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Sample records for bioactive glass scaffolds

  1. Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds: in vitro degradation and bioactivity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhai; Fu, Hailuo; Yao, Aihua; Wang, Deping; Pan, Haobo; Lu, William W; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Xiuli

    2009-06-01

    Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds with the pores of several hundred micrometers and a competent compressive strength were prepared through replication method. The in vitro degradation and bioactivity behaviors of the scaffolds have been investigated by immersing the scaffolds statically in diluted phosphate solution at 37 degrees C, up to 360 h. To monitor the degradation progress of the scaffolds, the amount of leaching elements from the scaffolds were determined by ICP-AES. The XRD and SEM results reveal that, during the degradation of scaffolds, the borosilicate scaffolds converted to hydroxyapatite. The compressive strength of the scaffolds decreased during degradation, in the way that can be well predicted by the degradation products, or the leachates, from the scaffolds. MTT assay results demonstrate that the degradation products have little, if any, inhibition effect on the cell proliferation, when diluted to a certain concentration ([B] <2.690 and pH value at neutral level). The study shows that borosilicate glass scaffold could be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering material. PMID:19184371

  2. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent exchange process. Although both techniques lower the surface area of BG scaffolds, the temperature-dependent sintering process closes nanopores through densification, while the concentration-dependent solvent exchange process enlarges nanopores through Ostwald-ripening type coarsening. Therefore, nanopore size and surface area of BG scaffold are independently controlled using these methods. In vitro cell and in vivo animal tissue responses have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the nano-macro porous BG scaffold. The cells are found to migrate and penetrate deep into the 3D nano-macro porous structure, while exhibiting excellent adhesion to the bioscaffold surface. Importantly, the new tissue with both blood vessels and collagen fibers is formed deep inside the implanted scaffolds without obvious inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our observations show biological benefits of the nanopores in the BG scaffold. In comparison to BG scaffold without nanopores, cells migrate and penetrate into nano-macro dual-porous BG scaffold faster and deeper mainly because of the increase of surface area. To study the effect of nanopore topography, we fabricated BG scaffolds with the same surface area but different nanopore sizes. It is found that the initial cell attachment is significantly enhanced on the BG scaffold with the same surface area but smaller nanopores size, indicating that the nanopore topography strongly influences the performance of BG scaffold. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate most clearly the usefulness of our nano-macro dual-porous BG as a novel and superior 3D bioscaffold for regenerative medicine and hard tissue engineering.

  3. Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration and their hierarchical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Jones, J R; Lin, S; Yue, S; Lee, P D; Hanna, J V; Smith, M E; Newport, R J

    2010-12-01

    Scaffolds are needed that can act as temporary templates for bone regeneration and actively stimulate vascularized bone growth so that bone grafting is no longer necessary. To achieve this, the scaffold must have a suitable interconnected pore network and be made of an osteogenic material. Bioactive glass is an ideal material because it rapidly bonds to bone and degrades over time, releasing soluble silica and calcium ions that are thought to stimulate osteoprogenitor cells. Melt-derived bioactive glasses, such as the original Bioglass composition, are available commercially, but porous scaffolds have been difficult to produce because Bioglass and similar compositions crystallize on sintering. Sol-gel foam scaffolds have been developed that avoid this problem. They have a hierarchical pore structure comprising interconnected macropores, with interconnect diameters in excess of the 100 microm that is thought to be needed for vascularized bone ingrowth, and an inherent nanoporosity of interconnected mesopores (2-50 nm) which is beneficial for the attachment of osteoprogenitor cells. They also have a compressive strength in the range of cancellous bone. This paper describes the optimized sol-gel foaming process and illustrates the importance of optimizing the hierarchical structure from the atomic through nano, to the macro scale with respect to biological response. PMID:21287826

  4. High strength bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Baino, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2009-02-01

    This research work is focused on the preparation of macroporous glass-ceramic scaffolds with high mechanical strength, equivalent with cancellous bone. The scaffolds were prepared using an open-cells polyurethane sponge as a template and glass powders belonging to the system SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaO-MgO-Na(2)O-K(2)O. The glass, named as CEL2, was synthesized by a conventional melting-quenching route, ground and sieved to obtain powders of specific size. A slurry of CEL2 powders, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder and water was prepared in order to coat, by a process of impregnation, the polymeric template. A thermal treatment was then used to remove the sponge and to sinter the glass powders, in order to obtain a replica of the template structure. The scaffolds were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, morphological observations, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage, image analysis, capillarity tests, mechanical tests and in vitro bioactivity evaluation. PMID:18941868

  5. Tailoring properties of porous Poly (vinylidene fluoride) scaffold through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Huang, Wei; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Xiong; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of porous poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering were tailored through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass. The results showed that 58s bioactive glass distributed evenly in the PVDF matrix. There were some exposed particles on the surface which provided attachment sites for biological response. It was confirmed that the scaffolds had highly bioactivity by the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid. And the bone-like apatite became dense with the increase in 58s bioactive glass and culture time. Moreover, the scaffolds were suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation compared with the PVDF scaffolds without 58s bioactive glass. The research showed that the PVDF/58s bioactive glass scaffolds had latent application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26592544

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of mesoporous bioactive glass on glass-ceramic foam scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Sonia; Baino, Francesco; Cauda, Valentina; Crepaldi, Marco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Demarchi, Danilo; Onida, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the coating of 3-D foam-like glass-ceramic scaffolds with a bioactive mesoporous glass (MBG) was investigated. The starting scaffolds, based on a non-commercial silicate glass, were fabricated by the polymer sponge replica technique followed by sintering; then, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was applied to deposit a MBG layer on the scaffold struts. EPD was also compared with other techniques (dipping and direct in situ gelation) and it was shown to lead to the most promising results. The scaffold pore structure was maintained after the MBG coating by EPD, as assessed by SEM and micro-CT. In vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid and subsequent evaluation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The deposition of a MBG coating can be a smart strategy to impart bioactive properties to the scaffold, allowing the formation of nano-structured HA agglomerates within 48 h from immersion, which does not occur on uncoated scaffold surfaces. The mechanical properties of the scaffold do not vary after the EPD (compressive strength ~19 MPa, fracture energy ~1.2 × 10(6) J m(-3)) and suggest the suitability of the prepared highly bioactive constructs as bone tissue engineering implants for load-bearing applications. PMID:25578700

  7. Bioactivity and Mechanical Stability of 45S5 Bioactive Glass Scaffolds Based on Natural Marine Sponges.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, E; Philippart, A; Melli, V; Altomare, L; De Nardo, L; Novajra, G; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Fey, T; Boccaccini, A R

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) based scaffolds (45S5 BG composition) were developed by the replica technique using natural marine sponges as sacrificial templates. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by superior mechanical properties (compression strength up to 4 MPa) compared to conventional BG scaffolds prepared using polyurethane (PU) packaging foam as a template. This result was ascribed to a reduction of the total scaffold porosity without affecting the pore interconnectivity (>99%). It was demonstrated that the reduction of total porosity did not affect the bioactivity of the BG-based scaffolds, tested by immersion of scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF). After 1 day of immersion in SBF, a homogeneous CaP deposit on the surface of the scaffolds was formed, which evolved over time into carbonate hydroxyapatite (HCA). Moreover, the enhanced mechanical properties of these scaffolds were constant over time in SBF; after an initial reduction of the maximum compressive strength upon 7 days of immersion in SBF (to 1.2 ± 0.2 MPa), the strength values remained almost constant and higher than those of BG-based scaffolds prepared using PU foam (<0.05 MPa). Preliminary cell culture tests with Saos-2 osteoblast cell line, namely direct and indirect tests, demonstrated that no toxic residues remained from the natural marine sponge templates and that cells were able to proliferate on the scaffold surfaces. PMID:27034242

  8. Functionalized mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for enhanced bone tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingdi; Zeng, Deliang; Li, Nan; Wen, Jin; Jiang, Xinquan; Liu, Changsheng; Li, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), which possesses excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, has played an important role in bone tissue regeneration. However, it is difficult to prepare MBG scaffolds with high compressive strength for applications in bone regeneration; this difficulty has greatly hindered its development and use. To solve this problem, a simple powder processing technique has been successfully developed to fabricate a novel type of MBG scaffold (MBGS). Furthermore, amino or carboxylic groups could be successfully grafted onto MBGSs (denoted as N-MBGS and C-MBGS, respectively) through a post-grafting process. It was revealed that both MBGS and the functionalized MBGSs could significantly promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bMSCs. Due to its positively charged surface, N-MBGS presented the highest in vitro osteogenic capability of the three samples. Moreover, in vivo testing results demonstrated that N-MBGS could promote higher levels of bone regeneration compared with MBGS and C-MBGS. In addition to its surface characteristics, it is believed that the decreased degradation rate of N-MBGS plays a vital role in promoting bone regeneration. These findings indicate that MBGSs are promising materials with potential practical applications in bone regeneration, which can be successfully fabricated by combining a powder processing technique and post-grafting process. PMID:26763311

  9. Study on surface modification of porous apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bin; Zhou, Dali; Xue, Ming; Li, Guangda; Yang, Weizhong; Long, Qin; Ji, Li

    2008-11-01

    Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the surface of apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic (AW GC) scaffold to prepare AW/CS composite scaffold. The in vitro bioactivity of the AW/CS composite scaffold was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking experiment. Cell growth on the surface of the material was evaluated by co-culturing osteogenic marrow stromal cells (MSCs) of rabbits with the scaffold. The results showed that the compressive strength of AW GC scaffold was improved dramatically after being modified by CS, whereas the mineralization rate was delayed. MSCs can attach well on the surface of the composite scaffold.

  10. Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of freeze-cast chitosan nanocomposite scaffolds reinforced with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Pourhaghgouy, Masoud; Zamanian, Ali; Shahrezaee, Mostafa; Masouleh, Milad Pourbaghi

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared by freeze casting method through blending constant chitosan concentration with different portions of synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image showed that the particles size of bioactive glass (64SiO2.28CaO.8P2O5) prepared by sol-gel method was approximately less than 20 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed proper interfacial bonding between BGNPs and chitosan polymers. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images depicted a unidirectional structure with homogenous distribution of BGNPs among chitosan matrix associated with the absence of pure chitosan scaffold's wall pores after addition of only 10 wt.% BGNPs. As the BGNP content increased from 0 to 50 wt.%, the compressive strength and compressive module values increased from 0.034 to 0.419 MPa and 0.41 to 10.77 MPa, respectively. Biodegradation study showed that increase in BGNP content leads to growth of weight loss amount. The in vitro biomineralization studies confirmed the bioactive nature of all nanocomposites. Amount of 30 wt.% BGNPs represented the best concentration for absorption capacity and bioactivity behaviors. PMID:26478301

  11. Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of large bone defects resulting from disease or trauma remains a significant clinical challenge. Bioactive glass has appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering, but the application of glass scaffolds for the repair of load-bearing bone defects is often limited by their low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. This paper provides an overview of recent developments in the fabrication and mechanical properties of bioactive glass scaffolds. The review reveals the fact that mechanical strength is not a real limiting factor in the use of bioactive glass scaffolds for bone repair, an observation not often recognized by most researchers and clinicians. Scaffolds with compressive strengths comparable to those of trabecular and cortical bones have been produced by a variety of methods. The current limitations of bioactive glass scaffolds include their low fracture toughness (low resistance to fracture) and limited mechanical reliability, which have so far received little attention. Future research directions should include the development of strong and tough bioactive glass scaffolds, and their evaluation in unloaded and load-bearing bone defects in animal models. PMID:21912447

  12. Freeze casting of bioactive glass and ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang

    The main objectives of this dissertation were to explore the production of bioactive ceramic and glass scaffolds with oriented pore architectures by unidirectional freezing of suspensions, and to characterize the mechanical and biological performance of the scaffolds. Freezing of aqueous suspensions of hydroxyapatite (HA) or bioactive 13-93 glass particles resulted in the formation of scaffolds with a lamellar-type microstructure (pore width = 5--30 microm). The addition of polar organic solvents (such as 60 wt% dioxane) to the aqueous suspensions markedly changed the morphology and size of the oriented pores, giving scaffolds with a columnar-type microstructure and larger pore width (90--110 microm). The scaffolds showed a unique 'elastic--plastic' mechanical response in compression along the orientation direction, with large strain for failure (>20%) and strain rate sensitivity. For a similar porosity, the bioactive glass scaffolds had a higher strength than the HA scaffolds, presumably because of better sintering characteristics. Columnar bioactive glass scaffolds (porosity = 55--60%) had a compressive strength of 25 +/- 3 MPa. The columnar scaffolds with the larger pore width showed better ability than the lamellar scaffolds to support the proliferation and function of murine osteoblastic cells (MLO-A5 or MC3T3-E1). Subcutaneous implantation in the dorsum of rats showed abundant tissue ingrowth into the pores of the columnar scaffolds and integration of the scaffolds with surrounding tissue. The results indicate that bioactive 13-93 glass scaffolds with the columnar microstructure could be used for the repair of segmental defects in load-bearing bones.

  13. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Ye, Xiao-Jian; Li, Jia-Shun

    2009-08-01

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold. PMID:19605959

  14. Evaluation of borate bioactive glass scaffolds with different pore sizes in a rat subcutaneous implantation model.

    PubMed

    Deliormanli, Aylin M; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    Borate bioactive glass has been shown to convert faster and more completely to hydroxyapatite and enhance new bone formation in vivo when compared to silicate bioactive glass (such as 45S5 and 13-93 bioactive glass). In this work, the effects of the borate glass microstructure on its conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro and its ability to support tissue ingrowth in a rat subcutaneous implantation model were investigated. Bioactive borate glass scaffolds, designated 13-93B3, with a grid-like microstructure and pore widths of 300, 600, and 900 µm were prepared by a robocasting technique. The scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously for 4 weeks in Sprague Dawley rats. Silicate 13-93 glass scaffolds with the same microstructure were used as the control. The conversion of the scaffolds to HA was studied as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. Histology and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate conversion of the bioactive glass implants to hydroxyapatite, as well as tissue ingrowth and blood vessel formation in the implants. The pore size of the scaffolds was found to have little effect on tissue infiltration and angiogenesis after the 4-week implantation. PMID:23241965

  15. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanolayer-functionalized 3D-printed scaffolds for accelerating osteogenesis and angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yali; Xia, Lunguo; Zhai, Dong; Shi, Mengchao; Luo, Yongxiang; Feng, Chun; Fang, Bing; Yin, Jingbo; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2015-11-01

    The hierarchical microstructure, surface and interface of biomaterials are important factors influencing their bioactivity. Porous bioceramic scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering by optimizing their chemical composition and large-pore structure. However, the surface and interface of struts in bioceramic scaffolds are often ignored. The aim of this study is to incorporate hierarchical pores and bioactive components into the bioceramic scaffolds by constructing nanopores and bioactive elements on the struts of scaffolds and further improve their bone-forming activity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) modified β-tricalcium phosphate (MBG-β-TCP) scaffolds with a hierarchical pore structure and a functional strut surface (~100 nm of MBG nanolayer) were successfully prepared via 3D printing and spin coating. The compressive strength and apatite-mineralization ability of MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly enhanced as compared to β-TCP scaffolds without the MBG nanolayer. The attachment, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, BMP2, OPN and Col I) and protein expression (OPN, Col I, VEGF, HIF-1α) of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as well as the attachment, viability and angiogenic gene expression (VEGF and HIF-1α) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly upregulated compared with conventional bioactive glass (BG)-modified β-TCP (BG-β-TCP) and pure β-TCP scaffolds. Furthermore, MBG-β-TCP scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to BG-β-TCP and β-TCP scaffolds. The results suggest that application of the MBG nanolayer to modify 3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds offers a new strategy to construct hierarchically porous scaffolds with significantly improved physicochemical and biological properties, such as mechanical properties, osteogenesis, angiogenesis and protein expression for bone tissue engineering applications, in which the incorporation of nanostructures and bioactive components into the scaffold struts synergistically play a key role in the improved bone formation.

  16. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanolayer-functionalized 3D-printed scaffolds for accelerating osteogenesis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Xia, Lunguo; Zhai, Dong; Shi, Mengchao; Luo, Yongxiang; Feng, Chun; Fang, Bing; Yin, Jingbo; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2015-12-01

    The hierarchical microstructure, surface and interface of biomaterials are important factors influencing their bioactivity. Porous bioceramic scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering by optimizing their chemical composition and large-pore structure. However, the surface and interface of struts in bioceramic scaffolds are often ignored. The aim of this study is to incorporate hierarchical pores and bioactive components into the bioceramic scaffolds by constructing nanopores and bioactive elements on the struts of scaffolds and further improve their bone-forming activity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) modified β-tricalcium phosphate (MBG-β-TCP) scaffolds with a hierarchical pore structure and a functional strut surface (∼100 nm of MBG nanolayer) were successfully prepared via 3D printing and spin coating. The compressive strength and apatite-mineralization ability of MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly enhanced as compared to β-TCP scaffolds without the MBG nanolayer. The attachment, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, BMP2, OPN and Col I) and protein expression (OPN, Col I, VEGF, HIF-1α) of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as well as the attachment, viability and angiogenic gene expression (VEGF and HIF-1α) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly upregulated compared with conventional bioactive glass (BG)-modified β-TCP (BG-β-TCP) and pure β-TCP scaffolds. Furthermore, MBG-β-TCP scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to BG-β-TCP and β-TCP scaffolds. The results suggest that application of the MBG nanolayer to modify 3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds offers a new strategy to construct hierarchically porous scaffolds with significantly improved physicochemical and biological properties, such as mechanical properties, osteogenesis, angiogenesis and protein expression for bone tissue engineering applications, in which the incorporation of nanostructures and bioactive components into the scaffold struts synergistically play a key role in the improved bone formation. PMID:26525451

  17. Cobalt-releasing 1393 bioactive glass-derived scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Jokic, Bojan; Janackovic, Djordje; Fey, Tobias; Greil, Peter; Romeis, Stefan; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Lao, Jonathan; Jallot, Edouard; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-02-26

    Loading biomaterials with angiogenic therapeutics has emerged as a promising approach for developing superior biomaterials for engineering bone constructs. In this context, cobalt-releasing materials are of interest as Co is a known angiogenic agent. In this study, we report on cobalt-releasing three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on a silicate bioactive glass. Novel melt-derived "1393" glass (53 wt % SiO2, 6 wt % Na2O, 12 wt % K2O, 5 wt % MgO, 20 wt % CaO, and 4 wt % P2O5) with CoO substituted for CaO was fabricated and was used to produce a 3D porous scaffold by the foam replica technique. Glass structural and thermal properties as well as scaffold macrostructure, compressive strength, acellular bioactivity, and Co release in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated. In particular, detailed insights into the physicochemical reactions occurring at the scaffold-fluid interface were derived from advanced micro-particle-induced X-ray emission/Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis. CoO is shown to act in a concentration-dependent manner as both a network former and a network modifier. At a concentration of 5 wt % CoO, the glass transition point (Tg) of the glass was reduced because of the replacement of stronger Si-O bonds with Co-O bonds in the glass network. Compressive strengths of >2 MPa were measured for Co-containing 1393-derived scaffolds, which are comparable to values of human spongy bone. SBF studies showed that all glass scaffolds form a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer, and for 1393-1Co and 1393-5Co, CaP layers with incorporated traces of Co were observed. The highest Co concentrations of ∼12 ppm were released in SBF after reaction for 21 days, which are known to be within therapeutic ranges reported for Co(2+) ions. PMID:24476347

  18. Three-dimensional printing of strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Shichang; Zhu, Yufang; Huang, Yinjun; Zhu, Min; Tao, Cuilian; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we fabricated strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds with controlled architecture and enhanced mechanical strength using a three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique. The study showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds had uniform interconnected macropores and high porosity, and their compressive strength was ∼170 times that of polyurethane foam templated MBG scaffolds. The physicochemical and biological properties of Sr-MBG scaffolds were evaluated by ion dissolution, apatite-forming ability and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteogenic expression and extracelluar matrix mineralization of osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1. The results showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds exhibited a slower ion dissolution rate and more significant potential to stabilize the pH environment with increasing Sr substitution. Importantly, Sr-MBG scaffolds possessed good apatite-forming ability, and stimulated osteoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation. Using dexamethasone as a model drug, Sr-MBG scaffolds also showed a sustained drug delivery property for use in local drug delivery therapy, due to their mesoporous structure. Therefore, the 3-D printed Sr-MBG scaffolds combined the advantages of Sr-MBG such as good bone-forming bioactivity, controlled ion release and drug delivery and enhanced mechanical strength, and had potential application in bone regeneration. PMID:24412143

  19. Healing of critical-size segmental defects in rat femora using strong porous bioactive glass scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lianxiang; Zobell, Brett; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-09-01

    The repair of structural bone defects such as segmental defects in the long bones of the limbs is a challenging clinical problem. In this study, the capacity of silicate (13-93) and borate (13-93B3) bioactive glass scaffolds (porosity=47-50%) to heal critical-size segmental defects in rat femurs was evaluated and compared with autografts. Defects were implanted with 13-93 and 13-93B3 scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (compressive strength=86 MPa and 40 MPa, respectively), 13-93B3 scaffolds with an oriented microstructure (compressive strength=32 MPa) and autografts using intramedullary fixation. Twelve weeks post-implantation, the defects were harvested and evaluated using histomorphometric analysis. The percentage of new bone in the defects implanted with the three groups of glass scaffolds (25-28%) and the total von Kossa-positive area (32-38%) were not significantly different from the autografts (new bone=38%; von Kossa-positive area=40%) (p>0.05). New blood vessel area in the defects implanted with the glass scaffolds (4-8%) and the autografts (5%) showed no significant difference among the four groups. New cartilage formed in the 13-93 grid-like scaffolds (18%) was significantly higher than in 13-93B3 grid-like scaffolds (8%) and in the autografts (8%) (p=0.02). The results indicate that these strong porous bioactive glass scaffolds are promising synthetic implants for structural bone repair. PMID:25063184

  20. Fabrication of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using indirect selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Brown, Roger F; Velez, Mariano

    2011-06-01

    Bioactive glasses are promising materials for bone scaffolds due to their ability to assist in tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, bioactive glasses can convert into hydroxyapatite, the main mineral constituent of human bone, and form a strong bond with the surrounding tissues, thus providing an advantage over polymer scaffold materials. Bone scaffold fabrication using additive manufacturing techniques can provide control over pore interconnectivity during fabrication of the scaffold, which helps in mimicking human trabecular bone. 13-93 glass, a third-generation bioactive material designed to accelerate the body's natural ability to heal itself, was used in the research described herein to fabricate bone scaffolds using the selective laser sintering (SLS) process. 13-93 glass mixed with stearic acid (as the polymer binder) by ball milling was used as the powder feedstock for the SLS machine. The fabricated green scaffolds underwent binder burnout to remove the stearic acid binder and were then sintered at temperatures between 675 °C and 695 °C. The sintered scaffolds had pore sizes ranging from 300 to 800 µm with 50% apparent porosity and an average compressive strength of 20.4 MPa, which is excellent for non-load bearing applications and among the highest reported for an interconnected porous scaffold fabricated with bioactive glasses using the SLS process. The MTT labeling experiment and measurements of MTT formazan formation are evidence that the rough surface of SLS scaffolds provides a cell-friendly surface capable of supporting robust cell growth. PMID:21636879

  1. Data for accelerated degradation of calcium phosphate surface-coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Holzapfel, Boris M; Solanki, Anu K; Woodruff, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)-based composite scaffolds containing 50 wt% of 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) particles were fabricated into scaffolds using melt-extrusion based additive manufacturing technique. Additionally, the PCL scaffolds were surface coated with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP). For a comparison of the scaffold degradation, the scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro accelerated degradation by immersion in 5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for up to 7 days. The scaffold׳s morphology was observed by means of SEM imaging and scaffold mass loss was recorded over the experimental period. PMID:27081669

  2. Data for accelerated degradation of calcium phosphate surface-coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Patrina S.P.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Holzapfel, Boris M.; Solanki, Anu K.; Woodruff, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)-based composite scaffolds containing 50 wt% of 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) particles were fabricated into scaffolds using melt-extrusion based additive manufacturing technique. Additionally, the PCL scaffolds were surface coated with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP). For a comparison of the scaffold degradation, the scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro accelerated degradation by immersion in 5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for up to 7 days. The scaffold׳s morphology was observed by means of SEM imaging and scaffold mass loss was recorded over the experimental period. PMID:27081669

  3. Influence of Cu doping in borosilicate bioactive glass and the properties of its derived scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Xiao, Wei; Xue, Jingzhe; Shen, Youqu; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Deping

    2016-01-01

    Copper doped borosilicate glasses (BG-Cu) were studied by means of FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopies to investigate the changes that appeared in the structure of borosilicate glass matrix by doping copper ions. Micro-fil and immunohistochemistry analysis were applied to study the angiogenesis of its derived scaffolds in vivo. Results indicated that the Cu ions significantly increased the B-O bond of BO4 groups at 980 cm(-1), while they decrease that of BO2O(-) groups at 1440-1470 cm(-1) as shown by Raman spectra. A negative shift was observed from (11)B and (29)Si NMR spectra. The (11)B NMR spectra exhibited a clear transformation from BO3 into BO4 groups, caused by the agglutination effect of the Cu ions and the charge balance of the agglomerate in the glass network, leading to a more stable glass network and lower ions release rate in the degradation process. Furthermore, the BG-Cu scaffolds significantly enhanced blood vessel formation in rat calvarial defects at 8 weeks post-implantation. Generally, it suggested that the introduction of Cu into borosilicate glass endowed glass and its derived scaffolds with good properties, and the cooperation of Cu with bioactive glass may pave a new way for tissue engineering. PMID:26478303

  4. Bioactive glass-based composites for the production of dense sintered bodies and porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2013-05-01

    Recently several attempts have been made to combine calcium phosphates, such as β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and, most of all, hydroxyapatite (HA), with bioactive glasses of different composition, in order to develop composites with improved biological and mechanical performance. Unfortunately, the production of such systems usually implies a high-temperature treatment (up to 1300 °C), which may result in several drawbacks, including crystallization of the original glass, decomposition of the calcium phosphate phase and/or reactions between the constituent phases, with non-trivial consequences in terms of microstructure, bioactivity and mechanical properties of the final samples. In the present contribution, novel binary composites have been obtained by sintering a bioactive glass, characterized by a low tendency to crystallize, with the addition of HA or β-TCP as the second phase. In particular, the composites have been treated at a relatively low temperature (818 °C and 830 °C, depending on the sample), thus preserving the amorphous structure of the glass and minimizing the interaction between the constituent phases. The effects of the glass composition, calcium phosphate nature and processing conditions on the composite microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity have been systematically discussed. To conclude, a feasibility study to obtain scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration has been proposed. PMID:23498242

  5. Preparation and in vitro characterization of electrospun PVA scaffolds coated with bioactive glass for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yadong; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Teramoto, Akira; Abe, Koji

    2012-05-01

    An important objective in bone tissue engineering is to fabricate biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds that stimulate mineralization for rapid regeneration of bone. In this work, scaffolds of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers (diameter = 286 ± 14 nm) were coated with a sol-gel derived bioactive glass (BG) and evaluated in vitro for potential applications in bone repair. Structural and chemical analyses showed that the BG coating was homogeneously deposited on the PVA fibers. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the BG-coated PVA scaffold had a greater capacity to support proliferation of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization than the uncoated PVA scaffold. The BG coating improved the tensile strength of the PVA scaffold from 18 ± 2 MPa to 21 ± 2 MPa, but reduced the elongation to failure from 94 ± 4% to 64 ± 5%. However, immersion of the BG-coated PVA scaffolds in a simulated body fluid for 5 days resulted in an increase in the tensile strength (24 ± 2 MPa) and elongation to failure (159 ± 4%). Together, the results show that these BG-coated PVA scaffolds could be considered as candidate materials for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22374712

  6. Periodontal Regeneration Using Strontium-Loaded Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Scaffolds in Osteoporotic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wei, Lingfei; Wu, Chengtie; Miron, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the rate of periodontal breakdown significantly increased in patients compromised from both periodontal disease and osteoporosis. One pharmacological agent used for their treatment is strontium renalate due to its simultaneous ability to increase bone formation and halt bone resorption. The aim of the present study was to achieve periodontal regeneration of strontium-incorporated mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds in an osteoporotic animal model carried out by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). 15 female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control unfilled periodontal defects, 2) MBG alone and 3) Sr-MBG scaffolds. 10 weeks after OVX, bilateral fenestration defects were created at the buccal aspect of the first mandibular molar and assessed by micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis after 28 days. Periodontal fenestration defects treated with Sr-MBG scaffolds showed greater new bone formation (46.67%) when compared to MBG scaffolds (39.33%) and control unfilled samples (17.50%). The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts was also significantly reduced in defects receiving Sr-MBG scaffolds. The results from the present study suggest that Sr-MBG scaffolds may provide greater periondontal regeneration. Clinical studies are required to fully characterize the possible beneficial effect of Sr-releasing scaffolds for patients suffering from a combination of both periodontal disease and osteoporosis. PMID:25116811

  7. Bioactive glass-reinforced bioceramic ink writing scaffolds: sintering, microstructure and mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huifeng; Yang, Xianyan; He, Yong; Fu, Jianzhong; Liu, Limin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2015-09-01

    The densification of pore struts in bioceramic scaffolds is important for structure stability and strength reliability. An advantage of ceramic ink writing is the precise control over the microstructure and macroarchitecture. However, the use of organic binder in such ink writing process would heavily affect the densification of ceramic struts and sacrifice the mechanical strength of porous scaffolds after sintering. This study presents a low-melt-point bioactive glass (BG)-assisted sintering strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct ink writing (extrusion-based three-dimensional printing) and to produce high-strength calcium silicate (CSi) bioceramic scaffolds. The 1% BG-added CSi (CSi-BG1) scaffolds with rectangular pore morphology sintered at 1080 °C have a very small BG content, readily induce apatite formation, and show appreciable linear shrinkage (∼21%), which is consistent with the composite scaffolds with less or more BG contents sintered at either the same or a higher temperature. These CSi-BG1 scaffolds also possess a high elastic modulus (∼350 MPa) and appreciable compressive strength (∼48 MPa), and show significant strength enhancement after exposure to simulated body fluid-a performance markedly superior to those of pure CSi scaffolds. Particularly, the honeycomb-pore CSi-BG1 scaffolds show markedly higher compressive strength (∼88 MPa) than the scaffolds with rectangular, parallelogram, and Archimedean chord pore structures. It is suggested that this approach can potentially facilitate the translation of ceramic ink writing and BG-assisted sintering of bioceramic scaffold technologies to the in situ bone repair. PMID:26355654

  8. Optimization of composition, structure and mechanical strength of bioactive 3-D glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone substitution.

    PubMed

    Baino, Francesco; Ferraris, Monica; Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2013-03-01

    Fabrication of 3-D highly porous, bioactive, and mechanically competent scaffolds represents a significant challenge of bone tissue engineering. In this work, Bioglass®-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds actually fulfilling this complex set of requirements were successfully produced through the sponge replication method. Scaffold processing parameters and sintering treatment were carefully designed in order to obtain final porous bodies with pore content (porosity above 70 %vol), trabecular architecture and mechanical properties (compressive strength up to 3 MPa) analogous to those of the cancellous bone. Influence of the Bioglass® particles size on the structural and mechanical features of the sintered scaffolds was considered and discussed. Relationship between porosity and mechanical strength was investigated and modeled. Three-dimensional architecture, porosity, mechanical strength and in vitro bioactivity of the optimized Bioglass®-derived scaffolds were also compared to those of CEL2-based glass-ceramic scaffolds (CEL2 is an experimental bioactive glass originally developed by the authors at Politecnico di Torino) fabricated by the same processing technique, in an attempt at understanding the role of different bioactive glass composition on the major features of scaffolds prepared by the same method. PMID:22207602

  9. Enhancement mechanisms of graphene in nano-58S bioactive glass scaffold: mechanical and biological performance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengde; Liu, Tingting; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a novel material and currently popular as an enabler for the next-generation nanocomposites. Here, we report the use of graphene to improve the mechanical properties of nano-58S bioactive glass for bone repair and regeneration. And the composite scaffolds were fabricated by a homemade selective laser sintering system. Qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrated the successful incorporation of graphene into the scaffold without obvious structural damage and weight loss. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness reached 48.65 ± 3.19 MPa and 1.94 ± 0.10 MPa·m1/2 with graphene content of 0.5 wt%, indicating significant improvements by 105% and 38% respectively. The mechanisms of pull-out, crack bridging, crack deflection and crack tip shielding were found to be responsible for the mechanical enhancement. Simulated body fluid and cell culture tests indicated favorable bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite scaffold. The results suggest a great potential of graphene/nano-58S composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24736662

  10. Enhancement mechanisms of graphene in nano-58S bioactive glass scaffold: mechanical and biological performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengde; Liu, Tingting; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a novel material and currently popular as an enabler for the next-generation nanocomposites. Here, we report the use of graphene to improve the mechanical properties of nano-58S bioactive glass for bone repair and regeneration. And the composite scaffolds were fabricated by a homemade selective laser sintering system. Qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrated the successful incorporation of graphene into the scaffold without obvious structural damage and weight loss. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness reached 48.65 ± 3.19 MPa and 1.94 ± 0.10 MPa · m(1/2) with graphene content of 0.5 wt%, indicating significant improvements by 105% and 38% respectively. The mechanisms of pull-out, crack bridging, crack deflection and crack tip shielding were found to be responsible for the mechanical enhancement. Simulated body fluid and cell culture tests indicated favorable bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite scaffold. The results suggest a great potential of graphene/nano-58S composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24736662

  11. Bone regeneration in strong porous bioactive glass (13–93) scaffolds with an oriented microstructure implanted in rat calvarial defects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for synthetic bone graft substitutes to repair large bone defects resulting from trauma, malignancy, and congenital diseases. Bioactive glass has attractive properties as a scaffold material but factors that influence its ability to regenerate bone in vivo are not well understood. In the present work, the ability of strong porous scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass with an oriented microstructure to regenerate bone was evaluated in vivo using a rat calvarial defect model. Scaffolds with an oriented microstructure of columnar pores (porosity = 50%; pore diameter = 50–150 µm) showed mostly osteoconductive bone regeneration, and new bone formation, normalized to the available pore area (volume) of the scaffolds, increased from 37% at 12 weeks to 55% at 24 weeks. Scaffolds of the same glass with a trabecular microstructure (porosity = 80%; pore width = 100–500 µm), used as the positive control, showed bone regeneration in the pores of 25% and 46% at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. The brittle mechanical response of the as-fabricated scaffolds changed markedly to an elasto-plastic response in vivo at both implantation times. These results indicate that both groups of 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds could potentially be used to repair large bone defects, but scaffolds with the oriented microstructure could also be considered for the repair of loaded bone. PMID:22922251

  12. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  13. Bioactive glass foam scaffolds are remodelled by osteoclasts and support the formation of mineralized matrix and vascular networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Midha, Swati; van den Bergh, Wouter; Kim, Taek B; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Julian R; Mitchell, Christopher A

    2013-03-01

    Remodelling of scaffolds and new bone formation is critical for effective bone regeneration. Herein is reported the first demonstration of resorption pits due to osteoclast activity on the surface of sol-gel bioactive glass foam scaffolds. Bioactive glass foam scaffolds are known to have osteogenic potential and suitable pore networks for bone regeneration. Degradation of the scaffolds is known to be initially solution mediated, but for effective bone regeneration, remodelling of the scaffold by osteoclasts and vascularisation of the scaffold is necessary. The culture of C7 macrophages on a bioactive glass scaffold induces the cells to differentiate into (TRAP(+ve) ) osteoclasts. They then form distinctive resorption pits within 3 weeks, while MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts deposit mineralized osteoid on their surfaces in co-culture. The scaffolds are of the 70S30C (70 mol% SiO2 , 30 mol% CaO) composition, with modal pore and interconnect diameters of 373 μm and 172 μm respectively (quantified by X-ray micro-tomography and 3D image analysis). The release of soluble silica and calcium ions from 70S30C scaffolds induces an increase in osteoblast numbers as determined via the MTT assay. Scaffolds also support growth of endothelial cells on their surface and tube formation (characteristic of functional microvasculature) following 4 days in culture. This data supports the hypothesis that 70S30C bioactive glass scaffolds promote the differentiation of the 3 main cell types involved in vascularized bone regeneration. PMID:23184651

  14. Europium-Containing Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Stimulating in Vitro and in Vivo Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Xia, Lunguo; Han, Pingping; Mao, Lixia; Wang, Jiacheng; Zhai, Dong; Fang, Bing; Chang, Jiang; Xiao, Yin

    2016-05-11

    Bone tissue engineering offers a possible strategy for regenerating large bone defects, in which how to design beneficial scaffolds for accelerating bone formation remains significantly challenging. Europium, as an important rare earth element, has been used as a solid-state lighting material. However, there are few reports on whether Eu can be used for labeling bone tissue engineering scaffolds, and its biological effect on bone cells and bone tissue regeneration is unknown. In this study, we incorporated Eu into mesoporous bioactive glass (Eu-MBG) scaffolds by an in situ cotemplate method to achieve a bifunctional biomaterial with biolabeling and bone regeneration. The prepared Eu-MBG scaffolds have highly interconnective large pores (300-500 μm), a high specific surface area (140-290 m(2)/g), and well-ordered mesopores (5 nm) as well as uniformly distributed Eu. The incorporation of 2-5 mol % Eu into MBG scaffolds gives them a luminescent property. The in vitro degradation of Eu-MBG scaffolds has a functional effect on the change of the luminescence intensity. In addition, Eu-MBG can be used for labeling bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro and still presents a distinct luminescence signal in deep bone tissues in vivo to label new bone tissue via release of Eu ions. Furthermore, the incorporation of different contents of Eu (1, 2, and 5 mol %) into MBG scaffolds significantly enhances the osteogenic gene expression of BMSCs in the scaffolds. The Eu- and Si-containing ionic products released from Eu-MBG scaffolds distinctly promote the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Critically sized femur defects in ovariectomized (OVX) rats are created to simulate an osteoporotic phenotype. The results show that Eu-MBG scaffolds significantly stimulate new bone formation in osteoporotic bone defects when compared to MBG scaffolds alone and Eu may be involved in the acceleration of bone regeneration in OVX rats. Our study for the first time reports that the incorporation of the rare earth element Eu into bioscaffolds has the ability to accelerate bone regeneration in vivo, and thus, the prepared Eu-MBG scaffolds possess bifunctional properties with biolabeling and bone regeneration. PMID:27096527

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cerium- and gallium-containing borate bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Deliormanlı, Aylin M

    2015-02-01

    Bioactive glasses are widely used in biomedical applications due to their ability to bond to bone and even to soft tissues. In this study, borate based (13-93B3) bioactive glass powders containing up to 5 wt% Ce2O3 and Ga2O3 were prepared by the melt quench technique. Cerium (Ce+3) and gallium (Ga+3) were chosen because of their low toxicity associated with bacteriostatic properties. Bioactive glass scaffolds were fabricated using the polymer foam replication method. In vitro degradation and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated in SBF under static conditions. Results revealed that the cerium- and gallium-containing borate glasses have much lower degradation rates compared to the bare borate glass 13-93B3. In spite of the increased chemical durability, substituted glasses exhibited a good in vitro bioactive response except when the Ce2O3 content was 5 wt%. Taking into account the high in vitro hydroxyapatite forming ability, borate glass scaffolds containing Ce+3 and Ga+3 therapeutic ions are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25631259

  16. Bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects implanted with fibrous scaffolds composed of a mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifei; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the capacity of porous scaffolds composed of a single bioactive glass to regenerate bone. In the present study, scaffolds composed of a mixture of two different bioactive glasses (silicate 13-93 and borate 13-93B3) were created and evaluated for their response to osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro and their capacity to regenerate bone in rat calvarial defects in vivo. The scaffolds, which have similar microstructures (porosity=58-67%) and contain 0, 25, 50 and 100 wt.% 13-93B3 glass, were fabricated by thermally bonding randomly oriented short fibers. The silicate 13-93 scaffolds showed a better capacity to support cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity than the scaffolds containing borate 13-93B3 fibers. The amount of new bone formed in the defects implanted with the 13-93 scaffolds at 12 weeks was 31%, compared to values of 25, 17 and 20%, respectively, for the scaffolds containing 25, 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. The amount of new bone formed in the 13-93 scaffolds was significantly higher than in the scaffolds containing 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. While the 13-93 fibers were only partially converted to hydroxyapatite at 12 weeks, the 13-93B3 fibers were fully converted and formed a tubular morphology. Scaffolds composed of an optimized mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses could provide the requisite architecture to guide bone regeneration combined with a controllable degradation rate that could be beneficial for bone and tissue healing. PMID:23827095

  17. Copper-releasing, boron-containing bioactive glass-based scaffolds coated with alginate for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Erol, M M; Mouriňo, V; Newby, P; Chatzistavrou, X; Roether, J A; Hupa, L; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize new boron-containing bioactive glass-based scaffolds coated with alginate cross-linked with copper ions. A recently developed bioactive glass powder with nominal composition (wt.%) 65 SiO2, 15 CaO, 18.4 Na2O, 0.1 MgO and 1.5 B2O3 was fabricated as porous scaffolds by the foam replica method. Scaffolds were alginate coated by dipping them in alginate solution. Scanning electron microscopy investigations indicated that the alginate effectively attached on the surface of the three-dimensional scaffolds leading to a homogeneous coating. It was confirmed that the scaffold structure remained amorphous after the sintering process and that the alginate coating improved the scaffold bioactivity and mechanical properties. Copper release studies showed that the alginate-coated scaffolds allowed controlled release of copper ions. The novel copper-releasing composite scaffolds represent promising candidates for bone regeneration. PMID:22040685

  18. Preparation and characterization of PHBV microsphere/45S5 bioactive glass composite scaffolds with vancomycin releasing function.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ding, Yaping; Rai, Ranjana; Roether, Judith A; Schubert, Dirk W; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-08-01

    PHBV microsphere/45S5 bioactive glass (BG) composite scaffolds with drug release function were developed for bone tissue engineering. BG-based glass-ceramic scaffolds with high porosity (94%) and interconnected pore structure prepared by foam replication method were coated with PHBV microspheres (nominal diameter=3.5 μm) produced by water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method. A homogeneous microsphere coating throughout the porous structure of scaffolds was obtained by a simple dip coating method, using the slurry of PHBV microspheres in hexane. Compressive strength tests showed that the microsphere coating slightly improved the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. It was confirmed that the microsphere coating did not inhibit the bioactivity of the scaffolds in SBF. Hydroxyapatite crystals homogeneously grew not only on the struts of the scaffolds but also on the surface of microspheres within 7 days of immersion in SBF. Vancomycin was successfully encapsulated into the PHBV microspheres. The encapsulated vancomycin was released with a dual release profile involving a relatively low initial burst release (21%) and a sustained release (1 month), which is favorable compared to the high initial burst release (77%) and short release period (4 days) measured on uncoated scaffolds. The developed bioactive composite scaffold with drug delivery function has thus the potential to be used advantageously in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24907766

  19. Mechanical properties of bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds fabricated by robotic deposition for structural bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Hilmas, Gregory E.; Bal, B. Sonny

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to develop synthetic scaffolds for repairing large defects in load-bearing bones. Bioactive glasses have attractive properties as a scaffold material for bone repair, but data on their mechanical properties are limited. The objective of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the mechanical properties of strong porous scaffolds of silicate 13-93 bioactive glass fabricated by robocasting. As-fabricated scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (porosity = 47%; filament diameter = 330 μm; pore width = 300) were tested in compressive and flexural loading to determine their strength, elastic modulus, Weibull modulus, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness. Scaffolds were also tested in compression after they were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro or implanted in a rat subcutaneous model in vivo. As fabricated, the scaffolds had a strength = 86 ± 9 MPa, elastic modulus = 13 ± 2 GPa, and a Weibull modulus = 12 when tested in compression. In flexural loading, the strength, elastic modulus, and Weibull modulus were 11 ± 3 MPa, 13 ± 2 GPa, and 6, respectively. In compression, the as-fabricated scaffolds had a mean fatigue life of ~106 cycles when tested in air at room temperature or in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 °C under cyclic stresses of 1–10 MPa or 2–20 MPa. The compressive strength of the scaffolds decreased markedly during the first 2 weeks of immersion in SBF or implantation in vivo, but more slowly thereafter. The brittle mechanical response of the scaffolds in vitro changed to an elasto-plastic response after implantation for longer than 2–4 weeks in vivo. In addition to providing critically needed data for designing bioactive glass scaffolds, the results are promising for the application of these strong porous scaffolds in loaded bone repair. PMID:23438862

  20. Robotic deposition and in vitro characterization of 3D gelatin-bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Gao, Qiang; Teramoto, Akira; Abe, Koji

    2013-07-01

    The development of inorganic-organic hybrid scaffolds with controllable degradation and bioactive properties is receiving considerable interest for bone and tissue regeneration. The objective of this study was to create hybrid scaffolds of gelatin and bioactive glass (BG) with a controlled, three-dimensional (3D) architecture by a combined sol-gel and robotic deposition (robocasting) method and evaluate their mechanical response, bioactivity, and response to cells in vitro. Inks for robotic deposition of the scaffolds were prepared by dissolving gelatin in a sol-gel precursor solution of the bioactive glass (70SiO2 -25CaO-5P2 O5 ; mol%) and aging the solution to form a gel with the requisite viscosity. After drying and crosslinking, the gelatin-BG scaffolds, with a grid-like architecture (filament diameter ∼350 µm; pore width ∼550 µm), showed an elasto-plastic response, with a compressive strength of 5.1 ± 0.6 MPa, in the range of values for human trabecular bone (2-12 MPa). When immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, the crosslinked scaffolds rapidly absorbed water (∼440% of its dry weight after 2 h) and showed an elastic response at deformations up to ∼60%. Immersion of the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid resulted in the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like surface layer within 5 days, indicating their bioactivity in vitro. The scaffolds supported the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro, showing their biocompatibility. Altogether, the results indicate that these gelatin-BG hybrid scaffolds with a controlled, 3D architecture of inter-connected pores have potential for use as implants for bone regeneration. PMID:23255226

  1. A feasible approach toward bioactive glass nanofibers with tunable protein release kinetics for bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangyang; Li, Binbin; Xu, Gang; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Ren, Zhaohui; Dong, Yan; Li, Xiang; Weng, Wenjian; Han, Gaorong

    2014-10-01

    A range of fine bioactive glass (BG) fibers with different hydrolysis degree were synthesized via a sol-gel and electrospinning approach. Due to the increased water/TEOS ratio (X ratio) from 2 to 8, the SiOSi network integrity of BG fibers was dramatically enhanced. With a designed protein loading method using simulated body fluid (SBF)/bovine serum albumin (BSA) mixture solution, the tunable protein releasing was successfully achieved. The varied hydrolysis degree of BG fibers was found to induce distinctive releasing behavior. The protein release kinetics intends to present a more controlled and sustained manner with the decreased X ratio from 8 to 2, and such phenomenon is mainly attributed to the 'anchoring' effect of the crystalline apatite mineral layers formed at the fiber surface. This study has therefore offered another way of thinking in the investigation of feasible multifunctionalization strategies for bioactive glasses, and thus provided an impetus to the current research for future advanced BG scaffold materials. PMID:25174545

  2. Bioactive Copper-Doped Glass Scaffolds Can Stimulate Endothelial Cells in Co-Culture in Combination with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Subha N.; Brandl, Andreas; Hiller, Daniel; Hoppe, Alexander; Gbureck, Uwe; Horch, Raymund E.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Kneser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds are being investigated for bone tissue engineering applications because of their osteoconductive and angiogenic nature. However, to increase the in vivo performance of the scaffold, including enhancing the angiogenetic growth into the scaffolds, some researchers use different modifications of the scaffold including addition of inorganic ionic components to the basic BG composition. In this study, we investigated the in vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of Cu2+-doped BG derived scaffolds in either BMSC (bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells)-only culture or co-culture of BMSC and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). In BMSC-only culture, cells were seeded either directly on the scaffolds (3D or direct culture) or were exposed to ionic dissolution products of the BG scaffolds, kept in permeable cell culture inserts (2D or indirect culture). Though we did not observe any direct osteoinduction of BMSCs by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay or by PCR, there was increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, observed by PCR and ELISA assays. Additionally, the scaffolds showed no toxicity to BMSCs and there were healthy live cells found throughout the scaffold. To analyze further the reasons behind the increased VEGF expression and to exploit the benefits of the finding, we used the indirect method with HDMECs in culture plastic and Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with or without BMSCs in cell culture inserts. There was clear observation of increased endothelial markers by both FACS analysis and acetylated LDL (acLDL) uptake assay. Only in presence of Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with BMSCs, a high VEGF secretion was demonstrated by ELISA; and typical tubular structures were observed in culture plastics. We conclude that Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds release Cu2+, which in turn act on BMSCs to secrete VEGF. This result is of significance for the application of BG scaffolds in bone tissue engineering approaches. PMID:25470000

  3. Mesoporous bioactive glass surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shijie; Jian, Zhiyuan; Huang, Linsheng; Xu, Wei; Liu, Shaohua; Song, Dajiang; Wan, Zongmiao; Vaughn, Amanda; Zhan, Ruisen; Zhang, Chaoyue; Wu, Song; Hu, Minghua; Li, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) surface modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration was prepared by dip-coating a PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold into MBG precursor solution. Different surface structures and properties were acquired by different coating times. Surface morphology, chemical composition, microstructure, pore size distribution, and hydrophilicity of the PLGA-MBG scaffold were characterized. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that MBG surface coating made the scaffold rougher with the increase of MBG content. Scaffolds after MBG modification possessed mesoporous architecture on the surface. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of MBG into the PLGA scaffold improved the surface hydrophilicity. An energy dispersive spectrometer evidenced that calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite formed on the PLGA-MBG scaffolds after a 7-day immersion in simulated body fluid. In vitro studies showed that the incorporation of MBG favored cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on the PLGA scaffolds. Moreover, the MBG surface-modified PLGA (PLGA-MBG) scaffolds were shown to be capable of providing the improved adsorption/release behaviors of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). It is very significant that PLGA-MBG scaffolds could be effective for BMP-2 delivery and bone regeneration. PMID:26082632

  4. Development and effect of different bioactive silicate glass scaffolds: in vitro evaluation for use as a bone drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Mahato, Arnab; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; Sa, Biswanath; Basu, Debebrata

    2014-12-01

    Local drug delivery systems to bone have attracted appreciable attention due to their efficacy to improve drug delivery, healing and regeneration. In this paper, development and characterization of new formulations of bioactive glass into a porous scaffold has been reported for its suitability to act as a drug delivery system in the management of bone infections, in vitro. Two new glass compositions based on SiO2-Na2O-ZnO-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system (BGZ and MBG) have been developed which after thorough chemical and phase evaluation, studied for acellular static in vitro bioactivity in SBF. Porous scaffolds made of these glasses have been fabricated and characterized thoroughly for bioactivity study, SEM, XRD, in vitro cytotoxicity, MTT assay and wound healing assay using human osteocarcoma cells. Finally, gatifloxacin was loaded into the porous scaffold by vacuum infiltration method and in vitro drug release kinetics have been studied with varying parameters including dissolution medium (PBS and SBF) and with/without impregnation chitosan. Suitable model has also been proposed for the kinetics. 63-66% porous and 5-50μm almost unimodal porous MBG and BGZ bioactive glass scaffolds were capable of releasing drugs successfully for 43 days at concentrations to treat orthopedic infections. In addition, it was also observed that the release of drug followed Peppas-Korsmeyer release pattern based on Fickian diffusion, while 0.5-1% chitosan coating on the scaffolds decreased the burst release and overall release of drug. The results also indicated that MBG based scaffolds were bioactive, biocompatible, noncytotoxic and exhibited excellent wound healing potential while BGZ was mildly cytotoxic with moderate wound healing potential. These results strongly suggest that MBG scaffolds appear to be a suitable bone drug delivery system in orthopedic infections treatment and as bone void fillers, but BGZ should be handled with caution or studied elaborately in detail further to ascertain and confirm the cytotoxic nature and wound healing potential of this glass. PMID:25190432

  5. Copper-doped borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with improved angiogenic and osteogenic capacity for repairing osseous defects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of synthetic biomaterials to deliver inorganic ions that are known to stimulate angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of varying amounts of copper in a bioactive glass on the response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro and on blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects in vivo. Porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5, mol.%) doped with 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0wt.% CuO were created using a foam replication method. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium and converted to hydroxyapatite. At the concentrations used, the Cu in the glass was not toxic to the hBMSCs cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs and the expression levels of angiogenic-related genes (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor) and osteogenic-related genes (runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin) increased significantly with increasing amount of Cu in the glass. When implanted in rat calvarial defects in vivo, the scaffolds (3wt.% CuO) significantly enhanced both blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in the defects at 8weeks post-implantation. These results show that doping bioactive glass implants with Cu is a promising approach for enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the healing of osseous defects. PMID:25534470

  6. Porous and strong bioactive glass (13–93) scaffolds prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass (6Na2O, 12K2O, 5MgO, 20CaO, 4P2O5, 53SiO2; wt %) with an oriented pore architecture were formed by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions, followed by thermal annealing of the frozen constructs to grow the camphene crystals. After sublimation of the camphene, the constructs were sintered (1 h at 700 °C) to produce a dense glass phase with oriented macropores. The objective of this work was to study how constant freezing rates (1–7 °C/min) during the freezing step influenced the pore orientation and mechanical response of the scaffolds. When compared to scaffolds prepared by freezing the suspensions on a substrate kept at a constant temperature of 3 °C (time-dependent freezing rate), higher freezing rates resulted in better pore orientation, a more homogeneous microstructure, and a marked improvement in the mechanical response of the scaffolds in compression. Scaffolds fabricated using a constant freezing rate of 7 °C/min (porosity = 50 ± 4%; average pore diameter = 100 μm), had a compressive strength of 47 ± 5 MPa and an elastic modulus of 11 ± 3 GPa (in the orientation direction). In comparison, scaffolds prepared by freezing on the constant-temperature substrate had strength and modulus values of 35 ± 11 MPa and 8 ± 3 GPa, respectively. These oriented bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by the constant freezing rate route could potentially be used for the repair of defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in the long bones. PMID:21855661

  7. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Bal, B Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B; Bonewald, Lynda F; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  8. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  9. Osteoinductive fibrous scaffolds of biopolymer/mesoporous bioactive glass nanocarriers with excellent bioactivity and long-term delivery of osteogenic drug.

    PubMed

    El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-01-21

    Designing scaffolds with bioactive composition and long-term drug delivery capacity is a promising method to improve the therapeutic efficacy in bone regeneration. Herein, electrospun fibrous scaffolds of polycaprolactone-gelatin incorporating mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (mBGn) were proposed to be excellent matrix platforms for bone tissue engineering. In particular, the mBGn were loaded with osteogenic drug Dexamethasone (DEX) to elicit additional therapeutic potential. The mBGn-added fiber scaffolds demonstrated excellent properties, including improved mechanical tensile strength, elasticity, and hydrophilicity compared to pure biopolymer matrix. The scaffolds could release substantial amounts of calcium and silicate ions. The loading of DEX onto mBGn was as high as 63%, that is, 0.63 mg DEX loaded per 1 mg of mBGn, demonstrating an effective nanodepot role of the mBGn. The release of DEX from the mBGn-added fiber scaffolds was highly sustainable, profiling an almost linear release kinetics up to the test period of 28 days, after a rapid initial release of ∼30% within 24 h. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells derived from periodontal ligament were significantly improved by the mBGn incorporation and synergistically stimulated with DEX loading, as confirmed by both direct and indirect cultures. The effects on bone regeneration in vivo, as analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histological stains in a rat calvarium model over 6 weeks, were substantial with the mBGn incorporation and even better with DEX loading, evidencing the osteogenic effects of the drug-eluting nanocomposite fiber scaffolds in bone formation. The current scaffolds with bone-bioactive composition and drug delivery capacity may be potentially useful for bone regeneration as novel osteogenic matrices. PMID:25531645

  10. Incorporation of sol-gel bioactive glass into PLGA improves mechanical properties and bioactivity of composite scaffolds and results in their osteoinductive properties.

