gap. Moreover, the process of LECD under varied electric field has also been simulated using COMSOL software, and the formation of cylindrical and conical copper columns was further explained based on the electric field distribution at the cathode.

  7. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2015-07-30

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  8. Multi-Point E-Conferencing with Initial Teacher Training Students in England: Pitfalls and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Nick

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on attempts to initiate multi-point e-conferencing between English teacher education students on school placements, their host teachers and their university tutors. A sociocultural perspective is adopted in analysing the project, using the metaphor of a "professional knowledge landscape" [Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M.…

  9. POTENTIAL USE OF ALGAE AS INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS: INITIAL DATA EXPLORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periphyton from headwater intermittent streams was sampled in order to evaluate the potential use of algal assemblages as indicators of flow permanence. Streams from four forests near Cincinnati, Ohio were classified according to hydrologic permanence as ephemeral, intermittent ...

  10. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P

    2014-03-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these K(v)7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Na(v) channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined K(v)7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. K(v)7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ~12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm(-2) (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by K(v)7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (~15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic K(v)7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal K(v)7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains K(v)7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Na(v) channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, K(v)7 clustering near axonal Na(v) channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential. PMID:24599470

  11. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 Channels Differentially Regulate Action Potential Initiation and Conduction in Neocortical Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T.; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of Kv7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these Kv7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Nav channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined Kv7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. Kv7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ∼12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm−2 (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by Kv7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (∼15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic Kv7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal Kv7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains Kv7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Nav channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, Kv7 clustering near axonal Nav channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential. PMID:24599470

  12. Role of solid acid catalysts in bio diesel production.

    PubMed

    Shivayogimath, C B; Sunita, G; Manoj Kumar, B

    2009-07-01

    Biodiesel is gaining importance as an alternate source of attractive fuel because of depleting fossil fuel resources. It is produced by trans-esterification, in which oil or fat reacts with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst. In the present work, trans-esterification of sunflower oil with methanol is carried out by using zirconia supported isopoly and heteropoly tungstates (HPAs) as catalysts. Effects of reaction parameters, such as catalyst types and its concentration, molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol, reaction temperature and time, have been optimized to get higher conversion of sunflower oil and the product distribution of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the trans-esterfication reaction. PMID:21117436

  13. A BIO-DIESEL BAJA VEHICLE AND STUDENT COMPETITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SAE Mini Baja® competition is an extremely popular design competition for students in engineering programs around the world. The competition focuses on the design of an off-road vehicle for performance and cost-of-production. The objective of the proposed effort is to ...

  14. The spatio-temporal characteristics of action potential initiation in layer 5 pyramidal neurons: a voltage imaging study.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marko A; Foust, Amanda J; McCormick, David A; Zecevic, Dejan

    2011-09-01

    The spatial pattern of Na(+) channel clustering in the axon initial segment (AIS) plays a critical role in tuning neuronal computations, and changes in Na(+) channel distribution have been shown to mediate novel forms of neuronal plasticity in the axon. However, immunocytochemical data on channel distribution may not directly predict spatio-temporal characteristics of action potential initiation, and prior electrophysiological measures are either indirect (extracellular) or lack sufficient spatial resolution (intracellular) to directly characterize the spike trigger zone (TZ). We took advantage of a critical methodological improvement in the high sensitivity membrane potential imaging (V(m) imaging) technique to directly determine the location and length of the spike TZ as defined in functional terms. The results show that in mature axons of mouse cortical layer 5 pyramidal cells, action potentials initiate in a region ∼20 μm in length centred between 20 and 40 μm from the soma. From this region, the AP depolarizing wave invades initial nodes of Ranvier within a fraction of a millisecond and propagates in a saltatory fashion into axonal collaterals without failure at all physiologically relevant frequencies. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to the saltatory conduction in mature axons, AP propagation is non-saltatory (monotonic) in immature axons prior to myelination. PMID:21669974

  15. The Floating Potential Probe (FPP) for ISS: Operations and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry; Morton, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we report early results from the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) recently installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The data show that FPP properly measures the electrical potential of ISS structure with respect to the plasma it is flying through. FPP Langmuir probe data seem to give accurate measurements of the ambient plasma density, and are generally consistent with the IRI-90 model. FPP data are used to judge the performance of the ISS Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs), and to evaluate the extent of ISS charging in the absence of the PCUs.

  16. CK2 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 potentiates cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Wada, Ikuo; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yamaki, Junko; Krebs, Edwin G.; Homma, Yoshimi

    2005-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinase that plays an important role in cell cycle progression. Although its function in this process remains unclear, it is known to be required for the G1 and G2/M phase transitions in yeast. Here, we show that CK2 activity changes notably during cell cycle progression and is increased within 3 h of serum stimulation of quiescent cells. During the time period in which it exhibits high enzymatic activity, CK2 associates with and phosphorylates a key molecule for translation initiation, eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 5. Using MS, we show that Ser-389 and -390 of eIF5 are major sites of phosphorylation by CK2. This is confirmed using eIF5 mutants that lack CK2 sites; the phosphorylation levels of mutant eIF5 proteins are significantly reduced, relative to WT eIF5, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of these mutants reveals that they have a dominant-negative effect on phosphorylation of endogenous eIF5, and that they perturb synchronous progression of cells through S to M phase, resulting in a significant reduction in growth rate. Furthermore, the formation of mature eIF5/eIF2/eIF3 complex is reduced in these cells, and, in fact, restricted diffusional motion of WT eIF5 was almost abolished in a GFP-tagged eIF5 mutant lacking CK2 phosphorylation sites, as measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These results suggest that CK2 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression by associating with and phosphorylating a key molecule for translation initiation. PMID:16227438

  17. Meeting the Recommendations of the Bercow Report: The Challenges and the Potential within Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The recommendations from the Bercow Review of services for children with speech, language and communication needs (DCSF, 2008a) have significant implications for the training of pre-service teachers who will be expected to be more able to meet the needs of such children. This article explores the potential within the Standards for Qualified…

  18. General Microbial Community Flexibility in Biochemical Methane Potential Assay is Highly Correlated to Initial Biogas Production Rates.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Stres, Blaž; Osojnik, Gasan; Skrjanec, Igor; Marinšek-Logar, Romana

    2011-03-01

    Degradation of brewery spent grain as a novel test substrate was explored in routine biochemical methane potential assays (BMP) using three different inocula. Significant differences in the initial biogas production rates from spent grain, methane yield coefficients and final spent grain degradation were observed between inocula. Initial and developed communities degrading novel substrate showed significant differences in archaeal community fingerprints. Differences were observed irrespective of substrate identity (no substrate, glucose, spent grain) providing evidence of a significant general influence of BMP incubation on the microbial phylotypes. A linear relationship between microbial community flexibility in BMP assay and corresponding initial biogas production rates was identified as a novel parameter to diagnose anaerobic processes, particularly under dynamic conditions like start-up. PMID:24061959

  19. FOXD3 Regulates Pluripotent Stem Cell Potential by Simultaneously Initiating and Repressing Enhancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Raga; Chen, Amy F; Pantovich, Marisol G; Danial, Muhammad; Parchem, Ronald J; Labosky, Patricia A; Blelloch, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Early development is governed by the ability of pluripotent cells to retain the full range of developmental potential and respond accurately to developmental cues. This property is achieved in large part by the temporal and contextual regulation of gene expression by enhancers. Here, we evaluated regulation of enhancer activity during differentiation of embryonic stem to epiblast cells and uncovered the forkhead transcription factor FOXD3 as a major regulator of the developmental potential of both pluripotent states. FOXD3 bound to distinct sites in the two cell types priming enhancers through a dual-functional mechanism. It recruited the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex ATPase BRG1 to promote nucleosome removal while concurrently inhibiting maximal activation of the same enhancers by recruiting histone deacetylases1/2. Thus, FOXD3 prepares cognate genes for future maximal expression by establishing and simultaneously repressing enhancer activity. Through switching of target sites, FOXD3 modulates the developmental potential of pluripotent cells as they differentiate. PMID:26748757

  20. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23711239

  1. Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shigeo

    2014-10-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been accepted to be an inert and nonfunctional molecule in our body. We have turned this concept by demonstrating that H2 reacts with strong oxidants such as hydroxyl radical in cells, and proposed its potential for preventive and therapeutic applications. H2 has a number of advantages exhibiting extensive effects: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect signaling reactive oxygen species; therefore, there should be no or little adverse effects of H2. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2; inhaling H2 gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (H2-water), injecting H2-dissolved saline (H2-saline), taking an H2 bath, or dropping H2-saline into the eyes. The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism. In addition to growing evidence obtained by model animal experiments, extensive clinical examinations were performed or are under investigation. Since most drugs specifically act to their targets, H2 seems to differ from conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Owing to its great efficacy and lack of adverse effects, H2 has promising potential for clinical use against many diseases. PMID:24769081

  2. The Potentials of Student Initiated Netspeak in a Middle Primary Science-inspired Multiliteracies Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgewell, Jay; Exley, Beryl

    2011-11-01

    There is no denying that the information technology revolution of the late twentieth century has arrived. Whilst not equitably accessible for many, others hold high expectations for the contributions online activity will make to student learning outcomes. Concurrently, and not necessarily consequentially, the number of science and technology secondary school and university graduates throughout the world has declined substantially, as has their motivation and engagement with school science (OECD 2006). The aim of this research paper is to explore one aspect of online activity, that of forum-based netspeak (Crystal 2006), in relation to the possibilities and challenges it provides for forms of scientific learning. This paper reports findings from a study investigating student initiated netspeak in a science inspired multiliteracies (New London Group 2000) project in one middle primary (aged 7-10 years) multi-age Australian classroom. Drawing on the theoretical description of the five phases of enquiry proposed by Bybee (1997), an analytic framework is proffered that allows identification of student engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration and evaluation of scientific enquiry. The findings provide insight into online forums for advancing learning in, and motivation for, science in the middle primary years.

  3. Imaging infrared polarimetry: initial results and potential in detection of scatterable mines and surface disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Herman E.; Jones, Stephen H.; Iannarilli, Frank J., Jr.

    1999-08-01

    Over the past year with the support of the Army Humanitarian Demining MURI, Aerodyne has substantially moved forward in developing and demonstrating the value of an affordable and fieldworthy IR polarimetric hyperspectral imager for inclusion in multisensor demining. Such technology promises powerful clutter suppression and enhancement of man made objects, particularly applicable to the reliable detection of scatterable mines, especially plastics, and any UXO that are partially exposed. We have achieved the first 3 steps of a 4 step, controlled-risk program defined as follows: (1) LWIR Spectral Polarimeter to demonstrate the effectiveness of combined polarimetric and hyperspectral discrimination capabilities in observations on static scenes; (2) LWIR Uncooled FPA Imaging Polarimeter to verify the sensitivity of an affordable Uncooled FPA in a broadband configuration against static scenes; (3) Multispectral IMaging Polarimeter to quantify clutter rejection performance improvements to be realized from multispectral imaging polarimetry; and (4) IR Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imager designed with optimal spatial and spectral resolution and sufficient throughput to achieve the reliable performance required in surface mine and UXO detection applications. We present results for Steps 1 and 2, and initial result for Step 3 from the ongoing demonstrations in simulated surface mine detection.

  4. Initial Investigation into the Potential of CSP Industrial Process Heat for the Southwest United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    2015-11-01

    After significant interest in the 1970s, but relatively few deployments, the use of solar technologies for thermal applications, including enhanced oil recovery (EOR), desalination, and industrial process heat (IPH), is again receiving global interest. In particular, the European Union (EU) has been a leader in the use, development, deployment, and tracking of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. The objective of this study is to ascertain U.S. market potential of IPH for concentrating collector technologies that have been developed and promoted through the U.S. Department of Energy's Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program. For this study, the solar-thermal collector technologies of interest are parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) and linear Fresnel (LF) systems.

  5. Na+ current in presynaptic terminals of the crayfish opener cannot initiate action potentials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Action potential (AP) propagation in presynaptic axons of the crayfish opener neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was investigated by simultaneously recording from a terminal varicosity and a proximal branch. Although orthodromically conducting APs could be recorded in terminals with amplitudes up to 70 mV, depolarizing steps in terminals to -20 mV or higher failed to fire APs. Patch-clamp recordings did detect Na(+) current (INa) in most terminals. The INa exhibited a high threshold and fast activation rate. Local perfusion of Na(+)-free saline showed that terminal INa contributed to AP waveform by slightly accelerating the rising phase and increasing the peak amplitude. These findings suggest that terminal INa functions to "touch up" but not to generate APs. PMID:26561611

  6. Short communication: Initial evidence supporting existence of potential rumen epidermal stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Yohe, T T; Tucker, H L M; Parsons, C L M; Geiger, A J; Akers, R M; Daniels, K M

    2016-09-01

    The bovine rumen epidermis is a keratinized multilayered tissue that experiences persistent cell turnover. Because of this constant cell turnover, epidermal stem cells and their slightly more differentiated daughter cells, epidermal progenitor cells, must exist in the stratum basale of rumen epidermis. To date, these 2 epidermal cell populations and any unique cellular markers they may possess remain completely uncharacterized in the bovine rumen. An important first step in this new research area is the demonstration of the relative abundance and existence of markers for these cells in rumen tissue. A related second step is to document rumen epidermal proliferative responses to an extrinsic signal such as nutrient concentration within the rumen. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extrinsic effect of diet on (1) gene expression of 6 potential rumen epidermal stem or progenitor cell markers and (2) rumen epidermal cell proliferation within the stratum basale. Twelve preweaned Holstein heifers were fed either a restricted diet (R) or an enhanced diet (EH). Animals on R received a milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg of powder dry matter (DM)/d (20.9% crude protein, 29.8% fat, DM basis) and EH received MR at 1.08kg of powder dry matter/d (28.9% crude protein, 26.2% fat, DM basis). All calves had access to a 20% crude protein starter and were weaned during wk 7 of the experiment. Lifetime DM intake was 0.73kg of DM/calf per day for R (5.88 Mcal of net energy/calf per day) and 1.26kg of DM/calf per day for EH (10.68 Mcal of net energy/calf per day). Twenty-four hours before slaughter heifers received an intravenous dose of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. Heifers were slaughtered at 8 wk of age, and rumen samples from the ventral sac region were obtained and stored in RNA preservative and processed for routine histology. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to analyze relative abundance of genes. Candidate

  7. AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EPSILON-METAL WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Strachan, Denis M.

    2011-03-01

    This report examines and ranks a total of seven materials processing techniques that may be potentially utilized to consolidate the undissolved solids from nuclear fuel reprocessing into a low-surface area form. Commercial vendors of processing equipment were contacted and literature researched to gather information for this report. Typical equipment and their operation, corresponding to each of the seven techniques, are described in the report based upon the discussions and information provided by the vendors. Although the report does not purport to describe all the capabilities and issues of various consolidation techniques, it is anticipated that this report will serve as a guide by highlighting the key advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. The processing techniques described in this report were broadly classified into those that employed melting and solidification, and those in which the consolidation takes place in the solid-state. Four additional techniques were examined that were deemed impractical, but were included for completeness. The techniques were ranked based on criteria such as flexibility in accepting wide-variety of feed-stock (chemistry, form, and quantity), ease of long-term maintenance, hot cell space requirements, generation of additional waste streams, cost, and any special considerations. Based on the assumption of ~2.5 L of waste to be consolidated per day, sintering based techniques, namely, microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering and hot isostatic pressing, were ranked as the top-3 choices, respectively. Melting and solidification based techniques were ranked lower on account of generation of volatile phases and difficulties associated with reactivity and containment of the molten metal.

  8. SOX2 is a cancer-specific regulator of tumor initiating potential in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Jasmin M.; Basin, Alice; Sastre-Perona, Ana; Yonekubo, Yoshiya; Brown, Jessie; Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Carucci, John A.; Schober, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Although the principles that balance stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in normal tissue homeostasis are beginning to emerge, it is still unclear whether cancer cells with tumor initiating potential are similarly governed, or whether they have acquired distinct mechanisms to sustain self-renewal and long-term tumor growth. Here we show that the transcription factor Sox2, which is not expressed in normal skin epithelium and is dispensable for epidermal homeostasis, marks tumor initiating cells (TICs) in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We demonstrate that Sox2 is required for SCC growth in mouse and human, where it enhances Nrp1/Vegf signaling to promote the expansion of TICs along the tumor-stroma interface. Our findings suggest that distinct transcriptional programs govern self-renewal and long-term growth of TICs and normal skin epithelial stem and progenitor cells. These programs present promising diagnostic markers and targets for cancer specific therapies. PMID:25077433

  9. Effect of potential waste constituents on the reactivity of Hanford ferrocyanide wastes: Diluent, catalyst, and initiator studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Johnston, J.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    During the 1980s, scientists at the Hanford Site began considering disposal options for wastes in underground storage tanks. As a result of safety concerns, it was determined that special consideration should be given to ferrocyanide-bearing wastes to ensure their continued safe storage. In addition, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) chartered Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the conditions necessary for vigorous reactions to occur in the Hanford Site ferrocyanide wastes. As part of those studies, PNL has evaluated the effects of selected potential waste constituents to determine how they might affect the reactivity of the wastes. The authors` investigations of the diluent, catalytic, or initiating effects of potential waste constituents included studies (1) to determine the effect of the oxidant-to-ferrocyanide ratio, (2) to establish the effect of sodium aluminate concentration, (3) to identify materials that could affect the explosivity of a mixture of sodium nickel ferricyanide (a potential aging product of ferrocyanide) and sodium nitrate and nitrite, (4) and to determine the effect of nickel sulfide concentration. They also conducted a thermal sensitivity study and analyzed the results to determine the relative behaviors of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and ferricyanide. A statistical evaluation of the time-to-explosion (TTX) test results from the catalyst and initiator screening study found that the ferricyanide reacted at a faster rate than did the ferrocyanide analog. The thermal analyses indicated that the ferricyanide form is more thermally sensitive, exhibiting exothermic behavior at a lower temperature than the ferrocyanide form. The increased thermal sensitivity of the ferricyanide, which is a potential oxidation product of ferrocyanide, relative to the ferrocyanide analog, does not support the hypothesis that aging independent of the reaction pathway will necessarily reduce the reaction hazard of ferrocyanide wastes.

  10. The potential role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell-mediated canine mammary tumor initiation: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Di; Xie, Fuqiang; Lin, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Additionally, it is becoming apparent that cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling is associated with canine mammary tumor development. The goals of the present study were to investigate COX-2 expression patterns and their effect on CSC-mediated tumor initiation in primary canine mammary tissues and tumorsphere models using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of COX-2, CD44, octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct)-3/4, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were examined in malignant mammary tumor (MMT) samples and analyzed in terms of clinicopathological characteristics. COX-2 and Oct-3/4 expression was higher in MMTs compared to other histological samples with heterogeneous patterns. In MMTs, COX-2 expression correlated with tumor malignancy features. Significant associations between COX-2, CD44, and EGFR were observed in low-differentiated MMTs. Comparative analysis showed that the levels of COX-2, CD44, and Oct-3/4 expression varied significantly among TSs of three histological grades. Enhanced COX-2 staining was consistently observed in TSs. Similar levels of staining intensity were found for CD44 and Oct-3/4, but EGFR expression was weak. Our findings indicate the potential role of COX-2 in CSC-mediated tumor initiation, and suggest that COX-2 inhibition may help treat canine mammary tumors by targeting CSCs. PMID:26124697

  11. Growth differentiating factor 15 enhances the tumor-initiating and self-renewal potential of multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanno, Toshihiko; Lim, Yiting; Wang, Qiuju; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Matthews, Geoff; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Borrello, Ivan; Huff, Carol Ann

    2014-01-01

    Disease relapse remains a major factor limiting the survival of cancer patients. In the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma (MM), nearly all patients ultimately succumb to disease relapse and progression despite new therapies that have improved remission rates. Tumor regrowth indicates that clonogenic growth potential is continually maintained, but the determinants of self-renewal in MM are not well understood. Normal stem cells are regulated by extrinsic niche factors, and the tumor microenvironment (TME) may similarly influence tumor cell clonogenic growth and self-renewal. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is aberrantly secreted by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in MM. We found that GDF15 is produced by BMSCs after direct contact with plasma cells and enhances the tumor-initiating potential and self-renewal of MM cells in a protein kinase B- and SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box–dependent manner. Moreover, GDF15 induces the expansion of MM tumor-initiating cells (TICs), and changes in the serum levels of GDF15 were associated with changes in the frequency of clonogenic MM cells and the progression-free survival of MM patients. These findings demonstrate that GDF15 plays a critical role in mediating the interaction among mature tumor cells, the TME, and TICs, and strategies targeting GDF15 may affect long-term clinical outcomes in MM. PMID:24345755

  12. Health Care Reform and the Federal Transformation Initiatives: Capitalizing on the Potential of Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Delaney, Kathleen; Merwin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the US federal government proposed a transformation vision of mental health service delivery; patient-centered, evidence-based and recovery oriented treatment models. Health care reform brings additional expectations for innovation in mental/substance use service delivery, particularly the idea of creating systems where physical health, mental health and substance use treatment is fully integrated. Psychiatric nurses, as one of the four core US mental health professions, have the potential to play a significant role in the both the transformation initiative and health care reform vision. However, psychiatric nurses, particularly advanced practice psychiatric nurses, are an untapped resource due in part to significant state regulatory barriers that limit their scope of practice in many states. The purpose of this paper is to document what is currently known about advanced practice psychiatric nurses and discuss policy implications for tapping into the strengths of this workforce. Strategies for facilitating utilization of advanced practice psychiatric nurses discussed. PMID:21233135

  13. The potential spread of severe footrot in Norway if no elimination programme had been initiated: a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Grøneng, Gry M; Vatn, Synnøve; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Nafstad, Ola; Hopp, Petter

    2015-01-01

    When severe footrot was detected in Norway in 2008, a surveillance programme was initiated and followed by an elimination programme. By 2013 the disease had spread to two of 19 counties and a total of 119 (1%) sheep flocks had been diagnosed with severe footrot. A simulation model was developed to estimate the potential spread of severe footrot in Norway and to estimate the relative importance of the different spreading routes. The model parameters were based on the rate of spread of the first 38 diagnosed cases and the management and climatic factors particular for Norway. The model showed that by 2013, severe footrot would have spread to six counties and infected 16% of the sheep flocks if no elimination programme had been initiated. If this is compared with the 1% of flocks that were diagnosed in Norway by 2013, there seems to be a large effect of the implemented footrot elimination programme. By 2035, it was estimated that severe footrot would have spread to 16 counties and 64% of the sheep flocks. Such an extensive spread would probably impose a large negative impact on the sheep industry and welfare of the sheep. The most effective way to curb the spread of severe footrot was by decreasing the within county infection rate. This could be achieved by decreasing the contact between flocks or by decreasing the environmental load of D. nodosus, for example by footbathing sheep, culling diseased sheep or eliminating severe footrot in the flock. PMID:25828795

  14. Phasic excitation of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons potentiates the initiation of conditioned approach behavior: parametric and reinforcement-schedule analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ilango, Anton; Kesner, Andrew J.; Broker, Carl J.; Wang, Dong V.; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in motivation and learning. However, it is unclear how phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, which is implicated in learning, is involved in motivation. Here we used a self-stimulation procedure to examine how mice seek for optogenetically-induced phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, with an emphasis on the temporal dimension. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 into the ventral tegmental area, resulting in selective expression of the opsin in dopamine neurons. These mice were trained to press on a lever for photo-pulse trains that phasically excited dopamine neurons. They learned to self-stimulate in a fast, constant manner, and rapidly reduced pressing during extinction. We first determined effective parameters of photo-pulse trains in self-stimulation. Lever-press rates changed as a function of the manipulation of pulse number, duration, intensity, and frequency. We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was contrasted with food reinforcement. Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal-directed manner. In contrast, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons robustly potentiated the initiation of lever pressing; however, this effect did not last more than 1 s and quickly diminished. Indeed, response rates markedly decreased when lever pressing was reinforced with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. Thus, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons briefly potentiates the initiation of approach behavior with apparent lack of long-term motivational regulation. PMID:24834037

  15. Potential Impacts of Leakage from Black Rock Reservoir on the Hanford Site Unconfined Aquifer: Initial Hypothetical Simulations of Flow and Contaminant Transport - Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.

    2007-04-30

    Errata for report documenting initial scoping calculations investigating the potential impacts on the Hanford unconfined aquifer resulting from leakage from the proposed Black Rock Reservoir to the west. These calculations were performed for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

  16. Inhibition of translation initiation factors might be the potential therapeutic targets for HCV patients with hepatic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiping; An, Daizhi; Sun, Rubao; Jin, Lianqun; Wang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Standard therapy, interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and ribavirin, remains the only available option for treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, iron overload, a common finding among HCV patients, have a poor response to treatment with current therapy. These data suggest that both host and viral factors are involved in the determination of the outcome of the therapy. Currently, novel antiviral compounds focus on the development of indirect antiviral drugs. The process of the viral translation is considered as the potential therapeutic targets. Coincidentally, study has found that hepatic iron load enhances the levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), which is essential for HCV translation. Reversely, iron chelation could reduce eIF3 p170 translation. Our hypothesis is that iron overload may specifically enhance cellular eIFs. As a result, the cellular mechanisms, in patients with iron overload, are utilized for translating viral mRNA into protein. Thus, treatment strategies that target eIFs should be an exceptionally good candidate therapeutic method for HCV patients with hepatic iron overload. PMID:22047986

  17. Long-term in vitro maintenance of clonal abundance and leukaemia-initiating potential in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Pal, D; Blair, H J; Elder, A; Dormon, K; Rennie, K J; Coleman, D J L; Weiland, J; Rankin, K S; Filby, A; Heidenreich, O; Vormoor, J

    2016-01-01

    Lack of suitable in vitro culture conditions for primary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells severely impairs their experimental accessibility and the testing of new drugs on cell material reflecting clonal heterogeneity in patients. We show that Nestin-positive human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) support expansion of a range of biologically and clinically distinct patient-derived ALL samples. Adherent ALL cells showed an increased accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle and diminished apoptosis when compared with cells in the suspension fraction. Moreover, surface expression of adhesion molecules CD34, CDH2 and CD10 increased several fold. Approximately 20% of the ALL cells were in G0 phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that MSCs may support quiescent ALL cells. Cellular barcoding demonstrated long-term preservation of clonal abundance. Expansion of ALL cells for >3 months compromised neither feeder dependence nor cancer initiating ability as judged by their engraftment potential in immunocompromised mice. Finally, we demonstrate the suitability of this co-culture approach for the investigation of drug combinations with luciferase-expressing primograft ALL cells. Taken together, we have developed a preclinical platform with patient-derived material that will facilitate the development of clinically effective combination therapies for ALL. PMID:27109511

  18. Design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite as a potential bone graft substitute material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    Utilization of bone grafts for the treatment of skeletal pathology is a common practice in orthopaedic, craniomaxillofacial, dental, and plastic surgery. Autogenous bone graft is the established archetype but has disadvantages including donor site morbidity, limited supply, and prolonging operative time. In order to avoid these and other issues, bone graft substitute materials are becoming increasingly prevalent among surgeons for reconstructing skeletal defects and arthrodesis applications. Bone graft substitutes are biomaterials, biologics, and guided tissue/bone regenerative devices that can be used alone or in combinations as supplements or alternatives to autogenous bone graft. There is a growing interest and trend to specialize graft substitutes for specific indications and although there is good rationale for this indication-specific approach, the development and utility of a more universal bone graft substitute may provide a better answer for patients and surgeons. The aim of the present research focuses on the design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite composites for potential use as a bone graft substitutes. After initial establishment of rational material design, gelatinhydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated with different gelatin:hydroxyapatite ratios and crosslinking concentrations. The synthesized scaffolds were subsequently evaluated on the basis of their swelling behavior, porosity, density, percent composition, mechanical properties, and morphology and further assessed with respect to cell-biomaterial interaction and biomineralization in vitro. Although none of the materials achieved mechanical properties suitable for structural graft applications, a reproducible material design and synthesis was achieved with properties recognized to facilitate bone formation. Select scaffold formulations as well as a subset of scaffolds loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 were

  19. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  20. MEDICARE’S BUNDLED PAYMENTS FOR CARE IMPROVEMENT (BPCI) INITIATIVE: EXPANDING ENROLLMENT SUGGESTS POTENTIAL FOR LARGE IMPACT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lena M.; Meara, Ellen; Birkmeyer, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aiming to encourage care coordination and cost-efficiency, the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) launched the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative in 2013. To help gauge the program’s potential impact and generalizability, we describe early and current participants. Study Design We examined the cross-sectional association between BPCI participation and providers’ structural and cost characteristics. Methods Using data from October 2013 and June 2014, we quantified changes in BPCI participation. We described structural differences between participating and non-participating hospitals using t-tests and chi-square tests. We used the Cochrane-Armitage test to assess whether participants were more likely be in higher 90-day episode cost quintiles than their peers at baseline (2009–2010). Results Overall (risk-bearing and non-risk-bearing) participation in BPCI increased six-fold from 417 (October 2013) to 2,597 (June 2014), attributable in part to Model 2, the most comprehensive model. Model 2 hospitals increasingly resemble eligible but non-participating hospitals. For the most commonly chosen condition of hip replacement, Model 2 hospitals were not costlier than their peers. Hospitals used to make up 97% of Model 2 participants, but physician practices now comprise half. However, most BPCI participants have not yet begun to bear financial risk. Risk-bearing Model 2 hospitals are a smaller and less representative group, with higher baseline costs for hip replacement than their peers. Conclusions Growing participation in BPCI suggests strong interest in bundled payments. The long-term impact of BPCI will depend on CMMI’s ability to persuade interested but non-risk-bearing participants to bear risk. PMID:26633254

  1. The Challenges of School-Based Teacher Development Initiatives in South Africa and the Potential of Cluster Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Clercq, Francine; Phiri, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the challenges of teacher development strategies in post-1994 South Africa by arguing that school-based development initiatives address teachers' specific development needs and that it is imperative to understand the conditions under which these initiatives can have a positive impact on teachers. A framework is developed…

  2. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  3. The potential impacts of warmer-continent-related lower-layer equatorial westerly wind on tropical cyclone initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhuojian; Qian, Yu-Kun; Qi, Jindian; Wu, Junjie

    2012-03-01

    Global climate models predict that the increasing Amazonian-deforestation rates cause rising temperatures (increases of 1.8°C to 8°C under different conditions) and Amazonian drying over the 21st century. Observations in the 20th century also show that over the warmer continent and the nearby western South Atlantic Ocean, the lower-layer equatorial westerly wind (LLEWW) strengthens with the initiation of tropical cyclones (TCs). The warmer-continent-related LLEWW can result from the Coriolis-force-induced deflection of the cross-equatorial flow (similar to the well-known heat-island effect on sea breeze) driven by the enhanced land-sea contrast between the warmer urbanized continents and relatively cold oceans. This study focuses on the processes relating the warmer-continent-related LLEWW to the TC initiation and demonstrates that the LLEWW embedded in trade easterlies can directly initiate TCs by creating cyclonic wind shears and forming the intertropical convergence zone. In addition to this direct effect, the LLEWW combined with the rotating Earth can boost additional updraft vapor over the high sea-surface temperature region (factor 1), facilitating a surface-to-midtroposphere moist layer (factor 2) and convective instability (factor 3) followed by diabatic processes. According to previous studies, the diabatic heating in a finite equatorial region also activates TCs (factor 4) on each side of the Equator with weak vertical shear (factor 5). Factors 1-5 are favorable conditions for the initiation of severe TCs. Statistical analyses show that the earliest signal of sustained LLEWW not only leads the earliest signal of sustained tropical depression by >3 days but also explains a higher percentage of total variance.

  4. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O'Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  5. Yeast RNA polymerase II initiates transcription in vitro at TATA sequences proximal to potential non-B forms of the DNA template.

    PubMed Central

    Lescure, B; Arcangioli, B

    1984-01-01

    Pure yeast RNA polymerase II selectively initiates an abortive in vitro transcript within a TATA box of the yeast iso-1 cytochrome c gene promoter. Using a series of promoter deletions we show that a DNA sequence located upstream of the TATA box is needed for an efficient in vitro transcription. Supercoiling of the DNA template is an absolute requirement for the specific in vitro transcription. Examination of the DNA structure near several in vitro initiation sites shows that the common features observed are the presence of a TATA sequence in which RNA synthesis is initiated, and which is proximal to a potential non-B form of the DNA (a B to Z transition or a cruciform structure). Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6376116

  6. The GATE Initiative (GAia Transiting Exoplanets): The Way to fully Exploit Gaia's Potential to Detect Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Shay; Eyer, Laurent; Hodgkin, Simon; Clementini, Gisella

    2015-08-01

    The traditional assumption about low cadence photometric surveys, such as those of Gaia and its predecessor Hipparcos, was that they are not suitable for the detection of transiting exoplanets. The posterior detection of the transits of the planets HD209458b and HD189733b in the Hipparcos photometric data has challenged this view. Inspired by those detections, we have shown in a series of papers that under specific circumstances, the low-cadence photometric data of Gaia will enable the detection of such planets. The chances of detection will improve significantly with the help of carefully scheduled ground-based photometric observations, using Bayesian considerations. The GATE initiative will use this philosophy, combined with the Gaia Science Alerts resources, to maximize the number of transiting exoplanet detections of Gaia. The same approach can be used by other low-cadence surveys.

  7. Revolutionary/Unconventional Aeropropulsion Technology Evaluation through Thermodynamic Work Potential: A Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts Program Research Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri; Danner, Travis; Roth, Bryce

    2002-01-01

    This report is intended as a status report for activities covered May through July 2002 under the auspices of NASA Glenn's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) project. This is the first phase I quarterly report and as such, considerable focus will be given to defining the basic need and motivation driving this research effort. In addition, background research has been ongoing for the past several months and has culminated in considerable information pertaining to the state-of-the-art in work potential analysis methods. This work is described in detail herein. Finally, the proposed analysis approach is described, as are the various ancillary concepts required for its implementation.

  8. Impaired Action Potential Initiation in GABAergic Interneurons Causes Hyperexcitable Networks in an Epileptic Mouse Model Carrying a Human NaV1.1 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Hedrich, Ulrike B.S.; Liautard, Camille; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Pofahl, Martin; Lavigne, Jennifer; Liu, Yuanyuan; Theiss, Stephan; Slotta, Johannes; Escayg, Andrew; Dihné, Marcel; Beck, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in SCN1A and other ion channel genes can cause different epileptic phenotypes, but the precise mechanisms underlying the development of hyperexcitable networks are largely unknown. Here, we present a multisystem analysis of an SCN1A mouse model carrying the NaV1.1-R1648H mutation, which causes febrile seizures and epilepsy in humans. We found a ubiquitous hypoexcitability of interneurons in thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus, without detectable changes in excitatory neurons. Interestingly, somatic Na+ channels in interneurons and persistent Na+ currents were not significantly changed. Instead, the key mechanism of interneuron dysfunction was a deficit of action potential initiation at the axon initial segment that was identified by analyzing action potential firing. This deficit increased with the duration of firing periods, suggesting that increased slow inactivation, as recorded for recombinant mutated channels, could play an important role. The deficit in interneuron firing caused reduced action potential-driven inhibition of excitatory neurons as revealed by less frequent spontaneous but not miniature IPSCs. Multiple approaches indicated increased spontaneous thalamocortical and hippocampal network activity in mutant mice, as follows: (1) more synchronous and higher-frequency firing was recorded in primary neuronal cultures plated on multielectrode arrays; (2) thalamocortical slices examined by field potential recordings revealed spontaneous activities and pathological high-frequency oscillations; and (3) multineuron Ca2+ imaging in hippocampal slices showed increased spontaneous neuronal activity. Thus, an interneuron-specific generalized defect in action potential initiation causes multisystem disinhibition and network hyperexcitability, which can well explain the occurrence of seizures in the studied mouse model and in patients carrying this mutation. PMID:25378155

  9. Investigating potential exogenous tumor initiating and promoting factors for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL), a rare skin malignancy.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Shtreis, Anna; Kobayashi, Kenneth; Glassman, Steven; Tsang, Matthew; Woetmann, Anders; Sasseville, Denis; Ødum, Niels; Duvic, Madeleine

    2016-07-01

    Most skin malignancies are caused by external and often preventable environmental agents. Multiple reports demonstrated that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) can occur in married couples and cluster in families. Furthermore, recent studies document geographic clustering of this malignancy in Texas as well as in other areas of the United States. Multiple infectious, occupational, and medication causes have been proposed as triggers or promoters of this malignancy including hydrochlorothiazide diuretics, Staphylococcus aureus, dermatophytes, Mycobacterium leprae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, human T-Cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). In this report, we review recent evidence evaluating the involvement of these agents in cancer initiation/progression. Most importantly, recent molecular experimental evidence documented for the first time that S. aureus can activate oncogenic STAT3 signaling in malignant T cells. Specifically, S. aureus Enterotoxin type A (SEA) was recently shown to trigger non-malignant infiltrating T cells to release IL-2 and other cytokines. These signals upon binging to their cognate receptors on malignant T cells are then able to activate STAT3 and STAT5 oncogenic signaling and promote cancer progression and IL-17 secretion. In light of these findings, it might be important for patients with exacerbation of their CTCL symptoms to maintain high index of suspicion and treat these individuals for S. aureus colonization and/or sepsis with topical and systemic antibiotics. PMID:27622024

  10. Exploring action potential initiation in neurons exposed to DC electric fields through dynamical analysis of conductance-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Han, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Jin, Qi-Tao

    2014-05-01

    Noninvasive direct current (DC) electric stimulation of central nervous system is today a promising therapeutic option to alleviate the symptoms of a number of neurological disorders. Despite widespread use of this noninvasive brain modulation technique, a generalizable explanation of its biophysical basis has not been described which seriously restricts its application and development. This paper investigated the dynamical behaviors of Hodgkin's three classes of neurons exposed to DC electric field based on a conductance-based neuron model. With phase plane and bifurcation analysis, the different responses of each class of neuron to the same stimulation are shown to derive from distinct spike initiating dynamics. Under the effects of negative DC electric field, class 1 neuron generates repetitive spike through a saddle-node on invariant circle (SNIC) bifurcation, while it ceases this repetitive behavior through a Hopf bifurcation; Class 2 neuron generates repetitive spike through a Hopf bifurcation, meanwhile it ceases this repetitive behavior also by a Hopf bifurcation; Class 3 neuron can generate single spike through a quasi-separatrix-crossing (QSC) at first, then it generates repetitive spike through a Hopf bifurcation, while it ceases this repetitive behavior through a SNIC bifurcation. Furthermore, three classes of neurons' spiking frequency f-electric field E (f-E) curves all have parabolic shape. Our results highlight the effects of external DC electric field on neuronal activity from the biophysical modeling point of view. It can contribute to the application and development of noninvasive DC brain modulation technique.

  11. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2014-11-28

    In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006–3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires “filling up” all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

  12. Toward panoramic in situ mapping of action potential propagation in transgenic hearts to investigate initiation and therapeutic control of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Dura, Miroslav; Schröder-Schetelig, Johannes; Luther, Stefan; Lehnart, Stephan E.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics and propensity for arrhythmias in intact transgenic hearts comprehensively, optical strategies for panoramic fluorescence imaging of action potential (AP) propagation are essential. In particular, mechanism-oriented molecular studies usually depend on transgenic mouse hearts of only a few millimeters in size. Furthermore, the temporal scales of the mouse heart remain a challenge for panoramic fluorescence imaging with heart rates ranging from 200 min−1 (e.g., depressed sinus node function) to over 1200 min−1 during fast arrhythmias. To meet these challenging demands, we and others developed physiologically relevant mouse models and characterized their hearts with planar AP mapping. Here, we summarize the progress toward panoramic fluorescence imaging and its prospects for the mouse heart. In general, several high-resolution cameras are synchronized and geometrically arranged for panoramic voltage mapping and the surface and blood vessel anatomy documented through image segmentation and heart surface reconstruction. We expect that panoramic voltage imaging will lead to novel insights about molecular arrhythmia mechanisms through quantitative strategies and organ-representative analysis of intact mouse hearts. PMID:25249982

  13. An initial examination of the potential role of T-cell immunity in protection against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    PubMed

    Aranyos, Alek M; Roff, Shannon R; Pu, Ruiyu; Owen, Jennifer L; Coleman, James K; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2016-03-14

    potentially HIV-1. PMID:26802606

  14. Potential Impacts of Leakage from Black Rock Reservoir on the Hanford Site Unconfined Aquifer: Initial Hypothetical Simulations of Flow and Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.

    2007-03-09

    Initial scoping calculations of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site were carried out for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) to investi¬gate the potential impacts on the Hanford unconfined aquifer that would result from leakage from the proposed Black Rock Reservoir to the west. Although impacts on groundwater flow and contaminant transport were quantified based on numerical simulation results, the investigation represented a quali¬tative assessment of the potential lateral recharge that could result in adverse effects on the aquifer. Because the magnitude of the potential leakage is unknown, hypothetical bounding calculations were performed. When a quantitative analysis of the magnitude of the potential recharge from Black Rock Reservoir is obtained, the hydrologic impacts analysis will be revisited. The analysis presented in this report represent initial bounding calculations. A maximum lateral recharge (i.e., upland flux) was determined in the first part of this study by executing steady-state flow simulations that raised the water table no higher than the elevation attained in the Central Plateau during the Hanford operational period. This metric was selected because it assumed a maximum remobilization of contaminants that existed under previous fully saturated conditions. Three steady-state flow fields were then used to analyze impacts to transient contaminant transport: a maximum recharge (27,000 acre-ft/yr), a no additional flux (365 acre-ft/yr), and an intermediate recharge case (16,000 acre-ft/yr). The transport behavior of four radionuclides was assessed for a 300 year simula¬tion period with the three flow fields. The four radionuclides are current contaminants of concern (COCs) in the Central Plateau and include tritium, iodine-129, technetium-99, and uranium-238. Transient flow and transport simulations were used to establish hypothetical concentration distributions in the subsurface. Using the simulated concentration distributions in 2005

  15. Potential Impacts of Leakage from Black Rock Reservoir on the Hanford Site Unconfined Aquifer: Initial Hypothetical Simulations of Flow and Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.

    2008-01-30

    Initial scoping calculations of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site were carried out for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) to investigate the potential impacts on the Hanford unconfined aquifer that would result from leakage from the proposed Black Rock Reservoir to the west. Although impacts on groundwater flow and contaminant transport were quantified based on numerical simulation results, the investigation represented a qualitative assessment of the potential lateral recharge that could result in adverse effects on the aquifer. Because the magnitude of the potential leakage is unknown, hypothetical bounding calculations were performed. When a quantitative analysis of the magnitude of the potential recharge from Black Rock Reservoir is obtained, the hydrologic impacts analysis will be revisited. The analysis presented in this report represents initial bounding calculations. A maximum lateral recharge (i.e., upland flux) was determined in the first part of this study by executing steady-state flow simulations that raised the water table no higher than the elevation attained in the Central Plateau during the Hanford operational period. This metric was selected because it assumed a maximum remobilization of contaminants that existed under previous fully saturated conditions. Three steady-state flow fields were then used to analyze impacts to transient contaminant transport: a maximum recharge (27,000 acre-ft/yr), a no additional flux (365 acre-ft/yr), and an intermediate recharge case (16,000 acre-ft/yr). The transport behavior of four radionuclides was assessed for a 300 year simulation period with the three flow fields. The four radionuclides are tritium, iodine-129, technetium-99, and uranium-238. Transient flow and transport simulations were used to establish hypothetical concentration distributions in the subsurface. Using the simulated concentration distributions in 2005 as initial conditions for steady-state flow runs, simulations were executed to

  16. ZEB2 drives immature T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia development via enhanced tumour-initiating potential and IL-7 receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Steven; Radaelli, Enrico; Blanchet, Odile; Durinck, Kaat; Van der Meulen, Joni; Peirs, Sofie; Taghon, Tom; Tremblay, Cedric S.; Costa, Magdaline; Ghahremani, Morvarid Farhang; De Medts, Jelle; Bartunkova, Sonia; Haigh, Katharina; Schwab, Claire; Farla, Natalie; Pieters, Tim; Matthijssens, Filip; Van Roy, Nadine; Best, J. Adam; Deswarte, Kim; Bogaert, Pieter; Carmichael, Catherine; Rickard, Adam; Suryani, Santi; Bracken, Lauryn S.; Alserihi, Raed; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Rondou, Pieter; Slowicka, Karolina; Huylebroeck, Danny; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Janzen, Viktor; McCormack, Matthew P.; Lock, Richard B.; Curtis, David J.; Harrison, Christine; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; Meijerink, Jules P. P.; Soulier, Jean; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Haigh, Jody J.

    2015-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model. PMID:25565005

  17. ZEB2 drives immature T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia development via enhanced tumour-initiating potential and IL-7 receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Steven; Radaelli, Enrico; Blanchet, Odile; Durinck, Kaat; Van der Meulen, Joni; Peirs, Sofie; Taghon, Tom; Tremblay, Cedric S; Costa, Magdaline; Farhang Ghahremani, Morvarid; De Medts, Jelle; Bartunkova, Sonia; Haigh, Katharina; Schwab, Claire; Farla, Natalie; Pieters, Tim; Matthijssens, Filip; Van Roy, Nadine; Best, J Adam; Deswarte, Kim; Bogaert, Pieter; Carmichael, Catherine; Rickard, Adam; Suryani, Santi; Bracken, Lauryn S; Alserihi, Raed; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Rondou, Pieter; Slowicka, Karolina; Huylebroeck, Danny; Goldrath, Ananda W; Janzen, Viktor; McCormack, Matthew P; Lock, Richard B; Curtis, David J; Harrison, Christine; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; Meijerink, Jules P P; Soulier, Jean; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Haigh, Jody J

    2015-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model. PMID:25565005

  18. The Potential for Elimination of Racial-Ethnic Disparities in HIV Treatment Initiation in the Medicaid Population among 14 Southern States

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shun; McGoy, Shanell L.; Dawes, Daniel; Fransua, Mesfin; Rust, George; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the racial and ethnic disparities in initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ARV treatment or ART) among HIV-infected Medicaid enrollees 18–64 years of age in 14 southern states which have high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and high racial disparities in HIV treatment access and mortality. Methods We used Medicaid claims data from 2005 to 2007 for a retrospective cohort study. We compared frequency variances of HIV treatment uptake among persons of different racial- ethnic groups using univariate and multivariate methods. The unadjusted odds ratio was estimated through multinomial logistic regression. The multinomial logistic regression model was repeated with adjustment for multiple covariates. Results Of the 23,801 Medicaid enrollees who met criteria for initiation of ARV treatment, only one third (34.6%) received ART consistent with national guideline treatment protocols, and 21.5% received some ARV medication, but with sub-optimal treatment profiles. There was no significant difference in the proportion of people who received ARV treatment between black (35.8%) and non-Hispanic whites (35.7%), but Hispanic/Latino persons (26%) were significantly less likely to receive ARV treatment. Conclusions Overall ARV treatment levels for all segments of the population are less than optimal. Among the Medicaid population there are no racial HIV treatment disparities between Black and White persons living with HIV, which suggests the potential relevance of Medicaid to currently uninsured populations, and the potential to achieve similar levels of equality within Medicaid for Hispanic/Latino enrollees and other segments of the Medicaid population. PMID:24769625

  19. Parvocellular and magnocellular contributions to the initial generators of the visual evoked potential: high-density electrical mapping of the "C1" component.

    PubMed

    Foxe, John J; Strugstad, E Cathrine; Sehatpour, Pejman; Molholm, Sophie; Pasieka, Wren; Schroeder, Charles E; McCourt, Mark E

    2008-09-01

    The C1 component of the VEP is considered to index initial afference of retinotopic regions of human visual cortex (V1 and V2). C1 onsets over central parieto-occipital scalp between 45 and 60 ms, peaks between 70 and 100 ms, and then resolves into the following P1 component. By exploiting isoluminant and low-contrast luminance stimuli, we assessed the relative contributions of the Magnocellular (M) and Parvocellular (P) pathways to generation of C1. C1 was maximal at 88 ms in a 100% luminance contrast condition (which stimulates both P and M pathways) and at 115 ms in an isoluminant chromatic condition (which isolates contributions of the P pathway). However, in a 4% luminance contrast condition (which isolates the M pathway), where the stimuli were still clearly perceived, C1 was completely absent. Absence of C1 in this low contrast condition is unlikely to be attributable to lack of stimulus energy since a robust P1-N1 complex was evoked. These data therefore imply that C1 may be primarily parvocellular in origin. The data do not, however, rule out some contribution from the M system at higher contrast levels. Nonetheless, that the amplitude of C1 to P-isolating isoluminant chromatic stimuli is equivalent to that evoked by 100% contrast stimuli suggests that even at high contrast levels, the P system is the largest contributor. These data are related to intracranial recordings in macaque monkeys that have also suggested that the initial current sink in layer IV may not propagate effectively to the scalp surface when M-biased stimuli are used. We also discuss how this finding has implications for a long tradition of attention research that has used C1 as a metric of initial V1 afference in humans. C1 has been repeatedly interrogated for potential selective attentional modulations, particularly in spatial attentional designs, under the premise that modulation of this component, or lack thereof, would be evidence for or against selection at the initial inputs to

  20. CD44 variant 9 is a potential biomarker of tumor initiating cells predicting survival outcome in hepatitis C virus-positive patients with resected hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kakehashi, Anna; Ishii, Naomi; Sugihara, Eiji; Gi, Min; Saya, Hideyuki; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether the expression of CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9) might be a functional marker of tumor-initiating stem-like cells in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV)(+) patients and provide an indicator of patient survival, as well as associated mechanisms. A total of 90 HCV(+) HCC patients who underwent surgery from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled and monitored for 2-8 years. Expression of CD44v9 was validated immunohistochemically in all HCCs, followed by comparative proteome, survival, and clinicopathological analyses. CD44 variant 8--10 was further evaluated in diethylnitrosamine-induced HCCs of C57Bl/6J mice. Focally localized CD44v(+) cells with a membranous staining pattern were detected in human HCV(+) and mouse HCCs. CD44v9(+) cells of HCCs were predominantly negative for Ki67 and P-p38, indicating decrease of cell proliferation in the CD44v9(+) tumor cell population, likely to be related to suppression of intracellular oxidative stress due to activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling, DNA repair, and inhibition of xenobiotic metabolism. CD44v9 IHC evaluation in 90 HCV(+) HCC cases revealed that positive expression was significantly associated with poor overall and recurrence-free survival, a younger age, poor histological differentiation of HCCs, and high alkaline phosphatase levels compared with patients with negative expression. CD44v9 is concluded to be a potential biomarker of tumor-initiating stem-like cells and a prognostic marker in HCV(+) HCC patients associated with Nrf2-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. PMID:26882440

  1. Milnacipran treatment and potential biomarkers in depressed patients following an initial SSRI treatment failure: a prospective, open-label, 24-week study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Tasuku; Sakurai, Daiji; Oda, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Hideki; Takahashi, Junpei; Oiwa, Takahiro; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the effect of switching patients with major depressive disorder to milnacipran following an initial selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment failure, and explored potential biomarkers in their blood. Methods We conducted a prospective, open-label, 24-week trial. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients showing a ≥50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores from baseline to final visit were considered responders. Regarding adverse effects (AEs), moderate-to-severe AEs were specifically identified as effects that required any medical treatment or that induced treatment withdrawals. We also measured blood levels of various molecules including inflammatory cytokines. Results Of the 30 participants who enrolled, 17 completed this study. The responder rate was 30% (n=10). Baseline serum levels of interleukin-6 (Z=−2.155; P=0.031) and interleukin-8 (Z=−2.616; P=0.009) were significantly higher when moderate-to-severe AEs were present (n=13 patients with moderate-to-severe AEs). Serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed a significant continuous decrease from the baseline level (Friedman’s test: χ2=23.9, df=4, P<0.001) only in non-responders. Conclusion These results demonstrate that serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β as potential blood biomarkers could be utilized to identify the responsiveness of patients to serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor like milnacipran, or to identify those patients who may experience AEs strong enough to warrant discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26677330

  2. Generation of an empirical soil moisture initialization and its potential impact on subseasonal forecasting skill of continental precipitation and air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisserie, Marie

    The goal of this dissertation research is to produce empirical soil moisture initial conditions (soil moisture analysis) and investigate its impact on the short-term (2 weeks) to subseasonal (2 months) forecasting skill of 2-m air temperature and precipitation. Because of soil moisture has a long memory and plays a role in controlling the surface water and energy budget, an accurate soil moisture analysis is today widely recognized as having the potential to increase summertime climate forecasting skill. However, because of a lack of global observations of soil moisture, there has been no scientific consensus on the importance of the contribution of a soil moisture initialization as close to the truth as possible to climate forecasting skill. In this study, the initial conditions are generated using a Precipitation Assimilation Reanalysis (PAR) technique to produce a soil moisture analysis. This technique consists mainly of nudging precipitation in the atmosphere component of a land-atmosphere model by adjusting the vertical air humidity profile based on the difference between the rate of the model-derived precipitation rate and the observed rate. The unique aspects of the PAR technique are the following: (1) based on the PAR technique, the soil moisture analysis is generated using a coupled land-atmosphere forecast model; therefore, no bias between the initial conditions and the forecast model (spinup problem) is encountered; and (2) the PAR technique is physically consistent; the surface and radiative fluxes remains in conjunction with the soil moisture analysis. To our knowledge, there has been no attempt to use a physically consistent soil moisture land assimilation system into a land-atmosphere model in a coupled mode. The effect of the PAR technique on the model soil moisture estimates is evaluated using the Global Soil Wetness Project Phase 2 (GSWP-2) multimodel analysis product (used as a proxy for global soil moisture observations) and actual in

  3. Esterfip, a transesterification process to produce bio-diesel from renewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hennico, A.; Chodorge, J.A.; Forestiere, A.

    1995-12-31

    Vegetables oils and products synthesized from natural raw materials (either of vegetable or animal origin) are having a strong {open_quotes}come back{close_quotes} in the recent decades. One of the major reasons for the increased utilization of fatty chemicals for industrial use has been the ability to tailor the products to specific needs. This trends is clearly indicated in Table 1 that gives an estimate of the world fat production in millions tons and in the case of vegetable oils, the yields per unit area (hectare) per year. End uses of upgraded products or derivative compounds are extremely numerous but usually highly specialized. Major areas of applications are: Food industry, soap and detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textile and paper industry, oil field chemicals, fat based emulsifiers, synthetic lubricants, metal working fluids and last but not least introduction into the automotive fuel sector. This last application will be the subject of this presentation.

  4. Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, Patrick

    2012-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to select chemical processing equipment, install and operate that equipment to directly convert algae to biodiesel via a reaction patented by Old Dominion University (Pat. No. US 8,080,679B2). This reaction is a high temperature (250- 330{degrees}C) methylation reaction utilizing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to produce biodiesel. As originally envisioned, algal biomass could be treated with TMAH in methanol without the need to separately extract triacylglycerides (TAG). The reactor temperature allows volatilization and condensation of the methyl esters whereas the spent algae solids can be utilized as a high-value fertilizer because they are minimally charred. During the course of this work and immediately prior to commencing, we discovered that glycerol, a major by-product of the conventional transesterification reaction for biofuels, is not formed but rather three methoxylated glycerol derivatives are produced. These derivatives are high-value specialty green chemicals that strongly upgrade the economics of the process, rendering this approach as one that now values the biofuel only as a by-product, the main value products being the methoxylated glycerols. A horizontal agitated thin-film evaporator (one square foot heat transfer area) proved effective as the primary reactor facilitating the reaction and vaporization of the products, and subsequent discharge of the spent algae solids that are suitable for supplementing petrochemicalbased fertilizers for agriculture. Because of the size chosen for the reactor, we encountered problems with delivery of the algal feed to the reaction zone, but envision that this problem could easily disappear upon scale-up or can be replaced economically by incorporating an extraction process. The objective for production of biodiesel from algae in quantities that could be tested could not be met, but we implemented use of soybean oil as a surrogate TAG feed to overcome this limitation. The positive economics of this process are influenced by the following: 1. the weight percent of dry algae in suspension that can be fed into the evaporator, 2. the alga species’ ability to produce a higher yield of biodiesel, 3. the isolation of valuable methoxylated by-products, 4. recycling and regeneration of methanol and TMAH, and 5. the market value of biodiesel, commercial agricultural fertilizer, and the three methoxylated by-products. The negative economics of the process are the following: 1. the cost of producing dried, ground algae, 2. the capital cost of the equipment required for feedstock mixing, reaction, separation and recovery of products, and reactant recycling, and 3. the electrical cost and other utilities. In this report, the economic factors and results are assembled to predict the commercialization cost and its viability. This direct conversion process and equipment discussed herein can be adapted for various feedstocks including: other algal species, vegetable oil, jatropha oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, and other TAG containing raw materials as a renewable energy resource.

  5. Impaired long-term expansion and self-renewal potential of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells by PTK787/ZK 222584.

    PubMed

    Weidenaar, Alida C; Ter Elst, Arja; Kampen, Kim R; Meeuwsen-de Boer, Tiny; Kamps, Willem A; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; de Bont, Eveline S J M

    2013-04-01

    Although most children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve complete remission, the relapse rate is 30% to 40%. Because it is thought that leukemia-initiating cells (LIC) are responsible for AML relapses, targeting these cells might improve outcome. Treatment of pediatric AML blasts with the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK) induces cell death in vitro. However, the role of PTK/ZK inhibition on outgrowth of (pediatric) LICs is unknown. In this study, we cultured CD34+ cells from pediatric patients with AML on MS5 stromal cells in long-term cocultures. In analogy to adult AML, long-term expansion of leukemic cells up to 10 weeks could be generated in 9 of 13 pediatric AMLs. Addition of PTK/ZK to long-term cocultures significantly inhibited leukemic expansion in all samples, ranging from 4% to 80% growth inhibition at week 5 compared with untreated samples. In 75% of the samples, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced at week 10. Proteome profiler array analysis of downstream kinases revealed that PTK/ZK reduced activation of PI3K/Akt kinase signaling. Although main targets of PTK/ZK are VEGF receptors (VEGFR), no effect was seen on outgrowth of LICs when cultured with bevacizumab (monoclonal VEGFA-antibody), specific antibodies against VEGFR2 or VEGFR3, or exposed to stroma-derived VEGFA. These data suggest that the effect of PTK/ZK on LICs is not only dependent on inhibition of VEGFA/VEGFR signaling. Taken together, our data elucidated antileukemic properties of PTK/ZK in long-term expansion cultures, and suggest that targeting multiple RTKs by PTK/ZK might be a potential effective approach in eradicating (pediatric) LICs. PMID:23393162

  6. An isotopic-independent highly accurate potential energy surface for CO2 isotopologues and an initial (12)C(16)O2 infrared line list.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W; Tashkun, Sergey A; Lee, Timothy J

    2012-03-28

    An isotopic-independent, highly accurate potential energy surface (PES) has been determined for CO(2) by refining a purely ab initio PES with selected, purely experimentally determined rovibrational energy levels. The purely ab initio PES is denoted Ames-0, while the refined PES is denoted Ames-1. Detailed tests are performed to demonstrate the spectroscopic accuracy of the Ames-1 PES. It is shown that Ames-1 yields σ(rms) (root-mean-squares error) = 0.0156 cm(-1) for 6873 J = 0-117 (12)C(16)O(2) experimental energy levels, even though less than 500 (12)C(16)O(2) energy levels were included in the refinement procedure. It is also demonstrated that, without any additional refinement, Ames-1 yields very good agreement for isotopologues. Specifically, for the (12)C(16)O(2) and (13)C(16)O(2) isotopologues, spectroscopic constants G(v) computed from Ames-1 are within ±0.01 and 0.02 cm(-1) of reliable experimentally derived values, while for the (16)O(12)C(18)O, (16)O(12)C(17)O, (16)O(13)C(18)O, (16)O(13)C(17)O, (12)C(18)O(2), (17)O(12)C(18)O, (12)C(17)O(2), (13)C(18)O(2), (13)C(17)O(2), (17)O(13)C(18)O, and (14)C(16)O(2) isotopologues, the differences are between ±0.10 and 0.15 cm(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first time a polyatomic PES has been refined using such high J values, and this has led to new challenges in the refinement procedure. An initial high quality, purely ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS) is constructed and used to generate a 296 K line list. For most bands, experimental IR intensities are well reproduced for (12)C(16)O(2) using Ames-1 and the DMS. For more than 80% of the bands, the experimental intensities are reproduced with σ(rms)(ΔI) < 20% or σ(rms)(ΔI∕δ(obs)) < 5. A few exceptions are analyzed and discussed. Directions for future improvements are discussed, though it is concluded that the current Ames-1 and the DMS should be useful in analyzing and assigning high-resolution laboratory or astronomical spectra. PMID:22462861

  7. Potential Nonresponse Bias in a Clinical Examination After Initial Screening Using Iron Phenotyping and HFE Genotyping in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, James C.; Passmore, Leah; Harrison, Helen; Reboussin, David M.; Harris, Emily L.; Rivers, Charles A.; Fadojutimi-Akinsiku, Margaret; Wenzel, Lari; Diaz, Sharmin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the factors affecting participation in clinical assessments after HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening. Methods: Initial screening of 101,168 primary care patients in the HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening study was performed using serum iron measures and hemochromatosis gene (HFE) genotyping. Using iron phenotypes and HFE genotypes, we identified 2256 cases and 1232 controls eligible to participate in a clinical examination. To assess the potential for nonresponse bias, we compared the sociodemographic, health status, and attitudinal characteristics of participants and nonparticipants using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Overall participation was 74% in cases and 52% in controls; in both groups, participation was highest at a health maintenance organization and lowest among those under 45 years of age (cases: OR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.53, 0.87; controls: OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.44, 0.78). In controls only, participation was also lower among those over 65 years of age than the reference group aged 46–64 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.47, 0.88). Among cases, participation was higher in HFE C282Y homozygotes (OR = 3.98; 95% CI 2.60, 6.09), H63D homozygotes (OR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.23, 6.32), and C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes (OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.03, 3.22) than in other genotypes, and lower among non-Caucasians and those who preferred a non-English language than in Caucasians and those who preferred English (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Subjects with greatest risk to have iron overload (C282Y homozygotes; cases ≥45 years; Caucasians) were more likely to participate in a postscreening clinical examination than other subjects. We detected no evidence of strong selection bias. PMID:19860558

  8. Students Who Drop Out before They Begin: A Study of Potential Community College Students Who Initiate the Registration Process but Fail to Enroll.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a telephone follow-up survey of individuals who initiated the admission process at College of Lake County (Illinois), comparing students who registered with non-registrants. Reports that job-related, financial, and personal reasons were given for not enrolling. Suggests that poor academic preparation may also have been a factor. (DMM)

  9. The Cucumber Genome Initiative-An International Effort to Unlock the Genetic Potential of an Orphan Crop Using Novel Genomic Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable in the world. However, its narrow genetic basis makes it a less desirable species for genetic study and molecular breeding. The Cucumber Genome Initiative (CuGI) was established with aims: 1) to obtain a complete sequence of the genome; 2) to get an in-depth und...

  10. Challenges and potential solutions for recruitment and retention of hematopoietic cell transplantation physicians: the National Marrow Donor Program's System Capacity Initiative Physician Workforce Group report.