    PubMed

    Filipowska, J; Pawlik, J; Cholewa-Kowalska, K; Tylko, G; Pamula, E; Niedzwiedzki, L; Szuta, M; Laczka, M; Osyczka, A M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, 3D porous bioactive composite scaffolds were produced and evaluated for their physico-chemical and biological properties. Polymer poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) matrix scaffolds were modified with sol-gel-derived bioactive glasses (SBGs) of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 systems. We hypothesized that SBG incorporation into PLGA matrix would improve the chemical and biological activity of composite materials as well as their mechanical properties. We applied two bioactive glasses, designated as S2 or A2, differing in the content of SiO2 and CaO (i.e. 80 mol% SiO2, 16 mol% CaO for S2 and 40 mol% SiO2, 52 mol% CaO for A2). The composites were characterized for their porosity, bioactivity, microstructure and mechanical properties. The osteoinductive properties of these composites were evaluated in human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) cultures grown in either standard growth medium or treated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or dexamethasone (Dex). After incubation in simulated body fluid, calcium phosphate precipitates formed inside the pores of both A2-PLGA and S2-PLGA scaffolds. The compressive strength of the latter was increased slightly compared to PLGA. Both composites promoted superior hBMSC attachment to the material surface and stimulated the expression of several osteogenic markers in hBMSC compared to cells grown on unmodified PLGA. There were also marked differences in the response of hBMSC to composite scaffolds, depending on chemical compositions of the scaffolds and culture treatments. Compared to silica-rich S2-PLGA, hBMSC grown on calcium-rich A2-PLGA were overall less responsive to rhBMP-2 or Dex and the osteoinductive properties of these A2-PLGA scaffolds seemed partially dependent on their ability to induce BMP signaling in untreated hBMSC. Thus, beyond the ability of currently studied composites to enhance hBMSC osteogenesis, it may become possible to modulate the osteogenic response of hBMSC, depending on the chemistry of SBGs incorporated into polymer matrix. PMID:25329328

  11. Improved dimensional stability with bioactive glass fibre skeleton in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) porous scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Uppstu, Peter; Hannula, Markus; Ell, Ville; Rosling, Ari; Kellomki, Minna

    2015-11-01

    Bone tissue engineering requires highly porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with preferable osteoconductive properties, controlled degradation, and good dimensional stability. In this study, highly porous 3D poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - bioactive glass (BG) composites (PLGA/BG) were manufactured by combining highly porous 3D fibrous BG mesh skeleton with porous PLGA in a freeze-drying process. The 3D structure of the scaffolds was investigated as well as in vitro hydrolytic degradation for 10weeks. The effect of BG on the dimensional stability, scaffold composition, pore structure, and degradation behaviour of the scaffolds was evaluated. The composites showed superior pore structure as the BG fibres inhibited shrinkage of the scaffolds. The BG was also shown to buffer the acidic degradation products of PLGA. These results demonstrate the potential of these PLGA/BG composites for bone tissue engineering, but the ability of this kind of PLGA/BG composites to promote bone regeneration will be studied in forthcoming in vivo studies. PMID:26249615

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid Nanoparticles-Loaded Chitosan/Bioactive Glass Scaffolds as a Localized Delivery System in the Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, K.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Jalali, N.; Asgari, S.; Mozafari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of tissue engineering scaffolds can be enhanced by localized delivery of appropriate biological macromolecules incorporated within biodegradable nanoparticles. In this research, chitosan/58S-bioactive glass (58S-BG) containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been prepared and then characterized. The effects of further addition of 58S-BG on the structure of scaffolds have been investigated to optimize the characteristics of the scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The results showed that the scaffolds had high porosity with open pores. It was also shown that the porosity decreased with increasing 58S-BG content. Furthermore, the PLGA nanoparticles were homogenously distributed within the scaffolds. According to the obtained results, the nanocomposites could be considered as highly bioactive bone tissue engineering scaffolds with the potential of localized delivery of biological macromolecules. PMID:24949477

  13. Mechanical properties and drug release behavior of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application

    PubMed Central

    Fereshteh, Zeinab; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Bagri, Akbar; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data related to the research article entitled “The effect of coating type on mechanical properties and controlled drug release of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering” [1]. We provide data on mechanical properties, in vitro bioactivity and drug release of bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds coated by poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein used as a controlled release device for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). By coating the BG scaffolds with PCL or PCL/zein blend the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were substantially improved, i.e., the compressive strength increased from 0.004±0.001 MPa (uncoated BG scaffolds) to 0.15±0.02 MPa (PCL/zein coated BG scaffolds). A dense bone-like apatite layer formed on the surface of PCL/zein coated scaffolds immersed for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data describe control of drug release and in vitro degradation behavior of coating by engineering the concentration of zein. Thus, the developed scaffolds exhibit attractive properties for application in bone tissue engineering research. PMID:26966716

  14. Enhanced bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects implanted with surface-modified and BMP-loaded bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Liu, Yongxing; Bal, B. Sonny; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2013-01-01

    The repair of large bone defects, such as segmental defects in the long bones of the limbs, is a challenging clinical problem. Our recent work has shown the ability to create porous scaffolds of silicate 13-93 bioactive glass by robocasting which have compressive strengths comparable to human cortical bone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of those strong porous scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (porosity = 50%; filament width = 330 μm; pore width = 300 μm) to regenerate bone in a rat calvarial defect model. Six weeks postimplantation, the amount of new bone formed within the implants was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis. The amount of new bone formed in implants composed of the as-fabricated scaffolds was 32% of the available pore space (area). Pretreating the as-fabricated scaffolds in an aqueous phosphate solution for 1, 3, and 6 days, to convert a surface layer to hydroxyapatite prior to implantation, enhanced new bone formation to 46%, 57%, and 45%, respectively. New bone formation in scaffolds pretreated for 1, 3, and 6 days and loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (1 μg/defect) was 65%, 61%, and 64%, respectively. The results show that converting a surface layer of the glass to hydroxyapatite or loading the surface-treated scaffolds with BMP-2 can significantly improve the capacity of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds to regenerate bone in an osseous defect. Based on their mechanical properties evaluated previously and their capacity to regenerate bone found in this study, these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds, pretreated or loaded with BMP-2, are promising in structural bone repair. PMID:23567939

  15. Antibacterial and bioactive alpha- and beta-chitin hydrogel/nanobioactive glass ceramic/nano silver composite scaffolds for periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sowmya; Kumar, P T Sudheesh; Nair, Sreeja V; Nair, Shantikumar V; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    Alveolar bone loss and bone defects are the commonly encountered periodontal problems. Large defects do not heal spontaneously and thus require surgical interventions with bone substitutes. Bone grafts have the disadvantages of eliciting an immunologic response with subsequent graft rejection. The success rate of Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is variable because of high susceptibility to infection. Thus emerged the important role of synthetic biomaterials and hence for this purpose we developed a nanocomposite scaffold, using alpha- and beta-chitin hydrogel with bioactive glass ceramic nanoparticles (nBGC) and silver nanoparticles (nAg) by lyophilization technique (aalpha and beta-chitin hydrogel/nBGC/nAg nanocomposite scaffold). The prepared nanoparticles and nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized. In addition, the porosity, swelling, mechanical properties, antibacterial activity, in vitro degradation and biomineralization, cell viability, cell attachment and cell proliferation ability of the prepared composite scaffolds were also evaluated. The results showed that alpha- and beta-chitin/nBGC/nAg composite scaffolds were porous and have the capacity to absorb fluids and swell. The composite scaffolds also showed enhanced antibacterial activity, bioactivity and controlled degradation in comparison to the control scaffolds. Cell viability studies proved the non-toxic nature of the nanocomposite scaffolds. Cell attachment and cell proliferation studies revealed the attachment and spreading nature of cells. All these studies revealed that, these antibacterial nanocomposite scaffolds could be a promising approach for the management of periodontal defects. PMID:24059080

  16. Strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds with improved osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells for periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Zhou, Yinghong; Lin, Chucheng; Chang, Jiang; Xiao, Yin

    2012-10-01

    To achieve the ultimate goal of periodontal tissue engineering, it is of great importance to develop bioactive scaffolds which can stimulate the osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) for the favorable regeneration of alveolar bone, root cementum and periodontal ligament. Strontium (Sr) and Sr-containing biomaterials have been found to induce osteoblast activity. However, there has been no systematic report about the interaction between Sr or Sr-containing biomaterials and PDLCs for periodontal tissue engineering. The aims of this study were to prepare Sr-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds and investigate whether the addition of Sr could stimulate osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of PDLCs in a tissue-engineering scaffold system. The composition, microstructure and mesopore properties (specific surface area, nanopore volume and nanopore distribution) of Sr-MBG scaffolds were characterized. The proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression (ALP, Runx2, Col I, OPN and CEMP1) of PDLCs on different kinds of Sr-MBG scaffolds were systematically investigated. The results show that Sr plays an important role in influencing the mesoporous structure of MBG scaffolds in which high contents of Sr decreased the well-ordered mesopores as well as their surface area/pore volume. Sr(2+) ions could be released from Sr-MBG scaffolds in a controlled way. The incorporation of Sr into MBG scaffolds has significantly stimulated ALP activity and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression of PDLCs. Furthermore, Sr-MBG scaffolds in a simulated body fluid environment still maintained excellent apatite-mineralization ability. The study suggests that the incorporation of Sr into MBG scaffolds is a viable way to stimulate the biological response of PDLCs. Sr-MBG scaffolds are a promising bioactive material for periodontal tissue-engineering applications. PMID:22750735

  17. Porous SiO2 nanofiber grafted novel bioactive glass-ceramic coating: A structural scaffold for uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation on inert implant.

    PubMed

    Das, Indranee; De, Goutam; Hupa, Leena; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-05-01

    A composite bioactive glass-ceramic coating grafted with porous silica nanofibers was fabricated on inert glass to provide a structural scaffold favoring uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation. The coating surfaces were investigated thoroughly before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. In addition, the proliferation behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface was observed for several culture times. The nanofibrous exterior of this composite bioactive coating facilitated homogeneous growth of flake-like carbonated hydroxyapatite layer within a short period of immersion. Moreover, the embedded porous silica nanofibers enhanced hydrophilicity which is required for proper cell adhesion on the surface. The cells proliferated well following a particular orientation on the entire coating by the assistance of nanofibrous scaffold-like structural matrix. This newly engineered composite coating was effective in creating a biological structural matrix favorable for homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate, and organized cell growth on the inert glass surface. PMID:26952416

  18. The effects of 3D bioactive glass scaffolds and BMP-2 on bone formation in rat femoral critical size defects and adjacent bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wai-Ching; Robu, Irina S; Patel, Rikin; Leu, Ming C; Velez, Mariano; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Reconstruction of critical size defects in the load-bearing area has long been a challenge in orthopaedics. In the past, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using a biodegradable load-sharing scaffold fabricated from poly(propylene fumarate)/tricalcium phosphate (PPF/TCP) loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to successfully induce healing in those defects. However, there is limited osteoconduction observed with the PPF/TCP scaffold itself. For this reason, 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds with local BMP-2 delivery were investigated in this study for inducing segmental defect repairs in a load-bearing region. Furthermore, a recent review on BMP-2 revealed greater risks in radiculitis, ectopic bone formation, osteolysis and poor global outcome in association with the use of BMP-2 for spinal fusion. We also evaluated the potential side effects of locally delivered BMP-2 on the structures of adjacent bones. Therefore, cylindrical 13-93 glass scaffolds were fabricated by indirect selective laser sintering with side holes on the cylinder filled with dicalcium phosphate dehydrate as a BMP-2 carrier. The scaffolds were implanted into critical size defects created in rat femurs with and without 10 μg of BMP-2. The x-ray and micro-CT results showed that a bridging callus was found as soon as three weeks and progressed gradually in the BMP group while minimal bone formation was observed in the control group. Degradation of the scaffolds was noted in both groups. Stiffness, peak load and energy to break of the BMP group were all higher than the control group. There was no statistical difference in bone mineral density, bone area and bone mineral content in the tibiae and contralateral femurs of the control and BMP groups. In conclusion, a 13-93 bioactive glass scaffold with local BMP-2 delivery has been demonstrated for its potential application in treating large bone defects. PMID:25065552

  19. On the mechanical properties of PLC-bioactive glass scaffolds fabricated via BioExtrusion.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, T; Videira, A C; Bártolo, P; Strauch, M; Murch, G E; Ferreira, J M F

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical characterization of polycaprolactone (PCL)-bioglass (FastOs®BG) composites and scaffolds intended for use in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering scaffolds support the self-healing mechanism of the human body and promote the regrowth of damaged tissue. These implants can dissolve after successful tissue regeneration minimising the immune reaction and the need for revision surgery. However, their mechanical properties should match surrounding tissue in order to avoid strain concentration and possible separation at the interface. Therefore, an extensive experimental testing programme of this advanced material using uni-axial compressive testing was conducted. Tests were performed at low strain rates corresponding to quasi-static loading conditions. The initial elastic gradient, plateau stress and densification strain were obtained. Tested specimens varied according to their average density and material composition. In total, four groups of solid and robocast porous PCL samples containing 0, 20, 30, and 35% bioglass, respectively were tested. The addition of bioglass was found to slightly decrease the initial elastic gradient and the plateau stress of the biomaterial scaffolds. PMID:26354266

  20. Study of the mechanical stability and bioactivity of Bioglass(®) based glass-ceramic scaffolds produced via powder metallurgy-inspired technology.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Elena; Melli, Virginia; Catignoli, Gabriele; Altomare, Lina; Jahromi, Maryam Tavafoghi; Cerruti, Marta; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; De Nardo, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Large bone defects are challenging to heal, and often require an osteoconductive and stable support to help the repair of damaged tissue. Bioglass-based scaffolds are particularly promising for this purpose due to their ability to stimulate bone regeneration. However, processing technologies adopted so far do not allow for the synthesis of scaffolds with suitable mechanical properties. Also, conventional sintering processes result in glass de-vitrification, which generates concerns about bioactivity. In this work, we studied the bioactivity and the mechanical properties of Bioglass(®) based scaffolds, produced via a powder technology inspired process. The scaffolds showed compressive strengths in the range of 5-40 MPa, i.e. in the upper range of values reported so far for these materials, had tunable porosity, in the range between 55 and 77%, and pore sizes that are optimal for bone tissue regeneration (100-500 μm). We immersed the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 28 d and analyzed the evolution of the scaffold mechanical properties and microstructure. Even if, after sintering, partial de-vitrification occurred, immersion in SBF caused ion release and the formation of a Ca-P coating within 2 d, which reached a thickness of 10-15 μm after 28 d. This coating contained both hydroxyapatite and an amorphous background, indicating microstructural amorphization of the base material. Scaffolds retained a good compressive strength and structural integrity also after 28 d of immersion (6 MPa compressive strength). The decrease in mechanical properties was mainly related to the increase in porosity, caused by its dissolution, rather than to the amorphization process and the formation of a Ca-P coating. These results suggest that Bioglass(®) based scaffolds produced via powder metallurgy-inspired technique are excellent candidates for bone regeneration applications. PMID:26836444

  1. Characterization of Hybrid Bioactive Glass-polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds Containing a PTHrP-derived Pentapeptide as Implants for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, D.J.; Lozano, D.; Rocha-Oliveira, A.A.; Mortarino, P.; Bumaguin, G.E.; Vitelli, E.; Vena, R.; Missana, L.; Jammal, M. V.; Portal-Núñez, S.; Pereira, M.; Esbrit, P.; Feldman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid foam (BG-PVA) with 50 % Bioactive glass (BG) and 50 % polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by sol-gel process to produce scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The pore structure of hydrated foams was evaluated by 3-D confocal microscopy, confirming 70% porosity and interconnected macroporous network. In this study, we assessed the putative advantage of coating with osteostatin pentapeptide into BG-PVA hybrid scaffolds to improve their bioactivity. In vitro cell culture experiments were performed using mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The exposure to osteostatin loaded-BG-PVA scaffolds increase cell proliferation in contrast with the unloaded scaffolds. An in vivo study was selected to implant BG-PVA scaffolds, non-coated (Group A) or coated (Group B) with osteostatin into non critical bone defect at rabbit femur. Both groups showed new compact bone formation on implant surface, with lamellae disposed around a haversian canal forming osteons-like structure. We observed signs of inflammation around the implanted unloaded scaffold at one month, but resolved at 3 months. This early inflammation did not occur in Group B; supporting the notion that osteostatin may act as anti-inflammatory inhibitor. On the other hand, Group B showed increased bone formation, as depicted by many new trabeculae partly mineralized in the implant regenerating area, incipient at 1 month and more evident at 3 months after implantation. PVA/BG hybrid scaffolds present a porous structure suitable to support osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Our in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that osteostatin coating improves the osteogenic features of these scaffolds PMID:24772196

  2. A poly(glycerol sebacate)-coated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffold with adjustable mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Yang, Kai; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yutong; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-07-01

    Various requirements in the field of tissue engineering have motivated the development of three-dimensional scaffold with adjustable physicochemical properties and biological functions. A series of multiparameter-adjustable mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds with uncrosslinked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) coating was prepared in this article. MBG scaffold was prepared by a modified F127/PU co-templating process and then PGS was coated by a simple adsorption and lyophilization process. Through controlling macropore parameters and PGS coating amount, the mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior of the composite scaffold could be modulated in a wide range. PGS coating successfully endowed MBG scaffold with improved toughness and adjustable mechanical strength covering the bearing range of trabecular bone (2-12MPa). Multilevel degradation rate of the scaffold and controlled-release rate of protein from mesopore could be achieved, with little impact on the protein activity owing to an "ultralow-solvent" coating and "nano-cavity entrapment" immobilization method. In vitro studies indicated that PGS coating promoted cell attachment and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the osteogenic induction capacity of MBG substrate. These results first provide strong evidence that uncrosslinked PGS might also yield extraordinary achievements in traditional MBG scaffold. With the multiparameter adjustability, the composite MBG/PGS scaffolds would have a hopeful prospect in bone tissue engineering. The design considerations and coating method of this study can also be extended to other ceramic-based artificial scaffolds and are expected to provide new thoughts on development of future tissue engineering materials. PMID:25935647

  3. Effects of chitosan and bioactive glass modifications of knitted and rolled polylactide-based 96/4 L/D scaffolds on chondrogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Katja; Sippola, Laura; Nurminen, Manu; Mannerström, Bettina; Haimi, Suvi; Suuronen, Riitta; Hyttinen, Jari; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The performance of biodegradable knitted and rolled 3-dimensional (3D) polylactide-based 96/4 scaffolds modified with bioactive glass (BaG) 13-93, chitosan and both was compared with regard to the viability, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose stem cells (ASCs). Scaffold porosities were determined by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Water absorption and degradation of scaffolds were studied during 28-day hydrolysis in Tris-buffer. Viability, number and differentiation of ASCs in PLA96/4 scaffolds were examined in vitro. The dimensions of the scaffolds were maintained during hydrolysis and mass loss was detected only in the BaG13-93 containing scaffolds. ASCs adhered and proliferated on each scaffold type. Cell aggregation and expression of chondral matrix components improved in all scaffold types in chondrogenic medium. Signs of hypertrophy were detected in the modified scaffolds but not in the plain PLA96/4 scaffold. Chondrogenic differentiation was most enhanced in the presence of chitosan. These findings indicate that the plain P scaffold provided a good 3D-matrix for ASC proliferation whereas the addition of chitosan to the PLA96/4 scaffold induced chondrogenic differentiation independent of the medium. Accordingly, a PLA96/4 scaffold modified by chitosan could provide a functional and bioactive basis for tissue-engineered chondral implants. PMID:23086809

  4. Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: microstructure and mechanical response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 2P2O5, 54SiO2; mol %), containing oriented pores with controllable diameter, were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol% particles) on a cold substrate (−196°C or 3°C). By varying the annealing time (0–72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15–160 μm) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690°C) was accompanied by a decrease in the porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20–60% and average pore diameter of 6–120 μm. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 60%), which were 2–3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed. PMID:20807594

  5. New approach to bone tissue engineering: simultaneous application of hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass coated on a poly(L-lactic acid) scaffold.

    PubMed

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Shafiee, Abbas; Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Doostmohammadi, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein; Farhadian, Shirin; Soleimani, Masoud

    2011-11-01

    A combination of bioceramics and polymeric nanofibers holds promising potential for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA), bioactive glass (BG), and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles were coated on the surface of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers, and the capacity of the PLLA, BG-PLLA, HA-PLLA, HA-BG-PLLA, and TCP-PLLA scaffolds for bone regeneration was investigated in rat critical-size defects using digital mammography, multislice spiral-computed tomography (MSCT) imaging, and histological analysis. Electrospun scaffolds exhibited a nanofibrous structure with a homogeneous distribution of bioceramics along the surface of PLLA nanofibers. A total of 8 weeks after implantation, no sign of complication or inflammation was observed at the site of the calvarial bone defect. On the basis of imaging analysis, a higher level of bone reconstruction was observed in the animals receiving HA-, BG-, and TCP-coated scaffolds compared to an untreated control group. In addition, simultaneous coating of HA and BG induced the highest regeneration among all groups. Histological staining confirmed these findings and also showed an efficient osseointegration in HA-BG-coated nanofibers. On the whole, it was demonstrated that nanofibrous structures could serve as an appropriate support to guide the healing process, and coating their surface with bioceramics enhanced bone reconstruction. These bioceramic-coated scaffolds can be used as new bone-graft substitutes capable of efficiently inducing osteoconduction and osseointegration in orthopedic fractures and defects. PMID:21999213

  6. In vivo experimental study on bone regeneration in critical bone defects using PIB nanogels/boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass composite scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yanbing; Geng, Shinan; Miron, Richard J; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Chengtie; Zhang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, the fabrication of novel p(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butyl methylacrylate) (PIB) nanogels was combined with boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (B-MBG) scaffolds in order to improve the mechanical properties of PIB nanogels alone. Scaffolds were tested for mechanical strength and the ability to promote new bone formation in vivo. Patients and methods To evaluate the potential of each scaffold in bone regeneration, ovariectomized rats were chosen as a study model to determine the ability of PIB nanogels to stimulate bone formation in a complicated anatomical bone defect. PIB nanogels and PIB nanogels/B-MBG composites were respectively implanted into ovariectomized rats with critical-sized femur defects following treatment periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-implantation. Results Results from the present study demonstrate that PIB nanogels/B-MBG composites showed greater improvement in mechanical strength when compared to PIB nanogels alone. In vivo, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed significantly more newly formed bone in defects containing PIB nanogels/B-MBG composite scaffolds when compared to PIB nanogels alone. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive staining demonstrated that both scaffolds were degraded over time and bone remodeling occurred in the surrounding bone defect as early as 4 weeks post-implantation. Conclusion The results from the present study indicate that PIB nanogels are a potential bone tissue engineering biomaterial able to treat defects of irregular shapes and deformities as an injectable, thermoresponsive, biocompatible hydrogel which undergoes rapid thermal gelation once body temperature is reached. Furthermore, its combination with B-MBG scaffolds improves the mechanical properties and ability to promote new bone formation when compared to PIB nanogels alone. PMID:25653525

  7. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, R D

    1993-01-01

    Bioactive materials are designed to induce a specific biological activity; in most cases the desired biological activity is one that will give strong bonding to bone. A range of materials has been assessed as being capable of bonding to bone, but this paper is solely concerned with bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. Firstly, the structure and processing of glasses and glass-ceramics are described, as a basic knowledge is essential for the understanding of the development and properties of the bioactive materials. The effect of composition and structure on the bioactivity is then discussed, and it will be shown that bioactivity is associated with the formation of an apatite layer on the surface of the implant. A survey of mechanical performance demonstrates that the structure and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics depend upon whether the processing involves casting or sintering and that the strength and toughness of glass-ceramics are superior to those of glasses. Attempts to further improve the mechanical performance by the use of non-monolithic components, i.e. bioactive coatings on metal substrates and glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites, are also reviewed and are shown to have varying degrees of success. Finally, some miscellaneous applications, namely bioactive bone cements and bone fillers, are briefly covered. PMID:10146444

  8. Nanosized Mesoporous Bioactive Glass/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid) Composite-Coated CaSiO3 Scaffolds with Multifunctional Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Dong; Zhao, Lang

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to prepare multifunctional scaffolds combining good mechanical strength, bioactivity, and drug delivery ability for bone tissue engineering. In this study, nanosized mesoporous bioglass/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite-coated calcium silicate scaffolds, named NMBG-PLGA/CS, were successfully prepared. The morphology and structure of the prepared scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of NMBG on the apatite mineralization activity and mechanical strength of the scaffolds and the attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3 cells as well as drug ibuprofen delivery properties were systematically studied. Compared to pure CS scaffolds and PLGA/CS scaffolds, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds had greatly improved apatite mineralization activity in simulated body fluids, much higher mechanical property, and supported the attachment of MC3T3 cells and enhanced the cell proliferation and ALP activity. Furthermore, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds could be used for delivering ibuprofen with a sustained release profile. Our study suggests that the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds have improved physicochemical, biological, and drug-delivery property as compared to conventional CS scaffolds, indicating that the multifunctional property of the prepared scaffolds for the potential application of bone tissue engineering. PMID:24724080

  9. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Moztarzadeh, Fatollah; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya; Ai, Jafar

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70-200μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150-450nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. PMID:26652405

  10. Bioactive Glass for Large Bone Repair.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weitao; Lau, Grace Y; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing; Tomsia, Antoni P; Fu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    There has been an ongoing quest for new biomedical materials for the repair and regeneration of large segmental bone defects caused by disease or trauma. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold standard for bone repair despite their limited supply and donor-site morbidity. The current tissue engineering approach with synthetically derived bone grafts requires a bioactive ceramic or polymeric scaffold loaded with growth factors for osteoinduction and angiogenesis, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for osteogenic properties. Unfortunately, this approach has serious drawbacks: the low mechanical strength of scaffolds, the high cost of growth factors, and a lack of optimal strategies for growth-factor delivery. Here, it is shown that, for the first time, a synthetic material alone can repair large bone defects as efficiently as the gold standard ABG. Through the use of strong and resorbable bioactive glass scaffolds, complete bone healing, and defect bridging can be achieved in a rabbit femur segmental defect model without growth factors or BMSCs. New bone and blood vessel formation, in both inner and peripheral scaffolds, demonstrates the excellent osteoinductive and osteogenic properties of these scaffolds similar as ABG. PMID:26582584

  11. Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Hench, Larry L; Jones, Julian R

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass(®). The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs. PMID:26649290

  12. Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Jones, Julian R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass–ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs. PMID:26649290

  13. Review of bioactive glass: from Hench to hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julian R

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and the polymer components. Key to this is creating nanoscale interpenetrating networks, the organic and inorganic components of which have covalent coupling between them, which involves careful control of the chemistry of the sol-gel process. Bioactive nanoparticles can also now be synthesized and their fate tracked as they are internalized in cells. This paper reviews the main developments in the field of bioactive glass and its variants, covering the importance of control of hierarchical structure, synthesis, processing and cellular response in the quest for new regenerative synthetic bone grafts. The paper takes the reader from Hench's Bioglass 45S5 to new hybrid materials that have tailorable mechanical properties and degradation rates. PMID:22922331

  14. Reprint of: Review of bioactive glass: From Hench to hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julian R

    2015-09-01

    Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and the polymer components. Key to this is creating nanoscale interpenetrating networks, the organic and inorganic components of which have covalent coupling between them, which involves careful control of the chemistry of the sol-gel process. Bioactive nanoparticles can also now be synthesized and their fate tracked as they are internalized in cells. This paper reviews the main developments in the field of bioactive glass and its variants, covering the importance of control of hierarchical structure, synthesis, processing and cellular response in the quest for new regenerative synthetic bone grafts. The paper takes the reader from Hench's Bioglass 45S5 to new hybrid materials that have tailorable mechanical properties and degradation rates. PMID:26235346

  15. Development of bioactive and biodegradable chitosan-based injectable systems containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniela S; Hong, Zhongkui; Mano, João F

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of new tissue engineering strategies to deliver cells and bioactive agents encapsulated in a biodegradable matrix through minimally invasive procedures. The present work proposes to combine chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate salt formulations with bioactive glass nanoparticles in order to conceive novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogels for orthopaedic reconstructive and regenerative medicine applications. The initial rheological properties and the gelation points of the developed organic-inorganic in situ thermosetting systems were revealed to be adequate for intracorporal injection. In vitro bioactivity tests, using incubation protocols in simulated body fluid (SBF), allowed the observation of bone-like apatite formation in the hydrogel formulations containing bioactive nanoparticles. The density of the apatite formed increased with increasing bioactive glass content and soaking time in SBF. These results indicate that the stimuli-responsive hydrogels could potentially be used as temporary injectable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18835230

  16. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Bioactive glass particles (left) with a microporous surface (right) are widely accepted as a synthetic material for periodontal procedures. Using the particles to grow three-dimensional tissue cultures may one day result in developing an improved, more rugged bone tissue that may be used to correct skeletal disorders and bone defects. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research.

  17. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.

  18. Effects of borate-based bioactive glass on neuron viability and neurite extension.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Laura M; Day, Delbert; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Harkins, Amy B

    2014-08-01

    Bioactive glasses have recently been shown to promote regeneration of soft tissues by positively influencing tissue remodeling during wound healing. We were interested to determine whether bioactive glasses have the potential for use in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. In these experiments, degradable bioactive borate glass was fabricated into rods and microfibers. To study the compatibility with neurons, embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were cultured with different forms of bioactive borate glass. Cell viability was measured with no media exchange (static condition) or routine media exchange (transient condition). Neurite extension was measured within fibrin scaffolds with embedded glass microfibers or aligned rod sheets. Mixed cultures of neurons, glia, and fibroblasts growing in static conditions with glass rods and microfibers resulted in decreased cell viability. However, the percentage of neurons compared with all cell types increased by the end of the culture protocol compared with culture without glass. Furthermore, bioactive glass and fibrin composite scaffolds promoted neurite extension similar to that of control fibrin scaffolds, suggesting that glass does not have a significant detrimental effect on neuronal health. Aligned glass scaffolds guided neurite extension in an oriented manner. Together these findings suggest that bioactive glass can provide alignment to support directed axon growth. PMID:24027222

  19. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.

    2008-12-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  20. Parameters optimization for the fabrication of phosphate glass/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, R.; Girija, E. K.

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional, highly porous, bioactive and biodegradable phosphate glass and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) composite scaffolds was fabricated by the polymer foam replication technique. Polyurethane foam (PU) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as template and binder, respectively. Optimization of composition and sintering temperature is carried out for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication.

  1. Development of highly porous scaffolds based on bioactive silicates for dental tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Goudouri, O.M.; Theodosoglou, E.; Kontonasaki, E.; Will, J.; Chrissafis, K.; Koidis, P.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic via the sol–gel technique. • The heat treatment of the glass-ceramic promoted the crystallization of akermanite. • Akermanite scaffolds coated with gelatin were successfully fabricated. • An HCAp layer was developed on the surface of all scaffolds after 9 days in SBF. - Abstract: Various scaffolding materials, ceramics and especially Mg-based ceramic materials, including akermanite (Ca{sub 2}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), have attracted interest for dental tissue regeneration because of their improved mechanical properties and controllable biodegradation. The aim of the present work was the synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic, which would be used for the construction of workable akermanite scaffolds. The characterization of the synthesized material was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Finally, the apatite forming ability of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid. The scaffolds were fabricated by the foam replica technique and were subsequently coated with gelatin to provide a functional surface for increased cell attachment. Finally, SEM microphotographs and FTIR spectra of the scaffolds after immersion in SBF solution indicated the inorganic bioactive character of the scaffolds suitable for the intended applications in dental tissue engineering.

  2. Optimization and characterization of bioactive glass nanofibers and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarber, Reginna E.

    Disease affects different areas of the bone and can impact individuals of all pathologies and ethnicities. These bone diseases can result in weakening which leads to trauma during ordinary function, the need for reconstructive surgery, and eventual bone replacement. Tissue engineering can provide a less traumatic and more fundamental solution to the current therapies. Bioactive glasses are promising materials in tissue engineering applications because of their ability to form hydroxycarbonate apatite in the presence of simulated body fluid, support cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation, induce bone formation, and concentrate bone morphogenic proteins in vivo. The research in this dissertation will attempt to improve the quality, yield, and toughness of bioactive glass nanofibrous scaffolds. The three specific aims of this research include, (1) Optimization and Characterization of Surfactant Modified Bioactive Glass (2) Optimization of Direct Synthesis Bioactive glass Nanofibers from Sols (3) Mechanical Properties and In-vitro Biomineralization of Bioglass-loaded Polyglyconate Nanocomposites Created Using the Particulate Leaching Method. The purpose of the first specific aim was to optimize the processing of bioactive glass nanofibers, resulting in greater fiber uniformity with a reduction in beading. The increase in viscosity coupled with the ability of the surfactant to limit polymeric secondary bonding led to improved fiber quality. The focal point of the second specific aim is the production of sol-gel derived glass fibers with high bioactivity prepared by electrospinning without the use of any polymer carrier system. Advantages of this method include decreased processing time, increased production of fibers, and a decrease in the loss of material due to the calcining process. The solvent cast/ particulate leaching method was used to create a nanocomposite of bioglass and the co-polymer polyglyconate (MaxonRTM) for bone tissue scaffolds The biocompatibility of the composite foams was observed and calcium phosphate presence was quantified. The incorporation of bioglass into the polymer matrix improved the strength (modulus - 21.47 MPa) and biocompatibility of the polyglyconate foam. Keywords: Bioactive glass, Electrospinning, Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Method, Nanocomposites

  3. Hydroxyapatite Whisker Reinforced 63s Glass Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Cijun; Cao, Yiyuan; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Peng, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) is widely used for bone tissue engineering. However, poor mechanical properties are the major shortcomings. In the study, hydroxyapatite nanowhisker (HANw) was used as a reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties. 63s glass/HANw scaffolds were successfully fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS). It was found that the optimal compressive strength and fracture toughness were achieved when 10 wt.% HANw was added. This led to 36% increase in compressive strength and 83% increase in fracture toughness, respectively, compared with pure 63s glass scaffolds. Different reinforcement mechanisms were analyzed based on the microstructure investigation. Whisker bridging and whisker pulling-out were efficient in absorbing crack propagating energy, resulting in the improvement of the mechanical properties. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the scaffolds were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that composite scaffolds with 10 wt.% HANw exhibited good apatite-forming ability and cellular affinity. PMID:25821798

  4. Hydroxyapatite whisker reinforced 63s glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Cao, Yiyuan; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Peng, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) is widely used for bone tissue engineering. However, poor mechanical properties are the major shortcomings. In the study, hydroxyapatite nanowhisker (HANw) was used as a reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties. 63s glass/HANw scaffolds were successfully fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS). It was found that the optimal compressive strength and fracture toughness were achieved when 10 wt.% HANw was added. This led to 36% increase in compressive strength and 83% increase in fracture toughness, respectively, compared with pure 63s glass scaffolds. Different reinforcement mechanisms were analyzed based on the microstructure investigation. Whisker bridging and whisker pulling-out were efficient in absorbing crack propagating energy, resulting in the improvement of the mechanical properties. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the scaffolds were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that composite scaffolds with 10 wt.% HANw exhibited good apatite-forming ability and cellular affinity. PMID:25821798

  5. Bioinspired Strong and Highly Porous Glass Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for more efficient energy-related technologies is driving the development of porous and high-performance structural materials with exceptional mechanical strength. Natural materials achieve their strength through complex hierarchical designs and anisotropic structures that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature’s design by direct-ink-write assembling of glass scaffolds with a periodic pattern, and controlled sintering of the filaments into anisotropic constructs similar to biological materials. The final product is a porous glass scaffold with a compressive strength (136 MPa) comparable to that of cortical bone and a porosity (60%) comparable to that of trabecular bone. The strength of this porous glass scaffold is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities reported elsewhere. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for a broad array of applications, including tissue engineering, filtration, lightweight composites, and catalyst support. PMID:21544222

  6. A review of the effect of various ions on the properties and the clinical applications of novel bioactive glasses in medicine and dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saqib; Farooq, Imran; Iqbal, Kefi

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glass is a novel material that dissolves and forms a bond with bone when exposed to body fluids. Bioactive glasses are silicate-based, with calcium and phosphate in identical proportions to those of natural bone; therefore, they have high biocompatibility. Bioactive glasses have wide-ranging clinical applications, including the use as bone grafts, scaffolds, and coating materials for dental implants. This review will discuss the effects of ions on the various compositions of bioactive glasses, as well as the clinical applications of bioactive glasses in medicine and dentistry. PMID:24526822

  7. Effect of the preparation methods on architecture, crystallinity, hydrolytic degradation, bioactivity, and biocompatibility of PCL/bioglass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Dziadek, Michal; Pawlik, Justyna; Menaszek, Elzbieta; Stodolak-Zych, Ewa; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    In this study, two different composition gel derived silica-rich (S2) or calcium-rich (A2) bioactive glasses (SBG) from a basic CaO-P2 O5 -SiO2 system were incorporated into poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix to obtain novel bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The composites were fabricated in the form of highly porous 3D scaffolds using following preparation methods: solvent casting particulate leaching (SCPL), solid-liquid phase separation, phase inversion (PI). Scaffolds containing 21% vol. of each bioactive glass were characterized for architecture, crystallinity, hydrolytic degradation, surface bioactivity, and cellular response. Results indicated that the use of different preparation methods leads to obtain highly porous (60-90%) materials with differentiated morphology: pore shape, size, and distributions. Thermal analysis (DSC) showed that the preparation method of materials and addition of bioactive glass particles into polymer matrix induced the changes of PCL crystallinity. Composites obtained by SCPL and PI method containing A2 SBG rapidly formed a hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate surface layer after incubation in SBF. Bioactive glasses used as filler in composite scaffolds could neutralize the released acidic by-products of the polymer degradation. Preliminary in vitro biological studies of the composites in contact with osteoblastic cells showed good biocompatibility of the obtained materials. Addition of bioactive glass into the PCL matrix promotes mineralization estimated on the basis of the ALP activity. These results suggest that through a process of selection appropriate methods of preparation and bioglass composition it is possible to design and obtain porous materials with suitable properties for regeneration of bone tissue. PMID:25533304

  8. Bioactive scaffolds for engineering vascularized cardiac tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Loraine; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Functional vascularization is a key requirement for the development and function of most tissues, and most critically cardiac muscle. Rapid and irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes during cardiac infarction directly results from the lack of blood supply. Contractile cardiac grafts, engineered using cardiovascular cells in conjunction with biomaterial scaffolds, are an actively studied method for cardiac repair. In this article, we focus on biomaterial scaffolds designed to mediate the development and maturation of vascular networks, by immobilized growth factors. The interactive effects of multiple vasculogenic factors are discussed in the context of cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:20857391

  9. Preparation of porous 45S5 Bioglass-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds by using rice husk as a porogen additive.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Hsiao, Sheng-Hung; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2009-06-01

    Bioactive glass is currently regarded as the most biocompatible material in the bone regeneration field because of its bioactivity, osteoconductivity and even osteoinductivity. In the present work porous glass-ceramic scaffolds, which were prepared from the 45S5 Bioglass by foaming with rice husks and sintering at 1050 degrees C for 1 h, have been developed. The produced scaffolds were characterized for their morphology, properties and bioactivity. Micrographs taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for analysis of macropores, mesopores and micropores, respectively. The bioactivity of the porous glass-ceramic scaffolds was investigated using simulated body fluid (SBF) and characterized by SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A great potential scaffold that provides sufficient mechanical support temporarily while maintaining bioactivity, and that can biodegrade at later stages is achievable with the developed 45S5 Bioglass-derived scaffolds. PMID:19160020

  10. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase grafting on bioactive glasses and glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Verné, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Spriano, Silvia; Bianchi, Claudia L; Naldoni, Alberto; Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Bone integration of orthopaedic or dental implants and regeneration of damaged bone at the surgical site are still unresolved problems in prosthetic surgery. For this reason, biomimetic surfaces (i.e. both inorganic and biological bioactive surfaces) represent a challenge for bone implantation. In this research work a hydrolase enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) was covalently grafted to inorganic bioactive glass and glass ceramic surfaces, in order to impart biological bioactivity. The functionalized samples were analysed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to verify enzyme presence on the surface. Enzyme activity was measured by means of UV-visual spectroscopy after reaction with the natural substrate. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy observations allowed monitoring of the morphological and chemical modification of the materials during the different steps of functionalization. In vitro inorganic bioactivity was investigated by soaking samples in simulated body fluid. Enzymatic activity of the samples was tested and compared before and after soaking. Enzymatic activity of the solution was monitored at different experimental times. This study demonstrates that alkaline phosphatase could be successfully grafted onto different bioactive surfaces while maintaining its activity. Presence of the enzyme in vitro enhances the inorganic bioactivity of the materials tested. PMID:19540371

  12. Bioactive scaffold for bone tissue engineering: An in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Treena Lynne

    Massive bone loss of the proximal femur is a common problem in revision cases of total hip implants. Allograft is typically used to reconstruct the site for insertion of the new prosthesis. However, for long term fixation and function, it is desirable that the allograft becomes fully replaced by bone tissue and aids in the regeneration of bone to that site. However, allograft use is typically associated with delayed incorporation and poor remodeling. Due to these profound limitations, alternative approaches are needed. Tissue engineering is an attractive approach to designing improved graft materials. By combining osteogenic activity with a resorbable scaffold, bone formation can be stimulated while providing structure and stability to the limb during incorporation and remodeling of the scaffold. Porous, surface modified bioactive ceramic scaffolds (pSMC) have been developed which stimulate the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype and production of bone-like tissue in vitro. The scaffold and two tissue-engineered constructs, osteoprogenitor cells seeded onto scaffolds or cells expanded in culture to form bone tissue on the scaffolds prior to implantation, were investigated in a long bone defect model. The rate of incorporation was assessed. Both tissue-engineered constructs stimulated bone formation and comparable repair at 2 weeks. In a rat femoral window defect model, bone formation increased over time for all groups in concert with scaffold resorption, leading to a 40% increase in bone and 40% reduction of the scaffold in the defect by 12 weeks. Both tissue-engineered constructs enhanced the rate of mechanical repair of long bones due to better bony union with the host cortex. Long bones treated with tissue engineered constructs demonstrated a return in normal torsional properties by 4 weeks as compared to 12 weeks for long bones treated with pSMC. Culture expansion of cells to produce bone tissue in vitro did not accelerate incorporation over the treatment with cells seeded at the time of surgery. Porous, surface modified bioactive ceramic is a promising scaffold material for tissue-engineered bone repair. Bone formation and scaffold resorption act in concert for maintenance and improvement of the structural properties of the long bones over time. As determined histomorphometrically and mechanically, the rate of incorporation of the scaffold was enhanced with the tissue-engineered constructs.

  13. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Shah, Furqan A

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F(-)) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F(-) ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF2) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F(-) incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential. PMID:26478431

  14. Degradation, bioactivity, and osteogenic potential of composites made of PLGA and two different sol-gel bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Pamula, Elzbieta; Kokoszka, Justyna; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Laczka, Maria; Kantor, Lukasz; Niedzwiedzki, Lukasz; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Filipowska, Joanna; Madej, Wojciech; Kolodziejczyk, Malgorzata; Tylko, Grzegorz; Osyczka, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    We have developed poly(L: -lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based composites using sol-gel derived bioactive glasses (S-BG), previously described by our group, as composite components. Two different composite types were manufactured that contained either S2-high content silica S-BG, or A2-high content lime S-BG. The composites were evaluated in the form of sheets and 3D scaffolds. Sheets containing 12, 21, and 33 vol.% of each bioactive glass were characterized for mechanical properties, wettability, hydrolytic degradation, and surface bioactivity. Sheets containing A2 S-BG rapidly formed a hydroxyapatite surface layer after incubation in simulated body fluid. The incorporation of either S-BG increased the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites and tailored their degradation rates compared to starting compounds. Sheets and 3D scaffolds were evaluated for their ability to support growth of human bone marrow cells (BMC) and MG-63 cells, respectively. Cells were grown in non-differentiating, osteogenic or osteoclast-inducing conditions. Osteogenesis was induced with either recombinant human BMP-2 or dexamethasone, and osteoclast formation with M-CSF. BMC viability was lower at higher S-BG content, though specific ALP/cell was significantly higher on PLGA/A2-33 composites. Composites containing S2 S-BG enhanced calcification of extracellular matrix by BMC, whereas incorporation of A2 S-BG in the composites promoted osteoclast formation from BMC. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells seeded in porous scaffolds containing S2 maintained viability and secreted collagen and calcium throughout the scaffolds. Overall, the presented data show functional versatility of the composites studied and indicate their potential to design a wide variety of implant materials differing in physico-chemical properties and biological applications. We propose these sol-gel derived bioactive glass-PLGA composites may prove excellent potential orthopedic and dental biomaterials supporting bone formation and remodeling. PMID:21487840

  15. Nanoparticulate bioactive-glass-reinforced gellan-gum hydrogels for bone-tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gantar, Ana; da Silva, Lucilia P; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Marques, Alexandra P; Correlo, Vitor M; Novak, Saša; Reis, Rui L

    2014-10-01

    This work presents bioactive-glass-reinforced gellan-gum spongy-like hydrogels (GG-BAG) as novel hydrophilic materials for use as the scaffolding in bone-tissue engineering. The reinforcement with bioactive-glass particles resulted in an improvement to the microstructure and to the mechanical properties of the material. These mechanical properties were found to be dependent on the composition and improved with the amount of bioactive glass; however, values necessary to accommodate biomechanical loading were not achieved in this study. Nevertheless, by incorporating the bioactive-glass particles, the composite material acquired the ability to form an apatite layer when soaked in simulated body fluid. Furthermore, human-adipose-derived stem cells were able to adhere and spread within the gellan-gum, spongy-like hydrogels reinforced with the bioactive glass, and remain viable, which is an important result when considering their use in bone-tissue engineering. Thus, hydrogels based on gellan gum and bioactive glass are promising biomaterials for use either alone or with cells, and with the potential for use in osteogenic differentiation. PMID:25175184

  16. Reticulated bioactive scaffolds with improved textural properties for bone tissue engineering: nanostructured surfaces and porosity.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Gutiérrez, M Lourdes; Will, Julia; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Díaz-Cuenca, Aránzazu

    2014-09-01

    Organised nanoporous SBA-15 type silica precursor (SP) particulate material has been processed into three-dimensional macroporous, reticulated structures using a novel strategy consisting of blending increasing percentages of SP with a SiO2 -CaO-P2 O5 (80Si15Ca5P) mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) sol. The procedure successfully produced consolidated and functionally competent open-cell scaffolds while preserving the nanoporous order of the SP. Scaffolds were prepared using four different (MBG)/(SP) ratios. These structures were then characterized using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and compressive strength testing. Open-cell interconnected structures with dual macro (150-500 μm) and nano (4-6 nm)-organised porosity were produced. Both the textural and mechanical properties were found to improve with increasing SBA-15 content. The in vitro bioactive response using simulated body fluid confirmed high reactivity for all prepared scaffolds. In addition, the SBA-15 containing scaffolds exhibited a superior ability to delay the pH-triggered lysozyme release with antibiotic activity. PMID:24123840

  17. Effect of bioactive borate glass microstructure on bone regeneration, angiogenesis, and hydroxyapatite conversion in a rat calvarial defect model.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lianxiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Brown, Zackary; Samujh, Christopher; Liu, Xin; Mohammadkhah, Ali; Dusevich, Vladimir; Eick, J David; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2013-08-01

    Borate bioactive glasses are biocompatible and enhance new bone formation, but the effect of their microstructure on bone regeneration has received little attention. In this study scaffolds of borate bioactive glass (1393B3) with three different microstructures (trabecular, fibrous, and oriented) were compared for their capacity to regenerate bone in a rat calvarial defect model. 12weeks post-implantation the amount of new bone, mineralization, and blood vessel area in the scaffolds were evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The amount of new bone formed was 33%, 23%, and 15%, respectively, of the total defect area for the trabecular, oriented, and fibrous microstructures. In comparison, the percent new bone formed in implants composed of silicate 45S5 bioactive glass particles (250-300μm) was 19%. Doping the borate glass with copper (0.4 wt.% CuO) had little effect on bone regeneration in the trabecular and oriented scaffolds, but significantly enhanced bone regeneration in the fibrous scaffolds (from 15 to 33%). The scaffolds were completely converted to hydroxyapatite within the 12week implantation. The amount of hydroxyapatite formed, 22%, 35%, and 48%, respectively, for the trabecular, oriented, and fibrous scaffolds, increased with increasing volume fraction of glass in the as-fabricated scaffold. Blood vessels infiltrated into all the scaffolds, but the trabecular scaffolds had a higher average blood vessel area compared with the oriented and fibrous scaffolds. While all three scaffold microstructures were effective in supporting bone regeneration, the trabecular scaffolds supported more bone formation and may be more promising in bone repair. PMID:23643606

  18. Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants fabricated by rapid prototyping based on CO(2) laser cladding.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Lusquiños, F; Del Val, J; López-Álvarez, M; Quintero, F; Riveiro, A; Boutinguiza, M; de Carlos, A; Jones, J R; Hill, R G; Pou, J

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants were produced by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding without using moulds. CO(2) laser radiation was employed to melt 45S5 and S520 bioactive glass particles and to deposit the material layer by layer following a desired geometry. Controlled thermal input and cooling rate by fine tuning of the processing parameters allowed the production of crack-free fully dense implants. Microstructural characterization revealed chemical composition stability, but crystallization during processing was extensive when 45S5 bioactive glass was used. Improved results were obtained using the S520 bioactive glass, which showed limited surface crystallization due to an expanded sintering window (the difference between the glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature). Ion release from the S520 implants in Tris buffer was similar to that of amorphous 45S5 bioactive glass prepared by casting in graphite moulds. Laser processed S520 scaffolds were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with the dissolution products of the glasses; and the MC3T3-E1 cells attached and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials. PMID:21658477

  19. A review of bioactive glasses: Their structure, properties, fabrication and apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pandey, Om P; Singh, Kulvir; Homa, Dan; Scott, Brian; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glass and glass-ceramics are used in bone repair applications and are being developed for tissue engineering applications. Bioactive glasses/Bioglass are very attractive materials for producing scaffolds devoted to bone regeneration due to their versatile properties, which can be properly designed depending on their composition. An important feature of bioactive glasses, which enables them to work for applications in bone tissue engineering, is their ability to enhance revascularization, osteoblast adhesion, enzyme activity and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as well as osteoprogenitor cells. An extensive amount of research work has been carried out to develop silicate, borate/borosilicate bioactive glasses and phosphate glasses. Along with this, some metallic glasses have also been investigated for biomedical and technological applications in tissue engineering. Many trace elements have also been incorporated in the glass network to obtain the desired properties, which have beneficial effects on bone remodeling and/or associated angiogenesis. The motivation of this review is to provide an overview of the general requirements, composition, structure-property relationship with hydroxyapatite formation and future perspectives of bioglasses.Attention has also been given to developments of metallic glasses and doped bioglasses along with the techniques used for their fabrication. PMID:23468256

  20. Highly bioactive polysiloxane modified bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids monoliths with controlled surface structure for bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Lei, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Crack-free monoliths with controllable surface microstructure have high bioactivities and therefore potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-modified bioactive glass-poly (ethylene glycol) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were fabricated via using a modified sol-gel process. Results show that the addition of PEG plays an important part in the formation of crack-free and gelation of the monoliths, and surface microstructures of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were significantly influenced by the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. The samples obtained from PEG 300 had porous surface result in higher bioactivity (apatite formation) in simulated body fluid (SBF), while the samples obtained from PEG 600 had the smooth surface and inhibited the formation of apatite layer in SBF. These as-prepared hybrid monoliths can be used as a good candidate of implant and scaffold for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration.

  1. Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2015-04-01

    The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:25805509

  2. Mesoporous bioactive glasses: structure characteristics, drug/growth factor delivery and bone regeneration application

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The impact of bone diseases and trauma in the whole world has increased significantly in the past decades. Bioactive glasses are regarded as an important bone regeneration material owing to their generally excellent osteoconductivity and osteostimulativity. A new class of bioactive glass, referred to as mesoporous bioglass (MBG), was developed 7 years ago, which possess a highly ordered mesoporous channel structure and a highly specific surface area. The study of MBG for drug/growth factor delivery and bone tissue engineering has grown significantly in the past several years. In this article, we review the recent advances of MBG materials, including the preparation of different forms of MBG, composition–structure relationship, efficient drug/growth factor delivery and bone tissue engineering application. By summarizing our recent research, the interaction of MBG scaffolds with bone-forming cells, the effect of drug/growth factor delivery on proliferation and differentiation of tissue cells and the in vivo osteogenesis of MBG scaffolds are highlighted. The advantages and limitations of MBG for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering have been compared with microsize bioactive glasses and nanosize bioactive glasses. The future perspective of MBG is discussed for bone regeneration application by combining drug delivery with bone tissue engineering and investigating the in vivo osteogenesis mechanism in large animal models. PMID:23741607

  3. Biomimetic and bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds from electrospun composite nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, YZ; Su, B; Venugopal, J; Ramakrishna, S; Lim, CT

    2007-01-01

    Electrospinning is an enabling technology that can architecturally (in terms of geometry, morphology or topography) and biochemically fabricate engineered cellular scaffolds that mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM). This is especially important and forms one of the essential paradigms in the area of tissue engineering. While biomimesis of the physical dimensions of native ECM’s major constituents (eg, collagen) is no longer a fabrication-related challenge in tissue engineering research, conveying bioactivity to electrospun nanofibrous structures will determine the efficiency of utilizing electrospun nanofibers for regenerating biologically functional tissues. This can certainly be achieved through developing composite nanofibers. This article gives a brief overview on the current development and application status of employing electrospun composite nanofibers for constructing biomimetic and bioactive tissue scaffolds. Considering that composites consist of at least two material components and phases, this review details three different configurations of nanofibrous composite structures by using hybridizing basic binary material systems as example. These are components blended composite nanofiber, core-shell structured composite nanofiber, and nanofibrous mingled structure. PMID:18203429

  4. Nanoporosity Significantly Enhances the Biological Performance of Engineered Glass Tissue Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojie; Kowal, Tia J.; Marei, Mona K.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporosity is known to impact the performance of implants and scaffolds such as bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds, either by providing a higher concentration of bioactive chemical species from enhanced surface area, or due to inherent nanoscale topology, or both. To delineate the role of these two characteristics, BG scaffolds have been fabricated with nearly identical surface area (81 and 83±2 m2/g) but significantly different pore size (av. 3.7 and 17.7 nm) by varying both the sintering temperature and the ammonia concentration during the solvent exchange phase of the sol-gel fabrication process. In vitro tests performed with MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells on such scaffolds show that initial cell attachment is increased on samples with the smaller nanopore size, providing the first direct evidence of the influence of nanopore topography on cell response to a bioactive structure. Furthermore, in vivo animal tests in New Zealand rabbits (subcutaneous implantation) indicate that nanopores promote colonization and cell penetration into these scaffolds, further demonstrating the favorable effects of nanopores in tissue-engineering-relevant BG scaffolds. PMID:23427819

  5. Submicron bioactive glass tubes for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingwei; Blough, Eric R; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2012-02-01

    Herein we describe a method to fabricate submicron bioactive glass tubes using sol-gel and coaxial electrospinning techniques for applications in bone tissue engineering. Heavy mineral oil and gel solution were delivered by two independent syringe pumps during the coaxial electrospinning process. Subsequently, submicron bioactive glass tubes were obtained by removal of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and heavy mineral oil via calcination at 600 °C for 5 h. Tubular structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy imaging. We examined the bioactivity of submicron bioactive glass tubes and fibers and evaluated their biocompatibility, using electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers--a bioinactive material--for comparison. The bioactivity of the glass tubes was examined in a simulated body fluid and they demonstrated the formation of hydroxyapatite-like minerals on both the outer and inner surfaces. In contrast, mineralization only occurred on their surface for bioactive glass solid fibers. Energy-dispersive X-ray data suggested that the bioactive glass tubes had a faster induction of mineral formation than the solid fibers. We demonstrate that the proliferation rate of mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells on bioactive glass tubes was comparable to that on solid fibers. We also show that bioactive glass tubes can be loaded with a model protein drug, bovine serum albumin, and that these structures exhibit delayed release properties. The bioactivity of released lysozyme can be as high as 90.9%. Taken together, these data suggest that submicron bioactive glass tubes could hold great potential for use in bone tissue engineering as well as topical drug or gene delivery. PMID:21945829

  6. Combination of platelet-rich plasma with degradable bioactive borate glass for segmental bone defect repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Dong; Wang, Gang; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Porous scaffold biomaterials may offer a clinical alternative to bone grafts; however, scaffolds alone are typically insufficient to heal large bone defects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that osteoinductive growth factor significantly improves bone repair. In this study, a strategy combining degradable bioactive borate glass (BG) scaffolds with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was tested. The bone defect was filled with BG alone, BG combined with autologous PRP or left empty. Bone formation was analyzed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks using both histology and radiology. The PRP treated group yielded better bone formation than the pure BG scaffold as determined by both histology and microcomputer tomography after 12 weeks. In conclusion, PRP improved bone healing in a diaphyseal rabbit model on BG. The combination of PRP and BG may be an effective approach to repair critical defects. PMID:21473456

  7. Biomimetic and nanostructured hybrid bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Sahai, Nita; Qi, Lin; Mankoci, Steven; Zhao, Weilong

    2015-05-01

    Inspired by nature's toughening mechanisms, we designed a new polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-derived hybrid glass (PHG) that has covalent interactions on the molecular scale between the inorganic POSS cage and organic phase. These features allow "elastic deformation" of the inorganic POSS cage in limited scale. The final product is a bulk hybrid material with toughness (3.560.25MPam(1/2)) similar to natural bone (2.4-5.3MPam(1/2)). PHG exhibited excellent bioactivity by promoting the formation of plate-like hydroxyapatite on its surface in simulated body fluid and showed good cell adhesion. PHG also can be a platform to guide adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and mineralization. The key structural features of this material can be used to guide the design of bio-inspired composites with unique toughness, which would be of great benefit to hard tissue engineering. PMID:25736490

  8. Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.

    2014-09-01

    This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

  9. Creation of microrough surface on sintered bioactive glass microspheres.

    PubMed

    Itälä, A; Nordström, E G; Ylänen, H; Aro, H T; Hupa, M

    2001-08-01

    Bioactive glasses are surface-active, generally silica-based, synthetic materials that form a firm chemical bond to bone. The aim of this study was to further enhance the bioactivity of glasses by creating a microroughness on their surface. Microroughness increases potential surface area for cell attachment and biomaterial-cell interactions. Three bioactive glasses of different composition were studied. Each material was flame-sprayed into microspheres, and a selected fraction of the spheres (250-300 microm) was sintered to form porous bioactive glass specimens. To create microrough surfaces, different acid etching techniques were tested. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and back-scattered electron imaging of scanning electron microscopy (BEI-SEM) were used to characterize surface roughness. The degree of roughness was measured by AFM. A novel chemical-etching method, developed through intensive screening of different options, was found consistently to create the desired microroughness, with an average roughness value (R(a)) of 0.35-0.52 microm and a root mean-square roughness value (R(rms)) of 0.42-0.64 microm. Microroughening of the glass surface was obtained even in the internal parts of the porous glass matrices. Measured by BEI-SEM, the etching of a bioactive glass surface did not interfere with the formation of the characteristic surface reactions of bioactive glasses. This was confirmed by immersing the etched and control glass bodies in a simulated body fluid and tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane/HCl. The etching process did not significantly affect the mechanical strength of the sintered bioactive glass structures. Based on these experiments, it seems possible to create a reproducible microroughness of appropriate size on the surface of porous bioactive glass. The biologic benefits of such a surface treatment need to be validated with in vivo experiments. PMID:11340600

  10. Efficient discovery of bioactive scaffolds by activity-directed synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgis, George; Warriner, Stuart; Nelson, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The structures and biological activities of natural products have often provided inspiration in drug discovery. The functional benefits of natural products to the host organism steers the evolution of their biosynthetic pathways. Here, we describe a discovery approach—which we term activity-directed synthesis—in which reactions with alternative outcomes are steered towards functional products. Arrays of catalysed reactions of α-diazo amides, whose outcome was critically dependent on the specific conditions used, were performed. The products were assayed at increasingly low concentration, with the results informing the design of a subsequent reaction array. Finally, promising reactions were scaled up and, after purification, submicromolar ligands based on two scaffolds with no previous annotated activity against the androgen receptor were discovered. The approach enables the discovery, in tandem, of both bioactive small molecules and associated synthetic routes, analogous to the evolution of biosynthetic pathways to yield natural products.

  11. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-08-25

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

  12. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  13. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  14. Influence of sodium oxide content on bioactive glass properties.

    PubMed

    Wallace, K E; Hill, R G; Pembroke, J T; Brown, C J; Hatton, P V

    1999-12-01

    The rate of in vivo degradation and level of bioactivity of bioactive glasses are composition dependent [1]. By altering bioactive glass composition, the rate of resorption can be controlled. The network connectivity of a glass can be used to predict various physical properties of the glass including its solubility and, hence, its bioactivity [2]. Glass solubility increases as network connectivity is reduced. Glasses in the soda-lime phosphosilicate system were studied. The initial choice of composition was based on phosphate content and low network connectivity. A systematic substitution of calcium oxide for sodium oxide on a molar basis was made in order to examine the influence of sodium oxide content on the glass properties while keeping the network connectivity constant. The glass transition temperature and the peak crystallization temperature were seen to decrease linearly with increasing sodium oxide content. Thermal expansion coefficient and glass density were also seen to be related to sodium oxide content. Preliminary in vitro biocompatibility studies revealed that the glasses of higher sodium oxide content were associated with a cytotoxic response. The measurement of media pH indicated that this cytotoxic effect was due to ion exchange reactions at the glass surface. PMID:15347935

  15. Effect of a new bioactive fibrous glassy scaffold on bone repair.

    PubMed

    Gabbai-Armelin, P R; Souza, M T; Kido, H W; Tim, C R; Bossini, P S; Magri, A M P; Fernandes, K R; Pastor, F A C; Zanotto, E D; Parizotto, N A; Peitl, O; Renno, A C M

    2015-05-01

    Researchers have investigated several therapeutic approaches to treat non-union fractures. Among these, bioactive glasses and glass ceramics have been widely used as grafts. This class of biomaterial has the ability to integrate with living bone. Nevertheless, bioglass and bioactive materials have been used mainly as powder and blocks, compromising the filling of irregular bone defects. Considering this matter, our research group has developed a new bioactive glass composition that can originate malleable fibers, which can offer a more suitable material to be used as bone graft substitutes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the morphological structure (via scanning electron microscope) of these fibers upon incubation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after 1, 7 and 14 days and, also, evaluate the in vivo tissue response to the new biomaterial using implantation in rat tibial defects. The histopathological, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical analyzes after 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation were performed to investigate the effects of the material on bone repair. The PBS incubation indicated that the fibers of the glassy scaffold degraded over time. The histological analysis revealed a progressive degradation of the material with increasing implantation time and also its substitution by granulation tissue and woven bone. Histomorphometry showed a higher amount of newly formed bone area in the control group (CG) compared to the biomaterial group (BG) 15 days post-surgery. After 30 and 60 days, CG and BG showed a similar amount of newly formed bone. The novel biomaterial enhanced the expression of RUNX-2 and RANK-L, and also improved the mechanical properties of the tibial callus at day 15 after surgery. These results indicated a promising use of the new biomaterial for bone engineering. However, further long-term studies should be carried out to provide additional information concerning the material degradation in the later stages and the bone regeneration induced by the fibrous material. PMID:25893392

  16. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance. PMID:26767396

  17. Cytotoxicity assessment of modified bioactive glasses with MLO-A5 osteogenic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Modglin, Vernon C; Brown, Roger F; Jung, Steven B; Day, Delbert E

    2013-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro responses of MLO-A5 osteogenic cells to two modifications of the bioactive glass 13-93. The modified glasses, which were designed for use as cell support scaffolds and contained added boron to form the glasses 13-93 B1 and 13-93 B3, were made to accelerate formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite surface layer and possibly enhance tissue growth. Quantitative MTT cytotoxicity tests revealed no inhibition of growth of MLO-A5 cells incubated with 13-93 glass extracts up to 10 mg/ml, moderate inhibition of growth with 13-93 B1 glass extracts, and noticeable inhibition of growth with 13-93 B3 glass extracts. A morphology-based biocompatibility test was also performed and yielded qualitative assessments of the relative biocompatibilities of glass extracts that agree with those obtained by the quantitative MTT test. However, as a proof of concept experiment, when MLO-A5 cells were seeded onto 13-93 B3 scaffolds in a dynamic in vitro environment, cell proliferation occurred as evidenced by qualitative and quantitative MTT labeling of scaffolds. Together these results demonstrate the in vitro toxicity of released borate ion in static experiments; however borate ion release can be mitigated in a dynamic environment similar to the human body where microvasculature is present. Here we argue that despite toxicity in static environments, boron-containing 13-93 compositions may warrant further study for use in tissue engineering applications. PMID:23392968

  18. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  19. Interactions of bioactive glass materials in the oral environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efflandt, Sarah Elizabeth

    The aim of this research was to investigate bioactive glass materials for their use in dental restorations. Mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and wear resistance were considered initially, but the focus of this thesis was the biological properties such as reactions with saliva and interactions with natural dental tissues. Bioactive composite materials were created by incorporating bioactive glass and alumina powders into an aqueous suspension, slip casting, and infiltrating with resin. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance were evaluated. Mechanically, the composites are comparable to natural dental tissues and current dental materials with a strength of 206 +/- 18.7 MPa and a toughness of 1.74 +/- 0.08 MPa(m)1/2. Interfacial reactions were examined using bulk bioactive glasses. Disks were prepared from a melt, placed in saliva and incubated at 37°C. Surfaces were analyzed at 2, 5, 10, 21, and 42 days using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microdiffraction. Results showed changes at 2 days with apatite crystallization by 10 days. These glass disks were then secured against extracted human dentin and incubated in saliva for 21 or 42 days. Results from SEM, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microdiffraction showed that dentin and bioactive glasses adhered in this in vitro environment due to attraction of collagen to bioactive glasses and growth of an interfacial apatite. After investigating these bulk glass responses, particulate bioactive glasses were placed in in vitro and in vivo set-ups for evaluation. Particles immersed in biologically buffered saliva showed crystallization of apatite at 3 days. These bioactive glass particles were placed in the molars of mini-pigs and left in vivo. After 30 days the bioactive paste was evaluated using SEM, EMPA and microdiffraction analyses. Results showed that the paste gained structural integrity and had chemical changes in vivo. These sets of experiments show that bioactive glasses have many mechanical and biological characteristics desirable for use in dental materials. Hopefully, the conclusions presented here will lead to further investigations toward their use in dentistry.

  20. Modification of resin modified glass ionomer cement by addition of bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Valanezhad, Alireza; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Udoh, Koichi; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Sawase, Takashi; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, sol-gel derived nanoparticle calcium silicate bioactive glass was added to the resin-modified light cure glass-ionomer cement to assess the influence of additional bioactive glass nanoparticles on the mechanical and biological properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. The fabricated bioactive glass nanoparticles added resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (GICs) were immersed in the phosphate buffer solution for 28 days to mimic real condition for the mechanical properties. Resin-modified GICs containing 3, 5 and 10 % bioactive glass nanoparticles improved the flexural strength compared to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and the samples containing 15 and 20 % bioactive glass nanoparticles before and after immersing in the phosphate buffer solution. Characterization of the samples successfully expressed the cause of the critical condition for mechanical properties. Cell study clarified that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement with high concentrations of bioactive glass nanoparticles has higher cell viability and better cell morphology compare to control groups. The results for mechanical properties and toxicity approved that the considering in selection of an optimum condition would have been a more satisfying conclusion for this study. PMID:26610926

  1. Surface characterization of silver-doped bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Vernè, E; Di Nunzio, S; Bosetti, M; Appendino, P; Brovarone, C Vitale; Maina, G; Cannas, M

    2005-09-01

    A bioactive glass belonging to the system SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O was doped with silver ions by ion exchange in molten salts as well as in aqueous solution. The ion exchange in the solution was done to check if it is possible to prepare an antimicrobial material using a low silver content. The doped glass was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM observation, EDS analysis, bioactivity test (soaking in a simulated body fluid), leaching test (GFAAS analyses) and cytotoxicity test. It is demonstrated that these surface silver-doped glasses maintain, or even improve, the bioactivity of the starting glass. The measured quantity of released silver into simulated body fluid compares those reported in literature for the antibacterial activity and the non-cytotoxic effect of silver. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out to understand the effect of the doped surfaces on osteogenic cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:15792537

  2. Biological Impact of Bioactive Glasses and Their Dissolution Products.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-01

    For many years, bioactive glasses (BGs) have been widely considered for bone tissue engineering applications due to their ability to bond to hard as well as soft tissue (a property termed bioactivity) and for their stimulating effects on bone formation. Ionic dissolution products released during the degradation of the BG matrix induce osteogenic gene expression leading to enhanced bone regeneration. Recently, adding bioactive metallic ions (e.g. boron, copper, cobalt, silver, zinc and strontium) to silicate (or phosphate and borate) glasses has emerged as a promising route for developing novel BG formulations with specific therapeutic functionalities, including antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic properties. The degradation behaviour of BGs can be tailored by adjusting the glass chemistry making these glass matrices potential carrier systems for controlled therapeutic ion release. This book chapter summarises the fundamental aspects of the effect of ionic dissolution products from BGs on osteogenesis and angiogenesis, whilst discussing novel BG compositions with controlled therapeutic ion release. PMID:26201273

  3. Direct Ink Writing of Highly Porous and Strong Glass Scaffolds for Load-bearing Bone Defects Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for synthetic materials to repair load-bearing bone lost because of trauma, cancer, or congenital bone defects requires development of porous and high-performance scaffolds with exceptional mechanical strength. However, the low mechanical strength of porous bioactive ceramic and glass scaffolds, compared with that of human cortical bone, has limited their use for these applications. In the present work, bioactive 6P53B glass scaffolds with superior mechanical strength were fabricated using a direct ink writing technique. The rheological properties of Pluronic® F-127 (referred to hereafter simply as F-127) hydrogel-based inkswere optimized for the printing of features as fine as 30 μm and of the three-dimensional scaffolds. The mechanical strength and in vitro degradation of the scaffolds were assessed in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The sintered glass scaffolds show a compressive strength (136 ± 22 MPa) comparable to that of human cortical bone (100-150 MPa), while the porosity (60%) is in the range of that of trabecular bone (50-90%).The strength is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities. Despite the strength decrease resulting from weight loss during immersion in an SBF, the value (77 MPa) is still far above that of trabecular bone after three weeks. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for load-bearing bone defect repair and regeneration. PMID:21745606

  4. Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Superb K.; Ansari, Tahera; Mohn, Dirk; Valappil, Sabeel P.; Brunner, Tobias J.; Stark, Wendelin J.; Roy, Ipsita; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Sibbons, Paul D.; Jones, Eugenia Valsami; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Salih, Vehid

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of adding nanoparticulate (29 nm) bioactive glass particles on the bioactivity, degradation and in vitro cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) composites/nano-sized bioactive glass (n-BG). Two different concentrations (10 and 20 wt %) of nanoscale bioactive glass particles of 45S5 Bioglass composition were used to prepare composite films. Several techniques (Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray) were used to monitor their surface and bioreactivity over a 45-day period of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All results suggested the P(3HB)/n-BG composites to be highly bioactive, confirmed by the formation of hydroxyapatite on material surfaces upon immersion in SBF. The weight loss and water uptake were found to increase on increasing bioactive glass content. Cytocompatibility study (cell proliferation, cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production) using human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in osteogenic and non-osteogenic medium showed that the composite substrates are suitable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. PMID:19640877

  5. Broad-Spectrum Bactericidal Activity of Ag2O-Doped Bioactive Glass

    PubMed Central

    Bellantone, Maria; Williams, Huw D.; Hench, Larry L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioactive glass has found extensive application as an orthopedic and dental graft material and most recently also as a tissue engineering scaffold. Here we report an initial investigation of the in vitro antibacterial properties of AgBG, a novel bioactive glass composition doped with Ag2O. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties of this new material and of two other bioactive glass compositions, 45S5 Bioglass and BG, have been studied by using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus as test microorganisms. Concentrations of AgBG in the range of 0.05 to 0.20 mg of AgBG per ml of culture medium were found to inhibit the growth of these bacteria. Not only was AgBG bacteriostatic, but it also elicited a rapid bactericidal action. A complete bactericidal effect was elicited within the first hours of incubation at AgBG concentrations of 10 mg ml−1. 45S5 Bioglass and BG had no effect on bacterial growth or viability. The antibacterial action of AgBG is attributed exclusively to the leaching of Ag+ ions from the glass matrix. Analytical measurements rule out any contribution to AgBG-mediated bacterial killing by changes in pH or ionic strength or the dissolution of other ionic species from the biomaterials. Our observations of the dissolution profiles of Ag+ from AgBG in the presence and absence of bacteria are consistent with silver accumulation by the bacteria. PMID:12019112

  6. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Dutra Zanotto, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The interest around bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their appropriate biochemical and mechanical properties. The intense research effort in this field has led to some new commercial products for biomedical applications. This review article begins with the basic concepts of GC processing and development via controlled heat treatments of monolithic pieces or sinter-crystallization of powdered glasses. We then go on to describe the processing, properties, and applications of some commercial bioactive GCs and discuss selected valuable reported researches on several promising types of bioactive GCs. The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1231-1249, 2016. PMID:26707951

  7. Structural effects of phosphorus inclusion in bioactive silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Tilocca, Antonio; Cormack, Alastair N

    2007-12-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of four bioactive silicate glasses containing between 0 (P0) and 12 (P12) mol % P2O5 have been carried out in order to elucidate the structural role of phosphorus in these materials. In particular, we have focused on structural features which can have a direct role in the bioactive mechanism of dissolution and bone bonding. The higher affinity of modifier Na and Ca cations for coordinating phosphate rather than silicate, together with the formation of P-O-Si linkages, lead to increasing repolymerization of the silicate network with increasing P2O5 content, which in principle would represent a negative effect of P inclusion on the glass bioactivity. However, this effect is counterbalanced by the concomitant increase in the amount of free orthophosphate groups, whose fast release is deemed to enhance the bioactivity. The strong affinity of the orthophosphates for calcium ions leads to a clear tendency toward separation of silicate-rich and phosphate-rich phases for the P12 composition. Although this could reduce the bioactivity in the case of P12, in general, the favorable balance between the effects mentioned above should result in a positive effect of partial Si --> P substitution on the glass bioactivity. PMID:18047313

  8. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S P

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1-X) SiO2--24.3 Na2O-26.9 CaO-2.6 P2O5, where X=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 14005C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. PMID:25686983

  9. Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Labrini; Koidis, Petros; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.

    2011-01-15

    Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

  10. Comparative study of bioactivity of collagen scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Izumi; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Takita, Hiroko; Nishida, Erika; Tsuji, Maiko; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Sun, Ling; Inoue, Kana; Ibara, Asako; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Background Graphene oxide (GO) is a single layer carbon sheet with a thickness of less than 1 nm. GO has good dispersibility due to surface modifications with numerous functional groups. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is produced via the reduction of GO, and has lower dispersibility. We examined the bioactivity of GO and RGO films, and collagen scaffolds coated with GO and RGO. Methods GO and RGO films were fabricated on a culture dish. Some GO films were chemically reduced using either ascorbic acid or sodium hydrosulfite solution, resulting in preparation of RGO films. The biological properties of each film were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, calcium adsorption tests, and MC3T3-E1 cell seeding. Subsequently, GO- and RGO-coated collagen scaffolds were prepared and characterized by SEM and compression tests. Each scaffold was implanted into subcutaneous tissue on the backs of rats. Measurements of DNA content and cell ingrowth areas of implanted scaffolds were performed 10 days post-surgery. Results The results show that GO and RGO possess different biological properties. Calcium adsorption and alkaline phosphatase activity were strongly enhanced by RGO, suggesting that RGO is effective for osteogenic differentiation. SEM showed that RGO-modified collagen scaffolds have rough, irregular surfaces. The compressive strengths of GO- and RGO-coated scaffolds were approximately 1.7-fold and 2.7-fold greater, respectively, when compared with the non-coated scaffold. Tissue ingrowth rate was 39% in RGO-coated scaffolds, as compared to 20% in the GO-coated scaffold and 16% in the non-coated scaffold. Conclusion In summary, these results suggest that GO and RGO coatings provide different biological properties to collagen scaffolds, and that RGO-coated scaffolds are more bioactive than GO-coated scaffolds. PMID:25050063

  11. Bioactive nanoparticles stimulate bone tissue formation in bioprinted three-dimensional scaffold and human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guifang; Schilling, Arndt F; Yonezawa, Tomo; Wang, Jiang; Dai, Guohao; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    Bioprinting based on thermal inkjet printing is a promising but unexplored approach in bone tissue engineering. Appropriate cell types and suitable biomaterial scaffolds are two critical factors to generate successful bioprinted tissue. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate bioactive ceramic nanoparticles in stimulating osteogenesis of printed bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in poly(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) scaffold. hMSCs suspended in PEGDMA were co-printed with nanoparticles of bioactive glass (BG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) under simultaneous polymerization so the printed substrates were delivered with highly accurate placement in three-dimensional (3D) locations. hMSCs interacted with HA showed the highest cell viability (86.62 ± 6.02%) and increased compressive modulus (358.91 ± 48.05 kPa) after 21 days in culture among all groups. Biochemical analysis showed the most collagen production and highest alkaline phosphatase activity in PEG-HA group, which is consistent with gene expression determined by quantitative PCR. Masson's trichrome staining also showed the most collagen deposition in PEG-HA scaffold. Therefore, HA is more effective comparing to BG for hMSCs osteogenesis in bioprinted bone constructs. Combining with our previous experience in vasculature, cartilage, and muscle bioprinting, this technology demonstrates the capacity for both soft and hard tissue engineering with biomimetic structures. PMID:25130390

  12. A Novel Strategy for Softening Gelatin-Bioactive-Glass Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Negahi Shirazi, Ali; Fathi, Ali; Suarez, Francia Garces; Wang, Yiwei; Maitz, Peter K; Dehghani, Fariba

    2016-01-27

    The brittle structure of polymer-bioactive-glass hybrids is a hurdle for their biomedical applications. To address this issue here, we developed a novel method to cease the overcondensation of bioactive-glass by polymer cross-linking. Here, an organosilane-functionalized gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) is covalently bonded to a bioactive-glass during the sol-gel process, and the condensation of silica networks is controlled by photo-cross-linking of GelMA. The physicochemical properties and mechanical strength of these hybrids are tunable by the incorporation of secondary cross-linking agents. These hydrogels display elastic properties with ultimate compression strain above 0.2 mm·mm(-1) and tunable compressive modulus in the range of 42-530 kPa. In addition, these hydrogels are bioactive because they promoted the alkaline phosphatase activity of bone progenitor cells. They are also well-tolerated in the mice subcutaneous model. Therefore, our method is efficient for the prevention of overcondensation and allows preparation of soft bioactive hydrogels from organic-inorganic matrices, suitable for soft and hard tissue regeneration. PMID:26727696

  13. A novel bioactive porous CaSiO3 scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ni, Siyu; Chang, Jiang; Chou, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate bioactive porous CaSiO3 scaffolds and examine their effects on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In this study, porous CaSiO3 scaffolds were obtained by sintering a ceramic slip-coated polymer foam at 1350 degrees C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the scaffolds indicated that the products were essentially pure alpha-CaSiO3. The obtained scaffolds had a well-interconnected porous structure with pore sizes ranging from several micrometers to more than 100 microm and porosities of 88.5 +/- 2.8%. The in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was investigated by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days and then characterizing them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The results indicated that hydroxyapatite (HAp) was formed on the surface of the scaffolds. In addition, the scaffolds were incubated in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C to study the in vitro degradation by measurement of weight loss after incubation, which showed that the CaSiO3 scaffolds were degradable. The cellular responses to the scaffolds were assessed in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation. Osteoblast-like cells were seeded into the CaSiO3 scaffolds. SEM observations showed that there was significant cell adhesion, as the cells spread and grew in the scaffolds. In addition, the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the cells in the scaffolds were improved as compared to the controls. These studies demonstrate initial in vitro cell compatibility and their potential application to bone tissue engineering. PMID:16265636

  14. A novel bioactive porous CaSiO3 scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ni S; Chang J; Chou L

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate bioactive porous CaSiO3 scaffolds and examine their effects on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In this study, porous CaSiO3 scaffolds were obtained by sintering a ceramic slip-coated polymer foam at 1350 degrees C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the scaffolds indicated that the products were essentially pure alpha-CaSiO3. The obtained scaffolds had a well-interconnected porous structure with pore sizes ranging from several micrometers to more than 100 microm and porosities of 88.5 +/- 2.8%. The in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was investigated by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days and then characterizing them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The results indicated that hydroxyapatite (HAp) was formed on the surface of the scaffolds. In addition, the scaffolds were incubated in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C to study the in vitro degradation by measurement of weight loss after incubation, which showed that the CaSiO3 scaffolds were degradable. The cellular responses to the scaffolds were assessed in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation. Osteoblast-like cells were seeded into the CaSiO3 scaffolds. SEM observations showed that there was significant cell adhesion, as the cells spread and grew in the scaffolds. In addition, the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the cells in the scaffolds were improved as compared to the controls. These studies demonstrate initial in vitro cell compatibility and their potential application to bone tissue engineering.

  15. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Keshani, Fateme

    2013-01-01

    Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the “smart” materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI) cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA). Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications. PMID:24130573

  16. Hydrogel/bioactive glass composites for bone regeneration applications: synthesis and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Killion, John A; Kehoe, Sharon; Geever, Luke M; Devine, Declan M; Sheehan, Eoin; Boyd, Daniel; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2013-10-01

    Due to the deficiencies of current commercially available biological bone grafts, alternative bone graft substitutes have come to the forefront of tissue engineering in recent times. The main challenge for scientists in manufacturing bone graft substitutes is to obtain a scaffold that has sufficient mechanical strength and bioactive properties to promote formation of new tissue. The ability to synthesise hydrogel based composite scaffolds using photopolymerisation has been demonstrated in this study. The prepared hydrogel based composites were characterised using techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), rheological studies and compression testing. In addition, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), porosity and swelling studies of the composites were carried out. It was found that these novel hydrogel bioglass composite formulations did not display the inherent brittleness that is typically associated with bioactive glass based bone graft materials and exhibited enhanced biomechanical properties compared to the polyethylene glycol hydrogel scaffolds along. Together, the combination of enhanced mechanical properties and the deposition of apatite on the surface of these hydrogel based composites make them an ideal candidate as bone graft substitutes in cancellous bone defects or low load bearing applications. PMID:23910334

  17. Bioactive glass reinforced elastomer composites for skeletal regeneration: A review.

    PubMed

    Zeimaran, Ehsan; Pourshahrestani, Sara; Djordjevic, Ivan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Towler, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable elastomers have clinical applicability due to their biocompatibility, tunable degradation and elasticity. The addition of bioactive glasses to these elastomers can impart mechanical properties sufficient for hard tissue replacement. Hence, a composite with a biodegradable polymer matrix and a bioglass filler can offer a method of augmenting existing tissue. This article reviews the applications of such composites for skeletal augmentation. PMID:26042705

  18. Characterization of the bioactive and mechanical behavior of dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixtures.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Zahra; Bahrololoum, Mohammad E; Bagheri, Rafat; Shariat, Mohammad H

    2016-02-01

    Dental ceramics can be modified by bioactive glasses in order to develop apatite layer on their surface. One of the benefits of such modification is to prolong the lifetime of the fixed dental prosthesis by preventing the formation of secondary caries. Dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixture is one of the options for this modification. In the current study, mixtures of dental ceramic/bioactive glass with different compositions were successfully produced. To evaluate their bioactive behavior, prepared samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid at various time intervals. The prepared and soaked specimens were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Since bioactive glasses have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of dental ceramics, 3-point bending tests were used to evaluate the flexural strength, flexural strain, tangent modulus of elasticity and Weibull modulus of the specimens in order to find the optimal relationship between mechanical and bioactive properties. PMID:26454135

  19. Macrochanneled bioactive ceramic scaffolds in combination with collagen hydrogel: a new tool for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hye-Sun; Jin, Guang-Zhen; Won, Jong-Eun; Wall, Ivan; Kim, Hae-Won

    2012-09-01

    New tissue-engineering tool for bone regeneration is described to facilitate homogeneous cell seeding and effective osteogenic development. Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds with macrochanneled and well-defined pore structure was developed, however, a large portion of the cells seeded directly within the scaffold easily penetrates without good adhesion to the scaffold surface. To overcome this, a method was exploited to dispense cells evenly throughout the CaP scaffold using collagen hydrogel. Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were mixed within a neutralized collagen solution, which was then infiltrated into the macrochanneled pore space and gelled to result in macrochanneled bioceramic scaffold combined with MSCs-hydrogel. MSCs contained within the hydrogel-CaP scaffolds were highly viable, with similar growth pattern to those in the collagen hydrogel. Cells seeded by this approach were initially almost double in number compared with those seeded directly onto the CaP scaffold and had an active proliferation more than 14 days. Assessments of the MSCs showed significantly higher alkaline phosphatase levels in the combined scaffold, which was accompanied by enhanced osteogenesis including the expression of genes [collagen type I, bone sialoprotein, and osteopontin (OPN)] and proteins (OPN and osteocalcin). Extracellular calcium was also elevated significantly in the combined scaffold compared to the CaP scaffold. In addition, mechanical strength of the constructs was improved significantly in the combined scaffold compared to the CaP scaffold. Based on these, the cell culturing and tissue engineering strategy within the macrochanneled bioactive ceramic scaffolds could be improved greatly by the combinatory approach of using collagen hydrogel. PMID:22566478

  20. Biodegradable mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres for drug delivery and bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive inorganic materials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, and they are used as delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical molecules, scaffolds and components for bio-composites. We demonstrated mesoporous bioactive glass (BG) nanospheres that exhibited the capacity to deliver pharmaceutical molecules. Mesoporous BG nanospheres with variable Ca to Si ratios were synthesized using sol-gel chemistry. By controlling the hydrolysis and condensation conditions, the diameter of the mesoporous BG nanospheres was changed from 300 nm to 1500 nm. The porous structure and surface area of the BG nanospheres were shown to be dependent on their composition. The surface area of the BG nanospheres decreased from 400 ± 2 m(2) g(-1) to 56 ± 0.1 m(2) g(-1) when the Ca/Si ratio increased from 5 to 50 at.%. When the mesoporous BG nanospheres were loaded with ibuprofen (IBU), they exhibited a sustained release profile in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the meantime, the IBU-loaded BG nanospheres degraded in SBF, and induced apatite layer formation on the surface as a result of their good bioactivity. When the BG nanospheres were used as a composite filler to poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), they were shown to be effective at improving the in vitro bioactivity of PCL microspheres. PMID:27102805

  1. Biodegradable mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres for drug delivery and bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive inorganic materials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, and they are used as delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical molecules, scaffolds and components for bio-composites. We demonstrated mesoporous bioactive glass (BG) nanospheres that exhibited the capacity to deliver pharmaceutical molecules. Mesoporous BG nanospheres with variable Ca to Si ratios were synthesized using sol–gel chemistry. By controlling the hydrolysis and condensation conditions, the diameter of the mesoporous BG nanospheres was changed from 300 nm to 1500 nm. The porous structure and surface area of the BG nanospheres were shown to be dependent on their composition. The surface area of the BG nanospheres decreased from 400 ± 2 m2 g‑1 to 56 ± 0.1 m2 g‑1 when the Ca/Si ratio increased from 5 to 50 at.%. When the mesoporous BG nanospheres were loaded with ibuprofen (IBU), they exhibited a sustained release profile in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the meantime, the IBU-loaded BG nanospheres degraded in SBF, and induced apatite layer formation on the surface as a result of their good bioactivity. When the BG nanospheres were used as a composite filler to poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), they were shown to be effective at improving the in vitro bioactivity of PCL microspheres.

  2. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  3. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  4. Bioactive glass/ZrO2 composites for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-02-01

    Binary biocomposites were realized by combining yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with a bioactive glass matrix. Few works are available regarding composites containing zirconia and a relatively high content of glass because the resulting samples are usually biocompatible but not bioactive after thermal treatment. In the present research, the promising properties of the new BG_Ca-K glass, with its low tendency to crystallize and high apatite-forming ability, allowed us to sinter the composites at a relatively low temperature with excellent effects in terms of bioactivity. In addition, it was possible to benefit from the good mechanical behaviour of Y-TZP, thus obtaining samples with microhardness values that were among the highest reported in the literature. After a detailed analysis regarding the thermal behaviour of the composite powders, the sintered bodies were fully characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage determination, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. According to the experimental results, the presence of Y-TZP improved the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, the BG_Ca-K glass, which mainly preserved its amorphous structure after sintering, provided the composites with a good apatite-forming ability in SBF. PMID:24343516

  5. Characterization of a bioactive fiber scaffold with entrapped HUVECs in coaxial electrospun core-shell fiber

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Hui Ying; Irvine, Scott Alexander; Avrahami, Ron; Sarig, Udi; Bronshtein, Tomer; Zussman, Eyal; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Machluf, Marcelle; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2014-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were successfully entrapped in polyethylene oxide (PEO) core /polycaprolactone (PCL) shell electrospun fibers thus creating a “bioactive fiber.” The viability and release of biomolecules from the entrapped cells in the bioactive fibers were characterized. A key modification to the core solution was the inclusion of 50% fetal bovine serum (FBS), which improved cell viability substantially. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining revealed that the entrapped cells were intact and viable immediately after the electrospinning process. A long-term cell viability assay using AlamarBlue® showed that cells were viable for over two weeks. Secreted Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was monitored as a candidate released protein, which can also act as an indicator of HUVEC stress. These results demonstrated that HUVECs could be entrapped within the electrospun scaffold with the potential of controllable cell deposition and the creation of a bioactive fibrous scaffold with extended functionality. PMID:24553126

  6. In vitro cell response to Co-containing 1,393 bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Brandl, Andreas; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Arkudas, Andreas; Horch, Raymund E; Jokic, Bojan; Janackovic, Djordje; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-12-01

    Cobalt ions are known to stimulate angiogenesis via inducing hypoxic conditions and hence are interesting agents to be used in conjunction with bioactive glasses (BGs) in bone tissue engineering approaches. In this work we investigated in vitro cell biocompatibility of Co releasing 1393 BG composition (in wt.%: 53SiO2, 6Na2O, 12K2O, 5MgO, 20CaO, and 4P2O5) derived scaffolds with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (hDMECs). Cell viability, cell number and cell morphology of osteoblast-like cells in contact with particulate glass and 3D scaffolds were assessed showing good biocompatibility of 1393 reference material and with 1 wt.% CoO addition whereby 5 wt.% of CoO in the glass showed cytotoxicity. Furthermore for 1393 with 1 wt.% of CoO increased mitochondrial activity was measured. Similar observations were made with hDMECs: while 1393 and 1393 with 1 wt.% CoO were biocompatible and the endothelial phenotype was retained, 5 wt.% CoO containing BG showed cytotoxic effects after 1 week of cell culture. In conclusion, 1 wt.% Co containing BG was biocompatible with osteoblast like cells and endothelial cells and showed slightly stimulating effects on osteoblast-like cells whereas the addition of 5 wt.% CoO seems to exceed the vital therapeutic ranges of Co ions being released in physiological fluids. PMID:26354250

  7. Attachment and conformational changes of collagen on bioactive glass surface.

    PubMed

    Magyari, K; Vanea, E; Baia, L; Simon, V

    2016-05-12

    The proteins adsorption on biomaterials surface leads to changes in their structural conformation that may further influence the adhesion, migration and growth of cells. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment of collagen (calf skin type I) on bioactive glass powders and the conformational changes of the protein. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that the collagen cover the glass surface in a nanometric thin layer. The infrared amide I absorption signal shows pronounced changes in the secondary structure of the adsorbed collagen. PMID:27175468

  8. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. PMID:24582266

  9. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. PMID:26042695

  10. Differential alkaline phosphatase responses of rat and human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells to 45S5 bioactive glass

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Radin, Shula; Chen, Andrew T.; Ducheyne, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Bioactive glass is used as both a bone filler and as a coating on implants, and has been advocated as a potential osteogenic scaffold for tissue engineering. Rat derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show elevated levels of levels of alkaline phosphatase activity when grown on 45S5 bioactive glass as compared to standard tissue culture plastic. Similarly, exposure to the dissolution products of 45S5 elevates alkaline phosphatase activity and other osteogenic markers in these cells. We investigated whether human MSCs grown under the same laboratory conditions as rat MSCs would exhibit similar responses. In general, human MSCs produce markedly less alkaline phosphatase activity than rat MSCs, regardless of cell culture conditions, and do not respond to the growth factor BMP-2 in the same way as rat MSCs. In our experiments there was no difference in alkaline phosphatase activity between human MSCs grown on 45S5 bioactive glass or tissue culture plastic, in samples from five different orthopaedic patients, regardless of culture media composition. Neither was there any consistent effect of 45S5 dissolution products on human MSCs from three different donors. These results suggest that the positive effects of bioactive glass on bone growth in human patients are not mediated by accelerated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:17586040

  11. Developing bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) films were fabricated using the method of dissolving and evaporation. PLLA scaffold was prepared by solid-liquid phase separation of polymer solutions and subsequent sublimation of solvent. Bonelike apatite coating was formed on PLLA films, PLLA scaffolds and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) scaffolds in 24 hours through an accelerated biomimetic process. The ion concentrations in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were nearly 5 times of those in human blood plasma. The apatite formed was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apatite formed in 5SBF was similar in morphology and composition to that formed in the classical biomimetic process employing SBF or 1.5SBF, and similar to that of natural bone. This indicated that the biomimetic apatite coating process could be accelerated by using concentrated simulated body fluid at 37°C. Besides saving time, the accelerated biomimetic process is particularly significant to biodegradable polymers. Some polymers which degrade too fast to be coated with apatite by a classical biomimetic process, for example PGA, could be coated with bone-like apatite in an accelerated biomimetic process. Collagen and apatite were co-precipitated as a composite coating on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in an accelerated biomimetic process. The incubation solution contained collagen (1g/L) and simulated body fluid (SBF) with 5 times inorganic ionic concentrations as human blood plasma. The coating formed on PLLA films and scaffolds after 24 hours incubation was characterized using EDX, XRD, FTIR, and SEM. It was shown that the coating contained carbonated bone-like apatite and collagen, the primary constituents of natural bone. SEM showed a complex composite coating of submicron bone-like apatite particulates combined with collagen fibrils. This work provided an efficient process to obtain bone-like apatite/collagen composite coating. Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells were used to evaluate the cellular behaviors on these biomimetic coatings. Cell morphologies on the surfaces of PLLA films and scaffolds, PLLA films and scaffolds with apatite coating, and PLLA films and scaffolds with apatite/collagen composite coating were studied by SEM. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrasodium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, differentiated cell function was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggested that the apatite coating and apatite/collagen composite coating fabricated through the accelerated biomimetic processes could improve the interactions between osteoblasts and PLLA. The composite coating was more effective than apatite coating in improving such interactions. PLLA scaffolds coated with submicron collagen fibrils and submicron apatite paticulates are expected to be one of the promising 3D substrates for bone tissue engineering. To facilitate coating into scaffolds, the flowing condition was introduced into the accelerated biomimetic process. The apatite formed in the different sites in the scaffold was characterized using SEM. It was found that the accelerated biomimetic process performed in the flowing condition yielded more uniform spatial distribution of apatite particles than that in the regular shaking condition. This work provides a novel condition for obtaining uniform spatial distribution of bone-like apatite within the scaffolds in a timely manner, which is expected to facilitate uniform distribution of attached cells within the scaffoldsin vitro and in vivo.

  12. Effect of crystallinity on crack propagation and mineralization of bioactive glass 45S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Satadru

    Bioactive glasses are a type of ceramic material designed to be used as bioresorbable therapeutic bone implants. Thermal treatment of bioactive glass ceramics dictates many important features such as microstructure, degree of crystallinity, mechanical properties, and mineralization. This study investigates the effects of temperature, time, and heating rates on the crystallization kinetics of melt cast bioactive glass 45S5. Bulk crystallization (three dimensional crystallite formation) was found to always occur in bulk bioactive glass 45S5 irrespective of the processing conditions. A comparative study of crack paths in amorphous and crystalline phases of bioactive glass 45S5 revealed crack deflections and higher fracture resistance in partially crystallized bioactive glass. Such toughening is likely attributed to different crystallographic orientations of crystals or residual thermal mismatch strains. Furthermore, in vitro immersion testing of partially crystalline glass ceramic revealed higher adhesion capabilities of the mineralized layer formed on amorphous regions as compared to its crystalline counterpart.

  13. Current Progress in Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengde; Deng, Youwen; Feng, Pei; Mao, Zhongzheng; Li, Pengjian; Yang, Bo; Deng, Junjie; Cao, Yiyuan; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics have received great attention in the past decades owing to their success in stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and bone tissue regeneration. They can react and form chemical bonds with cells and tissues in human body. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the application of bioactive ceramics for bone repair and regeneration. The review systematically summarizes the types and characters of bioactive ceramics, the fabrication methods for nanostructure and hierarchically porous structure, typical toughness methods for ceramic scaffold and corresponding mechanisms such as fiber toughness, whisker toughness and particle toughness. Moreover, greater insights into the mechanisms of interaction between ceramics and cells are provided, as well as the development of ceramic-based composite materials. The development and challenges of bioactive ceramics are also discussed from the perspective of bone repair and regeneration. PMID:24646912

  14. Porous bioactive glass and glass-ceramics made by reaction sintering under pressure.

    PubMed

    Gong, W; Abdelouas, A; Lutze, W

    2001-03-01

    A glass and a rhenanite-wollastonite glass-ceramic were synthesized with the qualitative composition Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5. Both materials were prepared by reaction sintering under isostatic pressure (RSIP) using powder mixtures. Solid state reactions were complete within a few hours at 950 degrees C under modest pressure. Formation of the glass and crystalline phases was driven by an intermediate, reactive, low viscosity Na2O-SiO2 phase. A reaction mechanism is suggested. Porous materials were obtained with two ranges of pore sizes: 100-200 microm and < or =5 microm in diameter. The glass and the glass-ceramic were corroded in simulated body fluid at 37 degrees C. The evolution of surface features was studied. Gel layers formed on both materials. Corrosion was fastest inside the pores. Microcrystals of apatite were identified by crystal structure analysis and by chemical analysis. During corrosion of the glass-ceramic, rhenanite most likely was converted into apatite. Comparison of these results with published information suggests that the glass and glass-ceramic are bioactive. We suggest that RSIP can be used (a) to control the surface porosity and pore size of bioactive implants, thereby increasing the stability of tissue/implant interfaces; (b) to make glasses and glass-ceramics with new properties; and (c) to make near net-shape materials. PMID:11189036

  15. Incorporation of bioactive glass in calcium phosphate cement: material characterization and in vitro degradation.

    PubMed

    Renno, A C M; Nejadnik, M R; van de Watering, F C J; Crovace, M C; Zanotto, E D; Hoefnagels, J P M; Wolke, J G C; Jansen, J A; van den Beucken, J J J P

    2013-08-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been widely used as an alternative to biological grafts due to their excellent osteoconductive properties. Although degradation has been improved by using poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres as porogens, the biological performance of CPC/PLGA composites is insufficient to stimulate bone healing in large bone defects. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporating osteopromotive bioactive glass (BG; up to 50 wt %) on setting properties, in vitro degradation behavior and morphological characteristics of CPC/BG and CPC/PLGA/BG. The results revealed that the initial and final setting time of the composites increased with increasing amounts of incorporated BG. The degradation test showed a BG-dependent increasing effect on pH of CPC/BG and CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds immersed in PBS compared to CPC and CPC/PLGA equivalents. Whereas no effects on mass loss were observed for CPC and CPC/BG pre-set scaffolds, CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds showed an accelerated mass loss compared with CPC/PLGA equivalents. Morphologically, no changes were observed for CPC and CPC/BG pre-set scaffolds. In contrast, CPC/PLGA and CPC/PLGA/BG showed apparent degradation of PLGA microspheres and faster loss of integrity for CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds compared with CPC/PLGA equivalents. Based on the present in vitro results, it can be concluded that BG can be successfully introduced into CPC and CPC/PLGA without exceeding the setting time beyond clinically acceptable values. All injectable composites containing BG had suitable handling properties and specifically CPC/PLGA/BG showed an increased rate of mass loss. Future investigations should focus on translating these findings to in vivo applications. PMID:23364896

  16. A Solanesol-derived Scaffold for Multimerization of Bioactive Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Alleti, Ramesh; Rao, Venkataramanarao; Xu, Liping; Gillies, Robert J.; Mash, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible molecular scaffold bearing varying numbers of terminal alkyne groups was synthesized in five steps from solanesol. R(CO)-MSH(4)-NH2 ligands, which have a relatively low affinity for binding at the human melanocortin 4 receptor (hMC4R), were prepared by solid phase synthesis and were N-terminally acylated using 6-azidohexanoic acid. Multiple copies of the azide N3(CH2)5(CO)-MSH(4)-NH2 were attached to the alkyne-bearing, solanesol-derived molecular scaffold via the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Control studies showed that the binding affinity of the triazole-containing ligand, CH3(CH2)3(C2N3)(CH2)5(CO)-MSH(4)-NH2, was not significantly diminished relative to the corresponding parental ligand, CH3(CO)-MSH(4)-NH2. In a competitive binding assay using a Eu-labeled probe based on the superpotent ligand NDP-α-MSH, the monovalent and multivalent constructs appear to bind to hMC4R as monovalent species. In a similar assay using a Eu-labeled probe based on MSH(4), modest increases in binding potency with increased MSH(4) content per scaffold were observed. PMID:20701315

  17. Therapeutic-designed electrospun bone scaffolds: mesoporous bioactive nanocarriers in hollow fiber composites to sequentially deliver dual growth factors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Sil; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Singh, Rajendra K; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-04-01

    A novel therapeutic design of nanofibrous scaffolds, holding a capacity to load and deliver dual growth factors, that targets bone regeneration is proposed. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres (MBNs) were used as bioactive nanocarriers for long-term delivery of the osteogenic enhancer fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18). Furthermore, a core-shell structure of a biopolymer fiber made of polyethylene oxide/polycaprolactone was introduced to load FGF2, another type of cell proliferative and angiogenic growth factor, safely within the core while releasing it more rapidly than FGF18. The prepared MBNs showed enlarged mesopores of about 7 nm, with a large surface area and pore volume. The protein-loading capacity of MBNs was as high as 13% when tested using cytochrome C, a model protein. The protein-loaded MBNs were smoothly incorporated within the core of the fiber by electrospinning, while preserving a fibrous morphology. The incorporation of MBNs significantly increased the apatite-forming ability and mechanical properties of the core-shell fibers. The possibility of sequential delivery of two experimental growth factors, FGF2 and FGF18, incorporated either within the core-shell fiber (FGF2) or within MBNs (FGF18), was demonstrated by the use of cytochrome C. In vitro studies using rat mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated the effects of the FGF2-FGF18 loadings: significant stimulation of cell proliferation as well as the induction of alkaline phosphate activity and cellular mineralization. An in vivo study performed on rat calvarium defects for 6 weeks demonstrated that FGF2-FGF18-loaded fiber scaffolds had significantly higher bone-forming ability, in terms of bone volume and density. The current design utilizing novel MBN nanocarriers with a core-shell structure aims to release two types of growth factors, FGF2 and FGF18, in a sequential manner, and is considered to provide a promising therapeutic scaffold platform that is effective for bone regeneration. PMID:25617805

  18. The Influence of Peptide Modifications of Bioactive Glass on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive glass is known for its potential as a bone scaffold due to its ability to stimulate osteogenesis and induce bone formation. Broadening this potential to include the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to bone cells will enhance the healing process in bone defects. The surface of bioactive glass made by the sol-gel technique with the composition of 70% SiO2-30% CaO (mol %) was grafted with 3 peptides sequences in different combinations from proteins (fibronectin BMP-2 and BMP-9) that are known to promote the adhesion, differentiation and osteogenesis process. The experiment was done in two forms, a 2D non-porous thin film and a 3D nano-macroporous structure. hMSCs were grown on the materials for a total of five weeks. The 2D materials were tested for the expression of 3 osteogenic markers (osteopontin, osteocalcin and osteonectin) through immunocytochemistry. The 3D forms were monitored for cell's adhesion, morphology, spreading and proliferation by scanning electron microscopy, in addition to proliferation assay and alkaline phosphatase activity measurement. Results showed that hMSCs poorly adhered to the 2D thin films, but the few cells survived showed enhanced expression of the osteogenic markers. On the 3D form, cells showed enhanced proliferation at week one and more survival of the cells on the materials grafted with the adhesion peptide for the successive weeks in comparison to the positive control samples. Enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity was also detected compared to the negative control samples but were still below the positive control samples. In conclusion, the peptide grafting could increase the effect of bioactive glass but more peptide combinations should be examined to improve the effects on the differentiation and osteogenic activity of the hMSCs.

  19. Bioactive-glass in periodontal surgery and implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado; Prucher, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive-glass (B-G) is a material known for its favorable biological response when in contact with surrounding fibro-osseous tissues, due not only to an osteoconductive property, but also to an osteostimulatory capacity, and superior biocompatibility for use in human body. The objectives of this paper are to review recent studies on B-G in periodontal and implant therapy, describing its basic properties and mechanism of activity as well as discoursing about state of art and future perspective of utilization. From a demonstrated clinical benefit as bone graft for the elimination of osseous defects due to periodontal disease (intrabony/furcation defects) and surgeries (alveolar ridge preservation, maxillary sinus augmentation), to a potential use for manufacturing bioactive dental implants, possibly allowing wider case selection criteria together with improved integration rates even in the more challenging osteoporotic and medically compromised patients, this biomaterial represents an important field of study with high academic, clinical and industrial importance. PMID:26438980

  20. Surface coatings of bioactive glasses on high strength ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorana, S.; Fedele, A.; Mazzocchi, M.; Bellosi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dense and ultrafine alumina-zirconia composites (Al 2O 3-16 wt%ZrO 2 and ZrO 2-20 wt%Al 2O 3) are developed and characterized for load bearing prosthetic applications. The improvement of the ceramic/bone interface, namely of the ceramic bioactivity, is performed by a glass coating on the surface of the composites. A new composition is used to produce the glass powder, by melting at 1550 °C the mixture of oxide raw materials. The processing to obtain a homogeneous and adherent coating on the ceramic substrates is investigated: the optimal temperature for the glazing treatment is 1200 °C. The microstructure of the coating and of the ceramic/coating interface, the adhesion and some mechanical properties of the prepared glass and of the coating are analyzed. Besides, the in vitro bioactive responses, by incubation of osteoblast-like cells on the coated samples, are evaluated: positive results are confirmed after 24 h and 72 h.

  1. Thermogelling chitosan-collagen-bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cheisy D F; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Mansur, Herman S; Pereira, Marivalda M

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293 T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were successfully designed and synthesized in this research with promising potential to be used as thermoresponsive biomaterials for bone-tissue bioapplications. PMID:26478423

  2. Bioactivity and bone healing properties of biomimetic porous composite scaffold: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Francesca; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Guarino, Vincenzo; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Sandri, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Ambrosio, Luigi; Fini, Milena

    2015-09-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) represents a valid alternative to traditional surgical therapies for the management of bone defects that do not regenerate spontaneously. Scaffolds, one of the most important component of TE strategy, should be biocompatible, bioactive, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological properties and bone regeneration ability of a porous poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold, incorporating MgCO3 -doped hydroxyapatite particles, uncoated (PCL_MgCHA) or coated by apatite-like crystals via biomimetic treatment (PCL_MgCHAB). It was observed that both scaffolds are not cytotoxic and, even if cell viability was similar on both scaffolds, PCL_MgCHAB showed higher alkaline phosphatase and collagen I (COLL I) production at day 7. PCL_MgCHA induced more tumor necrosis factor-α release than PCL_MgCHAB, while osteocalcin was produced less by both scaffolds up to 7 days and no significant differences were observed for transforming growth factor-β synthesis. The percentage of new bone trabeculae growth in wide defects carried out in rabbit femoral distal epiphyses was significantly higher in PCL_MgCHAB in comparison with PCL_MgCHA at 4 weeks and even more at 12 weeks after implantation. This study highlighted the role of a biomimetic composite scaffold in bone regeneration and lays the foundations for its future employment in the clinical practice. PMID:25689266

  3. Cotton-wool-like bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Poologasundarampillai, G; Wang, D; Li, S; Nakamura, J; Bradley, R; Lee, P D; Stevens, M M; McPhail, D S; Kasuga, T; Jones, J R

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic sol-gel solutions were electrospun to produce the first bioactive three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration with a structure like cotton-wool (or cotton candy). This flexible 3-D fibrous structure is ideal for packing into complex defects. It also has large inter-fiber spaces to promote vascularization, penetration of cells and transport of nutrients throughout the scaffold. The 3-D fibrous structure was obtained by electrospinning, where the applied electric field and the instabilities exert tremendous force on the spinning jet, which is required to be viscoelastic to prevent jet break up. Previously, polymer binding agents were used with inorganic solutions to produce electrospun composite two-dimensional fibermats, requiring calcination to remove the polymer. This study presents novel reaction and processing conditions for producing a viscoelastic inorganic sol-gel solution that results in fibers by the entanglement of the intermolecularly overlapped nanosilica species in the solution, eliminating the need for a binder. Three-dimensional cotton-wool-like structures were only produced when solutions containing calcium nitrate were used, suggesting that the charge of the Ca(2+) ions had a significant effect. The resulting bioactive silica fibers had a narrow diameter range of 0.5-2μm and were nanoporous. A hydroxycarbonate apatite layer was formed on the fibers within the first 12h of soaking in simulated body fluid. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells cultured on the fibers showed no adverse cytotoxic effect and they were observed to attach to and spread in the material. PMID:24874652

  4. In vitro bioactivity of S520 glass fibers and initial assessment of osteoblast attachment.

    PubMed

    Clupper, D C; Gough, J E; Hall, M M; Clare, A G; LaCourse, W C; Hench, L L

    2003-10-01

    Bioactive glass fibers are attractive materials for use as tissue-engineering scaffolds and as the reinforcing phase for resorbable bioactive composites. The bioactivity of S520 glass fibers (52.0 mol % SiO(2), 20.9 Na(2)O, 7.1 K(2)O, 18.0 CaO, and 2.0 P(2)O(5)) was evaluated in two media, simulated body fluid (SBF) and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), for up to 20 days at 37 degrees C. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed on S520 fiber surfaces after 5 h in SBF. After a 20-day immersion, a continuous hydroxyapatite layer was present on the surface of samples immersed in SBF as well as on those samples immersed in DMEM [fiber surface area to solution volume ratio (SA:V) of 0.10 cm(2)/mL]. Backscattered electron imaging and EDS analysis revealed that the hydroxyapatite layer formation was more extensive for samples immersed in SBF. Decreasing the SA:V ratio to 0.05 cm(2)/mL decreased the time required to form a continuous hydroxyapatite surface layer. ICP was used to reveal Si, Ca, and P release profiles in DMEM after the 1st h (15.1, 83.8, and 29.7 ppm, respectively) were similar to those concentrations previously determined to stimulate gene expression in osteoblasts in vitro (16.5, 83.3, and 30.4 ppm, respectively). The tensile strength of the 20-microm diameter fibers was 925 +/- 424 MPa. Primary human osteoblast attachment to the fiber surface was studied by using SEM, and mineralization was studied by using alizarin red staining. Osteoblast dorsal ruffles, cell projections, and lamellipodia were observed, and by 7 days, cells had proliferated to form monolayer areas as shown by SEM. At 14 days, nodule formation was observed, and these nodules stained positive for alizarin red, demonstrating Ca deposition and, therefore mineralization. PMID:14517888

  5. Characterization of Some Methods of Preparation for Bioactive Glass Coating on Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Chen, Chuanzhong; Yao, Liang; Bao, Quanhe

    Since the discovery of Bioglass® by Hench, bioactive glasses have been used in many medical applications, such as drug delivery systems, nonload-bearing implants, and bone cements because of their excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, due to their poor mechanical properties, these glasses cannot be used in load-bearing applications, where the metallic alloys are still main materials. One useful approach to solving the mechanical limitations of bioactive glasses is to apply the glasses as the coating on mechanically tough substrates; it was also recognized early that bioactive glasses could be used as coatings for prosthetic metallic implants. In this paper, the mechanism, characterization, and current status of some methods of preparation for bioactive glass coating on implants are introduced. In the end, to get the homogeneous and compact coating with perfect bonding strength, some ideas of improving the performance of coatings are also presented.

  6. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mota, Joana; Yu, Na; Caridade, Sofia G; Luz, Gisela M; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John A; Walboomers, X Frank; Mano, João F

    2012-11-01

    Barrier membranes are used in periodontal applications with the aim of supporting periodontal regeneration by physically blocking migration of epithelial cells. The present work proposes a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce a novel guided tissue and bone regeneration membrane, fabricated by solvent casting. The CHT/BG-NP nanocomposite membranes are characterized in terms of water uptake, in mechanical tests, under simulated physiological conditions and in in vitro bioactivity tests. The addition of BG-NPs to CHT membranes decreased the mechanical potential of these membranes, but on the other hand the bioactivity improved. The membranes containing the BG-NPs induced the precipitation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid (SBF). Biological tests were carried out using human periodontal ligament cells and human bone marrow stromal cells. CHT/BG-NP composite membranes promoted cell metabolic activity and mineralization. The results indicate that the CHT/BG-NP composite membrane could potentially be used as a temporary guided tissue regeneration membrane in periodontal regeneration, with the possibility to induce bone regeneration. PMID:22771458

  7. Influence of strontium and the importance of glass chemistry and structure when designing bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M D; Hill, R G

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight some recent in vitro and in vivo studies of bioactive glasses containing strontium and to review selected literature on the in vitro and in vivo behaviour of bioactive glasses to relate this to the structure of the glass. The strontium-glass studies were performed well scientifically, but the results and conclusions could be misleading in terms of the effect of strontium, or more broadly glass chemistry, on the bioactivity and in vivo behaviour of bioactive glasses due to substitutions made on a weight basis. When strontium is substituted by weight for a lighter element such as calcium this will have a significant effect on structure and properties in particular biological response. PMID:20079468

  8. Resorbable glass-ceramic phosphate-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: synthesis, properties, and in vitro effects on human marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Leonardi, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola; Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Baino, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    Highly porous bioresorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds were prepared via sponge replication method by using an open-cell polyurethane foam as a template and phosphate-based glass powders. The glass, belonging to the P2O5-SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system, was synthesized by a melting-quenching route, ground, and sieved to obtain powders with a grain size of less than 30 μm. A slurry containing glass powders, polyvinyl alcohol, and water was prepared to coat the polymeric template. The removal of the polymer and the sintering of the glass powders were performed by a thermal treatment, in order to obtain an inorganic replica of the template structure. The structure and properties of the scaffold were investigated from structural, morphological, and mechanical viewpoints by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, image analysis, and compressive tests. The scaffolds exhibited a trabecular architecture that closely mimics the structure of a natural spongy bone. The solubility of the porous structures was assessed by soaking the samples in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl for different time frames and then by assessing the scaffold weight loss. As far as the test in SBF is concerned, the nucleation of hydroxyapatite on the scaffold trabeculae demonstrates the bioactivity of the material. Biological tests were carried out using human bone marrow stromal cells to test the osteoconductivity of the material. The cells adhered to the scaffold struts and were metabolically active; it was found that cell differentiation over proliferation occurred. Therefore, the produced scaffolds, being biocompatible, bioactive, resorbable, and structurally similar to a spongy bone, can be proposed as interesting candidates for bone grafting. PMID:20566654

  9. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth. PMID:25842126

  10. A simultaneous process of 3D magnesium phosphate scaffold fabrication and bioactive substance loading for hard tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongman; Farag, Mohammad Mahmoud; Park, Eui Kyun; Lim, Jiwon; Yun, Hui-Suk

    2014-03-01

    A novel room temperature process was developed to produce a 3D porous magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold with high drug load/release efficiency for use in hard tissue regeneration through a combination of a paste extruding deposition (PED) system and cement chemistry. MgP scaffolds were prepared using a two-step process. The first step was fabrication of the 3D porous scaffold green body to control both the morphology and pore structure using a PED system without hardening. The second step was cementation, which was carried out by immersing the scaffold green body in the binder solution for hardening instead of the typical sintering process in ceramic scaffold fabrication. Separation of the manufacturing process and cement reaction was important to secure enough time to fabricate a 3D scaffold with various sizes and architectures under homogeneous extruding conditions. Because the whole process is carried out at room temperature, the bioactive molecules, which are easily denatured by heat, may apply to scaffolds during the process. Lysozyme was selected as a model bioactive substance to demonstrate the efficiency of this process; this was directly mixed into MgP powder to introduce homogeneous distribution in the scaffold. The extruding paste for the PED system was prepared using the MgP-lysozyme blended powder as starting materials. That is, both 3D scaffold fabrication and functionalization of the scaffold with bioactive substances could be carried out simultaneously. This process significantly enhanced both drug loading efficiency and release performance compared to the typical sintering process, where the drug is generally loaded by adsorption after heat treatment. The MgP scaffold developed in this study satisfied the required conditions for scaffolding in hard tissue regeneration in an ideal manner, including 3 dimensionally well-interconnected pore structures, favorable mechanical properties, biodegradability, good cell affinity and in vitro biocompatibility; thus, it has excellent potential for application in the field of biomaterials. PMID:24433911

  11. Bioactive glass in cavitary bone defects: a comparative experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, André Ferrari de França; Baptista, André Mathias; Natalino, Renato; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare bioactive glass and autograft regarding their histomorphometric characteristics. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective case-control experimental study on animals in order to compare the histomorphometric characteristics of bioactive glass versus autograft. Eight rabbits underwent surgery in which a cavitary defect was created in both proximal femurs. One side was filled with bioactive glass granules and the other, with autograft grafted from the contralateral side. The sides were randomized. Fourteen days after surgery, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: Histologic analysis revealed that bone neoformation was equivalent among the two groups and the osteoblasts cell-count was higher in the femurs treated with bioactive glass. The osteocytes cell-count, however, was lower. The similarity in bone formation between both groups was consistent to literature findings. CONCLUSION: Bioactive glass is similar to autograft regarding bone neoformation in this animal model of cavitary bone defects. Level of Evidence III, Case-Control Study. PMID:26327802

  12. In vitro bioactivity, cytocompatibility, and antibiotic release profile of gentamicin sulfate-loaded borate bioactive glass/chitosan composites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Xie, Zhongping; Luo, Shihua; Zhou, Nai; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2013-10-01

    Borate bioactive glass-based composites have been attracting interest recently as an osteoconductive carrier material for local antibiotic delivery. In the present study, composites composed of borate bioactive glass particles bonded with a chitosan matrix were prepared and evaluated in vitro as a carrier for gentamicin sulfate. The bioactivity, degradation, drug release profile, and compressive strength of the composite carrier system were studied as a function of immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 °C. The cytocompatibility of the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite carrier was evaluated using assays of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells. Sustained release of gentamicin sulfate occurred over ~28 days in PBS, while the bioactive glass converted continuously to hydroxyapatite. The compressive strength of the composite loaded with gentamicin sulfate decreased from the as-fabricated value of 24 ± 3 MPa to ~8 MPa after immersion for 14 days in PBS. Extracts of the soluble ionic products of the borate glass/chitosan composites enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results indicate that the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles could be useful clinically as an osteoconductive carrier material for treating bone infection. PMID:23820937

  13. How can bioactive glasses be useful in ocular surgery?

    PubMed

    Baino, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    In the last few decades, the introduction of bioactive glasses (BGs), a special class of bioceramics that are able to bond to living tissues stimulating new tissue growth, has improved both treatment procedures via reconstructive surgery and the quality of life of rehabilitated patients in orthopedics and dentistry. While BGs have been extensively investigated for applications in these two surgical fields, there has been relatively little research on their use in other medical areas. Glass has been used for centuries to produce external refractive lenses and the intraocular implantation of small glass disks to correct visual deficiencies has been documented since the mid 1700s. Moreover, some evidences reported in the recent literature seem to demonstrate that the success of three specific types of ophthalmic devices, that is, synthetic grafts for eye orbit bone repair, orbital implants replacing the whole ocular globe and keratoprostheses (artificial cornea), could significantly benefit by the use of BG. A prospective view as well as a state-of-the-art review on this topic are currently lacking in the literature. The present article aims to give a comprehensive picture of the BG-based implants that have been developed in the context of ocular surgery; the strengths and shortcomings of the existing devices are outlined in order to provide useful stimuli for future research. Promising research directions are also proposed, emphasizing the added values that BGs could carry in ophthalmology in the light of recent findings in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24909562

  14. Experimental maxillary sinus augmentation using a highly bioactive glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Mecca, Carlos Eduardo; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Okamoto, Roberta; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Duarte, Marco Húngaro; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2016-02-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of a biomaterial directly influence its biological behavior and fate. However, anatomical and physiological particularities of the recipient site also seem to contribute with this process. The present study aimed to evaluate bone healing of maxillary sinus augmentation using a novel bioactive glass ceramic in comparison with a bovine hydroxyapatite. Bilateral sinus augmentation was performed in adult male rabbits, divided into 4 groups according to the biomaterial used: BO-particulate bovine HA Bio-Oss(®) (BO), BO+G-particulate bovine HA + particulate autogenous bone graft (G), BS-particulate glass ceramic (180-212 μm) Biosilicate(®) (BS), and BS+G-particulate glass ceramic + G. After 45 and 90 days, animals were euthanized and the specimens prepared to be analyzed under light and polarized microscopy, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-computed tomography (μCT). Results revealed different degradation pattern between both biomaterials, despite the association with bone graft. BS caused a more intense chronic inflammation with foreign body reaction, which led to a difficulty in bone formation. Besides this evidence, SEM and μCT confirmed direct contact between newly formed bone and biomaterial, along with osteopontin and osteocalcin immunolabeling. Bone matrix mineralization was late in BS group but became similar to BO at day 90. These results clearly indicate that further studies about Biosilicate(®) are necessary to identify the factors that resulted in an unfavorable healing response when used in maxillary sinus augmentation. PMID:26712707

  15. Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadifar, Mohammad; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kelly, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper.