    PubMed

    Burns, Linda J; Gajewski, James L; Majhail, Navneet S; Navarro, Willis; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Shereck, Evan; Selby, George B; Snyder, Edward L; Woolfrey, Ann E; Litzow, Mark R

    2014-05-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only known curative therapy for many patients with hematologic, metabolic, and immunologic disorders. Furthermore, the use of HCT has increased with the emergence of HCT as a viable therapeutic option for older patients, those with significant comorbidities, and, with the demonstrated clinical effectiveness of alternative allogeneic donor sources, for those patients without a suitable sibling donor. The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) estimates that by 2020, it will facilitate 10,000 transplantations per year, double the number in 2010. To understand the needs of the HCT infrastructure to facilitate this number of transplantations, the NMDP organized the System Capacity Initiative 2020, centered on 6 working groups representing a diverse group of stakeholders. The Physician Workforce Group was tasked with addressing issues relating to recruitment and retention of transplantation physicians. We report here the results of our efforts and future initiatives. PMID:24508838

  11. A 5'-proximal RNA sequence of murine coronavirus as a potential initiation site for genomic-length mRNA transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Lai, M M

    1996-01-01

    Coronavirus transcription is a discontinuous process, involving interactions between a trans-acting leader and the intergenic transcription initiation sequences. A 9-nucleotide (nt) sequence (UUUAUAAAC), which is located immediately downstream of the leader at the 5' terminus of the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) genomic RNA, contains a sequence resembling the consensus intergenic sequence (UCUAAAC). It has been shown previously that the presence of the 9-nt sequence facilitates leader RNA switching and may enhance subgenomic mRNA transcription. It is unclear how the 9-nt sequence exerts these functions. In this study, we inserted the 9-nt sequence into a defective interfering (DI) RNA reporter system and demonstrated that mRNA transcription could be initiated from the 9-nt sequence almost as efficiently as from the intergenic sequence between genes 6 and 7. Sequence analysis of the mRNAs showed that the 9-nt sequence served as a site of fusion between the leaders and mRNA. The transcription initiation function of the 9-nt sequence could not be substituted by other 5'-terminal sequences. When the entire 5'-terminal sequence, including four copies of the UCUAA sequence plus the 9-nt sequence, was present, transcription could be initiated from any of the UCUAA copies or the 9-nt sequence, resulting in different copy numbers of the UCUAA sequence and the deletion of the 9-nt sequence in some mRNAs. All of these heterogeneous RNA species were also detected from the 5'-terminal region of the viral genomic-length RNA in MHV-infected cells. These results thus suggest tha the heterogeneity of the copy number of UCUAA sequences at the 5' end, the deletion of the 9-nt sequence in viral and DI RNAs, and the leader RNA switching are the results of transcriptional initiation from the 9-nt site. They also show that an mRNA species (mRNA 1) that lacks the 9-nt sequence can be synthesized during MHV infection. Therefore, MHV genomic RNA replication and mRNA 1 transcription may be

  12. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  13. Research Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides detailed information about currently funded RFA initiatives both led by DCCPS, and those led by other NIH Institutes and Centers (I/Cs) that include DCCPS as a partner. Each initiative includes a table of funded grants and a map that shows the location of funded institutions.

  14. A review of candidate multilayer insulation systems for potential use on wet-launched LH2 tankage for the space exploration initiative lunar missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Richard H.; Stochl, Robert J.; Sanabria, Rafael

    1991-01-01

    The storage of cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) for the future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will require lightweight, high performance thermal protection systems (TPS's). For the near-term lunar missions, the major weight element for most of the TPS's will be multilayer insulation (MLI) and/or the special structures/systems required to accommodate the MLI. Methods of applying MLI to LH2 tankage to avoid condensation or freezing of condensible gases such as nitrogen or oxygen while in the atmosphere are discussed. Because relatively thick layers of MLI will be required for storage times of a month or more, the transient performance from ground-hold to space-hold of the systems will become important in optimizing the TPS's for many of the missions. The ground-hold performance of several candidate systems are given as well as a qualitative assessment of the transient performance effects.

  15. Using 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 in flow through biofilters--initial adhesion and BAM degradation potentials.

    PubMed

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Micropollutants in groundwater are given significant attention by water companies and authorities due to an increasing awareness that they might be present even above the legal threshold values. As part of our investigations of the possibility to remove the common groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) by introducing the efficient BAM degrader Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into biologically active sand filters, we investigated if the strain adheres to filters containing various filter materials and if the initial adherence and subsequent degradation of BAM could be optimized. We found that most of the inoculated MSH1 cells adhered fast and that parameters like pH and ionic strength had only a minor influence on the adhesion despite huge influence on cell surface hydrophobicity. At the given growth protocol, the MSH1 strain apparently developed a subpopulation that had lost its ability to adhere to the filter materials, which was supported by attempted reinoculation of non-adhered cells. Analysis by quantitative PCR showed that most cells adhered in the top of the filters and that some of these were lost from the filters during initial operation, while insignificant losses occurred after 1 day of operation. The inoculated filters were found to degrade 2.7 μg/L BAM to below 0.1 μg/L at a 1.1-h residence time with insignificant formation of known degradation products. In conclusion, most filter materials and water types should be feasible for inoculation with the MSH1 strain, while more research into degradation at low concentrations and temperatures is needed before this technology is ready for use at actual waterworks. PMID:23670436

  16. Effects of lightning and sprites on the ionospheric potential, and threshold effects on sprite initiation, obtained using an analog model of the global atmospheric electric circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rycroft, M. J.; Odzimek, A.

    2010-06-01

    A quantitative model of the global atmospheric electric circuit has been constructed using the PSpice electrical engineering software package. Currents (˜1 kA) above thunderstorms and electrified rain/shower clouds raise the potential of the ionosphere (presumed to be an equipotential surface at 80 km altitude) to ˜250 kV with respect to the Earth's surface. The circuit is completed by currents flowing down through the fair-weather atmosphere in the land/sea surface and up to the cloud systems. Using a model for the atmospheric conductivity profile, the effects of both negative and positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharges on the ionospheric potential have been estimated. A large positive CG discharge creates an electric field that exceeds the breakdown field from the ionosphere down to ˜74 km, thereby forming a halo, a column sprite, and some milliseconds later, from ˜67 km down to ˜55 km at ˜60 ms after the discharge, a “carrot” sprite. Estimates are made of the return stroke current and the thundercloud charge moment change of a +CG discharge required to exceed the threshold breakdown field, or the threshold field for creating and sustaining negative or positive streamers. The values for breakdown at 80 km altitude are 35 kA and 350 C.km, (Coulomb.kilometers), respectively, and those at 70 km altitude are 45 kA and 360 C.km, respectively. The different temporal and spatial developments of the mesospheric electric field distinguishing between column and carrot sprites agree with the latest deductions from recent observations. The current flowing in the highly conducting sprite reduces the ionospheric potential by ˜1 V.

  17. Effects of lightning and sprites on the ionospheric potential, and threshold effects on sprite initiation, obtained using an analog model of the global atmospheric electric circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rycroft, M. J.; Odzimek, A.

    2010-06-01

    A quantitative model of the global atmospheric electric circuit has been constructed using the PSpice electrical engineering software package. Currents (˜1 kA) above thunderstorms and electrified rain/shower clouds raise the potential of the ionosphere (presumed to be an equipotential surface at 80 km altitude) to ˜250 kV with respect to the Earth's surface. The circuit is completed by currents flowing down through the fair-weather atmosphere in the land/sea surface and up to the cloud systems. Using a model for the atmospheric conductivity profile, the effects of both negative and positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharges on the ionospheric potential have been estimated. A large positive CG discharge creates an electric field that exceeds the breakdown field from the ionosphere down to ˜74 km, thereby forming a halo, a column sprite, and some milliseconds later, from ˜67 km down to ˜55 km at ˜60 ms after the discharge, a "carrot" sprite. Estimates are made of the return stroke current and the thundercloud charge moment change of a +CG discharge required to exceed the threshold breakdown field, or the threshold field for creating and sustaining negative or positive streamers. The values for breakdown at 80 km altitude are 35 kA and 350 C.km, (Coulomb.kilometers), respectively, and those at 70 km altitude are 45 kA and 360 C.km, respectively. The different temporal and spatial developments of the mesospheric electric field distinguishing between column and carrot sprites agree with the latest deductions from recent observations. The current flowing in the highly conducting sprite reduces the ionospheric potential by ˜1 V.

  18. The effects of lightning and sprites on the ionospheric potential, and threshold effects on sprite initiation, obtained using a PSpice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rycroft, Michael J.; Odzimek, Anna

    2010-05-01

    A quantitative model of the global atmospheric electric circuit has been constructed using the PSpice electrical engineering software package. Currents (~ 1 kA) above thunderstorms and electrified rain/shower clouds raise the potential of the ionosphere, which is presumed to be an equipotential surface at 80 km altitude, to ~ 250 kV with respect to the Earth's surface. The circuit is completed by currents flowing down through the fair weather atmosphere, in the land/sea surface and up to the cloud systems. Using a model for the atmospheric conductivity profile (Rycroft et al., JASTP, 2007), the effects of both negative and positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharges ion the ionospheric potential have been estimated. A large positive CG discharge creates an electric field which exceeds the breakdown field from the ionosphere down to ~ 74 km, so forming a halo and a column sprite, and, some ms later, from ~ 67 km down to ~ 55 km at ~ 60 ms after the discharge, thereby forming a "carrot" sprite. Estimates are made of the return stroke current and the thundercloud charge moment change (CMC) for a +CG discharge required to exceed the threshold breakdown field, or the threshold field for creating and sustaining negative or positive streamers. The values for breakdown at 80 km altitude are 35 kA and 350 C.km, respectively, and 45 kA and 360 C.km at 70 km altitude. The different temporal and spatial developments of the mesospheric electric field distinguishing between column and carrot sprites agree with the latest deductions from from recent observations. A current flowing in the highly conducting sprite reduces the ionospheric potential by ~ 1 V.

  19. TSH-CHECK-1 Test: Diagnostic Accuracy and Potential Application to Initiating Treatment for Hypothyroidism in Patients on Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kosack, Cara S.; Page, Anne-Laure; Van Hulsteijn, Leonie T.; Lentjes, Eef G. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) promotes expression of thyroid hormones which are essential for metabolism, growth, and development. Second-line drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) can cause hypothyroidism by suppressing thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, TSH levels are routinely measured in TB patients receiving second-line drugs, and thyroxin treatment is initiated where indicated. However, standard TSH tests are technically demanding for many low-resource settings where TB is prevalent; a simple and inexpensive test is urgently needed. Methods As a proof of concept study TSH was measured in routinely collected sera at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands, using the TSH-CHECK-1 (VEDALAB, Alençon, France), a lateral-flow rapid immunochromatographic assay with a TSH cut-off value of 10 µIU/mL, the standard threshold for initiating treatment. These results were compared with TSH levels measured by a reference standard (UniCel DXi 800 imunoassay system, Beckman Coulter, USA). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were then calculated. Results A total of 215 serum samples were evaluated: 107 with TSH values <10 µIU/mL and 108 with values ≥10 µIU/mL. TSH-CHECK-1 test sensitivity was found to be 100.0% (95% CI: 96.6–100.0) and specificity was 76.6% (95% CI: 67.5–84.3). Predictive values (PV) were modelled for different levels of prevalence. For a prevalence of 10% and 50%, the positive PV was 32.2% (95% CI: 25.0–39.7%) and 81.1% (95% CI: 75.0–85.5%), respectively; the negative PV was 100% (95% CI: 98.9–100%) and 100% (95% CI: 91.3–100%) respectively. Discussion/Conclusions The TSH-CHECK-1 rapid test was practical and simple to perform but difficult to interpret on weak positive results. All sera with TSH≥10 µIU/mL were correctly identified, but the test lacked sufficient specificity. Given its excellent negative PV in this evaluation, the test shows promise for ruling out hypothyroidism. However, so far it

  20. Distinct Roles of PKCι/λ and PKMζ in the Initiation and Maintenance of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation and Memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoli; Sheng, Tao; Ren, Siqiang; Tian, Tian; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-16

    PKMζ has been proposed to be essential for maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory (LTM). However, recent data from PKMζ-knockout mice has called this role into question. Instead, the other atypical isoform, protein kinase C iota/lambda (PKCι/λ), has emerged as a potential alternative player. Therefore, the nature of the "memory molecule" maintaining learned information remains uncertain. Here, we report knockdown (KD) of PKCι/λ and PKMζ in the dorsal hippocampus and find deficits in early expression and late maintenance, respectively, during both LTP and hippocampus-dependent LTM. Sequential increases in the active form of PKCι/λ and PKMζ are detected during LTP or fear conditioning. Importantly, PKMζ, but not PKCι/λ, KD disrupts previously established LTM. Thus, PKCι/λ and PKMζ have distinct functions in LTP and memory, with PKMζ playing a specific role in memory maintenance. This relaying pattern may represent a precise molecular mechanism by which atypical PKCs regulate the different stages of memory. PMID:27498875

  1. Potential change in flaw geometry of an initially shallow finite-length surface flaw during a pressurized-thermal-shock transient

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, D.K.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1993-09-01

    This study presents preliminary estimates on whether an shallow, axially oriented, inner-surface finite-length flaw in a PWR-RPV would tend to elongate in the axial direction and/or deepen into the wall of the vessel during a postulated PTS transient. Analysis results obtained based on the assumptions of (1) linear-elastic material response, and (2) cladding with same toughness as the base metal, indicate that a nearly semicircular flaw would likely propagate in the axial direction followed by propagation into the wall of the vessel. Note that these results correspond to initiation within the lower-shelf fracture toughness temperature range, and that their general validity within the lower-transition temperature range remains to be determined. The sensitivity of the numerical results aid conclusions to the following analysis assumptions are evaluated: (1) reference flaw geometry along the entire crack front and especially within the cladding region; (2) linear-elastic vs elastic-plastic description of material response; and (3) base-material-only vs bimaterial cladding-base vessel-model assumption. The sensitivity evaluation indicates that the analysis results are very sensitive to the above assumptions.

  2. The Collective Impact Model and Its Potential for Health Promotion: Overview and Case Study of a Healthy Retail Initiative in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Flood, Johnna; Minkler, Meredith; Hennessey Lavery, Susana; Estrada, Jessica; Falbe, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    As resources for health promotion become more constricted, it is increasingly important to collaborate across sectors, including the private sector. Although many excellent models for cross-sector collaboration have shown promise in the health field, collective impact (CI), an emerging model for creating larger scale change, has yet to receive much study. Complementing earlier collaboration approaches, CI has five core tenets: a shared agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, continuous communication, and a central infrastructure. In this article, we describe the CI model and its key dimensions and constructs. We briefly compare CI to community coalition action theory and discuss our use of the latter to provide needed detail as we apply CI in a critical case study analysis of the Tenderloin Healthy Corner Store Coalition in San Francisco, California. Using Yin's multimethod approach, we illustrate how CI strategies, augmented by the community coalition action theory, are being used, and with what successes or challenges, to help affect community- and policy-level change to reduce tobacco and alcohol advertising and sales, while improving healthy, affordable, and sustainable food access. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of CI as a framework for health promotion, as well as the benefits, challenges, and initial outcomes of the healthy retail project and its opportunities for scale-up. Implications for health promotion practice and research also are discussed. PMID:25810470

  3. Assessing potentially time-dependent treatment effect from clinical trials and observational studies for survival data, with applications to the Women's Health Initiative combined hormone therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song; Prentice, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    For risk and benefit assessment in clinical trials and observational studies with time-to-event data, the Cox model has usually been the model of choice. When the hazards are possibly non-proportional, a piece-wise Cox model over a partition of the time axis may be considered. Here we propose to analyze clinical trials or observational studies with time-to-event data using a certain semiparametric model. The model allows for a time-dependent treatment effect. It includes the important proportional hazards model as a sub-model, and can accommodate various patterns of time-dependence of the hazard ratio. After estimation of the model parameters using a pseudo-likelihood approach, simultaneous confidence intervals for the hazard ratio function are established using a Monte Carlo method to assess the time-varying pattern of the treatment effect. To assess the overall treatment effect, estimated average hazard ratio and its confidence intervals are also obtained. The proposed methods are applied to data from the Women's Health Initiative. To compare the WHI clinical trial and observational study, we use the propensity score in building the regression model. Compared to the piece-wise Cox model, the proposed model yields a better model fit and does not require partitioning of the time axis. PMID:25689356

  4. Progress in Initiator Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2009-05-04

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in the bridge of an initiator, be it an exploding bridgewire (EBW), exploding bridgefoil (EBF) or slapper type initiator. The initiation of the HE is simulated using Tarver Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  5. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Is a Novel Source of Reactive Oxygen Species—A Potential Redox Signal to Initiate Resistance to Oxidative Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Roze, Ludmila V.; Laivenieks, Maris; Hong, Sung-Yong; Wee, Josephine; Wong, Shu-Shyan; Vanos, Benjamin; Awad, Deena; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Linz, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus parasiticus involves a minimum of 21 enzymes, encoded by genes located in a 70 kb gene cluster. For aflatoxin biosynthesis to be completed, the required enzymes must be transported to specialized early and late endosomes called aflatoxisomes. Of particular significance, seven aflatoxin biosynthetic enzymes are P450/monooxygenases which catalyze reactions that can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts. Thus, oxidative reactions in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway could potentially be an additional source of intracellular ROS. The present work explores the hypothesis that the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway generates ROS (designated as “secondary” ROS) in endosomes and that secondary ROS possess a signaling function. We used specific dyes that stain ROS in live cells and demonstrated that intracellular ROS levels correlate with the levels of aflatoxin synthesized. Moreover, feeding protoplasts with precursors of aflatoxin resulted in the increase in ROS generation. These data support the hypothesis. Our findings also suggest that secondary ROS may fulfill, at least in part, an important mechanistic role in increased tolerance to oxidative stress in germinating spores (seven-hour germlings) and in regulation of fungal development. PMID:25928133

  6. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2013-03-15

    fermented to create ethanol. In the United States almost all starch ethanol is mainly manufactured from corn grains. The technology for manufacturing corn ethanol can be considered mature as of the late 1980s. In 2005, 14.3 % of the U.S. corn harvest was processed to produce 1.48 x10{sup 10} liters of ethanol, energetically equivalent to 1.72 % of U.S. gasoline usage. Soybean oil is extracted from 1.5 % of the U.S. soybean harvest to produce 2.56 x 10{sup 8} liters of bio-diesel, which was 0.09 % of U.S. diesel usage. However, reaching maximum rates of bio-fuel supply from corn and soybeans is unlikely because these crops are presently major contributors to human food supplies through livestock feed and direct consumption. Moreover, there currently arguments on that the conversion of many types of many natural landscapes to grow corn for feedstock is likely to create substantial carbon emissions that will exacerbate globe warming. On the other hand, there is a large underutilized resource of cellulose biomass from trees, grasses, and nonedible parts of crops that could serve as a feedstock. One of the potentially significant new bio-fuels is so called "cellulosic ethanol", which is dependent on break-down by microbes or enzymes. Because of technological limitations (the wider variety of molecular structures in cellulose and hemicellulose requires a wider variety of microorganisms to break them down) and other cost hurdles (such as lower kinetics), cellulosic ethanol can currently remain in lab scales. Considering farm yields, commodity and fuel prices, farm energy and agrichemical inputs, production plant efficiencies, byproduct production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental effects, a life-cycle evaluation of competitive indicated that corn ethanol yields 25 % more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas soybean bio-diesel yields 93 % more. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12 % by the

  7. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-01-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g−1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g−1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g−1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights. PMID:26964638

  8. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-03-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g‑1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g‑1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g‑1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights.

  9. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-01-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5-11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm(3) g(-1) (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g(-1)) and P7 (1388.8 mg g(-1)) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights. PMID:26964638

  10. Initial results from dissolution rate testing of N-Reactor spent fuel over a range of potential geologic repository aqueous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Einziger, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Hanford N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (HSNF) may ultimately be placed in a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To determine whether the engineered barrier system that will be designed for emplacement of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel will also suffice for HSNF, aqueous dissolution rate measurements were conducted on the HSNF. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether HSNF dissolves faster or slower than LWR spent fuel under some limited repository-relevant water chemistry conditions. The tests were conducted using a flowthrough method that allows the dissolution rate of the uranium matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would confuse interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with LWR spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons. Two distinct corrosion modes were observed during the course of these 12 tests. The first, Stage 1, involved no visible corrosion of the test specimen and produced no undissolved corrosion products. The second, Stage 2, resulted in both visible corrosion of the test specimen and left behind undissolved corrosion products. During Stage 1, the rate of dissolution could be readily determined because the dissolved uranium and associated fission products remained in solution where they could be quantitatively analyzed. The measured rates were much faster than has been observed for LWR spent fuel under all conditions tested to date when normalized to the exposed test specimen surface areas. Application of these results to repository conditions, however, requires some comparison of the physical conditions of the different fuels. The surface area of LWR fuel that could potentially be exposed to repository groundwater is estimated to be approximately 100 times greater than HSNF. Therefore, when compared on the basis of mass, which is more relevant to repository conditions, the HSNF and LWR spent fuel dissolve at similar rates.

  11. Metformin as an initial adjunct to low-dose liraglutide enhances the weight-decreasing potential of liraglutide in obese polycystic ovary syndrome: Randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    JENSTERLE, MOJCA; GORICAR, KATJA; JANEZ, ANDREJ

    2016-01-01

    Liraglutide (LIRA) treatment is associated with the dose-dependent reduction of weight. Higher doses are more effective than lower doses, although higher doses are also more poorly tolerated. Metformin may enhance the weight-lowering potential of LIRA via the stimulatory modulation of incretin in addition to its direct beneficial effects in PCOS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether metformin as an adjunct to low-dose LIRA affects body weight with increased efficacy compared with low-dose LIRA alone in obese patients with PCOS. In a 12-week study, 44 obese women with PCOS were randomly offered either combined treatment (COMBO) with 1,000 mg metformin twice a day and 1.2 mg LIRA once a day, or treatment with 1.2 mg LIRA alone. The primary outcome of treatment was an alteration in the levels of obesity. A total of 43 patients [aged 30.3±4.4 years; body mass index (BMI) 37.2±4.5 kg/m2; mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The subjects treated with COMBO lost on average 6.2±2.4 kg compared with a 3.8±3.5 kg weight loss in the patients treated with LIRA alone (P=0.024). The BMI decreased by 2.2±0.8 kg/m2 in patients treated with COMBO and by 1.4±1.2 kg/m2 in patients treated with LIRA alone (P=0.024). A clinically significant ≥5% weight reduction was achieved in 59.1% of patients treated with COMBO and 42.9% of patients treated with LIRA alone. Reductions in glucose levels following oral glucose tolerance testing, as well as in androstenedione levels in the COMBO group were significantly greater compared with those in the LIRA group. The side effects were mild and transient in the two treatment groups. A combination of metformin and low-dose LIRA was more effective than low-dose LIRA alone in reducing body weight in obese patients with PCOS. PMID:27073422

  12. Study of the OH and Cl-initiated oxidation, IR absorption cross-section, radiative forcing, and global warming potential of four C4-hydrofluoroethers.

    PubMed

    Oyaro, Nathan; Sellevåg, Stig R; Nielsen, Claus J

    2004-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross-sections and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for four C4-hydrofluoroethers (CF3)2CHOCH3, CF3CH2OCH2CF3, CF3CF2CH2OCH3, and CHF2CF2CH2OCH3 are reported. Relative rate measurements at 298 K and 1013 hPa of OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients give k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.27+/-0.13) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (1.51+/-0.24) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (6.42+/-0.33) x 10(-13), k(OH+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (8.7 +/-0.5) x 10(-13), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (8.4+/-1.3) x 10(-12), k(Cl+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (6.5+/-1.7) x 10(-13), k(Cl+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (4.0+/-0.8) x 10(-11), and k(Cl+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (2.65+/-0.17) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The primary products of the OH and Cl reactions with the fluorinated ethers have been identified as esters, and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for one of these, CF3CH2OCHO, are reported: k(OH+CF3CH2OCHO) = (7.7+/-0.9) x 10(-14) and kCl+CF3CH2OCHO) = (6.3+/-1.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) The rate coefficient for the Cl-atom reaction with CHF2CH2F is derived as k(Cl+CHF2CH2F) = (3.0+/-0.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K. The error limits include 3sigma from the statistical data analyses as well as the errors in the rate coefficients of the reference compounds employed. The tropospheric lifetimes of the hydrofluoroethers are estimated to be short tauOH((CF3)2CHOCH3) approximately 100 days, tauOH(CF3CH2OCH2CF3) approximately 80 days, tauOH(CF3CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 20 days, and tauOH(CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 14 days, and their global warming potentials are small compared to CFC-11. PMID:15575273

  13. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  14. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  15. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children. PMID:27087180

  16. Notch-1 signaling promotes the cyclinD1-dependent generation of mammary tumor-initiating cells which can revert to bi-potential progenitors from which they arise

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hua; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work, we reported that young transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the intracellular domain of Notch1 (N1IC) showed expansion of lin− CD24+ CD29high mammary cells enriched for stem cells and later developed mammary tumors. Mammary tumor formation was abolished or greatly reduced in cyclin D1−/− or cyclin D1+/− N1IC Tg mice, respectively. Here, we studied the epithelial cell subsets present in N1IC-induced tumors. CD24− CD29int and CD24+ CD29high cells were found to be present at low numbers in tumors. The latter had the same properties as those expanded in young Tg females, and neither cell population showed tumor-initiating potential, nor were they required for maintenance of tumors after transplantation. CD24int CD29int cells were identified as tumor-initiating and mammosphere-forming cells and represent a large percentage tumor cells in this model. Their number was significantly lower in tumors from cyclin D1+/− N1IC Tg mice. Using cyclin D1 shRNA knockdown, we also show that N1IC-induced tumor cells remain addicted to cyclin D1 for growth and survival. Interestingly, at lower levels of cyclin D1 or after transplantion in the presence of normal mammary cells, these N1IC-expressing tumor cells reverted to a state of low malignancy and differentiate into duct-like structures. They seem to adopt the fate of bi-potential stem/progenitor cells similar to that of the expanded CD24+ CD29high stem/progenitor cells from which they are likely to be derived. Our data indicate that decreasing cyclin D1 levels would be an efficient treatment for tumors induced by N1 signaling. PMID:22907433

  17. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  18. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  19. Semivolatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating on diesel and bio-diesel fuel blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  20. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  1. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    SciTech Connect

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  2. Potential and Challenges of Low-Cost and High-Tech Crowd-sensing Approaches in Hydrometeorology for Better Water Resources Management - Insights and Learnings from the Global iMoMo Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In developing and transition countries and despite significant global investments in hydrometeorology, data on water remain scarce/fragmented. One key reason is that traditional sensing in hydrology, hydro- and agro-meteorology does not scale because of high investment costs and difficult maintenance of traditional technology, esp. in remote and/or poor regions. Even where there are data, these are often difficult to access and interpret for local stakeholders due outdated data transmission and the lack of access to modern tools for data management/analysis/synthesis and exchange. In recent years, there have been substantial technology developments in environmental sensing and mobile communication technology that enable the application and deployment of affordable and scalable high-tech solutions for better water monitoring at different scales (local to transboundary levels). The WMO is acknowledging and promoting the potential for application of these technologies. One key aspect is to anchor these technologies in local communities that perform crowd-sensing tasks on a regular basis. The merits as well as challenges (including introduction of human factor, less accuracy as compared to traditional sensing, intermittency of data, …) of such approaches will be discussed in the context of the WMO-led Global iMoMo Initiative and its numerous activities on the ground in Eastern and Southern Africa as well as in Central Asia.

  3. ‘Can he have the test for bipolar, doctor? His dad's got it’: exploring the potential of general practitioners to work with children and young people presenting in primary care with common mental health problems – a clinical initiative

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in assessing and managing adult mental health problems, but this input is not seen in their management of child and adolescent mental health. Mental health problems in 5–19-year-olds are common, yet detection rates in primary care are low. The symptoms of most adult diagnoses of mental health problems are present by mid-adolescence, yet the typical time from onset to diagnosis is 5–15 years. The role of general practice in this area has been underexplored. Aim This pilot study explores the potential of GPs to respond to common mental health problems in children and adolescents. Design Children and young people who would have ordinarily been referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) were seen in a GP setting. In a UK general practice surgery serving a disadvantaged population. Method Children and young people were seen for an initial biopsychosocial assessment and formulation of the presenting concerns. GP-based interventions were offered as appropriate or referred to CAMHS. Results Data from the first 50 children (2–19 years) are presented. Twenty younger children (10 years and under) and 30 older children (11 years and above) were seen. Eighteen referrals were made to CAMHS. GP interventions included watchful waiting, brief behavioural interventions, non-directive counselling, brief cognitive– behavioural therapy (CBT) and liaison with colleagues in education, CAMHS and the voluntary sector. Conclusion This clinical pilot demonstrates that with adequate time, access to supervision and practice support, children and young people experiencing emotional and behavioural problems associated with common mental health issues can be helped in primary care. PMID:23730336

  4. 'Can he have the test for bipolar, doctor? His dad's got it': exploring the potential of general practitioners to work with children and young people presenting in primary care with common mental health problems - a clinical initiative.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jane H; Bernard, Paul M

    2012-06-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in assessing and managing adult mental health problems, but this input is not seen in their management of child and adolescent mental health. Mental health problems in 5-19-year-olds are common, yet detection rates in primary care are low. The symptoms of most adult diagnoses of mental health problems are present by mid-adolescence, yet the typical time from onset to diagnosis is 5-15 years. The role of general practice in this area has been underexplored. Aim This pilot study explores the potential of GPs to respond to common mental health problems in children and adolescents. Design Children and young people who would have ordinarily been referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) were seen in a GP setting. In a UK general practice surgery serving a disadvantaged population. Method Children and young people were seen for an initial biopsychosocial assessment and formulation of the presenting concerns. GP-based interventions were offered as appropriate or referred to CAMHS. Results Data from the first 50 children (2-19 years) are presented. Twenty younger children (10 years and under) and 30 older children (11 years and above) were seen. Eighteen referrals were made to CAMHS. GP interventions included watchful waiting, brief behavioural interventions, non-directive counselling, brief cognitive- behavioural therapy (CBT) and liaison with colleagues in education, CAMHS and the voluntary sector. Conclusion This clinical pilot demonstrates that with adequate time, access to supervision and practice support, children and young people experiencing emotional and behavioural problems associated with common mental health issues can be helped in primary care. PMID:23730336

  5. Consequences of germline variation disrupting the constitutional translational initiation codon start sites of MLH1 and BRCA2: use of potential alternative start sites and implications for predicting variant pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michael T.; Whiley, Phillip J.; Beesley, Jonathan; Drost, Mark; de Wind, Niels; Thompson, Bryony A.; Marquart, Louise; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Brown, Melissa A.; Tucker, Kathy; Warwick, Linda; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Variants that disrupt the translation initiation sequences in cancer predisposition genes are generally assumed to be deleterious. However few studies have validated these assumptions with functional and clinical data. Two cancer syndrome gene variants likely to affect native translation initiation were identified by clinical genetic testing: MLH1:c.1A>G p.(Met1?) and BRCA2:c.67+3A>G. In vitro GFP-reporter assays were conducted to assess the consequences of translation initiation disruption on alternative downstream initiation codon usage. Analysis of MLH1:c.1A>G p.(Met1?) showed that translation was mostly initiated at an in-frame position 103 nucleotides downstream, but also at two ATG sequences downstream. The protein product encoded by the in-frame transcript initiating from position c.103 showed loss of in vitro mismatch repair activity comparable to known pathogenic mutations. BRCA2:c.67+3A>G was shown by mRNA analysis to result in an aberrantly spliced transcript deleting exon 2 and the consensus ATG site. In the absence of exon 2, translation initiated mostly at an out-of-frame ATG 323 nucleotides downstream, and to a lesser extent at an in-frame ATG 370 nucleotides downstream. Initiation from any of the downstream alternative sites tested in both genes would lead to loss of protein function, but further clinical data is required to confirm if these variants are associated with a high cancer risk. Importantly, our results highlight the need for caution in interpreting the functional and clinical consequences of variation that leads to disruption of the initiation codon, since translation may not necessarily occur from the first downstream alternative start site, or from a single alternative start site. PMID:24302565

  6. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  7. The Plus 50 Initiative Evaluation: Initiative Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), with funding from The Atlantic Philanthropies, created the Plus 50 Initiative (2008-2012). This initiative was designed to build the capacity of community colleges nationwide to develop programming that engages the plus 50 learner. This report contains: (1) An overview of the Plus 50…

  8. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has a consistent need for radioisotope power systems (RPS) to enable robotic scientific missions for planetary exploration that has been present for over four decades and will continue into the foreseeable future, as documented in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Study Report. As RPS have evolved throughout the years, there has also grown a desire for more efficient power systems, allowing NASA to serve as good stewards of the limited plutonium-238 (238Pu), while also supporting the ever-present need to minimize mass and potential impacts to the desired science measurements. In fact, the recent Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) released in April 2015 resulted in several key conclusion regarding RPS, including affirmation that RPS will be necessary well into the 2030s (at least) and that 238Pu is indeed a precious resource requiring efficient utilization and preservation. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) combine a Stirling cycle engine powered by a radioisotope heater unit into a single generator system. Stirling engine technology has been under development at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE) since the 1970's. The most recent design, the 238Pu-fueled Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was offered as part of the NASA Discovery 2010 Announcement of Opportunity (AO). The Step-2 selections for this AO included two ASRG-enabled concepts, the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) and the Comet Hopper (CHopper), although the only non-nuclear concept, InSight, was ultimately chosen. The DOE's ASRG contract was terminated in 2013. Given that SRGs utilize significantly less 238Pu than traditional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) - approximately one quarter of the nuclear fuel, to produce similar electrical power output - they provide a technology worthy of consideration for meeting the aforementioned NASA objectives. NASA's RPS Program Office has recently investigated a new Stirling to

  9. Heat fluctuations and initial ensembles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

    2014-09-01

    Time-integrated quantities such as work and heat increase incessantly in time during nonequilibrium processes near steady states. In the long-time limit, the average values of work and heat become asymptotically equivalent to each other, since they only differ by a finite energy change in average. However, the fluctuation theorem (FT) for the heat is found not to hold with the equilibrium initial ensemble, while the FT for the work holds. This reveals an intriguing effect of everlasting initial memory stored in rare events. We revisit the problem of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential dragged with a constant velocity, which is in contact with a thermal reservoir. The heat and work fluctuations are investigated with initial Boltzmann ensembles at temperatures generally different from the reservoir temperature. We find that, in the infinite-time limit, the FT for the work is fully recovered for arbitrary initial temperatures, while the heat fluctuations significantly deviate from the FT characteristics except for the infinite initial-temperature limit (a uniform initial ensemble). Furthermore, we succeed in calculating finite-time corrections to the heat and work distributions analytically, using the modified saddle point integral method recently developed by us. Interestingly, we find noncommutativity between the infinite-time limit and the infinite-initial-temperature limit for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the heat. PMID:25314405

  10. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  11. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  12. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  13. Initial Cladding Condition

    SciTech Connect

    E. Siegmann

    2000-08-22

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis will be used in

  14. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  16. Initial Events in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Emily F.; Record, M. Thomas; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation is a highly regulated step of gene expression. Here, we discuss the series of large conformational changes set in motion by initial specific binding of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoter DNA and their relevance for regulation. Bending and wrapping of the upstream duplex facilitates bending of the downstream duplex into the active site cleft, nucleating opening of 13 bp in the cleft. The rate-determining opening step, driven by binding free energy, forms an unstable open complex, probably with the template strand in the active site. At some promoters, this initial open complex is greatly stabilized by rearrangements of the discriminator region between the −10 element and +1 base of the nontemplate strand and of mobile in-cleft and downstream elements of RNAP. The rate of open complex formation is regulated by effects on the rapidly-reversible steps preceding DNA opening, while open complex lifetime is regulated by effects on the stabilization of the initial open complex. Intrinsic DNA opening-closing appears less regulated. This noncovalent mechanism and its regulation exhibit many analogies to mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. PMID:26023916

  17. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  18. Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

    2011-04-01

    Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

  19. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  20. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  1. Potential role of fluctuations in the composition of renal tubular fluid through the nephron in the initiation of Randall's plugs and calcium oxalate crystalluria in a computer model of renal function.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W G

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an updated computer model which attempts to simulate known renal reabsorption and secretion activity through the nephron (NEPHROSIM) and its possible relevance to the initiation of calcium-containing renal stones. The model shows that, under certain conditions of plasma composition, de novo nucleation of both calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP) can take place at the end of the descending limb of the Loop of Henle (DLH), particularly in untreated, recurrent idiopathic CaOx stone-formers (RSF). The model incorporates a number of hydrodynamic factors that may influence the subsequent growth of crystals nucleated at the end of the DLH as they progress down the renal tubules. These include the fact that (a) crystals of either CaOx or CaP nucleated at the end of the DLH and travelling close to the walls of the tubule travel at slower velocities than the fluid flowing at the central axis of the tubule, (b) the transit of CaOx crystals travelling close to the tubule walls may be delayed for up to at least 25 min, during which time the crystals may continue to grow if the relative supersaturation with respect to CaOx (RSS CaOx) is high enough and (c) such CaOx crystals may stop moving or even fall back in upward-draining collecting ducts (CD) owing to the Stokes gravitational effect. The model predicts, firstly, that for small, transient increases in plasma oxalate concentration, crystallisation only takes place in the CD and leads to the formation of small crystals which are comfortably passed in the urine and, secondly, that for slightly greater increases in the filtered load of oxalate, spontaneous and/or heterogeneous nucleation of CaOx may occur both at the end of the DLH and in the CD. This latter situation leads to the passage in the final urine of a mixture of large crystals of CaOx (arising from nucleation at the end of the DLH) and small crystals of CaOx (as a result of nucleation originating in the CD). As a result of the

  2. Atmospheric Degradation Initiated by OH Radicals of the Potential Foam Expansion Agent, CF3(CF2)2CH═CH2 (HFC-1447fz): Kinetics and Formation of Gaseous Products and Secondary Organic Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Elena; González, Sergio; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Chen, Hui; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Daële, Véronique; Albaladejo, José; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the atmospheric impact of the potential foam expansion agent, CF3(CF2)2CH═CH2 (HFC-1447fz), requires the knowledge of its degradation routes, oxidation products, and radiative properties. In this paper, the gas-phase reactivity of HFC-1447fz with OH radicals is presented as a function of temperature, obtaining kOH (T = 263-358 K) = (7.4 ± 0.4) × 10(-13)exp{(161 ± 16)/T} (cm(3)·molecule(-1)·s(-1)) (uncertainties: ±2σ). The formation of gaseous oxidation products and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) from the OH + HFC-1447fz reaction was investigated in the presence of NOx at 298 K. CF3(CF2)2CHO was observed at low- and high-NOx conditions. Evidence of SOA formation (ultrafine particles in the range 10-100 nm) is reported with yields ranging from 0.12 to 1.79%. In addition, the absolute UV (190-368 nm) and IR (500-4000 cm(-1)) absorption cross-sections of HFC-1447fz were determined at room temperature. No appreciable absorption in the solar actinic region (λ > 290 nm) was observed, leaving the removal by OH radicals as the main atmospheric loss process for HFC-1447fz. The major contribution of the atmospheric loss of HFC-1447fz is due to OH reaction (84%), followed by ozone (10%) and chlorine atoms (6%). Correction of the instantaneous radiative efficiency (0.36 W m(-2)·ppbv(-1)) with the relatively short lifetime of HFC-1447fz (ca. 8 days) implies that its global warming potential at a time horizon of 100 year is negligible (0.19) compared to that of HCFC-141b (782) and to that of modern foam-expansion blowing agents (148, 882, and 804 for HFC-152a, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc, respectively). PMID:26704369

  3. The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Barr, Robert M; McGinty, Geraldine; Nicola, Gregory N; Silva, Ezequiel; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act enters its fifth year firmly entrenched in our national consciousness. One method that has entered the vernacular for achieving cost savings is accountable care. There are other approaches that are less well known. The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative has the potential to significantly impact neurointerventionalists. We review that initiative here. PMID:25829366

  4. Potential role of the posterior cruciate ligament synovio-entheseal complex in joint effusion in early osteoarthritis: a magnetic resonance imaging and histological evaluation of cadaveric tissue and data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Binks, D.A.; Bergin, D.; Freemont, A.J.; Hodgson, R.J.; Yonenaga, T.; McGonagle, D.; Radjenovic, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective This study explored posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) synovio-entheseal complex (SEC) microanatomy to determine whether it may participate in the early osteoarthritis (OA) disease process. Methods SEC microanatomy and OA features were evaluated in 14 non-arthritic cadaveric knees (mean age = 69.9) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. MRI images of 49 subjects selected from the progression cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) were evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist using an original semi-quantitative method for features associated with OA at the PCL tibial enthesis. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to evaluate associations between SEC configuration and OA features. Results The PCL formed a SEC-like structure encompassing bone- and ligament-lining intra-articular cartilages to which the posterior root of the medial meniscus contributed. Degenerative features at the PCL-SEC included: neovascularisation (44%), enthesis chondrocyte clustering (44%), collagen matrix fissuring at the enthesis (56%) and in the PCL itself (67%), tidemark duplication (44%), bone remodelling (44%) and microscopic inflammatory changes (33%). In the OAI cohort, SEC-related pathology included bone marrow lesions (BMLs) (69%) and osteophytosis (94%) at locations that corresponded to SEC-related cartilages. Posterior joint recess effusion (49%) was linked to MRI abnormalities at PCL-SEC cartilages (χ2 = 7.27, P = 0.007). Conclusions The PCL has a prominent SEC configuration that is associated with microscopic OA changes in aged clinically non-diseased joints. MRI determined knee OA commonly exhibited pathological features at this site which was associated with adjacent joint effusion. Thus, the PCL-SEC could play a hitherto unappreciated role in the early OA disease process. PMID:25008208

  5. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  6. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  7. Analysis of the effect of initial conditions on the initial development of a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soong KI; Chung, Myung Kyoon; Cho, Ji Ryong

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the initial condition at the jet exit on the downstream evolution, particularly within the potential core length, were numerically investigated as well as with available experimental data. In order to select the most dependable computational model for the present numerical experiment, a comparative study has been performed with different turbulence models at k-epsilon level, and it was found that the k-epsilon-gammma model yields superior prediction accuracy over other conventional models. The calculated results show that the potential core length and the spreading rate the initial mixing layer are dependent on the initial length scale as well as the turbulent kinetic energy at the jet exit. Such effect of the initial length scale increases with higher initial turbulence level. An empirical parameter has been devised to collapse the calculated data of the potential core length and the spreading rate with various initial conditions onto a single curve.

  8. Prioritizing Scientific Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcall, John N.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the way in which a limited number of astronomy research initiatives were chosen and prioritized based on a consensus of members from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. A list of recommended equipment initiatives and estimated costs is provided. (KR)

  9. Illinois: Prevention Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Prevention Initiative provides grants to home-based and center-based programs to expand access to the Early Head Start (EHS) model as well as other birth to 3 models. The goal is to serve additional children birth to age 3 and help grantees increase program quality. The initiative to expand access to EHS and other models was…

  10. An Urban Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    New Jersey's urban initiative has two components. The first is a broad-based program that addresses critical issues common to most urban districts Statewide. The second is a comprehensive program (Operation School Renewal) that concentrates the State's resources in three urban districts. The concentrated initiative, Operation School Renewal, will…

  11. Community Marriage Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Anderson, Jared R.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the development of community marriage initiatives and their relationship with family professionals, with particular emphasis on sociohistorical context. We describe five leading community marriage initiatives, discuss the state of the evaluation research, and propose new directions for this promising area of work.

  12. DICE: Disk Initial Conditions Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Valentin

    2016-07-01

    DICE models initial conditions of idealized galaxies to study their secular evolution or their more complex interactions such as mergers or compact groups using N-Body/hydro codes. The code can set up a large number of components modeling distinct parts of the galaxy, and creates 3D distributions of particles using a N-try MCMC algorithm which does not require a prior knowledge of the distribution function. The gravitational potential is then computed on a multi-level Cartesian mesh by solving the Poisson equation in the Fourier space. Finally, the dynamical equilibrium of each component is computed by integrating the Jeans equations for each particles. Several galaxies can be generated in a row and be placed on Keplerian orbits to model interactions. DICE writes the initial conditions in the Gadget1 or Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) format and is fully compatible with Ramses (ascl:1011.007).

  13. The national geomagnetic initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  14. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  15. Advanced Concepts Research Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    This initiative is investigating various approaches to controlling and treating wet-weather flow (WWF) discharges in the urban watershed. WWF, including combined sewer overflow (CSO), sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) and stormwater discharges are leading causes of receiving water q...

  16. The RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  17. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  18. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  19. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane andmore » at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.« less

  20. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  1. Metaloxide--ZrO2 catalysts for the esterification and transesterification of free fatty acids and triglycerides to obtain bio-diesel

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Manhoe; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2016-09-06

    Mixed metal oxide catalysts (ZnO, CeO, La2O3, NiO, Al203, Si02, TiO2, Nd2O3, Yb2O3, or any combination of these) supported on zirconia (ZrO2) or hydrous zirconia are provided. These mixed metal oxide catalysts can be prepared via coprecipitation, impregnation, or sol-gel methods from metal salt precursors with/without a Zirconium salt precursor. Metal oxides/ZrO2 catalyzes both esterification and transesterification of oil containing free fatty acids in one batch or in single stage. In particular, these mixed metal oxides supported or added on zirconium oxide exhibit good activity and selectivity for esterification and transesterification. The low acid strength of this catalyst can avoid undesirable side reaction such as alcohol dehydration or cracking of fatty acids. Metal oxides/ZrO2 catalysts are not sensitive to any water generated from esterification. Thus, esterification does not require a water free condition or the presence of excess methanol to occur when using the mixed metal oxide catalyst. The FAME yield obtained with metal oxides/ZrO2 is higher than that obtained with homogeneous sulfuric acid catalyst. Metal oxides/ZrO2 catalasts can be prepared as strong pellets and in various shapes for use directly in a flow reactor. Furthermore, the pellet has a strong resistance toward dissolution to aqueous or oil phases.

  2. Assessing of genotoxicity of 16 centralized source-waters in China by means of the SOS/umu assay and the micronucleus test: initial identification of the potential genotoxicants by use of a GC/MS method and the QSAR Toolbox 3.0.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yan; Weiwei, Jiang; Na, Li; Mei, Ma; Donghong, Wang; Zijian, Wang; Kaifeng, Rao

    2014-03-15

    Only few studies were conducted to assess genotoxicity of centralized source waters in China and almost none of them dealt with the causal relationship between the genotoxic effect and genotoxicants. In this work, 16 centralized source waters in China were sampled from five river systems and genotoxicity of their organic extracts was assessed by use of the SOS/umu test for DNA-damaging effect and the miniaturized flow cytometry-based micronucleus (MN) test for chromosome-damaging effect. In addition, initial identification of potential genotoxicants for the six samples from the Yangtze River was done with a GC/MS method and the QSAR toolbox 3.0. The results demonstrate that eight samples showed both indirect and direct DNA-damaging effects, another four samples showed only indirect DNA-damaging effects, while chromosome-damaging effects were found for 14 out of the 16 samples, in which aneugenic and clastogenic modes of action were found for 4 and 10 samples, respectively. Both direct/indirect DNA-damaging effects and chromosome-damaging effects were induced by the six Yangtze River samples, and the existing different types of genotoxicant confirmed the results. Furthermore, o-phenylphenol was initially identified as the major cause for the DNA-damaging effects while PAHs, pesticides, phenol and anthraquinone were identified as ubiquitous chromosome-damaging agents among these samples. In conclusion, a combination of the SOS/umu test and the miniaturized flow cytometry-based MN test to detect both DNA-damaging and chromosome-damaging effects could be used as a comprehensive genotoxicity assessment tool for the evaluation and classification of genotoxicity of complex mixtures, and potential genotoxicants can be initially identified with additional information from chemical analysis and the QSAR toolbox. PMID:24525378

  3. Research on diabatic initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasahara, Akira

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to contribute to improvement in the synoptic analyses in the tropics for numerical weather prediction and climate research. In addition to a prediction model, four dimensional data assimilation systems have two principal components. One is objective analysis and the other is initialization. Various methods of objective analysis are designed primarily to analyze the mass and rotational wind fields. Methods of initialization are developed to obtain the irrotational wind and its associated vertical velocity field which are balanced with the mass field and free from meteorological noise. There are essentially three approaches to the problem of initialization: quasi-geostrophic theory, bounded derivative method and nonlinear normal mode method. In the midlatitudes, these approaches generally produce satisfactory results even without diabatic effects for large-scale motions. In the tropics, the situation is quite different from that in the midlatitudes. Because of a small magnitude of the Coriolis parameter and a weak horizontal temperature gradient in the tropics, any method of initialization must incorporate diabatic effects. In fact, it can be said that understanding the problem of diabatic initialization is the key to improving the analysis and weather forecasting in the tropics.

  4. Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document examines the need to reform education in America. The goal of the United States is to double the number of science, technology, engineering and mathematics graduates with bachelor's degrees by 2015. A core set of recommendations are reviewed: (1) Build public support for making science, technology, engineering and math improvement a…

  5. Research on diabatic initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashara, Akira

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to contribute to the improvement of the analyses of irrotational wind and moisture fields in the tropics through advancement in the technique of initialization, incorporating diabatic effects and use of satellite-derived, radiometric imagery data that are not used currently by operational centers. Significant accomplishments during the period of May 1991 - April 1992 in research involving the following are presented: impact of tropical initialization upon the spin-up of precipitation forecasts; and a unified approach to diabatic initialization for improvement in the analysis of divergence and water vapor fields in the tropics. Focus of current research and plans for next year are discussed with respect to the topics of controlling the precipitation over shoot during the early part of a numerical forecast and the use of satellite imagery data for improvement of the tropical analysis.

  6. STI Program Multimedia Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Kaye, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This paper relates the experience of the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program in introducing multimedia within the STI Program framework. A discussion of multimedia technology is included to provide context for the STI Program effort. The STI Program's Multimedia Initiative is discussed in detail. Parallels and differences between multimedia and traditional information systems project development are highlighted. Challenges faced by the program in initiating its multimedia project are summarized along with lessons learned. The paper concludes with a synopsis of the benefits the program hopes to provide its users through the introduction of multimedia illustrated by examples of successful multimedia projects.

  7. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  8. Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…

  9. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    DOEpatents

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  10. Funds Fuel Graduation Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In the first wave of funding under a revitalized high school graduation initiative, the U.S. Department of Education is betting nearly $50 million that it can help states and school districts find better ways to hang onto students who might drop out and bring back those who have disappeared without diplomas. Twenty-nine states and districts won…

  11. The Core Skills Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A British initiative that aims to identify, develop, and assess core skills in post-16 courses and qualifications is summarized in this bulletin. The first section discusses expectations regarding what core skills can achieve. The following section focuses on other purposes to which core skills could contribute, such as broadening the post-16…

  12. DIOXIN EXPOSURE INITIATIVE PUBLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following is a listing of published articles that have come out of EPA's Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    SOURCES:

      <...

    1. The SEED Initiative

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Teich, Carolyn R.

      2011-01-01

      Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

    2. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Huang, Yifen

      2010-01-01

      Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

    3. Department-Initiated Change

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

      2014-01-01

      This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics departments in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of…

    4. Sourcebook of Restructuring Initiatives.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Stefkovich, Jacqueline A., Ed.

      This three-part sourcebook identifies school restructuring initiatives with a national scope and presents comprehensive information about them. Part 1 identifies and describes national restructuring programs (e.g., Coalition of Essential Schools, Learning Tomorrow, Success for All). Each program description provides an overview of the program as…

    5. Focusing educational initiatives

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Parks, George K.

      1990-01-01

      The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

    6. Transformative Change Initiative

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bragg, D. D.; Kirby, C.; Witt, M. A.; Richie, D.; Mix, S.; Feldbaum, M.; Liu, S.; Mason, M.

      2014-01-01

      The Transformative Change Initiative (TCI) is dedicated to assisting community colleges to scale up innovation in the form of guided pathways, programs of study, and evidence-based strategies to improve student outcomes and program, organization, and system performance. The impetus for TCI is the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and…

    7. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

      SciTech Connect

      Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

      2012-02-01

      The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

    8. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

      PubMed

      Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

      2016-01-01

      This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  1. Gravity wave initiated convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.

  2. The space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, Pete

    1991-01-01

    A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

  3. Chinese biobanking initiatives.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rongxing; Wang, Huiyuan; Song, Yutong; Fan, Jinli; Xiong, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Due to the requirement for comprehensive clinical research efforts in China, the importance of biobanking in modern clinical research is outlined in this overview. Hospitals, universities, and research institutes have been well organized as fundamental resources for Chinese biobanking initiatives and the resulting bio-sample collections. Here, a brief history and time line of development of biobanking in China will be introduced, as well as strategic designs for future biobanking development. PMID:25686040

  4. Laser Initiated Actuator study

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, B.

    1991-06-27

    The program task was to design and study a laser initiated actuator. The design of the actuator is described, it being comprised of the fiber and body subassemblies. The energy source for all experiments was a Spectra Diode 2200-H2 laser diode. The diode is directly coupled to a 100 micron core, 0.3 numerical aperture fiber optic terminated with an SMA connector. The successful testing results are described and recommendations are made.

  5. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been used by neuroscientists for many years. The versatility of the method is attested to be the differing purposes to which it has been applied. Initially, SEPs were used to uncover basic principles of sensory processing. A casual glan...

  6. Initiation Train Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Elizabeth; Johnson, Carl; Liechty, Gary; Whitley, Von

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to evaluate and qualify a new detonator diagnostic, booster selection and main charge configuration, a variety of small-scale tests have been conducted. This paper will describe the needs, testing approach and model validation. Because of the limited size available some novel approaches were made to understand the observed phenomenon. Function time and time of arrival at various locations in the initiation train are desirable data points. Knowing when each segment initiates the next segment and the time to run up to detonation is critical. Results of our experiments were modeled for timing accuracy, wave shape and pressure. Agreement between the experiments and models will be discussed. The testing that will be discussed is time of arrival wires, PDV, and fiber optic arrays. The time of arrival wire measures the detonator cup breakout time. When correlated to bridge burst, an absolute time is collected. This data point also gives time zero for the booster initiation. Many models actually start at the booster, rather than the detonator, so the inclusion of this data point will improve modeling efforts.

  7. A discussion of numerical subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne; Ellis, Susan

    2016-04-01

    if subduction can numerically initiate. However, once a setup has been found that successfully initiates subduction, a small change in either rheology or geometry can again lead to subduction initiation failure. We will discuss subduction setups that have been known to fail and how to avoid them, thus potentially leading to successful recipes for numerical subduction initiation. A further point we will discuss is how the geometry of weak zones and pre-existing slabs that are used to initiate a subduction model can impact subsequent subduction style and velocity. For example, using simple linear viscous subduction models we find that initiation along shallow initial pre-existing weak zones and/or pre-existing slabs results in shallow, forward dipping slabs, whereas steep initial dip angles lead to steep slab dips and an overturned slab.

  8. DIPS Space Exploration Initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issue were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept.

  9. Acupoints Initiate the Healing Process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: As an important modality of Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture has been widely accepted by the Western world in the past 4 decades because of this modality's efficacy and safety. A vast amount of acupuncture research has been done. However, the mechanisms of acupuncture actions are still elusive. It is believed that the effects of acupuncture treatment begin from the moment of needle insertion. Methods: This review focuses on the acupuncture points and the three major reactions at the acupuncture points when needling is performed. These initial reactions may be the beginning of the healing process that initiates downstream effects through neuronal and humoral pathways. In addition to the physical reactions, this article also discusses the possibility of the effects of acupuncture on the healing process through a holistic pathway. Conclusions: Needling is the first step of traditional acupuncture therapy. Needling reactions— neuronal, biophysical, and biochemical—are the beginning of healing. The messengers of the three reactions involved may include neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones, and inflammatory factors. Healing may be potentiated through these messengers in neuronal and humoral pathways. The reactions manifest as erythema and De Qi—both of which are common phenomena used as positive signs in acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture may also play a role in the healing process through the holistic pathway, which needs further study. PMID:25352943

  10. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The design of the Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was based upon a carefully controlled comparison between identical sets of human blood cell suspensions - red cells, white cell, and platelets - one set of which was transported aboard the Columbia on a 6 day 11 hour mission, and the other held on the ground. Both sets were carried inside stainless steel dewars within specially fabricated flight hardware. Individual bags of cell suspensions were randomly assigned with respect to ground vs orbit status, dewar chamber, and specific location within the dewar. To foster optimal preservation, each cell type was held under specific optimal conditions of pH, ionic strength, solute concentration, gas tension, and temperature. An added variable in this initial experiment was provided by the use of three different polymer/plasticizer formulations for the sealed bags which held the blood cells. At termination of the experiment, aliquots of the suspensions, identified only by code, were distributed to be assayed. Assays were selected to constitute a broad survey of cellular properties and thereby maximize the chances of detection of gravitational effects. A total of 74 different outcome measurements were reported for statistical analysis. When the measurements were completed, the results were entered into the IBSE data base, at which time the data were matched with the original blood bag numbers to determine their status with respect to polymer/plasticizer type, orbit status (orbit or ground), and storage position within the experimental hardware. The data were studied by analysis of variance. Initially, type of bag and orbital status were main factors; later more detailed analyses were made on specific issues such as position in the hardware and specific plastic. If the analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance at the 5 percent level the corresponding p-value was reported.

  11. Through bulkhead initiator studies

    SciTech Connect

    Begeal, D.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes recent work done to demonstrate feasibility of a fail-safe Through Bulkhead Initiator with minimum dimensions and suitable for use in cyclical thermal environments. Much of the ground work for a fail-safe TBI was previously done by A.C. Schwartz. This study is an expansion of Schwartz`s work to evaluate devices with bulkheads of 304 stainless steel and Inconel 718; explosive donors of PETN, BNCP, and a 0.005 inch thick steel flying plate donor traveling at 2.6 mm/{micro}s; and explosive acceptors of PETN and BNCP. Bulkhead thickness were evaluated in the range of 0.040 to 0.180 inch. The explosive acceptors initiated a small HMX pellet to drive a 0.005 inch thick steel flying plate, and VISAR histories of the HMX-driven flying plates were the measure of acceptable performance. A companion set of samples used a PMMA acceptor to measure the particle velocities at the bulkhead/PMMA interface with VISAR. These data were used to compute the input pressure to the acceptor explosives in an attempt to measure initiation threshold. Unfortunately, the range of bulkhead thicknesses tested did not give any failures, thus the threshold was not determined. It was found that either explosive or the flying plate would perform as a TBI in the bulkhead thickness range tested. The optimum TBI is about 0.060 inches thick, and steel bulkheads seem to be more structurally sound than those made of Inconel. That is, cross section views of the Inconel bulkheads showed it to be more prone to stress cracking than was the 304 stainless steel. Both PETN and BNCP showed good performance when tested at {minus}65 F following thermal cycling of {minus}65 F to +165 F. Analysis of the TBI function times showed that BNCP acceptor explosives were undergoing the classical deflagration to detonation process. The PETN acceptors were undergoing prompt detonation.

  12. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  13. Human Research Initiative (HRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian

    2003-01-01

    A code U initiative starting in the FY04 budget includes specific funding for 'Phase Change' and 'Multiphase Flow Research' on the ISS. NASA GRC developed a concept for two facilities based on funding/schedule constraints: 1) Two Phase Flow Facility (TphiFFy) which assumes integrating into FIR; 2) Contact Line Dynamics Experiment Facility (CLiDE) which assumes integration into MSG. Each facility will accommodate multiple experiments conducted by NRA selected PIs with an overall goal of enabling specific NASA strategic objectives. There may also be a significant ground-based component.

  14. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  15. Initiation of slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise).

  16. UNLV Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hechanova, Anthony E.; Johnson, Allen; O'Toole, Brendan; Trabia, Mohamed; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-25

    Evaluation of the Crack growth rate (CGR) of Alloy 617 and Alloy 276 under constant K at ambient temperature has been completed. Creep deformation of Alloy 230 at different temperature range and load level has been completed and heat to heat variation has been noticed. Creep deformation study of Alloy 276 has been completed under an applied initial stress level of 10% of yield stress at 950ºC. The grain size evaluation of the tested creep specimens of Alloy 276 has been completed.

  17. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  18. NASA's Climate Data Services Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, M.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Webster, W. P.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the Earth's processes is based on a combination of observational data records and mathematical models. The size of NASA's space-based observational data sets is growing dramatically as new missions come online. However a potentially bigger data challenge is posed by the work of climate scientists, whose models are regularly producing data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. It is important to understand that the 'Big Data' challenge of climate science cannot be solved with a single technological approach or an ad hoc assemblage of technologies. It will require a multi-faceted, well-integrated suite of capabilities that include cloud computing, large-scale compute-storage systems, high-performance analytics, scalable data management, and advanced deployment mechanisms in addition to the existing, well-established array of mature information technologies. It will also require a coherent organizational effort that is able to focus on the specific and sometimes unique requirements of climate science. Given that it is the knowledge that is gained from data that is of ultimate benefit to society, data publication and data analytics will play a particularly important role. In an effort to accelerate scientific discovery and innovation through broader use of climate data, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Office of Computational and Information Sciences and Technology has embarked on a determined effort to build a comprehensive, integrated data publication and analysis capability for climate science. The Climate Data Services (CDS) Initiative integrates people, expertise, and technology into a highly-focused, next-generation, one-stop climate science information service. The CDS Initiative is providing the organizational framework, processes, and protocols needed to deploy existing information technologies quickly using a combination of enterprise-level services and an expanding array of cloud services. Crucial to its effectiveness, the CDS

  19. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  20. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  1. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  2. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  3. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  4. Electrogenic Tuning of the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Brian D.; Goldberg, Ethan M.; Rudy, Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Action potentials (APs) provide the primary means of rapid information transfer in the nervous system. Where exactly these signals are initiated in neurons has been a basic question in neurobiology and the subject of extensive study. Converging lines of evidence indicate that APs are initiated in a discrete and highly specialized portion of the axon—the axon initial segment (AIS). The authors review key aspects of the organization and function of the AIS and focus on recent work that has provided important insights into its electrical signaling properties. In addition to its main role in AP initiation, the new findings suggest that the AIS is also a site of complex AP modulation by specific types of ion channels localized to this axonal domain. PMID:20007821

  5. Advances in Modeling Exploding Bridgewire Initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2010-03-10

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in exploding bridgewires (EBW). Initiation of the HE is simulated using Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  6. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  7. Cosmological attractors and initial conditions for inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Inflationary α -attractor models in supergravity, which provide excellent fits to the latest observational data, are based on the Poincaré disk hyperbolic geometry. We refine these models by constructing Kähler potentials with built-in inflaton shift symmetry and by making a canonical choice of the Goldstino Kähler potential. The refined models are stable with respect to all scalar fields at all α ; no additional stabilization terms are required. The scalar potential V has a nearly Minkowski minimum at small values of the inflaton field φ and an infinitely long de Sitter (dS) valley of constant depth and width at large φ . Because of the infinite length of this shift-symmetric valley, the initial value of the inflaton field at the Planck density is expected to be extremely large. We show that the inflaton field φ does not change much until all fields lose their energy and fall to the bottom of the dS valley at large φ . This provides natural initial conditions for inflation driven by the inflaton field slowly rolling along the dS valley toward the minimum of the potential at small φ . A detailed description of this process is given for α -attractors in supergravity, but we believe that our general conclusions concerning naturalness of initial conditions for inflation are valid for a broad class of inflationary models with sufficiently flat potentials.

  8. The Knowledge Stealing Initiative?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshorn, Larry

    2005-01-01

    I have the honor of being on the Academy of Program and Project Leadership (APPL) Knowledge Sharing Feedback and Assessment Team (FAA), and as such, I am privileged to receive the feedback written by many of you as attendees of the Project Management (PM) Master s Forums. It is the intent of the FAA Team and APPL leadership to use this feedback as a tool for continuous program improvement. As a retired (sort of) PM in the payload contracting industry, I'm a big supporter of NASA s Knowledge Sharing Initiative (KSI), especially the Master's Forums. I really enjoy participating in them. Unfortunately I had to miss the 8th forum in Pasadena this past Spring, but I did get the feedback package for the Assessment Team work. So here I was, reviewing twelve pages of comments, reflections, learning notes and critiques from attendees of the 8th forum.

  9. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  10. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  11. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  12. The Gossamer Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Moore, Chris; Howard, Rick

    2000-01-01

    The Gossamer Spacecraft Initiative is a new NASA program to begin long-range development of enabling technologies for very large, ultra-lightweight structures and apertures. Large apertures include optical, infrared and submillimeter telescopes, "photon buckets" for optical communications and "non-coherent" imaging, solar concentrators, and radio frequency antennas. Developments in the very large ultra-light structures will be forces on one of their most challenging applications-solar sails. The sail structures will include both 3-axis stabilizing and spinning. Gossamer spacecraft technology will eventually allow NASA to undertake bold new missions of discovery, such as searching for the signs of life on planets orbiting nearby stars and sailing through space on beams of light of places beyond our solar system.

  13. [Advanced Composites Technology Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This final report closes out the W02 NASA Grant #NCC5-646. The FY02 grant for advanced technology initiatives through the Advanced Composites Technology Institute in Bridgeport, WV, at the Robert C. Byrd Institute (RCBI) Bridgeport Manufacturing Technology Center, is complete; all funding has been expended. RCBI continued to expand access to technology; develop and implement a workforce-training curriculum; improve material development; and provide prototyping and demonstrations of new and advanced composites technologies for West Virginia composites firms. The FY 02 efforts supported workforce development, technical training and the HST development effort of a super-lightweight composite carrier prototype and expanded the existing technical capabilities of the growing aerospace industry across West Virginia to provide additional support for NASA missions. Additionally, the Composites Technology and Training Center was awarded IS0 9001 - 2000 certification and Cleanroom Class 1000 certification during this report period.