  16. Microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of akermanite scaffolds fabricated by laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Han, Zikai; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shen, Yang; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Akermanite had attracted great attention due to the favourable mechanical properties and excellent biological performance. In this research, the microstructure and mechanical properties of akermanite scaffolds fabricated via laser sintering under different process conditions were studied and characterized. The results showed that the akermanite particles gradually mixed together, grew up and reached complete densification with the scanning speed decreasing from 450 to 150 mm/min, while micro defects such as air holes occurred at 50mm/min. simultaneously, the compressive strength of the scaffolds went up and then descended, and the optimum value was 5.92 ± 0.41 MPa. The Vickers hardness and fracture toughness increased consistently and then tended to stabilize. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated no new phase appeared under all process conditions. MG-63 cell culture revealed that cell adhesion and proliferation occurred, indicating excellent cytocompatibility of the scaffolds. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity tests showed that the apatite layer formed on the scaffolds and became dense and thick with the increase of soaking time in simulated body fluid (SBF), and this fact was further confirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). PMID:25226904

  17. Bioactive-glass in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado; Huppa, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    The use of synthetic materials to repair craniofacial defects is increasing today and will increase further in the future. Because of the complexity of the anatomy in the head and neck region, reconstruction and augmentation of this area pose a challenge to the surgeon. This review discusses key facts and applications of traditional reconstruction bone substitutes, also offering comparative information. It then describes the properties and clinical applications of bioactive-glass (B-G) and its variants in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and provides clinical findings. The discussion of each compound includes a description of its composition and structure, the advantages and shortcomings of the material, and its current uses in the field of osteoplastic and reconstructive surgery. With a better understanding of the available alloplastic implants, the surgeon can make a more informed decision as to which implant would be most suitable in a particular patient. PMID:26889342

  18. Synthesis of hierarchical porous bioactive glasses for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Lin, Huiming; Li, Xiaofeng; Bian, Chunhui; Xiang, Di; Qu, Fengyu

    2014-12-01

    A novel hierarchical porous bioactive glasses were synthesised with cattail stem and triblock polyethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymer (P123) as macroporous template and mesoporous template, respectively. The structural and textural properties of materials were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, energy dispersive spectrometer and vibrating sample magnetometer technique. The results reveal the bioglasses possess multilevel porous structure with the macroporous size about 50 μm and the mesopore with the diameter of 3.86 nm. Furthermore, metformin HCl was used as the model drug. The drug release kinetics and hydroxyapatite (HAP, (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2)) inducing-growth ability of the composites were studied, respectively. The system exhibits the fast HAP inducing-growth ability and long-term drug delivery, making them a good candidate for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:25429500

  19. Release of Bioactive Adeno-Associated Virus from Fibrin Scaffolds: Effects of Fibrin Glue Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hannah H.; Haleem, Amgad M.; Yao, Veronica; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Fibrin glue (FG) is used in a variety of clinical applications and in the laboratory for localized and sustained release of factors potentially important for tissue engineering. However, the effect of different fibrinogen concentrations on FG scaffold delivery of bioactive adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) has not been established. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that FG concentration alters AAV release profiles, which affect AAV bioavailability. Gene transfer efficiency of AAV-GFP released from FG was measured using HEK-293 cells. Bioactivity of AAV transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) released from FG was assessed using the mink lung cell assay, and by measuring induction of cartilage-specific gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Nondiluted FG had longer clotting times, smaller pore sizes, thicker fibers, and slower dissolution rate, resulting in reduced release of AAV. AAV release and gene transfer efficiency was higher with 25% and 50% FG than with the 75% and 100% FG. AAV-TGF-β1 released from dilute-FG transduced hMSCs, resulting in higher concentrations of bioactive TGF-β1 and greater upregulation of cartilage-specific gene expression compared with hMSC from undiluted FG. This study, showing improved release, transduction efficiency, and chondrogenic effect on hMSC of bioactive AAV-TGF-β1 released from diluted FG, provides information important to optimization of this clinically available scaffold for therapeutic gene delivery, both in cartilage regeneration and for other tissue engineering applications. PMID:21449684

  20. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticles composites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F

    2012-10-01

    Nanocomposite films based on a chitosan blend with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) with different formulations, namely SiO(2):CaO:P(2)O(5)(mol.%) = 55:40:5 and SiO(2):CaO:P(2)O(5):MgO(mol.%) = 64:26:5:5 were produced in order to develop systems with applicability in guided tissue regeneration. The zeta (ζ)-potential of the BG-NPs containing magnesium was found to be lower than the other formulation and the corresponding composite with chitosan was the most hydrophilic. The bioactive character of the biomaterials was also assessed in vitro by immersion of the materials in simulated body fluid, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy evaluations. SaOs-2 osteoblastic-like cells were seeded on the different nanocomposites and their behavior was followed by SEM observations, cytotoxicity assessments, DNA quantification and alkaline phosphatase analysis. The introduction of the inorganic component in the chitosan matrix had a positive effect on the biological response of the membranes. The developed nanocomposite films are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue and could be useful in orthopedic and maxillo-facial applications. PMID:22972166

  1. A Novel Injectable Calcium Phosphate Cement-Bioactive Glass Composite for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kang; Tang, Yufei; Cheng, Zhe; Chen, Jun; Zang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwei; Kong, Liang; Liu, Shuai; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) can be molded or injected to form a scaffold in situ, which intimately conforms to complex bone defects. Bioactive glass (BG) is known for its unique ability to bond to living bone and promote bone growth. However, it was not until recently that literature was available regarding CPC-BG applied as an injectable graft. In this paper, we reported a novel injectable CPC-BG composite with improved properties caused by the incorporation of BG into CPC. Materials and Methods The novel injectable bioactive cement was evaluated to determine its composition, microstructure, setting time, injectability, compressive strength and behavior in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The in vitro cellular responses of osteoblasts and in vivo tissue responses after the implantation of CPC-BG in femoral condyle defects of rabbits were also investigated. Results CPC-BG possessed a retarded setting time and markedly better injectability and mechanical properties than CPC. Moreover, a new Ca-deficient apatite layer was deposited on the composite surface after immersing immersion in SBF for 7 days. CPC-BG samples showed significantly improved degradability and bioactivity compared to CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the degrees of cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on CPC-BG were higher than those on CPC. Macroscopic evaluation, histological evaluation, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis showed that CPC-BG enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation in comparison with CPC. Conclusions A novel CPC-BG composite has been synthesized with improved properties exhibiting promising prospects for bone regeneration. PMID:23638115

  2. A novel bioactive glass-ceramic for treating dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Camila; Panzeri, Heitor; Soares, Rodrigo Gongalves; Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful response to stimulus applied to the open dentinal tubules of a vital tooth. It's a common oral condition, however, without an ideal treatment available yet. This work evaluated in vitro the effect of micron-sized particles from a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) in occluding open dentinal tubules. A dentin disc model was employed to observe comparatively, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dentinal tubule occlusion by different products and deposition of hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA) on dentin surface by Biosilicate, after a single application: G1 - Dentifrice with potassium nitrate and fluoride; G2 - Two-step calcium phosphate precipitation treatment; G3 - Water-free gel containing Biosilicate particles (1%); G4 - Biosilicate particles mixed with distilled water in a 1:10 ratio; all of them after 1, 12 and 24 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to detect HCA formation on dentin discs filled with Biosilicate after 2 minutes, 30 minutes and 12 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. SEM showed a layer of HCA formed on dentin surface after 24 hours by G4. G1, G2 and G3 promoted not total occlusion of open dentinal tubules after 24 hours. FTIR showed HCA precipitation on the dentin surface induced by Biosilicate after 30 minutes. The micron-sized particles from the bioactive glass-ceramic thus were able to induce HCA deposition in open dentinal tubules in vitro. This finding suggests that Biosilicate may provide a new option for treating DH. PMID:21180956

  3. Preparation and characterization of bioactive composite scaffolds from polycaprolactone nanofibers-chitosan-oxidized starch for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammadi, Jhamak; Ghaee, Azadeh; Liavali, Samira Hosseini

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to fabricate and investigate the characteristics of a suitable scaffold for bone regeneration. Therefore, chitosan was combined with various amounts of oxidized starch through reductive alkylation process. Afterwards, chopped CaP-coated PCL nanofibers were added into the chitosan-starch composite scaffolds in order to obtain bioactivity and mimic bone extracellular matrix structure. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that all scaffolds had well-interconnected porous structure. The mean pore size, porosity, and water uptake of the composite scaffolds increased by incorporation of higher amounts of starch, while this trend was opposite for compressive modulus and strength. Osteoblast-like cells (MG63) culturing on the scaffolds demonstrated that higher starch content could improve cell viability. Moreover, the cells spread and anchored well on the scaffolds, on which the surface was covered with a monolayer of cells. PMID:26794750

  4. Evaluation of mechanical property and bioactivity of nano-bioglass 45S5 scaffold coated with poly-3-hydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Karbasi, Saeed; Foroughi, Mohammad Reza; Monshi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, Reza

    2015-02-01

    One of the major challenges facing researchers of tissue engineering is scaffold design with desirable physical and mechanical properties for growth and proliferation of cells and tissue formation. In this research, firstly, nano-bioglass powder with grain sizes of 55-56 nm was prepared by melting method of industrial raw materials at 1,400 °C. Then the porous ceramic scaffold of bioglass with 30, 40 and 50 wt% was prepared by using the polyurethane sponge replication method. The scaffolds were coated with poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) for 30 s and 1 min in order to increase the scaffold's mechanical properties. XRD, XRF, SEM, FE-SEM and FT-IR were used for phase and component studies, morphology, particle size and determination of functional groups, respectively. XRD and XRF results showed that the type of the produced bioglass was 45S5. The results of XRD and FT-IR showed that the best temperature to produce bioglass scaffold was 600 °C, in which Na2Ca2Si3O9 crystal is obtained. By coating the scaffolds with P3HB, a composite scaffold with optimal porosity of 80-87% in 200-600 μm and compression strength of 0.1-0.53 MPa was obtained. According to the results of compressive strength and porosity tests, the best kind of scaffold was produced with 30 wt% of bioglass immersed for 1 min in P3HB. To evaluate the bioactivity of the scaffold, the SBF solution was used. The selected scaffold (30 wt% bioglass/6 wt% P3HB) was maintained for up to 4 weeks in this solution at an incubation temperature of 37 °C. The XRD, SEM EDXA and AAS tests were indicative of hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of bioactive scaffold. This scaffold has some potential to use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25631260

  5. Development of nano-macroporous soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate bioactive glass and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Moawad, H M M; Jain, H

    2009-07-01

    We have extended the usefulness of bioactive glass-ceramics for the repair and reconstruction of hard tissues by introducing F ions that are known to be beneficial, especially in dentistry. Nano-macro multimodal porosity in soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate bulk samples was introduced by the recently developed melt-quench-heat-etch method. The choice of starting glass composition is based on 48SiO2-2.7P2O5-xCaF2-yCaO-zNa2O where x = 0, 1, 4, 8, 10, 12, and (y + z) = 49.3-x (mol%). The effect of thermal and chemical treatment on the microstructure of samples is characterized by SEM, XRD and EDX. We find the formation of many crystalline phases, but mainly sodium calcium silicate, calcium phosphate, fluorapatite and calcium silicate. The bioactivity of soda-lime phosphofluorosilicate glass-ceramics is assessed by monitoring the formation of hydroxyl apatite (HA) layer: fluorapatite phase accelerates the rate of HA layer formation; the initial composition and multi-modal porosity are other key parameters that impact the formation of HA. The present porous glass-ceramics should be superior candidates for use in dental bone regeneration. PMID:19252969

  6. The effect of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coating on the mechanical, biodegradable, bioactive properties and drug release of porous calcium silicate scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lang; Wu, Chengtie; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Ideal scaffolds for bone tissue engineering require 3D interconnected porous structures, enough mechanical strength for hand of treatment as well as proper bioactivity and biodegradability. Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) scaffolds have been studied for bone tissue engineering application due to their excellent bioactivity. However, the main disadvantages of CS scaffolds are their low mechanical strength and high alkaline ionic products. In this study, sintered CS scaffolds were prepared and coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the effect of PLGA coating on the mechanical, biodegradable, bioactive properties and drug release of porous CS scaffolds were investigated. The results showed that the PLGA-coated CS scaffolds maintained large pore size and high porosity. The compressive strength of PLGA/CS scaffolds was significantly improved compared to pure CS scaffolds, and increased with the increase of intrinsic viscosity and concentration of PLGA. In addition, the PLGA coating neutralized alkaline level resulted from the ionic products of CS scaffolds and reduced the pH value of biological solution during the degradation of scaffolds. It was found that PLGA/CS scaffolds still maintained excellent apatite-mineralization ability in SBF. Furthermore, the PLGA coating effectively inhibited the burst release and maintained a sustained release of drugs from the CS scaffolds. Our results indicate that the PLGA/CS scaffolds have great potential for bone tissue engineering application by the virtue of improved mechanical strength, and excellent bioactivity, degradation as well as drug-delivery property. PMID:23023146

  7. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work—fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3-CaF2) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 °C, 1150 °C, 1250 °C and 1350 °C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and β-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 °C and 1150 °C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 °C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 °C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 °C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

  8. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.

    2011-12-12

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaF{sub 2}) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 deg. C, 1150 deg. C, 1250 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with {alpha}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and {beta}-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 deg. C and 1150 deg. C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 deg. C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 deg. C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 deg. C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

  9. Cytotoxicity of Resin Composites Containing Bioactive Glass Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Methods Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt %) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65 mole% SiO2, 31 mole% CaO, 4 mole% P2O5) and BAG62 (3 mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composite in cell culture medium at 37° C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20 seconds and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey’s (α≤0.05). Results Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3 s vs. 20 s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. Significance The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the “toxic” components had been extracted and the materials were no longer cytotoxic. The results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of composites with and without BAG must predominantly be attributed to the release of residual monomers, and not to the presence of the BAG. PMID:25564110

  10. Effects of sterilization on an extracellular matrix scaffold: part II. Bioactivity and matrix interaction.

    PubMed

    Hodde, Jason; Janis, Abram; Hiles, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has been successfully used to treat a variety of damaged or diseased tissues in human patients. As a biologic scaffold, SIS stimulates repair of damaged or diseased tissues and organs with tissue that is similar in structure and function to the material it was meant to replace. To meet clinical safety requirements, biologic materials from animal tissues must undergo processing treatments to minimize host immune response and to eliminate the possibility of disease transmission. The effect of peracetic acid disinfection, lyophilization, and ethylene oxide sterilization on the in vitro bioactivity of the processed SIS was therefore examined in murine fibroblasts and pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Specifically, the ability of processed SIS to support fibroblast attachment, to stimulate PC12 cell differentiation, and to upregulate fibroblast VEGF secretion was examined. Fibroblasts attach to the sterilized SIS, remain viable, and more than double their secretion of VEGF as a result of interacting with the SIS matrix components. Additionally, PC12 cells exhibit increased neurite outgrowth following stimulation by SIS matrix proteins versus controls. We conclude that a biologic scaffold can be prepared for human use and still retain significant bioactivity. PMID:17546413

  11. Using machine learning for improving knowledge on antibacterial effect of bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Echezarreta-López, M M; Landin, M

    2013-09-10

    The aim of this work was to find relationships between critical bioactive glass characteristics and their antibacterial behaviour using an artificial intelligence tool. A large dataset including ingredients and process variables of the bioactive glasses production, bacterial characteristics and microbiological experimental conditions was generated from literature and analyzed by neurofuzzy logic technology. Our findings allow an explanation on the variability in antibacterial behaviour found by different authors and to obtain general conclusions about critical parameters of bioactive glasses to be considered in order to achieve activity against some of the most common skin and implant surgery pathogens. PMID:23806814

  12. Time- and concentration-dependent effects of dissolution products of 58S sol-gel bioactive glass on proliferation and differentiation of murine and human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Bielby, Robert C; Christodoulou, Ioannis S; Pryce, Russell S; Radford, Warwick J P; Hench, Larry L; Polak, Julia M

    2004-01-01

    Bone loss is a significant clinical problem, and treatments utilizing donated graft material are limited. To meet future demands in the healthcare industry, there has been a shift of outlook toward the use of bioactive materials for tissue regeneration. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies have highlighted the potential of the bioactive glass ceramic 45S5 Bioglass as a synthetic regenerative scaffold. The application of sol-gel processing techniques has led to the synthesis of mesoporous bioactive glasses with greater textural and compositional variety. In this study, we evaluated the effects of supplemented tissue culture medium containing up to 203 ppm silica prepared by static soaking of particles of 58S sol-gel bioactive glass (58% SiO(2), 33% CaO, 9% P(2)O(5)) on the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of murine and human primary osteoblasts. These extracts had a higher silica content than those used previously in studies of 45S5 Bioglass, because of the faster rates of ion exchange permitted by the higher surface area-to-volume ratio of mesoporous glass. We found that osteoblasts from both species increased their proliferation in response to the glass-conditioned medium. In addition, the extent to which supplemented medium could alter cell differentiation varied with time in culture. Proliferation induced by supplemented medium paralleled effects induced by treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor, a known mitogenic growth factor for osteoblasts. Bone nodule formation was also increased by exposure to the glass-conditioned medium and this effect was positively correlated with the dose of glass used to prepare the medium. Apoptosis was stimulated by glass-conditioned medium in murine osteoblasts, but inhibited in human osteoblasts. These data demonstrate the bioactive effects of dissolution products derived from sol-gel materials on primary osteoblasts and complements in vivo studies that indicate the suitability of this material as a bone graft substitute. PMID:15363159

  13. Sol-gel synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of copper and zinc-doped silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Julian; Caviedes, Pablo; Palza, Humberto

    2015-04-01

    Metal doping of bioactive glasses based on ternary 60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5 (58S) and quaternary 60SiO2-25CaO-11Na2O-4P2O5 (NaBG) mol% compositions synthesized using a sol-gel process was analyzed. In particular, the effect of incorporating 1, 5 and 10 mol% of CuO and ZnO (replacing equivalent quantities of CaO) on the texture, in vitro bioactivity, and cytocompatibility of these materials was evaluated. Our results showed that the addition of metal ions can modulate the textural property of the matrix and its crystal structure. Regarding the bioactivity, after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) undoped 58S and NaBG glasses developed an apatite surface layer that was reduced in the doped glasses depending on the type of metal and its concentration with Zn displaying the largest inhibitions. Both the ion release from samples and the ion adsorption from the medium depended on the type of matrix with 58S glasses showing the highest values. Pure NaBG glass was more cytocompatible to osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) than pure 58S glass as tested by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of metal ions decreased the cytocompatibility of the glasses depending on their concentration and on the glass matrix doped. Our results show that by changing the glass composition and by adding Cu or Zn, bioactive materials with different textures, bioactivity and cytocompatibility can be synthesized. PMID:25760730

  14. Composite growth factor supplementation strategies to enhance tenocyte bioactivity in aligned collagen-GAG scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Caliari, Steven R; Harley, Brendan A C

    2013-05-01

    Biomolecular environments encountered in vivo are complex and dynamic, with combinations of biomolecules presented in both freely diffusible (liquid-phase) and sequestered (bound to the extracellular matrix) states. Strategies for integrating multiple biomolecular signals into a biomimetic scaffold provide a platform to simultaneously control multiple cell activities, such as motility, proliferation, phenotype, and regenerative potential. Here we describe an investigation elucidating the influence of the dose and mode of presentation (soluble, sequestered) of five biomolecules (stromal cell-derived factor 1α [SDF-1α], platelet-derived growth factor BB [PDGF-BB], insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], and growth/differentiation factor 5 [GDF-5]) on the recruitment, proliferation, collagen synthesis, and genomic stability of equine tenocytes within an anisotropic collagen-GAG scaffold for tendon regeneration applications. Critically, we found that single factors led to a dose-dependent trade-off between driving tenocyte proliferation (PDGF-BB, IGF-1) versus maintenance of a tenocyte phenotype (GDF-5, bFGF). We identified supplementation schemes using factor pairs (IGF-1, GDF-5) to rescue the tenocyte phenotype and gene expression profiles while simultaneously driving proliferation. These results suggest coincident application of multi-biomolecule cocktails has a significant value in regenerative medicine applications where control of cell proliferation and phenotype are required. Finally, we demonstrated an immobilization strategy that allows efficient sequestration of bioactive levels of these factors within the scaffold network. We showed sequestration can lead to a greater sustained bioactivity than soluble supplementation, making this approach particularly amenable to in vivo translation where diffusive loss is a concern and continuous biomolecule supplementation is not feasible. PMID:23157454

  15. Synthesis of nano-bioactive glass-ceramic powders and its in vitro bioactivity study in bovine serum albumin protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabian, Nima; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood

    2011-07-01

    Bioactive glasses and ceramics have proved to be able to chemically bond to living bone due to the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface. The aim of this work was preparation and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic by sol-gel method. Nano-bioglass-ceramic material was crushed into powder and its bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of hydroxyapatite layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. The obtained nano-bioactive glass-ceramic was analyzed before and after contact with BSA solution. This study used scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis to examine its morphology, crystallinity and composition. The TEM images showed that the NBG particles size were 10-40 nm. Bioactivity of nanopowder was confirmed by SEM and XRD due to the presence of a rich bone-like apatite layer. Therefore, this nano-BSA-bioglass-ceramic composite material is promising for medical applications such as bone substitutes and drug carriers.

  16. Bone Tissue Engineering by Using Calcium Phosphate Glass Scaffolds and the Avidin-Biotin Binding System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Chul; Hong, Min-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Heon-Jin; Ko, Yeong-Mu; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-12-01

    Highly porous and interconnected scaffolds were fabricated using calcium phosphate glass (CPG) for bone tissue engineering. An avidin-biotin binding system was used to improve osteoblast-like cell adhesion to the scaffold. The scaffolds had open macro- and micro-scale pores, and continuous struts without cracks or defects. Scaffolds prepared using a mixture (amorphous and crystalline CPG) were stronger than amorphous group and crystalline group. Cell adhesion assays showed that more cells adhered, with increasing cell seeding efficiency to the avidin-adsorbed scaffolds, and that cell attachment to the highly porous scaffolds significantly differed between avidin-adsorbed scaffolds and other scaffolds. Proliferation was also significantly higher for avidin-adsorbed scaffolds. Osteoblastic differentiation of MG-63 cells was observed at 3 days, and MG-63 cells in direct contact with avidin-adsorbed scaffolds were positive for type I collagen, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. Osteocalcin expression was observed in the avidin-adsorbed scaffolds at 7 days, indicating that cell differentiation in avidin-adsorbed scaffolds occurred faster than the other scaffolds. Thus, these CPG scaffolds have excellent biological properties suitable for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26040755

  17. In vitro bioactivity and degradability of β-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold fabricated via selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Zhuang, Jingyu; Hu, Huanlong; Peng, Shuping; Liu, Defu; Liu, Jinglin

    2013-01-01

    Porous scaffolds consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were successfully fabricated via selective laser sintering. The scaffolds had a controlled microstructure and totally interconnected porous structure. The microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The bioactivity and degradability of scaffolds were evaluated through the simulated body fluid (SBF) cultivation experiment. The formation of a biologically active carbonate apatite layer on the surface after immersion in SBF was demonstrated using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fast nucleation and growth of the carbonate apatite crystals were observed to occur all through the specimen surfaces. The phenomenon was explained in terms of the distribution and dispersion of inorganic phases in the scaffolds and the ionic activity products of the apatite in the SBF. The calculation results of weight loss and Ca/P molar ratio also suggest the good bioactivity and degradability of the scaffolds. These indicate that the β-TCP porous ceramic scaffold is a potential candidate scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23600577

  18. The influence of collagen–glycosaminoglycan scaffold relative density and microstructural anisotropy on tenocyte bioactivity and transcriptomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Caliari, Steven R.; Weisgerber, Daniel W.; Ramirez, Manuel A.; Kelkhoff, Douglas O.; Harley, Brendan A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials for orthopedic tissue engineering must balance mechanical and bioactivity concerns. This work describes the fabrication of a homologous series of anisotropic collagen–GAG (CG) scaffolds with aligned tracks of ellipsoidal pores but increasing relative densities (ρ*/ρs), and we report the role scaffold relative density plays in directing tenocyte bioactivity. Scaffold permeability and mechanical properties, both in tension and compression, were significantly influenced by relative density in a manner predicted by cellular solids models. Equine tenocytes showed greater levels of attachment, metabolic activity, soluble collagen synthesis, and alignment as well as less cell-mediated scaffold contraction in anisotropic CG scaffolds of increasing relative density. Notably, the lowest density scaffolds experienced significant cell-mediated contraction with associated decreases in tenocyte number as well as loss of microstructural integrity, aligned contact guidance cues, and preferential tenocyte orientation over a 14 day culture period. Gene expression analyses suggested tenocyte de-differentiation in the lowest density scaffold while indicating that the highest density scaffold supported significant increases in COMP (4-fold), tenascin-C (3-fold), and scleraxis (15-fold) expression as well as significant decreases in MMP-1 (9-fold) and MMP-13 (13-fold) expression on day 14. These results suggest that anisotropic scaffold relative density can help to modulate the maintenance of a more tendon-like microenvironment and aid long-term tenocyte transcriptomic stability. Overall, this work demonstrates that relative density is a critical scaffold parameter, not only for insuring mechanical competence, but also for directing cell transcriptomic stability and behavior. PMID:22658152

  19. Bioactive glass hybrids: a simple route towards the gelatin-SiO₂-CaO system.

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Xavier; Montouillout, Valérie; Jallot, Édouard; Fayon, Franck; Lao, Jonathan

    2014-08-14

    Bioactive glass hybrids are among the most promising materials for bone regeneration, but the incorporation of calcium, a key element for mineralization properties of the implant, into the inorganic part of the hybrid network is challenging. We present here a synthesis route towards both class I and II gelatin-bioactive glass hybrids allowing the efficient incorporation of calcium ions at low temperature. PMID:24961549

  20. Effect of material, process parameters, and simulated body fluids on mechanical properties of 13-93 bioactive glass porous constructs made by selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Velez, Mariano

    2012-09-01

    The effect of particle size distribution, binder content, processing parameters, and sintering schedule on the microstructure and mechanical properties of porous constructs was investigated. The porous constructs were produced by indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) of 13-93 bioactive glass using stearic acid as a polymeric binder. The binder content and d(50) particle size in the feedstock powders were simultaneously reduced from 22 to 12 wt% and from 20 to 11 μm, respectively, to identify the minimum binder content required for the SLS fabrication. An average particle size of ∼16 μm with a binder content of 15 wt% significantly reduced post-processing time and improved mechanical properties. Increasing the laser power and scan speed at the energy density of 1 cal/cm² maintained the feature sharpness of the parts during the fabrication of green parts and could almost double the mechanical properties of the sintered parts. Changes in the heating rates, ranging from 0.1 to 2 °C/min, during the post-processing of the fabricated "green" scaffolds showed that the heating rate significantly affects the densification and mechanical properties of the sintered scaffolds. The compressive strength of the scaffolds manufactured with the optimized parameters varied from 41 MPa, for a scaffold with a porosity of ∼50%, to 157 MPa, for a dense part. The bioactive scaffolds soaked in simulated body fluids for durations up to 6 weeks were used to evaluate the change in mechanical properties in vitro. PMID:22842272

  1. Structural characterization of the metal/glass interface in bioactive glass coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Oku, T.; Suganuma, K.; Wallemberg, L.R.; Tomsia, A.P.; Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.

    1999-12-01

    Coating Ti-based implants with bioactive materials promotes joining between the prostheses and the bone as well as increasing long-term implant stability. In the present work, the interface between Ti-6Al-4V and bioactive silicate glass coatings, prepared using a simple enameling technique, is analyzed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the glass/alloy interface shows the formation of a reaction layer ({approx}150 nm thick) composed of Ti5Si3 nanoparticles with a size of {approx}20 nm. This nanostructured interface facilitates the formation of a stable joint between the glass coating and the alloy.

  2. Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites

    PubMed Central

    Polini, Alessandro; Bai, Hao; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    To improve treatments for bone or dental trauma, and for diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology; and how these developments are producing promising results in hard-tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG-based drug-delivery systems. PMID:23606653

  3. A one-step method to fabricate PLLA scaffolds with deposition of bioactive hydroxyapatite and collagen using ice-based microporogens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashen; Chen, Yun; Mak, Arthur F T; Tuan, Rocky S; Li, Lin; Li, Yi

    2010-06-01

    Porous poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds with bioactive coatings were prepared by a novel one-step method. In this process, ice-based microporogens containing bioactive molecules, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen, served as both porogens to form the porous structure and vehicles to transfer the bioactive molecules to the inside of PLLA scaffolds in a single step. Based on scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, the bioactive components were found to be transferred successfully from the porogens to PLLA scaffolds evenly. Osteoblast cells were used to evaluate the cellular behaviors of the composite scaffolds. After culturing for 8days, MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activity results suggested that HA/collagen could improve the interactions between osteoblast cells and the polymeric scaffold. PMID:20004261

  4. A one-step method to fabricate PLLA scaffolds with deposition of bioactive hydroxyapatite and collagen using ice-based microporogens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiashen; Chen, Yun; Mak, Arthur F.T.; Tuan, Rocky S.; Li, Lin; Li, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds with bioactive coatings were prepared by a novel one-step method. In this process, ice-based microporogens containing bioactive molecules, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen, served as both porogens to form the porous structure and vehicles to transfer the bioactive molecules to the inside of PLLA scaffolds in a single step. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, the bioactive components were found to be transferred successfully from the porogens to PLLA scaffolds evenly. Osteoblast cells were used to evaluate the cellular behaviors of the composite scaffolds. After 8 days culturing, MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results suggested that HA/collagen could improve the interactions between osteoblast cells and the polymeric scaffold. PMID:20004261

  5. Alternating Current Electrophoretic Deposition of Antibacterial Bioactive Glass-Chitosan Composite Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Seuss, Sigrid; Lehmann, Maja; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG) particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20–80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization of the coatings was conducted by visual inspection and by adhesion strength tests. The optimized coatings were investigated in terms of their hydroxyapatite (HA) forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 21 days. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed the successful HA formation on the coatings after 21 days. The first investigations were conducted on planar stainless steel sheets. In addition, scaffolds made from a TiAl4V6 alloy were considered to show the feasibility of coating of three dimensional structures by EPD. Because both BG and chitosan are antibacterial materials, the antibacterial properties of the as-produced coatings were investigated using E. coli bacteria cells. It was shown that the BG particle size has a strong influence on the antibacterial properties of the coatings. PMID:25007822

  6. Alternating current electrophoretic deposition of antibacterial bioactive glass-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Seuss, Sigrid; Lehmann, Maja; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG) particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20-80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization of the coatings was conducted by visual inspection and by adhesion strength tests. The optimized coatings were investigated in terms of their hydroxyapatite (HA) forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 21 days. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed the successful HA formation on the coatings after 21 days. The first investigations were conducted on planar stainless steel sheets. In addition, scaffolds made from a TiAl4V6 alloy were considered to show the feasibility of coating of three dimensional structures by EPD. Because both BG and chitosan are antibacterial materials, the antibacterial properties of the as-produced coatings were investigated using E. coli bacteria cells. It was shown that the BG particle size has a strong influence on the antibacterial properties of the coatings. PMID:25007822

  7. Thermoluminescence as a probe in bioactivity studies; the case of 58S sol-gel bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polymeris, George S.; Menti Goudouri, Ourania; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Kitis, George

    2011-10-01

    The formation of a carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer on the surface of bioactive materials is the main reaction that takes place upon their immersion in physiological fluids. To date, all techniques used for the identification of this HCAp formation are rather time consuming and not well suited to detailed and rapid monitoring of changes in the bioactivity response of the material. The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of using thermoluminescence (TL) for the discrimination between different bioactive responses in the case of the 58S bioactive glass. Results provided strong indications that the 110 °C TL peak of quartz can be used effectively in the study of the bioactive behaviour of 58S bioactive glass, since it is unambiguously present in all samples and does not require deconvolution analysis. Furthermore, the intensity of the 110 °C TL peak is proven to be very sensitive to the different bioactive responses, identifying the loss of silica which takes place at the first stages of the sequence. The discontinuities of the 110 °C TL peak intensity plot versus immersion time at 8 and 1440 min provide experimental indications regarding the timescale for both the beginning of amorphous CaP formation as well as the end of crystalline hydroxyl-apatite formation respectively, while the spike in the sensitization of the 110 °C TL peak, which was observed for immersion times ranging between 20 and 40 min, could be an experimental feature indicating the beginning of the crystalline HCAp formation.

  8. Broad-spectrum antibacterial properties of metal-ion doped borate bioactive glasses for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottomeyer, Megan

    Bioactive glasses with antimicrobial properties can be implemented as coatings on medical devices and implants, as well as a treatment for tissue repair and prevention of common hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA. A borate-containing glass, B3, is also undergoing clinical trials to assess wound-healing properties. The sensitivities of various bacteria to B3, B3-Ag, B3-Ga, and B3-I bioactive glasses were tested. In addition, the mechanism of action for the glasses was studied by spectroscopic enzyme kinetics experiments, Live-Dead staining fluorescence microscopy, and luminescence assays using two gene fusion strains of Escherichia coli. It was found that gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to all four glasses than gram negative bacteria, and that a single mechanism of action for the glasses is unlikely, as the rates of catalysis for metabolic enzymes as well as membrane permeability were altered after glass exposure.

  9. Bioactivity of Apatite-Wollastonite Glass-Ceramics Produced by Melting Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongee; Ozturk, Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    Glass-ceramics containing only apatite and wollastonite crystals were produced in the system MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-F by the melt casting process. The bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was determined by immersing the glass-ceramics in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and by assessing the resulting apatite formation on the free surface after various immersion durations. A 12-μm-thick apatite layer formed on the surface of the glass-ceramic containing only apatite crystals after 20 days immersion in SBF. However, the thickness of the apatite layer formed on the surface of the glass-ceramic containing apatite and wollastonite crystals was 1 μm. Results have shown that the bioactivity of glass-ceramic depends strongly on the type of crystal(s) developed during the glass-ceramic process and their proportion in the glassy matrix.

  10. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic fabricated using soda-lime-silica waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M.; Hashemi, B.; Shokrollahi, H.

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime-silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5-20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass-ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed.

  11. Capacity of mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles to deliver therapeutic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Meeju; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Won, Jong-Eun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic bioactive nanomaterials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, including nanocomponents for bone replacement composites and nanovehicles for delivering therapeutics. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn) have recently gained potential usefulness as bone and tooth regeneratives. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the BGn with mesopores to load and deliver therapeutic molecules (drugs and particularly genes). Spherical BGn with sizes of 80-90 nm were produced to obtain 3-5 nm sized mesopores through a sono-reacted sol-gel process. A simulated body fluid test of the mesoporous BGn confirmed their excellent apatite forming ability and the cellular toxicity study demonstrated their good cell viability up to 100 μg ml-1. Small molecules like chemical drug (Na-ampicillin) and gene (small interfering RNA; siRNA) were introduced as model drugs considering the mesopore size of the nanoparticles. Moreover, amine-functionalization allowed switchable surface charge property of the BGn (from -20-30 mV to +20-30 mV). Loading of ampicillin or siRNA saturated within a few hours (~2 h) and reflected the mesopore structure. While the ampicillin released relatively rapidly (~12 h), the siRNA continued to release up to 3 days with almost zero-order kinetics. The siRNA-nanoparticles were easily taken up by the cells, with a transfection efficiency as high as ~80%. The silencing effect of siRNA delivered from the BGn, as examined by using bcl-2 model gene, showed dramatic down-regulation (~15% of control), suggesting the potential use of BGn as a new class of nanovehicles for genes. This, in conjunction with other attractive properties, including size- and mesopore-related high surface area and pore volume, tunable surface chemistry, apatite-forming ability, good cell viability and the possible ion-related stimulatory effects, will potentiate the usefulness of the BGn in hard tissue regeneration.Inorganic bioactive nanomaterials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, including nanocomponents for bone replacement composites and nanovehicles for delivering therapeutics. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn) have recently gained potential usefulness as bone and tooth regeneratives. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the BGn with mesopores to load and deliver therapeutic molecules (drugs and particularly genes). Spherical BGn with sizes of 80-90 nm were produced to obtain 3-5 nm sized mesopores through a sono-reacted sol-gel process. A simulated body fluid test of the mesoporous BGn confirmed their excellent apatite forming ability and the cellular toxicity study demonstrated their good cell viability up to 100 μg ml-1. Small molecules like chemical drug (Na-ampicillin) and gene (small interfering RNA; siRNA) were introduced as model drugs considering the mesopore size of the nanoparticles. Moreover, amine-functionalization allowed switchable surface charge property of the BGn (from -20-30 mV to +20-30 mV). Loading of ampicillin or siRNA saturated within a few hours (~2 h) and reflected the mesopore structure. While the ampicillin released relatively rapidly (~12 h), the siRNA continued to release up to 3 days with almost zero-order kinetics. The siRNA-nanoparticles were easily taken up by the cells, with a transfection efficiency as high as ~80%. The silencing effect of siRNA delivered from the BGn, as examined by using bcl-2 model gene, showed dramatic down-regulation (~15% of control), suggesting the potential use of BGn as a new class of nanovehicles for genes. This, in conjunction with other attractive properties, including size- and mesopore-related high surface area and pore volume, tunable surface chemistry, apatite-forming ability, good cell viability and the possible ion-related stimulatory effects, will potentiate the usefulness of the BGn in hard tissue regeneration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31775c

  12. Mechanical performance of novel bioactive glass containing dental restorative composites

    PubMed Central

    Khvostenko, D.; Mitchell, J. C.; Hilton, T. J.; Ferracane, J. L.; Kruzic, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Bioactive glass (BAG) is known to possess antimicrobial properties and release ions needed for remineralization of tooth tissue, and therefore may be a strategic additive for dental restorative materials. The objective of this study was to develop BAG containing dental restorative composites with adequate mechanical properties comparable to successful commercially available composites, and to confirm the stability of these materials when exposed to a biologically challenging environment. Methods Composites with 72 wt.% total filler content were prepared while substituting 0–15% of the filler with ground BAG. Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth tests were performed after several different soaking treatments: 24 hours in DI water (all experiments), two months in brain-heart infusion (BHI) media+S. mutans bacteria (all experiments) and two months in BHI media (only for flexural strength). Mechanical properties of new BAG composites were compared along with the commercial composite Heliomolar by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p≤0.05). Results Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance for the BAG containing composites were unaffected by increasing BAG content up to 15% and were superior to Heliomolar after all post cure treatments. The flexural strength of the BAG composites was unaffected by two months exposure to aqueous media and a bacterial challenge, while some decreases in fracture toughness and fatigue resistance were observed. The favorable mechanical properties compared to Heliomolar were attributed to higher filler content and a microstructure morphology that better promoted the toughening mechanisms of crack deflection and bridging. Significance Overall, the BAG containing composites developed in this study demonstrated adequate and stable mechanical properties relative to successful commercial composites. PMID:24050766

  13. TiO2-doped phosphate glass microcarriers: A stable bioactive substrate for expansion of adherent mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Joana C; Park, Jeong-Hui; Lakhkar, Nilay J; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Scalable expansion of cells for regenerative cell therapy or to produce large quantities for high-throughput screening remains a challenge for bioprocess engineers. Laboratory scale cell expansion using t-flasks requires frequent passaging that exposes cells to many poorly defined bioprocess forces that can cause damage or alter their phenotype. Microcarriers offer a potential solution to scalable production, lending themselves to cell culture processes more akin to fermentation, removing the need for frequent passaging throughout the expansion period. One main problem with microcarrier expansion, however, is the difficulty in harvesting cells at the end of the process. Therefore, therapies that rely on cell delivery using biomaterial scaffolds could benefit from a microcarrier expansion system whereby the cells and microcarriers are transplanted together. In the current study, we used bioactive glass microcarriers doped with 5% TiO2 that display a controlled rate of degradation and conducted experiments to assess biocompatibility and growth of primary fibroblast cells as a model for cell therapy products. We found that the microcarriers are highly biocompatible and facilitate cell growth in a gradual controlled manner. Therefore, even without additional biofunctionalization methods, Ti-doped bioactive glass microcarriers offer potential as a cell expansion platform. PMID:22935537

  14. Following bioactive glass behavior beyond melting temperature by thermal and optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrou, X.; Zorba, T.; Kontonasaki, E.; Chrissafis, K.; Koidis, P.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2004-04-01

    The thermal behavior of a well known bioactive glass, Bioglass®, is examined beyond its melting temperature as the crystallization and sintering of bioactive glass may influence its bioactivity and cellular reactions. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) followed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the glass transition (Tg), the crystallization (Tc), the melting (Tm) temperatures and the weight changes. The characterization of bioactive glass before and after the thermal treatment at different characteristic temperatures was accomplished with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All the phases, during the heating of the material until an exact temperature beyond its melting temperature were determined. A progressive increase of its crystallization degree was observed, during treatment up to 1200 °C. At this temperature a number of successive crystallizations and fusions take place. At higher temperatures the formation of amorphous Bioglass® with simultaneous appearance of new phases is observed, favouring the bioactivity that in glass-ceramics is influenced by the different phases present.

  15. Indigenous hydroxyapatite coated and bioactive glass coated titanium dental implant system – Fabrication and application in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Surajit; Kundu, Debabrata; Datta, Someswar; Basu, Debabrata; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of different bioactive materials as coating on dental implant to restore tooth function is a growing trend in modern Dentistry. In the present study, hydroxyapatite and the bioactive glass-coated implants were evaluated for their behavior in osseous tissue following implantation in 14 patients. Materials and Methods: Bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite formulated and prepared for coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Hydroxyapatite coating was applied on the implant surface by air plasma spray technique and bioactive glass coating was applied by vitreous enameling technique. Their outcome was assessed after 6 months in vivo study in human. Results: Hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass coating materials were nontoxic and biocompatible. Uneventful healing was observed with both types of implants. Conclusion: The results showed bioactive glass is a good alternative coating material for dental implant. PMID:22028507

  16. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/45S5 Bioactive Glass Composite Coatings Doped with Zn and Sr

    PubMed Central

    Miola, Marta; Verné, Enrica; Ciraldo, Francesca Elisa; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In this research work, the original 45S5 bioactive glass was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6 mol%) in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation and Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties, and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology while compositional analysis (EDS) demonstrated the effective incorporation of these elements in the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD) and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD). The stability of the suspension was analyzed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, whereas the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover, the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behavior of 45S5-Sr-containing coating while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation. PMID:26539431

  17. Mechanochemically synthesized kalsilite based bioactive glass-ceramic composite for dental vaneering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pattem Hemanth; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Kalsilite glass-ceramic composites have been prepared by a mechanochemical synthesis process for dental veneering application. The aim of the present study is to prepare bioactive kalsilite composite material for application in tissue attachment and sealing of the marginal gap between fixed prosthesis and tooth. Mechanochemical synthesis is used for the preparation of microfine kalsilite glass-ceramic. Low temperature frit and bioglass have been prepared using the traditional quench method. Thermal, microstructural and bioactive properties of the composite material have been examined. The feasibility of the kalsilite to be coated on the base commercial opaque as well as the bioactive behavior of the coated specimen has been confirmed. This study indicates that the prepared kalsilite-based composites show similar structural, morphological and bioactive behavior to that of commercial VITA VMK95 Dentin 1M2.

  18. Bioactive glass-coated silicone for percutaneous devices with improved tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, James Scott

    The discovery of bioactive glasses, in the early 1970s, has produced a material that develops a strong adherent bond with soft tissue. Many medical applications currently use silicone as an implant material, but are hindered by the formation of fibrous scar tissue surrounding the device. This fibrous scar tissue can lead to pain, infection, and/or extrusion of these devices. Bioactive ceramic materials are inherently brittle and can not be used in applications where a flexible material is needed. Therefore, the coating of existing flexible silicone medical devices, like catheters, with a bioactive glass material would give the advantages of both. The research presented here is of methods used to coat silicone with a bioactive glass powder (Bioglass°ler) and the in vitro testing of those coatings. The bioactivity of these coatings was measured using scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that hydroxyapatite, a bonelike apatite, was formed in vitro on both the bioactive glass particles and the silicone surface between these particles. From these results a new theory was developed that related the distance between particles on a surface with the formation of an apatite layer. A critical distance between particles for the formation of an apatite layer on the substrate exists. This critical distance is a function of both the particle size and composition. In addition, a method to coat silicone catheters with bioactive glass powder is also discussed. This coated catheter could ultimately be used for improved percutaneous access in peritoneal dialysis. The one barrier to greater peritoneal dialysis use and the reason many patients switch from peritoneal to hemodialysis is recurrent exit-site infections and subsequent peritonitis. These infections are caused by the lack of a tight seal and downgrowth of epidermal tissue around the catheter at the catheter-skin interface.

  19. Examining porous bio-active glass as a potential osteo-odonto-keratoprosthetic skirt material.

    PubMed

    Huhtinen, Reeta; Sandeman, Susan; Rose, Susanna; Fok, Elsie; Howell, Carol; Fröberg, Linda; Moritz, Niko; Hupa, Leena; Lloyd, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Bio-active glass has been developed for use as a bone substitute with strong osteo-inductive capacity and the ability to form strong bonds with soft and hard tissue. The ability of this material to enhance tissue in-growth suggests its potential use as a substitute for the dental laminate of an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. A preliminary in vitro investigation of porous bio-active glass as an OOKP skirt material was carried out. Porous glass structures were manufactured from bio-active glasses 1-98 and 28-04 containing varying oxide formulation (1-98, 28-04) and particle size range (250-315 μm for 1-98 and 28-04a, 315-500 μm for 28-04b). Dissolution of the porous glass structure and its effect on pH was measured. Structural 2D and 3D analysis of porous structures were performed. Cell culture experiments were carried out to study keratocyte adhesion and the inflammatory response induced by the porous glass materials. The dissolution results suggested that the porous structure made out of 1-98 dissolves faster than the structures made from glass 28-04. pH experiments showed that the dissolution of the porous glass increased the pH of the surrounding solution. The cell culture results showed that keratocytes adhered onto the surface of each of the porous glass structures, but cell adhesion and spreading was greatest for the 98a bio-glass. Cytokine production by all porous glass samples was similar to that of the negative control indicating that the glasses do not induce a cytokine driven inflammatory response. Cell culture results support the potential use of synthetic porous bio-glass as an OOKP skirt material in terms of limited inflammatory potential and capacity to induce and support tissue ingrowth. PMID:23386212

  20. In vitro study of manganese-doped bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Brovarone, Chiara Vitale; Maina, Giovanni; Rossi, Federica; Bergandi, Loredana; Ghigo, Dario; Saracino, Silvia; Maggiora, Marina; Canuto, Rosa Angela; Muzio, Giuliana; Vernè, Enrica

    2014-05-01

    A glass belonging to the system SiO2-P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O was modified by introducing two different amounts of manganese oxide (MnO). Mn-doped glasses were prepared by melt and quenching technique and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) analysis. In vitro bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a slight decrease in the reactivity kinetics of Mn-doped glasses compared to the glass used as control; however the glasses maintained a good degree of bioactivity. Mn-leaching test in SBF and minimum essential medium (MEM) revealed fluctuating trends probably due to a re-precipitation of Mn compounds during the bioactivity process. Cellular tests showed that all the Mn-doped glasses, up to a concentration of 50 μg/cm(2) (μg of glass powders/cm(2) of cell monolayer), did not produce cytotoxic effects on human MG-63 osteoblasts cultured for up to 5 days. Finally, biocompatibility tests demonstrated a good osteoblast proliferation and spreading on Mn-doped glasses and most of all that the Mn-doping can promote the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and some bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). PMID:24656359

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of bioactive glass films in ammonia and disilane atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrajo, J. P.; González, P.; Liste, S.; Serra, J.; Chiussi, S.; León, B.; Pérez-Amor, M.

    2005-07-01

    The effect of two reactive gases on the properties of bioactive glass thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was studied. The ablation of a bioactive silica-based glass was carried out by an ArF excimer laser ( λ = 193 nm, Φ = 4.2 J cm -2, τ = 25 ns, f = 10 Hz) at various pressures of Si 2H 6/Ar and NH 3/Ar reactive mixtures. The bonding configuration and chemical environment of the resulting coatings were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The composition and bond arrangement of bioactive glass films were tuned by varying the chamber atmosphere. The results show how to adjust film characteristics for osteointegration of implants.

  2. Functionalized scaffolds to enhance tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baolin; Lei, Bo; Li, Peng; Ma, Peter X.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds play a vital role in regenerative medicine. It not only provides a temporary 3-dimensional support during tissue repair, but also regulates the cell behavior, such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In this review, we summarize the development and trends of functional scaffolding biomaterials including electrically conducting hydrogels and nanocomposites of hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glasses (BGs) with various biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, the progress on the fabrication of biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds from conducting polymers and composites of HA and BG via electrospinning, deposition and thermally induced phase separation is discussed. Moreover, bioactive molecules and surface properties of scaffolds are very important during tissue repair. Bioactive molecule-releasing scaffolds and antimicrobial surface coatings for biomedical implants and scaffolds are also reviewed. PMID:25844177

  3. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bioactive glasses for photon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    This work was carried out to study the nature of mass attenuation coefficient of bioactive glasses for gamma rays. Bioactive glasses are a group of synthetic silica-based bioactive materials with unique bone bonding properties. In the present study, we have calculated the effective atomic number, electron density for photon interaction of some selected bioactive glasses viz., SiO2-Na2O, SiO2-Na2O-CaO and SiO2-Na2O-P2O5 in the energy range 1 keV to 100 MeV. We have also computed the single valued effective atomic number by using XMuDat program. It is observed that variation in effective atomic number (ZPI, eff) depends also upon the weight fractions of selected bioactive glasses and range of atomic numbers of the elements. The results shown here on effective atomic number, electron density will be more useful in the medical dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose and dose rate.

  4. Structure-solubility relationships in fluoride-containing phosphate based bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharyar, Yaqoot

    The dissolution of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses critically affects their biomedical applications. Most commercial fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses have been designed in the soda-lime-silica system. However, their relatively slow chemical dissolution and the adverse effect of fluoride on their bioactivity are stimulating the study of novel biodegradable materials with higher bioactivity, such as biodegradable phosphate-based bioactive glasses, which can be a viable alternative for applications where a fast release of active ions is sought. In order to design new biomaterials with controlled degradability and high bioactivity, it is essential to understand the connection between chemical composition, molecular structure, and solubility in physiological fluids.Accordingly, in this work we have combined the strengths of various experimental techniques with Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, to elucidate the impact of fluoride ions on the structure and chemical dissolution of bioactive phosphate glasses in the system: 10Na2O - (45-x) CaO - 45P2O5 - xCaF2, where x varies between 0 -- 10 mol.%. NMR and MD data reveal that the medium-range atomic-scale structure of thse glasses is dominated by Q2 phosphate units followed by Q1 units, and the MD simulations further show that fluoride tends to associate with network modifier cations to form alkali/alkaline-earth rich ionic aggregates. On a macroscopic scale, we find that incorporating fluoride in phosphate glasses does not affect the rate of apatite formation on the glass surface in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, fluoride has a marked favorable impact on the glass dissolution in deionized water. Similarly, fluoride incorporation in the glasses results in significant weight gain due to adsorption of water (in the form of OH ions). These macroscopic trends are discussed on the basis of the F effect on the atomistic structure of the glasses, such as the F-induced phosphate network re-polymerization, in a first attempt to establish composition-structure-property relationships for these biomaterials.