  14. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  15. A methodology for analyzing precursors to earthquake-initiated and fire-initiated accident sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, R.J.; Lambert, H.E.; Apostolakis, G.

    1998-04-01

    This report covers work to develop a methodology for analyzing precursors to both earthquake-initiated and fire-initiated accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsors a large ongoing project, the Accident Sequence Precursor project, to analyze the safety significance of other types of accident precursors, such as those arising from internally-initiated transients and pipe breaks, but earthquakes and fires are not within the current scope. The results of this project are that: (1) an overall step-by-step methodology has been developed for precursors to both fire-initiated and seismic-initiated potential accidents; (2) some stylized case-study examples are provided to demonstrate how the fully-developed methodology works in practice, and (3) a generic seismic-fragility date base for equipment is provided for use in seismic-precursors analyses. 44 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Space Climate Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. E.; Dikpati, M.; Miesch, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Solar variability drives our space environment and upper atmosphere, both on short-term "space-weather" time scales and longer "space-climate" time scales. The goal of the proposed initiative is to understand how extremes of solar variability affect space and terrestrial climate by modeling the system from the Sun's interior to the Earth's atmosphere. We have developed a fully 3D Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo model that incorporates the new "BASH" code and "spot-maker" flux emergence technique. This enables us to run dynamo-driven, physically self-consistent experiments that vary flux emergence to examine extreme scenarios of long-term solar variability. For example, motivated by the recent extended solar minimum and possible long-term changes in sunspots, we can address the question "What happens to the solar dynamo and the surface magnetic flux distribution if flux emergence occurs only on scales too small to form sunspots?" From another extreme, we might ask, "What sort of time-evolving flux emergence is likely to foster superstorms such as the 1859 "Carrington flare"? The photospheric magnetic fields arising from such dynamo experiments then provide a boundary condition that may be used for solar irradiance and heliospheric magnetic field models. These models in turn enable studies probing the effects of solar variability extremes on terrestrial climate, geospace environment, and galactic cosmic rays throughout the heliosphere.

  17. Urban Environment Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Urban Environment Initiative (UEI), has been established as part of a Cooperative Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The UEI is part of NASA's overall High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the Information Infrastructure Technology Applications (IITA) programs. The goal of the UEI is to provide public access to Earth Science information and promote its use with a focus on the environment of urban areas. This goal will be accomplished through collaborative efforts of the UEI team with both community-based and local/regional governmental organizations. The UEI team is comprised of four organizations representing private industry, NASA, and universities: Prime Technologies Service Corporation, NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) California State University, at Los Angeles, and Central State University (Wilberforce, OH). "Urban Environment" refers to the web of environmental, economic, and social factors that combine to create the urban world in which we live. Examples of these factors are population distribution, neighborhood demographic profiles, economic resources, business activities, location and concentration of environmental hazards and various pollutants, proximity and level of urban services, which form the basis of the urban environment and ultimately affect our lives and experiences. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing allows data to be visualized in the forms of maps and spatial images. The use of these tools allow analysis of information about urban environments. Also included are descriptions of the four query types which will assist in understanding the maps.

  18. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  19. TFTR initial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bretz, N.; Cecchi, J.; Coonrod, J.; Davis, S.; Dylla, H.F.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fonck, R.

    1983-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has operated since December 1982 with ohmically heated plasmas. Routine operation with feedback control of plasma current, position, and density has been obtained for plasmas with I/sub p/ approx. = 800 kA, a = 68 cm, R = 250 cm, and B/sub t/ = 27 kG. A maximum plasma current of 1 MA was achieved with q approx. = 2.5. Energy confinement times of approx. 150 msec were measured for hydrogen and deuterium plasmas with anti n/sub e/ approx. = 2 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/, T/sub e/ (0) approx. = 1.5 keV, T/sub i/ (0) approx. = 1.5 keV, and Z/sub eff/ approx. = 3. The preliminary results suggest a size-cubed scaling from PLT and are consistent with Alcator C scaling where tau approx. nR/sup 2/a. Initial measurements of plasma disruption characteristics indicate current decay rates of approx. 800 kA in 8 ms which is within the TFTR design requirement of 3 MA in 3 ms.

  20. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  1. Moon-Mars Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    On 27 May, the AGU Council unanimously adopted a position statement on NASA's strategic plan released in February 2005:: "A New Age of Exploration: NASA's Direction for 2005 and Beyond". This strategy incorporates U.S. President Bush's vision for manned space flight to Moon and Mars as described in "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration" announced in January 2004. The statement was drafted by a panel chaired by Eric Barron of Penn State University. AGU calls for the U.S. Administration, Congress, and NASA to continue their commitment to innovative Earth and space science programs. This commitment has placed the U.S. in an international leadership position. It enables environmental stewardship, promotes economic vitality, engages the next generation of scientists and engineers, protects life and property, and fosters exploration. It is, however, threatened by new financial demands placed on NASA by the return to human space flight using the space shuttle, finishing the space station, and launching the Moon-Mars initiative.

  2. Gauging without initial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Alexei; Strobl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The gauge principle is at the heart of a good part of fundamental physics: Starting with a group G of so-called rigid symmetries of a functional defined over space-time Σ, the original functional is extended appropriately by additional Lie(G) -valued 1-form gauge fields so as to lift the symmetry to Maps(Σ , G) . Physically relevant quantities are then to be obtained as the quotient of the solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations by these gauge symmetries. In this article we show that one can construct a gauge theory for a standard sigma model in arbitrary space-time dimensions where the target metric is not invariant with respect to any rigid symmetry group, but satisfies a much weaker condition: It is sufficient to find a collection of vector fields va on the target M satisfying the extended Killing equationv a(i ; j) = 0 for some connection acting on the index a. For regular foliations this is equivalent to requiring the conormal bundle to the leaves with its induced metric to be invariant under leaf-preserving diffeomorphisms of M, which in turn generalizes Riemannian submersions to which the notion reduces for smooth leaf spaces M / ∼. The resulting gauge theory has the usual quotient effect with respect to the original ungauged theory: in this way, much more general orbits can be factored out than usually considered. In some cases these are orbits that do not correspond to an initial symmetry, but still can be generated by a finite-dimensional Lie group G. Then the presented gauging procedure leads to an ordinary gauge theory with Lie algebra valued 1-form gauge fields, but showing an unconventional transformation law. In general, however, one finds that the notion of an ordinary structural Lie group is too restrictive and should be replaced by the much more general notion of a structural Lie groupoid.

  3. Glennan Microsystems Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillson, Leonard J.

    2002-01-01

    During the 2001-2002 award period, we performed research on Pt/Ti/bare 6H-SiC and bare 4H-SiC interfaces in order to identify their electronic properties as a function of surface preparation. The overall aim of this work is to optimize the electronic properties of metal contacts to SiC as well as the active SiC material itself as a function of surface preparation and subsequent processing. Initially, this work has involved identifying bare surface, subsurface, and metal induced gap states at the metal-SiC contact and correlating energies and densities of deep levels with Schottky barrier heights. We used low energy electron-excited nanoluminescence (LEEN) spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) in order to correlate electronic states and energy bands with chemical composition, bonding, and crystal structure. A major development has been the discovery of polytype transformations that occur in 4H-SiC under standard microelectronic process conditions used to fabricate SiC devices. Our results are consistent with the stacking fault generation, defect formation, and consequent degradation of SiC recently reported for state-of-the-art ABB commercial diodes under localized electrical stress. Our results highlight the importance of -optimizing process conditions and material properties - anneal times, temperatures and doping to control such structural changes within epitaxial SiC layers. Thus far, we have established threshold times and temperatures beyond which 4H-SiC exhibits 3C-SiC transformation bands for a subset of dopant concentrations and process conditions. On the basis of this temperature time behavior, we have been able to establish an activation energy of approximately 2.5 eV for polytype transformation and dislocation motion. Work continues to establish the fundamental mechanisms underlying the polytype changes and its dependence on material parameters.

  4. National Take-Back Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physicians Drug Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices ... Physicians Drug Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices ...

  5. Initial Ada components evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moebes, Travis

    1989-01-01

    The SAIC has the responsibility for independent test and validation of the SSE. They have been using a mathematical functions library package implemented in Ada to test the SSE IV and V process. The library package consists of elementary mathematical functions and is both machine and accuracy independent. The SSE Ada components evaluation includes code complexity metrics based on Halstead's software science metrics and McCabe's measure of cyclomatic complexity. Halstead's metrics are based on the number of operators and operands on a logical unit of code and are compiled from the number of distinct operators, distinct operands, and total number of occurrences of operators and operands. These metrics give an indication of the physical size of a program in terms of operators and operands and are used diagnostically to point to potential problems. McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity Metrics (CCM) are compiled from flow charts transformed to equivalent directed graphs. The CCM is a measure of the total number of linearly independent paths through the code's control structure. These metrics were computed for the Ada mathematical functions library using Software Automated Verification and Validation (SAVVAS), the SSE IV and V tool. A table with selected results was shown, indicating that most of these routines are of good quality. Thresholds for the Halstead measures indicate poor quality if the length metric exceeds 260 or difficulty is greater than 190. The McCabe CCM indicated a high quality of software products.

  6. Initial neurogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis comprises the phase of nervous system development during which neural progenitor cells are born. In early development, the embryonic ectoderm is subdivided by a conserved signaling mechanism into two main domains, the epidermal ectoderm and the neurectoderm. Subsequently, cells of the neurectoderm are internalized and form a cell layer of proliferating neural progenitors. In vertebrates, the entire neurectoderm folds into the embryo to give rise to the neural tube. In Drosophila and many other invertebrates, a subset of neurectodermal cells, called neuroblasts (NBs), delaminates and forms the neural primordium inside the embryo where they divide in an asymmetric, stem cell-like mode. The remainder of the neuroectodermal cells that stay behind at the surface loose their neurogenic potential and later give rise to the ventral part of the epidermis. The genetic and molecular analysis of the mechanisms controlling specification and proliferation of NBs in the Drosophila embryo, which played a significant part in pioneering the field of modern developmental neurobiology, represents the topic of this review. PMID:24014455

  7. Initial neurogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Early neurogenesis comprises the phase of nervous system development during which neural progenitor cells are born. In early development, the embryonic ectoderm is subdivided by a conserved signaling mechanism into two main domains, the epidermal ectoderm and the neurectoderm. Subsequently, cells of the neurectoderm are internalized and form a cell layer of proliferating neural progenitors. In vertebrates, the entire neurectoderm folds into the embryo to give rise to the neural tube. In Drosophila and many other invertebrates, a subset of neurectodermal cells, called neuroblasts (NBs), delaminates and forms the neural primordium inside the embryo where they divide in an asymmetric, stem cell-like mode. The remainder of the neurectodermal cells that stay behind at the surface loose their neurogenic potential and later give rise to the ventral part of the epidermis. The genetic and molecular analysis of the mechanisms controlling specification and proliferation of NBs in the Drosophila embryo, which played a significant part in pioneering the field of modern developmental neurobiology, represents the topic of this review. PMID:24014455

  8. New worldwide hydrological initiative needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, W. James

    This essay argues for a new, decade-long worldwide hydrological initiative to permit change in the paradigm that underlies hydrological design and management. It is stimulated by the fact that over the last 20 years there has been a distinct change in our understanding of the nature and origin of the statistics of hydrological variables as measured in an individual watershed or region. The assumption was that these statistics are entirely haphazard in nature and indeterminate in origin, and do not change with time.Thus the most important hydrological variables (such as precipitation, runoff, and potential evaporation) are sampled over a calibration period (of perhaps only a few decades), and the statistics observed within that calibration period are used as the basis for hydrological design and water resource management. Now, however, there is increasing realization that the nature of the locally observed statistics of hydrological variables may be significantly determined by global-scale phenomena and might be prone to long-term change.

  9. Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America's competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

  10. Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1991-06-14

    Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America's competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

  11. Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1991-06-14

    Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America`s competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

  12. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  13. Safe Motherhood Initiative.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, staff of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)/Macro International met with WHO to discuss the prospect of collecting data on maternal health and morbidity so DHS could set up an international database. The database's purpose would be to gauge the progress of Safe Motherhood programs worldwide and to determine their strengths and weaknesses. WHO and Marc wrote a proposal for the development of a core data collection questionnaire and the implementation of Safe Motherhood Surveys in 3 countries. They recommended that these surveys be follow-up surveys to DHS surveys. The Rockefeller Foundation provided Macro funding for the development of the core questionnaire and documentation, for technical assistance to the Philippines, and for a meeting to develop the best possible questionnaire. 20 international specialists attended the December 1992 meeting at the World Bank. The USAID-funded Mothercare Project took care of local costs of the Philippines Safe Motherhood Survey. Between March and June 1993, Macro along with the Philippines Department of Health, the National Statistics Office, and the Clinical Epidemiology Unit of the Philippines General Hospital collected data for the validation study and conducted qualitative research on women's perceptions when informed about obstetric complications. They next pretested the questionnaire. Training of trainers was in September 1993 and interviewer training followed in early October. The actual Safe Motherhood survey began in mid-October, 5-6 months after the Philippines DHS survey ended. Macro expected preliminary results in early 1994. The questionnaire concentrated on prenatal and postnatal care, delivery, and potentially fatal complications (especially their treatment). Other topics included morbidity, sexually transmitted diseases, domestic violence, and nutritional status. Macro will use the results of the Philippine survey to revise the questionnaire. PMID:12287321

  14. The initial trajectories of eruptive solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B. P.

    2016-03-01

    Trajectories of eruptive prominences are compared with the shapes of coronal neutral surfaces calculated in a potential approximation using photospheric measurements. Space-based Solar Dymamics Observatory and STEREO observations carried out at different viewing angles enable a precise determination of a prominence's position at successive times during its eruption. In the initial segments of their trajectories, eruptive prominences move along neutral surfaces ( B r = 0) of the potential coronal magnetic field. This can be used to predict the directions of subsequent coronal mass ejections and to estimate their geoefficiency.

  15. Novel quantum initial conditions for inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, W. J.; Lasenby, A. N.; Hobson, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel approach for setting initial conditions on the mode functions of the Mukhanov-Sasaki equation. These conditions are motivated by minimization of the renormalized stress-energy tensor and are valid for setting a vacuum state even in a context where the spacetime is changing rapidly. Moreover, these alternative conditions are potentially observationally distinguishable. We apply this to the kinetically dominated universe and compare with the more traditional approach.

  16. Quantum harmonic oscillator with superoscillating initial datum

    SciTech Connect

    Buniy, R. V.; Struppa, D. C.; Colombo, F.; Sabadini, I.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the evolution of superoscillating initial data for the quantum driven harmonic oscillator. Our main result shows that superoscillations are amplified by the harmonic potential and that the analytic solution develops a singularity in finite time. We also show that for a large class of solutions of the Schrödinger equation, superoscillating behavior at any given time implies superoscillating behavior at any other time.

  17. Interatomic Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei

    2010-01-01

    In spite of greatly increased computer speeds, the application of ab initio methods for an atomistic simulation of materials is still limited to relatively small ensembles of atoms and, in molecular dynamics, relatively short simulation times (~5 ps). In contrast, the use of empirical or semiempirical interatomic potentials makes it possible to simulate much larger systems (~ up to a few million atoms) for much longer times (~100 ns), and thus to tackle such problems as plastic deformation, ion-solid interaction, or atomic diffusion. This chapter reviews various interatomic potentials used in large-scale computer simulations.

  18. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  19. 76 FR 7220 - Medical Device Innovation Initiative; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Innovation Initiative; Request for Comments... Innovation Initiative'' (the report). The report proposes potential actions for FDA's Center for Devices and... global leader in medical device innovation and CDRH is committed to assuring that American patients...

  20. Modeling Initiation into Drug Injection among Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Elise; Godin, Gaston; Boudreau, Jean-Francois; Cote, Philippe-Benoit; Denis, Veronique; Haley, Nancy; Leclerc, Pascale; Boivin, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the predictors of initiation into drug injection among street youth using social cognitive theory framework. A prospective cohort study based on semi-annual interviews was carried out. Psychosocial determinants referred to avoidance of initiation. Other potential predictors were: sociodemographic characteristics,…

  1. The Aerosol Coarse Mode Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Adhikari, N.; Air, D.; Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many areas of the world show an aerosol volume distribution with a significant coarse mode and sometimes a dominant coarse mode. The large coarse mode is usually due to dust, but sea salt aerosol can also play an important role. However, in many field campaigns, the coarse mode tends to be ignored, because it is difficult to measure. This lack of measurements leads directly to a concomitant "lack of analysis" of this mode. Because, coarse mode aerosols can have significant effects on radiative forcing, both in the shortwave and longwave spectrum, the coarse mode -- and these forcings -- should be accounted for in atmospheric models. Forcings based only on fine mode aerosols have the potential to be misleading. In this paper we describe examples of large coarse modes that occur in areas of large aerosol loading (Mexico City, Barnard et al., 2010) as well as small loadings (Sacramento, CA; Kassianov et al., 2012; and Reno, NV). We then demonstrate that: (1) the coarse mode can contribute significantly to radiative forcing, relative to the fine mode, and (2) neglecting the coarse mode may result in poor comparisons between measurements and models. Next we describe -- in general terms -- the limitations of instrumentation to measure the coarse mode. Finally, we suggest a new initiative aimed at examining coarse mode aerosol generation mechanisms; transport and deposition; chemical composition; visible and thermal IR refractive indices; morphology; microphysical behavior when deposited on snow and ice; and specific instrumentation needs. Barnard, J. C., J. D. Fast, G. Paredes-Miranda, W. P. Arnott, and A. Laskin, 2010: Technical Note: Evaluation of the WRF-Chem "Aerosol Chemical to Aerosol Optical Properties" Module using data from the MILAGRO campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 7325-7340. Kassianov, E. I., M. S. Pekour, and J. C. Barnard, 2012: Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly large contribution of coarse mode to aerosol radiative forcing

  2. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  3. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  4. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (referred to as the Initiative in this report), which became law in 2005, brings together community colleges, K-12 school districts, employers, organized…

  5. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  6. Nebraska: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…

  7. EPA`s clean air power initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) is a multi-stakeholder project intended to improve air pollution control efforts involving the power generating industry. This paper documents the progress made in the first year of the initiative, which included a number of meetings with interested stakeholders and development and analysis of alternative approaches for more efficient and effective pollution control. The project`s goal is to develop an integrated regulatory strategy or three major pollutants emitted from electric power generators; namely, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and, potentially, mercury. Major reductions in these pollutants are expected to be needed to reduce the detrimental health effects of ground-level ozone, fine particles, and hazardous air pollutants and reduce the environmental effects of acidification, eutrophication, ecosystem, crop, and materials damage, and regional haze. The Clean Air Power Initiative has considered, where feasible, new approaches to pollution control that recognize the long-range transport of many air pollutants and the economic benefits of emissions trading. The project was initiated by EPA`s Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation in 1995. As individual companies develop and implement strategies to participate in more competitive power markets, they could benefit from greater certainty in being able to plan for and reduce costs of future environmental regulations. The EPA is interested in reinventing its regulatory approach to reduce the number, administrative complexity, and cost of its requirements while improving the likelihood of achieving environmental results.

  8. Interferometric Observations of Lightning Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Stock, M.; Edens, H. E.; Shao, X. M.; Thomas, R. J.; Stanley, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the initial parts of lightning flashes close to Langmuir Laboratory in central New Mexico appear to show the lightning initiation process. The observations were made on August 5, 2013, from a number of flashes within 5 km of the New Mexico Tech broadband VHF interferometer (INTF). In addition to the INTF, the flashes were observed by the Langmuir Laboratory Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and by close fast and slow antennas. For those flashes where the powers of the initial sources detected by the LMA were stronger than about 5 dBW (4 watts), the INTF observations showed that the initial LMA source was associated with a previously unidentified form of fast positive breakdown. No activity was detected prior to the positive breakdown, either by the sensitive INTF or fast electric measurements. The VHF radiation and electric field changes develop simultaneously, and the INTF shows a positive breakdown which propagates about one hundred meters. This and other features of the observations indicate that the breakdown occurs in virgin air and is produced by dielectric streamer processes in localized regions of strong electric fields. We observed both normal intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges to be initiated by such breakdown. After the fast positive breakdown died out, the INTF showed continuous negative breakdown at the start of the positive channel, which subsequently developed into a negative leader propagating in the opposite direction of the initial positive breakdown. The results are fundamentally consistent with those obtained from modelling studies by Liu et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 025002, 2012), in which positive sprite streamers were shown to be initiated by purely dielectric breakdown, without the need of an initiating event such as a cosmic ray or energetic electron avalanches. We speculate that all lightning flashes are initiated by the fast positive events.

  9. Stochastic dynamics of cancer initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Jasmine; Leder, Kevin; Michor, Franziska

    2011-02-01

    Most human cancer types result from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations in a single cell. Once the first change (or changes) have arisen, tumorigenesis is initiated and the subsequent emergence of additional alterations drives progression to more aggressive and ultimately invasive phenotypes. Elucidation of the dynamics of cancer initiation is of importance for an understanding of tumor evolution and cancer incidence data. In this paper, we develop a novel mathematical framework to study the processes of cancer initiation. Cells at risk of accumulating oncogenic mutations are organized into small compartments of cells and proliferate according to a stochastic process. During each cell division, an (epi)genetic alteration may arise which leads to a random fitness change, drawn from a probability distribution. Cancer is initiated when a cell gains a fitness sufficiently high to escape from the homeostatic mechanisms of the cell compartment. To investigate cancer initiation during a human lifetime, a 'race' between this fitness process and the aging process of the patient is considered; the latter is modeled as a second stochastic Markov process in an aging dimension. This model allows us to investigate the dynamics of cancer initiation and its dependence on the mutational fitness distribution. Our framework also provides a methodology to assess the effects of different life expectancy distributions on lifetime cancer incidence. We apply this methodology to colorectal tumorigenesis while considering life expectancy data of the US population to inform the dynamics of the aging process. We study how the probability of cancer initiation prior to death, the time until cancer initiation, and the mutational profile of the cancer-initiating cell depends on the shape of the mutational fitness distribution and life expectancy of the population.

  10. Radiation Detection Material Discovery Initiative at PNNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, Brian

    2006-05-01

    Today's security threats are being met with 30-year old radiation technology. Discovery of new radiation detection materials is currently a slow and Edisonian process. With heightened concerns over nuclear proliferation, terrorism and unconventional warfare, an alternative strategy for identification and development of potential radiation detection materials must be adopted. Through the Radiation Detection Materials Discovery Initiative, PNNL focuses on the science-based discovery of next generation materials for radiation detection by addressing three ``grand challenges'': fundamental understanding of radiation detection, identification of new materials, and accelerating the discovery process. The new initiative has eight projects addressing these challenges, which will be described, including early work, paths forward and the opportunities for collaboration.

  11. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, SRPE is taking the initiative to promote tissue sharing among the scientists in the space radiation research community. This initiative is enthusiastically supported by the community members as voiced in the responses to a recent survey. For retrospective tissue samples, an online platform will be established for the PIs to post a list of the available samples, and to exchange information with the potential recipients. For future animal experiments, a tissue sharing policy is being developed by SRPE.

  12. Axon initial segment dysfunction in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Verena C; Reid, Christopher A; So, Eva Y-W; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) contains the site of action potential initiation and plays a major role in neuronal excitability. AIS function relies on high concentrations of different ion channels and complex regulatory mechanisms that orchestrate molecular microarchitecture. We review recent evidence that a large number of ion channels associated with epilepsy are enriched at the AIS, making it a ‘hotspot’ for epileptogenesis. Furthermore, we present novel data on the clustering of GABRγ2 receptors in the AIS of cortical and hippocampal neurons in a knock in mouse model of a human genetic epilepsy. This article highlights the molecular coincidence of epilepsy mutations at the AIS and reviews pathogenic mechanisms converging at the AIS. PMID:20375142

  13. Initial dynamic load estimates during configuration design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiff, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    This analysis includes the structural response to shock and vibration and evaluates the maximum deflections and material stresses and the potential for the occurrence of elastic instability, fatigue and fracture. The required computations are often performed by means of finite element analysis (FEA) computer programs in which the structure is simulated by a finite element model which may contain thousands of elements. The formulation of a finite element model can be time consuming, and substantial additional modeling effort may be necessary if the structure requires significant changes after initial analysis. Rapid methods for obtaining rough estimates of the structural response to shock and vibration are presented for the purpose of providing guidance during the initial mechanical design configuration stage.

  14. Diagnosis and initial management of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Portis, A J; Sundaram, C P

    2001-04-01

    The diagnosis and initial management of urolithiasis have undergone considerable evolution in recent years. The application of noncontrast helical computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected renal colic is one major advance. The superior sensitivity and specificity of helical CT allow urolithiasis to be diagnosed or excluded definitively and expeditiously without the potential harmful effects of contrast media. Initial management is based on three key concepts: (1) the recognition of urgent and emergency requirements for urologic consultation, (2) the provision of effective pain control using a combination of narcotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in appropriate patients and (3) an understanding of the impact of stone location and size on natural history and definitive urologic management. These concepts are discussed with reference to contemporary literature, with the goal of providing tools that family physicians can use in the emergency department or clinic. PMID:11310648

  15. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  16. Initiation of parturition in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Drover, J. W.; Casper, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism by which parturition is initiated in humans is largely unknown. The placenta and fetal membranes appear to play the major role in the initiation of labour, and the fetus may influence the timing of labour. Clinical observations and experiments with animals have revealed that placental neuropeptides may be able to control steroid metabolism and trigger the onset of labour, while the fetus may be able to interact with such events to initiate parturition at an appropriate time. However, further study is needed to determine the role of placental releasing factors and glycoprotein hormones and their ability to control placental steroid metabolism. PMID:6401583

  17. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  18. Subduction initiation at relic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Wei; Gurnis, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Although plate tectonics is well established, how a new subduction zone initiates remains controversial. Based on plate reconstruction and recent ocean drilling within the Izu-Bonin-Mariana, we advance a new geodynamic model of subduction initiation (SI). We argue that the close juxtaposition of the nascent plate boundary with relic oceanic arcs is a key factor localizing initiation of this new subduction zone. The combination of thermal and compositional density contrasts between the overriding relic arc, and the adjacent old Pacific oceanic plate promoted spontaneous SI. We suggest that thermal rejuvenation of the overriding plate just before 50 Ma caused a reduction in overriding plate strength and an increase in the age contrast (hence buoyancy) between the two plates, leading to SI. The computational models map out a framework in which rejuvenated relic arcs are a favorable tectonic environment for promoting subduction initiation, while transform faults and passive margins are not.

  19. Genomics Nursing Faculty Champion Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jean; Calzone, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Nurse faculty are challenged to keep up with the emerging and fast-paced field of genomics and the mandate to prepare the nursing workforce to be able to translate genomic research advances into routine clinical care. Using Faculty Champions and other options, the initiative stimulated curriculum development and promoted genomics curriculum integration. The authors summarize this yearlong initiative for undergraduate and graduate nursing faculty. PMID:24300251

  20. New initiatives in materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, G.; Jones, Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    NRC Mission: To license and regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, promote the common defense and security, and protect the environment. Scope of Responsibility: NRC's regulatory mission covers three main areas: - Reactors: commercial reactors for generating electric power and non-power reactors used for research, testing, and training; - Materials: uses of nuclear materials in medical, industrial, and academic settings and facilities that produce nuclear fuel; - Waste: transportation, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and waste, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities from service. A Changing Environment: - National security is dominant concern; - Obtain appropriate balance between safety and Security initiatives and Operational activities; - Multiple layers of systems, infrastructures for various licensees. Effective Communication: Not easy; Sound bites galore; Nuclear 'phobia'; Acceptability of risk; Balance of cost and benefits; Responsibility of the regulator, licensees and radiation protection professionals. Prioritized Licensee Groups: - High priority: Panoramic irradiators; manufacturers/distributors; - Medium priority: medical and research facilities, radiography, well-logging, broad-scope licenses, self-shielded irradiators, open-field irradiators, and other licensees; - Low priority: Portable gauges. Increased Security Measures: Security Zone; Control Access; Monitor, Detect, Assess, and Respond; Transportation Security; Additional control to secure portable and mobile devices; Liaison with Local Law Enforcement Agencies; Background Investigations and Fingerprinting; License Verification; Document Retention; Information Protection; Orders/Legally binding requirements to more than 3000 licensees. Orders Issued: Large Panoramic Irradiators Security Measures (60 Orders issued 6/03, Inspections done); Manufacturing and Distribution Licensees

  1. Initial state radiation experiment at MAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Collaboration: A1-Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    In an attempt to contribute further insight into the discrepancy between the Lamb shift and elastic scattering determinations of the proton charge radius, a new experiment at MAMI is underway, aimed at measuring proton form-factors at very low momentum transfers by using a new technique based on initial state radiation. This paper reports on first findings of the pilot measurement performed in 2010, whose main goal was to check the feasibility of the proposed experiment and to recognize and overcome potential obstacles before running the full experiment in 2013.

  2. Shock Initiation of Energetic Materials at Different Initial Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Tarver, C M

    2005-01-14

    Shock initiation is one of the most important properties of energetic materials, which must transition to detonation exactly as intended when intentionally shocked and not detonate when accidentally shocked. The development of manganin pressure gauges that are placed inside the explosive charge and record the buildup of pressure upon shock impact has greatly increased the knowledge of these reactive flows. This experimental data, together with similar data from electromagnetic particle velocity gauges, has allowed us to formulate the Ignition and Growth model of shock initiation and detonation in hydrodynamic computer codes for predictions of shock initiation scenarios that cannot be tested experimentally. An important problem in shock initiation of solid explosives is the change in sensitivity that occurs upon heating (or cooling). Experimental manganin pressure gauge records and the corresponding Ignition and Growth model calculations are presented for two solid explosives, LX-17 (92.5 % triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) with 7.5 % Kel-F binder) and LX-04 (85 % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX) with 15 % Viton binder) at several initial temperatures.

  3. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. PMID:22542604

  4. Enhancing and initiating phage-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T; Chang, Juan T; Liu, Xiangan

    2014-01-01

    Drug development has typically been a primary foundation of strategy for systematic, long-range management of pathogenic cells. However, drug development is limited in speed and flexibility when response is needed to changes in pathogenic cells, especially changes that produce drug-resistance. The high replication speed and high diversity of phages are potentially useful for increasing both response speed and response flexibility when changes occur in either drug resistance or other aspects of pathogenic cells. We present strategy, with some empirical details, for (1) using modern molecular biology and biophysics to access these advantages during the phage therapy of bacterial infections, and (2) initiating use of phage capsid-based drug delivery vehicles (DDVs) with procedures that potentially overcome both drug resistance and other present limitations in the use of DDVs for the therapy of neoplasms. The discussion of phage therapy includes (a) historical considerations, (b) changes that appear to be needed in clinical tests if use of phage therapy is to be expanded, (c) recent work on novel phages and its potential use for expanding the capabilities of phage therapy and (d) an outline for a strategy that encompasses both theory and practice for expanding the applications of phage therapy. The discussion of DDVs starts by reviewing current work on DDVs, including work on both liposomal and viral DDVs. The discussion concludes with some details of the potential use of permeability constrained phage capsids as DDVs. PMID:26713220

  5. Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-03-01

    Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.

  6. Translation initiation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parsyan, Armen; Hernández, Greco; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Targeted screening programs have resulted in early treatment and a substantial decrease in mortality. However, treatment strategies for CRC still require improvement. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of CRC would provide tools for improving treatment of patients with this disease. It is only recently that deregulation of the protein synthesis apparatus has begun to gain attention as a major player in cancer development and progression. Among the numerous steps of protein synthesis, deregulation of the process of translation initiation appears to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. This manuscript discusses a fascinating and rapidly growing field exploring translation initiation as a fundamental component in CRC development and progression and summarizing CRC treatment perspectives based on agents targeting translation initiation. PMID:22418835

  7. Cost estimate of initial SSC experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    The cost of the initial detector complement at recently constructed colliding beam facilities (or at those under construction) has been a significant fraction of the cost of the accelerator complex. Because of the complexity of large modern-day detectors, the time-scale for their design and construction is comparable to the time-scale needed for accelerator design and construction. For these reasons it is appropriate to estimate the cost of the anticipated detector complement in parallel with the cost estimates of the collider itself. The fundamental difficulty with this procedure is that, whereas a firm conceptual design of the collider does exist, comparable information is unavailable for the detectors. Traditionally, these have been built by the high energy physics user community according to their perception of the key scientific problems that need to be addressed. The role of the accelerator laboratory in that process has involved technical and managerial coordination and the allocation of running time and local facilities among the proposed experiments. It seems proper that the basic spirit of experimentation reflecting the scientific judgment of the community should be preserved at the SSC. Furthermore, the formal process of initiation of detector proposals can only start once the SSC has been approved as a construction project and a formal laboratory administration put in place. Thus an ad hoc mechanism had to be created to estimate the range of potential detector needs, potential detector costs, and associated computing equipment.

  8. Astronomical Site Testing Initiatives in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David A. H.; Graham, Edward; Vaughan, Richard; Belay, Solomon; Biressa, Tolu

    2015-08-01

    Two astronomical site testing initiatives are beginning in both Kenya and Ethiopia, with the aim of selecting suitable locations in those countries for modest sized (1-2m) optical telescopes.The first project, in Kenya, has initially involved a desk-top study of ~30 years of low resolution (~80 km) meteorological satellite data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (so called “ERA-reanalysis” data). This was later supplemented by ~2 years of higher resolution (~12 km) United Kingdom Met Office Limited Area Model for Africa (“Africa-LAM”) data, kindly made available by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC).The analysis looked at cloud cover, aerosol distribution, integrated water vapour and wind conditions, On the basis of this study, we determined a number of regions in the north of Kenya, east of the Rift Valley, which show promise as potential observatory sites. We are now in the process of installing Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) at 3 selected sites (~2000-2700 m altitude) to begin monitoring meteorological conditions over the next few years. It is eventually hoped to supplement this study with instrumentation to allow the measurement of sky brightness, local cloud cover and seeing (e.g. with a DIMM system).A similar program of astronomical site testing is due to start in 2015 in the Lalibela region of northern Ethiopia, at three potential dark sky sites with expected relatively low cloud cover, ranging in altitude from ~3600 to 4100 m.

  9. Retrospective Accounts of Injection Initiation in Intimate Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Janie; Rajan, Sonali; McMahon, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of family members, peers and sexual partners on initiation to injection drug use is well established. Furthermore, research on gender differences in injection initiation has recognized the increased vulnerability of women, in particular, to injection-related health risks, and the gendered nature of the injection initiation experience. Yet more research is needed on the interpersonal and structural dynamics that shape injection initiation within intimate partnerships. Methods This paper draws on narrative data from semi-structured ethnographic interviews with 25, relatively stable, drug-using couples from two New York City neighborhoods. The study was conducted between 2007–2009. Our analyses focus on retrospective accounts of injection initiation from IDUs who were initiated to injection (or initiated their partners) in current or former intimate partnerships. In particular we analyze narratives of injection initiation events where both partners participated as initiates or initiators. Results Transition to injection within intimate partnerships was common, especially for women, and occurred in specific contexts. Structural and interpersonal dynamics, including the ubiquity of drugs in poor communities and the gendered nature of drug acquisition and use strategies, as well as the problem of increased drug tolerance, situational impediments to drug access, and the perceived cost-benefit of injecting, all influenced the process of initiation to injection drug use within couples. The data also suggest that, even when risks associated with injection initiation were understood, both pragmatic and emotional considerations within relationships tended to offset concerns about potential dangers. Conclusion The findings suggest the need for a broad range of interventions (including couples-focused interventions) to minimize rates of injection initiation within intimate partnerships. PMID:22398215

  10. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  11. [Initiation and monitoring of contraception].

    PubMed

    Sannisto, Tuire; Kuortti, Marjo; Kuukankorpi, Aki; Niitty, Siina

    2012-01-01

    The majority of those requiring contraception may safely use any available contraceptive method. Each method has, however, its particular contraindications, which should be screened by applying careful anamnesis and focused status, when contraception is being initiated. Gynecologic examination is not a prerequisite for the initiation of hormonal contraception, but measurement and monitoring of blood pressure is important. Testing for sexually transmitted diseases is readily worthwhile. Follow-up visits provide a chance for comprehensive support for a woman or a young person concerning sexual health. PMID:22822602

  12. Beyond CMOS -- The Semiconductor Industry's Nanoelectronics Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coufal, Hans

    2006-03-01

    The tremendously powerful scaling of transistors, that has enabled Moore's Law for the past forty years, can not continue forever. Some of the reasons, such as the atomistic nature of matter, are obvious. Others are less obvious and will be briefly reviewed before some of the potential alternatives to charge based logic will be analyzed. Such an analysis had the semiconductor industry initiate a Nanoelectronics Research Initiative. The current status of this program will be reviewed

  13. Internet 2 Health Sciences Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Internet 2 (I2) health sciences initiative (I2HSI) involves the formulation of applications and supporting technologies, and guidelines for their use in the health sciences. Key elements of I2HSI include use of visualization, collaboration, medical informatics, telemedicine, and educational tools that support the health sciences. Specific…

  14. Big Data Initiatives for Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NAL has developed a workspace for research groups associated with the i5k initiative, which aims to sequence the genomes of all insesct species known to be important to worldwide agriculture, food safety, medicine, and energy production; all those used as models in biology; the most abundant in worl...

  15. Initiative Activities: A Good Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Allan C.

    1980-01-01

    Initiative activities are fabricated problems that require the mental and physical cooperation of a group of 8 to 15 people. A typical activity is the electric fence, in which students are instructed to get everyone over a chest-high barrier without touching it or reaching through it. (Author/IRT)

  16. Greenforce Initiative: Advancing Greener Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwase, Gloria; Keniry, Julian

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bank of America Charitable Foundation and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the National Wildlife Federation (NWF) and Jobs for the Future (JFF) formed the Greenforce Initiative--a two-year venture that will work with community colleges across the nation to strengthen their capacity to implement or refine quality pathways…

  17. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  18. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  19. Cleveland Initiative for Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    The Cleveland Initiative for Education (CIE) is a plan designed by the Greater Cleveland (Ohio) Roundtable, the city's key assembly of civic and corporate leaders, and the Cleveland Public Schools. Its goal is to improve the quality of education, increase the number of high school graduates, and improve graduates' post-secondary opportunities…

  20. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  1. The California Basic Skills Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evolution and implementation of the California Basic Skills Initiative (CA BSI), a statewide effort to address ongoing basic skills and ESL needs of community college students and of all campus faculty, administrators, and staff who support these students. CA BSI strategies include assisting every college in assessing…

  2. Initiative Overview & Summary of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Funders Research Initiative, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Education Funders Research Initiative (EdFunders), a project of Philanthropy New York, is supported by a group of diverse funding organizations that have pursued an array of education reform strategies. EdFunders have come together to engage New Yorkers and focus leaders on new research into how to best prepare students for college and…

  3. Vacuum type D initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    A vacuum type D initial data set is a vacuum initial data set of the Einstein field equations whose data development contains a region where the space–time is of Petrov type D. In this paper we give a systematic characterisation of a vacuum type D initial data set. By systematic we mean that the only quantities involved are those appearing in the vacuum constraints, namely the first fundamental form (Riemannian metric) and the second fundamental form. Our characterisation is a set of conditions consisting of the vacuum constraints and some additional differential equations for the first and second fundamental forms These conditions can be regarded as a system of partial differential equations on a Riemannian manifold and the solutions of the system contain all possible regular vacuum type D initial data sets. As an application we particularise our conditions for the case of vacuum data whose data development is a subset of the Kerr solution. This has applications in the formulation of the nonlinear stability problem of the Kerr black hole.

  4. FLORIDA ATLANTIC COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Florida Atlantic Coastal Environmental Initiative (FACEI) will consist of a multiyear, multidisciplinary research and monitoring program designed to detect and trace a variety of nutrient sources (point and non-point sources) and other major environmental stressors to the coa...

  5. Thermoelasticity of initially heated bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Iesan, D.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is presented for small thermoelastic deformations in a body that has already been subjected to a small thermoelastic deformation. The theory is used to study the torsion of an initally heated cylinder. Equations for isotropic thermoelastic bodies with a constant initial heat flux vector are also presented. 11 references.

  6. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  7. DIOXIN EXPOSURE INITIATIVE ONGOING PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following is a listing and descriptions of projects that are underway in EPA's Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    SOURCES:

    1. Unconventional initiator tRNAs sustain Escherichia coli

      PubMed Central

      Samhita, Laasya; Shetty, Sunil; Varshney, Umesh

      2012-01-01

      Of all tRNAs, initiator tRNA is unique in its ability to start protein synthesis by directly binding the ribosomal P-site. This ability is believed to derive from the almost universal presence of three consecutive G-C base (3G-C) pairs in the anticodon stem of initiator tRNA. Consistent with the hypothesis, a plasmid-borne initiator tRNA with one, two, or all 3G-C pairs mutated displays negligible initiation activity when tested in a WT Escherichia coli cell. Given this, the occurrence of unconventional initiator tRNAs lacking the 3G-C pairs, as in some species of Mycoplasma and Rhizobium, is puzzling. We resolve the puzzle by showing that the poor activity of unconventional initiator tRNAs in E. coli is because of competition from a large pool of the endogenous WT initiator tRNA (possessing the 3G-C pairs). We show that E. coli can be sustained on an initiator tRNA lacking the first and third G-C pairs; thereby reducing the 3G-C rule to a mere middle G-C requirement. Two general inferences following from our findings, that the activity of a mutant gene product may depend on its abundance in the cell relative to that of the WT, and that promiscuous initiation with elongator tRNAs has the potential to enhance phenotypic diversity without affecting genomic integrity, have been discussed. PMID:22829667

    2. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

      SciTech Connect

      Capella, Arthur

      2015-03-04

      The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

    3. Initiation disruptor systems and methods of initiation disruption

      DOEpatents

      Baum, Dennis W

      2014-09-23

      A system that may be used as an initiation disruption system (IDS) according to one embodiment includes an explosive charge; a plurality of particles in a layer at least partially surrounding the explosive charge; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles. A method for disabling an object according to one embodiment includes placing the system as recited above near an object; and causing the explosive charge to initiate, thereby applying mechanical loading to the object such that the object becomes disabled. Additional systems and methods are also presented. A device according to another embodiment includes a plurality of particles bound by a binder thereby defining a sidewall having an interior for receiving an explosive; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles and binder. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

    4. Biodegradation of PAHs in Soil: Influence of Initial PAHs Concentration

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kamil, N. A. F. M.; Talib, S. A.

      2016-07-01

      Most studies on biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) evaluate the effect of initial PAHs concentration in liquid medium. There are limited studies on evaluation in solid medium such as contaminated soil. This study investigated the potential of the bacteria, Corynebacterium urealyticum isolated from municipal sludge in degrading phenanthrene contaminated soil in different phenanthrene concentration. Batch experiments were conducted over 20 days in reactors containing artificially contaminated phenanthrene soil at different concentration inoculated with a bacterial culture. This study established the optimum condition for phenanthrene degradation by the bacteria under nonindigenous condition at 500 mg/kg of initial phenanthrene concentration. High initial concentration required longer duration for biodegradation process compared to low initial concentration. The bacteria can survive for three days for all initial phenanthrene concentrations.

    5. Steel Primer Chamber Assemblies for Dual Initiated Pyrovalves

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Guemsey, Carl S.; Mizukami, Masashi; Zenz, Zac; Pender, Adam A.

      2009-01-01

      A solution was developed to mitigate the potential risk of ignition failures and burn-through in aluminum primer chamber assemblies on pyrovalves. This was accomplished by changing the assembly material from aluminum to steel, and reconfiguration of flame channels to provide more direct paths from initiators to boosters. With the geometric configuration of the channels changed, energy is more efficiently transferred from the initiators to the boosters. With the alloy change to steel, the initiator flame channels do not erode upon firing, eliminating the possibility of burn-through. Flight qualification tests have been successfully passed.

    6. Preliminary Identification of Accident Initiating Events for IFE Power Plants

      SciTech Connect

      Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Latkowsk, J. F.

      2001-10-01

      This paper presents initial results of a task to identify accident initiating events for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs. Initiating events (IEs) are a fundamental building block of a probabilistic risk assessment; they are the ‘accident starters’ that are analyzed to determine the risks posed to members of the public in the vicinity of the power plant. The IE results for the SOMBRERO design are presented in tabular form. The SOMBRERO design was analyzed since it is representative of dry chamber wall, laser driven designs. This work is used to characterize IFE plant risk and to identify potential design changes that would mitigate the plant risk.

    7. Investigation of fast initialization of spacecraft bubble memory systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

      1984-01-01

      Bubble domain technology offers significant improvement in reliability and functionality for spacecraft onboard memory applications. In considering potential memory systems organizations, minimization of power in high capacity bubble memory systems necessitates the activation of only the desired portions of the memory. In power strobing arbitrary memory segments, a capability of fast turn on is required. Bubble device architectures, which provide redundant loop coding in the bubble devices, limit the initialization speed. Alternate initialization techniques are investigated to overcome this design limitation. An initialization technique using a small amount of external storage is demonstrated.

    8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

      SciTech Connect

      Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

      2013-01-01

      The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

    9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

      SciTech Connect

      Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

      2013-03-01

      Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

    10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

      SciTech Connect

      Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

      2013-05-01

      The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

    11. Robonaut Mobile Autonomy: Initial Experiments

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Goza, S. M.; Tyree, K. S.; Huber, E. L.

      2006-01-01

      A mobile version of the NASA/DARPA Robonaut humanoid recently completed initial autonomy trials working directly with humans in cluttered environments. This compact robot combines the upper body of the Robonaut system with a Segway Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid ideal for interacting with human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereovision to locate human teammates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form complex behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

    12. Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions

      SciTech Connect

      Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read jr, Kenneth F.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

      2015-01-01

      We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2

    13. Initiation of a coronal transient

      SciTech Connect

      Low, B.C.; Munro, R.H.; Fisher, R.R.

      1982-03-01

      This paper analyzes the coronal transient/eruptive prominence event of 1980 August 5 observed by the Mauna Loa experiment system. This event yielded data on the early development of the transient in the low corona between 1.2 R/sub sun/ and 2.2 R/sub sun/, information which was not available when earlier attempts were made to explain transient phenomena. The transient's initial appearance in the form of a rising density-depleted structure, prior to the eruption of the associated prominence, can be explained as an effect of magnetic buoyancy. The data indicate that this transient has a density depletion of 17% to 33% relative to an undisturbed corona which is approximately isothermal with a temperature of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ K and a coronal density of 1.0 x 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -3/ at the base of the corona. The height versus base length relationship of the evolving transient resembles, remarkably well, the theoretical predictions obtained from a quasi-static model of a margnetically buoyant loop system. By matching this relationship with the theoretical model, we estimate the magnetic field at the base of the transient to be between 2 and 3 gauss. It is also shown that the initial, nearly constant speed of the top of the transient, 80 +- 20 km s/sup -1/, is consistent with a theoretical estimate calculated from the quasi-static model. These results suggest that some transients are not initiated impulsively, the initial stage of the development being driven by a quasi-static response to a slow change in magnetic field conditions at the base of the corona.

  1. The Southern Ocean CIRCLE initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E. J.; Ellis-Evans, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The circumpolar Southern Ocean is the principal ocean connection between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and exerts a profound influence on world climate through ocean circulation and its major role in the global carbon cycle. It is a major repository of biodiversity and also the only ocean system where significant marine living resources are yet to be fully exploited. However, this key component of the Earth System is still poorly understood, in part due to the logistical problems of a harsh, remote location and the circumpolar nature of the environment. Circumpolar patterns of variability have now been recognized and the current challenge is to understand how, at a circumpolar scale, this variability is generated, its impact on the regional biogeochemical cycles, its interaction with ecosystem processes and the links to global scale processes. Many of these scientific issues can only be addressed by Southern Ocean scale studies, and although a range of national and international research programmes are already targeting particular aspects, the research effort is largely uncoordinated. The European Polar Board is sponsoring a pan-European initiative (Southern Ocean CIRCLE) to coordinate the currently disparate Southern Ocean research effort and this initiative aims to address climate variability, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics with particular reference to the links between these aspects in the circumpolar Southern Ocean. This poster outlines the development of the SO CIRCLE initiative, the major areas of science and proposals for implementation. It also outlines how SO CIRCLE will link to other programmes with a Southern Ocean component (e.g. CLIVAR, CliC, GLOBEC, SOLAS). A key aspect of the initiative will be to coordinate European scientific effort in the Southern Ocean with that of the wider international community.

  2. Louisiana: Status Summary of Statewide Library Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coco, Carolyn, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This summary of library initiatives in Louisiana relating to information technology describes academic library initiatives; multitype library initiatives, including library networks that provide access to the Internet; the state library and public library initiatives, including interlibrary loan services; school library initiatives; and state…

  3. Initial steps of aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Riipinen, I.; Dal Maso, M.; Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hõrrak, U.; Vana, M.; Tammet, H.

    2004-12-01

    The formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols depend on several steps, namely nucleation, initial steps of growth and subsequent - mainly condensational - growth. This work focuses on the initial steps of growth, meaning the growth right after nucleation, where the interplay of curvature effects and thermodynamics has a significant role on the growth kinetics. More specifically, we investigate how ion clusters and aerosol particles grow from 1.5 nm to 20 nm (diameter) in atmospheric conditions using experimental data obtained by air ion and aerosol spectrometers. The measurements have been performed at a boreal forest site in Finland. The observed trend that the growth rate seems to increase as a function of size can be used to investigate possible growth mechanisms. Such a growth rate is consistent with a recently suggested nano-Köhler mechanism, in which growth is activated at a certain size with respect to condensation of organic vapors. The results also imply that charge-enhanced growth associated with ion-mediated nucleation plays only a minor role in the initial steps of growth, since it would imply a clear decrease of the growth rate with size. Finally, further evidence was obtained on the earlier suggestion that atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of fresh nuclei are likely to be uncoupled phenomena via different participating vapors.

  4. Initial steps of aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, O.; Laakso, L.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Riipinen, I.; Dal Maso, M.; Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hõrrak, U.; Vana, M.; Tammet, H.

    2004-09-01

    The formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols depend on several steps, namely nucleation, initial steps of growth and subsequent - mainly condensational - growth. This work focuses on the initial steps of growth, meaning the growth right after nucleation, where the interplay of curvature effects and thermodynamics has a significant role on the growth kinetics. More specifically, we investigate how ion clusters and aerosol particles grow from 1.5 nm to 20 nm in atmospheric conditions using experimental data obtained by air ion and aerosol spectrometers. The measurements have been performed at a boreal forest site in Finland. The observed trend that the growth rate seems to increase as a function of size can be used to investigate possible growth mechanisms. Such a growth rate is consistent with a recently suggested nano-Köhler mechanism, in which growth is activated at a certain size with respect to condensation of organic vapors. The results also imply that charge-enhance growth associated with ion-mediated nucleation plays only a minor role in the initial steps of growth, since it would imply a clear decrease of the growth rate with size. Finally, further evidence was obtained on the earlier suggestion that atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of fresh nuclei are likely to be uncoupled phenomena via different participating vapors.

  5. OPM: The Open Porous Media Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemisch, B.; Flornes, K. M.; Lie, K.; Rasmussen, A.

    2011-12-01

    The principal objective of the Open Porous Media (OPM) initiative is to develop a simulation suite that is capable of modeling industrially and scientifically relevant flow and transport processes in porous media and bridge the gap between the different application areas of porous media modeling, including reservoir mechanics, CO2 sequestration, biological systems, and product development of engineered media. The OPM initiative will provide a long-lasting, efficient, and well-maintained open-source software for flow and transport in porous media built on modern software principles. The suite is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Our motivation is to provide a means to unite industry and public research on simulation of flow and transport in porous media. For academic users, we seek to provide a software infrastructure that facilitates testing of new ideas on models with industry-standard complexity, while at the same time giving the researcher control over discretization and solvers. Similarly, we aim to accelerate the technology transfer from academic institutions to professional companies by making new research results available as free software of professional standard. The OPM initiative is currently supported by six research groups in Norway and Germany and funded by existing grants from public research agencies as well as from Statoil Petroleum and Total E&P Norge. However, a full-scale development of the OPM initiative requires substantially more funding and involvement of more research groups and potential end users. In this talk, we will provide an overview of the current activities in the OPM initiative. Special emphasis will be given to the demonstration of the synergies achieved by combining the strengths of individual open-source software components. In particular, a new fully implicit solver developed within the DUNE-based simulator DuMux could be enhanced by the ability to read industry-standard Eclipse input files and to run on

  6. [Symptom portrayal and initial therapeutic relationship of female and male patients in the initial psychoanalytic interview].

    PubMed

    Grande, T; Wilke, S; Nübling, R

    1992-01-01

    The transcripts of psychoanalytic initial interviews are analyzed in using the "Structural Analysis of Social Behavior" (SASB) by L. S. Benjamin. This instrument was chosen to detect how male and female patients talk about their symptoms, and about previous treatments. The immediate interaction with the interviewer during the dialogue was also described by using SASB. On the basis of only the first patients' utterances after the initial request of the therapists (like "What brings you here?") we can distinguish female and male patients by the quality of the relations described (to the symptoms, the previous physicians, and to the therapist). The sex-specific readiness to establish relationships which becomes apparent in these descriptions can be related to the interview situation itself. In our further argumentation we interpret them as subtle messages to the interviewer. Finally we discuss their inherent potentials and risks for the psychotherapeutic cooperation. PMID:1561845

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Rail Yard Company Site in Perry, Iowa. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail Yard Company site in Perry, Iowa, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the VAG Mine Site in Eden and Lowell, Vermont. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine site in Eden, Vermont, and Lowell, Vermont, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J. W.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Potential Future Shuttle Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward

    2001-01-01

    NASA has just recently completed the 104th flight of the Space Shuttle. Each of the four Orbiters in the Shuttle fleet have a design life of 100 flights each. Thus the fleet is capable of almost 300 more flights, and at current flight rates could potentially operate well past 2020 if necessary. This paper addresses some of the potential Shuttle system improvements that could be considered if the decision is made to continue operations of this vehicle for such an extended period. The national space transportation policy envisions a decision around 2005-2006 concerning readiness to start development of a Shuttle replacement system. Leading up to that decision point NASA is investing in the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to reduce the development risks associated with key technologies needed for the next generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The Shuttle replacement could be a new design RLV or could be based on a Shuttle derived design: i.e., a vehicle based on the current Shuttle but with major design changes. The technology investment strategy of SLI is supportive of either approach. However, if NASA and industry are not ready to develop a replacement vehicle in the 2006-2012 timeframe, then another option would be to continue to make important, but evolutionary changes, to the existing Shuttle fleet. The overall strategy for next generation RLV planning, including possible Shuttle evolution, is captured in Figure 1.

  7. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  8. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  9. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  10. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  11. Reactor safety for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    1991-01-01

    A task force was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a 90-day study to support efforts to determine requirements to meet the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative. The task force identified the need for a nuclear reactor to provide the electrical power required as the outpost power demands on the moon and Mars evolve into hundreds of kilowatts. A preliminary hazards analysis has been performed to examine safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems for representative missions to the moon and Mars. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Potential alternatives to each mission phase were also defined. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for the mission phases. The safety issues decay heat removal, reactor control, disposal, criticality, end-of-mission shutdown, radiation exposure, the Martian environment, high speed impact on the surfaces of the moon or Mars, and return flyby trajectories were identified.

  12. The Murmansk Initiative-RF: Completion

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.; Wester, D. W.; Dyer, R. S.; Sorlie, A. A.; Moller, B.

    2003-02-24

    The Murmansk Initiative-RF (MI) was conceived to provide the Russian Federation (RF) with the capacity to manage low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW) and comply with the requirements of the London Convention that prohibit ocean dumping of these wastes. The Initiative, under a trilateral agreement begun in 1994/95, has upgraded an existing low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment facility, increased its capacity from 1,200 m3 /year to 5,000 m3 /year, and expanded the capability of the facility to treat liquids containing salt (up to 20 g/L). The three parties to the agreement, the Russian Federation, Norway, and the United States, have split the costs for the project. It was the first project of its kind to utilize exclusively Russian subcontractors in the upgrade and expansion of the LLRW treatment plant on the premises of FGUP Atomflot (now FGUP Atomflot) in Murmansk, Russia. The project advanced into the test-operation phase. These start-up activities have include d processing of actual radioactive liquid waste from the Arctic icebreaker fleet, and incorporation of these wastes into a cementation process of Russian design. Initial runs have revealed that procedures for unloading spent ion-exchange sorbents need to be improved and that sludges formed during removal of alkaline-earth metals should be compacted in order for the facility to operate at its full potential. These issues needed a substantial amount of work but have now been resolved, and progress on the final critical phases of the project, including Russian licensing activities will be reported. Discussions will also report on any modifications to the proposed operational schedule or protocols for the now operating facility. ''Lessons Learned'' over the six years of construction through operation are evaluated and discussed.

  13. Initial Characterization of Parallel NFS Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Weikuan; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    Parallel NFS (pNFS) is touted as an emergent standard protocol for parallel I/O access in various storage environments. Several pNFS prototypes have been implemented for initial validation and protocol examination. Previous efforts have focused on realizing the pNFS protocol to expose the best bandwidth potential from underlying file and storage systems. In this presentation, we provide an initial characterization of two pNFS prototype implementations, lpNFS (a Lustre-based parallel NFS implementation) and spNFS (another reference implementation from Network Appliance, Inc.). We show that both lpNFS and spNFS can faithfully achieve the primary goal of pNFS, i.e., aggregating I/O bandwidth from many storage servers. However, they both face the challenge of scalable metadata management. Particularly, the throughput of sp-NFS metadata operations degrades significanlty with an increasing number of data servers. Even for the better-performing lpNFS, we discuss its architecture and propose a direct I/O request flow protocol to improve its performance.

  14. The Murmansk Initiative - RF: Acceptance Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.; Wester, D. W.; Dyer, R. S.; Soerlie, A. A.; Moller, B.; Barnes, E.

    2002-02-26

    The Murmansk Initiative-RF (MI) was conceived to provide the Russian Federation (RF) with the capacity to manage low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW) and comply with the requirements of the London Convention that prohibit ocean dumping. The trilateral project among Norway, the RF, and the United States of America (U.S.) began in 1994 and was the first to utilize exclusively Russian subcontractors to upgrade and expand an existing LLRW treatment plant on the premises of RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia. The project moved quickly through the design phase. Progress during the construction phase was somewhat slower because of difficulties with acquisition of hardware, inexperience with automated instrumentation and control equipment, and unexpected design changes in the cementation unit. The project advanced into the test-operation phase, which is currently underway, in June 2001. Initial runs with liquid waste have revealed that procedures for unloading spent ion-exchange sorbents could be improved and that sludges formed during removal of alkaline-earth metals should be compacted in order for the facility to operate at its full potential. Resolution of these issues is expected within the next few months.

  15. Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) activities in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1994-01-01

    Laser initiated ordnance appears to offer the advantages of greater reliability, enhanced safety, lighter, less costly products, and improvements in spacecraft system designs which can lead to higher operational efficiency. But the lack of flight demonstrations has prevented the application of this new technology into new programs. Hence, a three-phase technology program was initiated by NASA to provide flight proof of their technical and programmatic feasibility: flight demonstration aboard an unmanned commercial vehicle (Pegasus), use as a Space Shuttle payload, and the most demanding of applications, namely, solid rocket motor vehicle ignition and flight termination. The programs investigate, via flight demonstrations the use of fully solid state laser diode systems to reduce potential hazards imposed by stray electrical signals. Inadvertent ignition has proven to cause serious problems. While the current electromechanical have been made safe, the result has been complex systems. Now is the time to take advantage of this new technology to further enhance safety and reliability of spacecraft systems. Two of the three phases are underway; an announcement of opportunity for the third, a sounding rocket flight demonstration, was made at the workshop.

  16. Phosphorylation Stoichiometries of Human Eukaryotic Initiation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Andaya, Armann; Villa, Nancy; Jia, Weitao; Fraser, Christopher S.; Leary, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors are the principal molecular effectors regulating the process converting nucleic acid to functional protein. Commonly referred to as eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors), this suite of proteins is comprised of at least 25 individual subunits that function in a coordinated, regulated, manner during mRNA translation. Multiple facets of eIF regulation have yet to be elucidated; however, many of the necessary protein factors are phosphorylated. Herein, we have isolated, identified and quantified phosphosites from eIF2, eIF3, and eIF4G generated from log phase grown HeLa cell lysates. Our investigation is the first study to globally quantify eIF phosphosites and illustrates differences in abundance of phosphorylation between the residues of each factor. Thus, identification of those phosphosites that exhibit either high or low levels of phosphorylation under log phase growing conditions may aid researchers to concentrate their investigative efforts to specific phosphosites that potentially harbor important regulatory mechanisms germane to mRNA translation. PMID:24979134

  17. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  18. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  19. Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Alkesh

    1999-01-01

    This summer at NASA/MSFC, I have contributed to two projects: Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design and Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstration. In the Web Design Project, I worked on an Outline. The Web Design Outline was developed to provide a foundation for a Hierarchy Tree Structure. The Outline would help design a Website information base for future and near-term missions. The Website would give in-depth information on Propulsion Systems and Interstellar Travel. The Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstrator is discussed in this volume by Russell Lee.

  20. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  1. Initial Decision and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.

    2012-02-29

    Decision and Risk Analysis capabilities will be developed for industry consideration and possible adoption within Year 1. These tools will provide a methodology for merging qualitative ranking of technology maturity and acknowledged risk contributors with quantitative metrics that drive investment decision processes. Methods and tools will be initially introduced as applications to the A650.1 case study, but modular spreadsheets and analysis routines will be offered to industry collaborators as soon as possible to stimulate user feedback and co-development opportunities.

  2. Naked singularities in initial surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtkiewicz, J. )

    1990-03-15

    We consider a singular hypersurface {Sigma}, carrying time-symmetric initial data for the Einstein equations. We assume that the area of the arbitrary two-sphere, enclosing the singularity, is bounded from below by some positive constant. A conformally flat ring,'' or pancake'' singularities having sufficiently large Euclidean radius, can serve as examples. We prove that if the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass associated with such a hypersurface is small enough, then this singularity is naked (i.e., it is not entirely surrounded by an apparent horizon). We suggest that a similar effect appears also for general (i.e., non-time-symmetric) hypersurfaces.

  3. Initial treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tarsy, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    Initial treatment of early idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) begins with diagnosis based on clinical evaluation supplemented by laboratory studies and brain imaging to exclude causes of secondary parkinsonism. In most cases, testing is normal and the diagnosis of PD rests on clinical criteria. In patients with mild symptoms and signs, the diagnosis of PD may not initially be apparent, and follow-up evaluation is needed to arrive at a diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made, pharmacologic treatment may not be the first step. First, patient education is essential, especially because PD is a high-profile disease for which information and misinformation are readily available to patients and families. Counseling concerning prognosis, future symptoms, future disability, and treatment must be provided. Questions from patients concerning diet, lifestyle, and exercise are especially common at this point. The decision of when to initiate treatment is the next major consideration. Much controversy but relatively little light has been brought to bear on this issue. L-dopa was the first major antiparkinson medication to be introduced and remains the "gold standard" of treatment. Next in efficacy are the dopamine agonists (DAs). A debate has raged concerning whether initial dopaminergic treatment should be with L-dopa or DAs. Physicians have been concerned about forestalling the appearance of dyskinesias and motor fluctuations, whereas patients have incorrectly understood that L-dopa and possibly other antiparkinson drugs have a finite duration of usefulness, making it important to defer treatment for as long as possible. This has created "L-dopa phobia," which may stand in the way of useful treatment. In spite of this controversy, there is uniform agreement that the appropriate time to treat is when the patient is beginning to be disabled. This varies from patient to patient and depends on age, employment status, nature of job, level of physical activity, concern about

  4. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    MRCI (configuration interaction) calculations were used to examine possible pathways for the O{sub 2} + CCH reaction. The H{sub 2} + CN potential surface was examined. An initial survey was made of the HCl + CN potential energy surface at a low level of theory.

  5. Stir Up Your BI Initiative!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Graham

    2008-01-01

    A "culture of evidence": The term gets tossed around mightily in higher education these days. But what does it mean? Is it just another catchphrase, or is there a chance that the concept--if realized through to implementation at colleges and universities across the nation--has the potential to change higher education as one knows it? Simply put, a…

  6. Initiating Sustainable Operations at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Orrell, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a preliminary sustainability assessment to identify sustainable projects for potential implementation at its facility in Huntsville, Alabama. This presentation will discuss the results of that assessment, highlighting current and future initiatives aimed at integrating sustainability into daily operations.