  5. Smart soft-templating synthesis of hollow mesoporous bioactive glass spheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-05-26

    Hollow bioactive glass spheres with mesoporous shells were prepared by using dual soft templates, a diblock co-polymer poly(styrene-b-acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) and a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Hollow mesoporous bioactive glass (HMBG) spheres comprise the large hollow interior with vertical mesochannels in shell, which realize large uptake of drugs and their sustained release. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of HMBG particles shows the clear evidence for promising application in bone regeneration. PMID:25900326

  6. Review: emerging developments in the use of bioactive glasses for treating infected prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Huang, Wenhai

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of implanted orthopedic prostheses is a serious complication that requires prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy, major surgery to remove infected implants, bone reconstruction, and considerable morbidity. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement as the carrier, along with systemic antibiotics, is the standard treatment. However, PMMA is not biodegradable, and it can present a surface on which secondary bacterial infection can occur. PMMA spacers used to treat deep implant infections must be removed after resolution of the infection. Alternative carrier materials for antibiotics that could also restore deficient bone are therefore of interest. In this article, the development of bioactive glass-based materials as a delivery system for antibiotics is reviewed. Bioactive glass is osteoconductive, converts to hydroxyapatite, and heals to hard and soft tissues in vivo. Consequently, bioactive glass-based carriers can provide the combined functions of controlled local antibiotic delivery and bone restoration. Recently-developed borate bioactive glasses are of particular interest since they have controllable degradation rates coupled with desirable properties related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Such glasses have the potential for providing a new class of biomaterials, as substitutes for PMMA, in the treatment of deep bone infections. PMID:24907755

  7. Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Early Host Body Reactions to the Bioactive and Bio-Inert Porous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ehashi, Tomo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Minowa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1β promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1β was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic regulations. PMID:24454803

  8. Development of gelatin-chitosan-hydroxyapatite based bioactive bone scaffold with controlled pore size and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Maji, Kanchan; Dasgupta, Sudip; Kundu, Biswanath; Bissoyi, Akalabya

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite-chitosan/gelatin (HA:Chi:Gel) nanocomposite scaffold has potential to serve as a template matrix to regenerate extra cellular matrix of human bone. Scaffolds with varying composition of hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and gelatin were prepared using lyophilization technique where glutaraldehyde (GTA) acted as a cross-linking agent for biopolymers. First, phase pure hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocrystals were in situ synthesized by coprecipitation method using a solution of 2% acetic acid dissolved chitosan and aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate [Ca(NO3)2,4H2O] and diammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2H PO4]. Keeping solid loading constant at 30 wt% and changing the composition of the original slurry of gelatin, HA-chitosan allowed control of the pore size, its distribution, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Microstructural investigation by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a well interconnected porous scaffold with a pore size in the range of 35-150 μm. The HA granules were uniformly dispersed in the gelatin-chitosan network. An optimal composition in terms of pore size and mechanical properties was obtained from the scaffold with an HA:Chi:Gel ratio of 21:49:30. The composite scaffold having 70% porosity with pore size distribution of 35-150 μm exhibited a compressive strength of 3.3-3.5 MPa, which is within the range of that exhibited by cancellous bone. The bioactivity of the scaffold was evaluated after conducting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) - materials interaction and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using MSCs. The scaffold found to be conducive to MSC's adhesion as evident from lamellipodia, filopodia extensions from cell cytoskeleton, proliferation, and differentiation up to 14 days of cell culture. PMID:26335156

  9. Electrospun polyurethane/hydroxyapatite bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: the role of solvent and hydroxyapatite particles.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, G; Khan, A S; Delaine-Smith, R M; Reilly, G C; Rehman, I U

    2014-11-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a promising polymer to support bone-matrix producing cells due to its durability and mechanical resistance. In this study two types of medical grade poly-ether urethanes Z3A1 and Z9A1 and PU-Hydroxyapatite (PU-HA) composites were investigated for their ability to act as a scaffold for tissue engineered bone. PU dissolved in varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvents were electrospun to attain scaffolds with randomly orientated non-woven fibres. Bioactive polymeric composite scaffolds were created using 15 wt% Z3A1 in a 70/30 DMF/THF PU solution and incorporating micro- or nano-sized HA particles in a ratio of 3:1 respectively, whilst a 25 wt% Z9A1 PU solution was doped in ratio of 5:1. Chemical properties of the resulting composites were evaluated by FTIR and physical properties by SEM. Tensile mechanical testing was carried out on all electrospun scaffolds. MLO-A5 osteoblastic mouse cells and human embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cells, hES-MPs were seeded on the scaffolds to test their biocompatibility and ability to support mineralised matrix production over a 28 day culture period. Cell viability was assayed by MTT and calcium and collagen deposition by Sirius red and alizarin red respectively. SEM images of both electrospun PU scaffolds and PU-HA composite scaffolds showed differences in fibre morphology with changes in solvent combinations and size of HA particles. Inclusion of THF eliminated the presence of beads in fibres that were present in scaffolds fabricated with 100% DMF solvent, and resulted in fibres with a more uniform morphology and thicker diameters. Mechanical testing demonstrated that the Young?s Modulus and yield strength was lower at higher THF concentrations. Inclusion of both sizes of HA particles in PU-HA solutions reinforced the scaffolds leading to higher mechanical properties, whilst FTIR characterisation confirmed the presence of HA in all composite scaffolds. Although all scaffolds supported proliferation of both cell types and deposition of calcified matrix, PU-HA composite fibres containing nano-HA enabled the highest cell viability and collagen deposition. These scaffolds have the potential to support bone matrix formation for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25117379

  10. In vitro study of polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite coatings on corrosion and bioactivity of pure Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuyun; Michalczyk, Carolin; Singer, Ferdinand; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the addition of nano-scaled bioactive glass (nBG) powder into polycaprolactone (PCL) coatings on the biodegradation and bioactivity of pure Mg was investigated in the present work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the morphology, chemical composition and anticorrosion properties of the coatings. The results indicate that nBG addition in PCL increases the degradation of PCL in physiological solution; depending on the amount of nBG in the composite coating, the barrier properties of PCL therefore can be modified. At the same time, the addition of nBG facilitates the formation of hydroxyapatite during 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  11. Interaction of bioactive glasses with peritoneal macrophages and monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, M; Hench, L; Cannas, M

    2002-04-01

    Macrophage activation was analyzed following exposure to pure, crystalline alpha-quartz powders, two bioactive gel-glass powders of different compositions, and a melt-derived glass, 45S5 Bioglass. The release of reactive oxygen metabolites (chemiluminescence test), modifications of cell morphology, the amount of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) secreted, and the amount of TNFalpha mRNA expression were evaluated. The 45S5 Bioglass powders elicited the highest chemiluminescence response while the two solgel glasses had a lower response with less of an oxidative burst difference between them. Particulate bioactive glasses are actively ingested by mouse peritoneal macrophages, and only the 58S solgel glass had a moderate toxic effect on the macrophages. Macrophage cell morphology showed increased size and cell spreading, consistent with the high level of cytokine secretion induced by 45S5 Bioglass. The 45S5 Bioglass powders led to an increased release of TNFalpha and expression of TNFalpha mRNA relative to unstimulated and control treated monocytes. Bioactive glasses (and particularly 45S5 Bioglass) that in vivo induce rapid bone growth appear to activate an autocrine-like process in which the response evoked by the material (for example monocyte and macrophage activation with cytokine production) enhances subsequent interactions with cells in contact with the material. PMID:11835162

  12. Bioactivity of thermal plasma synthesized bovine hydroxyapatite/glass ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganand, C. P.; Selvarajan, V.; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Cannillo, Valeria; Sola, Antonella

    2010-02-01

    Bone injuries and failures often require the inception of implant biomaterials. Research in this area is receiving increasing attention worldwide. A variety of artificial bone materials, such as metals, polymeric materials, composites and ceramics, are being explored to replace diseased bones. Calcium phosphate ceramics are currently used as biomaterials for many applications in both dentistry and orthopedics. Bioactive silicate-based glasses show a higher bioactive behaviour than calcium phosphate materials. It is very interesting to study the mixtures of HA and silicate-based glasses. In the present study; natural bovine hydroxyapatite / SiO2-CaO-MgO glass composites were produced using the Transferred arc plasma (TAP) melting method. TAP melting route is a brisk process of preparation of glass-ceramics in which the raw materials are melted in the plasma and crystallization of the melt occurs while cooling down at a much faster rate in relatively short processing times compared to the conventional methods of manufacture of glass ceramics/composites. It is well known that; one essential step to the understanding of the biological events occurring at the bone tissue/material interface is the biological investigation by in vitro tests. Cell lines are commonly used for biocompatibility tests, and are very efficient because of their reproducibility and culture facility. In this study, we report the results of a study on the response of primary cultures of human fibroblast cells to TAP melted bioactive glass ceramics.

  13. An in vitro evaluation of selective demineralised enamel removal using bio-active glass air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Avijit; Pabari, Hiten; Paolinelis, George; Thompson, Ian D; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-12-01

    Unnecessary over-preparation of carious enamel often occurs clinically during operative caries management. The working hypothesis to be investigated in this study is the potential for bio-active glass air abrasion to remove selectively only demineralised enamel in artificial enamel lesions when compared to equivalent alumina air abrasion, so potentially minimising cavity over-preparation. Bisected artificial, paired smooth surface enamel lesions on ethics-approved, extracted sound human molars were created and subsequently air abraded with 27 μm alumina (n = 19) and bio-active glass (n = 19). The difference between pre-operative lesion boundary and post-operative cavity margin was calculated following optical confocal fluorescent assessment of the lesion boundary. Data indicated mean% over-preparation (sound enamel removal) of 176% with alumina and 15.2% for bio-active glass (p = 0.005). Bio-active glass abrasion removed completely the demineralised enamel from artificial lesions with clinically insignificant over-preparation of sound tissue, indicating technique selectivity towards grossly demineralised enamel. Alumina air abrasion resulted in substantial enamel removal in both sound and demineralised tissues indicating the operator selectivity required to use the techniques effectively in clinical practice. PMID:20941634

  14. Risedronate adsorption on bioactive glass surface for applications as bone biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosbahi, Siwar; Oudadesse, Hassane; Lefeuvre, Bertand; Barroug, Allal; Elfeki, Hafed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Roiland, Claire; Keskes, Hassib

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current work is to study the physicochemical interactions between bisphosphonates molecules, risedronate (RIS) and bioactive glass (46S6) after their association by adsorption phenomenon. To more understand the interaction processes of RIS with the 46S6 surface we have used complementary physicochemical techniques such as infrared (FTIR), Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The obtained results suggest that risedronate adsorption corresponds to an ion substitution reaction with silicon ions occurring at the bioactive glass surface. Thus, a pure bioactive glass was synthesized and fully characterized comparing the solids after adsorption (46S6-XRIS obtained after the interaction of 46S6 and X% risedronate). Therefore, based on the spectroscopic results FTIR, Raman and MAS-NMR, it can be concluded that strong interactions have been established between RIS ions and 46S6 surface. In fact, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy illustrate the fixation of risedronate on the bioactive glass surface by the appearance of several bands characterizing risedronate. The 31P MAS-NMR of the composite 46S6-XRIS show the presence of two species at a chemical shift of 15 and 19 ppm demonstrating thus the fixation of the RIS on 46S6 surface.

  15. A new synthesis route to high surface area sol gel bioactive glass through alcohol washing: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mukundan, Lakshmi M; Nirmal, Remya; Vaikkath, Dhanesh; Nair, Prabha D

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glass is one of the widely used bone repair material due to its unique properties like osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity and biodegradability. In this study bioactive glass is prepared by the sol gel process and stabilized by a novel method that involves a solvent instead of the conventional calcinations process. This study represents the first attempt to use this method for the stabilization of bioactive glass. The bioactive glass stabilized by this ethanol washing process was characterized for its physicochemical and biomimetic property in comparison with similar composition of calcined bioactive glass. The compositional similarity of the two stabilized glass powders was confirmed by spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analysis. Other physicochemical characterizations together with the cell culture studies with L929 fibroblast cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells proved that the stabilization was achieved with the retention of its inherent bioactive potential. However an increase in the surface area of the glass powder was obtained as a result of this ethanol washing process and this add up to the success of the study. Hence the present study exhibits a promising route for high surface area bioactive glass for increasing biomimicity. PMID:23512012

  16. Evaluation of the effects of nano-TiO2 on bioactivity and mechanical properties of nano bioglass-P3HB composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiyari, Sanaz Soleymani Eil; Karbasi, Saeed; Monshi, Ahmad; Montazeri, Mahbobeh

    2016-01-01

    To emulate bone structure, porous composite scaffold with suitable mechanical properties should be designed. In this research the effects of nano-titania (nTiO2) on the bioactivity and mechanical properties of nano-bioglass-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (nBG/P3HB)-composite scaffold were evaluated. First, nBG powder was prepared by melting method of pure raw materials at a temperature of 1400 °C and then the porous ceramic scaffold of nBG/nTiO2 with 30 wt% of nBG containing different weight ratios of nTiO2 (3, 6, and 9 wt% of nTiO2 with grain size of 35-37 nm) was prepared by using polyurethane sponge replication method. Then the scaffolds were coated with P3HB in order to increase the scaffold's mechanical properties. Mechanical strength and modulus of scaffolds were improved by adding nTiO2 to nBG scaffold and adding P3HB to nBG/nTiO2 composite scaffold. The results of the compressive strength and porosity tests showed that the best scaffold is 30 wt% of nBG with 6 wt% of nTiO2 composite scaffold immersed for 30 s in P3HB with 79.5-80 % of porosity in 200-600 μm, with a compressive strength of 0.15 MPa and a compressive modulus of 30 MPa, which is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering. To evaluate the bioactivity of the scaffold, the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was used. The best scaffold with 30 wt% of nBG, 6 wt% of P3HB and 6 wt% of nTiO2 was immersed in SBF for 4 weeks at an incubation temperature of 37 °C. The bioactivity of the scaffolds was characterized by AAS, SEM, EDXA and XRD. The results of bioactivity showed that bone-like apatite layer formed well at scaffold surface and adding nTiO2 to nBG/P3HB composite scaffold helped increase the bioactivity rate. PMID:26610925

  17. Surface modification of strontium-doped porous bioactive ceramic scaffolds via poly(DOPA) coating and immobilizing silk fibroin for excellent angiogenic and osteogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-04-22

    For bioceramic scaffolds employed in clinical applications, excellent bioactivity and tenacity were of great importance. Modifying inorganic SCPP scaffolds with biological macromolecules could obviously improve its bioactivity and eliminate its palpable brittleness. However, it was hard to execute directly due to extremely bad interfacial compatibility between them. In this research, dopamine (DOPA) was introduced onto strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) scaffolds, subsequently the preliminary material was successfully further modified by silk fibroin (SF). SCPP/D/SF possessed suitable biomechanical properties, ability to stimulate angiogenic factor secretion and excellent biocompatibility. Biomechanical examination demonstrated that SCPP/D/SF scaffolds yielded better compressive strength because of improved interfacial compatibility. MTT assay and CLSM observation showed that SCPP/D/SF scaffolds had good cytocompatibility and presented better inducing-cell-migration potential than pure SCPP scaffolds. Meanwhile, its ability to stimulate angiogenic factor secretion was measured through the ELISA assay and immunohistological analysis in vitro and in vivo respectively. The results revealed, superior to SCPP, SCPP/D/SF could effectively promote VEGF and bFGF expression, possibly leading to enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In a word, SCPP/D/SF could serve as a potential bone tissue engineering scaffold for comparable biomechanical properties and excellent bioactivity. It provided a novel idea for modification of inorganic materials to prepare promising bone tissue engineering scaffolds with the ability to accelerate bone regeneration and vascularization. PMID:26870855

  18. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of silver-containing borate bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shi-Hua; Xiao, Wei; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Huang, Wen-Hai; Jin, Dong-Xu; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2010-11-01

    The cytotoxicity of silver-containing borate bioactive glass was evaluated in vitro from the response of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells in media containing the dissolution products of the glass. Glass frits containing 0-2 weight percent (wt %) Ag were prepared by a conventional melting and quenching process. The amount of Ag dissolved from the glass into a simulated body fluid (SBF), measured using atomic emission spectroscopy, increased rapidly within the first 48 h, but slowed considerably at longer times. Structural and microchemical analysis showed that the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like layer on the glass surface within 14 days of immersion in the SBF. The response of MC3T3-E1 and L929 cells to the dissolution products of the glass was evaluated using SEM observation of cell morphology, and assays of MTT hydrolysis, lactate dehydrogenase release, and alkaline phosphatase activity after incubation for up to 48 h. Cytotoxic effects were found for the borate glass containing 2 wt % Ag, but not for 0.75 and 1 wt % Ag. This borate glass containing up to ∼1 wt % Ag could provide a coating material for bacterial inhibition and enhanced bioactivity of orthopaedic implant materials such as titanium. PMID:20878930

  19. Fabrication and characterization of poly-(ε)-caprolactone and bioactive glass composites for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhah, Ali; Marquardt, Laura M; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Day, Delbert E; Harkins, Amy B

    2015-04-01

    Much work has focused on developing synthetic materials that have tailored degradation profiles and physical properties that may prove useful in developing biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. In the present study, three different composite sheets consisting of biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and varying types of bioactive glass were investigated. The three composites were composed of 50wt.% PCL and (1) 50wt.% 13-93 B3 borate glass particles, (2) 50wt.% 45S5 silicate glass particles, or (3) a blend of 25wt.% 13-93 B3 and 25wt.% 45S5 glass particles. Degradation profiles determined for each composite showed the composite that contained only 13-93 B3 borate glass had a higher degradation rate compared to the composite containing only 45S5 silicate glass. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the composites to determine the effect of adding glass to the polymer on mechanical properties. The peak stress of all of the composites was lower than that of PCL alone, but 100% PCL had a higher stiffness when pre-reacted in cell media for 6weeks, whereas composite sheets did not. Finally, to determine whether the composite sheets would maintain neuronal growth, dorsal root ganglia isolated from embryonic chicks were cultured on composite sheets, and neurite outgrowth was measured. The bioactive glass particles added to the composites showed no negative effects on neurite extension, and neurite extension increased on PCL:45S5 PCL:13-93 B3 when pre-reacted in media for 24h. This work shows that composite sheets of PCL and bioactive glass particles provide a flexible biomaterial for neural tissue engineering applications. PMID:25686992

  20. Bioactive and bioresorbable cellular cubic-composite scaffolds for use in bone reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shikinami, Yasuo; Okazaki, Kenshi; Saito, Makoto; Okuno, Masaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Tamura, Jiro; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We used a novel composite fibre-precipitation method to create bioactive and bioresorbable cellular cubic composites containing calcium phosphate (CaP) particles (unsintered and uncalcined hydroxyapatite (u-HA), α-tricalcium phosphate, β-tricalcium phosphate, tetracalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, dicalcium phosphate anhydrate or octacalcium phosphate) in a poly-d/l-lactide matrix. The CaP particles occupied greater than or equal to 70 wt% (greater than or equal to 50 vol%) fractions within the composites. The porosities of the cellular cubic composites were greater than or equal to 70% and interconnective pores accounted for greater than or equal to 70% of these values. In vitro changes in the cellular geometries and physical properties of the composites were evaluated over time. The Alamar Blue assay was used to measure osteoblast proliferation, while the alkaline phosphatase assay was used to measure osteoblast differentiation. Cellular cubic C-u-HA70, which contained 70 wt% u-HA particles in a 30 wt% poly-d/l-lactide matrix, showed the greatest three-dimensional cell affinity among the materials tested. This composite had similar compressive strength and cellular geometry to cancellous bone, could be modified intraoperatively (by trimming or heating) and was able to form cortico-cancellous bone-like hybrids. The osteoinductivity of C-u-HA70, independent of biological growth factors, was confirmed by implantation into the back muscles of beagles. Our results demonstrated that C-u-HA70 has the potential as a cell scaffold or temporary hard-tissue substitute for clinical use in bone reconstruction. PMID:17015297

  1. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; Ouis, M. A.; Azooz, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.; El-Bassyouni, G. T.

    2016-01-01

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680 cm-1 after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content.

  2. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Ouis, M A; Azooz, M A; ElBatal, H A; El-Bassyouni, G T

    2016-01-01

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680cm(-1) after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content. PMID:26204506

  3. Bioactive glass coatings with hydroxyapatite and Bioglass (registered) particles on Ti-based implants. 1. Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1999-06-01

    Silicate-based glasses with thermal expansion coefficients that match those of Ti6Al4V were prepared and used to coat Ti6Al4V by a simple enameling technique. Bioglass (BG) (registered) or hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were embedded on the coatings in order to enhance their bioactivity. HA particles were partially embedded during heating and remained firmly embedded on the coating after cooling. There was no apparent reaction at the glass/HA interface at the temperatures used in this work (800-840 degrees C). In contrast, BG particles softened and some infiltration into the glass coating took place during heat treatment. In this case, particles with sizes over 45 (mu)m were required, otherwise the particles became hollow due to the infiltration and crystallization of the glass surface. The concentration of the particles on the coating was limited to 20% of surface coverage. Concentrations above this value resulted in cracked coatings due to excessive induced stress. Cracks did not prop agate along the interfaces when coatings were subjected to Vickers indentation tests, indicating that the particle/glass and glass/metal interfaces exhibited strong bonds. Enameling, producing excellent glass/metal adhesion with well-attached bioactive particles on the surface, is a promising method of forming reliable and lasting implants which can endure substantial chemical and mechanical stresses.

  4. Physicochemical properties of newly developed bioactive glass cement and its effects on various cells.

    PubMed

    Washio, Ayako; Nakagawa, Aika; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Maeda, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2015-02-01

    Biomaterials used in dental treatments are expected to have favorable properties such as biocompatibility and an ability to induce tissue formation in dental pulp and periapical tissue, as well as sealing to block external stimuli. Bioactive glasses have been applied in bone engineering, but rarely applied in the field of dentistry. In the present study, bioactive glass cement for dental treatment was developed, and then its physicochemical properties and effects on cell responses were analyzed. To clarify the physicochemical attributes of the cement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and pH measurement were carried out. Cell attachment, morphology, and viability to the cement were also examined to clarify the effects of the cement on odontoblast-like cells (KN-3 cells), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells), human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells and neuro-differentiative cells (PC-12 cells). Hydroxyapatite-like precipitation was formed on the surface of the hardened cement and the pH level changed from pH10 to pH9, then stabilized in simulate body fluid. The cement had no cytotxic effects on these cells, and particulary induced process elongation of PC-12 cells. Our results suggest that the newly developed bioactive glass cement have capability of the application in dental procedures as bioactive cement. PMID:24895094

  5. Combined PIXE and SEM study of the behaviour of trace elements in gel formed around implant coated with bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.; Barbotteau, Y.; Brun, V.; Moretto, Ph.

    2002-05-01

    Bioactive glasses are used as coating biomaterials to facilitate anchorage of metallic prostheses implanted into the body. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of gel formed in contact with alloys and BVA and BVH bioactive glasses implanted. Cylinders of metallic implants composed by Ti, Al and V, are coated with bioactive glass. Three sheep were implanted for different time length: 3, 6 and 12 months in the femoral epiphysis. Results obtained with particle induced X-ray emission and scanning electron microscopy show that BVA coating induces a better contact between the metallic implant and bone. On the other hand, BVH coating prevents corrosion from the metallic implant.

  6. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum. PMID:25822408

  7. A tissue engineering approach for prenatal closure of myelomeningocele: comparison of gelatin sponge and microsphere scaffolds and bioactive protein coatings.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miho; Li, Hiaying; Roybal, Jessica; Santore, Matthew; Radu, Antonetta; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Kaneko, Michio; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Flake, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a common and devastating malformation. As an alternative to fetal surgical repair, tissue engineering has the potential to provide a less invasive approach for tissue coverage applicable at an earlier stage of gestation. We have previously evaluated the use of gelatin hydrogel composites composed of gelatin sponges and sheets as a platform for tissue coverage of the MMC defect in the retinoic acid induced fetal rat model of MMC. In the current study, we compare our previous composite with gelatin microspheres as a scaffold for tissue ingrowth and cellular adhesion within the amniotic fluid environment. We also examine the relative efficacy of various bioactive protein coatings on the adhesion of amniotic fluid cells to the construct within the amniotic cavity. We conclude from this study that gelatin microspheres are as effective as gelatin sponges as a scaffold for cellular ingrowth and amniotic fluid cell adhesion and that collagen type I and fibronectin coatings enhance amniotic fluid cell adhesion to the gelatin-based scaffolds. These findings support the potential for the development of a tissue-engineered injectable scaffold that could be applied by ultrasound-guided injection, much earlier and less invasively than sponge or sheet-based composites. PMID:21128864

  8. Polymer powder processing of cryomilled polycaprolactone for solvent-free generation of homogeneous bioactive tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jing; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2014-06-25

    Synthetic polymers used in tissue engineering require functionalization with bioactive molecules to elicit specific physiological reactions. These additives must be homogeneously dispersed in order to achieve enhanced composite mechanical performance and uniform cellular response. This work demonstrates the use of a solvent-free powder processing technique to form osteoinductive scaffolds from cryomilled polycaprolactone (PCL) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Cryomilling is performed to achieve micrometer-sized distribution of PCL and reduce melt viscosity, thus improving TCP distribution and improving structural integrity. A breakthrough is achieved in the successful fabrication of 70 weight percentage of TCP into a continuous film structure. Following compaction and melting, PCL/TCP composite scaffolds are found to display uniform distribution of TCP throughout the PCL matrix regardless of composition. Homogeneous spatial distribution is also achieved in fabricated 3D scaffolds. When seeded onto powder-processed PCL/TCP films, mesenchymal stem cells are found to undergo robust and uniform osteogenic differentiation, indicating the potential application of this approach to biofunctionalize scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24740849

  9. Growth and dissolution of apatite precipitates formed in vivo on the surface of a bioactive glass coating film and its relevance to bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallot, E.; Benhayoune, H.; Kilian, L.; Irigaray, J. L.; Balossier, G.; Bonhomme, P.

    2000-11-01

    Development of bioactive glasses for use as a coating on Ti6Al4V prostheses requires a better understanding of reactions at the bone/bioactive glass interface. Indeed, the bioactive glasses bond to bone through physico-chemical reactions. In vivo, an apatite rich layer is built up on top of a pure silica rich layer at the bioactive glass periphery. In this paper, we have studied Ti6Al4V cylinders coated with a bioactive glass and implanted in sheep femora for two, three and six months. At each time period, the samples were analysed with scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. In vivo, the bioactive glass dissolution led to the formation on its surface of spherical particles with different sizes. The distributions of Si, Al, Ca, P and Mg concentrations across the particles reveal precipitation of apatite with the incorporation of magnesium. Apatite precipitation is governed by diffusion through an Si layer and occurs under specific supersaturation conditions. Measurements of supersaturation for Ca and P demonstrate that the largest precipitates grow and the smallest dissolve. These results allow us to study the growth and dissolution rate of the apatite precipitates and their relevance to bioactivity. Particles with a radius twice the average radius () grow the fastest and, if the radius increases, the rate of growth decreases. Before three months, the growth of apatite precipitates (≈1 µm) leads to the growth of a Ca-P interfacial layer. After three months, is of the order of 0.5 µm, and the majority of the apatite layer dissolves. The effects of aluminium and magnesium on apatite generation are also studied.

  10. Preparation, in vitro mineralization and osteoblast cell response of electrospun 13-93 bioactive glass nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Deliormanlı, Aylin M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, silicate based 13-93 bioactive glass fibers were prepared through sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. A precursor solution containing poly (vinyl alcohol) and bioactive glass sol was used to produce fibers. The mixture was electrospun at a voltage of 20 kV by maintaining tip to a collector distance of 10 cm. The amorphous glass fibers with an average diameter of 464±95 nm were successfully obtained after calcination at 625 °C. Hydroxyapatite formation on calcined 13-93 fibers was investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) using two different fiber concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) at 37 °C. When immersed in SBF, conversion to a calcium phosphate material showed a strong dependence on the fiber concentration. At 1mg/ml, the surface of the fibers converted to the hydroxyapatite-like material in SBF only after 30 days. At lower solid concentrations (0.5 mg/ml), an amorphous calcium phosphate layer formation was observed followed by the conversion to hydroxyapatite phase after 7 days of immersion. The XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) assay was conducted to evaluate the osteoblast cell response to the bioactive glass fibers. PMID:26042714

  11. Novel method for early investigation of bioactivity in different borate bio-glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.

    Some ternary borate glasses were prepared and corrosion behavior of such ternary borate glasses after immersion in aqueous dilute phosphate solution was studied using different immersion times. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectral measurements were done before and after immersion in the mentioned solution for extended times up to 2 days to justify the appearance of the characteristic FTIR bands due to calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite (HA)) which is considered as the potential indication of bioactivity. Experimental IR data confirm the beginning of the appearance of FTIR bands at about 580 and 620 cm-1 after 3 days and the complete resolution with its characteristic split form after 1 week and more. Deconvolution analysis technique (DAT) of the FTIR spectrum was employed to investigate the bioactivity of such ternary borate system after a short period of immersion. The corrosion behavior of such glasses is explained in relation to a suggested hydrolysis followed by direct dissolution mechanism. The ease of dissolution of all the borate glasses constituents explains the formation of calcium phosphate and conversion to crystalline hydroxyapatite within the borate glass matrix. X-ray diffraction may be used to retrace the structural changes and degree of crystallinity of the prepared glasses.

  12. Gallium-containing phosphosilicate glasses: functionalization and in-vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi; Shruti, Shruti

    2013-08-01

    A gallium containing glass 45.7SiO224.1Na2O26.6CaO2.6P2O51.0Ga2O3 (referred to as "Ga1.0") and a parent Ga-free glass 46.2SiO224.3Na2O26.9CaO2.6P2O5 (hereinafter represented as "H"), corresponding to Bioglass 45S5, were functionalized with Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) in order to improve their ability to bond with biomolecules, such as drugs, proteins, and peptides. Functionalization with TEOS and APTS promoted the increment in OH groups and formation of NH2 groups on the glass surface, respectively. The presence of OH or NH2 groups was investigated by means of IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Moreover, in vitro study of these functionalized glasses was performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) so as to investigate the effect of functionalization on the bioactive behavior of H and Ga1.0. The results showed that the functionalization was obtained along with maintaining their bioactivity. The surfaces of both functionalized glasses were covered by a layer of apatite within 30 days of SBF immersion. In addition, CaCO3 was also identified on the surface of APTS functionalized glasses. However, no gallium release was detected during SBF soaking. PMID:23706200

  13. Electrophoretic co-deposition of cellulose nanocrystals-45S5 bioactive glass nanocomposite coatings on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Yang, Yuyun; Pérez de Larraya, Uxua; Garmendia, Nere; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic nanocomposite coating consisting of fibrous cellulose nanocrystals and 45S5 bioactive glass, intended as a bioactive surface for bone implants, was developed by a one-step electrophoretic deposition. The composition, surface roughness and wettability of the deposited coatings, influenced by the concentration of each component in the suspension, were controllable as a result of the simplicity of the coating technique. Bioactive glass particles were individually wrapped with porous cellulose layers, forming a porous coating with uniform thickness. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid revealed a rapid hydroxyapatite formation on the deposited nanocomposite coating. Furthermore, electrochemical test was carried out to understand the corrosion behavior of the deposited coatings during incubation in simulated body fluid. According to the results of this study, the obtained cellulose-bioactive glass coatings with tunable properties represent a promising approach for biofunctionalization of metallic orthopedic implants.

  14. Enhancing the bioactivity of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold with a nano-hydroxyapatite coating for the treatment of segmental bone defect in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Xin; He, Yao; Bi, Long; Qu, Ze-Hua; Zou, Ji-Wei; Pan, Zhen; Fan, Jun-Jun; Chen, Liang; Dong, Xin; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Pei, Guo-Xian; Ding, Jian-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is excellent as a scaffolding matrix due to feasibility of processing and tunable biodegradability, yet the virgin scaffolds lack osteoconduction and osteoinduction. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) was coated on the interior surfaces of PLGA scaffolds in order to facilitate in vivo bone defect restoration using biomimetic ceramics while keeping the polyester skeleton of the scaffolds. Methods PLGA porous scaffolds were prepared and surface modification was carried out by incubation in modified simulated body fluids. The nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were compared to the virgin PLGA scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo. Viability and proliferation rate of bone marrow stromal cells of rabbits were examined. The constructs of scaffolds and autogenous bone marrow stromal cells were implanted into the segmental bone defect in the rabbit model, and the bone regeneration effects were observed. Results In contrast to the relative smooth pore surface of the virgin PLGA scaffold, a biomimetic hierarchical nanostructure was found on the surface of the interior pores of the nHA coated PLGA scaffolds by scanning electron microscopy. Both the viability and proliferation rate of the cells seeded in nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were higher than those in PLGA scaffolds. For bone defect repairing, the radius defects had, after 12 weeks implantation of nHA coated PLGA scaffolds, completely recuperated with significantly better bone formation than in the group of virgin PLGA scaffolds, as shown by X-ray, Micro-computerized tomography and histological examinations. Conclusion nHA coating on the interior pore surfaces can significantly improve the bioactivity of PLGA porous scaffolds. PMID:23690683

  15. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Masoud; Salahinejad, Erfan; Shabafrooz, Vahid; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. PMID:23641155

  16. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Masoud; Salahinejad, Erfan; Shabafrooz, Vahid; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. PMID:23641155

  17. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder for oral bone defects treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Saqaei, Mahboobe; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat

    2015-11-01

    Bone defects which emerge around dental implants are often seen when implants are placed in areas with insufficient alveolar bone, in extraction sockets, or around failing implants. Bone regeneration in above-mentioned defects using of bone grafts or bone substitutes may cure the long-term prognoses of dental implants. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteogenic properties are key factors affecting the applications of a bone substitute. This study was aimed at preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of the bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder as a desired candidate for oral bone defect treatments. Nanocomposite powders containing 58S bioactive glass and different amounts of forsterite nanopowder were synthesized in situ by sol-gel technique. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite powders and their cytotoxicity assessment was performed via MTT test. Bioactivity assessment was done by immersing the prepared powder in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed that nanocomposite powders containing forsterite with crystallite size of 20-50nm were successfully fabricated by calcination at 600°C. The prepared bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders revealed high in vitro biocompatibility; besides, the nanocomposite containing 20wt.% forsterite showed a substantial increase in the cell viability compared with control groups. During immersion in SBF, the formation of apatite layer confirmed the bioactivity of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders. According to the results, the fabricated nanocomposite powders can be introduced as a promising candidate for oral bone imperfection treatments and hard tissue mend. PMID:26249608

  18. Evaluating optimal combination of clodronate and bioactive glass for dental application.

    PubMed

    Rosenqvist, Kirsi; Airaksinen, Sari; Vehkamäki, Marko; Juppo, Anne Mari

    2014-07-01

    Both clodronate and bioactive glass are mostly used alone as treatment in various bone diseases but, they are also known to have beneficial effects in dental application. The same processes that lead to loss of bone can also result in alveolar bone loss. The object of this study was to define the optimal combination of clodronate and bioactive glass (BAG) to be used locally in dentistry. The evaluation was based on measurements and solid state properties obtained with pH, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Focused-ion beam (FIB) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) mapping. The results indicate that if too much calcium clodronate precipitation is formed, the activity of BAG is affected negatively. As there is more reaction surface to form calcium clodronate, similar to the amount of clodronate present, this reduces the bioactivity of BAG. Therefore, in dental treatment the most suitable BAG and clodronate combination product would have apatite (HA, hydroxyapatite) formation ability and amount of clodronate enough to enhance the bioactivity of BAG allowing HA formation. Based on combinations investigated, the one with 200mg clodronate and 1 g BAG with particle size 0.5-0.8 mm was chosen to be the most promising for local dental application. PMID:24726634

  19. Negative Effect of Rapidly Resorbing Properties of Bioactive Glass-Ceramics as Bone Graft Substitute in a Rabbit Lumbar Fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Do-Yoon; Chang, Bong-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioactive glass-ceramics have the ability to directly bind to bones and have been widely used as bone graft substitutes due to their high osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics are known to have good osteoconductivity and are used as bone graft extenders. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the resorbing properties of glass-ceramics in bone fusion after producing and analyzing three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with high osteoconductivity that had enhanced resorption by having an increased B2O3 content. The three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with B2O3 contents of 8.0, 9.0, and 9.5 weight % were designated and grouped as P20B80, P10B90, and P5B95, respectively. Glass-ceramic types were tested for fusion rates and bone formation by employing the lumbar 5-6 intertransverse process fusion model in 51 New Zealand male rabbits. Bioactivity was assessed by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results In vitro study results showed sufficient hydroxycarbonate apatite layer formation occurred for P20B80 in1 day, for P10B90 in 3 days, and for P5B95 in 5 days after soaking in SBF. For the rabbit lumbar spine posterolateral fusion model, the autograft group recorded a 100% fusion rate with levels significantly higher than those of P20B80 (29.4%), P10B90 (0%), and P5B95 (14.3%), with high resorbing properties. Resorbing property differences among the three glass-ceramic groups were not significant. Histological results showed new bone formation confirming osteoconductivity in all three types of glass-ceramics. Radiomorphometric results also confirmed the resorbing properties of the three glass-ceramic types. Conclusions The high resorbing properties and osteoconductivity of porous glass-ceramics can be advantageous as no glass-ceramics remain in the body. However, their relatively fast rate of resorption in the body negatively affects their role as an osteoconductive scaffold as glass-ceramics are resorbed before bony fusion. PMID:24605194

  20. Degradability, bioactivity, and osteogenesis of biocomposite scaffolds of lithium-containing mesoporous bioglass and mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yanrong; Guo, Lieping; Shen, Hongxing; An, Xiaofei; Jiang, Hong; Ji, Fang; Niu, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Biocomposite scaffolds of lithium (Li)-containing mesoporous bioglass and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL) copolymer were fabricated in this study. The results showed that the water absorption and degradability of Li-containing mesoporous bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-MBPC) scaffolds were obviously higher than Li-containing bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-BPC) scaffolds. Moreover, the apatite-formation ability of l-MBPC scaffolds was markedly enhanced as compared with l-BPC scaffolds, indicating that l-MBPC scaffolds containing mesoporous bioglass exhibited good bioactivity. The cell experimental results showed that cell attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on l-MBPC scaffolds were remarkably improved as compared to l-BPC scaffolds. In animal experiments, the histological elevation results revealed that l-MBPC scaffolds significantly promoted new bone formation, indicating good osteogenesis. l-MBPC scaffolds with improved properties would be an excellent candidate for bone tissue repair. PMID:26150718

  1. Degradability, bioactivity, and osteogenesis of biocomposite scaffolds of lithium-containing mesoporous bioglass and mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yanrong; Guo, Lieping; Shen, Hongxing; An, Xiaofei; Jiang, Hong; Ji, Fang; Niu, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Biocomposite scaffolds of lithium (Li)-containing mesoporous bioglass and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL) copolymer were fabricated in this study. The results showed that the water absorption and degradability of Li-containing mesoporous bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-MBPC) scaffolds were obviously higher than Li-containing bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-BPC) scaffolds. Moreover, the apatite-formation ability of l-MBPC scaffolds was markedly enhanced as compared with l-BPC scaffolds, indicating that l-MBPC scaffolds containing mesoporous bioglass exhibited good bioactivity. The cell experimental results showed that cell attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on l-MBPC scaffolds were remarkably improved as compared to l-BPC scaffolds. In animal experiments, the histological elevation results revealed that l-MBPC scaffolds significantly promoted new bone formation, indicating good osteogenesis. l-MBPC scaffolds with improved properties would be an excellent candidate for bone tissue repair. PMID:26150718

  2. Study of an anisotropic ferrimagnetic bioactive glass ceramic for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Hashmi, M. U.; Shamim, A.; Alam, S.

    2010-07-01

    For the hyperthermia therapy of cancer, ferrimagnetic glass ceramics are a potential candidate. Ferrimagnetic zinc-ferrite-containing bioactive glass ceramics were prepared by quenching the glass ceramics from sintering temperature. Then the samples were heated to 600°C and cooled in an aligning magnetic field of 1 Tesla to cause anisotropy. The magnetically aligned samples were compared with non-aligned samples. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements at 10 kOe showed that the magnetic properties were enhanced by the aligning magnetic field and it led to an enhancement of the magnetic heat generation under a magnetic induction furnace operating at 500 Oe and 400 kHz for 2 min. Data showed that the maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 31.5 W/g and 45°C, respectively, for the aligned sample of maximum zinc-ferrite crystalline content. The glass ceramics were immersed in simulated body fluid for 3 weeks. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared and atomic absorption spectroscopy results indicated the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to living tissues in physiological environment.

  3. Crystal growth on bioactive glass sputter-coated alumina in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Kohda, Naohisa; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a bioactive glass was deposited on the alumina disk specimens by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering to study crystal formation ability in artificial saliva. Bioactive glass-coated specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week and 6 months. The specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the composition was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The crystals that formed on the specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopic analysis and Micro-X-ray diffraction. SEM photomicrographs showed the formation of needle-like structures after immersion for 1 week, and tabular structures formed on the surface of the specimen for 6 months. EDS showed that both the needle-like and tabular structures were enriched with Ca and P. Raman and Micro-XRD spectra for the tabular structure showed peaks that may correspond to calcium phosphate. Thus, when immersed in artificial saliva, bioactive glass-coated alumina produced a crystal which might be calcium phosphate. PMID:24088833

  4. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Anandkumar; Barradas, Ana; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), electrospinning (ESP) and a biomimetic coating method in order to provide mechanical support and a physico-chemical environment mimicking both the organic and inorganic phases of bone extracellular matrix (ECM). Poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(buthylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer was used to produce three dimensional scaffolds by combining 3D fiber (3DF) deposition, and ESP, and these constructs were then coated with a Ca-P layer in a simulated physiological solution. Scaffold morphology and composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) and Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on coated and uncoated 3DF and 3DF + ESP scaffolds for up to 21 d in basic and mineralization medium and cell attachment, proliferation, and expression of genes related to osteogenesis were assessed. Cells attached, proliferated and secreted ECM on all the scaffolds. There were no significant differences in metabolic activity among the different groups on days 7 and 21. Coated 3DF scaffolds showed a significantly higher DNA amount in basic medium at 21 d compared with the coated 3DF + ESP scaffolds, whereas in mineralization medium, the presence of coating in 3DF+ESP scaffolds led to a significant decrease in the amount of DNA. An effect of combining different scaffolding technologies and material types on expression of a number of osteogenic markers (cbfa1, BMP-2, OP, OC and ON) was observed, suggesting the potential use of this approach in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23507924

  5. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Anandkumar; Barradas, Ana; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), electrospinning (ESP) and a biomimetic coating method in order to provide mechanical support and a physico-chemical environment mimicking both the organic and inorganic phases of bone extracellular matrix (ECM). Poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(buthylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer was used to produce three dimensional scaffolds by combining 3D fiber (3DF) deposition, and ESP, and these constructs were then coated with a Ca-P layer in a simulated physiological solution. Scaffold morphology and composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) and Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on coated and uncoated 3DF and 3DF + ESP scaffolds for up to 21 d in basic and mineralization medium and cell attachment, proliferation, and expression of genes related to osteogenesis were assessed. Cells attached, proliferated and secreted ECM on all the scaffolds. There were no significant differences in metabolic activity among the different groups on days 7 and 21. Coated 3DF scaffolds showed a significantly higher DNA amount in basic medium at 21 d compared with the coated 3DF + ESP scaffolds, whereas in mineralization medium, the presence of coating in 3DF+ESP scaffolds led to a significant decrease in the amount of DNA. An effect of combining different scaffolding technologies and material types on expression of a number of osteogenic markers (cbfa1, BMP-2, OP, OC and ON) was observed, suggesting the potential use of this approach in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23507924

  6. Image-Based Three-Dimensional Analysis to Characterize the Texture of Porous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Pennella, Francesco; Gallo, Diego; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Bignardi, Cristina; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture. PMID:24995272

  7. Image-based three-dimensional analysis to characterize the texture of porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Massai, Diana; Pennella, Francesco; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Gallo, Diego; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Bignardi, Cristina; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture. PMID:24995272

  8. Simulations reveal the role of composition into the atomic-level flexibility of bioactive glass cements.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun Viviana; Chass, Gregory A; Di Tommaso, Devis

    2016-01-14

    Bioactive glass ionomer cements (GICs), the reaction product of a fluoro-alumino-silicate glass and polyacrylic acid, have been in effective use in dentistry for over 40 years and more recently in orthopaedics and medical implantation. Their desirable properties have affirmed GIC's place in the medical materials community, yet are limited to non-load bearing applications due to the brittle nature of the hardened composite cement, thought to arise from the glass component and the interfaces it forms. Towards helping resolve the fundamental bases of the mechanical shortcomings of GICs, we report the 1st ever computational models of a GIC-relevant component. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were employed to generate and characterise three fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses of differing compositions with focus on resolving the atomic scale structural and dynamic contributions of aluminium, phosphorous and fluorine. Analyses of the glasses revealed rising F-content leading to the expansion of the glass network, compression of Al-F bonding, angular constraint at Al-pivots, localisation of alumino-phosphates and increased fluorine diffusion. Together, these changes to the structure, speciation and dynamics with raised fluorine content impart an overall rigidifying effect on the glass network, and suggest a predisposition to atomic-level inflexibility, which could manifest in the ionomer cements they form. PMID:26646505

  9. Mineralization of dentin induced by treatment with bioactive glass S53P4 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Areva, Sami; Salonen, Jukka I

    2004-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity can be managed to occlude dentin tubules, but none of the agents used are components of natural dentin. Using a calcium phosphate precipitation (CPP) method, dentin tubules can be occluded with a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer similar to the major inorganic component of dentin. The CPP method utilizes acidic pH conditions, such as etching of dentin, over the course of several dental treatments. A gentler method can be used to produce a CaP layer on the surface of dentin. By treating with bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG), or regular commercial glass (CG), mineralization occurs in physiologically neutral solutions such as simulated body fluid (SBF) and remineralization solution (RMS). After a short period of immersion, silica is dissolved from both types of glass, but the amount of silica released is much greater from BAG than from CG. The dissolved silica is adsorbed on the surface of dentin during the pretreatment procedure and enhances the mineralization of dentin in SBF. After 14 days' mineralization the dentin is fully covered by the CaP layer, but after 14 days' immersion in RMS decalcification of the dentin occurs. Pretreatment with BAG decreases the degree of decalcification of dentin during the mineralization process. These findings suggest that bioactive glass S53P4 can be used as a therapeutic material for mineralization of dentin and its tubules in a physiological environment. PMID:15124778

  10. Characterisation of bioactive glass coatings on titanium substrates produced using a CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Moritz, N; Vedel, E; Ylänen, H; Jokinen, M; Hupa, M; Yli-Urpo, A

    2004-07-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in load-bearing bioinert implants. Bioactive glasses (BAGs) form a chemical bond with bone, but they are not suitable for load-bearing applications. Creating a BAG coating on a titanium implant could combine the best properties of both materials. The results tend to be poor when conventional firing methods are applied to coat titanium with BAG. A local application of heat to melt the glass can be achieved by a CO2 laser. A new method is introduced to create BAG coatings on titanium locally in a controlled manner, with a focused CO2 laser beam. The coatings produced by this method precipitate calcium phosphate in vitro. Processing parameters (number of coated layers, laser power, and processing atmosphere) providing a firm attachment of the glass and good in vitro bioactivity were identified. XRD analysis showed no crystallisation of the glass due to processing with the laser. EDXA indicated the formation of a calcium phosphate layer, which FTIR suggested to be a hydroxyapatite. The results show CO2 laser processing to be a promising technique for the manufacture of 30-40 microm BAG coatings on titanium. PMID:15387414

  11. Bioactive Nano-Fibrous Scaffolds for Bone and Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai

    Scaffolds that can mimic the structural features of natural extracellular matrix and can deliver biomolecules in a controlled fashion may provide cells with a favorable microenvironment to facilitate tissue regeneration. Biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds with interconnected pore network have previously been developed in our laboratory to mimic collagen matrix and advantageously support both bone and cartilage regeneration. This dissertation project aims to expand both the structural complexity and the biomolecule delivery capacity of such biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. We first developed a nanofibrous scaffold that can release an antibiotic (doxycycline) with a tunable release rate and a tunable dosage, which was demonstrated to be able to inhibit bacterial growth over a prolonged time period. We then developed a nanofibrous tissue-engineciing scaffold that can release basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. In a mouse subcutaneous implantation model, the bFGF-releasing scaffold was shown to enhance cell penetration, tissue ingrowth and angiogenesis. It was also found that both the dose and the release rate of bFGF play roles in the biologic function of the scaffold. After that, we developed a nanofibrous PLLA scaffold that can release both bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) with distinct dosages and release kinetics. It was demonstrated that BMP-7 and PDGF could synergistically enhance bone regeneration using a mouse ectopic bone formation model and a rat periodontal fenestration defect regeneration model. The regeneration outcome was dependent on the dosage, the ratio and the release kinetics of the two growth factors. Last, we developed an anisotropic composite scaffold with an upper layer mimicking the superficial zone of cartilage and a lower layer mimicking the middle zone of cartilage. The thin superficial layer was fabricated using an electrospinning technique to support a more parallel ECM orientation to the cartilage surface. The lower layer was fabricated using a phase-separation technique to support a more isotropic ECM distribution. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded on this complex scaffold and cultured under chondrogenic conditions. The results showed that the composite scaffold was indeed able to support anisotropic cartilage tissue structure formation.

  12. Bioactive fish collagen/polycaprolactone composite nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning for 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Da Jeong; Choi, Seung Mi; Kang, Hae Yeong; Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Rira; Ikram, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazli; Jin, Song Wan; Jeong, Young Hun; Kwak, Jong-Young; Yoon, Sik

    2015-07-10

    One of the most challenging objectives of 3D cell culture is the development of scaffolding materials with outstanding biocompatibility and favorable mechanical strength. In this study, we fabricated a novel nanofibrous scaffold composed of fish collagen (FC) and polycaprolactone (PCL) blends by using the electrospinning method. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and it was revealed that the diameter of nanofibers decreased as FC content was increased in the FC/PCL composite nanofibers. The cytocompatibility of the FC/PCL scaffolds was evaluated by SEM, WST-1 assay, confocal microscopy, western blot, and RT-PCR. It was found that the scaffolds not only facilitated the adhesion, spreading, protrusions, and proliferation of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), but also stimulated the expression of genes and proteins involved in cell adhesion and T-cell development. Thus, these results suggest that the FC/PCL composite nanofibrous scaffolds will be a useful model of 3D cell culture for TECs and may have wide applicability in the future for engineering tissues or organs. PMID:25617682

  13. Use of a Bioactive Scaffold to Stimulate ACL Healing Also Minimizes Post-traumatic Osteoarthritis after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Martha M.; Fleming, Braden C.

    2013-01-01

    Background While ACL reconstruction is the treatment gold standard for ACL injury, it does not reduce the risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Therefore, new treatments that minimize this postoperative complication are of interest. Bio-enhanced ACL repair, in which a bioactive scaffold is used to stimulate healing of an ACL transection, has shown considerable promise in short term studies. The long-term results of this technique and the effects of the bio-enhancement on the articular cartilage have not been previously evaluated in a large animal model. Hypothesis 1) The structural (tensile) properties of the porcine ACL at 6 and 12 months after injury are similar when treated with bio-enhanced ACL repair, bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction, or conventional ACL reconstruction, and all treatments yield results superior to untreated ACL transection. 2) After one year, macroscopic cartilage damage following bio-enhanced ACL repair is similar to bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction and less than conventional ACL reconstruction and untreated ACL transection. Study Design Controlled laboratory study (porcine model) Methods Sixty-two Yucatan mini-pigs underwent ACL transection and randomization to four experimental groups: 1) no treatment, 2) conventional ACL reconstruction, 3) “bio-enhanced” ACL reconstruction using a bioactive scaffold, and 4) “bio-enhanced” ACL repair using a bioactive scaffold. The biomechanical properties of the ligament or graft and macroscopic assessments of the cartilage surfaces were performed after 6 and 12 months of healing. Results The structural properties (i.e., linear stiffness, yield and maximum loads) of the ligament following bio-enhanced ACL repair were not significantly different from bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction or conventional ACL reconstruction, but were significantly greater than untreated ACL transection after 12 months of healing. Macroscopic cartilage damage after bio-enhanced ACL repair was significantly less than untreated ACL transection and bio-enhanced ACL reconstruction, and there was a strong trend (p=.068) that it was less than conventional ACL reconstruction in the porcine model at 12 months. Conclusions Bio-enhanced ACL repair produces a ligament that is biomechanically similar to an ACL graft and provides chondroprotection to the joint following ACL surgery. Clinical Relevance Bio-enhanced ACL repair may provide a new less invasive treatment option that reduces cartilage damage following joint injury. PMID:23857883

  14. A multilayer approach to fabricate bioactive glass coatings on Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    Glasses in the system Si-Ca-Na-Mg-P-K-O with thermal expansion coefficients close to that of Ti6Al4V were used to coat the titanium alloy by a simple enameling technique. Firings were done in air at temperatures between 800 and 840 C and times up to 1 minute. Graded compositions were obtained by firing multilayered glass coatings. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were mixed with the glass powder and the mixture was placed on the outer surface of the coatings to render them more bioactive. Coatings with excellent adhesion to the substrate and able to form apatite when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) can be fabricated by this methodology.

  15. Bioactivity and cytotoxicity of glass and glass-ceramics based on the 3CaO·P₂O₅--SiO₂--MgO system.

    PubMed

    Daguano, Juliana K M F; Rogero, Sizue O; Crovace, Murilo C; Peitl, Oscar; Strecker, Kurt; Dos Santos, Claudinei

    2013-09-01

    The mechanical strength of bioactive glasses can be improved by controlled crystallization, turning its use as bulk bone implants viable. However, crystallization may affect the bioactivity of the material. The aim of this study was to develop glass-ceramics of the nominal composition (wt%) 52.75(3CaO·P₂O₅)-30SiO₂-17.25MgO, with different crystallized fractions and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and bioactivity. Specimens were heat-treated at 700, 775 and 975 °C, for 4 h. The major crystalline phase identified was whitlockite, an Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate. The evaluation of the cytotoxicity was carried out by the neutral red uptake methodology. Ionic exchanges with the simulated body fluid SBF-K9 acellular solution during the in vitro bioactivity tests highlight the differences in terms of chemical reactivity between the glass and the glass-ceramics. The effect of crystallinity on the rates of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation was followed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Although all glass-ceramics can be considered bioactive, the glass-ceramic heat-treated at 775 °C (V775-4) presented the most interesting result, because the onset for HCA formation is at about 24 h and after 7 days the HCA layer dominates completely the spectrum. This occurs probably due to the presence of the whitlockite phase (3(Ca,Mg)O·P₂O₅). All samples were considered not cytotoxic. PMID:23764763

  16. Cellulose Nanocrystals--Bioactive Glass Hybrid Coating as Bone Substitutes by Electrophoretic Co-deposition: In Situ Control of Mineralization of Bioactive Glass and Enhancement of Osteoblastic Performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Garcia, Rosalina Pérez; Munoz, Josemari; Pérez de Larraya, Uxua; Garmendia, Nere; Yao, Qingqing; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-11-11

    Surface functionalization of orthopedic implants is being intensively investigated to strengthen bone-to-implant contact and accelerate bone healing process. A hybrid coating, consisting of 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) individually wrapped and interconnected with fibrous cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), is deposited on 316L stainless steel from aqueous suspension by a one-step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Apart from the codeposition mechanism elucidated by means of zeta-potential and scanning electron microscopy measurements, in vitro characterization of the deposited CNCs-BG coating in simulated body fluid reveals an extremely rapid mineralization of BG particles on the coating (e.g., the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals layer after 0.5 day). A series of comparative trials and characterization methods were carried out to comprehensively understand the mineralization process of BG interacting with CNCs. Furthermore, key factors for satisfying the applicability of an implant coating such as coating composition, surface topography, and adhesion strength were quantitatively investigated as a function of mineralization time. Cell culture studies (using MC3T3-E1) indicate that the presence of CNCs-BG coating substantially accelerated cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of extracellular matrix. This study has confirmed the capability of CNCs to enhance and regulate the bioactivity of BG particles, leading to mineralized CNCs-BG hybrids for improved bone implant coatings. PMID:26460819

  17. Hierarchical porous bioactive glasses/PLGA-magnetic SBA-15 for dual-drug release.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Lin, Huiming; Li, Xiaofeng; Bian, Chunhui; Xiang, Di; Han, Xiao; Wu, Xiaodan; Qu, Fengyu

    2014-06-01

    The hierarchical porous bioglass combined with magnetic SBA-15 was synthesized. The bioactive glass materials possess a hierarchical porous structure with the macroporous (50μm) and the mesoporous (3.86nm) structures derived from the plant template (cattail stem) and triblock polyethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymer (P123), respectively. Magnetic SBA-15 was synthesized by adopting the post assembly method using Fe(NO3)3 as iron source and ethylene glycol as reduction. After coating PLGA, PLGA-IBU-magnetic SBA-15 also possessed super-paramagnetism and the corresponding saturation magnetizations (Ms) could reach 2.6emug(-1). Metformin HCl (MH) and ibuprofen (IBU) were used as model drugs, and the drug release kinetics was studied. MH and IBU could release 60% and 85% from the sample respectively. The system shows excellent dual-drug controlled delivery performance and good bioactivity in vitro that leads to good potential application on bone regeneration. PMID:24863192

  18. Bioactive glasses-incorporated, core-shell-structured polypeptide/polysaccharide nanofibrous hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Han, Chunmao; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2013-01-30

    Although the synthetic hydrogel materials capable of accelerating wound healing are being developed at a rapid pace, achieving inorganic-organic hybrid at nanoscale dimension in nanofibrous hydrogels is still a great challenge because of its notorious brittleness and microstructural stability in wet state. Here, we developed a new nanofibrous gelatin/bioactive glass (NF-GEL/BG) composite hydrogel by phase separation method and followed by arming the nanofibers network with counterionic chitosan-hyaluronic acid pairs for improving microstructural and thermal integrity. We achieve this feature by carrying an optimal balance of charges that allows the inorganic ion release in aqueous solution without minimal structure collapse. Therefore, such NF-GEL-based, polysaccharide-crosslinked bioactive hydrogel could afford a close biomimicry to the fibrous nanostructure and constituents of the hierarchically organized natural soft tissues to facilitate chronic, nonhealing wound treatment. PMID:23218343

  19. Optimization of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses as a novel scolicidal agent adjunct to hydatid surgery.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Mozafari, Masoud; Gholipourmalekabadi, Mazaher; Caicedo, Hector Hugo; Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Sameni, Marzieh; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali

    2015-08-01

    We have presented a novel scolicidal agent made from fluoride-containing bioactive glass (FBG). The samples were characterized by XRD and the ion release behavior of the samples was evaluated at 37°C. The scolicidal activity, cellular response and antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of the different concentrations of the FBG (ranging from 0.5 to 2 mg ml(-1)) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed an easy diffusion of the fluoride through the glass matrix in an F concentration-dependent manner. The FBG showed an intensive scolicidal property, so that toxicity effect begun from 5 min and the samples with 20, 10, 5 and 0% fluoride showed 98±2, 93±5.8, 76.2±6 and 5.8±1.7% scolicidal activity, respectively, after 8h exposing time. Our data revealed that scolicidal activity of the FBG increased with the increase of F ratio and concentrations of the bioactive glass. On the other hand, all the synthesized FBG samples found to be cyto-biocompatible when tested in vitro (MTT and LDH assays) and in vivo (no significant infiltration of inflammatory cells compared with control, p>0.05), and antibacterial against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results demonstrated that the synthesized FBG might have a potential application in prevention of post-surgery infections, especially hydatidosis. PMID:25917714

  20. In vitro bioactivity evaluation, mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of Na₂O-CaO-B₂O₃-P₂O₅ glasses.

    PubMed

    Abo-Naf, Sherief M; Khalil, El-Sayed M; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M; Zayed, Hamdia A; Youness, Rasha A

    2015-06-01

    Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been prepared by the melt-quenching method. B2O3 content was systematically increased from 5 to 30 mol%, at the expense of P2O5, in the chemical composition of these glasses. Density, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness of the prepared glasses were measured. In vitro bioactivity of the glasses was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37±0.5°C for 3, 7, 14 and 30 days. The glasses were tested in the form of glass grains as well as bulk slabs. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The kinetics of degradation of the glass particles were monitored by measuring the weight loss of the particles and the ionic concentration of Ca, P and B in the SBF solution using inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The obtained results revealed the formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, composed of nano-crystallites, on the surface of glass grains after the in vitro assays. The results have been used to understand the formation of HA as a function of glass composition and soaking time in the SBF. It can be pointed out that increasing B2O3 content in glass composition enhances the bioactivity of glasses. The nanometric particle size of the formed HA and in vitro bioactivity of the studied glasses make them possible candidates for tissue engineering application. PMID:25748986

  1. In vitro study of improved wound-healing effect of bioactive borate-based glass nano-/micro-fibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingbo; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-10-01

    Because of the promising wound-healing capability, bioactive glasses have been considered as one of the next generation hard- and soft-tissue regeneration materials. The lack of understanding of the substantial mechanisms, however, indicates the need for further study on cell-glass interactions to better interpret the rehabilitation capability. In the present work, three bioactive glass nano-/micro-fibers, silicate-based 45S5, borate-based 13-93B3 and 1605 (additionally doped with copper oxide and zinc oxide), were firstly compared for their in vitro soaking/conversion rate. The results of elemental monitoring and electron microscopic characterization demonstrated that quicker ion releasing and glass conversion occurred in borate-based fibers than that of silicate-based one. This result was also reflected by the formation speed of hydroxyapatite (HA). This process was further correlated with original boron content and surrounding rheological condition. We showed that an optimal fiber pre-soaking time (or an ideal dynamic flow rate) should exist to stimulate the best cell proliferation and migration ability. Moreover, 13-93B3 and 1605 fibers showed different glass conversion and biocompatibility properties as well, indicating that trace amount variation in composition can also influence fiber's bioactivity. In sum, our in vitro rheological module closely simulated in vivo niche environment and proved a potentially improved wound-healing effect by borate-based glass fibers, and the results shall cast light on future improvement in bioactive glass fabrication. PMID:26117744

  2. Gallium-containing phospho-silicate glasses: synthesis and in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Mirco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi

    2012-08-01

    A series of Ga-containing phospho-silicate glasses based on Bioglass 45S5, having molar formula 46.2SiO2·24.3Na2O·26.9CaO·2.6P2O5·xGa2O3 (x=1.0, 1.6, 3.5), were prepared by fusion method. The reference Bioglass 45S5 without gallium was also prepared. The synthesized glasses were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 30 days in order to observe ion release and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. All Ga-containing glasses maintain the ability of HA formation as indicated by main X-ray diffractometric peaks and/or electronic scanning microscopy results. HA layer was formed after 1 day of SBF soaking in 45S5 glass containing up to 1.6% Ga2O3 content. Moreover, gallium released by the glasses was found to be partially precipitated on the glass surface as gallium phosphate. Further increase in gallium content reduced the ion release in SBF. The maximum of Ga(3+) concentration measured in solution is ~6 ppm determined for 3.5% Ga2O3 content. This amount is about half of the toxic level (14 ppm) of gallium and the glasses release gallium till 30 days of immersion in SBF. Considering the above results, the studied materials can be proposed as bioactive glasses with additional antimicrobial effect of gallium having no toxic outcome. PMID:24364938

  3. Phase composition and in vitro bioactivity of porous implants made of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, S; Massera, J; Moritz, N; Hupa, L; Hupa, M

    2012-07-01

    This work studied the influence of sintering temperature on the phase composition, compression strength and in vitro properties of implants made of bioactive glass S53P4. The implants were sintered within the temperature range 600-1000°C. Over the whole temperature range studied, consolidation took place mainly via viscous flow sintering, even though there was partial surface crystallization. The mechanical strength of the implants was low but increased with the sintering temperature, from 0.7 MPa at 635°C to 10 MPa at 1000°C. Changes in the composition of simulated body fluid (SBF), the immersion solution, were evaluated by pH measurements and ion analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The development of a calcium phosphate layer on the implant surfaces was verified using scanning electron microscopy-electron-dispersive X-ray analysis. When immersed in SBF, a calcium phosphate layer formed on all the samples, but the structure of this layer was affected by the surface crystalline phases. Hydroxyapatite formed more readily on amorphous and partially crystalline implants containing both primary Na(2)O·CaO·2SiO(2) and secondary Na(2)Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)SiO(4) crystals than on implants containing only primary crystals. PMID:22409875

  4. Sol-gel processing of novel bioactive Mg-containing silicate scaffolds for alveolar bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Vogel, Caroline; Grünewald, Alina; Detsch, Rainer; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal tissue regeneration is an important application area of biomaterials, given the large proportion of the population affected by periodontal diseases like periodontitis. The aim of this study was the synthesis of a novel porous bioceramic scaffold in the SiO2-CaO-MgO system with specific properties targeted for alveolar bone tissue regeneration using a modification of the traditional foam replica technique. Since bioceramic scaffolds are considered brittle, scaffolds were also coated with gelatin in order to increase their mechanical stability. Gelatin was chosen for its biocompatibility, biodegradability, low-cost, and low immunogenicity. However, gelatin degrades very fast in water solutions. For this reason, two different cross-linking agents were evaluated. Genipin, a non-toxic gardenia extract and the chemical compound 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in combination with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), which is also considered non-toxic. The results of the investigation indicated that all scaffolds presented an open, interconnected porosity and pores' sizes in the range of 300-600 μm, fast apatite-forming ability, biocompatibility, and suitable mechanical stability. PMID:25972398

  5. Biological and bactericidal properties of Ag-doped bioactive glass in a natural extracellular matrix hydrogel with potential application in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-Y; Chatzistavrou, X; Faulk, D; Badylak, S; Zheng, L; Papagerakis, S; Ge, L; Liu, H; Papagerakis, P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the fabrication and evaluation of a novel bioactive and bactericidal material, which could have applications in dentistry by supporting tissue regeneration and killing oral bacteria. Our hypothesis was that a new scaffold for pulp-dentin tissue engineering with enhanced antibacterial activity could be obtained by associating extracellular matrix derived from porcine bladder with an antibacterial bioactive glass. Our study combines in vitro approaches and ectopic implantation in scid mice. The novel material was fabricated by incorporating a sol-gel derived silver (Ag)-doped bioactive glass (BG) in a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel in ratio 1:1 in weight % (Ag-BG/ECM). The biological properties of the Ag-BG/ECM were evaluated in culture with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). In particular, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, stem cells markers profile, and cell differentiation potential were studied. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei was measured. Moreover, the capability of the material to enhance pulp/dentin regeneration in vivo was also evaluated. Our data show that Ag-BG/ECM significantly enhances DPSCs' proliferation, it does not affect cell morphology and stem cells markers profile, protects cells from apoptosis, and enhances in vitro cell differentiation and mineralisation potential as well as in vivo dentin formation. Furthermore, Ag-BG/ECM strongly inhibits S. mutans and L. casei growth suggesting that the new material has also anti-bacterial properties. This study provides foundation for future clinical applications in dentistry. It could potentially advance the currently available options of dental regenerative materials. PMID:26091732

  6. Investigating the addition of SiO₂-CaO-ZnO-Na₂O-TiO₂ bioactive glass to hydroxyapatite: Characterization, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Yatongchai, Chokchai; Placek, Lana M; Curran, Declan J; Towler, Mark R; Wren, Anthony W

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is widely investigated as an implantable material for hard tissue restoration due to its osteoconductive properties. However, hydroxyapatite in bulk form is limited as its mechanical properties are insufficient for load-bearing orthopedic applications. Attempts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite, by incorporating ceramic fillers, but the resultant composite materials require high sintering temperatures to facilitate densification, leading to the decomposition of hydroxyapatite into tricalcium phosphate, tetra-calcium phosphate and CaO phases. One method of improving the properties of hydroxyapatite is to incorporate bioactive glass particles as a second phase. These typically have lower softening points which could possibly facilitate sintering at lower temperatures. In this work, a bioactive glass (SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O-TiO2) is incorporated (10, 20 and 30 wt%) into hydroxyapatite as a reinforcing phase. X-ray diffraction confirmed that no additional phases (other than hydroxyapatite) were formed at a sintering temperature of 560 ℃ with up to 30 wt% glass addition. The addition of the glass phase increased the % crystallinity and the relative density of the composites. The biaxial flexural strength increased to 36 MPa with glass addition, and there was no significant change in hardness as a function of maturation. The pH of the incubation media increased to pH 10 or 11 through glass addition, and ion release profiles determined that Si, Na and P were released from the composites. Calcium phosphate precipitation was encouraged in simulated body fluid with the incorporation of the bioactive glass phase, and cell culture testing in MC-3T3 osteoblasts determined that the composite materials did not significantly reduce cell viability. PMID:26116020

  7. Role of porosity and pore architecture in the in vivo bone regeneration capacity of biodegradable glass scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sanzana, Edgardo S; Navarro, Melba; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Planell, Josep A; Ojeda, Alvaro C; Montecinos, Hernan A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work is to shed light on the role of porosity and pore architecture in the in vivo bone regeneration capacity of biodegradable glass scaffolds. A calcium phosphate glass in the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 was foamed using two different porogens, namely albumen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); the resulting three-dimensional porous structures were characterized and implanted in New Zealand rabbits to study their in vivo behavior. Scaffolds foamed with albumen displayed a monomodal pore size distribution centered around 150 μm and a porosity of 82%, whereas scaffolds foamed with H2O2 showed lower porosity (37%), with larger elongated pores, and multimodal size distribution. After 12 weeks of implantation, histology results revealed a good osteointegration for both types of scaffolds. The quantitative morphometric analysis showed the substitution of the biomaterial by new bone in the case of glasses foamed with albumen. In contrast, bone neoformation and material resorption were significantly lower in the defects filled with the scaffolds foamed with H2O2. The results obtained in this study showed that both calcium phosphate glass scaffolds were osteoconductive, biocompatible, and biodegradable materials. However, differences in porosity, pore architecture, and microstructure led to substantially different in vivo response. PMID:23813739

  8. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, N. A. P.; Geurts, J.; Hulsen, D. J. W.; van Rietbergen, B.; Hofmann, S.; Arts, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis). PMID:26504821

  9. Dissolution and scanning electron microscopic studies of Ca,P particle-containing bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Kangasniemi, I M; Vedel, E; de Blick-Hogerworst, J; Yli-Urpo, A U; de Groot, K

    1993-10-01

    Calcium phosphate (Ca,P) precipitation behavior on the surface of two bioactive glasses and four bioactive glass composites--two with hydroxylapatite (Ca10(PO4)6 (OH)2) and two with rhenanite (CaNaPO4)--were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in Tris-Buffer at 5, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, and 144 h. The weight loss of the materials was measured and the amount of precipitation was estimated using scanning electron microscopy with electrochemical detection (SEM-EDX) analysis. The test was repeated for one glass and its respective rhenanite composite every 3 h until 60 h and thereafter every 10 h until 150 h in SBF. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, SEM-EDX analysis, and pH measurements were performed on these samples. It is shown that in vitro the composite materials have a higher capacity for Ca,P precipitation than the glasses. Weight losses of the materials correlate well with their composition. Both the glass and Ca,P phases influence the precipitation mechanism and rate. Precipitation begins preferably from the glass phase. Ca,P particles clearly influence the time of onset and rate of precipitation. Cross-sectional EDX analysis of the samples revealed an absence of a clear Si-rich layer in glass A0B0 (SiO2 53.9 mol %, Na2O 27.5, CaO 12.4, P2O5 6.2, Al2O3 0.0 and B2O3 0.0) composites. This was attributed to the presence of extra calcium and phosphate ions on the surface of the material. The ion-concentration and pH change curves offered insight into the mechanism of precipitation. A connection was established between SEM-EDX results and the release curves. Formation of an Si,Ca,Na film was observed that seemed to initiate the Ca,P precipitation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8245037

  10. Enamel Surface with Pit and Fissure Sealant Containing 45S5 Bioactive Glass.

    PubMed

    Yang, S-Y; Kwon, J-S; Kim, K-N; Kim, K-M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel demineralization adjacent to pit and fissure sealants leads to the formation of marginal caries, which can necessitate the replacement of existing sealants. Dental materials with bioactive glass, which releases ions that inhibit dental caries, have been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel surface adjacent to sealants containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) under simulated microleakage between the material and the tooth in a cariogenic environment. Sealants containing 45S5BAG filler were prepared as follows: 0% 45S5BAG + 50.0% glass (BAG0 group), 12.5% 45S5BAG + 37.5% glass (BAG12.5 group), 25.0% 45S5BAG + 25.0% glass (BAG25.0 group), 37.5% 45S5BAG + 12.5% glass (BAG37.5 group), and 50.0% 45S5BAG + 0% glass (BAG50.0 group). A cured sealant disk was placed over a flat bovine enamel disk, separated by a 60-µm gap, and immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) at 37 °C for 15, 30, and 45 d. After the storage period, each enamel disk was separated from the cured sealant disk, and the enamel surface was examined with optical 3-dimensional surface profilometer, microhardness tester, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a significant increase in roughness and a decrease in microhardness of the enamel surface as the proportion of 45S5BAG decreased (P< 0.05). In the scanning electron microscopy images, enamel surfaces with BAG50.0 showed a smooth surface, similar to those in the control group with distilled water, even after prolonged acid storage. Additionally, an etched pattern was observed on the surface of the demineralized enamel with a decreasing proportion of 45S5BAG. Increasing the 45S5BAG filler contents of the sealants had a significant impact in preventing the demineralization of the enamel surface within microgaps between the material and the tooth when exposed to a cariogenic environment. Therefore, despite some marginal leakage, these novel sealants may be effective preventive dental materials for inhibiting secondary caries at the margins. PMID:26767770

  11. Development of HydroxyCarbonate Apatite on hybrid polymers used in fixed restorations modified by bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgantzi, B.; Papadopoulou, L.; Zorba, T.; Garefis, P.; Paraskevopoulos, K.; Koidis, P.

    2004-03-01

    The incorporation of a bioactive glass in the structure of hybrid polymers used in dentistry for the construction of fixed prosthetic restorations could induce the expression of bioactivity, leading to the possibility of periodontal tissues reattachment. Hybrid polymer specimens and polymer specimens modified by bioactive glass were prepared and used as control for the surface morphology examination by Scanning Electron Microscopy with associated Dispersive Spectroscopy Analysis (SEM-EDS) and for surface characterization with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, hybrid polymer specimens modified by bioactive glass were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for different time intervals and were examined by SEM-EDS and FTIR. After 4 days immersion time a dense and continuous apatite layer covered almost the entire modified surface of the specimens. The molar Ca/P ratio reached the value of 1.79. The apatite layer showed a thickness of 1?m and was attached to the substrate, while bioactive glass particles were still present in polymer mass.

  12. Characterization of polycaprolactone/collagen fibrous scaffolds by electrospinning and their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Shun; Lu, Jianfeng; Jiang, Shaotong; Lin, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering were fabricated using collagen extracted from Nile tilapia skin and polycaprolactone (PCL) by electrospinning. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ATR-Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Diameters of PCL/collagen fibrous scaffolds (PCFSs) decreased from 987 ± 274 to 689 ± 299 nm with an increase in collagen content, crystallinity was low, and crystal size was small. All of the characteristic bands of PCL and collagen could be observed in PCFSs. Furthermore, PCFSs had a higher dehydration temperature (50-60°C) than native collagen (32.5°C). The ultimate tensile strength of PCFSs increased with an increase in collagen content. Circular dichroism and a degradation assay in vitro indicated that PCFSs had good stability and a low degradation rate. Cellular behavior on PCFSs was investigated by a MTT assay, SEM, and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results indicated that the PCFSs could provide a suitable environment for the growth and viability of L929 fibroblasts, maintain good cell adhesion, and retain good biocompatibility. It implied the possibility of using PCFSs as a promising candidate for tissue engineering. PMID:25709022

  13. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Smiga-Matuszowicz, Monika; Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan; Kaczmarek, Marcin; Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Simka, Wojciech; Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. PMID:25491802

  14. Gentamicin-Loaded Borate Bioactive Glass Eradicates Osteomyelitis Due to Escherichia coli in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zongping; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli is rarely reported in the literature. This study established a rabbit tibia model of osteomyelitis induced by the Gram-negative bacillus Escherichia coli. Using this model, pellets composed of a chitosan-bonded mixture of borate bioactive glass and gentamicin were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Escherichia coli. Our results showed that the pellets in phosphate-buffered saline released gentamicin continuously over 26 days. Without the simultaneous use of a systemic antibiotic, the implantation of the gentamicin-loaded pellets into the osteomyelitis region of the tibia resulted in the eradication of 81.82% of infections, as determined by microbiological, histological and radiographic evaluation, and supported the ingrowth of new bone into the tibia defects after 6 weeks of implantation. The results indicate that the gentamicin-loaded borate bioactive glass implant, combining sustained drug release with the ability to support new bone formation, could provide a method for treating osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:23629702

  15. Gentamicin-loaded borate bioactive glass eradicates osteomyelitis due to Escherichia coli in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zongping; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Changqing

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli is rarely reported in the literature. This study established a rabbit tibia model of osteomyelitis induced by the Gram-negative bacillus Escherichia coli. Using this model, pellets composed of a chitosan-bonded mixture of borate bioactive glass and gentamicin were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Escherichia coli. Our results showed that the pellets in phosphate-buffered saline released gentamicin continuously over 26 days. Without the simultaneous use of a systemic antibiotic, the implantation of the gentamicin-loaded pellets into the osteomyelitis region of the tibia resulted in the eradication of 81.82% of infections, as determined by microbiological, histological and radiographic evaluation, and supported the ingrowth of new bone into the tibia defects after 6 weeks of implantation. The results indicate that the gentamicin-loaded borate bioactive glass implant, combining sustained drug release with the ability to support new bone formation, could provide a method for treating osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:23629702

  16. Bioactive glass surface for fiber reinforced composite implants via surface etching by Excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Huhtinen, Hannu; Mattila, Riina; Donati, Ivan; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-07-01

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) prepared from bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA)-based thermosets reinforced with E-glass fibers are promising alternatives to metallic implants due to the excellent fatigue resistance and the mechanical properties matching those of bone. Bioactive glass (BG) granules can be incorporated within the polymer matrix to improve the osteointegration of the FRC implants. However, the creation of a viable surface layer using BG granules is technically challenging. In this study, we investigated the potential of Excimer laser ablation to achieve the selective removal of the matrix to expose the surface of BG granules. A UV-vis spectroscopic study was carried out to investigate the differences in the penetration of light in the thermoset matrix and BG. Thereafter, optimal Excimer laser ablation parameters were established. The formation of a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer on the surface of the laser-ablated specimens was verified in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the proliferation of MG63 cells on the surfaces of the laser-ablated specimens was investigated. For the laser-ablated specimens, the pattern of proliferation of MG63 cells was comparable to that in the positive control group (Ti6Al4V). We concluded that Excimer laser ablation has potential for the creation of a bioactive surface on FRC-implants. PMID:27134152

  17. [Study on a new type of apatite/wollastonite porous bioactive glass-ceramic].

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizhong; Zhou, Dali; Yin, Guangfu; Chen, Huaiqing; Xiao, Bin; Zhang, Yun

    2004-12-01

    A novel glass-ceramic has been derived from sol-gel process. In this study XRD and FTIR analysis confirmed that the main crystalline phases of the material were hydroxyapatite/fluoroapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F)] and beta-wollastonite[beta-CaSiO3]; SEM examination showed that the microstructure contained many micro pores of 2-3 microm. After pore-forming, the material possessed good macro porous structure: the size of macro pores was 300-400 microm in diameter, and pores interconnected each other. Bioactivity of the material was preliminarily evaluated in the simulate body fluid. SEM observation revealed that a lot of apatite granules had been formed on the surface of the material after soaking within 7 days. Result shows that the novel sol-gel derived apatite-wollastonite-containing glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. Porous materials have suitable microstructure as well as macrostructure, which make it an excellent material to be used as bone-repairing materials and bone tissue engineering carrier materials. PMID:15646331

  18. Acute toxicity and in vivo biodistribution of monodispersed mesoporous bioactive glass spheres in intravenously exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Hu, Qing; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from laboratories to clinics requires exhaustive and elaborate studies involving the biodistribution, clearance, and biocompatibility of biomaterials for in vivo biomedical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity and biodistribution of intravenously administrated sub-micrometer mesoporous bioactive glass spheres (SMBGs) in mice. The lethal dose 50 (LD50) of SMBGs was higher than 250 mg/kg. The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 days after intravenous injection of SMBGs at 20, 100 and 180 mg/kg in ICR mice. The mortality, coefficients of major organs, hematology data and blood biochemical indexes revealed the low in vivo toxicity of SMBGs at all doses. However, the histological examination showed lymphocytic infiltration and granuloma formation in hepatocyte and megakaryocyte hyperplasia in the spleen at high dose. The silicon content analysis using ICP-OES and TEM results indicated that SMBGs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the liver and spleen, and could be cleared from the body more than 2 weeks. These findings can be important for the toxicity assessment of sub-micrometer particles and the development of bioactive glass based drug delivery system for biomedical applications. PMID:26478360

  19. Changes in actin and tubulin expression in osteogenic cells cultured on bioactive glass-based surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carolina Scanavez; Ferraz, Emanuela Prado; De Castro-Raucci, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Maximiano, William Marcatti Amarú; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; De Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated whether the changes in the labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in osteogenic cells cultured on bioactive glass-based materials are due to altered mRNA and protein levels. Primary rat-derived osteogenic cells were plated on Bioglass® 45S5, Biosilicate®, and borosilicate (bioinert control). The following parameters were assayed: (i) qualitative epifluorescence analysis of actin and tubulin; (ii) quantitative mRNA and protein expression for actin and tubulin by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, and (iii) qualitative analysis of cell morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At days 3 and 7, the cells grown on borosilicate showed typical actin and tubulin labeling patterns, whereas those on the bioactive materials showed roundish areas devoid of fluorescence signals. The cultures grown on bioactive materials showed significant changes in actin and tubulin mRNA expression that were not reflected in the corresponding protein levels. A positive correlation between the mRNA and protein as well as an association between epifluorescence imaging and quantitative data were only detected for the borosilicate. SEM imaging of the cultures on the bioactive surfaces revealed cells partly or totally coated with material aggregates, whose characteristics resembled the substrate topography. The culturing of osteogenic cells on Bioglass® 45S5 and Biosilicate® affect actin and tubulin mRNA expression but not the corresponding protein levels. Changes in the labeling pattern of these proteins should then be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of a physical barrier on the cell surface as a result of the material surface reactions, thus limiting fluorescence signals. PMID:26434924

  20. The effect of variation in physical properties of porous bioactive glass on the expression and maintenance of the osteoblastic phenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effah Kaufmann, Elsie Akosua Biraa

    Revision surgery to replace failed hip implants is a significant health care issue that is expected to escalate as life expectancy increases. A major goal of revision surgery is to reconstruct femoral intramedullary bone-stock loss. To address this problem of bone loss, grafting techniques are widely used. Although fresh autografts remain the optimal material for all forms of surgery seeking to restore structural integrity to the skeleton, it is evident that the supply of such tissue is limited. In recent years, calcium phosphate ceramics have been studied as alternatives to autografts and allografts. The significant limitations associated with the use of biological and synthetic grafts have led to a growing interest in the in vitro synthesis of bone tissue. The approach is to synthesize bone tissue in vitro with the patient's own cells, and use this tissue for the repair of bony defects. Various substrates including metals, polymers, calcium phosphate ceramics and bioactive glasses, have been seeded with osteogenic cells. The selection of bioactive glass in this study is based on the fact that this material has shown an intense beneficial biological effect which has not been reproduced by other biomaterials. Even though the literature provides extensive data on the effect of pore size and porosity on in vivo bone tissue ingrowth into porous materials for joint prosthesis fixation, the data from past studies cannot be applied to the use of bioactive glass as a substrate for the in vitro synthesis of bone tissue. First, unlike the in vivo studies in the literature, this research deals with the growth of bone tissue in vitro. Second, unlike the implants used in past studies, bioactive glass is a degradable and resorbable material. Thus, in order to establish optimal substrate characteristics (porosity and pore size) for bioactive glass, it was important to study these parameters in an in vitro model. We synthesized porous bioactive glass substrates (BG) with varying pore sizes and porosity and determined the effect of substrate properties on the expression and maintenance of the osteoblastic phenotype, using an in vitro culture of osteoblast-like cells. Our data showed that porous bioactive glass substrates support the proliferation and maturation of osteoblast-like cells. Within the conditions of the experiment, we also found that at a given porosity of 44% the pore size of bioactive glass neither directs nor modulates the in vitro expression of the osteoblastic phenotype. On the other hand, at an average pore size of 92 mum, when cultures are maintained for 14 days, cell activity is greatly affected by the substrate porosity. As the porosity increases from 35% to 59%, osteoblast activity is adversely affected. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Synthesis of functionally graded bioactive glass-apatite multistructures on Ti substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaskovic, D.; Jokic, B.; Socol, G.; Popescu, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Petrovic, R.; Janackovic, Dj.

    2007-12-01

    Functionally graded glass-apatite multistructures were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on Ti substrates. We used sintered targets of hydroxyapatite Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2, or bioglasses in the system SiO 2-Na 2O-K 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5 with SiO 2 content of either 57 wt.% (6P57) or 61 wt.% (6P61). A UV KrF* ( λ = 248 nm, τ > 7 ns) excimer laser source was used for the multipulse laser ablation of the targets. The hydroxyapatite thin films were obtained in H 2O vapors, while the bioglass layers were deposited in O 2. Thin films of 6P61 were deposited in direct contact with Ti, because Ti and this glass have similar thermal expansion behaviors, which ensure good bioglass adhesion to the substrate. This glass, however, is not bioactive, so yet more depositions of 6P57 bioglass and/or hydroxyapatite thin films were performed. All structures with hydroxyapatite overcoating were post-treated in a flux of water vapors. The obtained multistructures were characterized by various techniques. X-ray investigations of the coatings found small amounts of crystalline hydroxyapatite in the outer layers. The scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed homogeneous coatings with good adhesion to the Ti substrate. Our studies showed that the multistructures we had obtained were compatible with further use in biomimetic metallic implants with glass-apatite coating applications.

  2. The processing, mechanical properties and bioactivity of strontium based glass polyalkenoate cements.

    PubMed

    Wren, Anthony; Boyd, Daniel; Towler, M R

    2008-04-01

    The suitability of zinc-based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) for use in orthopaedics can be improved by the substitution of strontium into the glass phase which should impart improved radiopacity and bone forming properties to the cements without retarding strength. The purpose of this research was to produce novel GPCs based on calcium-strontium-zinc-silicate glasses and to evaluate their mechanical properties and biocompatibility with the ultimate objective of developing a new range of cements for skeletal applications. Three glass compositions, based on incremental substitutions of strontium for calcium, were synthesized; BT100 (0.16CaO, 0.36ZnO, 0.48SiO2), BT101 (0.04SrO, 0.12CaO, 0.36ZnO, 0.48SiO2) and BT102 (0.08SrO 0.08CaO, 0.36ZnO, 0.48SiO2). Each glass was then mixed with varying concentrations and molecular weights of polyacrylic acids in order to determine the working times, setting times, compressive strengths and biaxial flexural strengths of the novel cements. The maximum working time and setting time achieved was 29 and 110 s respectively; which, at present is inadequate for current clinical procedures. However, the optimum compressive and biaxial flexural strengths were up to 75 and 34 MPa respectively indicating that these formulations have potential in load bearing applications. Importantly, the substitution of Ca with Sr in the glasses did not have a deleterious effect on strengths or working times. Finally, the bioactivity of the best performing cements was determined in vitro using simulated body fluid. It was found that all cements facilitate the formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate at their surface which increases in density and coverage with time, indicating that these cement will bond directly to bone in vivo. PMID:17943414

  3. Scaffolding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains scaffolding as temporary steps in the learning process where higher skills build on mastering more simple skills, often with the help of an expert. Topics include elaboration theory; joint problem solving; promoting self-regulation; Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD); and inner speech and external speech. (LRW)

  4. Hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate composites with bioactive glass as second phase: State of the art and current applications.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Cannillo, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Calcium phosphates are among the most common biomaterials employed in orthopaedic and dental surgery. The efficacy of such systems as bone substitutes and bioactive coatings on metallic prostheses has been proved by several clinical studies. Among these materials, hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) play a prominent role in medical practice since the '80s. In the last years, numerous attempts to combine HA or TCP with bioactive glasses have been made. There are two main motivations for sintering calcium phosphates with a glassy phase: on the one hand, it is possible to tune the dissolution of the final system and to enhance its biological response through the synergistic combination of two bioactive phases; on the other hand, the glass acts as a sintering aid with the aim to increase the densification of the composite and thus its mechanical strength. In this sense, TCP and HA are penalized by their relatively poor fracture toughness and tensile strength compared to natural bone, which makes it impossible to use them in load-bearing applications. Moreover, the bioactivity index of pure calcium phosphates is typically lower with respect to that of many bioactive glasses. In this review, the state of the art and current applications of composites, based on HA or TCP with bioactive glass as second phase, are presented and discussed. A special emphasis is given to the processing and mechanical behaviour of these systems, together with their biological implications, as a function of the composition of the glass employed as second phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1030-1056, 2016. PMID:26646669

  5. Phytic acid derived bioactive CaO-P2O5-SiO2 gel-glasses.

    PubMed

    Li, Ailing; Qiu, Dong

    2011-12-01

    The possibility of using phytic acid as a precursor to synthesize CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) glasses by sol-gel method has been explored and the pseudo ternary phase diagram has been established. It was shown that gel-glasses over a broader range of compositions could be prepared compared to other phosphorus precursors or melt-quenching method. Furthermore, phytic acid was found to assist calcium being incorporated into glass networks. In vitro tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed on the above gel-glasses and it was found that they were bioactive over a much broader compositional range especially at high phosphate content, thus enabling one to design bioactive materials with various degradation rates by adjusting the phosphate content. PMID:22042461

  6. Molecular biological evaluation of bioactive glass microspheres and adjunct bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene transfer in the enhancement of new bone formation.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri; Yrjans, Jessica J; Vuorio, Eero I; Aro, Hannu T

    2005-01-01

    Bioactive glass is a promising osteoconductive silica-based biomaterial for guidance of new bone growth. On the basis of several in vitro studies, the material appears able to promote osteoblast functions. In our in vivo study, the osteopromotive effect of bioactive glass microspheres seemed to surpass the osteoinductive action of direct adenovirus-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene transfer in a noncritical size bone defect model. The current study was initiated to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind bioactive glass action with or without adjunct BMP-2 gene transfer. A standardized bone defect of the rat tibia was filled with bioactive glass microspheres and injected with adenovirus carrying the human BMP-2 gene (RAdBMP-2). Control defects were left empty or filled with bioactive glass microspheres with injection of adenovirus carrying the lacZ reporter gene or saline. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the expression of the transferred human BMP-2 gene at the defect area at 4 days, but not in intact reference tissues. Bone matrix components (collagens I, II, and III, osteocalcin, osteonectin, and osteopontin) and resorption markers (cathepsin K and MMP-9), determined by Northern analysis, showed a completely different pattern of gene expression in defects filled with bioactive glass compared with control defects left to heal without filling. Bioactive glass induced a long-lasting production of bone matrix with concurrent upregulation of osteoclastic markers, a sign of high bone turnover. Combining RAdBMP-2 gene transfer with bioactive glass decelerated the high turnover, but did not influence the balance of synthesis and resorption. This molecular analysis confirmed not only the highly osteopromotive effect of bioactive glass microspheres, but also the accelerated rate of new bone resorption on its surface. At least in noncritical size defects this impact of bioactive glass seems to saturate new bone formation on its surface and thereby overshadow the effect of BMP-2 gene transfer. PMID:15869418

  7. Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds by laser sintering: Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fwu-Hsing

    2014-04-01

    In this study, biomedical composite materials were employed to fabricate bone scaffolds using a self-developed rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus. The slurry formed by combining hydroxyapatite (HA), silica sol, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was heated by a CO2 laser. Under appropriate processing parameters, a biocomposite green body was subsequently fabricated. Its mechanical properties, including surface roughness, bending and compression strengths, volume shrinkage rate, and surface microstructure, were analyzed after heat treatment to 1200 °C, 1300 °C, and 1400 °C. The results showed that after heating the specimen to 1200 °C, its compression and bending strengths increased significantly to 43.26 MPa and 1.28 MPa, respectively; the surface roughness was 12 μm; and surface pores were of size 5-25 μm. Furthermore, the results of WST-1 and LDH assay indicate that the biocomposites showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3 fibroblast. An optical density (OD) of 1.1 was also achieved, and the specimen was suitable for the adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Therefore, the biocomposite bone scaffolds fabricated in this study have potential to be bone implants for developing hard tissue.

  8. Dental ceramics coated with bioactive glass: Surface changes after exposure in a simulated body fluid under static and dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, L.; Kontonasaki, E.; Zorba, T.; Chatzistavrou, X.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K.; Sklavounos, S.; Koidis, P.

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive materials develop a strong bond with living tissues through a carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite layer, similar to that of bone. The fabrication of a thin bioactive glass coating on dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, could provide a bioactive surface, which in combination with a tissue regenerative technique could lead to periodontal tissues attachment. The aim of this study was the in vitro investigation of the surface structure changes of dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, coated with a bioactive glass heat-treated at 950 C, after exposure in a simulated body fluid (SBF) under two different soaking conditions. Coating of dental ceramics with a bioactive glass resulted in the formation of a stable and well bonded with the ceramic substrate thin layer. The growth of a well-attached carbonate apatite layer on their surface after immersion in a simulated body fluid is well evidenced under both experimental conditions, although in static environment the rate of apatite growth is constant and the grown layers seem to be more dense and compact compared with the respective layers observed on specimens under dynamic conditions.

  9. Bioactive glass-ceramic coating for enhancing the in vitro corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xinyu; Cai, Shu; Dou, Ying; Xu, Guohua; Huang, Kai; Ren, Mengguo; Wang, Xuexin

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a bioactive 45S5 glass-ceramic coating was synthesized on magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by using a sol-gel dip-coating method, to improve the initial corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy. The surface morphology and phase composition of the glass-ceramic coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The coating composed of amorphous phase and crystalline phase Na2Ca2Si3O9, with the thickness of ?1.0 ?m, exhibited a uniform and crack-free surface morphology. The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated Mg alloy substrates was investigated by the electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization tests recorded an increase of potential (Ecorr) form -1.60 V to -1.48 V, and a reduction of corrosion current density (icorr) from 4.48 ?A cm-2 to 0.16 ?A cm-2, due to the protection provided by the glass-ceramic coating. Immersion tests also showed the markedly improved corrosion resistance of the coated sample over the immersion period of 7 days. Moreover, after 14 days of immersion in SBF, the corrosion resistance of the coated sample declined due to the cracking of the glass-ceramic coating, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The results suggested that the 45S5 glass-ceramic coated Mg alloy could provide a suitable corrosion behavior for use as degradable implants.

  10. Therapeutic ion-releasing bioactive glass ionomer cements with improved mechanical strength and radiopacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Maximilian; Gentleman, Eileen; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert; Brauer, Delia

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive glasses (BG) are used to regenerate bone, as they degrade and release therapeutic ions. Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are used in dentistry, can be delivered by injection and set in situ by a reaction between an acid-degradable glass and a polymeric acid. Our aim was to combine the advantages of BG and GIC, and we investigated the use of alkali-free BG (SiO2-CaO-CaF2-MgO) with 0 to 50% of calcium replaced by strontium, as the beneficial effects of strontium on bone formation are well documented. When mixing BG and poly(vinyl phosphonic-co-acrylic acid), ions were released fast (up to 90% within 15 minutes at pH 1), which resulted in GIC setting, as followed by infrared spectroscopy. GIC mixed well and set to hard cements (compressive strength up to 35 MPa), staying hard when in contact with aqueous solution. This is in contrast to GIC prepared with poly(acrylic acid), which were shown previously to become soft in contact with water. Strontium release from GIC increased linearly with strontium for calcium substitution, allowing for tailoring of strontium release depending on clinical requirements. Furthermore, strontium substitution increased GIC radiopacity. GIC passed ISO10993 cytotoxicity test, making them promising candidates for use as injectable bone cements.

  11. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of bioactive glasses for antibiotic controlled release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalu, S.; Banica, F.; Gruian, C.; Vanea, E.; Goller, G.; Simon, V.

    2013-05-01

    Bioactive glass with the composition 0.55SiO2·0.41CaO·0.04P2O5 was prepared following the sol-gel route as controlled delivery systems for tetracycline (TC). The maturation and drying of the gel under different conditions led to different behavior regarding the loading and release of TC from these matrices. The pore size modifications upon TC loading evidenced by BET method show different ability of the glass matrices with respect to TC incorporation, also supported by experimental EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy. EPR spectra of both TC solution and immobilized TC on the porous structure of glass specimens demonstrated changes in tetracycline structure during loading and upon adsorption. The TC release profile monitored by differential pulse voltammetry shows a maximum concentration after 2 h and a continuously slow release during the next 24 h. The obtained results demonstrate that the pores size modification related to different maturation and drying procedures seems to be a determinative factor in tetracycline release process.

  12. Luminescence properties of Eu 3+ ions in phosphate-based bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Ch.; Upendra Kumar, K.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2011-06-01

    Eu 2O 3-doped phosphate-based bioactive glasses have been prepared by varying the calcium/potassium to phosphate ratio and their luminescence properties have been studied through absorption and emission spectra and decay rate analysis. Second and fourth rank crystal-field (CF) parameters and the CF strength parameters have been calculated by assuming the C 2V symmetry for Eu 3+ ions in the present glasses. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been used to derive radiative properties such as transition probabilities, branching ratios, radiative lifetimes and peak-stimulated emission cross-sections for 5D 0 → 7F J ( J = 0-4) transitions. The relative luminescence intensity ratio of 5D 0 → 7F 2 and 5D 0 → 7F 1 transitions has been evaluated to estimate the local site symmetry around Eu 3+ ions. The observed 5D 0 → 7F 0 transition for higher calcium content indicates two distinct sites for Eu 3+ ion. Decay rates for the 5D 0 level of Eu 3+ ions in these glasses have been measured by monitoring the 5D 0 → 7F 2 transition. The lifetimes of the 5D 0 level are found to decrease with increase in calcium contents.

  13. Systematic assessment of scaffold hopping versus activity cliff formation across bioactive compound classes following a molecular hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Scaffold hopping and activity cliff formation define opposite ends of the activity landscape feature spectrum. To rationalize these events at the level of scaffolds, active compounds involved in scaffold hopping were required to contain topologically distinct scaffolds but have only limited differences in potency, whereas compounds involved in activity cliffs were required to share the same scaffold but have large differences in potency. A systematic search was carried out for compounds involved in scaffold hopping and/or activity cliff formation. Results obtained for compound data sets covering more than 300 human targets revealed clear trends. If scaffolds represented multiple but fewer than 10 active compounds, nearly 90% of all scaffolds were exclusively involved in hopping events. With increasing compound coverage, the fraction of scaffolds involved in both scaffold hopping and activity cliff formation significantly increased to more than 50%. However, ∼40% of the scaffolds representing large numbers of active compounds continued to be exclusively involved in scaffold hopping. More than 200 scaffolds with broad target coverage were identified that consistently represented potent compounds and yielded an abundance of scaffold hops in the low-nanomolar range. These and other subsets of scaffolds we characterized are of prime interest for structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration and compound design. Therefore, the complete scaffold classification generated in the course of our analysis is made freely available. PMID:25982076

  14. Hypoxia inducible factor-stabilizing bioactive glasses for directing mesenchymal stem cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Maria M; Tsigkou, Olga; Nair, Rekha; Jones, Julian R; Jell, Gavin; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen tension is a known regulator of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) plasticity, differentiation, proliferation, and recruitment to sites of injury. Materials capable of affecting the MSC oxygen-sensing pathway, independently of the environmental oxygen pressure, are therefore of immense interest to the tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine community. In this study, we describe the evaluation of the effect of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-stabilizing bioactive glasses (BGs) on human MSCs. The dissolution products from these hypoxia-mimicking BGs stabilized HIF-1α in a concentration-dependent manner, altered cell proliferation and metabolism, and upregulated a number of genes involved in the hypoxic response (HIF1A, HIF2A, and VHL), MSC survival (SAG and BCL2), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP1), and angiogenesis (VEGF and PDGF). These HIF-stabilizing materials can therefore be used to improve MSC survival and enhance regeneration in a number of TE strategies. PMID:25167933

  15. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Palza, Humberto; Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian; Bravo, Denisse; Diaz-Dosque, Mario; Perez, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol-gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. PMID:23910279

  16. Antibacterial properties of poly (octanediol citrate)/gallium-containing bioglass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zeimaran, Ehsan; Pourshahrestani, Sara; Djordjevic, Ivan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Wren, Anthony W; Towler, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses may function as antimicrobial delivery systems through the incorporation and subsequent release of therapeutic ions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of a series of composite scaffolds composed of poly(octanediol citrate) with increased loads of a bioactive glass that releases zinc (Zn(2+)) and gallium (Ga(3+)) ions in a controlled manner. The antibacterial activity of these scaffolds was investigated against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The ability of the scaffolds to release ions and the subsequent ingress of these ions into hard tissue was evaluated using a bovine bone model. Scaffolds containing bioactive glass exhibited antibacterial activity and this increased in vitro with higher bioactive glass loads; viable cells decreased to about 20 % for the composite scaffold containing 30 % bioactive glass. The Ga(3+) release rate increased as a function of time and Zn(2+) was shown to incorporate into the surrounding bone. PMID:26676864

  17. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  18. Injectable self-curing bioactive acrylic-glass composites charged with specific anti-inflammatory/analgesic agent.

    PubMed

    Méndez, J A; Fernández, M; González-Corchón, A; Salvado, M; Collía, F; de Pedro, J A; Levenfeld, B L; López-Bravo, A; Vázquez, B; San Román, J

    2004-05-01

    Injectable bioactive acrylic formulations based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and different amounts of bioactive glasses in the system SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 have been prepared in the presence of the anti-inflammatory analgesic drug fosfosal, the sodium salt of 2-phosphonoxibenzoic acid, to be used in minimally invasive surgery. The injectability of the formulations evaluated according to the established protocol was around 80%. The experimental formulations provided maximum temperatures in the range 50-60 degrees C, which were lower than those of commercial acrylic bone cements currently used in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Residual monomer content of any formulation was inferior to 5%. Compressive yield strength of dry specimens was in the range 80-95 MPa, but it decreased after immersion in SBF to values in the range 30-50 MPa, due to the dissolution of the bioactive glasses and the drug in the medium. The release of fosfosal was evaluated in vitro (pH = 7.0). The release profile against time obtained from a PMMA cement was quasi-linear and the 80% of the initial amount of drug was released in 175 h. However, for bioactive cements, the 80-100% of the fosfosal charged was released in approximately 48 h, due to the dissolution of the glasses in the medium. Values of weight loss of the cements determined gravimetrically ranged between 16% and 26% depending on the initial amount of fosfosal, i.e. 20 or 30 wt%, respectively. The weight loss and the water uptake were simultaneous processes, and values of hydration degree were around 10-14%. The formation of an apatite-like layer was detected on the surface of the cements at different periods of time depending on the composition of the bioactive glasses. The cements containing the glasses with P2O5 produced the growth of the apatite layer in shorter periods of time. The presence of fosfosal accelerated the precipitation of this layer independently on the glasses. The in vivo biocompatibility studied by intramuscular implantation in rats showed the absence of an anti-inflammatory response and a fibrous layer around the implant for the cement prepared with PMMA/fosfosal which is attributed to the therapeutic action of fosfosal acting in situ. The response to cements prepared with bioactive glasses and fosfosal showed a mild inflammatory reaction with the formation of the typical fibrous capsule around the implanted material. PMID:14741603

  19. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Delia S.; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V.; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, giving compressive strength of up to 35 MPa. Strontium release was dependent on BG composition with increasing strontium substitution resulting in higher concentrations in the medium. Bactericidal effects were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis; cell counts were reduced by up to three orders of magnitude over 6 days. Results show that bactericidal action can be increased through BG strontium substitution, allowing for the design of novel antimicrobial and bone enhancing cements for use in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for treating osteoporosis-related vertebral compression fractures. PMID:23097502

  20. Detection and qualification of optimum antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of silver-doped bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Gholipourmalekabadi, Mazaher; Nezafati, Nader; Hajibaki, Leila; Mozafari, Masoud; Moztarzadeh, F; Hesaraki, Saeed; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to detect the optimum antibacterial activity of silver-doped bioactive glasses (Ag-BGs) for prevention of post-transplant infections in tissue engineering. The results have shown that the Ag-BG samples had broad-spectrum antibacterial efficacy in an Ag concentration-dependent manner. The 2% Ag-BG had the highest effect during the first 10 min to 72 h. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 2% Ag-BG was estimated to be 2 mg/ml for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and 2.66 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A concentration of 0.5% Ag-BG repressed growth of E. coli after 1 h, but did not have any detectable antibacterial effect for longer periods. Evaluation of the effects of prepared Ag-BG on human osteoblast cells viability showed that 1 and 2% samples changed the cell proliferation rate in masses of more than 3.33 and 2 mg/ml, respectively. Moreover, in a typical manner, the release of Ag ions from the glass structure started immediately, continued steadily and affected bacterial growth when it reached its critical concentration in the medium. This systematic study can illustrate the optimum antibacterial property of the Ag-BG samples in masses of 3.33 and 2 mg/ml for 1 and 2% Ag, respectively, for prevention of post-transplant infections. PMID:26224350

  1. Development of custom-built bone scaffolds using mesenchymal stem cells and apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Jennifer A; Genever, Paul G; Dalgarno, Kenneth W; Wood, David J

    2007-12-01

    There is a clinical need for new bone replacement materials that combine long implant life with complete integration and appropriate mechanical properties. We have used human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to populate porous apatite-wollastonite (A-W) glass-ceramic scaffolds produced by the layer manufacturing technique, selective laser sintering, to create custom-built bone replacements. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine optimal seeding densities and to demonstrate that MSCs adhered and retained viability on the surface of A-W scaffolds over a culture period of 21 days. We found a significant increase in the number of MSCs growing on the scaffolds over 7 days. Using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation we demonstrated that MSCs proliferated on the scaffolds. Using real-time PCR we analyzed the expression of the osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase, collagen type-I, Cbfa-1, osteocalcin, osteonectin, and osteopontin by MSCs cultured in the absence of osteogenic supplements. The expression of the osteogenic markers by MSCs was equivalent to or significantly greater on A-W scaffolds than on tissue culture plastic. We also identified significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity on A-W compared to a commercial calcium phosphate scaffold. These results indicate for the first time the biocompatibility and osteo-supportive capacity of A-W scaffolds and their potential as patient-specific bone replacement materials. PMID:17764401

  2. Bioactivity studies on TiO₂-bearing Na₂O-CaO-SiO₂-B₂O₃ glasses.

    PubMed

    Jagan Mohini, G; Sahaya Baskaran, G; Ravi Kumar, V; Piasecki, M; Veeraiah, N

    2015-12-01

    Soda lime silica borate glasses mixed with different concentrations of TiO2 are synthesized by the melt-quenching technique. As a part of study on bioactivity of these glasses, the samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for prolonged times (~21 days) during which weight loss along with pH measurements is carried out at specific intervals of time. The XRD and SEM analyses of post-immersed samples confirm the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite layer (HA) on the surface of the samples. To assess the role of TiO2 on the formation of HA layer and degradability of the samples the spectroscopic studies viz. optical absorption and IR spectral studies on post- and pre-immersed samples have been carried out. The analysis of the results of degradability together with spectroscopic studies as a function of TiO2 concentration indicated that about 6.0 mol% of TiO2 is the optimal concentration for achieving better bioactivity of these glasses. The presence of the maximal concentration octahedral titanium ions in this glass that facilitates the formation of HA layer is found to be the reason for such a higher bioactivity. PMID:26354260

  3. Effect of the pore structure of bioactive glass balls on biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hui-Suk; Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee

    2011-06-01

    We prepared porous bioactive glass (BG) balls with various pore architectures using a modified version of a polymer templating technique which is generally used for the synthesis of mesoporous BG. Sol-gel derived porous BG is an excellent candidate as a graft material for bone tissue regeneration due to its good bone forming bioactivity and biodegradability. The biodegradability is largely related to the pore architecture and affects its biocompatibility. The pore architecture of the BG balls was controllable by changing the reaction time in chloroform. The relationship between the pore architecture of the BG balls and biocompatibility were studied using MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells in vitro and the rabbit calvarial model in vivo 8 weeks after implantation. The mesoporous BG balls (BG0) and porous BG beads with a hierarchical pore structure on the nano- to microscale (BG0.5 and BG2) showed a good cell proliferation response and differentiation behavior in vitro and in vivo without serious toxicity. These hierarchically porous structures also enhanced osteoconductivity. However, the existence of too many microscale pores in the BG balls (BG24) led to their rapid biodegradation and, consequently, to serious negative effects in vitro and in vivo. The pore architecture of the BG balls greatly influenced their biocompatibility, as well as bone formation, and should be carefully controlled when designing new materials for use in bioapplications. The porous BG balls with hierarchical pores on the nano- to microscale exhibit favorable biocompatibility in vitro and promise excellent potential applications in the field of biomaterials, such as tissue regeneration and drug storage. PMID:21320647

  4. In vitro surface reaction layer formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate cement-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changsheng; Chen, Chien-Wen; Ducheyne, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Composites of hydrated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and bioactive glass (BG) containing Si were immersed in vitro to study the effect of chemical composition on surface reaction layer formation and dissolution/precipitation behavior. The solutions used were 0.05 M tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane/HCl (tris buffer), tris buffer supplemented with plasma electrolyte (TE) with pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C, and this solution complemented with 10% newborn bovine serum (TES). The post-immersion solutions were analyzed for changes in Ca, PO(4) and Si concentrations. The reacted surfaces were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sample weight variations after immersion were also determined. The results showed that the composition of the bioactive composite CPCs greatly affected their behavior in solution and the formation of apatite bioactive surface reaction layers. After immersion in the TE solution, Ca ions were taken up by all samples during the entire immersion duration. Initially, the P ion concentration increased sharply, and then decreased. This reaction pattern reveals the formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate layer on the surface of these composite CPCs. FTIR revealed that the layer was, in fact, poorly crystallized Ca-deficient carbonate apatite. The thickness of the layer was 12-14 microm and it was composed of rod-like apatite with directional arrangement. For immersion in the TES solution, the Ca and Si ion concentrations showed a similar behavior to that in TE, but the release rate of Si ions was higher. FTIR revealed that after TES immersion, not only did the typical, poorly crystallized, Ca-deficient carbonated apatite form, as it did in TE, but also the serum proteins co-adsorbed on the surface and thereby affected the surface reaction layer formation. A thinner apatite layer was formed and was composed of a micro-porous layer comprising rounded particles in a glue-like matrix. The addition of BG to the CPCs to create composite CPCs obviously is at the basis of this altered behavior of the cements. All data combined are useful for the design and optimization of degradable implant materials for use in bone tissue repair and regeneration procedures. PMID:18689928

  5. A new sol-gel synthesis of 45S5 bioactive glass using an organic acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Faure, J; Drevet, R; Lemelle, A; Ben Jaber, N; Tara, A; El Btaouri, H; Benhayoune, H

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a new sol-gel approach was explored for the synthesis of the 45S5 bioactive glass. We demonstrate that citric acid can be used instead of the usual nitric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions. The substitution of nitric acid by citric acid allows to reduce strongly the concentration of the acid solution necessary to catalyze the hydrolysis of silicon and phosphorus alkoxides. Two sol-gel powders with chemical compositions very close to that of the 45S5 were obtained by using either a 2M nitric acid solution or either a 5mM citric acid solution. These powders were characterized and compared to the commercial Bioglass®. The surface properties of the two bioglass powders were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a partial crystallization associated to the formation of crystalline phases on the two sol-gel powders. The in vitro bioactivity was then studied at the key times during the first hours of immersion into acellular Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). After 4h immersion into SBF we clearly demonstrate that the bioactivity level of the two sol-gel powders is similar and much higher than that of the commercial Bioglass®. This bioactivity improvement is associated to the increase of the porosity and the specific surface area of the powders synthesized by the sol-gel process. Moreover, the nitric acid is efficiently substituted by the citric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions without alteration of the bioactivity of the 45S5 bioactive glass. PMID:25492213

  6. Control of Ag nanoparticle distribution influencing bioactive and antibacterial properties of Ag-doped mesoporous bioactive glass particles prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shao-Ju; Tzeng, Wei-Lung; Jatnika, Rifqi; Shih, Chi-Jen; Borisenko, Konstantin B

    2015-05-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) have become important bone implant materials because of their high specific surface area resulting in high bioactivity. Doping MBGs with Ag removes one of the remaining challenges to their applications, namely their lack of intrinsic antibacterial properties. In present work we demonstrate that Ag-doped MBGs can be prepared in one-step spray pyrolysis (SP) process. The SP preparation method offers the advantages of short processing times and continuous production over the sol-gel method previously used to prepare MBGs. Using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction we demonstrate that the synthesized MBG particles have amorphous structure with nanocrystalline Ag inclusions. The scanning transmission electron microscopy-X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry of cross-sectional samples shows that the distribution of the Ag dopant nanoparticles within MBGs can be controlled by using the appropriate formulation of the precursors. The distribution of the Ag dopant nanoparticles within the MBG particles was found to affect their surface areas, bioactivities and antibacterial properties. Based on the observations, we propose a mechanism describing MBG particle formation and controlling dopant distribution. PMID:25171327

  7. Bilayered chitosan-based scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering: influence of hydroxyapatite on in vitro cytotoxicity and dynamic bioactivity studies in a specific double-chamber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Malafaya, Patrícia B; Reis, Rui L

    2009-02-01

    Osteochondral tissue engineering presents a current research challenge due to the necessity of combining both bone and cartilage tissue engineering principles. In the present study, bilayered chitosan-based scaffolds are developed based on the optimization of both polymeric and composite scaffolds. A particle aggregation methodology is proposed in order to achieve an improved integrative bone-cartilage interface needed for this application, since any discontinuity is likely to cause long-term device failure. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTS assay with the L929 fibroblast cell line for different conditions. Surprisingly, in composite scaffolds using unsintered hydroxyapatite, cytotoxicity was observed in vitro. This work reports the investigation that was conducted to overcome and explain this behaviour. It is suggest that the uptake of divalent cations may induce the cytotoxic behaviour. Sintered hydroxyapatite was consequently used and showed no cytotoxicity when compared to the controls. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was carried out to accurately quantify porosity, interconnectivity, ceramic content, particle and pore sizes. The results showed that the developed scaffolds are highly interconnected and present the ideal pore size range to be morphometrically suitable for the proposed applications. Dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated that the scaffolds are mechanically stable in the wet state even under dynamic compression. The obtained elastic modulus was, respectively, 4.21+/-1.04, 7.98+/-1.77 and 6.26+/-1.04 MPa at 1 Hz frequency for polymeric, composite and bilayered scaffolds. Bioactivity studies using both a simulated body fluid (SBF) and a simulated synovial fluid (SSF) were conducted in order to assure that the polymeric component for chondrogenic part would not mineralize, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for different immersion periods. The assays were carried out also under dynamic conditions using, for this purpose, a specifically designed double-chamber bioreactor, aiming at a future osteochondral application. It was concluded that chitosan-based bilayered scaffolds produced by particle aggregation overcome any risk of delamination of both polymeric and composite parts designed, respectively, for chondrogenic and osteogenic components that are mechanically stable. Moreover, the proposed bilayered scaffolds could serve as alternative, biocompatible and safe biodegradable scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering applications. PMID:18951857

  8. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  9. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomaeki, M.; Ashammakhi, N.; Gomes, M. E.; Reis, R. L.; Chiellini, F.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-02-15

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-{epsilon}-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 deg. C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 deg. C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 deg. C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  10. Effects of ceramic component on cephalexin release from bioactive bone cement consisting of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin and bioactive glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, M; Fujita, H; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of amount of ceramic cement powder on drug release from bioactive bone cement. The associated bone-bonding strength was also investigated. The bioactive bone cement under investigation consisted of bisphenol-alpha-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA), triethylene-glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin and a combination of apatite- and wollastonite-containing glass-ceramic (A-W GC) powder. A-W GC powder (50%, 70% and 80% w/w) containing 5% cephalexin (CEX) powder hardened within 5 min after mixing with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin. The compressive strength of the cement with or without drug increased with increasing the amount of ceramic powder. The compressive strength of the 80% ceramic cement without the incorporation of cephalexin was 194 MPa. This compressive strength was about 3 times higher than that for polymethylmethacrylate cement. After the cement was implanted in the proximal metaphysis of the tibiae of male rabbits, the failure load for the cement was found to increase with increasing of the amount of ceramic powder. This finding suggested that the cement formed a bonding with bone. In vitro CEX release from bioactive bone cement pellets in a simulated body fluid at pH 7.25 and 37 degrees C continued for more than 2 weeks. Drug release profile followed the Higuchi equation initially, but not at later stages. The drug release rate increased with increasing amount of ceramic powder in the mixture. Since the pore volume of the cement increased with increasing of amount of ceramic powder, the drug diffused in the pores between the ceramics particle and polymer matrix. As hydroxyapatite precipitated on the cement surface, the drug release rate decreased, as observed at the later release stage. These results suggest that varying the amount of ceramic powder in the cement system could control the drug release rate from bioactive bone cement. PMID:11281575

  11. Teicoplanin-loaded borate bioactive glass implants for treating chronic bone infection in a rabbit tibia osteomyelitis model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Jia, Weitao; Gu, Yifei; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Xin; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Zhou, Nai

    2010-08-01

    The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis (bone infection) remains a clinical challenge. In this work, pellets composed of a chitosan-bonded mixture of borate bioactive glass particles (<50microm) and teicoplanin powder (antibiotic), were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for treating chronic osteomyelitis induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rabbit model. When immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, the pellets showed sustained release of teicoplanin over 20-30 days, while the bioactive glass converted to hydroxyapatite (HA) within 7 days, eventually forming a porous HA structure. Implantation of the teicoplanin-loaded pellets in a rabbit tibia osteomyelitis model resulted in the detection of teicoplanin in the blood for about 9 days. The implants converted to a bone-like HA graft, and supported the ingrowth of new bone into the tibia defects within 12 weeks of implantation. Microbiological, histological and scanning electron microscopy techniques showed that the implants provided a cure for the bone infection. The results indicate that the teicoplanin-loaded borate bioactive glass implant, combining sustained drug release with the ability to support new bone ingrowth, could provide a method for treating chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:20434766

  12. Good short-term outcome of primary total hip arthroplasty with cementless bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Cementless total hip arthroplasty is currently favored by many orthopedic surgeons. The design of the porous surface is critically important for long-term fixation. We examined the clinical and radiographic outcome of the cementless titanium hip implant with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 109 hips (92 patients) that had undergone primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants. The mean follow-up period was 7 (3–9) years. Hip joint function was evaluated with the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score, and radiographic changes were determined from anteroposterior radiographs. Results The mean hip score improved from 9.7 preoperatively to 17 at the final follow-up. The overall survival rate was 100% at 9 years, when radiographic loosening or revision for any reason was used as the endpoint. 3 stems in 2 patients subsided more than 3 mm vertically within 1 year after implantation. Radiographs of the interface of the stem and femur were all classified as bone ingrowth fixation. Conclusions The short-term results of this study show good outcome for cementless implants with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. PMID:23043270

  13. Structural changes of methemoglobin after adsorption on bioactive glass, as a function of surface functionalization and salt concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruian, C.; Vulpoi, A.; Steinhoff, H.-J.; Simon, S.