  7. Federal Funding Sources for Public Job Creation Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clifford M.; Savner, Steve

    This overview on potential funding sources describes three major federal programs that can provide a financing base for public job creation initiatives serving hard-to-employ welfare recipients and non-custodial parents. Section I is an introduction. Section II focuses on the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Section III…

  8. 31 CFR 92.14 - Initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.14 Initiation of action. (a) When an employee of the United States Mint learns of or discovers a potential violation of 31...

  9. 31 CFR 92.14 - Initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.14 Initiation of action. (a) When an employee of the United States Mint learns of or discovers a potential violation of 31...

  10. 31 CFR 92.14 - Initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.14 Initiation of action. (a) When an employee of the United States Mint learns of or discovers a potential violation of 31...

  11. 31 CFR 92.14 - Initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.14 Initiation of action. (a) When an employee of the United States Mint learns of or discovers a potential violation of 31...

  12. Gearing Up: An Interim Report on the Sectoral Employment Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mark; Roder, Anne; King, Elisabeth; Stillman, Joseph

    A study assessed the first two years of a three-year initiative to test the potential of extending sectoral employment strategies among 10 organizations, most of which were new to the sectoral employment field. Five organizations increasing low-income workers' access to good jobs were ARCH; PhAME; Training, Inc.; WIRE-Net; and Project QUEST. Five…

  13. ECLSS instrumentation technology development for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamant, Bryce L.; Bao, Jinjun; Wieland, Paul; Humphries, William R.

    1991-07-01

    A study of ECLSS instrumentation technologies and an evaluation of SEI ECLSS mission requirements have identified several areas where instrumentation enhancements are required. Attention is given to the ECLSS instrument database fields including development potential, accuracy, cycle time, reliability, resolution, and selectivity. An initial list of instrumentation technologies is recommended for further development to correct each of the deficiencies identified.

  14. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  15. Exemplary Teacher Initiated Programs. Lucretia Crocker Fellows 1986-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    The Lucretia Crocker Program recognizes the importance and potential impact of teacher-initiated innovation in public schools. The program is named for the woman who set up educational programs for emancipated blacks after the Civil War and promoted educational opportunity for blacks and women. Brief descriptions are given of the following…

  16. West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative. Volume 2: Discipline Reviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Seven discipline review papers are presented on the state of the knowledge of West Antarctica and opinions on how that knowledge must be increased to predict the future behavior of this ice sheet and to assess its potential to collapse, rapidly raising the global sea level. These are the goals of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative (WAIS).

  17. Reduction of the Dirichlet problem to an initial value problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalaba, R.; Ruspini, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Although the derivation is concerned with solutions for plane regions with prescribed boundary values, the approach presented could by easily generalized to higher dimensions. The initial-value method is derived by a combination of invariant imbedding techniques and the Fredholm integral equation method of representation of the potential as a function of a dilayer distribution on the boundary of the region in question.

  18. Planning for the Space Exploration Initiative - The nuclear propulsion option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative includes both lunar and Mars program elements as well as robotic science missions. Space transportation is a primary part of all planning for exploration. The high performance propulsion capabilities of nuclear propulsion offer the potential to reduce substantially the flight times to and from Mars and to reduce the mass launched into low earth orbit.

  19. INITIAL SCREENING OF THERMAL DESORPTION FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to present procedures for collecting and evaluating key data that affect the potential application of thermal desorption for a specific site. hese data are defined as "critical success factors". he screening procedure can be used to perform an initial...

  20. Will Arctic sea ice thickness initialization improve seasonal forecast skill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Tietsche, S.

    2014-11-01

    Arctic sea ice thickness is thought to be an important predictor of Arctic sea ice extent. However, coupled seasonal forecast systems do not generally use sea ice thickness observations in their initialization and are therefore missing a potentially important source of additional skill. To investigate how large this source is, a set of ensemble potential predictability experiments with a global climate model, initialized with and without knowledge of the sea ice thickness initial state, have been run. These experiments show that accurate knowledge of the sea ice thickness field is crucially important for sea ice concentration and extent forecasts up to 8 months ahead, especially in summer. Perturbing sea ice thickness also has a significant impact on the forecast error in Arctic 2 m temperature a few months ahead. These results suggest that advancing capabilities to observe and assimilate sea ice thickness into coupled forecast systems could significantly increase skill.

  1. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS INITIATING AGENTS IN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    PCBs are carcinogens, but for many decades it was assumed that PCBs may not possess initiating activity. Initiation is a process that involves changes in the DNA sequence, often, but not exclusively produced through DNA adduction by a reactive compound or reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA adducts can be detected by 32P-postlabeling, a method that Dr. Ramesh Gupta co-developed and refined. Today these types of assays together with other mechanistic studies provide convincing evidence that specific PCB congeners can be biotransformed to genotoxic and therefore potentially initiating metabolites. This review will provide an overview of our current knowledge of PCBs genotoxic potential and mechanism of action, emphasizing the contributions of Dr. Ramesh Gupta during his tenures at the Universities of Kentucky and Louisville. PMID:23211541

  2. Initial management of temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Syrop, Steven B

    2002-08-01

    The existing dental literature does not support the superiority of any one type of treatment to manage TMD. Few studies meet rigorous scientific standards of the randomized clinical trial. This has led to enormous controversy. The initial management of TMD does not have to be controversial. Noninvasive, reversible modalities can be employed that carry very little risk and a high degree of success (Table 4). The success rate of this approach has been studied and determined to be 75% to 90%. Of course, not every patient will get better with this approach. For those who do not improve more advanced techniques must be used, and referral to specialists in TMD, neurology, and rehabilitation medicine may be required. A few patients will need surgery. Initial treatment of TMD requires relatively simple modalities, such as patient education, adherence to a soft diet, reducing oral habits, self-directed home physical therapy, muscle relaxation, the use of medication, and the proper use of bite plates. The majority of TMD patients will respond successfully to these basic treatments. PMID:12221818

  3. Phillips Laboratory small satellite initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutey, Mark K.; Imler, Thomas A.; Davis, Robert J.

    1993-09-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Space Experiments Directorate in conjunction with the Air Force Space Test Program (AF STP), Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA) and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), are managing five small satellite program initiatives: Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sponsored by SDIO, Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) sponsored by SDIO, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, TechSat sponsored by SDIO, and the Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus (ATSSB) sponsored by DARPA. Each of these spacecraft fulfills a unique set of program requirements. These program requirements range from a short-lived `one-of-a-kind' mission to the robust multi- mission role. Because of these diverging requirements, each program is driven to use a different design philosophy. But regardless of their design, there is the underlying fact that small satellites do not always equate to small missions. These spacecraft with their use of or ability to insert new technologies provide more capabilities and services for their respective payloads which allows the expansion of their mission role. These varying program efforts culminate in an ATSSB spacecraft bus approach that will support moderate size payloads, up to 500 pounds, in a large set of orbits while satisfying the `cheaper, faster, better' method of doing business. This technical paper provides an overview of each of the five spacecraft, focusing on the objectives, payoffs, technologies demonstrated, and program status.

  4. TeraScale Supernova Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, A.; TeraScale Supernova Initiative Collaboration

    2002-05-01

    The TeraScale Supernova Initiative is a national collaboration centered at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and involves eight universities. TSI has as its central focus to ascertain the explosion mechanism(s) for core collapse supernovae and to understand and predict their associated phenomenology, including neutrino signatures, gravitational radiation emission, and nucleosynthesis. TSI is an interdisciplinary effort of astrophysicists, nuclear physicists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists. Multidimensional hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and radiation hydrodynamics simulations that implement state of the art nuclear and weak interaction physics are planned in order to understand the roles of neutrino transport, stellar convection and rotation, and magnetic fields in the supernova mechanism. Scalable algorithms for the solution of the large sparse linear systems of equations that arise in radiation transport applications and a customized collaborative visualization environment will be developed also. TSI's latest results and future efforts will be discussed. The TeraScale Supernova Initiative is funded by grants from the DoE (1) High Energy and Nuclear Physics and (2) Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences SciDAC Programs.

  5. The Saudi Initiative for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Zeitouni, Mohamed O.; Alanezi, Mohammed O.; Al-Jahdal, Hamdan H.; Al Dabbagh, Maha

    2009-01-01

    The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system. PMID:19881170

  6. Control of Initialized Fractional-Order Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    2004-01-01

    Fractional-Order systems, or systems containing fractional derivatives and integrals, have been studied by many in the engineering area. Additionally, very readable discussions, devoted specifically to the subject, are presented by Oldham and Spanier, Miller and Ross, and Pudlubny (1999a). It should be noted that there are a growing number of physical systems whose behavior can be compactly described using fractional system theory. Of specific interest to electrical engineers are long lines, electrochemical processes, dielectric polarization, colored noise, viscoelastic materials, and chaos. With the growing number of applications, it is important to establish a theory of control for these fractional-order systems, and for the potential use of fractional-order systems as feedback compensators. This topic is addressed in this paper. The first section discusses the control of fractional-order systems using a vector space representation, where initialization is included in the discussion. It should be noted that Bagley and Calico and Padovan and Sawicki both present a fractional state-space representation, which do not include the important historic effects. Incorporation of these effects based on the initialized fractional calculus is presented . The control methods presented in this paper are based on the initialized fractional order system theory. The second section presents an input-output approach. Some of the problems encountered in these sections are: a) the need to introduce a new complex plane to study the dynamics of fractional-order systems, b) the need to properly define the Laplace transform of the fractional derivative, and c) the proper inclusion of the initialization response in the system and control formulation. Following this, the next section generalizes the proportional-plus-integral-control (PI-control) and PID-control (PI-plus- derivative) concepts using fractional integrals. This is then further generalized using general fractional- order

  7. Atomistic simulation of detonation initiation by ultra-short impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzov, S. A.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    We present results of the classical molecular dynamics simulation of detonation initiation in simple AB model of a high explosive compressed by ultra-short shock wave (SW). The simplified reactive empirical bond order potential (REBO) defines interatomic forces in the AB model explosive made up of diatomic AB molecules. Simulation of ultra-short piston-driven compression of AB explosive with duration of picoseconds represents an indirect initiation via a thin metal foil irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse. We studied transition of SW to a detonation wave (DW), including evolution of calculated pressure profile in a sample. A run distance to detonation of such AB explosive film, which is required for detonation initiation, was obtained. Variation of loading time and piston velocity gives a 2D region of transition from SW to DW. The influence of pores on detonation initiation threshold is discussed.

  8. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  9. The international surface temperature initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  10. Redox Initiation of Bulk Thiol-Ene Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Megan A.; Jankousky, Katherine C.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    The unique formation-structure-property attributes and reaction behavior of the thiol-ene “click” reaction have been explored extensively for photochemically and thermally initiated reactions but have been much less explored for redox initiation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to characterize fully the impact of the initiation system, monomer structure, degree of functionalization, and inhibitor level on the redox-mediated thiol-ene polymerization rate and behavior. Moreover, this study confirms the ability of redox initiation to achieve full conversion of desired thiol-ene “click” products for small molecules in solution. For the multifunctional thiol-ene systems, polymerization rate was shown to be comparable to photo- and thermally initiated systems, but with the additional advantages of unlimited depth of cure and mild reaction conditions. Additionally, the network properties of the redox-initiated thiol-ene systems were on par with a photocured material formulated with identical monomers and radical initiating potential. Lastly, control over the polymerization rate and preceding induction period was garnered from the concentration of inhibitor included in the reaction mixture. The mechanism of action of quinone inhibition in redox-mediated thiol-ene polymerizations is shown to depend on both the presence of an aniline reducing agent and the concentration of inhibitor, with quinone concentrations in great excess of oxidizing agent concentrations actually leading to heightened polymerization rates when aniline is present. PMID:23565125

  11. Micmac Strategic Energy Planning Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Corey

    2007-02-02

    In February 2005 the Aroostook Band of Micmacs submitted a grant application to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Tribal First Steps Program. The purpose of the application was to request funding and technical assistance to identify and document Tribal energy issues, develop a Tribal energy vision, evaluate potential energy opportunities, and to develop an action plan for future Tribal energy activities. The grant application was subsequently funded by DOE, and the Aroostook Band of Micmacs hired an energy consultant to assist with completion of the project. In addition to identification and documentation of Tribal energy issues, and the development of a Tribal energy vision, the potential for wind energy development on Tribal land, and residential energy efficiency issues were thoroughly evaluated.

  12. 21 CFR 12.120 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Division of Dockets Management and served upon all participants. Once the initial decision is... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial decision. 12.120 Section 12.120 Food and... PUBLIC HEARING Initial and Final Decisions § 12.120 Initial decision. (a) The presiding officer...

  13. 7 CFR 1737.10 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial contact. 1737.10 Section 1737.10 Agriculture... Preapplication Stage § 1737.10 Initial contact. Initial loan applicants seeking assistance should write the Rural.... Existing borrowers initiate the contact directly with their assigned field representative....

  14. 21 CFR 12.120 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Initial decision. 12.120 Section 12.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL FORMAL EVIDENTIARY PUBLIC HEARING Initial and Final Decisions § 12.120 Initial decision. (a) The presiding officer shall prepare and file an initial decision as...

  15. 39 CFR 966.10 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 966.10 Section 966.10 Postal... ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSETS INITIATED AGAINST FORMER EMPLOYEES OF THE POSTAL SERVICE § 966.10 Initial decision. (a... post-hearing briefs, the Hearing Official shall issue a written initial decision, including findings...

  16. 22 CFR 521.37 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Initial decision. 521.37 Section 521.37 Foreign... Initial decision. (a) The ALJ shall issue an initial decision based only on the record, which shall... § 521.31. (c) The ALJ shall promptly serve the initial decision on all parties within 90 days after...

  17. 10 CFR 820.31 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial decision. 820.31 Section 820.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.31 Initial decision. (a) Initial Decision. The Presiding Officer shall file an Initial Decision as soon as...

  18. The Gaia Initial Quasar Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, H.; Antón, S.; Taris, F.; Bourda, G.; Souchay, J.; Bouquillon, J.; Barache, C.; Pereira Osorio, J. J.; Charlot, P.; Vieira Martins, R.; Lambert, S.; Camargo, J. I.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Assan, M.; le Campion, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    We present the latest, updated, and fully corrected version of the Gaia Initial QSO Catalog (GIQC), produced by the CU3 GWP-S-335-13000. It contains 1 248 372 objects, of which 191 802 are considered and marked as Defining ones, because of their observational history and existence of spectroscopic redshift. Also objects with strong, calibrator-like radio emission are included in this category. The Defining objects represent a clean sample of quasars. The remaining objects aim to bring completeness to the GIQC at the time of its compilation. For the whole GIQC the average density is 30.3 sources per sq.deg., practically all sources have an indication of magnitude and of morphological indexes, and 90% of the sources have an indication of redshift and of variability indexes.

  19. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  20. Foc/costar Initial Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrzejewski, Robert

    1997-07-01

    In this proposal, the (assumed small) errors in the re-deployment of the COSTARDOB and FOC arms will be corrected. This will be accomplished in a way that issimilar to what was done for SMOV1, proposal 5272 (FOC/COSTAR Coarse Adjustment). After an initial Interactive Acquisition, there will be threeiterations of the following sequence: 1. Take FOC exposure. 2. Transmit image to the ground by RT ANALYSIS. 3. Analyze image to determine (focus, coma) aberrations 4. Determine the adjustments to the COSTAR DOB and FOC M1 arm tilts that will remove these aberrations 5. Uplink the corrections to COSTAR.Two targets (HZ4 and BPM16274) are provided to ensure that at least one targetis available, whenever the program is executed.

  1. Worldwide Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Maria C; Bain, Lisa J; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Weiner, Michael W

    2012-07-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was launched in 2003 to speed drug development by validating imaging and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease clinical treatment trials. ADNI is a naturalistic (nontreatment) multisite longitudinal study. A true public-private partnership, the first phase of ADNI (ADNI 1) set a new standard for data sharing without embargo. In addition, it has been extended to 2017 by additional funding (North American-ADNI Grand Opportunities and ADNI 2) as well as multiple projects around the world, collectively known as Worldwide ADNI (WW-ADNI). The goal of WW-ADNI is to harmonize projects and results across different geographical sites and to encourage and harmonize data management and availability to investigators around the world. WW-ADNI projects are currently underway in North America, Europe, Japan, Australia, Korea, Taiwan, and Argentina, with a nascent program in China and a possible future program in Brazil. PMID:22748939

  2. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  3. Initial performance parameters on FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Innes, T.G.; Kihara, R.; Scarpetti, R.D.

    1982-06-11

    Construction of the new flash x-ray induction LINAC (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been completed. Initial tuning of the machine has produced stable current pulses in excess of 2 kA at the design energy of 20 MeV, with an 80 ns FWHM pulse width, producing single-pulse radiation doses near 500 Roentgen at one meter from the target. The electronic spot size on the bremsstrahlung target is estimated at 3 to 5 mm. In this paper we will discuss the basic FXR design; running-in and tuning of the machine; emittance measurements; beam stability; switch gap synchronization; and measurements of the radiation dose and angular distribution.

  4. Direct laser initiation of PETN

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J. W.; Kennedy, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1970s Yang and Menichelli demonstrated that direct laser illumination of low-density secondary explosive prr:ssings through a transparent window could produce detonation. 'The energy requirement for threshold initiation of detonation was reduced when a thin metal coating of metal covered the side of the window against which the low-density explosive was pressed. We have obtained experimental results that are in general agreement with the results of Renllund, Stanton and Trott (1 989) and recent: work by Nagayama, hou and Nakahara (2001). We report exploration of the effects of laser beam diameter, PEiTN density and specific surface area, and thickness of a titanium coating on the window.

  5. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  6. The International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nat, Gopalswamy; Joseph, Davila; Barbara, Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is a program of international cooperation aimed at understanding the external drivers of space weather. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009 and will continue with those aspects that directly affect life on Earth. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This presentation outlines the ISWI program including its organizational aspects and proposed activities. The ISWI observatory deployment and outreach activities are highly complementary to the CAWSES II activities of SCOSTEP.

  7. Initial Performance Assessment of CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David; Hunt, Bill; McGill, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP, pronounced the same as "calliope") is a spaceborne two-wavelength polarizatio n lidar that has been acquiring global data since June 2006. CALIOP p rovides high resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols, and has been designed with a very large linear dynamic range to encompas s the full range of signal returns from aerosols and clouds. CALIOP is the primary instrument carried by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrar ed Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite, which was l aunched on April, 28 2006. CALIPSO was developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. I nitial data analysis and validation intercomparisons indicate the qua lity of data from CALIOP meets or exceeds expectations. This paper presents a description of the CALIPSO mission, the CALIOP instrument, an d an initial assessment of on-orbit measurement performance.

  8. Science initiative for international development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    A new initiative to use science to address global development challenges was launched by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) on 7 July. Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) will capitalize on competitively awarded investments to support and build scientific and technical capacity in the developing world, according to the agencies. USAID has allocated $7 million for PEER, which the agencies indicate could leverage an additional $25-50 million in NSFfunded research at U.S. institutions to focus on issues including climate change, disaster mitigation, water, renewable energy, and food security. The program is beginning with six pilot programs in Asia and Africa, including fostering a Bangladeshi seismological community, studying the impacts of land use on biodiversity dynamics in Burkina Faso, and examining climate change and integrated resource management around Agougou Natural Pond in Mali.

  9. Subduction Initiation in Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction is often reported to be difficult to initiate, yet in the West Pacific and Eastern Indonesia there are many young subduction zones. Few theoretical or modelling studies consider such settings in which subduction commonly began close to boundaries between ocean crust and thickened crust of arc or continental origin. In Eastern Indonesia there are subduction zones at different stages of development. Some young examples such as the Banda Arc developed by propagation of an existing trench into a new area by tearing, probably along an ocean-continent boundary. This 'solves' the problem since the older subducted slab provides the driving force to drag down unsubducted ocean lithosphere. However, similar explanations cannot account for other subduction zones, such as North Sulawesi, nearby examples in which the subducted slab is not yet at 100 km depth, or troughs where subduction appears to be beginning. These examples show that subduction initiated at a point, such as a corner in an ocean basin, where there were very great differences in elevation between land and adjacent ocean floor. Depression of ocean crust by flow of arc/continent crust is associated with granitic magmatism and detachments within the upper crust. Once the oceanic corner reaches depths of c.100 km, eclogite formation may lead to slab pull that causes the new subduction zone to grow in both directions along strike; arc magmatism may or may not begin. The close relationship between subduction and extension in Eastern Indonesia links dramatic elevation of land, exhumation of deep crust, and spectacular subsidence of basins imaged by oil exploration seismic and multibeam data. Exhumed granites and high-grade metamorphic rocks at elevations up to 3 km, separated by Neogene alluvial sediments from carbonate reefs now at depths of 2 kilometres, imply vertical movements of several kilometres in a few million years. These observations raise the question of whether subduction is driving extension

  10. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph; Gopalswamy, Nathanial; Thompson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, has come to an end. The IHY was a major international event of great interest to the member States, which involved the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. We propose to continue the highly successful collaboration between the heliophysics science community and the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. One of the major thrust of the IHY was to deploy arrays of small instruments such as magnetometers, radio antennas, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, particle detectors, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of heliospheric phenomena. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) played a major role in this effort. Scientific teams were organized through UNBSS, which consisted of a lead scientist who provided the instruments or fabrication plans for instruments in the array. As a result of the this program, scientists from UNBSS member states now participate in the instrument operation, data collection, analysis, and publication of scientific results, working at the forefront of science research. As part of this project, support for local scientists, facilities and data acquisition is provided by the host nation. In addition, support at the Government level is provided for local scientists to participate. Building on momentum of the IHY, we propose to continue the highly successful collaboration with the UNBSS program to continue the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments, and to continue to coordinate the deployment and operation of new and existing instrument arrays aimed at understanding the impacts of Space Weather on Earth and the near-Earth environment. Toward this end, we propose a new program, the International Space

  11. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, has come to an end. The IHY was a major international event of great interest to the member States, which involved the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. We propose to continue the highly successful collaboration between the heliophysics science community and the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. One of the major thrust of the IHY was to deploy arrays of small instruments such as magnetometers, radio antennas, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, particle detectors, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of heliospheric phenomena. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) played a major role in this effort. Scientific teams were organized through UNBSS, which consisted of a lead scientist who provided the instruments or fabrication plans for instruments in the array. As a result of the this program, scientists from UNBSS member states now participate in the instrument operation, data collection, analysis, and publication of scientific results, working at the forefront of science research. As part of this project, support for local scientists, facilities and data acquisition is provided by the host nation. In addition, support at the Government level is provided for local scientists to participate. Building on momentum of the IHY, we propose to continue the highly successful collaboration with the UNBSS program to continue the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments, and to continue to coordinate the deployment and operation of new and existing instrument arrays aimed at understanding the impacts of Space Weather on Earth and the near-Earth environment. Toward this end, we propose a new program, the International Space

  12. National accelerated coated conductor initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Peterson, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The national Accelerated Coated Conductor Initiative (ACCI) is committed to assuring continued U.S. leadership in the development of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wire for electric power and other applications of national interest. Increased energy efficiency, power density, and power-to-weight ratio are just a few of the tangible benefits that will be possible if today's meter lengths of HTS wire based upon the compound yttrium-barium-copper-oxygen (YBCO) can be scaled up by U.S. industry to kilometer lengths. This paper presents an evaluation of the current state of the development of coated conductor technology and a vision for its future. The challenges that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and their industrial and university partners face will be presented against the backdrop of the history of superconductivity program achievements. It is the purpose of this initiative to accelerate the development, commercialization, and application of high temperature superconductors through joint efforts among DOE laboratories, American industry, and universities, so that future challenges of the electric power industry can be met. Based on their advances in HTS coated conductor development in a program funded by the DOE's Office of Power Technologies, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories lead and support this effort by improving their own capabilities, including equipment, facilities, and technical expertise. Each laboratory has, in 2001, acquired new laboratory space, new capital equipment, and new personnel with the goal of working closely with U.S. companies to take technologies invented in the labs and demonstrated in 1-m lengths and transfer these technologies to the commercial sector. The present status of the performance of the second-generation YBCO wires will be described, and the future plans of the national laboratories will be presented. Opportunities for collaboration are discussed, as well. .

  13. Cultural initiation of medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre

    2013-12-01

    Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process. PMID:24611314

  14. A corona discharge initiated electrochemical electrospray ionization technique.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John R; Hess, Sonja

    2009-11-01

    We report here the development of a corona discharge (CD) initiated electrochemical (EC) electrospray ionization (ESI) technique using a standard electrospray ion source. This is a new ionization technique distinct from ESI, electrochemistry inherent to ESI, APCI, and techniques using hydroxyl radicals produced under atmospheric pressure conditions. By maximizing the observable CD at the tip of a stainless steel ESI capillary, efficient electrochemical oxidation of electrochemically active compounds is observed. For electrochemical oxidation to be observed, the ionization potential of the analyte must be lower than Fe. Ferrocene labeled compounds were chosen as the electrochemically active moiety. The electrochemical cell in the ESI source was robust, and generated ions with selectivity according to the ionization potential of the analytes and up to zeptomolar sensitivity. Our results indicate that CD initiated electrochemical ionization has the potential to become a powerful technique to increase the dynamic range, sensitivity, and selectivity of ESI experiments. PMID:19747843

  15. Revised CTUIR Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Cox; Thomas Bailor; Theodore Repasky; Lisa Breckenridge

    2005-10-31

    This preliminary assessment of renewable energy resources on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (UIR) has been performed by CTUIR Department of Science and Engineering (DOSE). This analysis focused primarily identifying renewable resources that may be applied on or near the Umatilla Indian Reservation. In addition preliminary technical and economic feasibility of developing renewable energy resources have been prepared and initial land use planning issues identified. Renewable energies examined in the course of the investigation included solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, bioethanol, bio-diesel and bio-pellet fuel. All renewable energy options studied were found to have some potential for the CTUIR. These renewable energy options are environmentally friendly, sustainable, and compliment many of the policy goals of the CTUIR. This report seeks to provide an overall review of renewable energy technologies and applications. It tries to identify existing projects near to the CTUIR and the efforts of the federal government, state government and the private sector in the renewable energy arena. It seeks to provide an understanding of the CTUIR as an energy entity. This report intends to provide general information to assist tribal leadership in making decisions related to energy, specifically renewable energy deve lopment.

  16. Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong; Cui, Chunhong; Liu, Dan; Li, Qiuping; Yang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Guoqiang; Sun, Shuhui; Gu, Jianxin; Wei, Yuanyan; Jiang, Jianhai

    2010-07-09

    Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was a positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Massachusetts Military Reservation. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, B.; Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying photovoltaics (PV) systems on a superfund site located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.17/kWh and incentives offered in the State of Massachusetts, such as the solar renewable energy credits. According to calculations, MMR can place 8 MW of ballast-weighted, ground-mounted PV systems on the crowns of the three landfill caps and the borrow pit with the PV modules tilted at 30 degrees.

  18. Initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado; Kroon, Juan A. Valiente

    2007-01-15

    A characterization of initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime is provided. This characterization is obtained by performing a 3+1 decomposition of a certain invariant characterization of the Schwarzschild spacetime given in terms of concomitants of the Weyl tensor. This procedure renders a set of necessary conditions--which can be written in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor and their concomitants--for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set. Our approach also provides a formula for a static Killing initial data set candidate--a KID candidate. Sufficient conditions for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set are obtained by supplementing the necessary conditions with the requirement that the initial data set possesses a stationary Killing initial data set of the form given by our KID candidate. Thus, we obtain an algorithmic procedure of checking whether a given initial data set is Schwarzschildean or not.

  19. Digital Earth Initiative: A Joint Interagency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    1999-01-01

    The Digital Earth is a virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural information gathered about the Earth. The Digital Earth comprises data interfaces and standards enabling access to geo-referenced data from remote sensing, cartographic, demographic, medical, and other sources to respond to questions posed by the user. In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional representation of the planet, into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. As prototypes become available, it would also be possible to interact with the Digital Earth in multiple places around the country with access to high-speed networks and at a more limited level of access over the Internet. NASA was asked by the Vice President to lead an interagency initiative that would take steps to bring this vision to the public. This talk describes the start-up and plans of the Digital Earth Interagency Working Group in the formulation of its charter, an architecture reference model for Digital Earth, public/private partnerships, cooperative agreement notices, Digital Earth prototypes, and testbeds. Animations employing technologies for virtual roaming and zooming through multi-resolution satellite data set as prototype systems will be presented along with examples of potential user scenarios. Plans for engaging academia and industry in implementing the Digital Earth initiative will be discussed.

  20. Process Engineering Technology Center Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centeno, Martha A.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing as a world-class Spaceport Technology Center (STC). From a process engineering (PE) perspective, the facilities used for flight hardware processing at KSC are NASA's premier factories. The products of these factories are safe, successful shuttle and expendable vehicle launches carrying state-of-the-art payloads. PE is devoted to process design, process management, and process improvement, rather than product design. PE also emphasizes the relationships of workers with systems and processes. Thus, it is difficult to speak of having a laboratory for PE at KSC because the entire facility is practically a laboratory when observed from a macro level perspective. However, it becomes necessary, at times, to show and display how KSC has benefited from PE and how KSC has contributed to the development of PE; hence, it has been proposed that a Process Engineering Technology Center (PETC) be developed to offer a place with a centralized focus on PE projects, and a place where KSC's PE capabilities can be showcased, and a venue where new Process Engineering technologies can be investigated and tested. Graphics for showcasing PE capabilities have been designed, and two initial test beds for PE technology research have been identified. Specifically, one test bed will look into the use of wearable computers with head mounted displays to deliver work instructions; the other test bed will look into developing simulation models that can be assembled into one to create a hierarchical model.

  1. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the initiation of the strong-field magnetic explosions that produce large, fast coronal mass ejections. Cartoons based on observations are used to describe the inferred basic physical processes and sequences that trigger and drive the explosion. The magnetic field that explodes is a sheared-core bipole that may or may not be embedded in surrounding strong magnetic field, and may or may not contain a flux rope before it starts to explode. We describe three different mechanisms that singly or in combination trigger the explosion: (1) runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection, (2) runaway external tether-cutting reconnection, and (3) ideal MHD instability or loss or equilibrium. For most eruptions, high-resolution, high-cadence magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal movies (such as from TRACE and/or Solar-B) of the pre-eruption region and of the onset of the eruption and flare are needed to tell which one or which combination of these mechanisms is the trigger. Whatever the trigger, it leads to the production of an erupting flux rope. Using a simple model flux rope, we demonstrate that the explosion can be driven by the magnetic pressure of the expanding flux rope, provided the shape of the expansion is "fat" enough.

  2. Medical simulation training initiative (MSTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Magee, J. Harvey; Moses, Gerald; Leitch, Robert; Dawson, Steven L.

    2000-08-01

    Now that we are in the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important is how we train in peace for the realities of conflict. Training 100,000 active duty military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. A more effective solution may be training through computer simulation. Success requires a strategic plan and coordination among experts in their own fields, e.g., medical personnel, engineers, to ensure useful, valuable products. Research and development in fundamental sciences is required to permit realistic representations of anatomy and medical procedures. Enabling technologies are required, e.g., tissue modeling, haptics, physiological representations, systems architecture, learning systems. Medical Simulation Training Initiative (MSTI) is a visionary military program to develop a multi- functional simulation platform based on a personal computer, with 3-D imaging of anatomic compartments or body structures. Interfaces will likely be an exoskeletal robotic device, haptic gloves, and other interactive devices. MSTI will provide risk-free, realistic learning environments for the spectrum of medical skills training. This will enhance hands-on training opportunities and revolutionize how we train medically. High fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices. Engineering designers can then test devices in varieties of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to practice medicine.

  3. Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2004-05-10

    The fundamental picture that shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives is caused by the linking of hot spots formed at inhomogeneities was put forward by several researchers in the 1950's and 1960's, and more recently. Our work uses the computer hardware and software developed in the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the U.S. Department of Energy to explicitly include heterogeneities at the scale of the explosive grains and to calculate the consequences of realistic although approximate models of explosive behavior. Our simulations are performed with ALE-3D, a three-dimensional, elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler finite-difference program, which includes chemical kinetics and heat transfer, and which is under development at this laboratory. We developed the parameter values for a reactive-flow model to describe the non-ideal detonation behavior of an HMX-based explosive from the results of grain-scale simulations. In doing so, we reduced the number of free parameters that are inferred from comparison with experiment to a single one - the characteristic defect dimension. We also performed simulations of the run to detonation in small volumes of explosive. These simulations illustrate the development of the reaction zone and the acceleration of the shock front as the flame fronts start from hot spots, grow, and interact behind the shock front. In this way, our grain-scale simulations can also connect to continuum experiments directly.

  4. Current Legislative Initiatives and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S. G.

    2002-05-01

    Geophysical research will be most effective in the fight against terrorism if it is done in cooperation with the expectations of local, state and federal policy makers. New tools to prevent, prepare for, and respond to acts of terrorism are coming from all fields, including geoscience. Globally, monitoring the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space for unusual and suspicious activities can help prevent terrorist acts. Closer to home, geoscience research is used to plan emergency transportation routes and identify infrastructure vulnerabilities. As important as it is for Congress and other policy makers to appreciate the promises and limitations of geophysical research, scientists need to be aware of legislative priorities and expectations. What does Congress expect from the geoscience community in the fight against terrorism and how well does reality meet these expectations? What tools do the 44 different federal agencies with stated Homeland Security missions need from geoscientists? I will address these questions with an overview of current legislative antiterrorism initiatives and policies that relate to the geoscience community.

  5. Women take initiative in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    Improvements in the health of Vietnamese people is currently being hampered by the lack of medical equipment and medicine. This, despite strong governmental commitment and a vast national health care system that serves the grassroots through a network of village health stations. Vietnam needs strong support to overcome these serious shortages according to Dr Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, Vicechairwoman of the National Assembly of Vietnam. The JOICFP has initiated an Integrated Project (IP) to tackle women's reproductive health issues. The IP supports activities to send supplies and medical equipment from Japan to pilot communes. The Nagano Chapter of the Women's League has been supporting grassroots projects in Vietnam with donations of equipment and funds. Woman play a critical role in development because they account for 50% of the population and work under the double burden of family and employment. In Vietnam, women are a political force that link the government with the grassroots organizations. O the 496 members of Parliament, 88 are women. The IP has greatly improved contraceptive availability. Now condoms, IUDs, the pill are available. Greater access to gynecological examinations are also made possible by the IP. The women of Japan have a lot to offer the women of Vietnam. Their experiences of post World War II allowed them to develop a very effective system of maternal/child health care in this period. The lessons they learned during this time can be of immense value to the health care system of Vietnam. PMID:12285342

  6. Critical Initial Flaw Size Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Cheston, Derrick J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The USS consists of several "tuna can" segments that are approximately 216 inches in diameter, 115 inches tall, and 0.5 inches thick. A 6 inch wide by 1 inch thick flange is welded to the skin and is used to fasten adjacent tuna cans. A schematic of a "tuna can" and the location of the flange-to-skin weld are shown in Figure 1. Gussets (shown in yellow in Figure 1) are welded to the skin and flange every 10 degrees around the circumference of the "tuna can". The flange-to-skin weld is a flux core butt weld with a fillet weld on the inside surface, as illustrated in Figure 2. The welding process may create loss of fusion defects in the weld that could develop into fatigue cracks and jeopardize the structural integrity of the Ares I-X vehicle. The CIFS analysis was conducted to determine the largest crack in the weld region that will not grow to failure within 4 lifetimes, as specified by NASA standard 5001 & 5019 [1].

  7. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  8. Simulation of Initiation in Hexanitrostilbene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Aidan; Shan, Tzu-Ray; Yarrington, Cole; Wixom, Ryan

    We report on the effect of isolated voids and pairs of nearby voids on hot spot formation, growth and chemical reaction initiation in hexanitrostilbene (HNS) crystals subjected to shock loading. Large-scale, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed using the reactive force field (ReaxFF) as implemented in the LAMMPS software. The ReaxFF force field description for HNS has been validated previously by comparing the isothermal equation of state to available diamond anvil cell (DAC) measurements and density function theory (DFT) calculations. Micron-scale molecular dynamics simulations of a supported shockwave propagating in HNS crystal along the [010] orientation are performed (up = 1.25 km/s, Us =4.0 km/s, P = 11GPa.) We compare the effect on hot spot formation and growth rate of isolated cylindrical voids up to 0.1 µm in size with that of two 50nm voids set 100nm apart. Results from the micron-scale atomistic simulations are compared with hydrodynamics simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lock- heed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  10. Sun protection initiatives in Cornwall.

    PubMed

    Morris, J M; Gould, D; Bennett, S; Bastin, J; Salter, L; Watt, A

    2005-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that there are significant numbers of cases of malignant melanoma in the UK. In order to assess the current position with regard to sun awareness in Cornwall, a questionnaire survey of all state primary school heads (n = 123) and a survey of a random sample of GP practices (n = 9) was carried out. The data obtained were supported by visits to libraries and Tourist Information Centres at urban and rural centres--this enabled the identification of sun awareness literature. Key health professionals who worked within the field of health promotion were also contacted. The findings showed that in Cornwall public campaigns organized around the issue of sun protection took place only sporadically, although GP surgeries usually organize a display at the appropriate time of the year. None of the public places (e.g. Tourist Information Centres, libraries) surveyed had sun protection messages on display. It is concluded that insufficient sun awareness initiatives were being undertaken in Cornwall. Although most primary schools included sun awareness education in their curriculum in a form based on the Sun Awareness Guidelines produced by the Department of Health in 1995, few schools considered further measures to protect pupils on hot and sunny days. In particular the provision of shade, the scheduling of outdoor activities and the use of sunscreen and protective clothing were not standard. PMID:15953062

  11. Solar initiative at Oukaimeden Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Meriwether, John W.

    2013-07-01

    The solar research program at Oukaimeden Observatory started in 1988 with the helioseimological IRIS network. The Moroccan researchers involved in this research have analyzed solar observations in order to detect and characterize the solar sphere modes of oscillations. In the coming year, the researchers at the Oukaimeden Observatory will add new research capabilities by joining the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), installing a suite of optical instruments, comprising a Remote Equatorial Nighttime Observatory of Ionospheric Regions (RENOIR). The scope and objectives to be achieved in this proposed project are to: • deploy a Fabry-Perot interferometer and wide-angle imaging system to the Observatoire Astronomique Universitaire de LOukaimeden; • train students and researchers from Cadi Ayyad University on the operation of the equipment and related analysis techniques; • collect and analyze data from the equipment to study properties of upper-atmospheric winds and temperatures and how they relate to the occurrence of space weather; and • develop an international collaboration network with other researchers using similar instrumentation in Brazil and Peru. We will present here the plan we intend to develop for the Moroccan solar program in connection with ISWI.

  12. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  13. Final Report: Multi-State Sharing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Begoli, Edmon; Boehmann, Brant; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    In 2003 a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Department of Justice created state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers. These fusion centers were an effort to share law enforcement, disaster, and terrorism related information and intelligence between state and local jurisdictions and to share terrorism related intelligence between state and local law enforcement agencies and various federal entities. In 2006, DHS commissioned the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to establish and manage a groundbreaking program to assist local, state, and tribal leaders in developing the tools and methods required to anticipate and forestall terrorist events and to enhance disaster response. This program, called the Southeast Region Research Initiative (SERRI), combines science and technology with validated operational approaches to address regionally unique requirements and suggest regional solutions with the potential for national application. In 2009, SERRI sponsored the Multistate Sharing Initiative (MSSI) to assist state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers with sharing information related to a wider variety of state interests than just terrorism. While these fusion centers have been effective at sharing data across organizations within their respective jurisdictions, their organizational structure makes bilateral communication with federal entities convenient and also allows information to be further disbursed to other local entities when appropriate. The MSSI-developed Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) sharing system allows state-to-state sharing of non-terrorism-related law enforcement and disaster information. Currently, the MSSI SAR system is deployed in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, and South Carolina. About 1 year after implementation, cognizant fusion center personnel from each state were contacted to ascertain the status of their MSSI SAR systems. The overwhelming response from these individuals was that the MSSI

  14. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOEpatents

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  15. Subsea production equipment standardization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    George, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines Shell Expro`s work in simplifying and standardizing its subsea production systems on 10,000 psi, 300 F rated equipment through the use of proven technology and configured to meet common interface requirements. A modular ``building block`` approach to design was adopted, whereby trees are easily converted from one style to another (oil, water or gas lift) by the addition or removal of bolt-on, pre-engineered packages. Standardization of associated control systems has also been applied, together with series hook-up of trees for small developments. A common top-of-tree interface enables vendor interchangeability of tooling. The use of ROV compatible designs for choke and control module change out are expected to provide significant operational cost savings. Common interfaces allow cross-sharing of tooling systems between projects and potentially other operators, and are the catalyst for vendors to develop rental tooling pools.

  16. Bioeconomy Initiative at MBI International

    SciTech Connect

    Kleff, Susanne, Ph.D.

    2011-11-30

    Di-carboxylic acids have the potential to replace petrochemicals used in the polymer industry (Werpy and Petersen, 2004). MBI developed a process for the production of succinic acid using a proprietary organism. During this work MBI assessed the feasibility to produce other carboxylic acids either using A. succinogenes or other organisms. The development of recombinant A. succinogenes strain derivatives for a mono-carboxylic acid through over-expression of enzymatic activities was successful. Fermentations achieved titers of 58 g/L for this organic acid. Recombinant strains that produced the same acid, but a different stereoisomer, reached titers of 10 g/L. Attempts to increase the titers for this isomer as well as other organic acids were unsuccessful. MBI is looking for commercial partners to pursue the development of recombinant A. succinogenes strains for the production of other organic acids. Attempts to develop recombinant strains of A. succinogenes for fumaric acid production through introduction of various antisense RNA constructs were unsuccessful. Alternative suitable organisms were evaluated and Rhizopus oryzae, a natural fumaric acid producer with potential for process improvements, was selected. A novel fermentation and one-step recovery process was developed that allowed capture of IP, produced titers of >80 g/L with a productivity of 1.8 g/L-h and 57% (g/g glucose) yield. The process was scaled to 2000 L pilot scale. The economic analysis projected a production cost of 72 c/lb. Recycling and re-use of the base was demonstrated and incorporated into the process. The ability of the organism to produce fumaric acid from other carbon sources and biomass hydrolysate was demonstrated. The production of other organic acids was evaluated and techno-economic de-risking roadmap documents were prepared.

  17. Process Engineering Technology Center Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centeno, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing as a world-class Spaceport Technology Center (STC). From a process engineering (PE) perspective, the facilities used for flight hardware processing at KSC are NASA's premier factories. The products of these factories are safe, successful shuttle and expendable vehicle launches carrying state-of-the-art payloads. PE is devoted to process design, process management, and process improvement, rather than product design. PE also emphasizes the relationships of workers with systems and processes. Thus, it is difficult to speak of having a laboratory for PE at K.S.C. because the entire facility is practically a laboratory when observed from a macro level perspective. However, it becomes necessary, at times, to show and display how K.S.C. has benefited from PE and how K.S.C. has contributed to the development of PE; hence, it has been proposed that a Process Engineering Technology Center (PETC) be developed to offer a place with a centralized focus on PE projects, and a place where K.S.C.'s PE capabilities can be showcased, and a venue where new Process Engineering technologies can be investigated and tested. Graphics for showcasing PE capabilities have been designed, and two initial test beds for PE technology research have been identified. Specifically, one test bed will look into the use of wearable computers with head mounted displays to deliver work instructions; the other test bed will look into developing simulation models that can be assembled into one to create a hierarchical model.

  18. Catholic Health Initiatives at 10.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joyce M

    2007-01-01

    The summer of 2006 marked the 10th anniversary of the formation of Denver-based Catholic Health Initiatives (CHI). Formed in 1996 as the result of the merger of three Catholic health care systems, and soon joined by a fourth, the system integrated a diverse collection of health care facilities previously sponsored by 12 different religious congregations. It was the first Catholic health system to give laity a sponsorship role in its facilities. CHI's facilities are sponsored by a public juridic person (PJP), the Catholic Health Care Federation (CHCF). The same people who sit on the system's board also constitute CHCF. They are thus responsible for both governance and sponsorship. CHI was the first Catholic health care system to give laypersons a sponsorship role in its facilities. Establishing the PJP was a long and complex task. Eventually, the church determined that CHI's PJP should be pontifical, accountable to the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life in Rome. CHCF in 1991 became the first PJP in health care in the United States. CHI's staff, led by its first president and chief executive officer, Patricia Cahill, quickly took steps to help the new system begin to coalesce, establishing a single, systemwide pension plan, debt policy, and so forth. Also challenging was the creation of a systemwide new culture. An essential step in the development of CHI's culture was the involvement of employees in the identification of its core values: reverence, integrity, compassion, and excellence, The creation of CHI's Mission and Ministry Fund also helped give the system an identity. This fund provides grants to programs that take an innovative approach to building healthy communities, a goal expressed in CHI's mission and vision statements. The people who created CHI and nurtured it during its first decade give it high marks for faithful adherence to its mission. Even so, they acknowledge that there is always more work to be done

  19. A model for leaf initiation

    PubMed Central

    Abraham-Shrauner, Barbara; Pickard, Barbara G

    2011-01-01

    A biophysical model is proposed for how leaf primordia are positioned on the shoot apical
    meristem in both spiral and whorl phyllotaxes. Primordia are initiated by signals that propagate
    in the epidermis in both azimuthal directions away from the cotyledons or the most recently
    specified primordia. The signals are linear waves as inferred from the spatial periodicity of the
    divergence angle and a temporal periodicity. The periods of the waves, which represent actively
    transported auxin, are much smaller than the plastochron interval. Where oppositely directed
    waves meet at one or more angular positions on the periphery of the generative circle, auxin
    concentration builds and as in most models this stimulates local movement of auxin to
    underlying cells, where it promotes polarized cell division and expansion. For higher order
    spirals the wave model requires asymmetric function of auxin transport; that is, opposite wave
    speeds differ. An algorithm for determination of the angular positions of leaves in common leaf
    phyllotaxic configurations is proposed. The number of turns in a pattern repeat, number of leaves
    per level and per pattern repeat, and divergence angle are related to speed of auxin transport and
    radius of the generative circle. The rule for composition of Fibonacci or Lucas numbers
    associated with some phyllotaxes is discussed. A subcellular model suggests how the shoot
    meristem might specify either symmetric or asymmetric transport of auxin away from the
    forming primordia that produce it. Biological tests that could make or break the mathematical
    and molecular hypotheses are proposed. PMID:22212121

  20. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  1. Friedmann equation with quantum potential

    SciTech Connect

    Siong, Ch'ng Han; Radiman, Shahidan; Nikouravan, Bijan

    2013-11-27

    Friedmann equations are used to describe the evolution of the universe. Solving Friedmann equations for the scale factor indicates that the universe starts from an initial singularity where all the physical laws break down. However, the Friedmann equations are well describing the late-time or large scale universe. Hence now, many physicists try to find an alternative theory to avoid this initial singularity. In this paper, we generate a version of first Friedmann equation which is added with an additional term. This additional term contains the quantum potential energy which is believed to play an important role at small scale. However, it will gradually become negligible when the universe evolves to large scale.

  2. Genomes to Life Diversity Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Thomas

    2010-03-15

    This was a collaborative initiative between Western Carolina University, Furman University and the University of North Carolina-Asheville. At each of the institutions, funds from the grant award were used for the acquisition of mostly microscopy laboratory equipment, supporting supplies and necessary training as appropriate. The distribution of funds was: $495,000 Western Carolina University; $130,000 Furman University; $100,000 University of North Carolina-Asheville for a total of $725,000 total award from DOE. Western Carolina University purchased significant instrumentation with funds from this award that included among others, fermenters, a Confocal microscope, and an automated sequencer. The fermenters have been used in research and courses and to prepare biochemical materials for research and courses. The Confocal microscope has provided Western students and faculty with unique imaging opportunities not generally available except in medical schools. Unlike regular optical microscopy, confocal microscopy offers a three-dimensional image that can be viewed from different angles. In addition, the device has been set up to be controlled from remote locations, providing high school and institutions of higher education students across Western North Carolina with the opportunity to use state-of-the-art instrumentation from their location. One of the goals of this collaboration was to get more high school students interested in science. The automated sequencer has become a very significant instructional and research tool. It has been widely used for characterizing the oak genome, which has very significant implications for Western North Carolina. More recently, it has been used for groundbreaking forensic science research. This device has been used to create a database to identify unidentified persons. The instrument has also been used in several undergraduate and graduate courses, where students learn the principles and operation of this very important instrument

  3. 30 CFR 57.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiation systems. 57.6308 Section 57.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6308 Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiation systems. 56.6308 Section 56.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions....

  5. 45 CFR 79.37 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial decision. 79.37 Section 79.37 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.37 Initial decision. (a) The ALJ shall issue an initial decision based only on the record,...

  6. Tobacco Initiation among Early Adolescent Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of tobacco knowledge and attitudes, degree of acculturation, and gender with tobacco use initiation among early adolescent Mexican Americans. Surveys of fifth graders indicated that lack of knowledge about tobacco and positive attitudes toward smoking were the most predictive of tobacco initiation. Initiation rates were…

  7. 22 CFR 223.8 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial decision. 223.8 Section 223.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.8 Initial decision. The examiner shall issue an initial decision based exclusively...

  8. 22 CFR 223.8 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Initial decision. 223.8 Section 223.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.8 Initial decision. The examiner shall issue an initial decision based exclusively...

  9. 40 CFR 27.37 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 27.37 Section 27.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.37 Initial decision. (a) The presiding officer shall issue an initial decision based only on the record....

  10. 30 CFR 104.2 - Initial screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial screening. 104.2 Section 104.2 Mineral... VIOLATIONS § 104.2 Initial screening. At least once each year, MSHA shall review the compliance records of... considered as part of the initial screening: (1) Enforcement measures, other than section 104(e) of the...

  11. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  12. 40 CFR 22.27 - Initial Decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waives its rights to judicial review. An initial decision that is appealed to the Environmental Appeals... party appeals the initial decision to the Environmental Appeals Board; (3) A party moves to set aside a default order that constitutes an initial decision; or (4) The Environmental Appeals Board elects...

  13. 40 CFR 22.27 - Initial Decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waives its rights to judicial review. An initial decision that is appealed to the Environmental Appeals... party appeals the initial decision to the Environmental Appeals Board; (3) A party moves to set aside a default order that constitutes an initial decision; or (4) The Environmental Appeals Board elects...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial measurement. 56.19022 Section 56.19022... Ropes § 56.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs, the... active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent measurements. A...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial measurement. 57.19022 Section 57.19022... Wire Ropes § 57.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial measurement. 56.19022 Section 56.19022... Ropes § 56.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs, the... active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent measurements. A...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1432 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial measurement. 77.1432 Section 77.1432... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1432 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1432 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial measurement. 77.1432 Section 77.1432... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1432 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial measurement. 56.19022 Section 56.19022... Ropes § 56.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs, the... active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent measurements. A...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1432 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial measurement. 77.1432 Section 77.1432... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1432 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial measurement. 57.19022 Section 57.19022... Wire Ropes § 57.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1432 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial measurement. 77.1432 Section 77.1432... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1432 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial measurement. 57.19022 Section 57.19022... Wire Ropes § 57.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial measurement. 57.19022 Section 57.19022... Wire Ropes § 57.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial measurement. 56.19022 Section 56.19022... Ropes § 56.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs, the... active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent measurements. A...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial measurement. 56.19022 Section 56.19022... Ropes § 56.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs, the... active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent measurements. A...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1432 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial measurement. 77.1432 Section 77.1432... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1432 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19022 - Initial measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial measurement. 57.19022 Section 57.19022... Wire Ropes § 57.19022 Initial measurement. After initial rope stretch but before visible wear occurs... interval of active length and the measurements averaged to establish a baseline for subsequent...

  9. 16 CFR 5.64 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial decision. 5.64 Section 5.64... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.64 Initial decision. Section 3.51 of the Commission's Rules of Practice shall govern the initial decision in proceedings...

  10. Framework for Evaluating Educational Systemic Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegulu, T. Nelson

    This paper describes the implementation of the Holistic Systemic Evaluation (HSE), a component of an Education Systemic Initiative's strategic management. The HSE provides general guidance for the implementation and continual improvement of an Education Systemic Initiative Reform (ESIR). The implementation of the education system initiative plan:…

  11. 30 CFR 56.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation systems. 56.6308 Section 56.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions....

  12. 30 CFR 57.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation systems. 57.6308 Section 57.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6308 Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used...

  13. 39 CFR 3060.31 - Initial filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial filing. 3060.31 Section 3060.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.31 Initial filing. The due date for filing the initial Statement...

  14. 10 CFR 824.13 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial decision. 824.13 Section 824.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.13 Initial decision. (a) The Hearing Officer shall issue an initial decision as soon as practicable after the hearing. The...

  15. 10 CFR 824.13 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial decision. 824.13 Section 824.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.13 Initial decision. (a) The Hearing Officer shall issue an initial decision as soon as practicable after the hearing. The...

  16. Online Faculty Satisfaction and Quality Enhancement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, Anita G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine possible effects of an institution's quality enhancement initiatives on the job satisfaction of online faculty. Quality enhancement initiatives are a normal part of the accreditation process and faculty shoulder some of the responsibility for success of those initiatives. Therefore, it is imperative that…

  17. 39 CFR 3060.31 - Initial filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial filing. 3060.31 Section 3060.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.31 Initial filing. The due date for filing the initial Statement...

  18. 20 CFR 355.37 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial decision. 355.37 Section 355.37... REGULATIONS UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.37 Initial decision. (a) The ALJ shall issue an initial decision based only on the record, which shall contain findings of fact, conclusions...

  19. 20 CFR 260.1 - Initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial decisions. 260.1 Section 260.1... RECONSIDERATION AND APPEALS WITHIN THE BOARD § 260.1 Initial decisions. (a) General. Claims for benefits shall be adjudicated and initial decisions made by the Board concerning: (1) Applications for benefits under...

  20. 39 CFR 953.12 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 953.12 Section 953.12 Postal... § 953.12 Initial decision. Unless given orally at the conclusion of the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge shall render an initial decision as expeditiously as practicable after the conclusion of...

  1. 20 CFR 498.220 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial decision. 498.220 Section 498.220... EXCLUSIONS § 498.220 Initial decision. (a) The ALJ will issue an initial decision, based only on the record... decision to all parties within 60 days after the time for submission of post-hearing briefs or reply...

  2. 10 CFR 1013.37 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial decision. 1013.37 Section 1013.37 Energy... decision. (a) The ALJ shall issue an initial decision based only on the record, which shall contain... described in § 1013.31 of this part. (c) The ALJ shall promptly serve the initial decision on all...

  3. 39 CFR 965.11 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 965.11 Section 965.11 Postal... § 965.11 Initial decision. The presiding officer shall render an initial decision in writing, based on... closing of the record. The decision will be brief, containing summary findings of fact, conclusions of...

  4. 39 CFR 962.20 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 962.20 Section 962.20 Postal... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 962.20 Initial decision. (a) After the conclusion of the hearing, and the receipt of briefs, if any, from the parties, the Presiding Officer shall issue a written initial...

  5. 39 CFR 954.19 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 954.19 Section 954.19 Postal..., SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.19 Initial decision. (a) Upon request of either party the presiding officer may render an oral initial decision at the close of the hearing...

  6. 5 CFR 185.137 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial decision. 185.137 Section 185.137 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.137 Initial decision. (a) The ALJ shall issue an initial decision based only on the record,...

  7. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1993-01-01

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  8. US initiative on joint implementation: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    More than 150 countries are now Party to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which seeks as its ultimate objective, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the global climate system. As a step towards that goal, all Parties are to take measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to promote cooperation in the development and diffusion of technologies and practices that control or reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. In the U.S. view, efforts between countries or entities within them to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions undertaken cooperatively, termed joint implementation (JI), holds significant potential both for reducing the threat of global climate change and for promoting sustainable development. To develop and operationalize the JI concept, the U.S. launched its Initiative on Joint Implementation (IJI) in October, 1993, and designed a program to attract private sector resources and to encourage the diffusion of innovative technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The goals of U.S. IJI complement the principles of Decision 5, First Conference of the FCCC Parties, establishing an Activities Implemented Jointly pilot phase.

  9. Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

  10. Towards a comparable carbon footprint for local initiatives: The FP7 project TESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    TESS (Towards European Societal Sustainability -- www.tess-transition.eu) is a three-year, European-wide research project. It aims to reach an understanding of the potential for community-led initiatives to help deliver a truly sustainable, low-carbon future. Transitions to low-carbon societies take place at multiple and complementary scales. Transition processes are highly dependent on the innovative potential of community-based initiatives and their articulation with appropriate institutional architecture. Community-based initiatives are potentially more adaptable and less constrained by current structural circumstances than top-down policies and can give impetus to large-scale and technology driven changes. TESS will provide an understanding on the upscaling possibilities of such high-potential community-based initiatives by addressing two main questions: What is the impact of community-based initiatives in terms of carbon reduction potential and economic effect? What institutional structures (values, policies and mechanisms) support these initiatives in persisting beyond the initial phase and moving into an acceleration phase, spreading desired impacts? Answers will be provided through (1) a novel measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) framework for benchmarking community-based initiatives. This will enable quantifiable, comparable and standardised evaluation, and (2) the identification of success factors for the emergence, persistence and diffusion of promising initiatives, including online initiatives. We will identify these initiatives through case studies across regions and sectors and produce a systemic understanding of their impact on societal transitions towards sustainability. Our research will be integrated and transdisciplinary, with the unique opportunity to bring together social and natural scientists to foster a transition towards European societal sustainability. Our work will feed into and extend the Climate Adapt database to facilitate

  11. Initiation codon selection is accomplished by a scanning mechanism without crucial initiation factors in Sindbis virus subgenomic mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Translation initiation of alphavirus subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) can occur in the absence of several initiation factors (eIFs) in infected cells; however, the precise translation mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we have examined the mechanism of initiation and AUG selection in Sindbis virus (SINV) sgmRNA. Our present findings suggest that sgmRNA is translated via a scanning mechanism, since the presence of a hairpin structure before the initiation codon hampers protein synthesis directed by this mRNA. In addition, translation is partially recovered when an in-frame AUG codon is placed upstream of this hairpin. This scanning process takes place without the participation of eIF4A and active eIF2. These results, combined with our findings through modifying the SINV sgmRNA leader sequence, do not support the possibility of a direct initiation from the start codon without previous scanning, or a shunting mechanism. Moreover, studies carried out with sgmRNAs containing two alternative AUG codons within a good context for translation reveal differences in AUG selection which are dependent on the cellular context and the phosphorylation state of eIF2α. Thus, initiation at the additional AUG is strictly dependent on active eIF2, whereas the genuine AUG codon can start translation following eIF2α inactivation. Collectively, our results suggest that SINV sgmRNA is translated by a scanning mechanism without the potential participation of crucial eIFs. A model is presented that explains the mechanism of initiation of mRNAs bearing two alternative initiation codons. PMID:25404563

  12. Initiation codon selection is accomplished by a scanning mechanism without crucial initiation factors in Sindbis virus subgenomic mRNA.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Moreno, Manuel; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Translation initiation of alphavirus subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) can occur in the absence of several initiation factors (eIFs) in infected cells; however, the precise translation mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we have examined the mechanism of initiation and AUG selection in Sindbis virus (SINV) sgmRNA. Our present findings suggest that sgmRNA is translated via a scanning mechanism, since the presence of a hairpin structure before the initiation codon hampers protein synthesis directed by this mRNA. In addition, translation is partially recovered when an in-frame AUG codon is placed upstream of this hairpin. This scanning process takes place without the participation of eIF4A and active eIF2. These results, combined with our findings through modifying the SINV sgmRNA leader sequence, do not support the possibility of a direct initiation from the start codon without previous scanning, or a shunting mechanism. Moreover, studies carried out with sgmRNAs containing two alternative AUG codons within a good context for translation reveal differences in AUG selection which are dependent on the cellular context and the phosphorylation state of eIF2α. Thus, initiation at the additional AUG is strictly dependent on active eIF2, whereas the genuine AUG codon can start translation following eIF2α inactivation. Collectively, our results suggest that SINV sgmRNA is translated by a scanning mechanism without the potential participation of crucial eIFs. A model is presented that explains the mechanism of initiation of mRNAs bearing two alternative initiation codons. PMID:25404563

  13. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research

  14. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  15. Initiation and Regulation of Complement during Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Sean R.; Winkler, Anne M.; Maier, Cheryl L.; Arthur, C. Maridith; Smith, Nicole H.; Girard-Pierce, Kathryn R.; Cummings, Richard D.; Zimring, James C.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Hemolytic transfusion reactions represent one of the most common causes of transfusion-related mortality. Although many factors influence hemolytic transfusion reactions, complement activation represents one of the most common features associated with fatality. In this paper we will focus on the role of complement in initiating and regulating hemolytic transfusion reactions and will discuss potential strategies aimed at mitigating or favorably modulating complement during incompatible red blood cell transfusions. PMID:23118779

  16. Molecular Pathogenesis of Sporadic Melanoma and Melanoma-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yunyi; Kumar, Suresh M.; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and cancer stem cell biology have shed some light on the molecular basis of melanomagenesis. In this review, we will focus on major genetic alterations in the melanoma, particularly pathways involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. The potential role of melanoma-initiating cells during melanomagenesis and progression will also be discussed. Understanding pathogenesis of melanoma may uncover new diagnostic clues and therapeutic targets for this increasingly prevalent disease. PMID:21128770

  17. Initial studies of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.P.; Porter, L.S.; Ives, S.A.; Wong, J.T.F.

    1984-03-01

    Initial studies were performed to examine the potential of perfused dextran-hemoglobin to protect pig skin or mouse bone marrow cells against radiation damage. Some protection was indicated in both systems. In the pig skin a protection factor of 1.5 was observed for moist desquamation, and 2.0 for necrosis. These results suggest the possibility of using blood substitutes to induce tissue hypoxia for therapeutic purposes.

  18. Waveguide BEC Interferometry with Painted Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshier, Malcolm; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Samson, Carlo; Ryu, Changhyun

    2015-05-01

    Waveguide atom interferometers offer the possibility of long measurement times in a compact geometry, which can be an advantage over free space interferometers if the dephasing due to interatomic interactions can be controlled. We are investigating waveguide BEC interferometers created with the painted potential, a technique which allows for the creation and manipulation of BECs in arbitrary 2D potentials. The goal is to measure a linear acceleration of the device. The painted potential allows new approaches to the initial splitting of the BEC. For example, instead of smoothly deforming a single well potential into a double well, it is possible instead to gradually remove a weak link coupling two initially separated waveguides. This strategy should reduce excitations created in the splitting process. We are currently implementing such schemes and measuring the coherence time of the BEC after division. We will present the results of these measurements, and report progress towards measuring linear accelerations. Supported by LANL/LDRD.

  19. Centrality and initial formation time dependence of the emission of thermal photons from fluctuating initial conditions at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Rupa; Holopainen, Hannu; Renk, Thorsten; Eskola, Kari J.

    2013-08-01

    Event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions (IC) in the ideal hydrodynamic calculation are known to enhance the production of thermal photons significantly compared to a smooth initial state averaged profile in the range pT > 1GeV / c for 200A GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC and 2.76A TeV Pb + Pb collisions at LHC. The 'hotspots' or the over-dense regions in the fluctuating IC produce more high pT photons compared to the smooth IC due to the strong temperature dependent emission of the thermal radiation. This enhancement is expected to be more pronounced for peripheral collisions, for lower beam energies, and for larger values of plasma formation time. A suitably normalized ratio of central to peripheral yield of thermal photons (Rcpγ) is a potential probe to study the density fluctuations and their size in the initial conditions.

  20. A Corona Discharge Initiated Electrochemical Electrospray Ionization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    We report here the development of a corona discharge (CD) initiated electrochemical (EC) electrospray ionization (ESI) technique using a standard electrospray ion source. This is a new ionization technique distinct from ESI, electrochemistry inherent to ESI, APCI, and techniques using hydroxyl radicals produced under atmospheric pressure conditions. By maximizing the observable CD at the tip of a stainless steel ESI capillary, efficient electrochemical oxidation of electrochemically active compounds is observed. For electrochemical oxidation to be observed, the ionization potential of the analyte must be lower than Fe. Ferrocene labeled compounds were chosen as the electrochemically active moiety. The electrochemical cell in the ESI source was robust and generated ions with selectivity according to the ionization potential of the analytes and up to zeptomolar sensitivity. Our results indicate that CD initiated electrochemical ionization has the potential to become a powerful technique to increase the dynamic range, sensitivity and selectivity of ESI experiments. Synopsis Using a standard ESI source a corona discharge initiated electrochemical ionization technique was established resulting from the electrochemistry occurring at the CD electrode surface. PMID:19747843