    2012-05-01

    Functional protein adsorption at liquid-solid interfaces has been intensively studied in the last years, however it is difficult to evidence directly conformational changes of the protein which are likely to appear upon adsorption. Spin labeling in combination with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was applied in this study to investigate adsorption of horse methemoglobin to bioactive glass (BG) similar in composition with 45S5 Bioglass®. X-band cw-EPR spectra of spin labeled methemoglobin in solution were compared to those obtained after adsorption on bioactive glass surface (functionalized and non-functionalized with glutaraldehyde), to extract information of the structure and dynamics in the vicinity of position β-93. The concentration of methemoglobin adsorbed on BG substrate was determined from the intensity of cw-EPR spectra and correlated with images obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Line shape analysis of the EPR spectra revealed that ionic strength does not induce significant conformational changes in the protein structure upon adsorption, however, the chemical treatment applied to the bioactive glass surface positively influences protein adsorption.

  14. 3D analysis of thermal and stress evolution during laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Bajda, Szymon; Liu, Yijun; Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Mark Rainforth, W; Glendenning, Malcolm

    2016-06-01

    Thermal and strain-stress transient fields during laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings on the Ti6Al4V alloy basement were numerically calculated and analysed. Conditions leading to micro-cracking susceptibility of the coating have been investigated using the finite element based modelling supported by experimental results of microscopic investigation of the sample coatings. Consecutive temperature and stress peaks are developed within the cladded material as a result of the laser beam moving along the complex trajectory, which can lead to micro-cracking. The preheated to 500°C base plate allowed for decrease of the laser power and lowering of the cooling speed between the consecutive temperature peaks contributing in such way to achievement of lower cracking susceptibility. The cooling rate during cladding of the second and the third layer was lower than during cladding of the first one, in such way, contributing towards improvement of cracking resistance of the subsequent layers due to progressive accumulation of heat over the process. PMID:26953962

  15. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of magnetic biphasic calcium sulfate-bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-08-01

    Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV-vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeOx oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment. PMID:26042687

  16. Gold nanoparticle incorporated polymer/bioactive glass composite for controlled drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, A C; Sharma, Chandra P

    2015-02-01

    The present study discusses the development of a biodegradable polymer encapsulated-nanogold incorporated-bioactive glass composite (AuPBG) by a low-temperature method. The composite was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), fluorescence and dissolution analysis. The composite exhibited aggregation behaviour in solid and solution states and exhibited negative zeta potential (-13.3 ± 1.4 mV). The composite exhibited fast degradation starting from the 5(th) day onwards in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for a period of 14 days. The composite showed fluorescence quenching effect at pH 7 and the fluorescence recovered at pH 5. The composite has been found to be suitable for the release of doxorubicin at high rates at acidic pH (∼ 5) which is the intracellular pH of tumour cells. The drug loading ratio is also high and it exhibited a controlled release for a period of 8 days in PBS. The system serves as a promising material for targeted drug delivery applications. PMID:25576810

  17. Effects of bioactive glass with and without mesoporous structures on desensitization in dentinal tubule occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Kung, Jung-Chang; Chen, Cheng-Hwei; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Chi-Jen; Chien, Chi-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) is a potential material for treating dentin hypersensitivity due to its high ability of dissolution. In this study, conventional BG and BG with well-ordered mesopore structures (MBG) were applied for dentinal tubule occlusion. We used X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to investigate the physiochemical properties and the dentinal tubule occlusion ability of BG and MBG groups. The results showed that the major crystallite phase of MBG and BG agents was monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. MBG pastes, mixed with 30 and 40 wt% phosphoric acid hardening solutions, had the ability to create a penetration depth greater than 50 μm. These results showed that BG with mesoporous structures turned the pastes mixed with suitable phosphoric acid solution into a material with great ability for occluding dentinal tubules; it has a short reaction time and good operability, and these agents have better potential for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity than BG without mesoporous structures.

  18. Bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyorgy, E.; Grigorescu, S.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Janackovic, D.; Dindune, A.; Kanepe, Z.; Palcevskis, E.; Zdrentu, E. L.; Petrescu, S. M.

    2007-07-01

    Bioactive glass (BG), calcium hydroxyapatite (HA), and ZrO 2 doped HA thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Ti substrates. An UV KrF * ( λ = 248 nm, τ ≥ 7 ns) excimer laser was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the targets. The substrates were kept at room temperature or heated during the film deposition at values within the (400-550 °C) range. The depositions were performed in oxygen and water vapor atmospheres, at pressure values in the range (5-40 Pa). The HA coatings were heat post-treated for 6 h in a flux of hot water vapors at the same temperature as applied during deposition. The surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystalline quality of the obtained thin films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. The films were seeded for in vitro tests with Hek293 (human embryonic kidney) cells that revealed a good adherence on the deposited layers. Biocompatibility tests showed that cell growth was better on HA than on BG thin films.

  19. Angiogenic Response to Bioactive Glass Promotes Bone Healing in an Irradiated Calvarial Defect

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Ann; Stieger, Susanne M.; Dayton, Paul; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-01-01

    Localized radiation is an effective treatment modality for carcinomas, yet the associated reduction of the host vasculature significantly inhibits the tissue's regenerative capacity. Low concentrations of bioactive glass (BG) possess angiogenic potential, and we hypothesized that localized BG presentation would increase neovascularization and promote healing in an irradiated bone defect. An isolated calvarial region of Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated 2 weeks before surgery. Bilateral critical-sized defects were created and immediately filled with a BG-loaded collagen sponge or an empty sponge as an internal control. Histological analysis of calvaria collected after 2 weeks demonstrated greater neovascularization within the defect in the presence of BG than with collagen alone. Noninvasive ultrasound imaging at 4 weeks detected less contrast agent in the brain below BG-treated defects than in the nearby untreated defects and images of treated defects acquired at 2 weeks. The reduced ability to detect contrast agent in BG-treated defects suggested greater attenuation of ultrasound signal due to early bone formation. Micro-computed tomography imaging at 12 weeks demonstrated significantly greater bone volume fraction within BG-treated defects than in controls. These results suggest that neovascularization induced by localized BG delivery promotes bone regeneration in this highly compromised model of bone healing and may offer an alternative approach to costly growth factors and their potential side-effects. PMID:18795867

  20. [A novel europium doped apatite/wollastonite porous magnetic bioactive glass ceramic].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangzhi; Zhou, Dali; Yang, Weizhong; Yin, Guangfu; Ou, Jun

    2007-08-01

    A new biocompatible apatite-wollastonite magnetic glass ceramic has been synthesized via sol-gel process. Characteristics of the materials were determined with differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and so on. Results showed that the main crystalline phases of the material were hydroxyapatite/fluoroapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH, F)), beta-wollastonite[beta-CaSiO3] and calcium europium oxide silicate Ca2Eu8[(SiO4)6O2]. The magnetization of the sample contanining 2% Eu2O3 in weight reached 2.18 emu/g for an applied field of 10 000Oe. Hydroxyapatite layer could form on the surface of the sample while soaking for 14 days in simulated body fluid. Good bioactivity was demonstrated. So it is a potential bone repairing material as well as a hyperthemia treatment material for pateints with cancer. PMID:17899745

  1. One-pot synthesis of magnetic, macro/mesoporous bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Lin, Huiming; Jiang, Jingjie; Han, Xiao; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaodan; Jin, Yingxue; Qu, Fengyu

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic and macro/mesoporous bioactive glasses were synthesized by a one-pot method via a handy salt leaching technique. It was identified to be an effective and simple synthetic strategy. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123), was used as the structure directing agent for mesoporous structure but also as the reductant to reduce the iron source into magnetic iron oxide. The prepared materials exhibited excellent super-paramagnetic property with interconnected macroporous (200-300 μm) and mesoporous (3.4 nm) structure. Furthermore, their outstanding drug storage/release properties and rapid (5) induction of hydroxyapatite growth ability were investigated after immersing in simulated body fluid solution at 37 °C. Notably, the biocompatibility assessment confirmed that the materials obtained presented good biocompatibility and enhanced adherence of HeLa cells. Herein, the novel materials are expected to have potential application for bone tissue engineering.

  2. The attachment affinity of hemoglobin toward silver-containing bioactive glass functionalized with glutaraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Gruian, C; Vulpoi, A; Vanea, E; Oprea, B; Steinhoff, H-J; Simon, S

    2013-12-27

    Bioactive glasses belonging to the 56SiO2·(40 - x)CaO·4P2O5·xAg2O system, with x = 0, 2, and 8 mol %, were surface functionalized with the protein coupling agent glutaraldehyde (GA) and further evaluated in terms of hemoglobin affinity. The bare and GA-functionalized samples were investigated before and after protein attachment, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy combined with spin-labeling procedure. Methanethiosulfonate spin label was used to explore the local environment of β-93 cysteine in horse hemoglobin, in terms of spin label side chain mobility. The EPR simulation methods were employed to quantify the rotational correlational times and fraction of the immobilized spin labels. The EPR absorption spectrum was further exploited to estimate the amount of hemoglobin loaded on the substrates. The surface elemental composition obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed similar tendency in terms of surface coverage. Changes in surface architecture, that is, changes in surface morphology after protein coverage, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. It was concluded that GA improves the stability of protein attachment and induces polymerization of hemoglobin molecules. PMID:24308353

  3. In vitro model for frontal sinus obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Peltola, M J; Suonpää, J T; Andersson, H; Määttänen, H S; Aitasalo, K M; Yli-Urpo, A; Laippala, P J

    2000-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to investigate the behavior of a massive frontal sinus obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4 (BG) for clinical purposes. Two sizes of granules (0.63-0.8 mm or 0.8-1.0 mm) in 16 separate BG amounts, weight 25 g, were tested both in simulated body fluid (SBF) and a buffer containing trishydroxymethyl aminomethane citric acid (TRIS-c.a) in standard conditions. The dissolution of silicon (Si) and phosphate (P) was detected with direct current plasma atom emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) monthly up to 6 months. The BG masses were scanned by computer tomography (CT) and the scans analyzed by Region of Interest (ROI) technique. Calcium phosphate (CaP)- and silica (Si)-gel-layers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 1, 3, and 6 months. Cumulative loss of Si and P was stronger in TRIS -c.a than in SBF (p < 0.0001), and it was higher with smaller than with larger granules in both solutions (p < 0.0001). This was shown correspondingly by the decrease in Hounsfield units (HU) by ROI analysis (p < 0.0001). In SBF-soaked BG masses, the CaP-layer occurred on the uppermost granules, and in TRIS-c.a at 3-6 months, on the granules in the center and lower parts. The decrease of HU seems to reveal indirectly the resorption of BG. PMID:10713562

  4. Effect of sintering temperature variations on fabrication of 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramics using rice husk as a source for silica.

    PubMed

    Leenakul, Wilaiwan; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Tongsiri, Natee; Pengpat, Kamonpan; Ruangsuriya, Jetsada

    2016-04-01

    45S5 bioactive glass is a highly bioactive substance that has the ability to promote stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts - the cells that create bone matrix. The aim of this work is to analyze physical and mechanical properties of 45S5 bioactive glass fabricated by using rice husk ash as its silica source. The 45S5 bioactive glass was prepared by melting the batch at 1300°C for 3h. The samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1050°C with a fixed dwell-time of 2h. The phase transitions, density, porosity and microhardness values were investigated and reported. DTA analysis was used to examine the crystallization temperatures of the glasses prepared. We found that the sintering temperature had a significant effect on the mechanical and physical properties of the bioactive glass. The XRD showed that when the sintering temperature was above 650°C, crystallization occurred and bioactive glass-ceramics with Na2Ca2Si3O9, Na2Ca4(PO4)2SiO4 and Ca3Si2O7 were formed. The optimum sintering temperature resulting in maximum mechanical values was around 1050°C, with a high density of 2.27g/cm(3), 16.96% porosity and the vicker microhardness value of 364HV. Additionally, in vitro assay was used to examine biological activities in stimulated body fluid (SBF). After incubation in SBF for 7days, all of the samples showed formations of apatite layers indicating that the 45S5 bioactive glasses using rice husk as a raw material were also bioactive. PMID:26838899

  5. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Allo, Bedilu A.; Costa, Daniel O.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S.

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glass (BG) fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone. PMID:24955542

  6. A novel injectable borate bioactive glass cement for local delivery of vancomycin to cure osteomyelitis and regenerate bone.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Huang, Wenhai; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Jun; Luo, Shihua; Zhang, Changqing; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-03-01

    Osteomyelitis (bone infection) is often difficult to cure. The commonly-used treatment of surgical debridement to remove the infected bone combined with prolonged systemic and local antibiotic treatment has limitations. In the present study, an injectable borate bioactive glass cement was developed as a carrier for the antibiotic vancomycin, characterized in vitro, and evaluated for its capacity to cure osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. The cement (initial setting time = 5.8 ± 0.6 min; compressive strength = 25.6 ± 0.3 MPa) released vancomycin over ~25 days in phosphate-buffered saline, during which time the borate glass converted to hydroxyapatite (HA). When implanted in rabbit tibial defects infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced osteomyelitis, the vancomycin-loaded cement converted to HA and supported new bone formation in the defects within 8 weeks. Osteomyelitis was cured in 87 % of the defects implanted with the vancomycin-loaded borate glass cement, compared to 71 % for the defects implanted with vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate cement. The injectable borate bioactive glass cement developed in this study is a promising treatment for curing osteomyelitis and for regenerating bone in the defects following cure of the infection. PMID:24477872

  7. Kinetics of a bioactive compound (caffeine) mobility at the vicinity of the mechanical glass transition temperature induced by gelling polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Kasapis, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    An investigation of the diffusional mobility of a bioactive compound (caffeine) within the high-solid (80.0% w/w) matrices of glucose syrup and κ-carrageenan plus glucose syrup exhibiting distinct mechanical glass transition properties is reported. The experimental temperature range was from 20 to -60 °C, and the techniques of modulated differential scanning calorimetry, small deformation dynamic oscillation in shear, and UV spectrometry were employed. Calorimetric and mechanical measurements were complementary in recording the relaxation dynamics of high-solid matrices upon controlled heating. Predictions of the reaction rate theory and the combined WLF/free volume framework were further utilized to pinpoint the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the two matrices in the softening dispersion. Independent of composition, calorimetry yielded similar T(g) predictions for both matrices at this level of solids. Mechanical experimentation, however, was able to detect the effect of adding gelling polysaccharide to glucose syrup as an accelerated pattern of vitrification leading to a higher value of T(g). Kinetic rates of caffeine diffusion within the experimental temperature range were taken with UV spectroscopy. These demonstrated the pronounced effect of the gelling κ-carrageenan/glucose syrup mixture to retard diffusion of the bioactive compound near the mechanical T(g). Modeling of the diffusional mobility of caffeine produced activation energy and fractional free-volume estimates, which were distinct from those of the carbohydrate matrix within the glass transition region. This result emphasizes the importance of molecular interactions between macromolecular matrix and small bioactive compound in glass-related relaxation phenomena. PMID:21936521

  8. Towards the controlled release of metal nanoparticles from biomaterials: Physico-chemical, morphological and bioactivity features of Cu-containing sol-gel glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aina, Valentina; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Martra, Gianmario; Malavasi, Gianluca; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Menabue, Ledi

    2013-10-01

    Two Cu-containing bioactive glasses were prepared and characterized in order to obtain a detailed description of chemical, morphological and bioactivity proprieties of potential Cu releasing systems. The characterization has demonstrated that by varying the synthesis procedure is possible to obtain two systems with Cu species in two different oxidation states and aggregation: (i) SGCu(ox) - oxidated Cu - (Cu oxidation state +2) homogeneously dispersed in the glass network matrix and (ii) SGCu(red) - metallic Cu - (Cu oxidation state 0) containing nano-particles (5-130 nm range) mainly present on the glass surface. The introduction of Cu maintains the bioactivity of the Cu-containing glasses almost unchanged, inducing a partial delay in the hydroxyapatite/hydroxy-carbonate apatite (HA/HCA) formation on the glass surface with respect to the reference glass (free Cu glass). During the bioactivity test, Cu is released from both Cu-containing glasses, in particular in the case of the SGCu(red) the presence of Cu nanoparticles (CuNPs) of diameter in the range 5-10 nm has been detected in solution.

  9. Bioactive glass coatings affect the behavior of osteoblast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Foppiano, Silvia; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2007-01-01

    Functionally graded coatings (FGCs) of bioactive glass on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) were fabricated by the enameling technique. These innovative coatings may be an alternative to plasma-sprayed, hydroxyapatite-coated implants. Previously we determined that a preconditioning treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF) helped to stabilize FGCs (Foppiano, S., et al., Acta Biomater, 2006; 2(2):133-42). The primary goal of this work was to assess the in vitro cytocompatibility of preconditioned FGCs with MC3T3-E1.4 mouse pre-osteoblastic cells. We evaluated cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization on FGCs in comparison to uncoated Ti6Al4V and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). No difference in cell adhesion was identified, whereas proliferation was significantly different on all materials, being highest on FGCs followed by TCPS and Ti6Al4V. Qualitative and quantitative mineralization assays indicated that mineralization occurred on all materials. The amount of inorganic phosphate released by the mineralizing layers was significantly different, being highest on TCPS, followed by FGC and uncoated Ti6Al4V. The secondary objective of this work was to assess the ability of the FGCs to affect gene expression, indirectly, by means of their dissolution products, which was assessed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The FGC dissolution products induced a 2-fold increase in the expression of Runx-2, and a 20% decrease in the expression of collagen type 1 with respect to TCPS extract. These genes are regulators of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that preconditioned FGCs are cytocompatible and suggest that future work may allow composition changes to induce preferred gene expression. PMID:17466608

  10. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of vancomycin hydrochloride released from agar-gelatin-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneira, Josefina; Di Virgilio, Ana Laura; Audisio, M Carina; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the perfomance of agar-gelatin (AG) composites and AG-containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) microparticles (AGBG) in relation to their water uptake capacity, sustained release of a drug over time, and antibacterial effects. The composites were fabricated by the gel-casting method. To impart the local drug release capacity, vancomycin hydrochloride (VC) was loaded in the composites in concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg ml(-1). VC release was assessed in distilled water at 37 °C up to 72 h and quantified spectrophotometrically. The antibacterial activity of composites was evaluated by the inhibition zone test and the plate count method. The experiments were performed in vitro up to 48 h on three staphylococcus strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, S. aureus ATCC6538 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228. The results showed that the addition of BG to AG composites did not affect the degree of water uptake. The release of VC was significantly affected by the presence of BG. VC release was higher from AGBGVC films than from AGVC ones over prolonged incubation times. Bacterial inhibition zones were found around the composites. The halos were larger when the cells were put in contact with AGVC composites than when they were put in contact with AGBGVC ones. Nevertheless, the viable count method demonstrated that the composites inhibited Staphylococcus cell growth with no statistical differences. In conclusion, the addition of BG did not reflect an improvement in the parameters studied. On the other hand, composites loaded with VC would have a role in prophylaxis against bacterial infection. PMID:25586240

  11. Bioactive glass combined with bisphosphonates provides protection against biofilms formed by the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Anna K; Skogman, Malena E; Rosenqvist, Kirsi; Juvonen, Helka; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Juppo, Anne; Fallarero, Adyary

    2016-03-30

    Biofilms play a pivotal role in the progression of periodontitis and they can be treated with antiseptics (i.e. chlorhexidine) or antibiotics, but these therapeutic alternatives are unable of ameliorating periodontal alveolar bone loss, which has been, on the other hand, successfully treated with bone-preserving agents. The improved bone formation achieved in animal models by the combination of two such agents: bioactive glass (BAG) and bisphosphonates has attracted the interest for further exploring dental applications. However, the antimicrobial effects that may result from combining them have not been yet investigated. Here, our aim was to explore the anti-biofilm effects that could result from combining BAG with bisphosphonates, particularly in a dental biofilm model. The experiments were performed with an oral cavity single-specie (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) biofilm assay, which was optimized in this contribution. Risedronate displayed an intrinsic anti-biofilm effect, and all bisphosphonates, except clodronate, reduced biofilm formation when combined with BAG. In particular, the anti-biofilm activity of risedronate was significantly increased by the combination with BAG. Since it has been proposed that some of the antimicrobial effects of BAG are caused by local pH changes, studies of pH variations were performed to gain a mechanistic understanding. However, the observed anti-biofilm effects could not be explained with lowered pHs. Overall, these results do provide further support for the promising use of bisphosphonate-BAG combinations in dental applications. These findings are particularly relevant for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or osteoporotic patients, which are known to be more vulnerable to periodontitis. In such cases, bisphosphonate treatment could play a double positive effect: local treatment of periodontitis (in combination with BAG) and systemic treatment of osteoporosis, prevention of hypercalcemia and metastases. PMID:26854428

  12. A Novel Injectable Borate Bioactive Glass Cement as an Antibiotic Delivery Vehicle for Treating Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xu; Gu, Yi-Fei; Jia, Wei-Tao; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Wang, Yang; Huang, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background A novel injectable cement composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass (BG) particles was evaluated as a carrier for local delivery of vancomycin in the treatment of osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. Materials and Methods The setting time, injectability, and compressive strength of the borate BG cement, and the release profile of vancomycin from the cement were measured in vitro. The capacity of the vancomycin-loaded BG cement to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced osteomyelitis in rabbit tibiae in vivo was evaluated and compared with that for a vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate (CS) cement and for intravenous injection of vancomycin. Results The BG cement had an injectability of >90% during the first 3 minutes after mixing, hardened within 30 minutes and, after hardening, had a compressive strength of 18±2 MPa. Vancomycin was released from the BG cement into phosphate-buffered saline for up to 36 days, and the cumulative amount of vancomycin released was 86% of the amount initially loaded into the cement. In comparison, vancomycin was released from the CS cement for up 28 days and the cumulative amount released was 89%. Two months post-surgery, radiography and microbiological tests showed that the BG and CS cements had a better ability to eradicate osteomyelitis when compared to intravenous injection of vancomycin, but there was no significant difference between the BG and CS cements in eradicating the infection. Histological examination showed that the BG cement was biocompatible and had a good capacity for regenerating bone in the tibial defects. Conclusions These results indicate that borate BG cement is a promising material both as an injectable carrier for vancomycin in the eradication of osteomyelitis and as an osteoconductive matrix to regenerate bone after the infection is cured. PMID:24427311

  13. Mechanical behaviour of Bioactive Glass granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in load bearing defects.

    PubMed

    Hulsen, D J W; Geurts, J; van Gestel, N A P; van Rietbergen, B; Arts, J J

    2016-05-01

    Bioactive Glass (BAG) granules are osteoconductive and possess unique antibacterial properties for a synthetic biomaterial. To assess the applicability of BAG granules in load-bearing defects, the aim was to compare mechanical behaviour of graft layers consisting of BAG granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in different volume mixtures under clinically relevant conditions. The graft layers were mechanically tested, using two mechanical testing modalities with simulated physiological loading conditions: highly controllable confined compression tests (CCT) and more clinically realistic in situ compression tests (ISCT) in cadaveric porcine bone defects. Graft layer impaction strain, residual strain, aggregate modulus, and creep strain were determined in CCT. Graft layer porosity was determined using micro computed tomography. The ISCT was used to determine graft layer subsidence in bone environment. ANOVA showed significant differences (p<0.001) between different graft layer compositions. True strains absolutely decreased for increasing BAG content: impaction strain -0.92 (allograft) to -0.39 (BAG), residual strain -0.12 to -0.01, and creep strain -0.09 to 0.00 respectively. Aggregate modulus increased with increasing BAG content from 116 to 653MPa. Porosity ranged from 66% (pure allograft) to 15% (pure BAG). Subsidence was highest for allograft, and remarkably low for a 1:1 BAG-allograft volume mixture. Both BAG granules and allograft morsels as stand-alone materials exhibit suboptimal mechanical behaviour for load-bearing purpose. BAG granules are difficult to handle and less porous, whereas allograft subsides and creeps. A 1:1 volume mixture of BAG and allograft is therefore proposed as the best graft material in load-bearing defects. PMID:26972764

  14. Photocurable bioactive bone cement based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate-poly(acrylic/maleic) acid resin and mesoporous sol gel-derived bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on strong and bioactive bone cement based on ternary bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass particles and a photocurable resin comprising hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(acrylic/maleic) acid. The as-cured composite represented a compressive strength of about 95MPa but it weakened during soaking in simulated body fluid, SBF, qua its compressive strength reached to about 20MPa after immersing for 30days. Biodegradability of the composite was confirmed by reducing its initial weight (~32%) as well as decreasing the molecular weight of early cured resin during the soaking procedure. The composite exhibited in vitro calcium phosphate precipitation in the form of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite, which indicates its bone bonding ability. Proliferation of calvarium-derived newborn rat osteoblasts seeded on top of the composite was observed during incubation at 37°C, meanwhile, an adequate cell supporting ability was found. Consequently, it seems that the produced composite is an appropriate alternative for bone defect injuries, because of its good cell responses, high compressive strength and ongoing biodegradability, though more in vivo experiments are essential to confirm this assumption. PMID:27040248

  15. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, Part I: Gallic acid as model molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its derivatives are a group of biomolecules (polyphenols) obtained from plants. They have effects which are potentially beneficial to heath, for example they are antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial, as recently investigated in many fields such as medicine, food and plant sciences. The main drawbacks of these molecules are both low stability and bioavailability. In this research work the opportunity to graft GA to bioactive glasses is investigated, in order to deliver the undamaged biological molecule into the body, using the biomaterial surfaces as a localized carrier. GA was considered for functionalization since it is a good model molecule for polyphenols and presents several interesting biological activities, like antibacterial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Two different silica based bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2), with different reactivity, were employed as substrates. UV photometry combined with the Folin&Ciocalteu reagent was adopted to test the concentration of GA in uptake solution after functionalization. This test verified how much GA consumption occurred with surface modification and it was also used on solid samples to test the presence of GA on functionalized glasses. XPS and SEM-EDS techniques were employed to characterize the modification of material surface properties and functional group composition before and after functionalization.

  16. In vitro bioactivity evaluation, mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Naf, Sherief M.; Khalil, El-Sayed M.; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.; Zayed, Hamdia A.; Youness, Rasha A.

    2015-06-01

    Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been prepared by the melt-quenching method. B2O3 content was systematically increased from 5 to 30 mol%, at the expense of P2O5, in the chemical composition of these glasses. Density, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness of the prepared glasses were measured. In vitro bioactivity of the glasses was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 3, 7, 14 and 30 days. The glasses were tested in the form of glass grains as well as bulk slabs. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The kinetics of degradation of the glass particles were monitored by measuring the weight loss of the particles and the ionic concentration of Ca, P and B in the SBF solution using inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The obtained results revealed the formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, composed of nano-crystallites, on the surface of glass grains after the in vitro assays. The results have been used to understand the formation of HA as a function of glass composition and soaking time in the SBF. It can be pointed out that increasing B2O3 content in glass composition enhances the bioactivity of glasses. The nanometric particle size of the formed HA and in vitro bioactivity of the studied glasses make them possible candidates for tissue engineering application.

  17. Crystallization kinetics of bioactive glasses in the ZnO-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Gianluca; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Pedone, Alfonso; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Dappiaggi, Monica; Gualtieri, Alessandro; Menabue, Ledi

    2007-08-30

    The crystallization kinetics of Na(2)O.CaO.2SiO(2) (x = 0) and 0.68ZnO.Na(2)O.CaO.2SiO(2) (x = 0.68, where x is the ZnO stoichiometric coefficient in the glass formula) bioactive glasses have been studied using both nonisothermal and isothermal methods. The results obtained from isothermal XRPD analyses have showed that the first glass crystallizes into the isochemical Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6) phase, whereas the Na(2)ZnSiO(4) crystalline phase is obtained from the Zn-rich glass, in addition to Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6). The activation energy (Ea) for the crystallization of the Na(2)O.CaO.2SiO(2) glass is 193 +/- 10 and 203 +/- 5 kJ/mol from the isothermal in situ XRPD and nonisothermal DSC experiments, respectively. The Avrami exponent n determined from the isothermal method is 1 at low temperature (530 degrees C), and its value increases linearly with temperature increase up to 2 at 607 degrees C. For the crystallization of Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6) from the Zn-containing glass, higher values of both the crystallization temperature (667 and 661 degrees C) and Ea (223 +/- 10 and 211 +/- 5 kJ/mol) have been found from the isothermal and nonisothermal methods, respectively. The Na(2)ZnSiO(4) crystalline phase crystallizes at lower temperature with respect to Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6), and the Ea value is 266 +/- 20 and 245 +/- 15 kJ/mol from the isothermal and nonisothermal methods, respectively. The results of this work show that the addition of Zn favors the crystallization from the glass at lower temperature with respect to the Zn-free glass. In fact, it causes an increase of Ea for the Na diffusion process, determined using MD simulations, and consequently an overall increase of Ea for the crystallization process of Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6). Our results show good agreement between the Ea and n values obtained with the two different methods and confirm the reliability of the nonisothermal method applied to kinetic crystallization of glassy systems. This study allows the determination of the temperature stability field of the crystalline phases with the view of creating a different glass ceramic useful in the field of bioactive materials. PMID:17676823

  18. Bioactive gyroid scaffolds formed by sacrificial templating of nanocellulose and nanochitin hydrogels as instructive platforms for biomimetic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rendon, Jose Guillermo; Femmer, Tim; De Laporte, Laura; Tigges, Thomas; Rahimi, Khosrow; Gremse, Felix; Zafarnia, Sara; Lederle, Wiltrud; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Wessling, Matthias; Hardy, John G; Walther, Andreas

    2015-05-20

    A sacrificial templating process using lithographically printed minimal surface structures allows complex de novo geo-metries of delicate hydrogel materials. The hydrogel scaffolds based on cellulose and chitin nanofibrils show differences in terms of attachment of human mesenchymal stem cells, and allow their differentiation into osteogenic outcomes. The approach here serves as a first example toward designer hydrogel scaffolds viable for biomimetic tissue engineering. PMID:25833165

  19. The effect of composition on the viscosity, crystallization and dissolution of simple borate glasses and compositional design of borate based bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetschius, Kathryn Lynn

    Borate glasses have recently been developed for a variety of medical applications, but much less is known about their structures and properties than more common silicate glasses. Melt properties and crystallization tendency for compositions in the Na2O-CaO-B2O3 system were characterized using differential thermal analysis and viscosity measurements. Characteristic viscosity (isokom) temperatures varied with the ratio between the modifier content (Na2O+CaO) and B2O3, particularly at lower temperatures, consistent with the changes in the relative concentrations of tetrahedral borons in the glass structure. Similar glasses were used to study dissolution processes in water. These alkali-alkaline earth glasses dissolve congruently and follow linear dissolution kinetics. The dissolution rates were dependent on the glass structure, with slower rates associated with greater fractions of four-coordinated boron. For glasses with a fixed alkaline earth identity, the dissolution rates increased in the order Liglasses with a constant alkali identity, the dissolution rates increased in the order Cabioactive compositions for specific applications. Melt viscosity, thermal expansion coefficient, liquidus temperature and crystallization tendency were determined, as were dissolution rates in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  20. Genotoxicity effects of nano bioactive glass and Novabone bioglass on gingival fibroblasts using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay): An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad; Bateni, Ensiyeh; Rismanchian, Mansour; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Doostmohammadi, Ali; Rabiei, Azim; Sadeghi, Hojat; Etebari, Mahmood; Mirian, Mina

    2012-01-01

    Background: The greater surface of bioactive glass nanoparticles presents an incomparable and promising feature similar to the biological apatite. Nanoparticles improve cellular adhesion, enhance osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and increase biomineralization for periodontal regeneration and dental implants. Considering the fact that interaction between periodontal cells and bone graft materials are important for periodontal lesion regeneration, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxicity of a novel synthesized nanoscale bioactive glass and compared it with Novabone bioglass in periodontal fibroblasts cells, in order to approve the biocompatibility of nano bioactive glass. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, periodontal C165 fibroblasts cells were cultured in their logarithmic phase and the genotoxicity of novel synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles and Novabone bioglass was studied in different concentrations and a control group using Comet assay test. By using Autocomet software, three parameters (Tail length, %DNA in tail, Tail moment) were analyzed; the genotoxicity of mentioned biomaterials and control group. Obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software, Kruskal Wallis H and Mann Whitney tests (P = 0.05). Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between the concentrations of Novabone bioglass (P value = 0.085) with control group and novel nano bioactive glass (P value = 0.437) with control group in the evaluation of %DNA in tail parameter. There was significant difference between genotoxicity of novel nano bioactive glass and control, and between Novabone bioglass and control group in concentrations of 4 and 5 mg/ml. According to significance of the mean difference, novel nano bioactive glass showed higher genotoxicity compared to Novabone bioglass in the concentration of 5 mg/ml (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study have demonstrated that novel nano bioactive glass had no genotoxicity in concentrations lower than 4 mg/ml. Nanoparticles have a higher surface area in comparison to microparticles and thus, the amount and rate of ion release for nanoparticles are extremely higher. This difference is the main reason for the different genotoxicity of nano bioactive glass and micro Novabone bioglass in the concentrations higher than 4 mg/ml. PMID:23087738

  1. In vitro chemical and biological effects of Ag, Cu and Cu + Zn adjunction in 46S6 bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunetel, L.; Wers, E.; Novella, A.; Bodin, A.; Pellen-Mussi, P.; Oudadesse, H.

    2015-09-01

    Three bioactive glasses belonging to the system SiO2-CaO- Na2O-P2O5 elaborated by conventional melt-quenching techniques were doped with silver, copper and copper + zinc. They were characterized using the usual physical methods. Human osteoblast cells Saos-2 and human endothelial cells EAhy926 were used for viability assays and to assess the metallic ions, self toxicity. Human monocyte cells THP-1 were used to measure interleukins IL1β and IL6 release. Glass chemical structures did not vary much on introduction of metal ions. A layer of hydroxyapatite was observed on every glass after 30 days of SBF immersion. A proliferative action was seen on Saos-2 after 24 h of incubation, EAhy926 growth was not affected. For both cell lines, a moderate cytotoxicity was found after 72 h. Dose-dependent toxic effects of Ag, Cu and Zn ions were observed on Saos-2 and EAhy926 cells. Measured CD50 of silver against these two cell lines were 8 to 20 fold lower than copper and zinc’s. Except undoped control glass, all doped glasses tested showed anti-inflammatory properties by preventing IL1β and IL6 excretion by differentiated THP-1. In conclusion, strictly monitored adjunction of metal ions to bioglasses ensures good anti-inflammatory properties without altering their biocompatibility.

  2. Silver Nanoparticle Coated Bioactive Glasses--Composites with Dex/CMC Hydrogels: Characterization, Solubility, and In Vitro Biological Studies.

    PubMed

    Wren, Anthony W; Hassanzadeh, Pegah; Placek, Lana M; Keenan, Timothy J; Coughlan, Aisling; Boutelle, Lydia R; Towler, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    Silver (Ag) coated bioactive glass particles (Ag-BG) were formulated and compared to uncoated controls (BG) in relation to glass characterization, solubility and microbiology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed a crystalline AgNP surface coating while ion release studies determined low Ag release (<2 mg/L). Cell culture studies presented increased cell viability (127 and 102%) with lower liquid extract (50 and 100 ml/ml) concentrations. Antibacterial testing of Ag-BG in E. coli, S. epidermidis and S. aureus significantly reduced bacterial cell viability by 60-90%. Composites of Ag-BG/CMC-Dex Hydrogels were formulated and characterized. Agar diffusion testing was conducted where Ag-BG/hydrogel composites produced the largest inhibition zones of 7 mm (E. coli), 5 mm (S. aureus) and 4 mm (S. epidermidis). PMID:25923463

  3. Stress-corrosion crack growth of Si-Na-K-Mg-Ca-P-O bioactive glasses in simulated human physiological environment

    PubMed Central

    Bloyer, D. R.; McNaney, J. M.; Cannon, R. M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes research on the stress-corrosion crack growth (SCCG) behavior of a new series of bioactive glasses designed to fabricate coatings on Ti and Co-Cr-based implant alloys. These glasses should provide improved implant fixation between implant and exhibit good mechanical stability in vivo. It is then important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control environmentally-assisted crack growth in this new family of glasses and its effect on their reliability. Several compositions have been tested in both static and cyclic loading in simulated body fluid. These show only small dependences of stress-corrosion crack growth behavior on the composition. Traditional SCCG mechanisms for silicate glasses appear to be operative for the new bioactive glasses studied here. At higher velocities, hydrodynamic effects reduce growth rates under conditions that would rarely pertain for small natural flaws in devices. PMID:17714778

  4. UFSRAT: Ultra-Fast Shape Recognition with Atom Types –The Discovery of Novel Bioactive Small Molecular Scaffolds for FKBP12 and 11βHSD1

    PubMed Central

    Shave, Steven; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Adie, Jillian; Houston, Douglas R.; Auer, Manfred; Webster, Scott P.; Taylor, Paul; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Using molecular similarity to discover bioactive small molecules with novel chemical scaffolds can be computationally demanding. We describe Ultra-fast Shape Recognition with Atom Types (UFSRAT), an efficient algorithm that considers both the 3D distribution (shape) and electrostatics of atoms to score and retrieve molecules capable of making similar interactions to those of the supplied query. Results Computational optimization and pre-calculation of molecular descriptors enables a query molecule to be run against a database containing 3.8 million molecules and results returned in under 10 seconds on modest hardware. UFSRAT has been used in pipelines to identify bioactive molecules for two clinically relevant drug targets; FK506-Binding Protein 12 and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. In the case of FK506-Binding Protein 12, UFSRAT was used as the first step in a structure-based virtual screening pipeline, yielding many actives, of which the most active shows a KD, app of 281 µM and contains a substructure present in the query compound. Success was also achieved running solely the UFSRAT technique to identify new actives for 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, for which the most active displays an IC50 of 67 nM in a cell based assay and contains a substructure radically different to the query. This demonstrates the valuable ability of the UFSRAT algorithm to perform scaffold hops. Availability and Implementation A web-based implementation of the algorithm is freely available at http://opus.bch.ed.ac.uk/ufsrat/. PMID:25659145

  5. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  6. Cutaneous and Labyrinthine Tolerance of Bioactive Glass S53P4 in Mastoid and Epitympanic Obliteration Surgery: Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Nguyen, Yann; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Mosnier, Isabelle; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the cutaneous and the inner ear tolerance of bioactive glass S53P4 when used in the mastoid and epitympanic obliteration for chronic otitis surgery. Material and Methods. Forty-one cases have been included in this prospective study. Cutaneous tolerance was clinically evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery with a physical examination of the retroauricular and external auditory canal (EAC) skin and the presence of otalgia; the inner ear tolerance was assessed by bone-conduction hearing threshold 1 day after surgery and by the presence of vertigo or imbalance. Results. All surgeries but 1 were uneventful: all patients maintained the preoperative bone-conduction hearing threshold except for one case in which the round window membrane was opened during the dissection of the cholesteatoma in the hypotympanum and this led to a dead ear. No dizziness or vertigo was reported. Three months after surgery, healing was achieved in all cases with a healthy painless skin. No cases of revision surgery for removal of the granules occurred in this study. Conclusion. The bioactive glass S53P4 is a well-tolerated biomaterial for primary or revision chronic otitis surgery, as shown by the local skin reaction which lasted less than 3 months and by the absence of labyrinthine complications. PMID:26504792

  7. Development of injectable biocomposites from hyaluronic acid and bioactive glass nano-particles obtained from different sol-gel routes.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Mehri; Hesaraki, Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Asghar; Alizadeh, Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Bioactive glass nano-powders with the same chemical composition and different particle characteristics were synthesized by acid-catalyzed (the glass is called BG1) and acid-base catalyzed (BG2) sol-gel processes. Morphological characteristics of powders were determined by TEM and BET methods. The powders were separately mixed with 3% hyaluronic acid solution to form a paste. In vitro reactivity of pastes was determined by soaking them in simulated body fluid. Rheological behaviors of paste in both rotation and oscillation modes were also measured. The results showed that BG1 particles was microporous with mean pore diameter of 1.6 nm and particle size of ~300 nm while BG2 was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 8 and 17 nm and particle size of 20-30 nm. The paste made of BG2 revealed better washout resistance and in vitro apatite formation ability than BG1. According to the rheological evaluations, both pastes exhibited shear thinning but non-thixotropic behavior, meanwhile paste of BG2 had higher viscosity than BG1. The oscillatory tests revealed that the pastes were viscoelastic materials with more viscous nature. Both pastes could be completely injected through standard syringe using low compressive load of 5-50 N. Overall, The biocomposites can potentially be used as bioactive paste for the treatment of hard and even soft tissues. PMID:23910271

  8. Direct cytotoxicity evaluation of 63S bioactive glass and bone-derived hydroxyapatite particles using yeast model and human chondrocyte cells by microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Doostmohammadi, A; Monshi, A; Fathi, M H; Karbasi, S; Braissant, O; Daniels, A U

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the cytotoxicity evaluation of prepared 63S bioactive glass and bone-derived hydroxyapatite particles with yeast and human chondrocyte cells was carried out using isothermal micro-nano calorimetry (IMNC), which is a new method for studying cell/biomaterial interactions. Bioactive glass particles were made via sol-gel method and hydroxyapatite was obtained from bovine bone. Elemental analysis was carried out by XRF and EDXRF. Amorphous structure of the glass and completely crystalline structure of HA were detected by XRD analysis. Finally, the cytotoxicity of bioactive glass and bone-derived HA particles with yeast and cultured human chondrocyte cells was evaluated using IMNC. The results confirmed the viability, growth and proliferation of human chondrocyte cells in contact with 63S bioactive glass, and bone-derived HA particles. Also the results indicated that yeast model which is much easier to handle, can be considered as a good proxy and can provide a rapid primary estimate of the ranges to be used in assays involving human cells. All of these results confirmed that IMNC is a convenient method which caters to measuring the cell-biomaterial interactions alongside the current methods. PMID:21786131

  9. Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-02-01

    The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25591177

  10. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Bioactive Glass-Bone Integration in a Rabbit Tibia Model Using Synchrotron X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenhai; Jia, Weitao; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Liu, Xin; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography (SR microCT), with a micron resolution, was used to evaluate the osteoconduction and osteointegration by borate bioactive glass after implantation 12 weeks in a rabbit tibia model. The study focused on the biomaterial–bone interface. Results from SR microCT two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions provided precise imaging of the biomaterial–bone integration and detailed microarchitecture of both the bone-like glass graft and the newly formed trabecular bone. Osteoconduction, the formation of new trabecular bone within a tibia defect, occurred only in the tibiae implanted with teicoplanin-loaded borate glass but not in those with teicoplanin-loaded CaSO4 beads, indicating the excellent biocompatibility of the glass implants. 3D reconstruction of the tibiae also showed the infiltration of vascular tissue in both the bioactive glass graft and the new trabecular bone. This study indicates that SR microCT can serve as a valuable complementary technique for imaging bone repair when using bioactive glass implants. PMID:21875330

  11. Toward a Rational Design of Bioactive Glasses with Optimal Structural Features: Composition–Structure Correlations Unveiled by Solid-State NMR and MD Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The physiological responses of silicate-based bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to depend critically on both the P content (nP) of the glass and its silicate network connectivity (N̅BOSi). However, while the bioactivity generally displays a nonmonotonic dependence on nP itself, recent work suggest that it is merely the net orthophosphate content that directly links to the bioactivity. We exploit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with 31P and 29Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to explore the quantitative relationships between N̅BOSi, nP, and the silicate and phosphate speciations in a series of Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 glasses spanning 2.1 ≤ N̅BOSi ≤ 2.9 and variable P2O5 contents up to 6.0 mol %. The fractional population of the orthophosphate groups remains independent of nP at a fixed N̅BOSi-value, but is reduced slightly as N̅BOSi increases. Nevertheless, P remains predominantly as readily released orthophosphate ions, whose content may be altered essentially independently of the network connectivity, thereby offering a route to optimize the glass bioactivity. We discuss the observed composition-structure links in relation to known composition-bioactivity correlations, and define how Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 compositions exhibiting an optimal bioactivity can be designed by simultaneously altering three key parameters: the silicate network connectivity, the (ortho)phosphate content, and the nNa/nCa molar ratio. PMID:24364818

  12. Bioactive titanate nanomesh layer on the Ti-based bulk metallic glass by hydrothermal-electrochemical technique.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Naota; Xu, HaiYan; Onoki, Takamasa; Hoshikawa, Yasuto; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Wang, Xinmin; Qin, FengXiang; Fukuhara, Mikio; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Abe, Nobuyuki; Komizo, Yuichi; Inoue, Akihisa; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    Titanate nanomesh layers were fabricated on Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) to induce bioactivity in the form of apatite-forming ability. Titanate nanomesh layers were prepared by hydrothermal-electrochemical treatment at 90 degrees C for 2 h, with an aqueous solution of NaOH as an electrolyte. A constant electric current of 0.5 mA cm(-2) was applied between the BMG substrate and a Pt electrode acting as the anode and cathode, respectively. A nanomesh layer, consisting of nanowires (approximately 20 nm in diameter) formed on the BMG. An immersion test in simulated body fluid for 12 days revealed that the titanate nanomesh layer on the BMG promoted the growth of bone-like hydroxyapatite. PMID:19022712

  13. Gold-containing bioactive glasses: a solid-state synthesis to produce alternative biomaterials for bone implantations

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Valentina; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Martra, Gianmario; Bergandi, Loredana; Costamagna, Costanzo; Ghigo, Dario; Malavasi, Gianluca; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Menabue, Ledi

    2013-01-01

    A new melted bioactive system containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared exploiting a post-synthesis thermal treatment that allows one to modify crystal phases and nature, shape and distribution of the gold species in the glass-ceramic matrix as evidenced by UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. In human MG-63 osteoblasts the presence of Aun+ species caused an increase of lactate dehydrogenase leakage and malonyldialdehyde production, whereas Hench's Bioglass HAu-600-17 containing only AuNPs did not cause any effect. In addition, HAu-600-17 caused in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and an increase of specific surface area with a controlled release of gold species; this material is then suitable to be used as a model system for the controlled delivery of nanoparticles. PMID:23427096

  14. Sonochemical processing and characterization of composite materials based on soy protein and alginate containing micron-sized bioactive glass particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Raquel; Bulut, Buse; Roether, Judith A.; Kaschta, Joachim; Schubert, Dirk W.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-09-01

    Novel composite hydrogels based on the combination of natural polymers; namely alginate and soy protein isolate, and bioactive glass (BG) particles (mean size: 2 μm) were developed. For this purpose a sonochemical approach was used and homogeneous composite hydrogels, incorporating two concentrations of BG particles, were successfully obtained. Further physico-chemical characterization was performed in order to evaluate the influence of each component on hydrogel properties. The water uptake ability, weight loss, protein release, as well as FTIR, SEM and DMTA characterization were carried out. The biomineralization process in simulated body fluid (SBF) was followed over time and the results demonstrated that the composite materials have the ability to form a surface apatite layer after 7 days in SBF. The design of novel composite hydrogels based on soy protein, alginate and BG can be a suitable approach for bone regeneration applications.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of ZnO/alginate and ZnO-bioactive glass/alginate composite coatings for antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Arias, L; Cabanas-Polo, S; Goudouri, O M; Misra, S K; Gilabert, J; Valsami-Jones, E; Sanchez, E; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2015-10-01

    Two organic/inorganic composite coatings based on alginate, as organic matrix, and zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO) with and without bioactive glass (BG), as inorganic components, intended for biomedical applications, were developed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Different n-ZnO (1-10 g/L) and BG (1-1.5 g/L) contents were studied for a fixed alginate concentration (2 g/L). The presence of n-ZnO was confirmed to impart antibacterial properties to the coatings against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, while the BG induced the formation of hydroxyapatite on coating surfaces thereby imparting bioactivity, making the coating suitable for bone replacement applications. Coating composition was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study both the surface and the cross section morphology of the coatings. Polarization curves of the coated substrates made in cell culture media at 37 °C confirmed the corrosion protection function of the novel organic/inorganic composite coatings. PMID:26117748

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a polylactic acid-bioactive glass composite for bone fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Vergnol, Gwenaelle; Ginsac, Nathalie; Rivory, Pascaline; Meille, Sylvain; Chenal, Jean-Marc; Balvay, Sandra; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hartmann, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) is nowadays among the most used bioabsorbable materials for medical devices. To promote bone growth on the material surface and increase the degradation rate of the polymer, research is currently focused on organic-inorganic composites by adding a bioactive mineral to the polymer matrix. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of a poly(L,DL-lactide)-Bioglass® (P(L,DL)LA-Bioglass(®) 45S5) composite to be used as a bone fixation device. In vitro cell viability testing of P(l,dl)LA based composites containing different amounts of Bioglass(®) 45S5 particles was investigated. According to the degradation rate of the P(L,DL)LA matrix and the cytocompatibility experiments, the composite with 30 wt % of Bioglass® particles seemed to be the best candidate for further investigation. To study its behavior after immersion in simulated physiological conditions, the degradation of the composite was analyzed by measuring its weight loss and mechanical properties and by proceeding with X-ray tomography. We demonstrated that the presence of the bioactive glass significantly accelerated the in vitro degradation of the polymer. A preliminary in vivo investigation on rabbits shows that the addition of 30 wt % of Bioglass(®) in the P(L,DL)LA matrix seems to trigger bone osseointegration especially during the first month of implantation. This composite has thus strong potential interest for health applications. PMID:25677798

  17. Bio-templated bioactive glass particles with hierarchical macro-nano porous structure and drug delivery capability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Bortuzzo, Judith A; Liu, Yufang; Li, Wei; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Roether, Judith; Lu, Miao; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-11-01

    Hierarchically porous bioactive glass particles (BGPs) were synthesized by a facile sol-gel process using pollen grains as the templates. The synthesized pollen-templated bioactive glass particles (PBGPs) exhibited dual macro-nano porous structure. The macro pores (∼ 1 μm) were inherited from the template of pollen grains while the nano pores (∼ 9.5 nm) were induced by the intrinsic mechanism of the sol-gel process. PBGPs possessed a high specific surface area (111.4m(2)/g) and pore volume (0.35 cm(3)/g). Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on PBGPs was detected within 3 days after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Due to their larger specific surface area and pore volume, PBGPs could be loaded with more tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) than non-templated BGPs and conventional melt-derived 45S5 BGPs. In addition, PBGPs exhibited a low initial burst release (within 10% of the loaded amount) within 18 h and a sustained release with a two-stage release pattern for up to 6 days in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The antibacterial assay confirmed that the TCH-loaded PBGPs could release TCH within 5 days, and the released TCH could reach the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Escherichia coli. MTT assay indicated that PBGPs showed non-cytotoxic effects toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) cells after co-culture for up to 72 h in vitro. These results showed that the biocompatible hierarchically macro-nano porous PBGPs are potential for bone regeneration and local drug delivery applications. PMID:25858191

  18. Composite bone substitute materials based on beta-tricalcium phosphate and magnesium-containing sol-gel derived bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, Saeed; Safari, Mojgan; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, bioceramic composites with improved mechanical and biological properties were synthesized by sintering mixtures of beta-tricalcium phosphate and SiO(2)-CaO-MgO-P(2)O(5) sol-gel derived bioactive glass at 1000-1200 degrees C. The physical, mechanical, structural and biological properties of the composites were evaluated by appropriate experiments such as microhardness, bending strength, XRD, SEM and MTT. The results showed that 1000 and 1100 degrees C were not appropriate temperatures for sintering the composites and in contrast, the microhardness, bending strength and bulk density significantly increased by increasing in quantity of bioglass phase when the samples were sintered at 1200 degrees C. No significant difference was found between the fracture toughness of the composites and pure beta-tricalcium phosphate. beta-tricalcium phosphate was structurally stable up to 1200 degrees C and did not transform to its alpha form even in the presence of the bioglass phase but migration of magnesium cations from the glass composition into its lattice structure was found by right-shift in XRD patterns, especially when the composite contained higher amount of bioglass component. Calcium silicate was also crystallized in the composition of the composites, which was more detectable in higher sintering temperatures. The results of the MTT test showed that proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells on the composites was considerably better than that of pure beta-TCP. PMID:19466530

  19. Antibacterial properties of laser spinning glass nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Echezarreta-López, M M; De Miguel, T; Quintero, F; Pou, J; Landin, M

    2014-12-30

    A laser-spinning technique has been used to produce amorphous, dense and flexible glass nanofibers of two different compositions with potential utility as reinforcement materials in composites, fillers in bone defects or scaffolds (3D structures) for tissue engineering. Morphological and microstructural analyses have been carried out using SEM-EDX, ATR-FTIR and TEM. Bioactivity studies allow the nanofibers with high proportion in SiO2 (S18/12) to be classified as a bioinert glass and the nanofibers with high proportion of calcium (ICIE16) as a bioactive glass. The cell viability tests (MTT) show high biocompatibility of the laser spinning glass nanofibers. Results from the antibacterial activity study carried out using dynamic conditions revealed that the bioactive glass nanofibers show a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on Sthaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) while the bioinert glass nanofibers show a bacteriostatic effect also dose-dependent. The antibacterial activity has been related to the release of alkaline ions, the increase of pH of the medium and also the formation of needle-like aggregates of calcium phosphate at the surface of the bioactive glass nanofibers which act as a physical mechanism against bacteria. The antibacterial properties give an additional value to the laser-spinning glass nanofibers for different biomedical applications, such as treating or preventing surgery-associated infections. PMID:25447823

  20. [Use of bioactive glass ceramic material Biociyal-11 - experimental substantiation for jaw bone defects replacement].

    PubMed

    Bezzubik, S D; Grechukha, A M

    2009-01-01

    Pequliarities of morphologic osseous reparation of jaw bone defects in 15 non-bred dogs after implantation of different forms of glass crystal material Biocital-11 and blood clot on 7, 14, 21, 30 and 180th day after operation were shown. High biocompatibility of the material Biocital-11 with expressed osseous conductive function was disclosed. PMID:19692946

  1. Treatment of tooth fracture by medium-energy CO2 laser and DP-bioactive glass paste: the interaction of enamel and DP-bioactive glass paste during irradiation by CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, C P; Tseng, Y C; Lin, F H; Liao, J D; Lan, W H

    2001-03-01

    Acute trauma or trauma associated with occlusal disturbance can produce tooth crack or fracture. Although several methods are proposed to treat the defect, however, the prognosis is generally poor. If the fusion of a tooth fracture by laser is possible, it will offer an alternative to extraction or at least serve as an adjunctive treatment in the reconstruction. We have tried to use a continuous-wave CO2 laser and a newly developed DP-bioactive glass paste (DPGP) to fuse or bridge tooth crack or fracture lines. Both the DP-bioactive glass paste and tooth enamel have strong absorption bands at the wavelength of 10.6 microm. Therefore, under CO2 laser, DPGP and enamel should have an effective absorption and melt together. The interface between DPGP and enamel could be regarded as a mixture of DPGP and enamel (DPG-E). The study focused on the phase transformation, microstructure, functional group and thermal behavior of DPG-E with or without CO2 laser irradiation, by the analytical techniques of XRD, FTIR, DTA/TGA, and SEM. The results of XRD showed that the main crystal phase in the DPG-E was dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4.2H2O). It changed into CaHPO4, gamma-Ca2P2O7, beta-Ca2P2O7 and finally alpha-Ca2P2O7 with increasing temperature. In the FTIR analysis, the 720 cm(-1) absorption band ascribed to the P-O-P linkage in pyrophosphate rose up and the intensities of the OH- bands reduced after laser irradiation. In regard to the results of DTA/TGA after irradiation, the weight loss decreased due to the removal of part of absorption water and crystallization water by the CO2 laser. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight chemical bond between the enamel and DPGP. We expect that DPGP with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. PMID:11214760

  2. Micro-structural evolution and biomineralization behavior of carbon nanofiber/bioactive glass composites induced by precursor aging time.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaolong; Tang, Tianhong; Cheng, Dan; Zhang, Cuihua; Zhang, Ran; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive glass (BG)-containing carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are promising orthopaedic biomaterials. Herein, CNF composites were produced from electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/BG sol-gel precursor solution, followed by carbonization. Choosing 58S-type BG (mol%: 58.0% SiO2-26.3% CaO-15.7% P2O5) as the model, micro-structural evolution of CNF/BG composites was systematically evaluated in relating to aging times of BG precursor solution. With aging time prolonging, BG precursors underwent morphological changes from small sol clusters with loosely and randomly branched structure to highly crosslinked Si-network structure, showing continuous increase in solution viscosity. BG precursor solution with low viscosity could mix well with PAN solution, resulting in CNF composite with homogeneously distributed BG component. Whereas, BG precursor gel with densely crosslinked Si-network structure led to uneven distribution of BG component along final CNFs due to its significant phase separation from PAN component. Meanwhile, BG nanoparticles in CNFs demonstrated micro-structural evolution that they transited from weak to strong crystal state along with longer aging time. Biomineralization in simulated body fluid and in vitro osteoblasts proliferation were then applied to determine the bioactivity of CNF/BG composites. CNF/BG composites prepared from shorter aging time could induce both faster apatite deposition and cell proliferation rate. It was suggested weakly crystallized BG nanoparticles along CNFs dissolved fast and was able to provide numerous nucleation sites for apatite deposition, which also favored the proliferation of osteoblasts cells. Aging time could thus be a useful tool to regulate the biological features of CNF/BG composites. PMID:26454549

  3. Biocompatible and bioactive nanostructured glass coatings synthesized by pulsed laser deposition: In vitro biological tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, A. C.; Sima, F.; Duta, L.; Popescu, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Capitanu, D.; Mustata, R.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.; Janackovic, D.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the synthesis by pulsed laser deposition with a KrF* excimer laser source ( λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) of bioglass thin films of 6P57 and 6P61 types. Physiology, viability, and proliferation of human osteoblast cells were determined by quantitative in vitro tests performed by flow cytometry on primary osteoblasts cultured on pulsed laser deposited bioglasses. Both types of glass films proved to be appropriate mediums for cell survival and proliferation. In a parallel investigation, cell morphology and adhesion to the surface was studied by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Strong bonds between the materials and cells were found in both cases, as osteoblast pseudopodes penetrated deep into the material. According to our observations, the 6P57 glass films were superior with respect to viability and proliferation performances.

  4. Oxygen diffusion in marine-derived tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, E; Belova, I V; Murch, G E; Boccaccini, A R; Fiedler, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses the computation of the effective diffusivity in new bioactive glass (BG) based tissue engineering scaffolds. High diffusivities facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to grown tissue as well as the rapid disposal of toxic waste products. The present study addresses required novel types of bone tissue engineering BG scaffolds that are derived from natural marine sponges. Using the foam replication method, the scaffold geometry is defined by the porous structure of Spongia Agaricina and Spongia Lamella. These sponges present the advantage of attaining scaffolds with higher mechanical properties (2-4 MPa) due to a decrease in porosity (68-76%). The effective diffusivities of these structures are compared with that of conventional scaffolds based on polyurethane (PU) foam templates, characterised by high porosity (>90%) and lower mechanical properties (>0.05 MPa). Both the spatial and directional variations of diffusivity are investigated. Furthermore, the effect of scaffold decomposition due to immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the diffusivity is addressed. Scaffolds based on natural marine sponges are characterised by lower oxygen diffusivity due to their lower porosity compared with the PU replica foams, which should enable the best oxygen supply to newly formed bone according the numerical results. The oxygen diffusivity of these new BG scaffolds increases over time as a consequence of the degradation in SBF. PMID:26111951

  5. 45S5Bioglass®-based scaffolds coated with selenium nanoparticles or with poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/selenium particles: Processing, evaluation and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Filipović, Nenad; Djurdjević, Jelena; Lukić, Miodrag; Milenković, Marina; Boccaccini, Aldo

    2015-08-01

    In the bone tissue engineering field, there is a growing interest in the application of bioactive glass scaffolds (45S5Bioglass(®)) due to their bone bonding ability, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. However, such scaffolds still lack some of the required functionalities to enable the successful formation of new bone, e.g. effective antibacterial properties. A large number of studies suggest that selenium (Se) has significant role in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNp) have also been reported to possess antibacterial as well as antiviral activities. In this investigation, uniform, stable, amorphous SeNp have been synthesized and additionally immobilized within spherical PLGA particles (PLGA/SeNp). These particles were used to coat bioactive glass-based scaffolds synthesized by the foam replica method. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SeNp, 45S5Bioglass(®)/SeNp and 45S5Bioglass(®)/PLGA/SeNp showed a considerable antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, one of the main causative agents of orthopedic infections. The functionalized Se-coated bioactive glass scaffolds represent a new family of bioactive, antibacterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26047884

  6. Morphology of sealant/enamel interface after surface treatment with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda; Silveira, Renata Espíndola; Abuna, Gabriel; Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze, by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the morphology of sealant/enamel interface after surface treatment with Biosilicate. Before pits and fissures sealing, the occlusal surfaces of 10 sound human molars were sectioned perpendicularly at the fissures in order to obtain three slices for each tooth. Slices were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10) according to sealing protocol: Group 1- Acid etching + Biosilicate + glass ionomer-based sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE); Group 2- Acid etching + glass ionomer-based sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE); Group 3- No sealing. All slices were subjected to thermal cycling (5,000 cycles; 5-55°C; dwell time: 30s). Half of the slices from each group (n = 5) were analyzed by CLSM and the other half by SEM. Groups 1 and 2 were also submitted to EDS analysis and their data were evaluated by Two-Way ANOVA e Tukey's test (α=5%). EDS data analysis showed higher amounts of silicon (Si) ions than calcium (Ca) ions in Group 1 (P < 0.05); Group 2 presented higher amounts (P < 0.05) of Ca ions than Si ions. It may be concluded that the use of Biosilicate for surface treatment did not affect the morphology of glass ionomer-based sealant/enamel interfaces. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:1062-1068, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26499474

  7. Pulsed laser ablation and deposition of bioactive glass as coating material for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, L.; Teghil, R.; Zaccagnino, M.; Zaccardo, I.; Ferro, D.; Marotta, V.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the laser ablation and deposition, on Ti-Al substrates, of a biologically active glass (Bioglass®) suitable for bone implants is reported. The analysis of the gaseous phase by emission spectroscopy and the characterisation of the films from a compositional and morphological point of view have been carried out. The mean chemical composition of the deposits obtained from Bioglass ablation is very close to the target composition and the morphology indicates that different mechanisms of material ejection are present.

  8. Preparation, structure and bioactivity of xAu 2O 3·(100 - x)[P 2O 5·CaO] glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regos, Adriana N.; Ardelean, I.

    2011-12-01

    Gold doped calcium phosphate glasses were prepared by the melting method. The structure of Au 2O 3-P 2O 5-CaO glasses is investigated using X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption and Raman scattering. The depth characterization of their structures is essential for the understanding of the properties of biocompatible materials. Thermal analysis DTA and TGA were also made to study behavior under different temperature regions and to see chemical changes versus time and temperature of these glasses. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those in human blood plasma. Formation of bioactive apatite layer on the samples treated in SBF for 28 days at 37 °C was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of SBF soaking induces structural changes on the surface, reflected by the appearance of nano-crystalline particles agglomerated into micro-aggregates.

  9. Effect of ZrO(2) additions on the crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Meng, X G; Chen, C Z

    2014-06-01

    A series of ZrO(2) doped MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics were obtained by sintering method. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, morphology and structure of glass-ceramics were characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, micro-hardness and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of glass-ceramics were investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests were used to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of glass-ceramics. The sedimentation mechanism and growth process of apatites on sample surface were discussed. The results showed that the mainly crystalline phases of glass-ceramics were Ca(5)(PO4)3F (fluorapatite) and β-CaSiO(3). (β-wollastonite). m-ZrO(2) (monoclinic zirconia) declined the crystallization temperatures of glasses. t-ZrO(2) (tetragonal zirconia) increased the crystallization temperature of Ca(5)(PO4)(3)F and declined the crystallization temperature of β-CaSiO(3). t-ZrO(2) greatly increased the fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness of glass-ceramics. The nanometer apatites were induced on the surface of glass-ceramic after soaking 28 days in SBF (simulated body fluid), indicating the glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. The in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated the glass-ceramic has no toxicity to cell. PMID:24780435

  10. Incorporation of amino acids within the surface reactive layers of bioactive glass in vitro: an XPS study.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, T A; Davies, J E

    2000-01-01

    Surface reaction layers grown on bioactive glass (Bioglass), by immersion in either simulated body fluid (SBF) or minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) for 2, 5, 32 and 72 h, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Layers grown in alpha-MEM exhibited delamination when observed in SEM. Low resolution XPS analysis detected nitrogen at the surface of the Bioglass exposed to alpha-MEM for 72 h (8 relative at%), whereas insignificant nitrogen was found at the surface of any sample immersed in SBF. XPS depth profiling (argon) showed the presence of nitrogen throughout the depth of the surface layer of the sample incubated in alpha-MEM for 72 h. Deconvolution of the nitrogen envelope in a high resolution XPS spectrum demonstrated nitrogen characteristic of the amine bonds present in amino acids. Carbon concentration also considerably increased over time with exposure to alpha-MEM (24-55%), whereas it remained in the 20-25% range in SBF. These results demonstrate that the amino acids contained in the culture medium were incorporated within the growing calcium phosphate rich surface reaction layer of Bioglass. PMID:15348094

  11. CaO-P2O5 glass hydroxyapatite double-layer plasma-sprayed coating: in vitro bioactivity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M P; Monteiro, F J; Santos, J D

    1999-06-15

    Double-layer composite coatings composed of a P2O5-based glass/Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HA) mixture top layer and a simple HA underlayer, on Ti-6Al-4V substrates, were prepared using a plasma-spraying technique. The in vitro bioactivity of these coatings was assessed by immersion testing in simulated body fluid. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and the ionic solution changes followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the molybdenum blue method demonstrated that these composite coatings induce a faster surface Ca-P layer formation than the simple HA coatings used as a control. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated that the Ca-P layer formed was apatite. The combination of SEM and XPS analyses showed that the apatite layer was a calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite with a Ca/P ranging from 1.3 to 1.4 with CO3(2-) groups contained in the structure. PMID:10321711

  12. Reactivity of glass-embedded met hemoglobin derivatives towards external NO: implications for nitrite-mediated production of bioactive NO

    PubMed Central

    Navati, Mahantesh S.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    Many protein reactions are exceedingly difficult to dissect under standard conditions due to low concentrations of reactants and intermediates. A case in point, are several proposed reactions of hemoglobin with both nitrite and nitric oxide. In the present work, glassy matrices are used to dynamically control the rate at which externally introduced gaseous NO accesses and reacts with several different met Hb derivatives including the nitrite, nitrate and aquomet forms. This novel yet general approach reveals a clear difference between nitrite and other ligands including nitrate, water and an internal imidazole. Whereas for nitrate, water and the internal distal imidazole, the observed spectral changes indicate that NO entering the distal heme pocket is effective in displacing these ligands from the ferric heme iron. In contrast, when the ligand is nitrite, the resulting initial spectra indicate the formation of an intermediate that has distinctly ferrous-like properties. The spectrum and the response of DAF fluorescence to the presence of the intermediate is consistent with a recently proposed nitrite anhydrase reaction. This proposed intermediate is especially significant in that it represents a pathway for a nitrite-dependent catalytic process whereby Hb generates relatively long lived bioactive forms of NO such as S-nitrosoglutathione. The failure to form this intermediate either at low pH or when the glass is extensively dried is consistent with the requirement for a specific conformation of reactants and residue side chains within the distal heme pocket. PMID:19663497

  13. Local structures of mesoporous bioactive glasses and their surface alterations in vitro: inferences from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Gunawidjaja, Philips N.; Mathew, Renny; Lo, Andy Y. H.; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; García, Ana; Arcos, Daniel; Mattias Edén, María Vallet-Regí

    2012-01-01

    We review the benefits of using 29Si and 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for probing the local structures of both bulk and surface portions of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO–SiO2−(P2O5) system. These mesoporous materials exhibit an ordered pore arrangement, and are promising candidates for improved bone and tooth implants. We discuss experimental MAS NMR results from three MBGs displaying different Ca, Si and P contents: the 29Si NMR spectra were recorded either directly by employing radio-frequency pulses to 29Si, or by magnetization transfers from neighbouring protons using cross polarization, thereby providing quantitative information about the silicate speciation present in the pore wall and at the MBG surface, respectively. The surface modifications were monitored for the three MBGs during their immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for intervals between 30 min and one week. The results were formulated as a reaction sequence describing the interconversions between the distinct silicate species. We generally observed a depletion of Ca2+ ions at the MBG surface, and a minor condensation of the silicate-surface network over one week of SBF soaking. PMID:22349247

  14. Bioactive borate glass promotes the repair of radius segmental bone defects by enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieyuan; Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Wenhai; Guo, Shangchun; Niu, Xin; Xie, Zongping; Wang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive borate glass (BG) has emerged as a promising alternative for bone regeneration due to its high osteoinductivity, osteoconductivity, compressive strength, and biocompatibility. However, the role of BG in large segmental bone repair is unclear and little is known about the underlying mechanism of BG's osteoinductivity. In this study, we demonstrated that BG possessed pro-osteogenic effects in an experimental model of critical-sized radius defects. Transplanting BG to radius defects resulted in better repair of bone defects as compared to widely used β-TCP. Histological and morphological analysis indicated that BG significantly enhanced new bone formation. Furthermore, the degradation rate of the BG was faster than that of β-TCP, which matched the higher bone regeneration rate. In addition, ions from BG enhanced cell viability, ALP activity, and osteogenic-related genes expression. Mechanistically, the critical genes Smad1/5 and Dlx5 in the BMP pathway and p-Smad1/5 proteins were significantly elevated after BG transplantation, and these effects could be blocked by the BMP/Smad specific inhibitor. Taken together, our findings suggest that BG could repair large segmental bone defects through activating the BMP/Smad pathway and osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs. PMID:26586668

  15. Instrumented spondylodesis in degenerative spondylolisthesis with bioactive glass and autologous bone: a prospective 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Frantzén, Janek; Rantakokko, Juho; Aro, Hannu T; Heinänen, Jyrki; Kajander, Sami; Gullichsen, Eero; Kotilainen, Esa; Lindfors, Nina C

    2011-10-01

    A prospective long-term follow-up study of bioactive glass (BAG)-S53P4 and autogenous bone (AB) used as bone graft substitutes for posterolateral spondylodesis in treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis during 1996 to 1998 was conducted. The surgical procedure was a standardized instrumented posterolateral fusion that used USS/VAS. BAG was implanted on the left side of the fusion bed and AB on the right side. The operative outcome was evaluated on x-rays and computed tomography scans, and a clinical examination was also performed. Seventeen patients (12 women, 5 men) participated in the 11-year follow-up. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score at the follow-up was 21 (range 0 to 52), compared with 49 (range 32 to 64) at the preoperative time. A solid bony fusion was seen on computed tomography scans on the AB side in all patients and on the BAG side in 12 patients. The fusion rate of all fusion sites (n=41) for BAG as a bone substitute was 88% at the L4/5 level and 88% at the L5/S1 level. The use of BAG as a bone graft extender can be considered as a good alternative in spinal surgery in the future. PMID:21909036

  16. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  17. Morphological and mechanical characterization of composite bone cement containing polymethylmethacrylate matrix functionalized with trimethoxysilyl and bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Puska, Mervi; Moritz, Niko; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-06-01

    Medical polymers of biostable nature (e.g. polymethylmetacrylate, PMMA) are widely used in various clinical applications. In this study, novel PMMA-based composite bone cement was prepared. Bioactive glass (BAG) particulate filler (30wt%) was added to enhance potentially the integration of bone to the cement. The polymer matrix was functionalized with trimethoxysilyl to achieve an interfacial bond between the matrix and the fillers of BAG. The amount of trimethoxysilyl in the monomer system varied from 0 to 75wt%. The effects of dry and wet (simulated body fluid, SBF at +37°C for 5 weeks) conditions were investigated. In total, 20 groups of specimens were prepared. The specimens were subjected to a destructive mechanical test in compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) were used to study the surface and the three-dimensional morphology of the specimens. The results of the study indicated that the addition of trimethoxysilyl groups led to the formation of a hybrid polymer matrix which, in lower amounts (<10wt% of total weight), did not significantly affect the compression properties. However, when the specimens stored in dry and wet conditions were compared, the water sorption increased the compression strength (~5-10MPa per test group). At the same time, the water sorption also caused an evident porous structure formation for the specimens containing BAG and siloxane formation in the hybrid polymer matrix. PMID:26741375

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Chitosan-Nanobioglass 3D Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Maji, Kanchan; Dasgupta, Sudip; Pramanik, Krishna; Bissoyi, Akalabya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize bioglass-natural biopolymer based composite scaffold and evaluate its bone regeneration ability. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (58S) in the size range of 20-30 nm were synthesized using sol-gel method. Porous scaffolds with varying bioglass composition from 10 to 30 wt% in chitosan, gelatin matrix were fabricated using the method of freeze drying of its slurry at 40 wt% solids loading. Samples were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain interconnected porous 3D microstructure with improved mechanical strength. The prepared scaffolds exhibited >80% porosity with a mean pore size range between 100 and 300 microns. Scaffold containing 30 wt% bioglass (GCB 30) showed a maximum compressive strength of 2.2 ± 0.1 MPa. Swelling and degradation studies showed that the scaffold had excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. GCB 30 scaffold was shown to be noncytotoxic and supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation as indicated by MTT assay and RUNX-2 expression. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioglass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, the study showed that the developed composite scaffolds are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue. PMID:26884764

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Chitosan-Nanobioglass 3D Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Kanchan; Dasgupta, Sudip; Pramanik, Krishna; Bissoyi, Akalabya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize bioglass-natural biopolymer based composite scaffold and evaluate its bone regeneration ability. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (58S) in the size range of 20–30 nm were synthesized using sol-gel method. Porous scaffolds with varying bioglass composition from 10 to 30 wt% in chitosan, gelatin matrix were fabricated using the method of freeze drying of its slurry at 40 wt% solids loading. Samples were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain interconnected porous 3D microstructure with improved mechanical strength. The prepared scaffolds exhibited >80% porosity with a mean pore size range between 100 and 300 microns. Scaffold containing 30 wt% bioglass (GCB 30) showed a maximum compressive strength of 2.2 ± 0.1 MPa. Swelling and degradation studies showed that the scaffold had excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. GCB 30 scaffold was shown to be noncytotoxic and supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation as indicated by MTT assay and RUNX-2 expression. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioglass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, the study showed that the developed composite scaffolds are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue. PMID:26884764

  20. Effect of Aminated Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles on the Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kang, Min-Sil; Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous bioactive nanoparticles (MBNs) have been developed as promising additives to various types of bone or dentin regenerative material. However, biofunctionality of MBNs as dentin regenerative additive to dental materials have rarely been studied. We investigated the uptake efficiency of MBNs-NH2 with their endocytosis pathway and the role of MBNs-NH2 in odontogenic differentiation to clarify inherent biofunctionality. MBNs were fabricated by sol-gel synthesis, and 3% APTES was used to aminate these nanoparticles (MBNs-NH2) to reverse their charge from negative to positive. To characterize the MBNs-NH2, TEM, XRD, FTIR, zeta(ξ)-potential measurements, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis were performed. After primary cultured rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) were incubated with various concentrations of MBNs-NH2, stem cell viability (24 hours) with or without differentiated media, internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs (~4 hours) via specific endocytosis pathway, intra or extracellular ion concentration and odontoblastic differentiation (~28 days) were investigated. Incubation with up to 50 μg/mL of MBNs-NH2 had no effect on rDPSCs viability with differentiated media (p>0.05). The internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs was determined about 92% after 4 hours of incubation. Uptake was significantly decreased with ATP depletion and after 1 hour of pre-treatment with the inhibitor of macropinocytosis (p<0.05). There was significant increase of intracellular Ca and Si ion concentration in MBNs-NH2 treated cells compared to no-treated counterpart (p<0.05). The expression of odontogenic-related genes (BSP, COL1A, DMP-1, DSPP, and OCN) and the capacity for biomineralization (based on alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red staining) were significantly upregulated with MBNs-NH2. These results indicate that MBNs-NH2 induce odontogenic differentiation of rDPSCs and may serve as a potential dentin regenerative additive to dental material for promoting odontoblast differentiation. PMID:26974668

  1. Effect of Aminated Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles on the Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kang, Min-Sil; Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous bioactive nanoparticles (MBNs) have been developed as promising additives to various types of bone or dentin regenerative material. However, biofunctionality of MBNs as dentin regenerative additive to dental materials have rarely been studied. We investigated the uptake efficiency of MBNs-NH2 with their endocytosis pathway and the role of MBNs-NH2 in odontogenic differentiation to clarify inherent biofunctionality. MBNs were fabricated by sol-gel synthesis, and 3% APTES was used to aminate these nanoparticles (MBNs-NH2) to reverse their charge from negative to positive. To characterize the MBNs-NH2, TEM, XRD, FTIR, zeta(ξ)-potential measurements, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis were performed. After primary cultured rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) were incubated with various concentrations of MBNs-NH2, stem cell viability (24 hours) with or without differentiated media, internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs (~4 hours) via specific endocytosis pathway, intra or extracellular ion concentration and odontoblastic differentiation (~28 days) were investigated. Incubation with up to 50 μg/mL of MBNs-NH2 had no effect on rDPSCs viability with differentiated media (p>0.05). The internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs was determined about 92% after 4 hours of incubation. Uptake was significantly decreased with ATP depletion and after 1 hour of pre-treatment with the inhibitor of macropinocytosis (p<0.05). There was significant increase of intracellular Ca and Si ion concentration in MBNs-NH2 treated cells compared to no-treated counterpart (p<0.05). The expression of odontogenic-related genes (BSP, COL1A, DMP-1, DSPP, and OCN) and the capacity for biomineralization (based on alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red staining) were significantly upregulated with MBNs-NH2. These results indicate that MBNs-NH2 induce odontogenic differentiation of rDPSCs and may serve as a potential dentin regenerative additive to dental material for promoting odontoblast differentiation. PMID:26974668

  2. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2015-10-01

    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with the special feature of radiopacity. PMID:26117775

  3. Influence of ZnO/MgO substitution on sintering, crystallisation, and bio-activity of alkali-free glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Goel, Ashutosh; Correia, Ana Filipa; Pascual, Maria J; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports on the influence of partial replacement of MgO by ZnO on the structure, crystallisation behaviour and bioactivity of alkali-free bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs). A series of glass compositions (mol%): 36.07 CaO-(19.24-x) MgO-x ZnO-5.61 P2O5-38.49 SiO2-0.59 CaF2 (x=2-10) have been synthesised by melt-quench technique. The structural changes were investigated by solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The sintering and crystallisation behaviours of glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. All the glass compositions exhibited good densification ability resulting in well sintered and mechanically strong GCs. The crystallisation and mechanical behaviour were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 850 °C for 1h. Diopside was the primary crystalline phase in all the GCs followed by fluorapatite and rankinite as secondary phases. Another phase named petedunnite was identified in GCs with ZnO content >4 mol. The proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) on GCs was revealed to be Zn-dose dependent with the highest performance being observed for 4 mol% ZnO. PMID:26042713

  4. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shahini, Aref; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Walker, Kenneth J; Eastman, Margaret A; Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Smith, Brenda J; Ricci, John L; Madihally, Sundar V; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent microscope. Increasing the concentration of the conductive polymer in the scaffold enhanced the cell viability, indicating the improved microstructure of the scaffolds or boosted electrical signaling among cells. These results show that these conductive scaffolds are not only structurally more favorable for bone tissue engineering, but also can be a step forward in combining the tissue engineering techniques with the method of enhancing the bone healing by electrical stimuli. PMID:24399874

  5. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shahini, Aref; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Walker, Kenneth J; Eastman, Margaret A; Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Smith, Brenda J; Ricci, John L; Madihally, Sundar V; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent microscope. Increasing the concentration of the conductive polymer in the scaffold enhanced the cell viability, indicating the improved microstructure of the scaffolds or boosted electrical signaling among cells. These results show that these conductive scaffolds are not only structurally more favorable for bone tissue engineering, but also can be a step forward in combining the tissue engineering techniques with the method of enhancing the bone healing by electrical stimuli. PMID:24399874

  6. Effect of size of bioactive glass nanoparticles on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation for dental and orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Ajita, J; Saravanan, S; Selvamurugan, N

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (nanostructured bioglass ceramics or nBGs) have been widely employed as a filler material for bone tissue regeneration. The physical properties of nBG particles govern their biological actions. In this study, the impact of the size of nBG particles on mouse mesenchymal stem cell (mMSC) proliferation was investigated. Three different sizes of nBG particles were prepared via the sol-gel method with varying concentrations of the surfactant and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and the particles were characterized. Increased concentrations of PEG decreased the size of nBG particles (nBG-1: 74.7±0.62 nm, nBG-2: 43.25±1.5 nm, and nBG-3: 37.6±0.81 nm). All three nBGs were non-toxic at a concentration of 20mg/mL. Increased proliferation was observed in mMSCs treated with smaller nBG particles. Differential mRNA expression of cyclin A2, B2, D1, and E1 genes induced by nBG particles was noticed in the mMSCs. nBG-1 and nBG-3 particles promoted cells in the G0/G1 phase to enter the S and G2/M phases. nBG particles activated ERK, but prolonged activation was achieved with nBG-3 particles. Among the prepared nBG particles, nBG-3 particles showed enhanced mMSC proliferation via the sustained activation of ERKs, upregulation of cyclin gene(s) expression, and promotion of cell transition from the G0/G1 phase to the S and G2/M phases. Thus, this study indicates that small nBG particles have clinical applications in dental and bone treatments as fillers or bone-tissue bond forming materials. PMID:26042701

  7. Effect of implant design and bioactive glass coating on biomechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composite implants.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Ahmed M; Akca, Eralp; Ozen, Tuncer; Moritz, Niko; Lassila, Lippo; Vallittu, Pekka; Närhi, Timo

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of implant design and bioactive glass (BAG) coating on the response of bone to fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) implants. Three different FRC implant types were manufactured for the study: non-threaded implants with a BAG coating; threaded implants with a BAG coating; and threaded implants with a grit-blasted surface. Thirty-six implants (six implants for each group per time point) were installed in the tibiae of six pigs. After an implantation period of 4 and 12 wk, the implants were retrieved and prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), push-out testing, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Micro-CT demonstrated that the screw-threads and implant structure remained undamaged during the installation. The threaded FRC/BAG implants had the highest bone volume after 12 wk of implantation. The push-out strengths of the threaded FRC/BAG implants after 4 and 12 wk (463°N and 676°N, respectively) were significantly higher than those of the threaded FRC implants (416°N and 549°N, respectively) and the nonthreaded FRC/BAG implants (219°N and 430°N, respectively). Statistically significant correlation was found between bone volume and push-out strength values. This study showed that osseointegrated FRC implants can withstand the static loading up to failure without fracture, and that the addition of BAG significantly improves the push-out strength of FRC implants. PMID:24863874

  8. Osteogenic differentiation of umbilical cord and adipose derived stem cells onto highly porous 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Detsch, Rainer; Alles, Sonja; Hum, Jasmin; Westenberger, Peter; Sieker, Frank; Heusinger, Dominik; Kasper, Cornelia; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-03-01

    In the context of bone tissue engineering (BTE), combinations of bioactive scaffolds with living cells are investigated to optimally yield functional bone tissue for implantation purposes. Bioactive glasses are a class of highly bioactive, inorganic materials with broad application potential in BTE strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass(®)) samples of composition: 45 SiO2, 24.5 CaO, 24.5 Na2O, and 6 P2O5 (in wt%) as scaffold materials for mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Pore architecture of the scaffolds as well as cell behavior in the three-dimensional environment was evaluated by several methods. Investigations concerned the osteogenic cell attachment, growth and differentiation of adipose tissue derived MSC (adMSC) compared with MSC from human full term umbilical cord tissues (ucMSC) on porous Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds over a cultivation period of 5 weeks. Differences in lineage-specific osteogenic differentiation of adMSC and ucMSC on Bioglass(®) samples were demonstrated. The investigation led to positive results in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of MSC onto Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds confirming the relevance of these matrices for BTE applications. PMID:24853477

  9. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Melissa H. X.; Hill, Robert G.; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine. PMID:26697067

  10. Microsphere-Based Seamless Scaffolds Containing Macroscopic Gradients of Encapsulated Factors for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Milind; Morris, Casey P.; Ellis, Ryan J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal control of bioactive signals in three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds is greatly desired. Coupled together, these attributes may mimic and maintain complex signal patterns, such as those observed during axonal regeneration or neovascularization. Seamless polymer constructs may provide a route to achieve spatial control of signal distribution. In this study, a novel microparticle-based scaffold fabrication technique is introduced as a method to create 3D scaffolds with spatial control over model dyes using uniform poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Uniform microspheres were produced using the Precision Particle Fabrication technique. Scaffolds were assembled by flowing microsphere suspensions into a cylindrical glass mold, and then microspheres were physically attached to form a continuous scaffold using ethanol treatment. An ethanol soak of 1 h was found to be optimum for improved mechanical characteristics. Morphological and physical characterization of the scaffolds revealed that microsphere matrices were porous (41.1 ± 2.1%) and well connected, and their compressive stiffness ranged from 142 to 306 kPa. Culturing chondrocytes on the scaffolds revealed the compatibility of these substrates with cell attachment and viability. In addition, bilayered, multilayered, and gradient scaffolds were fabricated, exhibiting excellent spatial control and resolution. Such novel scaffolds can serve as sustained delivery devices of heterogeneous signals in a continuous and seamless manner, and may be particularly useful in future interfacial tissue engineering investigations. PMID:18795865

  11. An ex vivo model using human osteoarthritic cartilage demonstrates the release of bioactive insulin-like growth factor-1 from a collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wardale, J; Mullen, L; Howard, D; Ghose, S; Rushton, N

    2015-07-01

    Biomimetic scaffolds hold great promise for therapeutic repair of cartilage, but although most scaffolds are tested with cells in vitro, there are very few ex vivo models (EVMs) where adult cartilage and scaffolds are co-cultured to optimize their interaction prior to in vivo studies. This study describes a simple, non-compressive method that is applicable to mammalian or human cartilage and provides a reasonable throughput of samples. Rings of full-depth articular cartilage slices were derived from human donors undergoing knee replacement for osteoarthritis and a 3?mm core of a collagen/glycosaminoglycan biomimetic scaffold (Tigenix, UK) inserted to create the EVM. Adult osteoarthritis chondrocytes were seeded into the scaffold and cultures maintained for up to 30?days. Ex vivo models were stable throughout experiments, and cells remained viable. Chondrocytes seeded into the EVM attached throughout the scaffold and in contact with the cartilage explants. Cell migration and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in the scaffold was enhanced by growth factors particularly if the scaffold was preloaded with growth factors. This study demonstrates that the EVM represents a suitable model that has potential for testing a range of therapeutic parameters such as numbers/types of cell, growth factors or therapeutic drugs before progressing to costly pre-clinical trials. PMID:26059711

  12. On the dissolution/reaction of small-grain Bioglass ® 45S5 and F-modified bioactive glasses in artificial saliva (AS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aina, Valentina; Bertinetti, Luca; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Cerruti, Marta; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Morterra, Claudio; Tacconi, Linda; Menabue, Ledi

    2011-02-01

    The reaction of small-grain Bioglass® 45S5 in artificial saliva (AS), to produce a layer of hydroxy-apatite (HA) and/or hydroxy-carbonate apatite (HCA), has been studied and compared to the results obtained in a simple buffered solution (TRIS). Some potentially bioactive glasses based on the composition of Bioglass® and containing CaF2 (HCaCaF2 5% and HNaCaF2 5%) have also been studied, in order to analyze the effects/changes produced when a F-containing glass surface is contacted with AS. The insertion of fluorine has been proposed to improve bioactive glass bone-bonding ability, and to parallel fluorine-containing glass-ceramics currently used in dentistry. ICP-OES analysis of the solution, and FTIR spectroscopy of the solid samples provided compositional information on the stages of reaction. These data were integrated with XRD and the textural and morphological data, obtained by specific surface areas determination and TEM-EDS measurements. In the case of Bioglass® 45S5, a comparison at corresponding reaction times indicates that the precipitation of an amorphous Ca-phosphate phase is faster in AS, but the crystallization of HA/HCA is delayed in AS with respect to the TRIS solution. For fluoride-containing glasses, the sample HCaCaF2 5%, in which CaF2 replaces part of CaO, possesses the fastest rate for HA/HCA crystallization (1 week) in AS. Some lines of interpretation for these results are proposed.

  13. An ex vivo model using human osteoarthritic cartilage demonstrates the release of bioactive insulin-like growth factor-1 from a collagenglycosaminoglycan scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Wardale, J; Mullen, L; Howard, D; Ghose, S; Rushton, N

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic scaffolds hold great promise for therapeutic repair of cartilage, but although most scaffolds are tested with cells in vitro, there are very few ex vivo models (EVMs) where adult cartilage and scaffolds are co-cultured to optimize their interaction prior to in vivo studies. This study describes a simple, non-compressive method that is applicable to mammalian or human cartilage and provides a reasonable throughput of samples. Rings of full-depth articular cartilage slices were derived from human donors undergoing knee replacement for osteoarthritis and a 3 mm core of a collagen/glycosaminoglycan biomimetic scaffold (Tigenix, UK) inserted to create the EVM. Adult osteoarthritis chondrocytes were seeded into the scaffold and cultures maintained for up to 30 days. Ex vivo models were stable throughout experiments, and cells remained viable. Chondrocytes seeded into the EVM attached throughout the scaffold and in contact with the cartilage explants. Cell migration and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in the scaffold was enhanced by growth factors particularly if the scaffold was preloaded with growth factors. This study demonstrates that the EVM represents a suitable model that has potential for testing a range of therapeutic parameters such as numbers/types of cell, growth factors or therapeutic drugs before progressing to costly pre-clinical trials. 2015 The Authors. Cell Biochemistry and Function Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Significance Pre-clinical trials of biomaterials for cartilage repair are very costly, and all too often, studies progress directly from in vitro studies using isolated cells to in vivo studies without investigating the interaction between the target tissue and the scaffold. Our study uses viable cartilage from adult human donors with osteoarthritis and therefore represents the exact scenario that the scaffold is designed for. The system is cheap and simple to set up and is suitable for a 48-well plate format, meaning a reasonable throughput is obtainable. This lends the model to therapeutic drug testing. PMID:26059711

  14. Accelerated bone ingrowth by local delivery of Zinc from bioactive glass: oxidative stress status, mechanical property, and microarchitectural characterization in an ovariectomized rat model

    PubMed Central

    Samira, Jbahi; Saoudi, Monji; Abdelmajid, Kabir; Hassane, Oudadesse; Treq, Rebai; Hafed, Efeki; Abdelfatteh, Elfeki; Hassib, Keskes

    2015-01-01

    Background Synthetic bone graft substitutes such as bioactive glass (BG) material are developed in order to achieve successful bone regeneration. Zn plays an important role in the proper bone growth, development, and maintenance of healthy bones. Aims This study aims to evaluate in vivo the performance therapy of zinc-doped bioactive glass (BG-Zn) and its applications in biomedicine. Methods Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized. BG and BG-Zn were implanted in the femoral condyles of Wistar rats and compared to that of control group. Grafted bone tissues were carefully removed to evaluate the oxidative stress status, histomorphometric profile, mechanical property, and mineral bone distribution by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results A significant decrease of thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances was observed after BG-Zn implantation. Superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities significantly increased in ovariectomized group implanted with Zinc-doped bioactive glass (OVX-BG-Zn) as compared to ovariectomized group implanted with bioactive glass (OVX-BG). An improved mechanical property was noticed in contact of OVX-BG-Zn (39±6 HV) when compared with that of OVX-BG group (26±9 HV). After 90 days of implantation, the histomorphometric analysis showed that trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) were significantly increased with 28 and 24%, respectively, in treated rats of OVX-BG-Zn group as compared to those of OVX-BG groups. Trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf) were significantly decreased in OVX-BG-Zn group with 29.5 and 54% when compared with those of OVX-BG rat groups. On the other hand, a rise in Ca and P ion concentrations in the implanted microenvironment was shown and lead to the formation/deposition of Ca-P phases. The ratio of pyridinoline [Pyr] to dihydroxylysinonorleucine [DHLNL] cross-links was normalized to the control level. Conclusion Our findings suggested that BG-Zn might have promising potential applications for osteoporosis therapy. PMID:26486308

  15. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/ nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Ranjana; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Salih, Vehid; Mordon, Nicola; Locke, Ian C.; Gordge, Michael P.; McCormick, Aine

    2010-06-02

    Fabrication of a composite scaffold of nanobioglass (n-BG) 45S5 and poly(3-hydroxyocatnoate), P(3HO) was studied for the first time with the aim of developing a novel, multifunctional wound dressing. The incorporation of n-BG accelerated blood clotting time and its incorporation in the polymer matrix enhanced the wettability, surface roughness and bio-compatibility of the scaffold.

  16. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Ranjana; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Locke, Ian C.; Gordge, Michael P.; McCormick, Aine; Salih, Vehid; Mordon, Nicola; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita

    2010-06-01

    Fabrication of a composite scaffold of nanobioglass (n-BG) 45S5 and poly(3-hydroxyocatnoate), P(3HO) was studied for the first time with the aim of developing a novel, multifunctional wound dressing. The incorporation of n-BG accelerated blood clotting time and its incorporation in the polymer matrix enhanced the wettability, surface roughness and bio-compatibility of the scaffold.

  17. Effect of incorporation of nanoscale bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in PCL/chitosan nanofibers for bone and periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shalumon, K T; Sowmya, S; Sathish, D; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-03-01

    A biomimetic scaffold which can very closely mimic the extracellular matrix of the bone was fabricated by incorporating nano-bioceramic particles such as nano bioglass (nBG) and nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) within electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. A comparative study between nHAp incorporated poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-chitosan (CS) and nBG incorporated PCL-CS nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out and their feasibility in tissue engineering was investigated. All the samples were optimized to obtain fibers of similar diameter from 100-200 nm for the ease of comparison between the samples. Protein adsorption studies showed that PCL-CS incorporated with 3 wt% nHAp and 3 wt% nBG adsorbed more proteins on their surface than other samples. Cell attachment and proliferation studies using human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPLFs) and osteoblast like cells (MG-63 cell lines) showed that nBG incorporated samples are slightly superior to nHAp incorporated counterparts. Cell viability test using alamar blue assay and live/dead staining confirms that the scaffolds are cytocompatible. ALP activity confirmed the osteoblastic behavior of hPDLFs. Also the presence of nHAp and nBG enhanced the ALP activity of hPDLF on the PCH3 and PCB3 scaffolds. These studies indicate that nBG incorporated electrospun scaffolds are comparatively better candidates for orthopedic and periodontal tissue engineering applications. PMID:23620999

  18. Design, fabrication and perivascular implantation of bioactive scaffolds engineered with human adventitial progenitor cells for stimulation of arteriogenesis in peripheral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Carrabba, M; De Maria, C; Oikawa, A; Reni, C; Rodriguez-Arabaolaza, I; Spencer, H; Slater, S; Avolio, E; Dang, Z; Spinetti, G; Madeddu, P; Vozzi, G

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy represents a promising option for revascularization of ischemic tissues. However, injection of dispersed cells is not optimal to ensure precise homing into the recipient's vasculature. Implantation of cell-engineered scaffolds around the occluded artery may obviate these limitations. Here, we employed the synthetic polymer polycaprolactone for fabrication of 3D woodpile- or channel-shaped scaffolds by a computer-assisted writing system (pressure assisted micro-syringe square), followed by deposition of gelatin (GL) nanofibers by electro-spinning. Scaffolds were then cross-linked with natural (genipin, GP) or synthetic (3-glycidyloxy-propyl-trimethoxy-silane, GPTMS) agents to improve mechanical properties and durability in vivo. The composite scaffolds were next fixed by crown inserts in each well of a multi-well plate and seeded with adventitial progenitor cells (APCs, 3 cell lines in duplicate), which were isolated/expanded from human saphenous vein surgical leftovers. Cell density, alignment, proliferation and viability were assessed 1 week later. Data from in vitro assays showed channel-shaped/GPTMS-crosslinked scaffolds confer APCs with best alignment and survival/growth characteristics. Based on these results, channel-shaped/GPTMS-crosslinked scaffolds with or without APCs were implanted around the femoral artery of mice with unilateral limb ischemia. Perivascular implantation of scaffolds accelerated limb blood flow recovery, as assessed by laser Doppler or fluorescent microspheres, and increased arterial collaterals around the femoral artery and in limb muscles compared with non-implanted controls. Blood flow recovery and perivascular arteriogenesis were additionally incremented by APC-engineered scaffolds. In conclusion, perivascular application of human APC-engineered scaffolds may represent a novel option for targeted delivery of therapeutic cells in patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:27011300

  19. Atomic-scale models of early-stage alkali depletion and SiO2-rich gel formation in bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations of Na(+)/H(+)-exchanged 45S5 Bioglass® models reveal that a large fraction of the hydroxyl groups introduced into the proton-exchanged, hydrated glass structure do not initially form covalent bonds with Si and P network formers but remain free and stabilised by the modifier metal cations, whereas substantial Si-OH and P-OH bonding is observed only at higher Na(+)/H(+) exchange levels. The strong affinity between free OH groups and modifier cations in the highly fragmented 45S5 glass structure appears to represent the main driving force for this effect. This suggests an alternative direct route for the formation of a repolymerised silica-rich gel in the early stages of the bioactive mechanism, not considered before, which does not require sequential repeated breakings of Si-O-Si bonds and silanol condensations. PMID:25504287

  20. New generation poly(ε-caprolactone)/gel-derived bioactive glass composites for bone tissue engineering: Part I. Material properties.

    PubMed

    Dziadek, Michal; Menaszek, Elzbieta; Zagrajczuk, Barbara; Pawlik, Justyna; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) based composite films containing 12 and 21vol.% bioactive glass (SBG) microparticles were prepared by solvent casting method. Two gel-derived SBGs of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system differing in SiO2 and CaO contents were applied (mol%): S2: 80SiO2, 16CaO, 4P2O5 and A2: 40SiO2, 54CaO, 6P2O5. The surfaces of the films in contact with Petri dish and exposed to the gas phase during casting were denoted as GS and AS, respectively. Both surfaces of films were characterised in terms of their morphology, micro- and nano-topography as well as wettability. Also mechanical properties (tensile strength, Young's modulus) and PCL matrix crystallinity (degree of crystallinity, crystal size) were evaluated. Degradation behaviour was examined by incubation of materials in UHQ-water at 37°C for 56weeks. The crystallinity, melting temperature and mass loss of incubated materials and pH changes of water were monitored. Furthermore, proliferation of MG-63 osteoblastic cells by direct contact and cytotoxic effect of obtained materials were investigated. Results showed that opposite surfaces of the same polymer and composite films differ in studied surface parameters. The addition of SBG particles into PCL matrix improves nano- and micro-roughness of both surfaces, enhances the hydrophilicity of GS surfaces (~67° for 21A2-PCL compared to ~78° for pure PCL) and also makes AS surface more hydrophobic (~94° for 21S2-PCL compared to ~86° for pure PCL). The nucleation density of PCL was increased with increasing content of SBG particles, which results in the large number of fine spherulites on composite AS surfaces observed using polarized optical (POM), scanning electron (SEM), and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. Higher content of SBG particles causes a notable increase of Young's modulus (from 0.38GPa for pure PCL, 0.90GPa for 12A2-PCL to 1.31GPa for 21A2-PCL), which also depends on SBG chemical composition. After 56-week degradation test, considerably higher crystallinity increase (Δχc ~148% for 21S2-PCL, ~81% for 21A2-PCL) and weight loss (~17% for both) were found for composite materials, depending on SBG composition, in contrast to value variations for pure PCL film (Δχc ~43%, weight loss ~1.6%). Furthermore, it seems that both SBG could neutralize acidic degradation by-products of PCL at later incubation stages. Obtained SBG-PCL composites show excellent biocompatibility, support cell proliferation also may modulate cell response depending on the glass composition. The results indicate the possibility to use different contents and/or chemical compositions of SBG to obtain composite materials with various, but controlled, surface and mechanical properties as well as degradation kinetics. PMID:26249560

  1. Gene delivery nanocarriers of bioactive glass with unique potential to load BMP2 plasmid DNA and to internalize into mesenchymal stem cells for osteogenesis and bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Singh, Rajendra K.; Kang, Min Sil; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of bioactive glasses with nanoscale morphologies has spurred their specific applications in bone regeneration, for example as drug and gene delivery carriers. Bone engineering with stem cells genetically modified with this unique class of nanocarriers thus holds great promise in this avenue. Here we report the potential of the bioactive glass nanoparticle (BGN) system for the gene delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) targeting bone. The composition of 15% Ca-added silica, proven to be bone-bioactive, was formulated into surface aminated mesoporous nanospheres with enlarged pore sizes, to effectively load and deliver bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) plasmid DNA. The enlarged mesopores were highly effective in loading BMP2-pDNA with an efficiency as high as 3.5 wt% (pDNA w.r.t. BGN), a level more than twice than for small-sized mesopores. The BGN nanocarriers released the genetic molecules in a highly sustained manner (for as long as 2 weeks). The BMP2-pDNA/BGN complexes were effectively internalized to rat MSCs with a cell uptake level of ~73%, and the majority of cells were transfected to express the BMP2 protein. Subsequent osteogenesis of the transfected MSCs was demonstrated by the expression of bone-related genes, including bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. The MSCs transfected with BMP2-pDNA/BGN were locally delivered inside a collagen gel to the target calvarium defects. The results showed significantly improved bone regeneration, as evidenced by the micro-computed tomographic, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. This study supports the excellent capacity of the BGN system as a pDNA-delivery nanocarrier in MSCs, and the engineered system, BMP2-pDNA/BGN with MSCs, may be considered a new promising candidate to advance the therapeutic potential of stem cells through genetic modification, targeting bone defects and diseases.The recent development of bioactive glasses with nanoscale morphologies has spurred their specific applications in bone regeneration, for example as drug and gene delivery carriers. Bone engineering with stem cells genetically modified with this unique class of nanocarriers thus holds great promise in this avenue. Here we report the potential of the bioactive glass nanoparticle (BGN) system for the gene delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) targeting bone. The composition of 15% Ca-added silica, proven to be bone-bioactive, was formulated into surface aminated mesoporous nanospheres with enlarged pore sizes, to effectively load and deliver bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) plasmid DNA. The enlarged mesopores were highly effective in loading BMP2-pDNA with an efficiency as high as 3.5 wt% (pDNA w.r.t. BGN), a level more than twice than for small-sized mesopores. The BGN nanocarriers released the genetic molecules in a highly sustained manner (for as long as 2 weeks). The BMP2-pDNA/BGN complexes were effectively internalized to rat MSCs with a cell uptake level of ~73%, and the majority of cells were transfected to express the BMP2 protein. Subsequent osteogenesis of the transfected MSCs was demonstrated by the expression of bone-related genes, including bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. The MSCs transfected with BMP2-pDNA/BGN were locally delivered inside a collagen gel to the target calvarium defects. The results showed significantly improved bone regeneration, as evidenced by the micro-computed tomographic, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. This study supports the excellent capacity of the BGN system as a pDNA-delivery nanocarrier in MSCs, and the engineered system, BMP2-pDNA/BGN with MSCs, may be considered a new promising candidate to advance the therapeutic potential of stem cells through genetic modification, targeting bone defects and diseases. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07933k

  2. An in vitro investigation of the effectiveness of bioactive glass air-abrasion in the 'selective' removal of orthodontic resin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Avijit; Paolinelis, George; Socker, Michal; McDonald, Fraser; Watson, Timothy F

    2008-10-01

    The process of clinically debonding orthodontic brackets causes histomorphological damage to enamel that needs to be quantified and minimized. This study compared three methods for removing residual resin adhesive following bracket debonding. The surface finish following removal of residual adhesive using a slow-speed eight-bladed tungsten carbide bur (group 1), alumina air-abrasion (group 2), and bioactive-glass air-abrasion (group 3) and following polishing, was examined using scanning electron microscopy imaging of resin replicas. Contact profilometry was used to image surfaces before and after debonding for quantifiable volumetric analysis of enamel damage. Surface scarring was seen on scanning electron micrographs from group 1, a sharp pitted surface was identified in group 2, while group 3 exhibited similar, but subjectively smoother, pits. The surface finish following polishing was similar for groups 2 and 3 but did not completely remove the scarring evident from group 1. Quantifiable enamel lost was as follows: group 1, 0.285 mm(3); group 2, 0.386 mm(3); and group 3, 0.135 mm(3); statistical differences were observed between groups 2 and 3. From these results, bioactive-glass air-abrasion more consistently caused less physical damage to enamel and achieved a clinically smooth surface finish following polishing and is therefore to be recommended for clinical use. PMID:18821993

  3. Gene delivery nanocarriers of bioactive glass with unique potential to load BMP2 plasmid DNA and to internalize into mesenchymal stem cells for osteogenesis and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Singh, Rajendra K; Kang, Min Sil; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-04-14

    The recent development of bioactive glasses with nanoscale morphologies has spurred their specific applications in bone regeneration, for example as drug and gene delivery carriers. Bone engineering with stem cells genetically modified with this unique class of nanocarriers thus holds great promise in this avenue. Here we report the potential of the bioactive glass nanoparticle (BGN) system for the gene delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) targeting bone. The composition of 15% Ca-added silica, proven to be bone-bioactive, was formulated into surface aminated mesoporous nanospheres with enlarged pore sizes, to effectively load and deliver bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) plasmid DNA. The enlarged mesopores were highly effective in loading BMP2-pDNA with an efficiency as high as 3.5 wt% (pDNA w.r.t. BGN), a level more than twice than for small-sized mesopores. The BGN nanocarriers released the genetic molecules in a highly sustained manner (for as long as 2 weeks). The BMP2-pDNA/BGN complexes were effectively internalized to rat MSCs with a cell uptake level of ∼73%, and the majority of cells were transfected to express the BMP2 protein. Subsequent osteogenesis of the transfected MSCs was demonstrated by the expression of bone-related genes, including bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. The MSCs transfected with BMP2-pDNA/BGN were locally delivered inside a collagen gel to the target calvarium defects. The results showed significantly improved bone regeneration, as evidenced by the micro-computed tomographic, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. This study supports the excellent capacity of the BGN system as a pDNA-delivery nanocarrier in MSCs, and the engineered system, BMP2-pDNA/BGN with MSCs, may be considered a new promising candidate to advance the therapeutic potential of stem cells through genetic modification, targeting bone defects and diseases. PMID:27035682

  4. Investigating the solubility and cytocompatibility of CaO-Na2 O-SiO2 /TiO2 bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Wren, Anthony W; Coughlan, Aisling; Smith, Courtney M; Hudson, Sarah P; Laffir, Fathima R; Towler, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the solubility of a series of titanium (TiO2 )-containing bioactive glasses and their subsequent effect on cell viability. Five glasses were synthesized in the composition range SiO2 -Na2 O-CaO with 5 mol % of increments TiO2 substituted for SiO2 . Glass solubility was investigated with respect to (1) exposed surface area, (2) particle size, (3) incubation time, and (4) compositional effects. Ion release profiles showed that sodium (Na(+) ) presented high release rates after 1 day and were unchanged between 7 and 14 days. Calcium (Ca(2+) ) release presented a significant change at each time period and was also composition dependent, where a reduction in Ca(2+) release is observed with an increase in TiO2 concentration. Silica (Si(4+) ) release did not present any clear trends while no titanium (Ti(4+) ) was released. Cell numbers were found to increase up to 44%, compared to the growing control population, with a reduction in particle size and with the inclusion of TiO2 in the glass composition. PMID:24825479

  5. The Osteogenic Potential of Mesoporous Bioglasses/Silk and Non-Mesoporous Bioglasses/Silk Scaffolds in Ovariectomized Rats: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yufeng; Shi, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Silk-based scaffolds have been introduced to bone tissue regeneration for years, however, their local therapeutic efficency in bone metabolic disease condition has been seldom reported. According to our previous report, mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)/silk scaffolds exhibits superior in vitro bioactivity and in vivo osteogenic properties compared to non-mesoporous bioactive glass (BG)/silk scaffolds, but no information could be found about their efficiency in osteoporotic (OVX) environment. This study investigated a biomaterial-based approach for improving MSCs behavior in vitro, and accelerating OVX defect healing by using 3D BG/silk and MBG/silk scaffolds, and pure silk scaffolds as control. The results of SEM, CCK-8 assay and quantitative ALP activity showed that MBG/silk scaffolds can improve attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of both O-MSCs and sham control. In vivo therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by μCT analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, safranin O staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, indicating accelerated bone formation with compatible scaffold degradation and reduced osteoclastic response of defect healing in OVX rats after 2 and 4 weeks treatment, with a rank order of MBG/silk > BG/silk > silk group. Immunohistochemical markers of COL I, OPN, BSP and OCN also revealed that MBG/silk scaffolds can better induce accelerated collagen and non-collagen matrix production. The findings of this study suggest that MBG/silk scaffolds provide a better environment for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and act as potential substitute for treating local osteoporotic defects. PMID:24265840

  6. Hierarchically micro-patterned nanofibrous scaffolds with a nanosized bio-glass surface for accelerating wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He; Lv, Fang; Zhang, Yali; Yi, Zhengfang; Ke, Qinfei; Wu, Chengtie; Liu, Mingyao; Chang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing.A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04802h

  7. Hierarchically micro-patterned nanofibrous scaffolds with a nanosized bio-glass surface for accelerating wound healing.

    PubMed

    Xu, He; Lv, Fang; Zhang, Yali; Yi, Zhengfang; Ke, Qinfei; Wu, Chengtie; Liu, Mingyao; Chang, Jiang

    2015-11-28

    A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing. PMID:26503372

  8. Present and future of glass-ionomers and calcium-silicate cements as bioactive materials in dentistry: Biophotonics-based interfacial analyses in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Timothy F.; Atmeh, Amre R.; Sajini, Shara; Cook, Richard J.; Festy, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since their introduction, calcium silicate cements have primarily found use as endodontic sealers, due to long setting times. While similar in chemistry, recent variations such as constituent proportions, purities and manufacturing processes mandate a critical understanding of service behavior differences of the new coronal restorative material variants. Of particular relevance to minimally invasive philosophies is the potential for ion supply, from initial hydration to mature set in dental cements. They may be capable of supporting repair and remineralization of dentin left after decay and cavity preparation, following the concepts of ion exchange from glass ionomers. Methods This paper reviews the underlying chemistry and interactions of glass ionomer and calcium silicate cements, with dental tissues, concentrating on dentin–restoration interface reactions. We additionally demonstrate a new optical technique, based around high resolution deep tissue, two-photon fluorescence and lifetime imaging, which allows monitoring of undisturbed cement–dentin interface samples behavior over time. Results The local bioactivity of the calcium-silicate based materials has been shown to produce mineralization within the subjacent dentin substrate, extending deep within the tissues. This suggests that the local ion-rich alkaline environment may be more favorable to mineral repair and re-construction, compared with the acidic environs of comparable glass ionomer based materials. Significance The advantages of this potential re-mineralization phenomenon for minimally invasive management of carious dentin are self-evident. There is a clear need to improve the bioactivity of restorative dental materials and these calcium silicate cement systems offer exciting possibilities in realizing this goal. PMID:24113131

  9. Conversion from a Bio-inert Glass to a Glass with Bio-active Layer by Heat-treatment in an Oxidation Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Eun-Tae; Kim, Jong-Po

    The surface of iron-bearing bio-inert glasses was modified by heat-treatment in an oxidizing atmosphere near the glass transition temperature. The modified surfaces after 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution were analyzed by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. All investigated glasses except for the glass with NC = 2.6 were able to form hyroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) on their surfaces. The thickness of an HCA surface layer increased with decreased oxygen partial pressure. The cross-sectional micrographs were nearly similar to the 45S5 Bioglass®.

  10. Structure and properties of bioactive eutectic glasses based on the Ca3(PO4)2-CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 system.

    PubMed

    Magallanes-Perdomo, M; De Aza, A H; Sobrados, I; Sanz, J; Pena, P

    2012-02-01

    Taking into account the phase equilibrium relationships within the Ca3(PO4)2-CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 ternary system, three bioactive glasses with a eutectic composition and analogous amounts of Ca3(PO4)2 (∼40 wt.%) have been prepared. The structure of the glasses was investigated by 31P and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. The glasses exhibited thermal expansion coefficients (50-600 °C) of 11.8-13.3×10(-6) °C(-1), a glass transition temperature of 790-720 °C and a softening temperature of 811-750 °C. The mechanical properties of the glasses were as follows: bending strength ∼100 MPa, Young's modulus 94-83 GPa, Vickers microhardness 7.1-4.1 GPa and toughness 0.8 MPa m1/2. The bioactive properties were discussed in terms of their structure deduced by MAS-NMR spectroscopy and the field strength of the network modifiers (Mg2+ and Ca2+). A knowledge of the glass structure was important in predicting its bioactivity. PMID:22040687

  11. Uniform Surface Modification of 3D Bioglass(®)-Based Scaffolds with Mesoporous Silica Particles (MCM-41) for Enhancing Drug Delivery Capability.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Elena; Philippart, Anahí; Juhasz-Bortuzzo, Judith A; Beltrán, Ana M; Novajra, Giorgia; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Spiecker, Erdmann; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-01

    The design and characterization of a new family of multifunctional scaffolds based on bioactive glass (BG) of 45S5 composition for bone tissue engineering and drug delivery applications are presented. These BG-based scaffolds are developed via a replication method of polyurethane packaging foam. In order to increase the therapeutic functionality, the scaffolds were coated with mesoporous silica particles (MCM-41), which act as an in situ drug delivery system. These sub-micron spheres are characterized by large surface area and pore volume with a narrow pore diameter distribution. The solution used for the synthesis of the silica mesoporous particles was designed to obtain a high-ordered mesoporous structure and spherical shape - both are key factors for achieving the desired controlled drug release. The MCM-41 particles were synthesized directly inside the BG-based scaffolds, and the drug-release capability of this combined system was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of MCM-41 particle coating on the bioactivity of the BG-based scaffolds was assessed. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain a multifunctional scaffold system characterized by high and interconnected porosity, high bioactivity, and sustained drug delivery capability. PMID:26594642

  12. Uniform Surface Modification of 3D Bioglass®-Based Scaffolds with Mesoporous Silica Particles (MCM-41) for Enhancing Drug Delivery Capability

    PubMed Central

    Boccardi, Elena; Philippart, Anahí; Juhasz-Bortuzzo, Judith A.; Beltrán, Ana M.; Novajra, Giorgia; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Spiecker, Erdmann; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    The design and characterization of a new family of multifunctional scaffolds based on bioactive glass (BG) of 45S5 composition for bone tissue engineering and drug delivery applications are presented. These BG-based scaffolds are developed via a replication method of polyurethane packaging foam. In order to increase the therapeutic functionality, the scaffolds were coated with mesoporous silica particles (MCM-41), which act as an in situ drug delivery system. These sub-micron spheres are characterized by large surface area and pore volume with a narrow pore diameter distribution. The solution used for the synthesis of the silica mesoporous particles was designed to obtain a high-ordered mesoporous structure and spherical shape – both are key factors for achieving the desired controlled drug release. The MCM-41 particles were synthesized directly inside the BG-based scaffolds, and the drug-release capability of this combined system was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of MCM-41 particle coating on the bioactivity of the BG-based scaffolds was assessed. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain a multifunctional scaffold system characterized by high and interconnected porosity, high bioactivity, and sustained drug delivery capability. PMID:26594642

  13. Bioceramics and Scaffolds: A Winning Combination for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Baino, Francesco; Novajra, Giorgia; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, we have assisted to a general increase of elder population worldwide associated with age-related pathologies. Therefore, there is the need for new biomaterials that can substitute damaged tissues, stimulate the body's own regenerative mechanisms, and promote tissue healing. Porous templates referred to as "scaffolds" are thought to be required for three-dimensional tissue growth. Bioceramics, a special set of fully, partially, or non-crystalline ceramics (e.g., calcium phosphates, bioactive glasses, and glass-ceramics) that are designed for the repair and reconstruction of diseased parts of the body, have high potential as scaffold materials. Traditionally, bioceramics have been used to fill and restore bone and dental defects (repair of hard tissues). More recently, this category of biomaterials has also revealed promising applications in the field of soft-tissue engineering. Starting with an overview of the fundamental requirements for tissue engineering scaffolds, this article provides a detailed picture on recent developments of porous bioceramics and composites, including a summary of common fabrication technologies and a critical analysis of structure-property and structure-function relationships. Areas of future research are highlighted at the end of this review, with special attention to the development of multifunctional scaffolds exploiting therapeutic ion/drug release and emerging applications beyond hard tissue repair. PMID:26734605

  14. Investigating the effect of SiO2-TiO 2-CaO-Na 2O-ZnO bioactive glass doped hydroxyapatite: