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Sample records for bioavailable testosterone levels

  1. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of a new testosterone gel formulation in comparison to Testogel® in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Håkan; Sandström, Rikard; Neijber, Anders; Carrara, Dario; Grundemar, Lars

    2014-09-01

    This randomized, open-label, multiple-dose three-way cross-over study compared the pharmacokinetics of a new testosterone gel formulation in two strengths, testosterone gel 1% and testosterone gel 2% (FE 999303), with Testogel® in 11 testosterone-suppressed healthy men. Subjects received one of six treatment sequences; 50 mg of testosterone was administered once daily for 7 consecutive days, with different treatments separated by washout-periods of 6-9 days. Testosterone gel 1% and testosterone gel 2% displayed greater relative bioavailability (2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively) than Testogel on Day 1, which persisted, to a smaller extent, on Day 7. Initial absorption was highest and most rapid for testosterone gel 1% and 2%, showing apparent first-order absorption kinetics. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax ) were 6.25 and 2.97 ng/mL, respectively, occurring ∼5-6 hours post-application on Day 1 versus Cmax of 1.71 ng/mL after ∼24 hours with Testogel, showing apparent zero-order absorption kinetics. Similar differences were observed on Day 7. All treatments appeared to reach approximately the same steady-state level within the first 24 hours. No application-site skin reactions occurred with any preparation. In conclusion, the new testosterone formulation showed higher bioavailability, and the ability to deliver more testosterone in a smaller volume. PMID:27129008

  2. Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    Serum testosterone ... In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of abnormal testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) ...

  3. Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    Serum testosterone ... In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of low testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) ...

  4. Testosterone levels in an aging population: screen, measure, and restore.

    PubMed

    Kells, John; Dollbaum, Charles M

    2011-01-01

    An insufficient level of testosterone in aging men and women is associated with a constellation of adverse conditions (cognitive decline, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, decreased libido, changes in fat distribution, fragility, depression, a greater risk of fracture). Research has confirmed that supplementary testosterone can ameliorate those signs and symptoms in hypogonadic individuals, but the benefits and risks of that therapy remain controversial. The treatment of such patients should be based on knowledge of the physiologic effects of testosterone in the elderly, effective screening for testosterone deficiency accurate measurement of bioavailable levels of that hormone, and safe and effective treatment options, all of which are examined in this article. In designing hormone replacement regimens, the skill of a compounding pharmacist who can customize dose and dosage forms to answer individual medical needs and preferences can be instrumental in achieving the desired outcome. PMID:23696079

  5. Testosterone increases bioavailability of carotenoids: insights into the honesty of sexual signaling.

    PubMed

    Blas, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Bortolotti, G R; Viñuela, J; Marchant, T A

    2006-12-01

    Androgens and carotenoids play a fundamental role in the expression of secondary sex traits in animals that communicate information on individual quality. In birds, androgens regulate song, aggression, and a variety of sexual ornaments and displays, whereas carotenoids are responsible for the red, yellow, and orange colors of the integument. Parallel, but independent, research lines suggest that the evolutionary stability of each signaling system stems from tradeoffs with immune function: androgens can be immunosuppressive, and carotenoids diverted to coloration prevent their use as immunostimulants. Despite strong similarities in the patterns of sex, age and seasonal variation, social function, and proximate control, there has been little success at integrating potential links between the two signaling systems. These parallel patterns led us to hypothesize that testosterone increases the bioavailability of circulating carotenoids. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated testosterone levels of red-legged partridges Alectoris rufa while monitoring carotenoids, color, and immune function. Testosterone treatment increased the concentration of carotenoids in plasma and liver by >20%. Plasma carotenoids were in turn responsible for individual differences in coloration and immune response. Our results provide experimental evidence for a link between testosterone levels and immunoenhancing carotenoids that (i) reconciles conflicting evidence for the immunosuppressive nature of androgens, (ii) provides physiological grounds for a connection between two of the main signaling systems in animals, (iii) explains how these signaling systems can be evolutionary stable and honest, and (iv) may explain the high prevalence of sexual dimorphism in carotenoid-based coloration in animals. PMID:17121984

  6. Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing’s Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Pall, M. E.; Lao, M. C.; Patel, S. S.; Lee, M. L.; Ghods, D. E.; Chandler, D. W.; Friedman, T. C.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (p<0.0001), BT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95 % and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75 % and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88 % and a specificity of 60 %. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39nmol/L warrants a workup for CS. PMID:18819057

  7. Male prolactinomas presenting with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Shimon, Ilan; Benbassat, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    In men harboring prolactinoma the most common symptoms are related to hypogonadism, including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and gynecomastia. These men characteristically present with elevated serum prolactin (PRL) levels, suppressed gonadotropins, and low testosterone levels. We studied a group of 11 unique men with prolactinomas presenting with testosterone levels within the normal range (≥2.6 ng/ml; cohort A), and compared them to 11 prolactinoma men with borderline baseline testosterone (2.1-2.5 ng/ml; cohort B) and to a cohort of 34 prolactinoma patients with low testosterone levels (≤2 ng/ml; cohort C). Mean testosterone levels at presentation were 3.91 ± 0.9 ng/ml in cohort A (range, 2.6-5.2 ng/ml), 2.44 ± 0.16 ng/ml in cohort B and 0.96 ± 0.6 in cohort C (p < 0.001). Mean baseline PRL levels were >20 times above normal in cohort A compared to >100 times above normal in cohorts B and C. Symptoms of hypogonadism were present in 55, 64 and 76% of men in groups A, B and C, respectively. There was a trend towards a larger tumor size in the low testosterone group (p = 0.06). Visual fields defects at presentation were more prevalent in this cohort (C). With cabergoline, testosterone level increased from 3.91 to 6.42 ng/ml (Δ = 2.51 ng/ml) in cohort A, from 2.44 to 5.63 ng/ml (Δ = 3.19 ng/ml) in cohort B, and from 0.96 to 3.30 ng/ml (Δ = 2.34 ng/ml) in cohort C (p < 0.05 for each group). Symptoms of hypogonadism improved following treatment in 83% of symptomatic men in cohort A. Normal testosterone does not exclude the likelihood of prolactinoma in men. When treated with cabergoline, testosterone levels in these men can increase higher within the normal range together with clinical improvement. PMID:23756784

  8. Association of Free Testosterone with Hypogonadal Symptoms in Men with Near-Normal Total Testosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Golan, Ron; Wilken, Nathan; Scovell, Jason M.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between hypogonadal symptoms and free testosterone levels in men with near-normal total testosterone levels (250–350ng/dL) and to determine whether a discriminatory threshold for free testosterone exists below which hypogonadal symptoms become more prevalent. Methods We reviewed the charts of 3,167 men who presented to an outpatient men's health clinic. 231 men had symptoms of “low testosterone” and serum testosterone levels between 250 and 350ng/dL. We evaluated hypogonadal symptoms using the ADAM and qADAM questionnaires. Serum levels of total testosterone and SHBG were collected on the same day that men completed their questionnaires. We used linear regression to determine whether or not a threshold of free testosterone exists for hypogonadal symptoms. We performed univariate and multivariable analyses to evaluate factors that predicted a low free testosterone level. Results The median age was 43.5 y, and the median testosterone and free testosterone levels were 303ng/dL, and 6.3ng/dL respectively. Prevalence and severity of hypogonadal symptoms (ADAM and qADAM) were similar between men with low (<6.4ng/mL) and normal free testosterone levels. There was an association between age and three of the 10 hypogonadal symptoms (decreased enjoyment in life, sadness, and deterioration of work performance) with a low free testosterone on a univariate analysis. Only younger age was positively associated with free testosterone on multivariable analysis. Conclusions We did not observe a relationship between hypogonadal symptoms and free testosterone in men with near-normal testosterone levels. Symptom-specific free testosterone thresholds could not be defined, as age remains an important confounder. PMID:26199166

  9. Covariation of Change in Bioavailable Testosterone and Adiposity in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether menopause-related changes in reproductive hormones are associated with change in adiposity and whether these relationships are independent of important covariates. Design and Methods Annual assessments of adiposity measures [CT-assessed visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT), and DXA-assessed total body fat (TBF)] over 4 years from an ancillary study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were paired with reproductive hormones collected by SWAN. Included were 243 women (44% African American, 56% Caucasian), who were eligible participants in a population-based cohort with a 72% participation rate. Results VAT increased by 3.8% annually, and SAT increased by 1.8% per year. Change in bioavailable testosterone was significantly positively associated with changes both inVAT and in SAT but was not related to change in total body fat. The associations were independent of age, race, physical activity, smoking, baseline TBF, baseline bioavailable testosterone, and change in TBF. Change in estradiol were unrelated to changes in any adiposity measure. Conclusion Bioavailable testosterone may play an important role in menopause-related redistribution of visceral and subcutaneous fat in the central abdominal region. PMID:25557490

  10. Could seasonal variation in testosterone levels in men be related to sleep?

    PubMed

    Svartberg, J; Barrett-Connor, E

    2004-09-01

    We have previously reported seasonal variations in both total and free testosterone in men living in north Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether seasonal variation in testosterone also occurs in men living in geographical areas with less extreme seasonal variation in sunlight and temperature. In 915 men aged 24-91 years from Rancho Bernardo, a suburb of San Diego in southern California, we found that neither total nor bioavailable testosterone varied by season, with or without adjustments for age and anthropometric measurements. Of all examined covariates, only physical activity showed a seasonal variation, with a peak in August (p < 0.001), and adjusting for physical activity did not change the lack of seasonal variation in testosterone. In addition, there was no association between testosterone and mean air temperature, or testosterone and possible hours of sunshine. We conclude that men living in southern California show no seasonal variation in testosterone levels. One possible explanation, besides the difference in climate, for the diverging findings between our previous study and the present study is different sleep patterns. PMID:15669539

  11. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  12. Testosterone levels in suicide attempters with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The best known neurobehavioral effects of testosterone are on sexual function and aggression. However, testosterone and other androgens may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior. This is the first study to examine whether there is a relation between testosterone levels and clinical parameters in bipolar suicide attempters. Methods Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a bipolar disorder (16 males and 51 females), in a depressive or mixed episode with at least one past suicide attempt were enrolled. Demographic and clinical parameters, including lifetime suicidal behavior, were assessed and recorded. Plasma testosterone was assayed using a double antibody radioimmunoassay procedure. Results The number of major depressive episodes, the maximum lethality of suicide attempts, and the testosterone levels were higher in men compared to women. Current suicidal ideation scores were higher in women compared to men. Controlling for sex, we found that testosterone levels positively correlated with the number of manic episodes and the number of suicide attempts. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with previous observations of the association between testosterone levels and parameters of mood and behavior. This study suggests that testosterone levels may be related to the course of bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior. Further studies of the role of testosterone in the neurobiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior are merited. PMID:22858352

  13. Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Salivary Testosterone Levels in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kai; Yu, Yang; Ahn, Mihye; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Fei; Gilmore, John H.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins) between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ±5 kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF) analysis. We report an association between 5 min APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modeling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, an SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190). RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants. PMID:25400620

  14. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  15. Serum levels of testosterone precursors, testosterone and estradiol in 10 animal species.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, U; Wichmann, G; Krause, W

    1984-05-01

    Blood levels of testosterone precursors, i.e. pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, androstendione, DHEA, and delta 5-androstendiol as well as testosterone and estradiol are measured in 10 animals each of 10 different species. The determination is done by radioimmunoassay with steroidspecific antibodies. Precursors of the delta 5-pathway (DHEA, androstendiol) are low in the red deer, dog, cat, rat and guinea pig. Precursors of the delta 4-pathway (progesterone, 17-hydroxprogesterone, androstendione) are lower in the bull, boar, ram, stallion and rabbit thus indicating a predominance of different pathways in the animal species studied herein. Pregnenolone concentrations are of equal height in all animals, testosterone is lowest in the cat and stallion. In the latter species the estradiol/testosterone ratio is spectacular high. PMID:6540697

  16. The efficacy, bioavailability and safety of a novel hydroalcoholic testosterone gel 2% in hypogonadal men: results from phase II open-label studies.

    PubMed

    Efros, M; Carrara, D; Neijber, A

    2016-08-01

    Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of a novel hydroalcoholic testosterone gel 2% (TG) were evaluated in phase II sequential dose escalation studies using 3 application sites (thigh, abdomen and shoulder/upper arm) and 2 application methods. Hypogonadal men (n = 40), 18-75 years, with serum testosterone <300 ng dl(-1) were included in both studies. Study 1 evaluated hand-applied multiple doses of TG 1.25, 2.50 and 3.75 ml (23, 46 and 70 mg of testosterone, respectively), once daily for 10 days to shoulder/upper arm. Study 2 evaluated applicator-applied (TG 1.25, 2.50 and 3.75 ml) versus hand-applied (TG 2.5 ml) doses, once daily for 7 days to shoulder/upper arm. Primary endpoint for both studies was responder rate (Cave testosterone levels between 298 and 1050 ng dl(-1) ). In Study 1 following multiple applications, >70% participants in each group were responders. Dose-dependent increase was observed in PK values for total testosterone, free testosterone and DHT. In Study 2, responder rate was dose proportional: 16.7%, 50.0% and 77.8% responders in TG 1.25, 2.50 and 3.75 ml groups respectively. The bioavailability was highest for the shoulder application. There was a significant improvement in almost all the domains of sexual functioning. Applicator-application was preferred over hand-application by majority of the participants. TG was found to be safe and well tolerated in hypogonadal men. PMID:26598279

  17. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    ... not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... two doses in a row.Testosterone buccal systems only work when applied to the upper gum. Although ...

  18. Testosterone levels of children with a diagnosis of developmental stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Selçuk, Engin Burak; Erbay, Lale Gönenir; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Kartalci, Şükrü; Batcioğlu, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Background Stuttering is defined as a disruption in the rhythm of speech and language articulation, where the subject knows what he/she wants to say, but is unable to utter the intended word or phrase fluently. The effect of sex on development and chronicity of stuttering is well known; it is more common and chronic in males. We aimed to investigate the relationship between developmental stuttering and serum testosterone levels in this study. Materials and methods In this study, we evaluated a total of 50 children (7–12 years of age); eight (16%) were female and 42 (84%) were male. Twenty-five children who stutter and 25 typically fluent peers with the same demographic properties (ages between 7 years and 12 years) were included in this study. The testosterone levels of the two groups were determined in terms of nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The difference between the means of the two groups was analyzed. Results The medians of the testosterone levels of the stutterer and control groups were determined as 20 ng/mL (range =12–184 ng/mL) and 5 ng/mL (range =2–30 ng/mL), respectively. Testosterone levels of the stutterer group were significantly higher than in the control group (P=0.001). Besides, there was a significant correlation between the severity of the stuttering and testosterone levels in the stutterer group (P=0.0001). Conclusion The findings of this study show that testosterone may have an effect on the severity of developmental stuttering and on the clinical differences between sexes. However, further investigations are needed to show that testosterone may play a role in the etiology of developmental stuttering. PMID:25999727

  19. Sex-Specific Associations between Umbilical Cord Blood Testosterone Levels and Language Delay in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Jacoby, Peter; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that prenatal testosterone exposure may be associated with language delay. However, no study has examined a large sample of children at multiple time-points. Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained at 861 births and analysed for bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations. When…

  20. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist ...

  1. Prospective case-control study of premenopausal serum estradiol and testosterone levels and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is frequently a hormonally dependent cancer, and associations of circulating estrogens and androgens with subsequent breast cancer risk are well established in postmenopausal women. Associations of serum estrogens and androgens with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women are less well studied. The objective of this study was to determine whether estradiol and testosterone levels in serum collected before menopause are associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study of 266 participants who were registered in the Columbia, Missouri, Serum Bank and not using exogenous hormones at the time of blood collection. Each of 98 in situ or invasive breast cancer cases with prediagnostic serum collected before menopause was matched to two controls by age, date, menstrual cycle day, and time of day of blood collection. Estradiol and testosterone concentrations were quantified by using specific radioimmunoassays, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was quantified with a chemiluminescent immunoassay to allow calculation of the non-SHBG bound hormone fractions. Data were analyzed by using conditional logistic regression. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results Serum testosterone was strongly and significantly associated with breast cancer risk. The relative odds (OR) for increasing quartiles of total testosterone were 1.0, 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9 to 4.8), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.6 to 3.4), and 3.3 (95% CI, 1.5 to 7.5, Ptrend = 0.006). Comparable ORs for the non-SHBG bound fraction of testosterone that is bioavailable were 1.0, 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7 to 4.2), 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7 to 4.0), and 4.2 (95% CI, 1.6 to 10.9, Ptrend = 0.002). Total and non-SHBG-bound estradiol were not associated with breast cancer, but extreme variation in levels across the menstrual cycle coupled with relatively small numbers, particularly for analyses stratified by cycle phase, limited the power to

  2. Effects of Testosterone Level on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E David; Poage, Wendy; Nyhuis, Allen; Price, David A; Dowsett, Sherie A; Muram, David

    2016-09-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in older men and are frequently associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The relationship between BPH and endogenous total testosterone (TT) levels has been widely studied. The aim of this post hoc analysis was to determine the association between LUTS and endogenous TT levels in a subset of men participating in the 2013 Prostate Cancer Awareness Week, a U.S. community-based prostate cancer screening program. Men completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) questionnaire, prostate size was estimated by a digital rectal examination, and serum TT and prostate-specific antigen levels were measured. Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with prostate size category (r = +.03, p = .69): normal, 419.2 (n = 106); enlarged, 394.7 (n = 71); abnormal, 416.4 (n = 7); and abnormal/suspicious, 515.2 (n = 19). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS category (r = -.06, p = .40): none, 468.5 (n = 15); mild, 414.0 (n = 138); moderate, 397.4 (n = 66); and severe, 437.9 (n = 7). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS quality of life rating (r = -.13, p = .055): delighted, 474.5 (n = 43); pleased, 424.6 (n = 65); mostly satisfied, 361.2 (n = 63); mixed, 448.2 (n = 29); mostly dissatisfied, 337.2 (n = 17); and unhappy, 435.8 (n = 6). Adjustment for prostate size or prostate-specific antigen levels yielded similar findings. In conclusion, endogenous TT levels did not correlate with LUTS or prostate size, and these findings support the saturation theory in which TT is not able to induce further androgen-stimulated prostate tissue growth due to receptor saturation. Any worsening of LUTS following testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men may be related to stimulation of prostatic cells previously deprived of testosterone. PMID:26077271

  3. Salivary testosterone levels in men at a U.S. sex club.

    PubMed

    Escasa, Michelle J; Casey, Jacqueline F; Gray, Peter B

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate males commonly experience elevations in testosterone levels in response to sexual stimuli, such as presentation of a novel mating partner. Some previous human studies have shown that watching erotic movies increases testosterone levels in males although studies measuring testosterone changes during actual sexual intercourse or masturbation have yielded mixed results. Small sample sizes, "unnatural" lab-based settings, and invasive techniques may help account for mixed human findings. Here, we investigated salivary testosterone levels in men watching (n = 26) versus participating (n = 18) in sexual activity at a large U.S. sex club. The present study entailed minimally invasive sample collection (measuring testosterone in saliva), a naturalistic setting, and a larger number of subjects than previous work to test three hypotheses related to men's testosterone responses to sexual stimuli. Subjects averaged 40 years of age and participated between 11:00 pm and 2:10 am. Consistent with expectations, results revealed that testosterone levels increased 36% among men during a visit to the sex club, with the magnitude of testosterone change significantly greater among participants (72%) compared with observers (11%). Contrary to expectation, men's testosterone changes were unrelated to their age. These findings were generally consistent with vertebrate studies indicating elevated male testosterone in response to sexual stimuli, but also point out the importance of study context since participation in sexual behavior had a stronger effect on testosterone increases in this study but unlike some previous human lab-based studies. PMID:21165688

  4. Low testosterone levels may be associated with suicidal behavior in older men while high testosterone levels may be related to suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between testosterone and suicidal behavior. A link between testosterone and the neurobiology of suicidal behavior may be related to: a) a direct effect of testosterone on suicidality via certain brain mechanisms; and/or b) a testosterone influence on aggression and, consequently, suicidality; and/or c) a testosterone effect on mood and, consequently, suicidality; and/or d) a testosterone effect on cognition and, consequently, suicidality. At least one study has demonstrated a relation between high levels of testosterone and suicide in young people. A significant number of studies suggest that high testosterone levels are associated with aggression in adolescents and adults. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that aggression is associated with suicidal behavior. The effect of high testosterone levels on suicidality in adolescents and young adults may be mediated by testosterone-related elevated aggression. It is also possible that, in young people, high testosterone levels are directly linked to suicidality via certain brain mechanisms. In older men, decreased testosterone levels are associated with depressive symptoms and reduced cognitive function, whereas higher blood levels of testosterone are associated with better mood and cognitive functioning. Depression and reduced cognition are associated with suicidal behavior and may mediate the effect of decreased testosterone levels on suicidality. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults is associated with high testosterone levels, whereas suicidality in older men is associated with decreased testosterone secretion. PMID:23893672

  5. Serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fogari, Roberto; Preti, Paola; Zoppi, Annalisa; Fogari, Elena; Rinaldi, Andrea; Corradi, Luca; Mugellini, Amedeo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure (BP) in the elderly. We studied 356 non-diabetic, non-smoking, non-obese men aged 60 to 80 years and untreated for hypertension. All subjects were evaluated in the morning after an overnight fast. Evaluation included measurements of the following: BP (by mercury sphygmomanometer, Korotkoff I and V), body weight, height and free testosterone (T) plasma levels (by radioimmunoassay). According to the BP values, the subjects were classified as normotensives (NT; n=112; SBP/DBP<140/90 mmHg), systolic and diastolic hypertensives (HT; n=127; SBP/DBP>140/90 mmHg), and isolated systolic hypertensives (ISH; n=117; SBP>140 mmHg and DBP<90 mmHg). T values decreased with increasing age in all 3 groups and was significantly lower in HT (-15%) and ISH men (-21%) than in NT men (p<0.05). In each group, the T levels showed a highly significant negative correlation with BMI (p<0.001). A significant negative correlation was also found between T levels and SBP in NT (r=-0.35, p<0.001), ISH (r=-0.67, p<0.001), and HT (r=-0.19, p<0.05) men, whereas a negative correlation with DBP was observed only in the NT men (r=-0.19, p<0.05). Adjusting for the BMI confirmed a significant difference in plasma T levels between ISH and NT men, but not between HT and NT men. Multiple regression analysis employing BP as a dependent variable confirmed a strong relationship between T levels and SBP in all 3 groups, whereas a significant relationship between T levels and DBP was found only in NT men. In conclusion, although further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between plasma T levels and BP, our findings suggest that in elderly men with ISH, the reduced plasma levels of testosterone might contribute to the increased arterial stiffness typical of these subjects. PMID:16392765

  6. Endogenous testosterone level and testosterone supplementation therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Atlantis, Evan; Fahey, Paul; Cochrane, Belinda; Wittert, Gary; Smith, Sheree

    2013-01-01

    Objective Low testosterone level may be a reversible risk factor for functional disability and deterioration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to systematically assess the endogenous testosterone levels and effect of testosterone therapy on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in COPD patients, as well as to inform guidelines and practice. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and PsychINFO and the reference lists of retrieved articles published before May 2012. Inclusion criteria Observational studies on endogenous testosterone levels in people with chronic lung disease compared with controls, or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on testosterone therapy for exercise capacity and/or HRQoL outcomes in COPD patients were eligible. Data extraction and analysis Data on the mean difference in endogenous total testosterone (TT) values, and the mean difference in exercise capacity and HRQoL values were extracted and pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Results Nine observational studies in 2918 men with COPD reported consistently lower levels of TT compared with controls (weighted mean difference was –3.21 nmol/L (95% CI −5.18 to −1.23)). Six RCTs in 287 participants yielded five studies on peak muscle strength and peak cardiorespiratory fitness outcomes (peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and workload) and three studies on HRQoL outcomes. Testosterone therapies significantly improved peak muscle strength (standardised mean difference (SMD) was 0.31 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.56)) and peak workload (SMD was 0.27 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.52)) compared with control conditions (all but one used placebo), but not peak VO2 (SMD was 0.21 (95% CI −0.15 to 0.56)) or HRQoL (SMD was –0.03 (95% CI −0.32 to 0.25)). Conclusions Men with COPD have clinically relevant lower than normal TT levels. Insufficient evidence from

  7. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shu; Chen, Zaixing; Yang, Liqun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Danhua; Guo, Jing; Guan, Yanmin; Li, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015) and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm). The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 μg/cm2/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 μm) than that of the liposomal formation (120 μm). PMID:23990718

  8. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shu; Chen, Zaixing; Yang, Liqun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Danhua; Guo, Jing; Guan, Yanmin; Li, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015) and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm). The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 μg/cm(2)/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 μm) than that of the liposomal formation (120 μm). PMID:23990718

  9. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  10. Testosterone and Vascular Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Rhéure A. M.; Neves, Karla B.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptors are widely distributed in several tissues, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Through classic cytosolic androgen receptors or membrane receptors, testosterone induces genomic and non-genomic effects, respectively. Testosterone interferes with the vascular function by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and arterial thickness. Experimental evidence indicates that sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone modulate the synthesis and bioavailability of NO and, consequently, endothelial function, which is key for a healthy vasculature. Of interest, aging itself is accompanied by endothelial and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction. Aging-associated decline of testosterone levels is accompanied by age-related diseases, such as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, indicating that very low levels of androgens may contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction observed in these age-related disorders or, in other words, that testosterone may have beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system. However, testosterone seems to play a negative role in the severity of renal disease. In this mini-review, we briefly comment on the interplay between aging and testosterone levels, the vascular actions of testosterone and its implications for vascular aging. Renal effects of testosterone and the use of testosterone to prevent vascular dysfunction in elderly are also addressed. PMID:22514541

  11. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ahmad; Meergans, Ulrich; Traish, Abdulmaged; Saad, Farid; Doros, Gheorghe; Lips, Paul; Gooren, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L, T-scores: (mean ± SD) -3.12 ± 0.45, minimum: -4.10, and maximum: -2.60). In a cumulative, prospective, registry study of hypogonadal men (mean age: 53 ± 7 years) they received parenteral testosterone undecanoate of 1000 mg/12 weeks for up to six years. After one year 44 men were included in the registry, after two years 36 men, after three years 32 men, after four years 25 men, after five years 10 men and after six years 4 men. The declining numbers do not reflect drop-out rates but are a result of the registry design. Over the 6 year period there was a significant and progressive improvement of the T-scores in these men. Normalizing of serum testosterone leads to an improvement of bone mineral density and this improvement was progressive with the time period of testosterone administration. In this study of 6-years many men with testosterone deficiency suffered from classical diagnoses (Klinefelter's syndrome and testicular pathology) hitherto undiagnosed. PMID:24688541

  12. Effect of Exogenous Testosterone, Finasteride, and Castration on Serum Level of Thyroxin

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Yousofvand, Namdar; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: The secretion of thyroxin (T4) as the main hormone of thyroid gland is regulated by androgens. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of T4 and to show the effect of this regulation on total body weight, weight of testis, and the weight of prostate. Methods: Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (castration), Group 3 (finasteride: 20 mg/kg/day) and Group 4 (testosterone: 5 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study (35 days), serum level of thyroxin, body weight, weight of testis, and prostate were determined. Results: The data showed that the body weight increased in castrated (P = 0.04) and decreased in testosterone (P = 0.00) groups but did not differ in finasteride (P>0.05) group. There were not any differences in the weight of testis among control, finasteride, and testosterone groups but the weight of prostate increased in testosterone group (P = 0.00) and decreased in castrated (P = 0.03) and finasteride groups (P = 0.04). In addition, the serum level of T4 (nmo/ml) decreased in the three groups: finasteride (P = 0.03), testosterone (P = 0.04), and castrated (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Testosterone in both high and low levels decreased the amount of T4 with a time-dependent manner. PMID:23999719

  13. Total Testosterone and Calculated Estimates for Free and Bioavailable Testosterone: Influence of Age and Body Mass Index and Establishment of Sex-Specific Reference Ranges.

    PubMed

    Deutschbein, T; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of sex steroids is required to evaluate gonadal function, but normative data are lacking (especially for estimates of physiologically active testosterone). Using modern immunoassays, this study established sex-specific reference ranges (2.5% and 97.5% percentiles) for total testosterone (TOT), bioactive testosterone Vermeulen (BTV), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone Sartorius (FTS), free testosterone Vermeulen (FTV), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). In the comparative study, subjects were grouped by age (18-30; 31-50; >50 years), BMI (<25; 25-30; >30 kg/m(2)), and sex. Study participants were selected in such a way that each group comprised 12 subjects (e.g., 12 males between 18 and 30 years with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), and so on), resulting in a total of 216 controls (108 males, 108 females; age: 40.3 ± 1.0; BMI: 27.8 ± 0.4). Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed (covariates: age, BMI, sex), and sex-specific reference ranges were applied to 50 males (age: 46.1 ± 2.3; BMI: 27.4 ± 0.7) with suspected hypogonadism. Regression analysis identified the strongest predictor of each parameter apart from sex, resulting in age-specific (males: FAI, SHBG, BTV, FTV; females: TOT, FTS, SHBG), BMI-specific (males: TOT, FTS; females: FAI, BTV, FTV) and overall cutoffs for both sexes. In male patients, overall agreement between the results derived from the estimates (i.e., BTV, FTS, FTV) was high (with discordant results in only 4%). In summary, if both the endocrine workup and the clinical presentation were taken into account, the newly established reference ranges allowed reliable identification of hypogonadal males. PMID:25565093

  14. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Jin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess serum testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages. Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups: a control group (cage and platform), 3-day SD, 5-day SD, 7-day SD, 1-day SR, 3-day SR and 5-day SR groups. For PSD, the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed. Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.840). The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD. Upon SR after 3 days of PSD, the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013), whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group. PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent. The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear. PMID:22157981

  15. Associations between salivary testosterone and cortisol levels and neonatal health and growth outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, June I.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Su, Xiaogang; McCormick, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Male vulnerability in health and growth outcomes has often been reported in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates. On the basis of gender-difference theories, possible associations were explored between the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone/cortisol and the outcomes of neonatal health/growth. Methods This study used an exploratory and comparative research design. One-hundred-one mother–VLBW preterm neonate pairs were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary medical center in the Southeastern, US. Demographic information, health and growth variables of neonates, and pregnancy and labor variables of mothers were obtained from the medical record reviews and interviews of mothers. Saliva samples from each pair were collected between 9 and 60 days of age. The levels of testosterone and cortisol were determined by using an enzyme immunoassay methodology. Results Linear regression analysis showed that neonatal health problems were positively associated with the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone and cortisol, while growth delays were positively associated with the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone after adjusting for the characteristics of neonates and mothers and day of saliva sampling. The salivary levels of testosterone and cortisol were higher in neonates than in mothers. A positive correlation between the levels of testosterone and cortisol was found in neonates and in mothers. Conclusions The level of postnatal salivary testosterone is a more reliable marker in assessing neonatal health and growth outcomes compared to salivary cortisol. Further research on both testosterone and cortisol measurements at various stages during the neonatal period may elucidate further these associations. PMID:22633533

  16. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. PMID:25796490

  17. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hadeed, Nabeel Najib Fadhil; Thanoon, Imad Abdul-Jabar; Al-Mukhtar, Samir Burhanaldin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile dysfunction may improve their

  18. Depression-like behavior and reduced plasma testosterone levels in the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Koushi, Emi; Okuno, Ryoko; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-05-01

    During aging, levels of testosterone gradually decline in men and low levels of testosterone in aged men are accompanied by increased incidence of depressive disorders. The senescence-accelerated-prone mouse 10 (SAMP10) is well known as an animal model of aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor function, anxiety levels, depression-related emotional responses, attentional function and plasma levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in SAMP10. SAMP10 exhibited a significant prolongation of immobility time compared to that of the aged-matched control senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse 1 (SAMR1) in the tail suspension test for measuring depression. Moreover, significant low levels of plasma testosterone but not DHEA were found in SAMP10, and the testosterone levels were inversely correlated with the depression-like behavior. By contrast, we did not observe any significant differences between SAMP10 and SAMR1 in the open-field, rota-rod, elevated plus-maze, marble-burying behavior, or prepulse inhibition test. The results of the present study indicate that testosterone may play an important role in the depression-like behavior in SAMP10. PMID:20117148

  19. Influence of Altered Mass Loading on Testosterone Levels and Testicular Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tommy J.; Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Effects of altered load on testosterone levels and testicular mass in mammals are not well defined. Two separate studies (loading;centrifuged; +2G(sub z) and unloading;hindlimb suspension;HLS) were conducted to provide a better understanding of the effects of mass loading on testosterone levels and testicular mass. Daily urine samples were collected, and testicular mass measured at the end of the study. +2G(sub z): Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were centrifuged for 12 days at +2G(sub z): 8 centrifuged (EC) and 8 off centrifuge controls (OCC). EC had lower body mass, however relative testicular mass was greater. EC exhibited an increase in excreted testosterone levels between days 2 (T2) and 6 (T6), and returned to baseline at T9. HLS: To assess the effects of unloading Sprague-Dawley rats (125-150 g) were studied for 12 days: 10 suspended (Exp) and 10 ambulatory (Ctl). Exp had lower body mass during the study, with reduced absolute and relative testicular mass. Exp demonstrated lower excreted testosterone levels from T5-T12. Conclusions: Loading appears to stimulate anabolism, as opposed to unloading, as indicated by greater relative testicular mass and excreted testosterone levels. Reported changes in muscle mass during loading and unloading coincide with similar changes in excreted testosterone levels.

  20. Clinical evaluation of purified Shilajit on testosterone levels in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Biswas, S; Jana, U; De, R K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Biswas, T K

    2016-06-01

    Purified Shilajit, an Ayurvedic rasayana, was evaluated in healthy volunteers of age between 45 and 55 years for its effect on male androgenic hormone viz. testosterone in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study at a dose of 250 mg twice a day. Treatment with Shilajit for consecutive 90 days revealed that it has significantly (P < 0.05) increased total testosterone, free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) compared with placebo. Gonadotropic hormones (LH and FSH) levels were well maintained. PMID:26395129

  1. High levels of testosterone inhibit ovarian follicle development by repressing the FSH signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Cui, Yu-qian; Zhao, Han; Liu, Hong-bin; Zhao, Shi-dou; Gao, Yuan; Mu, Xiao-li; Gao, Fei; Chen, Zi-jiang

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high concentrations of testosterone on ovarian follicle development was investigated. Primary follicles and granulosa cells were cultured in vitro in media supplemented with a testosterone concentration gradient. The combined effects of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on follicular growth and granulosa cell gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression were also investigated. Follicle growth in the presence of high testosterone concentrations was promoted at early stages (days 1-7), but inhibited at later stage (days 7-14) of in vitro culture. Interestingly, testosterone-induced follicle development arrest was rescued by treatment with high concentrations of FSH (400 mIU/mL). In addition, in cultured granulosa cells, high testosterone concentrations induced cell proliferation, and increased the mRNA expression level of FSH receptor (FSHR), and luteinized hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. It was concluded that high concentrations of testosterone inhibited follicle development, most likely through regulation of the FSH signaling pathway, although independently from FSHR downregulation. These findings are an important step in further understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:26489629

  2. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  3. Association of testosterone levels and future suicide attempts in females with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders in females. This is the first prospective study to examine whether blood testosterone levels predict suicide attempts in females with bipolar disorder. Methods Females with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a bipolar disorder in a depressive or mixed episode with at least one past suicide attempt were enrolled. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed and recorded. Plasma testosterone was assayed using a double antibody radioimmunoassay procedure. Patients were followed up prospectively for up to 2.5 years. Results At baseline, testosterone levels positively correlated with the number of previous major depressive episodes and suicide attempts. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis found that higher baseline testosterone levels predicted suicide attempts during the follow-up period. Limitations A limitation of the study is that the sample size is modest. Another limitation is that we did not have a bipolar nonattempter or healthy volunteer control group for comparison. Conclusion Testosterone levels may predict suicidal behavior in women with bipolar disorder. PMID:25012416

  4. Is preference for ovulatory female's faces associated with men's testosterone levels?

    PubMed

    Bobst, Cora; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2014-08-01

    Women's ovulation is perceivable with different senses. Already subtle face shape differences are enough to trigger men's preference for the ovulatory female. The aim of the present study is to investigate if men's testosterone level can be linked to their preference for the ovulatory female. Thirty-nine heterosexual participants were shown face pairs of which one of them was transformed to the shape of a prototype face of a woman in her luteal cycle phase and the other was transformed to the shape of a prototype face of an ovulatory woman. Participants were asked to choose the face which they perceived as being more attractive (attractiveness task), or the woman with whom they would have better chances to get a date (dating task). In both tasks, the ovulatory female was chosen more often. Testosterone was not predictive for the chosen face; regardless of testosterone level men preferred the ovulatory woman. However testosterone predicted how confident the men were with their choice. Men with lower testosterone levels were more confident with their choice than men with higher testosterone levels. PMID:24975650

  5. Serum testosterone levels and excessive erythrocytosis during the process of adaptation to high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    Populations living at high altitudes (HAs), particularly in the Peruvian Andes, are characterized by a mixture of subjects with erythrocytosis (16 g dl−121 g dl−1). Elevated haemoglobin values (EE) are associated with chronic mountain sickness, a condition reflecting the lack of adaptation to HA. According to current data, native men from regions of HA are not adequately adapted to live at such altitudes if they have elevated serum testosterone levels. This seems to be due to an increased conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) to testosterone. Men with erythrocytosis at HAs show higher serum androstenedione levels and a lower testosterone/androstenedione ratio than men with EE, suggesting reduced 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) activity. Lower 17beta-HSD activity via Δ4-steroid production in men with erythrocytosis at HA may protect against elevated serum testosterone levels, thus preventing EE. The higher conversion of DHEAS to testosterone in subjects with EE indicates increased 17beta-HSD activity via the Δ5-pathway. Currently, there are various situations in which people live (human biodiversity) with low or high haemoglobin levels at HA. Antiquity could be an important adaptation component for life at HA, and testosterone seems to participate in this process. PMID:23524530

  6. Do low testosterone levels contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma?

    PubMed

    Canguven, Onder; Albayrak, Selami

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disorder that causes respiratory hypersensitivity and intermittent obstruction. Airway hyperresponsiveness to both specific and nonspecific stimuli is the hallmark of asthma. Although genetic susceptibility and airway inflammation are believed to play fundamental roles, etiology of asthma is unknown. In most cases, the treatment of asthma focuses on control of factors contributing to asthma severity and pharmacologic therapy including bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory agents. The prevalence of reported asthma is greater in prepubertal boys, with a change to a female predominance after puberty. Many epidemiological studies also suggest that women are at increased risk of developing adult-onset asthma and also suffer from more severe disease than men. This strongly suggests an important role for sex hormones in asthma. Previous articles provided us that, testosterone and/or its metabolites maintain the physiological balance of autoimmunity and protective immunity by preserving the number of regulatory cells. Testosterone is an immunosuppressant and is likely to be protective against immunological and inflammatory processes that trigger asthma. We hypothesized that the testosterone or selective androgen receptor modulators would have beneficial effects on asthma and could decrease the risk of asthmatic attacks. PMID:21282014

  7. Mating season aggression and fecal testosterone levels in male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, S A; Pereira, M E

    2000-05-01

    The challenge hypothesis (J. C. Wingfield, R. E. Hegner, B. G. Ball, and A. M. Duffy, 1990, Am. Nat. 136, 829-846) proposes that in birds, reptiles, and fish, "the frequency or intensity of reproductive aggression as an effect of T[estosterone] is strongest in situations of social instability, such as during the formation of dominance relationships, the establishment of territorial boundaries, or challenges by a conspecific male for a territory or access to mates" (p. 833). To determine the extension of this hypothesis to mammalian species, we tested predictions of the hypothesis in a nonpaternal, seasonal breeding, prosimian primate (ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta). Semi-free-ranging males were studied during periods of social stability (premating period) and instability (mating period). The annual mating season consists of several days during which males fight for access to promiscuous group females as each individually becomes sexually receptive for 1 day. Male rates of aggression were compared to fecal testosterone levels within premating and mating periods. In the premating period male rate of aggression was not significantly correlated with testosterone level. By contrast, during the mating season testosterone and aggression levels were positively and significantly correlated. However, on days just preceding estrus, male rate of aggression was not significantly correlated with testosterone, but on days of estrus, when aggressive challenges peaked sharply, testosterone and aggression were highly positively correlated. These results suggest that the challenge hypothesis applies to mammals as well as to birds, reptiles, and fish. In addition, elevations in testosterone were tightly circumscribed around days of estrus, suggesting a compromise between costs and benefits of elevated testosterone levels. PMID:10868488

  8. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist ...

  9. Testosterone Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... are a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled only a limited number of times; ask your pharmacist ...

  10. Low level of basal testosterone: a significant risk factor for poor oocyte yield after ovulation induction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Qingxue; Li, Yu; Wang, Wenjun; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the association of low androgen levels and poor ovarian response or negative pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilisation treatment using a retrospective cohort study. Chinese women (n=1950) of relatively young age, with normal range of basal FSH and antral follicle count undergoing an in vitro fertilisation cycle were selected and testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were measured on Day 3 of the menstrual cycle before subsequent in vitro fertilisation treatment. The main outcome measures of the study were ovarian stimulation parameters and clinical pregnancy. Basal testosterone levels of poor responders and non-pregnant women were significantly lower than normal responders and pregnant women, respectively. Patients with low basal testosterone levels had significantly lower number of mature oocytes, cleavage-stage embryos, frozen embryos, lower fertilisation and pregnancy rates and required higher doses of gonadotrophins. Androgen levels had no correlation with early spontaneous abortion rates. Multivariable logistic analysis revealed that low basal testosterone (<0.88nmolL(-1)) was an independent risk factor for poor oocyte yield (odds ratio: 1.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.57; P=0.045). In conclusion, a low level of basal testosterone was a significant risk factor for poor oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation and might negatively influence pregnancy chances with in vitro fertilisation. Basal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were not predictive for poor ovarian response or negative pregnancy outcome in this population. PMID:25023952

  11. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    PubMed Central

    Nakhai Pour, Hamid Reza; Emmelot-Vonk, Marielle H; Sukel-Helleman, Marja; Verhaar, Harald JJ; Grobbee, Diederick E; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2006-01-01

    In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth (< 100 cm vs. ≥ 100 cm; testosterone level (<12 versus ≥ 12 nmol/L), age (< median versus ≥ median), and level of outcome under study (< median versus ≥ median). At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively. PMID:16887030

  12. A Pilot Study on BMI, Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Allergic Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Berisha, Naser; Gashi-Hoxha, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) increases the prevalence of allergic diseases, both in adults and children and obesity is associated with hypogonadism in adult males. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of high body mass index on plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in young pubertal and adult males with allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morning fasting blood samples were obtained form 51 allergic patients and 6 healthy volunteer males between the ages 11-57 years (Mean 26.9, DS ± 11.9 years). Total testosterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. All participants were subjected to skin prick tests with test kit G aeroallergens, and BMI was calculated according to the body weight divided by the square of height (kg/m2). RESULTS: Low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol were associated with high BMI only in patients with asthma/rhinitis, but not in asthma patients. Allergic dermatitis/urticaria group along with healthy controls were overweight but within normal ranges for total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. Patients with allergic rhinitis were within normal ranges for BMI, total testosterone and estradiol concentrations. CONCLUSION: High BMI is not always associated with low levels of testosterone and high levels of estradiol in our patients with allergic diseases, but low levels of testosterone are present in patients with asthma and asthma/rhinitis although not among patients with rhinitis only. Our results should be confirmed in a larger group of participants.

  13. Daily testosterone and gonadotropin levels are similar in azoospermic and nonazoospermic normal men administered weekly testosterone: implications for male contraceptive development.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K; Anawalt, B D; Bremner, W J; Matsumoto, A M

    2001-01-01

    Weekly intramuscular administration of testosterone esters such as testosterone enanthate (TE) suppresses gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and has been studied as a male contraceptive. For unknown reasons, however, some men fail to achieve azoospermia with such regimens. We hypothesized that either 1) daily circulating serum fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropins were higher or testosterone levels were lower during the weekly injection interval, or 2) monthly circulating bioactive gonadotropin levels were higher in nonazoospermic men. We therefore analyzed daily testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels as well as pooled monthly bioactive and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels in normal men receiving chronic TE injections and correlated these levels with sperm production. After a 3-month control period, 51 normal men were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular TE at 25 mg (n = 10), 50 mg (n = 9), 100 mg (n = 10), 300 mg (n = 10), or placebo (n = 12) weekly for 6 months. After 5 months of testosterone administration, morning testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured daily for a 1-week period between TE injections. In addition, fluoroimmunoreactive and bioactive FSH and LH levels were measured in pooled monthly blood samples drawn just before the next TE injection. In the 100-mg and 300-mg TE groups, mean monthly fluoroimmunoreactive FSH and LH levels were suppressed by 86%-97%, bioactive FSH and LH levels by 62%-80%, and roughly half the subjects became azoospermic. In the 1-week period of month 6, daily testosterone levels between TE injections were within the normal range in men receiving placebo, or 25 or 50 mg of weekly TE, but were significantly elevated in men receiving 100 or 300 mg of weekly TE. At no point during treatment, however, were there significant differences in daily testosterone or fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels, or monthly bioactive

  14. Resistance Training and Testosterone Levels in Male Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian P.; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8.2–52.1) nmol/L versus 17.6 (16.1–18.0), resp.) whereas LH levels were higher (13.0 (5.5–82.8) U/L versus 4.3 (3.3–4.6), P < 0.001, resp.). IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels were higher in the patients compared with reference values (203 (59–590) ng/mL versus 151 (128–276), P = 0.014, and 5045 (3370–9370) ng/mL versus 3244 (3020–3983), P < 0.001, resp.). All hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n = 12) remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Patients' total testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857. PMID:24804194

  15. Effectiveness of the GnRH agonist Deslorelin as a tool to decrease levels of circulating testosterone in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karagh; Wilson, David A; Burton, Mark; Slaugh, Shayla; Dunning, Jeffery L; Prather, Jonathan F

    2015-10-01

    Songbirds are widely used in studies of the neurobiology underlying learning, memory and performance of the sounds used in vocal communication. Development and activity of neurons in many brain sites implicated in those behaviors are closely related to levels of circulating testosterone. Approaches to understand the effects of testosterone in songbirds are presently limited to testosterone implants, which elevate testosterone levels to supraphysiological values, or castration, which eliminates gonadal production of testosterone. Previous studies in mammals indicate that GnRH agonists may be an effective tool to reduce testosterone within that range of extremes and without invasive surgery. To evaluate the effectiveness of the GnRH agonist Deslorelin as a tool to modulate levels of testosterone in songbirds, we recorded the effects of Deslorelin in adult male zebra finches. We recorded songs, body mass and blood testosterone levels pre-treatment, then we gave each bird a small subcutaneous implant of Deslorelin. We measured blood plasma testosterone levels weekly and recorded song behavior and gross morphology of brain, testes and heart at the end of each experiment. Testosterone levels were reduced at the 5mg/kg dose, and the very slight song changes we observed at that dose were like those reported for castrated zebra finches. As expected, there were no changes in the number of cells in androgen-sensitive brain structures. Suppression of testosterone at the 5mg/kg dose was reversible through implant removal. Thus, Deslorelin is a new tool to transiently suppress testosterone levels without the invasiveness and undesirable aftereffects of surgical castration. PMID:26391838

  16. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  17. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Leon Earl; Furr, Johnathan; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Lambright, Christy; Sampson, Hunter; Hannas, Bethany R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Foster, Paul M D

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that relatively large reductions in fetal testosterone (T) levels and testis gene expression may be required to adversely affect reproductive development (Hannas, B. R., Lambright, C. S., Furr, J., Evans, N., Foster, P. M., Gray, E. L., and Wilson, V. S. (2012). Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency. Toxicol. Sci. 125, 544-557). The objectives of this study were (1) to model the relationships between changes in fetal male rat plasma testosterone (PT), T levels in the testis (TT), T production (PROD), and testis gene expression with the reproductive malformation rates, and (2) to quantify the "biologically relevant reductions" (BRRs) in fetal T necessary to induce adverse effects in the offspring. In the fetal experiment, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) at 0, 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 14-18 and fetal testicular T, PT levels, and T Prod and gene expression were assessed on GD 18. In the postnatal experiment, rats were dosed with DPeP from GD 8-18 and reproductive development was monitored through adulthood. The dose-response curves for TT levels (ED(50) = 53 mg/kg) and T PROD (ED(50) = 45 mg/kg) were similar, whereas PT was reduced at ED50 = 19 mg/kg. When the reductions in TPROD and Insl3 mRNA were compared with the postnatal effects of in utero DPeP, dose-related reproductive alterations were noted when T PROD and Insl3 mRNA were reduced by >45% and 42%, respectively. The determination of BRR levels may enable risk assessors to utilize fetal endocrine data to help establish points of departure for

  18. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score <10 at 24-48h postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. PMID:26372084

  19. Correlation between Male Social Status, Testosterone Levels, and Parasitism in a Dimorphic Polygynous Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Sandra S.; Caudron, Abigail K.; Dubois, Michel; Delahaut, Philippe; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    Life history trade-offs have often been assumed to be the consequence of restrictions in the availability of critical resources such as energy and nutrients, which necessitate the differential allocation of resources to costly traits. Here, we examined endocrine (testosterone) and health (parasite burdens) parameters in territorial and non-territorial New Zealand fur seal males. We documented intra-sexual differences in sexual behaviours, testosterone levels, and parasitism that suggest a trade-off exists between reproductive success and physical health, particularly susceptibility to helminths and acanthocephalans, in males displaying different mating tactics (i.e., territorial and non-territorial tactics). Levels of testosterone were higher in territorial males and correlated positively with reproductive effort (i.e., intra- and inter-sexual interactions). However, these territorial males also exhibited high levels of parasitic infection, which may impair survival in the long-term. Our study, while limited in sample size, provides preliminary evidence for a link between male mating tactics, testosterone levels and parasite loads, and potential effects on reproductive success and life history that should be explored further. PMID:20856933

  20. Correlation between male social status, testosterone levels, and parasitism in a dimorphic polygynous mammal.

    PubMed

    Negro, Sandra S; Caudron, Abigail K; Dubois, Michel; Delahaut, Philippe; Gemmell, Neil J

    2010-01-01

    Life history trade-offs have often been assumed to be the consequence of restrictions in the availability of critical resources such as energy and nutrients, which necessitate the differential allocation of resources to costly traits. Here, we examined endocrine (testosterone) and health (parasite burdens) parameters in territorial and non-territorial New Zealand fur seal males. We documented intra-sexual differences in sexual behaviours, testosterone levels, and parasitism that suggest a trade-off exists between reproductive success and physical health, particularly susceptibility to helminths and acanthocephalans, in males displaying different mating tactics (i.e., territorial and non-territorial tactics). Levels of testosterone were higher in territorial males and correlated positively with reproductive effort (i.e., intra- and inter-sexual interactions). However, these territorial males also exhibited high levels of parasitic infection, which may impair survival in the long-term. Our study, while limited in sample size, provides preliminary evidence for a link between male mating tactics, testosterone levels and parasite loads, and potential effects on reproductive success and life history that should be explored further. PMID:20856933

  1. Effect of Ubiquinol Therapy on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Levels in Oligoasthenozoospermic Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Littarru, Gian Paolo; Funahashi, Iwao; Painkara, Umeshwar Singh; Dange, Narendra Shriram; Chauhan, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The male sperm counts decline due to environmental factors, such as pesticides, heavy metals and exogenous estrogens causing negative impact on spermatogenesis. The low testosterone levels are associated with lower levels of antioxidants that protect against free radical damage to glands that produce testosterone. The earlier studies showed that the supplementation of vitamins and antioxidants including 10mg Ubiquinol per-day increases in sperm count and motility. Materials and Methods The Ubiquinol is strong antioxidant, hence in view of the above study 150 mg/day Ubiquinol was supplemented to 60 men with age group of 20-40 years. The patients were supplemented for six months, the testosterone level and sperm parameters were analysed before and after supplementation of Ubiquinol every month up to six months. The total sperm count increased by 53% (p<0.05). Results The total sperm motility was observed 26% (p<0.05) high after supplementations. Out of total motility, the quantity of rapidly motile sperm increased 41% (p<0.05). The number of sluggish motile sperm was decreased approximate 29% (p<0.05). The non motile sperm count was also decreased up to 55% (p<0.05). Conclusion The testosterone level is maintained during the study and morphology of flagella of sperm has improved. The finding suggests that the supplementation of Ubiquinol may be beneficial for oligospermic patients. PMID:26500895

  2. Testosterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of other conditions, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) . ^ Back to top What does the test result ... are normally low. Increased testosterone levels can indicate: PCOS Ovarian or adrenal gland tumor Congenital adrenal hyperplasia ^ ...

  3. Experimentally elevated levels of testosterone at independence reduce fitness in a territorial bird.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S C; Redpath, S M

    2014-04-01

    Environmental conditions and individual strategies in early life may have a profound effect on fitness. A critical moment in the life of an organism occurs when an individual reaches independence and stops receiving benefits from its relatives. Understanding the consequences of individual strategies at the time of independence requires quantification of their fitness effects. We explored this period in the Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). In this system, testosterone and parasite (Trichostrongylus tenuis) levels are known to influence survival and reproduction, the two key components of individual fitness. We experimentally and simultaneously manipulated testosterone and parasites at three levels (high, intermediate, and control levels for both factors) in 195 young males in five populations using a factorial experimental design. We explored the effects of our treatments on fitness by monitoring reproduction and survival throughout the life of all males and estimating lambda(ind), a rate-sensitive index of fitness. Parasite challenges increased the number of worms with a time lag, as previously found. However, we did not find significant effects of parasite manipulations on fitness, possibly because parasite abundance did not increase to harmful levels. Our hormone manipulation was successful at increasing testosterone at three different levels. Such increases in hormone levels decreased overall fitness. This was caused by reduced offspring production in the first breeding attempt rather than by any effect of the treatment on bird survival. Our results highlight that investing in high testosterone levels at independence, a strategy that might enhance short-term recruitment probability in territorial species such as Red Grouse, has a fitness cost, and can influence the resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and survival later in life. PMID:24933821

  4. Association Between Serum Levels of Testosterone and Estradiol With Meibomian Gland Assessments in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ablamowicz, Anna F.; Nichols, Jason J.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this analysis were to determine if there is an association between serum levels of testosterone and estradiol with meibomian gland (MG) morphology and lipid layer thickness. Methods The data used for this analysis were collected from postmenopausal women with and without dry eye disease. Meibography was used to assess MG dropout on the central two-thirds of the eyelid and biomicroscopy was used for assessing MG expressibility and meibum quality. Venous blood samples were drawn for serum hormone level analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results One hundred ninety-eight postmenopausal women with an average age of 61.2 (±9.1) years were included in this analysis. Testosterone levels showed significant differences between MG dropout grades 1 and 4 (P = 0.002) and grades 2 and 4 (P = 0.01), whereas estradiol levels were different based on MG dropout (P = 0.53). No significant correlations were found between testosterone (r = 0.10, P = 0.17) or estradiol (r = 0.05, P = 0.45) and lipid layer thickness. Conclusions Testosterone levels were increased with MG dropout, which was significant between the mild and severe dropout groups, whereas no significant differences were found with estradiol and any MG assessment. Although the literature suggests an association of serum hormone levels and pathogenesis of dry eye disease in postmenopausal women, analysis of active sex steroid precursors and local tissue hormone levels may prove more useful. PMID:26830366

  5. Moderating effects of salivary testosterone levels on associations between job demand and psychological stress response in Japanese medical workers.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Miwa, Machiko; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-06-10

    Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers. PMID:26632120

  6. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  7. Seasonality in circadian locomotor activity and serum testosterone level in the subtropical tree sparrow (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anand S; Singh, Namram S

    2016-05-01

    Seasonality in daily locomotor activity pattern was investigated in the subtropical tree sparrow by exposing a group of birds to natural day lengths (NDL) for 30days and another group to 12L/12D for 14days followed by transfer to constant dim light (LLdim) for another 15days in four different seasons of the year. Serum testosterone levels were also measured during different seasons. Sparrows, under NDL, exhibited distinct circadian rhythmicity in their locomotor activity with almost similar general pattern in different seasons that restricted mainly to the light hours. However, they showed season-dependent differences in the characteristics of circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Birds, when exposed to 12L/12D, showed entrainment of their locomotor activity rhythm with the activity confined mainly during the light phase. Though, tau (τ) under free run conditions did not show any significant difference, the activity period varied significantly in different seasons. The highest level of testosterone was recorded in the spring season that corresponded with the maximum locomotor activity in spring months. The seasonality in daily locomotor activity correlates with the seasonal changes in testosterone levels suggesting the influence of gonadal steroids on endogenous circadian system which is indicative of adaptation of tree sparrow to local photoperiodic conditions. PMID:26945648

  8. Natesto™ , a novel testosterone nasal gel, normalizes androgen levels in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D; Tkachenko, N; Bryson, N

    2016-01-01

    Advantages of testosterone nasal gel include ease of administration, low dose, and no risk of secondary transference. The efficacy and safety of testosterone nasal gel was evaluated in hypogonadal males. The ninety-day, randomized, open-label, dose-ranging study, included potential dose titration and sequential safety extensions to 1 year. At 39 US outpatient sites, 306 men (mean age 54.4 years) with two fasting morning total serum testosterone levels <300 ng/dL were randomized (n = 228, b.i.d. dosing; n = 78, t.i.d. dosing). Natesto(™) Testosterone Nasal Gel was self-administered, using a multiple-dose dispenser, as two or three daily doses (5.5 mg per nostril, 11.0 mg single dose). Total daily doses were 22 mg or 33 mg. The primary endpoint was the Percentage of patients with Day-90 serum total testosterone average concentration (C(avg)) value within the eugonadal range (≥300 ng/dL, ≤1050 ng/dL). At Day 90, 200/273 subjects (73%; 95% CI 68, 79) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and 180/237 subjects (76%; 71, 81) in the per-protocol (PP) population were in the normal range. Also, in the normal range were 68% (61, 74) of ITT subjects and 70% (63, 77) of PP subjects in the titration arm, as well as, 90% (83, 97) of ITT subjects and 91% (84, 98) of PP subjects in the fixed-dose arm. Natesto(™) 11 mg b.i.d. or 11 mg t.i.d. restores normal serum total testosterone levels in most hypogonadal men. Erectile function, mood, body composition, and bone mineral density improved from baseline. Treatment was well tolerated; adverse event rates were low. Adverse event discontinuation rates were 2.1% (b.i.d.) and 3.7% (t.i.d.). This study lacked a placebo or an active comparator control which limited the ability to adequately assess some measures. PMID:26695758

  9. Differences in neonatal exposure to estradiol or testosterone on ovarian function and hormonal levels.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Kátia C; Duarte, Daniele C; Garcia, Natália; Amaral, Vinícius C; Simões, Manuel J; Lo Turco, Edson G; Soares, José M; Baracat, Edmund C; Maciel, Gustavo A R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to an excess of androgen or estrogen can induce changes in reproductive function in adult animals that resemble polycystic ovary syndrome in humans. However, considerable differences exist among several types of animal models. Little is known about the molecular features of steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis in the ovaries of rats exposed to different sex steroids as neonates. Here, we evaluated the impact of androgen and estrogen exposure on the ovaries of adult female rats during their neonatal period in the gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1, two key players of steroidogenesis. We also assessed hormone levels, folliculogenesis and the theca-interstitial cell population. The study was performed on the second postnatal day in thirty female Wistar rats that were sorted into the following three intervention groups: testosterone, estradiol and vehicle (control group). The animals were euthanized 90 days after birth. The main outcomes were hormone serum levels, ovary histomorphometry and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1 as analyzed via quantitative real-time PCR. We found that exposure to excess testosterone in early life increased the LH and testosterone serum levels, the LH/FSH ratio, ovarian theca-interstitial area and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1 in adult rats. Estrogen induced an increase in the ovarian theca-interstitial area, the secondary follicle population and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1. All animals exposed to the sex steroids presented with closed vaginas. Our data suggest that testosterone resulted in more pronounced reproductive changes than did estrogen exposure. Our results might provide some insight into the role of different hormones on reproductive development and on the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations of conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25623143

  10. Parental care, loss of paternity and circulating levels of testosterone and corticosterone in a socially monogamous song bird

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In biparental birds testosterone levels of males are typically high during the mating phase and decrease during the parental phase. Testosterone implants may enhance mating behaviors, increase the likelihood of males to engage in extra-pair mating behavior and may reduce paternal care. Thus, sex steroids such as testosterone influence reproductive behaviors. Little is known, however, as to whether the more subtle differences in physiological concentrations of testosterone that occur between individuals are related to differences in paternal care, extra-pair behavior, and genetic paternity between those males. Here, we investigate these relationships in the male black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros), a socially monogamous songbird with a low breeding synchrony. We used nestling provisioning as a proxy for parental care behavior and genetic paternity loss as a proxy for the efficiency of mate-guarding. Results There was no relationship between nestling provisioning and paternity loss of males. Baseline and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced levels of testosterone, but not baseline corticosterone, were significantly higher during the mating than during the provisioning phase. Males fed more often when temperatures decreased and fed less when they sang more, but we found no correlation between parental behavior and baseline or GnRH-induced testosterone, and baseline corticosterone – both measured during either the mating or the parental phase. However, males that experienced loss of paternity had lower levels of testosterone during the provisioning phase than males that did not lose paternity. Further, males that lost paternity also expressed higher baseline levels of corticosterone. Conclusions Physiological differences in testosterone or baseline corticosterone were not related to differences in parental care, suggesting that the variation of testosterone within a physiological range may not relate to the degree of paternal care in this

  11. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  12. Zinc Levels in Seminal Fluid in Infertile Males and its Relation with Serum Free Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajay Rajeshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The role of zinc is critical to reproduction potential. Seminal zinc is thought to be derived almost exclusively from prostatic secretions. Sperm motility is significantly influenced by zinc. Zinc deficiency has been linked with male sterility and subfertility. Aim To assess the influence of seminal plasma zinc on seminogram characteristics and whether endogenous testosterone affects the seminal levels of zinc. Materials and Methods The semen samples were obtained from 150 male partners of infertile couples who attended the Reproductive Biology Unit of the Department of Physiology, within the age 21-50 years and semen samples were analysed for the routine seminogram parameters. All the subjects were classified into two main groups, A- the subjects with normal ejaculates (n=62) and B- the subjects with abnormal ejaculates, who were further sub divided into the following groups: i) Asthenoteratozoospermics (n=43); ii) Oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (n=24); and iii) Azoospermics (n=21). The seminal plasma zinc was measured spectrophotometrically. The sample for serum free testosterone was sent to Thyrocare laboratory. Results The seminal plasma zinc was found to be significantly lower in the abnormal ejaculates than in the normal ejaculates. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the seminal plasma zinc and serum free testosterone (p<0.05, r=0.449). Statistically significant correlation was also found between seminal plasma zinc and all the seminogram parameters such as the sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology (p<0.05, r= 0.86, 0.87 and 0.86 respectively). Conclusion Low seminal plasma zinc might be a significant causative factor in impairing sperm functions and its dependence on endogenous free testosterone, is observed from a positive correlation between the two. PMID:27437207

  13. Prostate size correlates with fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the correlations between BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone level, insulin resistance, and prostate size in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with normal testosterone levels. Data from 212 non-diabetic BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to medical treatment failure, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 3 ng/mL underwent multicore transrectal prostate biopsy before TURP to rule out prostate cancer. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or serum testosterone levels of < 3.50 ng/mL were excluded from analysis. Correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters were determined. Prostate size correlated positively with age (r = 0.227, P < 0.001), PSA (r = 0.510, P < 0.001), and fasting glucose level (r = 0.186, P = 0.007), but not with BMI, testosterone, insulin level, or insulin resistance (each P > 0.05). Testosterone level inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.327, P < 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.207, P = 0.003), and insulin resistance (r = -0.221, P = 0.001), but not with age, prostate size, PSA, or fasting glucose level (each P > 0.05). Upon multiple adjusted linear regression analysis, prostate size correlated with elevated PSA (P < 0.001) and increased fasting glucose levels (P = 0.023). In non-DM BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, fasting glucose level is an independent risk factor for prostate hyperplasia. PMID:21949470

  14. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone buccal systems are used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the ... sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone buccal systems work by replacing testosterone that is normally produced ...

  15. Testosterone level in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and related metabolic effects: A review of current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kitty Kit Ting; Luk, Andrea On Yan; So, Wing Yee; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Chow, Francis Chun Chung; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a low testosterone level relative to reference ranges based on healthy young men. Only a small number of these patients suffer from classical hypogonadism as a result of recognizable hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis pathology. The cut-off value of the serum testosterone level in men without obvious hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis pathology is controversial. It is unclear to what extent a low serum testosterone level causally leads to type 2 diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome. From a theoretical standpoint, there can be complex interactions among the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, body composition and insulin resistance, which can be further influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors to give rise to metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, and low-grade inflammation to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although a low serum testosterone level frequently coexists with cardiometabolic risk factors and might serve as a biomarker, more studies are required to clarify the causal, mediating or modifying roles of low serum testosterone level in the development of adverse clinical outcomes. Currently, there are insufficient randomized clinical trial data to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on meaningful clinical outcomes. The risk-to-benefit ratio of testosterone therapy in high-risk subjects, such as those with type 2 diabetes, also requires elucidation. The present article aims to review the current evidence on low serum testosterone levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, and its implications on cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic syndrome and adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:25802717

  16. Cigarette smoking has a positive and independent effect on testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiaobo; Liang, Jianbo; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Mo, Linjian; Lv, Wenxin; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that testosterone levels are linked to a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, erectile dysfunction, depression, stroke and osteoporosis. Since cigarette smoking is a major health problem and highly prevalent among men, several groups have studied the effects of cigarette smoking on testosterone levels in men. However, the results have been conflicting. Our objectives were to examine the association of cigarette smoking and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) in a large male population. Data from 2,021 men (989 nonsmokers and 1,032 smokers), aged 20-69, were collected from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination survey using an in-person interview and self-administered questionnaires from September to December, 2009. We have found the following: (a) smokers had significantly higher TT and FT levels compared to nonsmokers, even after stratification as per age, BMI, triglycerides and alcohol consumption. (b) Both TT (r = -0.083, P <0.001) and FT (r = -0.271, P <0.001) levels were negatively correlated to the amount of tobacco exposure. (c) Smoking was an independent influencing factor for the levels of both TT (unadjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.33-2.01, P <0.001; adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.34-2.13, P <0.001) and FT (unadjusted OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.08-1.61, P = 0.007; adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1-1.61, P = 0.050) levels in multivariate logistic regression models before and after adjusting for age, BMI, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, alcohol consumption and estradiol. (d) Smoking was not found to be an independent predictor of SHBG level after adjustment for confounders in multivariate regression model (P >0.05), although a positive association between increasing pack-years and SHBG level was observed (r = 0.174, P <0.001). More research is needed to elucidate the biological mechanisms and

  17. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  18. Levels of estradiol and testosterone are altered in Chinese men with sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Chen, T; Mao, S; Jiang, H; Ding, Q; Xu, G

    2016-09-01

    An estimated 20-30% of adult men have at least one manifestation of sexual dysfunction, the most common of which are premature ejaculation (PE) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Emerging evidence has suggested an association between the regulation of hormones with the processes of erection and ejaculation. In this study, we aim to investigate the relationship between sexual dysfunction, namely, PE and ED, and the levels and ratios of estradiol to testosterone in Chinese men. A retrospective case-control study was performed involving 878 male patients aged from 18 to 74 years (mean: 36 years). The ratio of estradiol to testosterone was significantly higher for subjects with ED (7.45 ± 3.09 × 10(-3) ; p < 0.001), and combined PE and ED (6.66 ± 3.05 × 10(-3) ; p = 0.032) compared with that of the control group (6.01 ± 2.61 × 10(-3) ). The ratio was also significantly higher for ED patients when compared with PE patients (5.26 ± 2.18 × 10(-3) ; p < 0.001). Furthermore, compared with the control group, subjects with PE had similar levels of estradiol (95.47 ± 37.86 pmol/L vs. 94.12 ± 32.32 pmol/L; p = 0.678) but significantly higher levels of testosterone (18.66 ± 6.03 nmol/L vs. 16.82 ± 4.93 nmol/L; p < 0.001). This contrasted with the ED group, which showed similar levels of testosterone (16.96 ± 5.86 nmol/L vs. 16.82 ± 4.93 nmol/L; p = 0.773) and significantly higher levels of estradiol (116.88 ± 40.81 pmol/L vs. 94.12 ± 32.32 pmol/L; p < 0.001) compared with control. Subjects with combined ED and PE also had a significantly higher level of estradiol (104.98 ± 43.99 pmol/L vs. 94.12 ± 32.32 pmol/L; p = 0.014) and similar levels of testosterone (17.30 ± 7.23 nmol/L vs. 16.82 ± 4.93 nmol/L; p = 0.503) compared with control. In conclusion, this study involving Chinese males with sexual dysfunction reports, for the first time, that there is an association between sexual dysfunction

  19. Probiotic Microbes Sustain Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular Size in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Qi, Peimin; Varian, Bernard J.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals. PMID:24392159

  20. Association of Sex Hormones With Sexual Function, Vitality, and Physical Function of Symptomatic Older Men With Low Testosterone Levels at Baseline in the Testosterone Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Glenn R.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Wang, Christina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Molitch, Mark E.; Farrar, John T.; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A.; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Fluharty, Laura; Gill, Thomas M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Pahor, Marco; Resnick, Susan M.; Storer, Thomas W.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Hou, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction, low vitality, and poor physical function increases with aging, as does the prevalence of low total and free testosterone (TT and FT) levels. However, the relationship between sex hormones and age-related alterations in older men is not clear. Objective: To test the hypotheses that baseline serum TT, FT, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are independently associated with sexual function, vitality, and physical function in older symptomatic men with low testosterone levels participating in the Testosterone Trials (TTrials). Design: Cross-sectional study of baseline measures in the TTrials. Setting: The study was conducted at 12 sites in the United States. Participants: The 788 TTrials participants were ≥ 65 years and had evidence of sexual dysfunction, diminished vitality, and/or mobility disability, and an average of two TT < 275 ng/dL. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measures: Question 4 of Psychosocial Daily Questionnaire (PDQ-Q4), the FACIT-Fatigue Scale, and the 6-minute walk test. Results: Baseline serum TT and FT, but not E2 or SHBG levels had small, but statistically significant associations with validated measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity. None of these hormones was significantly associated within or across trials with FACIT-Fatigue, PHQ-9 Depression or Physical Function-10 scores, or gait speed. Conclusions: FT and TT levels were consistently, independently, and positively associated, albeit to a small degree, with measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity, but not with measures of vitality or physical function in symptomatic older men with low T who qualified for the TTrials. PMID:25548978

  1. Sexual experience and plasma testosterone levels in male veterans after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Phelps, G; Brown, M; Chen, J; Dunn, M; Lloyd, E; Stefanick, M L; Davidson, J M; Perkash, I

    1983-02-01

    Fifty men with spinal cord injuries (SCI) were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their sexuality before and after injury. Medical examination confirmed the location and completeness of the injury and extracted information about genitourologic status. The respondents rated sexuality highly as a concern in living, and a wide variety of sexual techniques were reported. A marked decrease in sexual activity, satisfaction, and feelings of sexual adequacy was reported after injury, as compared to retrospective "before injury" responses, lack of opportunity being reported as causative by 66% of the subjects and insufficient personal satisfaction by 59%. Seventy-five percent of the subjects experienced sexual arousal from genital stimulation, and several methods of eliciting erection were cited. Orgasm was described by a variety of terms. Significant differences were found between quadriplegic and paraplegic patients in answers to several items, though there was generally no difference between cervical and thoracic groups, which were more specifically broken down with respect to motor or sensory/complete or incomplete lesions. Plasma testosterone levels were found to fall well within the normal adult male range, as were levels of free testosterone and serum sex binding protein. The resulting information demonstrated more sexual concern among men with SCI than the literature previously indicated. PMID:6681699

  2. Social behavior and patterns of testosterone and glucocorticoid levels differ between male chacma and Guinea baboons.

    PubMed

    Kalbitzer, Urs; Heistermann, Michael; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Fischer, Julia

    2015-09-01

    In multi-male, multi-female groups of mammals, males usually compete aggressively over access to females. However, species vary in the intensity of male contest competition, which has been linked to differences in testosterone and glucocorticoid profiles. Chacma (Papio ursinus) and Guinea (P. papio) baboons constitute an intriguing model to examine variation in male competition and male endocrine correlates, because of the differences in their social systems. Chacma baboons live in stable female-bonded groups with linear male dominance hierarchies and a high male mating skew, whereas Guinea baboons live in male-bonded, multi-level societies. We recorded male behavior and assayed testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) levels from fecal samples in one population of each species. Male chacma baboons were more frequently involved in agonistic interactions, and dominance relationships were more consistent than in Guinea baboons, where we could not detect linear hierarchies. Notably, male chacma baboons were also more aggressive towards females, indicating an overall higher aggressiveness in this species. In contrast, male Guinea baboons showed higher levels of affiliative interactions and spatial tolerance. High-ranking and consorting male chacma baboons showed elevated fGC levels and also tended to show elevated fT levels, but there was no effect of consortship in Guinea baboons. Agonism was not related to hormone levels in either species. Thus, predictors of fT and fGC levels in Guinea baboons seem to differ from chacma baboons. Our results support the view that different social systems create differential selection pressures for male aggression, reflected by different hormone profiles. PMID:26344413

  3. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... topical may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to use testosterone topical even ...

  4. Changes in the sexual behavior and testosterone levels of male rats in response to daily interactions with estrus females

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Leanne M.; Spritzer, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Male rat sexual behavior has been intensively studied over the past 100 years, but few studies have examined how sexual behavior changes over the course of several days of interactions. In this experiment, adult male rats (n = 12) were given daily access to estrus females for 30 min per day for 15 consecutive days and control males did not interact with females. Ovariectomized females were induced into estrus with hormonal injections, and males interacted with a different female each day. The amount of sexual activity (mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations) was found to cycle with a period of approximately 4 days in most male rats. Additionally, blood was collected every other day following sexual interactions to assess serum testosterone levels. Testosterone was found to peak on the first day of interaction and then fell back to near the level of control rats that did not interact with females. Following the initial peak, testosterone concentrations fluctuated less in males exposed to females than in controls. Sexual activity was not found to predict testosterone concentration. We conclude that when male rats have daily sexual interactions, sexual behavior tends to show cyclic changes and testosterone is significantly elevated only on the first day of interactions. PMID:24813700

  5. Changes in the sexual behavior and testosterone levels of male rats in response to daily interactions with estrus females.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Leanne M; Spritzer, Mark D

    2014-06-22

    Male rat sexual behavior has been intensively studied over the past 100 years, but few studies have examined how sexual behavior changes over the course of several days of interactions. In this experiment, adult male rats in the experimental group (n=12) were given daily access to estrus females for 30 min per day for 15 consecutive days while control males (n=11) did not interact with females. Ovariectomized females were induced into estrus with hormonal injections, and males interacted with a different female each day. The amount of sexual activity (mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations) was found to cycle with a period of approximately 4 days in most male rats. Additionally, blood was collected every other day following sexual interactions to assess serum testosterone levels. Testosterone was found to peak on the first day of interaction and then fell back to near the level of control rats that did not interact with females. Following the initial peak, testosterone concentrations fluctuated less in males exposed to females than in controls. Sexual activity was not found to predict testosterone concentration. We conclude that when male rats have daily sexual interactions, sexual behavior tends to show cyclic changes and testosterone is significantly elevated only on the first day of interactions. PMID:24813700

  6. [Testosterone and Induced Humoral Immunity in Male Campbell Dwarf Hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Thomas, 1905, Rodentia, Cricetidae): Experimental Manipulation of Testosterone Levels].

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, N Yu; Khrushchova, A M; Shekarova, N; Rogovin, K A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of testosterone manipulation in the blood of male Campbell dwarf hamsters Phodopus campbelli Thomas, 1905 through castration, followed by testosterone treatment. Under these conditions, we studied antibody production rates in response to injection with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). It was shown that castration induced a dramatic decrease in blood testosterone but had no effect on the humoral response to SRBC. Males that received a testosterone compound with a long-lasting action (omnadren) exhibited a poor response to SRBC following re-exposure in the context of elevated testosterone compared to castrated males inoculated with an oil base of the drug. PMID:26349233

  7. Effects of paint thinner exposure on serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels and hypothalamic catecholamine contents in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, B; Kutlu, S; Canpolat, S; Sandal, S; Ayar, A; Mogulkoc, R; Kelestimur, H

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the effects of thinner inhalation on serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels together with changes in hypothalamic catecholaminergic system in the male rat. A control group inhaled normal air ventilation. The remaining animals were divided into two groups and exposed to paint thinner in a glassy cage for 15 or 30 d. Toluene concentration (the largest constituent in thinner, 66%) was set at 3000 ppm in the inhalation air. At the end, all animals were decapitated and blood samples obtained. Serum LH and FSH levels were measured by RIA and testosterone by enzyme immunoassay. Following removal of brains on dry ice, medial preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence and arcuate nucleus were isolated by micropunch technique. Noradrenaline, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) and dopamine concentrations of these hypothalamic areas were determined by HPLC-ECD. Fifteen-day thinner inhalation significantly suppressed serum LH and testosterone levels in parallel (p<0.001) compared to control group values (LH: 0.77+/-0.07; testosterone: 2.67+/-0.39). Thirty-day exposure markedly decreased LH levels (p<0.001), but surprisingly had no significant effect on testosterone. Serum FSH levels were not significantly altered in either group. Thinner inhalation for 15 or 30 d did not cause any significant change in noradrenaline, DHPG or dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamic regions examined (except in the arcuate nucleus). These results suggest that paint thinner has an anti-gonadotropic effect and may cause long-term endocrine disturbances in the male. It is thought that the hypothalamic catecholaminergic system is not involved in thinner inhibition of LH and testosterone secretion. PMID:11217085

  8. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  9. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  10. The Effect of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Levels in Men Being Treated for Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels. Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer. After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P < 0.001). The difference in means of PSA levels were significant higher for patients that received testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117–0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48–2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls. Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration

  11. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  12. Simultaneous Measurement of Serum Chemical Castration Agents and Testosterone Levels Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Jeon, Sun-Hee; Song, Sang Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jin Young; In, Moon Kyo; Song, Junghan

    2016-05-01

    Chemical castration involves administration of drugs to prevent pathological sexual behavior, reduce abnormal sexual drive and treat hormone-dependent cancers. Various drugs have been used for chemical castration; however, substantial interindividual variability and side effects are often observed. In this study, we proposed a useful monitoring method for the application of chemical castration agents using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Testosterone, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone, goserelin acetate, leuprolide acetate and triptorelin acetate were analyzed by UPLC-MS-MS. The target drugs were extracted from serum samples by double protein precipitation using methanol. Testosterone-1,2-d2 and buserelin acetate were used as internal standards. Parameters of analytical performance were evaluated, including imprecision, linearity, ion suppression and detection capabilities. Testosterone measurements were compared with the results of immunoassays. Serum specimens from 51 subjects who underwent chemical castration were analyzed. All drugs and testosterone were well extracted and separated using our method. The method was essentially free from potential interferences and ion suppression. Within-run and between-run imprecision values were <15%. The lower limits of quantification were 0.125 and 0.5-1.0 ng/mL for testosterone and other drugs, respectively. Good correlations with pre-existing immunoassays for testosterone measurement were observed. Sera from subjects who underwent androgen deprivation therapy showed variable levels of drugs. We successfully developed a UPLC-MS-MS-based monitoring method for chemical castration. The performance of our method was generally acceptable. This method may provide a novel monitoring strategy for chemical castration to enhance expected effects while reducing unwanted side effects. PMID:26989223

  13. The low plasma testosterone levels of young Indian infarct survivors are not due to a primary testicular defect.

    PubMed Central

    Sewdarsen, M.; Jialal, I.; Naidu, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    A case control study was performed to determine whether the hypotestosteronaemia described in men with coronary artery disease could be the result of primary testicular dysfunction. Testicular function was assessed by comparing the response of 10 young Indian men with myocardial infarction to human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) injection to that of 10 healthy age and weight matched controls. The basal testosterone levels in the patients were significantly lower (12.71 +/- 1.36 nmol/l vs 16.51 +/- 0.79 nmol/l; P = 0.01) and the basal oestradiol levels significantly higher than the controls (120.67 +/- 8.81 pmol/l vs 94.05 +/- 8.23 pmol/l; P = 0.02). There was no difference in the sex hormone binding globulin concentrations. However, following HCG stimulation the patients demonstrated a normal response with a 2-fold increase in testosterone. There was no difference in the testosterone and oestradiol levels of the patients and controls following HCG stimulation. This normal response in our patients demonstrates that the hypotestosteronaemia in Indian men with myocardial infarction is not due to a primary testicular dysfunction but probably is a result of increased aromatization of testosterone to oestradiol. PMID:3186567

  14. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  15. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and testosterone deficiency in middle-aged Korean men: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tak, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Kim, Yun Jin; Park, Nam Cheol; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Sangyeoup; Cho, Byung Mann; Kong, Eun Hee; Jung, Dong Wook; Yi, Yu Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that male hypogonadism is associated with a low level of vitamin D. However, no reports have investigated the effects of vitamin D on testosterone levels in Korean men. Our aim was to investigate whether testosterone levels are associated with serum vitamin D levels and whether seasonal variation exists. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) in 652 Korean men over 40 years of age who had undergone a comprehensive medical examination. The average age of the subjects was 56.7 ± 7.9 years, and the mean serum 25(OH)D, TT and FT levels were 21.23 ± 7.9 ng ml-1 , 4.70 ± 1.6 ng ml-1 , and 8.12 ± 3.3 pg ml-1 , respectively. In the multiple linear regression model, 25(OH)D showed positive association with TT (β =0.137, P< 0.001) and FT (β =0.103, P= 0.008). 25(OH)D and FT showed similar seasonal or monthly variation after adjustment for age. A vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng ml-1 ] was associated with an increased risk of deficiencies of TT (<2.30 ng ml-1 ) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-5.78, P= 0.014) and FT (<6.50 pg ml-1 ) (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01-2.06 P= 0.048) after adjusting for age, season, body mass index, body composition, chronic disease, smoking, and alcohol use. In conclusion, we demonstrated a positive correlation between 25(OH)D and testosterone, which showed similar seasonal variation in Korean men. PMID:25532570

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and testosterone deficiency in middle-aged Korean men: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Kim, Yun Jin; Park, Nam Cheol; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Sangyeoup; Cho, Byung Mann; Kong, Eun Hee; Jung, Dong Wook; Yi, Yu Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that male hypogonadism is associated with a low level of vitamin D. However, no reports have investigated the effects of vitamin D on testosterone levels in Korean men. Our aim was to investigate whether testosterone levels are associated with serum vitamin D levels and whether seasonal variation exists. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) in 652 Korean men over 40 years of age who had undergone a comprehensive medical examination. The average age of the subjects was 56.7 ± 7.9 years, and the mean serum 25(OH)D, TT and FT levels were 21.23 ± 7.9 ng ml−1, 4.70 ± 1.6 ng ml−1, and 8.12 ± 3.3 pg ml−1, respectively. In the multiple linear regression model, 25(OH)D showed positive association with TT (β =0.137, P < 0.001) and FT (β =0.103, P = 0.008). 25(OH)D and FT showed similar seasonal or monthly variation after adjustment for age. A vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng ml−1] was associated with an increased risk of deficiencies of TT (<2.30 ng ml−1) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–5.78, P = 0.014) and FT (<6.50 pg ml−1) (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01–2.06 P = 0.048) after adjusting for age, season, body mass index, body composition, chronic disease, smoking, and alcohol use. In conclusion, we demonstrated a positive correlation between 25(OH)D and testosterone, which showed similar seasonal variation in Korean men. PMID:25532570

  17. The influence of high-normal testosterone levels on risk-taking in healthy males in a 1-week letrozole administration study.

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Anna E; Lapauw, Bruno; Ruige, Johannes; Feyen, Els; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Brand, Matthias; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2010-10-01

    Human studies on the relation between testosterone levels and risk-taking behaviour are scarce. Related functions, like aggression, have been related to higher testosterone levels more consistently, especially in the animal literature. Estradiol affects several neurotransmitter systems that play a role in behaviour regulation. Existing human studies on neurocognitive functions and testosterone levels have largely ignored the interrelatedness of testosterone levels and estradiol levels. Therefore, in this study, the effects of a 1-week combined testosterone and estradiol intervention on risk-taking behaviours were investigated. Twenty-one healthy men, with a normal body mass index, were treated for 7 days with an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole 2.5 mg), resulting in high-normal levels of testosterone and low-normal levels of estradiol, or with a combination of an aromatase inhibitor and estradiol (75 μg/24 h), resulting in low-normal levels of testosterone and high-normal levels of estradiol. A randomized experimenter and participant-blind controlled design was applied. Neurocognitive measures of risk-taking and reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed before starting with the medication and after 7 days of drug administration: Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Game of Dice Task (GDT), and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). A group by time effect was present for the BART, indicating that the high-normal testosterone group showed an increase in risk-taking on the BART, from the first drug-naive BART performance, to the second BART performance (aromatase inhibitor), whereas such an increase was not present in the low-normal testosterone/high estradiol group. No group by time interactions were present in GDT or IGT performance. These results implicate that testosterone levels in healthy men are associated with increased risk-taking under conditions of unknown probabilities, but not in conditions of known probabilities (GDT) or of strategic decision making (IGT). PMID

  18. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  19. Compounded Testosterone Troches TO OPTIMIZE HEALTH AND THE TESTOSTERONE CONTROVERSY.

    PubMed

    Guth, Michael A S

    2015-01-01

    As men age, testosterone levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. The gradual decline in testosterone production with aging, known as andropause, is common and may have deleterious effects on men including decreased overall well-being, increased sarcopenia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, reduced sexual function, and bone loss. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that an increasing number of men worldwide have begun requesting testosterone replacement therapy from their physicians. Occasionally, physicians discourage male patients from getting testosterone replacement therapy based on a few recent studies indicating the therapy causes cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarctions. Yet, an extensive review of the testosterone replacement therapy literature reveals that the majority of clinical studies show that properly administered testosterone replacement therapy, in which estradiol and dihydrotestosterone levels are also controlled, has no adverse effects on myocardial infarction risk. The current state-of-the-art in testosterone replacement therapy comprises compounded testosterone troches; an aromatase inhibitor, such as generic Anastrazole, to control estradiol levels; and a 5α-reductase inhibitor, such as beneric Dutasteride or Finasteride, to control dihydrotestosterone. Compounded testosterone troches easily raise serum testosterone levels to the optimal range, are highly cost effective at $82 for a 180-day supply, and provide affordable access to testosterone replacement therapy to millions of men requesting it. Yet, the Blue Cross Blue Shield-associated firms have largely denied requests for coverage of compounded medications, including testosterone troches. Despite data demonstrating strong links between testosterone deficiency and significant comorbid conditions (including Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndrome diseases) as well as the health benefits of testosterone replacement therapy, some physian have

  20. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  1. Serum Testosterone Levels and Symptom-Based Depression Subtypes in Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Stephanie; grosse Holtforth, Martin; Hengartner, Michael P.; Müller, Mario; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra A.; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this preliminary study was to further clarify the association between testosterone (T) levels and depression by investigating symptom-based depression subtypes in a sample of 64 men. The data were taken from the ZInEP epidemiology survey. Gonadal hormones of a melancholic (n  = 25) and an atypical (n = 14) depression subtype, derived from latent class analysis, were compared with those of healthy controls (n  = 18). Serum T was assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. Analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, non-parametrical tests, and generalized linear regression models were performed to examine group differences. The atypical depressive subtype showed significantly lower T levels compared with the melancholic depressives. While accumulative evidence indicates that, beyond psychosocial characteristics, the melancholic and atypical depressive subtypes are also distinguishable by biological correlates, the current study expanded this knowledge to include gonadal hormones. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disclose causality by linking the multiple processes in pathogenesis of depression. PMID:25999864

  2. Effect of testosterone undecanoate hormone on sperm and its level in the hemolymph of male mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus.

    PubMed

    Fatihah, S N; Safiah, J; Abol-Munafi, A B; Ikhwanuddin, M

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of testosterone undecanoate hormone on sperm quality (sperm viability) and sperm quantity (sperm counts) and its levels in the hemolymph of male mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus. Male P. polyphagus was injected laterally in fifth abdominal segment of pure hormone, Testosterone Undecanoate (TU) and ethanol at days 1, 8, 15, 22 and 29. Hemolymph of P. polyphagus was taken every two weeks and checked with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure hormone levels. The mean sperm quality and quantity were increased due to increase the TU dose and TU levels also increase. The sperm quality, quantity and hormone levels were relevance each others. These findings indicate that TU injection should be evaluated as a practical way of improving sperm quality and quantity in commercial operations. PMID:26035945

  3. Effects of testosterone on the expression levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shan-Feng; Zheng, Jin-Dan; Zhao, Chun-Bo; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Li-Li; Huang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of testosterone on mouse granulosa cell morphology, and the expression levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Mouse granulosa cells were isolated and identified, and their morphology was examined using hematoxylin and eosin, F-actin, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor staining. The mRNA expression levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and their protein secretion levels were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Testosterone treatment did not affect granulosa cell morphology; however, it significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of AMH and VEGF, and the protein secretion levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α. These results suggested that testosterone was able to regulate the functions of granulosa cells by upregulating the expression levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α. PMID:27446291

  4. Short-term human chorionic gonadotropin-induced testosterone rise does not modify leptin levels in eugonadal men.

    PubMed

    Panidis, D; Koliakos, G; Kourtis, A; Rousso, D; Mavromatidis, G; Triantos, A; Kalahanis, I

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor serum leptin concentrations after altering the levels of testosterone, by intramuscular administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), in eugonadal men. A 7-day monitoring of hCG, testosterone and leptin levels was performed after intramuscular administration of a dose of 5000 IU hCG in these men. Thirty fertile men aged 23-38 years were studied. In addition, 30 women aged 18-34 years with normal ovulatory cycles were studied, to verify reports of sexual dimorphism in serum leptin levels. These 60 individuals were divided into four groups, according to their sex and body mass index (BMI) values. In men, blood samples were collected at 09.00, after an overnight fast, for the determination of hCG, testosterone and leptin levels, and, immediately thereafter, a dose of 5000 IU hCG was administered intramuscularly. Further blood samples were collected at 24-h intervals for a period of 7 days for determination of the same hormones. In women, blood samples were collected only once, at 09.00, after an overnight fast between the 3rd and the 6th day of the menstrual cycle, for determination of serum estradiol and leptin levels. Our results showed that the mean value of leptin in thin men and women was significantly lower than that in obese men and women, respectively. The mean value of leptin in thin women was significantly higher than that in obese men. Serum leptin concentrations decreased significantly, 168 h after short-term hCG administration. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI values and serum leptin concentrations, in both men and women. Our results support the view that hCG administration in eugonadal men does not influence serum leptin levels. Moreover, a short-term increase of serum testosterone levels, after one dose of hCG, is not sufficient to affect and modify leptin secretion mechanisms in vivo. PMID:11915586

  5. Moderating effects of salivary testosterone levels on associations between job demand and psychological stress response in Japanese medical workers

    PubMed Central

    HIROKAWA, Kumi; MIWA, Machiko; TANIGUCHI, Toshiyo; TSUCHIYA, Masao; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers. PMID:26632120

  6. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  7. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH. PMID:25578932

  8. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghistani, Hala I.; Hamad, Abdul-Wahab R.; Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al-Swaifi, Mohammad; Abu Zaid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs) and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone) levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74 ± 24.331, 365.9 ± 16.55, and 367.5 ± 21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325 ± 0.243, 0.341 ± 0.022, and 0.357 ± 0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6 ± 26.75, 315.6 ± 13.08, and 332.08 ± 24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P = .001). This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47%) of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46%) without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0%) fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P = .017). ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P < .05). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele) and fertile (P < .05). Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with autoimmunity and sperm antibodies

  9. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  10. Genetic effects on serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: a Korean twin and family study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the role of genetics in determining the individual difference in total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Study participants comprised 730 Korean men consisting of 142 pairs of monozygotic twins, 191 pairs of siblings, and 259 father-offspring pairs from 270 families who participated in the Healthy Twin study. Serum concentration of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's method. Quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model showed that the heritability of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were 0.56, 0.45, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively after accounting for age and body mass index. Proportions of variance explained by age and body mass index varied across different traits, from 8% for total testosterone to 31% for sex hormone-binding globulin. Bivariate analysis showed a high degree of additive genetic correlation (ρG = 0.67) and a moderate degree of individual-specific environmental correlation (ρE = 0.42) between total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The findings confirmed the important role of genetics in determining the individually different levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin during adulthood in Korean men as found in non-Asian populations, which may suggest that common biologic control for determining testosterone level directly or indirectly through binding protein are largely shared among different populations. PMID:26486061

  11. Genetic effects on serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: a Korean twin and family study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the role of genetics in determining the individual difference in total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Study participants comprised 730 Korean men consisting of 142 pairs of monozygotic twins, 191 pairs of siblings, and 259 father-offspring pairs from 270 families who participated in the Healthy Twin study. Serum concentration of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's method. Quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model showed that the heritability of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were 0.56, 0.45, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively after accounting for age and body mass index. Proportions of variance explained by age and body mass index varied across different traits, from 8% for total testosterone to 31% for sex hormone-binding globulin. Bivariate analysis showed a high degree of additive genetic correlation (ρG = 0.67) and a moderate degree of individual-specific environmental correlation (ρE = 0.42) between total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The findings confirmed the important role of genetics in determining the individually different levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin during adulthood in Korean men as found in non-Asian populations, which may suggest that common biologic control for determining testosterone level directly or indirectly through binding protein are largely shared among different populations. PMID:26486061

  12. Early follicular testosterone level predicts preference for masculinity in male faces - but not for women taking hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Bobst, Cora; Sauter, Sabine; Foppa, Andrina; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that women's preference for masculinity in male faces changes across the menstrual cycle. Preference for masculinity is stronger when conception probability is high than when it is low. These findings have been linked to cyclic fluctuations of hormone levels. The purpose of the present study is to further investigate the link between gonadal steroids (i.e. testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) and masculinity preference in women, while holding the cycle phase constant. Sixty-two female participants were tested in their early follicular cycle phase, when conception probability is low. Participants were shown face pairs and where asked to choose the more attractive face. Face pairs consisted of a masculinized and feminized version of the same face. For naturally cycling women we found a positive relationship between saliva testosterone levels and masculinity preference, but there was no link between any hormones and masculinity preference for women taking hormonal contraception. We conclude that in naturally cycling women early follicular testosterone levels are associated with masculinity preference. However, these hormonal links were not found for women with artificially modified hormonal levels, that is, for women taking hormonal contraception. PMID:24495615

  13. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued. PMID:26281448

  14. The Effects of Lead Acetate on Sexual Behavior and the Level of Testosterone in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Mokhtar; Zanboori, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Background In the present study, the oral effect of lead acetate on the parameters related to sexual behavior as well as changes in the level of testosterone hormone in adult male rats have been investigated. Materials and Methods Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated into five equal groups. The control group received nothing, the sham group received distilled water and the experimental groups received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg lead acetate orally, respectively for 28 days. The changes in testosterone hormone level and following sexual behavior parameters were investigated: mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount frequency (MF), ejaculatory latency (EL), intromission frequency (IF), copulatory efficacy (CE) and intercopulatory interval (ICI). Results The levels of testosterone hormone in the groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg lead acetate showed significant decreases in compared to the control group. Additionally, the same doses of lead acetate caused significant increases in ML, IL, PEI and EL compared to the control group. No significant change was observed in MF, but a significant decrease was detected in IF and CE in the experimental group that received 100 mg/kg lead acetate when compared with the control group. ICI showed significant decreases in the experimental groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg lead acetate compared to the control group. Conclusion It can be concluded that ingestion of lead acetate affects some behavioral activities and the testosterone level of male rats. These effects might be conducted via the alteration of leydig cells following lead acetate poisoning. PMID:24917919

  15. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C; Castillo, S

    2002-12-01

    This study was a 12-week double blind placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with placebo. The study aimed to demonstrate if effect of Maca on subjective report of sexual desire was because of effect on mood or serum testosterone levels. Men aged 21-56 years received Maca in one of two doses: 1,500 mg or 3,000 mg or placebo. Self-perception on sexual desire, score for Hamilton test for depression, and Hamilton test for anxiety were measured at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. An improvement in sexual desire was observed with Maca since 8 weeks of treatment. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were not different in men treated with Maca and in those treated with placebo (P:NS). Logistic regression analysis showed that Maca has an independent effect on sexual desire at 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, and this effect is not because of changes in either Hamilton scores for depression or anxiety or serum testosterone and oestradiol levels. In conclusion, treatment with Maca improved sexual desire. PMID:12472620

  16. trans-Resveratrol relaxes the corpus cavernosum ex vivo and enhances testosterone levels and sperm quality in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunhee; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Park, Dongsun; Jang, Min-Jung; Choi, Jae Hong; Choi, Bong-Ho; Joo, Seong Soo; Nahm, Sang-Seop; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of trans-resveratrol on male reproductive functions; ex-vivo penile erection and in-vivo sperm counts and quality. For the ex-vivo study, the relaxation effects of resveratrol on isolated New Zealand white rabbit corpus cavernosum, precontracted by phenylephrine (5x10(-5) M) were measured. The in-vivo study measured reproductive organ weights, blood testosterone levels, testicular histopathology, sperm counts, as well as the epididymal sperm motility and deformity of male ICR mice given an oral dose of resveratrol (50 mg/ kg) for 28 days. Resveratrol elicited a concentration-dependent relaxing effect on corpus cavernosum, leading to a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.29 mg/mL. Repeated treatment with resveratrol (50 mg/kg) did not cause an increase in body weight, reproductive organ weight or testicular microscopic findings; however, resveratrol did elicit an increase in blood testosterone concentration, testicular sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility by 51.6%, 15.8% and 23.3%, respectively, without influence on sperm deformity. In conclusion, we propose that resveratrol has a positive effect on male reproductive function by triggering a penile erection, as well as enhancing blood testosterone levels, testicular sperm counts, and epididymal sperm motility. PMID:18277612

  17. Testosterone and musical talent.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1991-01-01

    Two recently published hypotheses on the biological basis of special talents are discussed in relation to experimental data obtained from musical composers, instrumentalists, painters, and non-musicians, and from adolescent boys and girls with different levels of musical capacities. Both hypotheses assign an important influence to prenatal testosterone effects on the developing brain. Geschwind and Galaburda (1985) predict that subjects with special talents may have anomalous hemispheric dominance for verbal material. This was confirmed experimentally in adolescents and in adults using a dichotic listening task to assess functional lateralization. Hassler and Nieschlag (1989) expect musicians of both sexes to be psychologically androgynous and to have current testosterone levels that differ from sex-typed males and females. Salivary testosterone was measured in adults and in adolescents. Creative musical behavior was associated with very low testosterone values in males, and with high testosterone levels in females. Sexual activity level and motivation did not differ between males with testosterone levels less than or equal to 200 pmol/l and those with greater than 220 pmol/l. We tentatively suggest from our data that, among a complex interaction of biological and social factors, an optimal testosterone range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. Exceeding the range in the course of adolescence may be detrimental for musical creativity in boys. PMID:1778236

  18. Age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels suggest differences in puberty onset and divergent life history strategies in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Behringer, V; Deschner, T; Deimel, C; Stevens, J M G; Hohmann, G

    2014-08-01

    Research on age-related changes in morphology, social behavior, and cognition suggests that the development of bonobos (Pan paniscus) is delayed in comparison to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). However, there is also evidence for earlier reproductive maturation in bonobos. Since developmental changes such as reproductive maturation are induced by a number of endocrine processes, changes in hormone levels are indicators of different developmental stages. Age-related changes in testosterone excretion are an indirect marker for the onset of puberty in human and non-human primates. In this study we investigated patterns of urinary testosterone levels in male and female bonobos and chimpanzees to determine the onset of puberty. In contrast to other studies, we found that both species experience age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels. Older individuals of both sexes had significantly higher urinary testosterone levels than younger individuals, indicating that bonobos and chimpanzees experience juvenile pause. The males of both species showed a similar pattern of age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels, with a sharp increase in levels around the age of eight years. This suggests that species-differences in aggression and male mate competition evolved independently of developmental changes in testosterone levels. Females showed a similar pattern of age-related urinary testosterone increase. However, in female bonobos the onset was about three years earlier than in female chimpanzees. The earlier rise of urinary testosterone levels in female bonobos is in line with reports of their younger age of dispersal, and suggests that female bonobos experience puberty at a younger age than female chimpanzees. PMID:25086337

  19. Ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo testosterone bioavailability study of different bioadhesive formulations based on starch-g-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers and starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ameye, D; Voorspoels, J; Foreman, P; Tsai, J; Richardson, P; Geresh, S; Remon, J P

    2002-02-19

    Starch-g-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers or grafted starches synthesized by 60Co irradiation or chemical modification and co-freeze-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures were evaluated on their ex vivo bioadhesion capacity. The buccal absorption of testosterone from a bioadhesive tablet formulated with the grafted starches or starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures was investigated. The results were compared to a reference formulation (physical mixture of 5% Carbopol 974P and 95% Drum Dried Waxy Maize). Rice starch-based irradiated grafted starches showed the best bioadhesion results. Partial neutralization of the acrylic acid with Ca(2+) ions resulted in significantly higher bioadhesion values compared to the reference. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) partially neutralized maltodextrin-based irradiated grafted starches showed significantly higher bioadhesion values compared to the reference formulation. The chemically modified grafted starches showed significantly higher adhesion force values than for the reference tablet. None of the co-freeze-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) mixtures showed significantly higher bioadhesion results than the reference (Bonferroni test, P<0.05). A chemically modified grafted starch could sustain the 3 ng/ml plasma testosterone target concentration during +/- 8 h (T(>3 ng/ml)). By lyophilization of a partially neutralized irradiated grafted starch, the in vivo adhesion time (22.0 +/- 7.2 h) and the T(>3 ng/ml) (13.5 +/- 1.3 h) could be increased. The absolute bioavailability of the lyophilized formulation approached the reference formulation. Some of the grafted starches showed to be promising buccal bioadhesive drug carriers for systemic delivery. PMID:11853929

  20. Do evolutionary life-history trade-offs influence prostate cancer risk? a review of population variation in testosterone levels and prostate cancer disparities

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Louis Calistro

    2013-01-01

    An accumulation of evidence suggests that increased exposure to androgens is associated with prostate cancer risk. The unrestricted energy budget that is typical of Western diets represents a novel departure from the conditions in which men's steroid physiology evolved and is capable of supporting distinctly elevated testosterone levels. Although nutritional constraints likely underlie divergent patterns of testosterone secretion between Westernized and non-Western men, considerable variability exists in men's testosterone levels and prostate cancer rates within Westernized populations. Here, I use evolutionary life history theory as a framework to examine prostate cancer risk. Life history theory posits trade-offs between investment in early reproduction and long-term survival. One corollary of life history theory is the ‘challenge hypothesis’, which predicts that males augment testosterone levels in response to intrasexual competition occurring within reproductive contexts. Understanding men's evolved steroid physiology may contribute toward understanding susceptibility to prostate cancer. Among well-nourished populations of Westerners, men's testosterone levels already represent an outlier of cross-cultural variation. I hypothesize that Westernized men in aggressive social environments, characterized by intense male–male competition, will further augment testosterone production aggravating prostate cancer risk. PMID:23396824

  1. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    PubMed

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. PMID:23770427

  2. The influence of nutritional levels and shade structure on testicular growth and hourly variations of plasma LH and testosterone levels in young Creole bulls in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D; Berbigier, P

    1982-01-01

    Twelve Creole bulls 13.3 months of age were divided into three groups according to live weight. The first group received a low nutritional level and was housed in a shaded stable; the second group received a high nutritional level and was housed in the same stable as the first group; the third group received the same ration as the second group but was exposed to solar radiation. Live weight and testicular diameter were recorded fortnightly. After 65 days, the blood of the bulls was sampled every 20 min for 12 h. Plasma LH and testosterone were quantified by radioimmunoassay. There was no significant influence of solar radiation on the testicular growth or the hormonal levels. Underfeeding decreased testicular growth and the average plasma LH and testosterone levels. However, this action was effective only in decreasing the number of hormonal pulses per day (0.63 vs 2.55 LH pulses per day and 0.75 vs 2.50 testosterone pulses per day); it did not change the basal hormone levels. It is suggested that this decrease in LH pulsatility might be responsible for the slow testicular growth in the underfed bulls. PMID:7156502

  3. Rapid Effects of an Aggressive Interaction on Dehydroepiandrosterone, Testosterone and Oestradiol Levels in the Male Song Sparrow Brain: a Seasonal Comparison.

    PubMed

    Heimovics, S A; Prior, N H; Ma, C; Soma, K K

    2016-02-01

    Across vertebrates, aggression is robustly expressed during the breeding season when circulating testosterone is elevated, and testosterone activates aggression either directly or after aromatisation into 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) in the brain. In some species, such as the song sparrow, aggressive behaviour is also expressed at high levels during the nonbreeding season, when circulating testosterone is non-detectable. At this time, the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is metabolised within the brain into testosterone and/or E2 to promote aggression. In the present study, we used captive male song sparrows to test the hypothesis that an acute agonistic interaction during the nonbreeding season, but not during the breeding season, would alter steroid levels in the brain. Nonbreeding and breeding subjects were exposed to either a laboratory simulated territorial intrusion (L-STI) or an empty cage for only 5 min. Immediately afterwards, the brain was rapidly collected and flash frozen. The Palkovits punch technique was used to microdissect specific brain regions implicated in aggressive behaviour. Solid phase extraction followed by radioimmunoassay was used to quantify DHEA, testosterone and E2 in punches. Overall, levels of DHEA, testosterone and E2 were higher in brain tissue than in plasma. Local testosterone and E2 levels in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus and nucleus taeniae of the amygdala were significantly higher in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season and were not affected by the L-STI. Unexpectedly, subjects that were dominant in the L-STI had lower levels of DHEA in the anterior hypothalamus and medial striatum in both seasons and lower levels of DHEA in the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala in the breeding season only. Taken together, these data suggest that local levels of DHEA in the brain are very rapidly modulated by social interactions in a context and region-specific pattern. PMID:26648568

  4. [Testosterone therapy].

    PubMed

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency. PMID:27067659

  5. The interaction of serum testosterone levels and androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism on the risk of erectile dysfunction in aging Taiwanese men.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C; Lee, Y C; Tsai, V F S; Cheng, K H; Wu, W J; Bao, B Y; Huang, C N; Yeh, H C; Tsai, C C; Wang, C J; Huang, S P

    2015-09-01

    Testosterone has been found to play important roles in men's sexual function. However, the effects of testosterone can be modulated by androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism. It could also contribute to the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction of serum testosterone levels and AR CAG repeat polymorphism on the risk of ED in aging Taiwanese men. This cross-sectional data of Taiwanese men older than 40 years were collected from a free health screening held between August 2010 and August 2011 in Kaohsiung city, Taiwan. All participants completed a health questionnaires included five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the International Prostate Symptoms Score, received a detailed physical examination and provided 20 cm3 whole blood samples for biochemical and genetic evaluation. The IIEF-5 was used to evaluate ED. Serum albumin, total testosterone (TT), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured. Free testosterone level was calculated. AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by direct sequencing. Finally, 478 men with the mean age of 55.7 ± 4.8 years were included. When TT levels were above 330 ng/dL, the effect of testosterone level on erectile function seemed to reach a plateau and a significantly negative correlation between AR CAG repeat length and the score of IIEF-5 was found (r = -0.119, p = 0.034). After adjusting for other covariates, the longer AR CAG repeat length was still an independent risk factor for ED in subjects with TT above 330 ng/dL (p = 0.006), but not in TT of 330 ng/dL or below. In conclusion, both serum testosterone levels and AR CAG repeat polymorphism can influence erectile function concomitantly. In subjects with normal TT concentration, those with longer AR CAG repeat lengths have a higher risk of developing ED. PMID:26216079

  6. Is there a relationship between the performance in a chronometric mental-rotations test and salivary testosterone and estradiol levels in children aged 9-14 years?

    PubMed

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Jansen, Petra; Lehmann, Jennifer; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2016-01-01

    The consistent gender differences favoring males in some spatial abilities like mental rotation have raised the question of whether testosterone or other gonadal hormones contribute to these differences--especially because such gender differences seem to appear mainly from the age of puberty on. Studies generally suggest that spatial ability is facilitated by moderately high testosterone levels (i.e., levels that are relatively high for females and relatively low for males). However, the role of sex steroids for mental-rotation performance of (pre-) pubertal children has not been the focus of research, yet. In our study, the relationships between different aspects of mental-rotation performance (accuracy, reaction time, rotation speed) and salivary testosterone and estradiol levels were investigated. Subjects were 109 children (51 boys and 58 girls) aged between 9 and 14 years (M = 11.41, SD = 1.74). They performed a chronometric mental-rotations test, in which the stimuli consisted of three-dimensional drawings of Shepard and Metzler cube figures. In addition, saliva samples were gathered for the analysis of free testosterone and estradiol levels. Results showed a significant gender difference in reaction time and rotational speed in favor of boys, and a significant age, but no gender difference in testosterone and estradiol levels. We found no significant relationships between hormonal levels and any measure of mental-rotation performance. PMID:26173010

  7. Reproducibility of estradiol and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women over 5 years: results from the breakthrough generations study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Rae, Megan; Folkerd, Elizabeth J; Dowsett, Mitch; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2014-05-01

    Prospective cohort studies examining sex hormones in relation to cancer risk have generally collected blood samples at 1 time point, with an assumption that hormone levels measured in these samples will be reliable markers of true levels at other times. In postmenopausal women, body fat is a major source of estradiol; therefore, changes in adiposity may affect the correlation of single measurements to more relevant long-term averages. To estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for estradiol and testosterone, we collected repeat blood samples from 119 postmenopausal women (average age = 59.4 (standard deviation, 4.7) years) from the United Kingdom during 2004-2005 and again during 2010-2011. The ICCs (adjusted for assay variation) were 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.82) for total estradiol and 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.72) for total testosterone. The ICCs were 3%-5% larger after adjustment for change in body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) or leptin, which are 2 markers of change in adiposity. There was no increase in ICCs after adjustment for change in age, alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, time between waking and blood collection, or season. The results suggest that other factors account for within-woman variation in these sex hormones. PMID:24685533

  8. Effect of methanol extract of Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) on the fecundity and testosterone level in male rats exposed to flutamide in utero.

    PubMed

    Nantia, E A; Manfo, P F T; Beboy, N E; Travert, C; Carreau, S; Monsees, T K; Moundipa, P F

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of the methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) on testosterone level and fecundity/fertility in male rats exposed in utero to flutamide - an androgen receptor antagonist. For this purpose, 1.5- and 2.5 -month-old male rats exposed in utero to flutamide were treated with the MEBa (1 mg kg(-1) ) for 2 and 1 month respectively. Five days before the end of treatment, rats were housed with females to assess their fecundity/fertility. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and blood collected for the quantification of testosterone. Flutamide-exposed male rats showed a decrease in their ano-genital distance (AGD, P < 0.05) and were infertile. In normal (methylcellulose-exposed) animals, MEBa provoked an increase in testosterone level in 1.5- (P < 0.008) and 2.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.01) concomitantly with the improvement in their fecundity by 25%. In flutamide-exposed male rats, MEBa increased testosterone level in 1.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.001) without any effect on their fecundity; while in 2.5- month-old rats, MEBa did not affect the testosterone level but improved fecundity (by 25%) and fertility (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated the positive effect of MEBa to enhance fecundity/fertility in normal male rats and in rats exposed to the antiandrogen flutamide during their foetal life. PMID:21592171

  9. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Héroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  10. Sub-acute intravenous administration of silver nanoparticles in male mice alters Leydig cell function and testosterone levels

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA, THOMAS X.; COSTA, GUILHERME M. J.; FRANÇA, LUIZ R.; HOFMANN, MARIE-CLAUDE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term, in vivo exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could be toxic to male reproduction. Low dose (1 mg/kg/dose) AgNPs were intravenously injected into male CD1 mice over 12 days. Treatment resulted in no changes in body and testis weights, sperm concentration and motility, fertility indices, or follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone serum concentrations; however, serum and intratesticular testosterone concentrations were significantly increased 15 days after initial treatment. Histologic evaluation revealed significant changes in epithelium morphology, germ cell apoptosis, and Leydig cell size. Additionally, gene expression analysis revealed Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 mRNA significantly upregulated in treated animals. These data suggest that AgNPs do not impair spermatogonial stem cells in vivo since treatment did not result in significant decreases in testis weight and sperm concentrations. However, AgNPs appear to affect Leydig cell function, yielding increasing testicular and serum testosterone levels. PMID:24447867

  11. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in certain women with a type of breast cancer called mammary cancer that has spread to other ... naturally in the body. When used to treat breast cancer, testosterone works by stopping the release of estrogen.

  12. Additive benefit of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both testosterone and vitamin D levels affect muscle and thus may also affect risk of falling. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sex hormone levels and the risk of falling in older men and women. 199 men and 246 women age 65 or older living at home followed for 3 years...

  13. Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Walsh, James P; Kitchens, Anne C

    2015-04-01

    Endogenous testosterone levels are inversely associated with cardiovascular risk in older men and men with cardiovascular disease. Current data on cardiovascular outcomes of testosterone therapy include only observational studies and adverse event monitoring in short-term trials that were not designed to measure cardiovascular outcomes. These studies have yielded conflicting results, and some have raised concerns that testosterone therapy may increase cardiovascular risk. A well-designed, adequately powered, prospective trial will ultimately be required to clarify whether testosterone therapy impacts cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the findings and limitations of recent studies of cardiovascular risk in older men on testosterone therapy and discusses some of the mechanisms through which testosterone may modify cardiovascular risk. PMID:25467243

  14. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio (fWHR) Is Not Associated with Adolescent Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Hanson Sobraske, Katherine N; Samore, Theodore; Gurven, Michael; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2016-01-01

    Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic signal in humans that develops under the influence of pubertal testosterone (T); however, no studies have examined the association between fWHR and T during the phase in which facial growth is canalized-adolescence. In a sample of adolescent Tsimane males, we evaluate the relationship between T, known T-derived traits (i.e. strength and voice pitch), and craniofacial measurements. If fWHR variation derives from T's effect on craniofacial growth during adolescence, several predictions should be supported: 1) fWHR should increase with age as T increases, 2) fWHR should reflect adolescent T (rather than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should show strong associations with other T-derived traits. Only prediction 4 was observed. Additionally, we examined three alternative facial masculinity ratios: facial width/lower face height, cheekbone prominence, and facial width/full face height. In contrast to fWHR, all three alternative measures show a strong age-related trend and are associated with both T and T-dependent traits. Overall, our results question the status of fWHR as a sexually-selected signal of pubertal T and T-linked traits. PMID:27078636

  15. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men ...

  16. Effects of gonadotropin and testosterone treatments on plasma leptin levels in male patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Klinefelter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozata, M; Ozisik, G; Caglayan, S; Yesilova, Z; Bingöl, N; Saglam, M; Turan, M; Beyhan, Z

    1998-05-01

    Since little is known about the effects of gonadotropin and testosterone treatment on leptin levels in male hypogonadism, we determined fasting plasma leptin levels before and 3 months after treatment in 21 patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 16 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome and 20 male controls. Patients with IHH were treated with hCG/human menopausal gonadotropin, whereas patients with Klinefelter's syndrome received T treatment. Plasma leptin levels were measured by an RIA with a sensitivity of 0.5 microg/L. Mean leptin levels in patients with IHH before treatment (9.23+/-4.09 microg/L) were not significantly different from those in patients with Klinefelter's syndrome (7.29+/-5.05 microg/L; z=-1.41; P=0.15). Leptin levels in both IHH and Klinefelter's syndrome groups were, however, significantly higher than in the normal men (3.91+/-1.67 microg/L) (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). Mean leptin levels did not change significantly 3 months after the initiation of gonadotropin (11.6+/-6.44 microg/L) or T (8.32+/-5.17 microg/L) treatment in either IHH or Klinefelter's syndrome. Our study demonstrated that mean plasma leptin levels are not influenced by short-term gonadotropin or T treatment in male hypogonadism. PMID:9660087

  17. 1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    extractable using cyclodextrin. Hence, while cyclodextrin extraction may serve as a good proxy for microbial bioavailability, our results suggest that it may not serve as a good proxy for earthworm bioavailability. 1H NMR metabolomics therefore offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor earthworm bioavailability of potentially toxic and persistent compounds in the environment.

  18. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio (fWHR) Is Not Associated with Adolescent Testosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R.; Hanson Sobraske, Katherine N.; Samore, Theodore; Gurven, Michael; Gaulin, Steven J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic signal in humans that develops under the influence of pubertal testosterone (T); however, no studies have examined the association between fWHR and T during the phase in which facial growth is canalized—adolescence. In a sample of adolescent Tsimane males, we evaluate the relationship between T, known T-derived traits (i.e. strength and voice pitch), and craniofacial measurements. If fWHR variation derives from T’s effect on craniofacial growth during adolescence, several predictions should be supported: 1) fWHR should increase with age as T increases, 2) fWHR should reflect adolescent T (rather than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should show strong associations with other T-derived traits. Only prediction 4 was observed. Additionally, we examined three alternative facial masculinity ratios: facial width/lower face height, cheekbone prominence, and facial width/full face height. In contrast to fWHR, all three alternative measures show a strong age-related trend and are associated with both T and T-dependent traits. Overall, our results question the status of fWHR as a sexually-selected signal of pubertal T and T-linked traits. PMID:27078636

  19. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. PMID:21762188

  20. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition: a study in common terns.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Alexander; Becker, Peter H; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2014-08-01

    The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, a species whose young compete for access to food by scramble interactions. Blood samples were taken in nests with two and only one single chick both immediately after a feeding bout and in non-challenged controls. We found that T levels were lower in siblings challenged by a feeding bout as compared to controls, which may be explained by the fact that T suppresses begging behavior and is only elevated in response to territorial intrusion but not sibling competition in a related species. Singletons had, corrected for body condition, generally lower CORT levels than siblings suggesting that growing up with siblings creates a competitive environment in which high CORT levels are sustained irrespective of a social challenge. CORT levels were also negatively correlated with body condition and were higher in males than in females. The latter may be related to sex-specific food requirements and susceptibility to stress. Our results suggest a possible suppressive effect of acute sibling competition on T secretion, and a positive effect on CORT levels by longer term sibling competition. The degree to which these dynamics are related to begging or aggression, or both, needs further experimental work. PMID:24859255

  1. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer.After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P < 0.001). The difference in means of PSA levels were significant higher for patients that received testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117-0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48-2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls.Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal

  2. Changes in the daily rhythm of serum testosterone levels following superior cervical sympathetic ganglionectomy in the cold-exposed rat: the role of the pineal.

    PubMed

    Peschke, E; Peschke, D; Peil, J; Rúzsás, C; Mess, B

    1988-01-01

    The effect superior cervical sympathetic ganglionectomy (Gx) exerted on the daily rhythm of serum testosterone levels was investigated in cold-exposed rats. Rhythmic changes in pineal and pituitary weights were also measured. 1. Exposure to cold (10 degrees C for 72 h) resulted in a significant decrease of serum testosterone level and in an increase of the pineal weight. 2. In neutral ambient temperature (24 degrees C) Gx, 30 d after operation, led to a moderate, statistically insignificant increase of serum testosterone levels and to decreased pineal weights (statistically significant). 3. The reactions provoked by cold exposure were counteracted by Gx. Testosterone levels, as well as the pineal weight, showed no remarkable change in the Gx, cold-exposed animals. 4. These results confirm our assumption that experimental manipulations of the pineal gland can provoke significant changes in the neuroendocrine system only under special loading circumstances, e.g., cold exposure. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland counteracts the cold-induced decrease of testosterone levels by counteracting the pineal antigonadotropic activity. 5. The empirical regression curves of the investigated parameters indicate that Gx or cold exposure provide a shift in the upper and lower limits of the daily rhythm. Partly inverted rhythms were also observed. 6. The presented results are discussed in relation to the parallel changes previously described in serum thyroxin, cholesterol, thyrotropin (TSH), and pituitary TSH levels. Thyroidal-gonadal interactions, as well as cold exposure as a stress-generating factor, have been considered in the possible explanation of the data herein reported. PMID:3367268

  3. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  4. Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM).

    PubMed

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; El Khayat, Yasser Ibrahim; GamalEl Din, Sameh Fayek; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-05-18

    This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment. PMID:25849625

  5. Testosterone Levels Are Negatively Associated with Childlessness in Males, but Positively Related to Offspring Count in Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Cobey, Kelly D.; van der Meij, Leander

    2013-01-01

    Variation in testosterone (T) is thought to affect the allocation of effort between reproductive and parenting strategies. Here, using a large sample of elderly American men (n = 754) and women (n = 669) we examined the relationship between T and self-reported parenthood, as well as the relationship between T and number of reported children. Results supported previous findings from the literature, showing that fathers had lower T levels than men who report no children. Furthermore, we found that among fathers T levels were positively associated with the number of children a man reports close to the end of his lifespan. Results were maintained when controlling for a number of relevant factors such as time of T sampling, participant age, educational attainment, BMI, marital status and reported number of sex partners. In contrast, T was not associated with either motherhood or the number of children women had, suggesting that, at least in this sample, T does not influence the allocation of effort between reproductive and parenting strategies among women. Findings from this study contribute to the growing body of literature suggesting that, among men, pair bonding and paternal care are associated with lower T levels, while searching and acquiring sex partners is associated with higher T levels. PMID:23573228

  6. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While early studies demonstrated a positive association between testosterone and prostate cancer, evidence on the nature of the relationship has evolved with time and newer data. Studies examining links between baseline testosterone levels as well as testosterone therapy and incident prostate cancer, reveal a more complex relationship. Moreover, investigators have reported their initial experiences with supplementing testosterone in men with a history of both treated and untreated prostate cancer. PMID:26770932

  7. Bioavailability of caesium-137 from chernozem soils with high and low levels of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Machaeva, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Bioavailability of Cs-137 in "soil-plant" system of radioactively contaminated terrestrial ecosystems is the most important factor in the understanding of ecological situation. There are many factors affecting the features of Cs-137 biogeochemical cycle: period since an accident, type and intensity of radioactive fallout, general properties of landscape and the specifics of soil and plant covers, etc. In order to evaluate the importance of soil contamination level for the process of Cs-137 translocation from soil to plant the research in forest-steppe areas of Russia with similar natural properties, but contrasting high (Tula region) and low (Kursk region) levels of radioactive Chernobyl fallout (about 25 years after accident) was conducted. Soil cover of both sites is presented by chernozems with bulk density 1.1-1.2 g/cm3, 6-7% humus and neutral pH 6.5-7.2; plant cover under investigation consist of dry and wet meadows with bioproductivity 1.6-2.5 kg/m2 and 85-90% of biomass concentrated underground, that is typical for Russian forest-steppe landscapes. At the same time levels of soil regional contamination with Cs-137 differ by an order - 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m2) in Tula region and 30-55 Bq/kg (10-20 kBq/m2) in Kursk region. At a higher level of soil radioactive contamination specific activity of Cs-137 in vegetation of meadows is noticeably increased (103-160 Bq/kg in Tula region versus 12-14 Bq/kg in Kursk region) with correlation coefficient r 0.87. Increasing of Cs-137 in the underground parts of plants plays a decisive role in this process, while the specific radionuclide's activity in the aboveground parts of different sites is almost invariant (and ubiquitously roots contain 2-5 times more Cs-137 than shoots). The values of transfer factors for Cs-137 (the ratio of the specific Cs-137 activities in the plant tissue and in the soil) at various levels of soil radioactive contamination vary within a relatively narrow range 0.1-0.4, that confirms the

  8. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Masami; Gu, Yeunhwa; Tsukada, Sekihito

    2003-10-01

    The effects of two Peruvian folk medicines, Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha, on mouse sex steroid hormones and embryo implantation were investigated. Progesterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp, while testosterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp as well as in those that received both L. meyenii Walp and J. macrantha. However, there were no marked changes in blood levels of estradiol-17beta or the rate of embryo implantation. PMID:14600359

  9. Blood testosterone in rats: correlation of the level of individual anxiety and its impairment after "death threat".

    PubMed

    Khonicheva, N M; Livanova, L M; Tsykunov, S G; Osipova, T A; Loriya, M V; Elbakidze, A G; Tikhonov, V P; Airapetyants, M G

    2008-11-01

    Studies of identical groups of male Wistar rats after preliminary selection to give groups including extreme behavioral types with low and high rankings on the anxiety scale showed that blood testosterone concentrations in intact rats (controls) correlated negatively with anxiety ranking, i.e., minimal hormone concentrations (no greater than 5 nM) corresponded to high levels of anxiety - with a predominance of passive defensive behavioral components on testing. Short-term exposure to a "death threat" situation (sight of a boa attacking and eating two individuals from the group of rats) impaired this correlational relationship in a manner comparable to the sequelae of chronic neuroticization by unavoidable pain stimulation. Impairments were manifest as scatter in measures in low-anxiety animals (3-21 nM). This characteristic, reflecting the multitude of adaptive pathways in the population in threat situations, distinguishes this type of action from neuroticization by unavoidable pain stimulation, which leveled out individual differences and decreased the hormone level. PMID:18975099

  10. Effect of Khat (Catha edulis) Use on the Bioavailability, Plasma Levels and Antimalarial Activity of Chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Faiza H.; Al-Habori, Molhem; Chance, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of khat (Catha edulis) on chloroquine (CQ) bioavailability in healthy Yemeni adults and its effect on CQ plasma levels and parasite clearance among malaria patients. Methods: This study took place between January and April 2007 in Bajil and Sana’a, Yemen. Two CQ doses (600 mg each) were given to 15 healthy males on separate occasions; the first dose was followed by a khat-chewing session (phase one) while controls abstained from khat-chewing for the second (phase two). Additionally, 103 patients with Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, including both regular khat chewers (n = 57) and non-khat chewers (n = 46), were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg) over three days. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed among both controls and malaria patients. Parasite clearance was also investigated for the latter group. Results: The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 2,108.9 versus 2,797.4 ng/hour/mL, mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 415.6 versus 508.7 ng/mL and mean time to reach Cmax was 3.8 versus 3.6 hours for controls in phase one versus phase two, respectively; both AUC and Cmax levels were significantly reduced by khat-chewing (P <0.050). For khat- versus non-khat-chewing malaria patients, mean plasma CQ concentrations were 266.4 ng/mL versus 427.5 ng/mL (P <0.001). Furthermore, CQ was effective in 71.7% and 75.4% of non-khat and khat-chewing malaria patients, respectively (P = 0.823). Conclusion: Khat-chewing was found to significantly reduce plasma CQ levels among healthy volunteers and malaria patients. While receiving CQ treatment, patients should be advised not to chew khat. PMID:27226909

  11. Testosterone and Men's Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Among 4,462 former servicemen surveyed, testosterone levels were positively related to not marrying and marital instability, and negatively related to every aspect of marital quality examined. Findings are analyzed in relation to three sociological theories of marital success based on socioeconomic status (educational attainment, income, and…

  12. Sex Differences in the Association between Serum Levels of Testosterone and Frailty in an Elderly Population: The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carcaillon, Laure; Blanco, Carmen; Alonso-Bouzón, Cristina; Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Garcia-García, Francisco-José; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2012-01-01

    Background Age-associated decline in testosterone levels represent one of the potential mechanisms involved in the development of frailty. Although this association has been widely reported in older men, very few data are available in women. We studied the association between testosterone and frailty in women and assessed sex differences in this relationship. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging, a population-based cohort study of Spanish elderly. Frailty was defined according to Fried's approach. Multivariate odds-ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with total (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results In women, there was a U-shaped relationship between FT levels and frailty (p for FT2 = 0.03). In addition, very low levels of FT were observed in women with ≥4 frailty criteria (age-adjusted geometric means = 0.13 versus 0.37 in subjects with <4 components, p = 0.010). The association of FT with frailty appeared confined to obese women (p-value for interaction = 0.05).In men, the risk of frailty levels linearly decreased with testosterone (adjusted OR for frailty = 2.9 (95%CI, 1.6–5.1) and 1.6 (95%CI, 1.0–2.5), for 1 SD decrease in TT and FT, respectively). TT and FT showed association with most of frailty criteria. No interaction was found with BMI. Conclusion There is a relationship between circulating levels of FT and frailty in older women. This relation seems to be modulated by BMI. The relevance and the nature of the association of FT levels and frailty are sex-specific, suggesting that different biological mechanisms may be involved. PMID:22403651

  13. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Aims Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18–50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Results Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th –75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9–17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6–22.0) nmol/l) (P < 0.01). Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5) of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01). Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05). Conclusions Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation

  14. Intramuscular depot formulations of leuprolide acetate suppress testosterone levels below a 20 ng/dL threshold: a retrospective analysis of two Phase III studies

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Aaron; Gittelman, Marc; Karsh, Lawrence I; Dragnic, Sanja; Soliman, Ahmed M; Lele, Aditya; Gruca, Damian; Norton, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer. GnRH analog therapy can reduce testosterone to “castrate” levels, historically defined as <50 ng/dL. With the advent of newer assays, a lower threshold of <20 ng/dL has recently been proposed. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of two Phase III trials of 4- and 6-month depot microsphere formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA), a GnRH agonist that has previously demonstrated efficacy in testosterone suppression to <50 ng/dL in patients on ADT. This analysis investigates the ability of these LA formulations to suppress to ≤20 ng/dL levels. Methods In two of five AbbVie/Abbott clinical trials of microsphere formulations of LA for ADT, analytic technology permitting testosterone detection as low as 3 ng/dL was used and thus was selected for this analysis. Both trials were open-label, fixed-dose studies in prostate cancer patients, naïve to ADT. Patients received either 30 mg (4-month formulation; n=49) or 45 mg (6-month formulation; n=151) depot injections of LA microspheres. Treatment duration was up to 32 weeks for the 4-month formulation and 48 weeks for the 6-month formulation. The proportion of patients achieving the 20 ng/dL threshold was determined every 4 weeks. Results Pooled analysis showed that 152 of 193 (79%) of patients achieved serum testosterone levels of ≤20 ng/dL at 4 weeks, and sustained the improvement at week 24 (169/189, 89%). Additionally, in the 6-month study, 127/135 (94.1%) patients were suppressed to ≤20 ng/dL at 48 weeks. Conclusion Both 4- and 6-month intramuscular depot formulations of LA achieved and maintained mean serum testosterone levels ≤20 ng/dL in the vast majority of patients as early as 4 weeks following treatment initiation. Additional research on the clinical relevance of this lower testosterone threshold is warranted. PMID:27602344

  15. Yolk testosterone affects growth and promotes individual-level consistency in behavioral lateralization of yellow-legged gull chicks.

    PubMed

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Spiezio, Caterina; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral lateralization is common in animals and may be expressed at the individual- and at the population-level. The ontogenetic processes that control lateralization, however, are largely unknown. Well-established sex-dependence in androgen physiology and sex-dependent variation in lateralization have led to the hypothesis that testosterone (T) has organizational effects on lateralization. The effects of T exposure in early life on lateralization can be efficiently investigated by manipulating T levels in the cleidoic eggs of birds, because the embryo is isolated from maternal and sibling physiological interference, but this approach has been adopted very rarely. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) we increased yolk T concentration within the physiological limits and tested the effects on the direction of lateralization in two functionally fundamental behaviors (begging for parental care and escape to cover) of molecularly sexed hatchlings. We also speculated that T may intervene in regulating consistency, rather than direction of lateralization, and therefore tested if T affected the 'repeatability' of lateral preference in consecutive behavioral trials. T treatment had no effect on the direction of lateralization, but enhanced the consistency of lateral preference in escape responses. Sex did not predict lateralization. Neither behavior was lateralized at the population-level. We therefore showed for the first time in any species an effect of egg T on consistency in lateralization. The implications of the effect of T for the evolution of trade-offs in maternal allocation of egg hormones, and the evolutionary interpretations of findings from our studies on lateralization among unmanipulated birds are discussed. PMID:26836770

  16. Testing and enhancing the in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with a high level of antioxidant abietanes.

    PubMed

    Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Marín, Francisco R; Santoyo, Susana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Señoráns, F Javier; Reglero, Guillermo

    2010-01-27

    An antioxidant-enriched extract (RE) was obtained from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) by supercritical fluid extraction to be used as an ingredient to design functional foods. The optimized mixture (42 mg RE g(-1) sunflower oil) was submitted to in vitro digestion and absorption tests (using Caco2 cells) to investigate the effect of these processes on its DPPH scavenging activity and also whether its major abietanes (tricyclic diterpenes) might be bioaccessible and bioavailable. Results indicated that supplementation of the rosemary extract with sunflower oil and lecithin (37 mg g(-1)) enhanced abietanes micellation (almost 2-fold). In vitro digestion of the mixture including RE, sunflower oil, and lecithin reduced 50% the bioaccesibility in terms of antioxidant activity. Bioavailability was 31%. It was evidenced that this activity was not due to the original levels of carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate (which only 47% remained after digestion) but due to their derivatives and digestion products. PMID:20038145

  17. Effect of different chronic intermittent stressors and acetyl-l-carnitine on hypothalamic beta-endorphin and GnRH and on plasma testosterone levels in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bidzinska, B; Petraglia, F; Angioni, S; Genazzani, A D; Criscuolo, M; Ficarra, G; Gallinelli, A; Trentini, G P; Genazzani, A R

    1993-06-01

    Chronic stress affects the reproductive function by modifying the neuroendocrine homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to clarify the neuroendocrine and the gonadal changes following chronic intermittent stress in male rats and the action of a neuroactive drug, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC). The effect of two different stressors, cold water swimming or ether, on central beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and GnRH contents, and on plasma testosterone levels was investigated. In addition, the response to an acute stress in chronically stressed rats, treated or untreated with ALC (10 mg/day/rat p.o.), was evaluated. The stressors were applied twice a day for 10 days, and rats were killed before, during and after the last stress session. Mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) beta-EP and GnRH contents, and plasma testosterone levels were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. The following results were obtained: (1) both chronic swimming and ether stress caused a decrease in hypothalamic beta-EP contents; (2) MBH GnRH contents increased after chronic swimming stress but not after ether stress; (3) chronic swimming stress induced a twofold decrease in plasma testosterone levels, while no changes were observed after ether stress; (4) the treatment with ALC prevented the decrease in plasma testosterone levels after chronic swimming stress, and (5) acute stress in chronically stressed animals caused an increase in MBH-beta-EP. The present data showed that chronic swimming stress reduces the reproductive capacity and impairs the capacity to respond to the acute stress and that ALC modulates the hormonal changes to physical stress and prevents the antireproductive effect of chronic cold swimming. PMID:8232773

  18. Testosterone and disinhibited personality in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F; García, Óscar; Blanco, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The relationship among testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and personality were studied in a sample of 105 healthy males (26.71±9.68years old). The possible effects of age and other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (ALB) were controlled. Personality was assessed by the novelty seeking scale of Cloninger's Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI), and a reduced version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Main results show that there is a weak association among three measures of testosterone with novelty seeking, sociability and, to a lesser extent, with impulsive sensation seeking. Our data, as expected, confirmed previous results and also suggest that these relationships are strongly affected by the age variable. LH, FSH and SHBG hormones play no role in the reported relationships. PMID:27291990

  19. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  20. Aromatase inhibition, testosterone, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2004-04-01

    The effect of testosterone on brain excitability is unclear. The excitatory aspect of testosterone's action in the brain may be due to its conversion to estrogen via aromatase. We report herein a 61-year-old man with temporal lobe epilepsy and sexual dysfunction due to low testosterone levels. Use of an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, normalized his testosterone level and improved his sexual functioning. Letrozole, in addition to standard antiseizure medication, was also associated with improved seizure control. This was sustained and, further, was associated with seizure exacerbation after withdrawing letrozole, and subsequent seizure improvement after restarting it. During the course of treatment, his serum testosterone level increased, sex hormone-binding globulin decreased (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased, while serum estradiol levels remained undetectable. Letrozole may, therefore, have produced a central alteration in the testosterone/estrogen ratio, thereby impairing estrogen-mediated feedback control of the pituitary, resulting in the observed increase in circulating LH and FSH levels. This experience suggests that aromatase inhibitors should be further investigated as a beneficial treatment modality for male patients with epilepsy. PMID:15123030

  1. Changes in Men’s Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents

    PubMed Central

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E.; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant. PMID:24194730

  2. Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing. PMID:24086550

  3. Hydroxytyrosol in functional hydroxytyrosol-enriched biscuits is highly bioavailable and decreases oxidised low density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Raquel; Martínez-López, Sara; Baeza Arévalo, Gema; Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo-Clemente, Laura

    2016-08-15

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and its derivatives in olive oil protect low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation. Biscuits could be a convenient alternative to broaden consumers' choice of HT-rich foods, although the biscuit matrix could affect HT bioavailability. We performed a crossover, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate HT bioavailability in HT-enriched biscuits (HT-B) versus non-enriched biscuits (C-B), and the effects on oxidative postprandial status. On two separate days, 13 subjects consumed 30 g of C-B or HT-B (5.25mg HT) after overnight-fasting. Blood and urine were collected at different intervals and analysed by LC-MS-QToF. After HT-B consumption, plasma metabolites peaked between 0.5 and 1h and were extensively excreted in urine. HT-sulphate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)-sulphate were the main metabolites, followed by DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA). HT-glucuronide, DOPAC-glucuronide, HVA-glucuronide and HVA-sulphate were also detected. Postprandial oxidised-LDL concentrations decreased with HT-B. HT is a promising functional ingredient and, in biscuits, it is highly bioavailable and lowers postprandial oxidised-LDL levels. PMID:27006237

  4. Validity of estimating non-SHBG bound testosterone and estradiol from total hormone measurements in boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, D. Walt; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Circulating levels of bioavailable estradiol and testosterone are often desirable for clinical practice or investigational studies of children. However, assays to measure circulating hormone levels might not always be accessible. We sought to validate the empirical calculation of circulating bioavailable testosterone and estradiol in children. Methods 663 eight to ten year olds were recruited to the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). DISC was a randomized clinical trial designed to test efficacy of a dietary intervention to reduce serum cholesterol (LDL-C) in children with elevated cholesterol. Assay measures of estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin concentration (SHBG), and albumin concentration in girls as well as dihydrotestosterone in boys were measured for up to 10 years. We calculated measures of circulating non-SHBG bound estradiol and testosterone from total hormone levels using the law of mass action. We compared proportional differences in assay measured minus calculated non-SHBG bound hormone levels versus their averages using GEE-estimated linear regressions. Results On average, calculated values overestimated assay measured values (−11.7% for non-SHBG bound estradiol in girls and −2.6% for non-SHBG bound testosterone in boys). The intercept and slope of the regression for non-SHBG bound estradiol in girls were −0.13 (95% CI −0.14 to −0.12) and 0.005 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.007), respectively. The intercept and slope for non-SHBG bound testosterone in boys were −0.16 (95% CI −0.17 to −0.14) and 0.0006 (95% CI 0.0005–0.0006). Conclusion While calculated values might be useful for research purposes, they are generally not close enough for clinical purposes. PMID:20406780

  5. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Miner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV) health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term prospective studies to determine safety. Literature spanning over the past 30 years has suggested that not only is there a possible increased CV risk in men with low levels of testosterone, but the benefits from testosterone therapy may even lower this risk. We review here the recent studies that have garnered such intense scrutiny. This article is intended as a thorough review of testosterone levels and CV risk, providing the clinician with the facts needed to make informed clinical decisions in managing patients with clinical hypogonadism. PMID:25652628

  6. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Resistance Exercise Orders on Number of Repetitions, Serum IGF-1, Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in Normal-Weight and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Dariush; Ahmadi, Slahadin; Salavati, Rashad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise order affects repetition performance and acute hormonal responses to resistance training (RT) programs. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of two different resistance exercise orders (REO) on number of repetitions and serum Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol levels in normal-weight and obese men. Materials and Methods: 25 untrained college-aged men were assigned to either obese (n = 11) or normal-weight (n = 15) groups. Subjects performed two REO protocols in 2 exercise groups. In the first group subjects began with large-muscle group and progressed to small-muscle group (Protocol A), while in the other group subjects performed the same exercise but in reverse sequence (Protocol B). Each activity was performed in 3 consecutive sets of 10 repetitions maximum to near fatigue. Results: REOs did not affect number of repetitions in none of the groups. The average rating of perceived exertion was higher for protocol B in both groups. IGF-1 and testosterone increased immediately post exercise for both protocols and in both groups, however immediately post exercise increase in IGF-1 and testosterone were lower in obese group. Cortisol response to REO was weaker in obese group. Conclusions: Performing large muscle group exercises first in RE training and progressing to small muscle group produced greater anabolic hormonal response relative to reverse sequence in normal-weight young adult men. Anabolic hormonal response to REOs was blunted in the obese group. PMID:27217934

  8. The effect of combined oral contraception on testosterone levels in healthy women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Y.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) reduce levels of androgen, especially testosterone (T), by inhibiting ovarian and adrenal androgen synthesis and by increasing levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Although this suppressive effect has been investigated by numerous studies over many years, to our knowledge no systematic review concerning this issue had been performed. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of COCs on concentrations of total T, free T and SHBG in healthy women and to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T and free T. METHODS A review of the literature was performed using database searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) and all publications (from inception date until July 2012) investigating the effect of COCs on androgen levels in healthy women were considered eligible for selection. Three reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction and critical appraisal. For the meta-analysis, data on total T, free T and SHBG were extracted and combined using random effects analysis. Additional subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T or free T. RESULTS A total of 151 records were identified by systematic review and 42 studies with a total of 1495 healthy young women (age range: 18–40 years) were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies were experimental studies and 21 were non-comparative. Pooling of the results derived from all the included papers showed that total T levels significantly decreased during COC use [mean difference (MD) (95% confidence interval, CI) −0.49 nmol/l (−0.55, −0.42); P < 0.001]. Significantly lower levels of free T were also found [relative change (95% CI) 0.39 (0.35, 0.43); P < 0

  9. Testosterone Concentrations and Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Men with Type 1 Diabetes in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study (EDIC)

    PubMed Central

    M.P.H., Catherine Kim M.D.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Ph.D., M.D.; Ph.D., Barbara Braffett; Cleary M.S., Patricia A.; Ph.D., Ionut Bebu; M.D., Hunter Wessells; Orchard, Trevor; M.Med.Sci., M.D.; Sarma, Aruna V.; Group, Ph.D.for the DCCT/EDIC Research

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have reported that lower testosterone concentrations are associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), a risk factor for cardiovascular events. However, no studies have examined this relationship in men with type 1 diabetes, who are at high risk for CAN. Aim To examine the associations between testosterone concentrations and measures of CAN in a large, well-characterized cohort of men with type 1 diabetes. Methods We conducted an analysis of men in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), a randomized trial of intensive glucose control, and its observational follow-up the Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC) Study. Testosterone was measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in stored samples from EDIC follow-up years 10 and 17. Regression models were used to assess the cross-sectional relationships between testosterone and CAN measures. Main Outcome Measures The main CAN measure from EDIC follow-up year 17 was a standardized composite of R-R variation with paced breathing < 15, or R-R variation 15-20 combined with either a Valsalva ratio ≤ 1.5 or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure > 10 mm Hg upon standing. Continuous R-R variation and Valsalva ratio were secondary outcome measures. Results Lower total and bioavailable testosterone concentrations at follow-up years 10 and 17 were not associated with the presence of CAN at year 17. In analyses using Valsalva ratio as a continuous measure, higher total (p=0.01) and bioavailable testosterone concentrations (p=0.005) were associated with a higher (more favorable) Valsalva ratio after adjustment for covariates including age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, and glycemic control. Conclusions Testosterone levels are not associated with CAN among men with type 1 diabetes. Although testosterone is associated with a higher Valsalva ratio, a more favorable indicator, the clinical significance of this association is not

  10. Effects of PCBs on plasma enzymes, testosterone level, and hepatic xenobiotic metabolism in the grey partridge, perdix perdlx

    SciTech Connect

    Abiola, F. ); Lorgue, G.; Riviere, J.L. ); Benoit, E. ); Soyez, D. )

    1989-09-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase (MO) system functions in oxidative biotransformation of a wide variety of both endogenous and exogenous (xenobiotic) compounds in many animal species. However, most of the previous studies were carried out with a narrow range of species and investigations on wild species are lacking. In this report, the authors describe the effects of a commercial mixture of PCBs (DP5) on the hepatic MO activities of the grey partridge (Perdix perdix). To more thoroughly investigate the inducing effects of DP5, they used two series of homologous substrates, alkylresorufins and alkoxycoumarins, and an endogenous compound, testosterone, which were shown in mammals to differentiate between different forms of cytochrome P-450. Furthermore, to more carefully assess the effects of DP5, they also measured the activity of two plasma marker enzymes, alanine transpeptidase (ALAT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), and the plasmatic concentration of testosterone.

  11. Reproductive effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in immature male rats and its relation to cholesterol, testosterone, and thyroxin levels.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Giuliana G K; Golin, Munisa; Bufalo, Aedra C; Morais, Rosana N; Dalsenter, Paulo R; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J

    2009-11-01

    Phthalates are chemicals employed in several industrial products and there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that they induce numerous adverse effects on the reproductive system. This study was carried out to assess possible alterations induced by the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on cholesterol, testosterone, and thyroxine (total T4) levels, as well as to discuss the significance of these data in global changes observed in the reproductive tract of pubertal animals. Wistar rats aged 21 days received DEHP orally at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and were examined for different reproductive endpoints. At the end of the treatment, significant decreases in relative weight of testosterone-dependent organs, delayed preputial separation, and low serum testosterone were observed at the highest DEHP dose. The plot of the relationship between DEHP dose and serum cholesterol revealed a biphasic effect. The concentration of cholesterol in serum was significantly reduced at 250 mg/kg/day DEHP but returned to control values at 750 mg/kg/day. Cholesterol levels measured in testicular tissue increased with DEHP treatment. Serum T4 levels were not affected by DEHP at any dose, indicating the absence of a link between total thyroxin concentration and phthalate effects on cholesterol levels. Taken together these results indicate that effects observed in serum and testicular cholesterol levels may reflect distinct effects of DEHP on cholesterol synthesis and usage. These results confirm and extend previously reported findings showing that alterations in cholesterol balance may play a role in the suppression of steroidogenesis induced by DEHP in rats. PMID:19330368

  12. The effect of boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels, and strength in male bodybuilders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Green, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in 19 male bodybuilders ages 20-27 years. Ten were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement while 9 were given a placebo every day for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on Days 1 and 49 of the study. Plasma boron values were significantly (p < 0.05) different as the experimental group increased from (+/- SD) 20.1 +/- 7.7 ppb pretest to 32.6 +/- 27.6 ppb posttest, while the control group mean decreased from 15.1 +/- 14.4 ppb pretest to 6.3 +/- 5.5 ppb posttest. Analysis of variance indicated no significant effect of boron supplementation on any of the dependent variables. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone, lean body mass, 1-RM squat, and 1-RM bench press. The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser trained bodybuilders, and that boron supplementation had no effect on these measures.

  13. Association between Free Testosterone Levels and Anal Human Papillomavirus Types 16/18 Infections in a Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hilary K.; Brown, Todd T.; Li, Xiuhong; Young, Stephen; Cranston, Ross D.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Seaberg, Eric C.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Jenkins, Frank J.; Moran, Matthew G.; Chua, Kristofer; Bolan, Robert K.; Detels, Roger; Wiley, Dorothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause invasive cervical cancer and most invasive anal cancers (IACs). Overall, IAC rates are highest among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially MSM with HIV infection. Testosterone is prescribed for men showing hypogonadism and HIV-related wasting. While there are direct and indirect physiological effects of testosterone in males, its role in anal HPV16/18 infections in men is unknown. Methods Free testosterone (FT) was measured in serum from 340 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants who were tested for anal HPV16/18-DNA approximately 36 months later. The effect of log10-transformed current FT level on anal HPV16/18 prevalence was modeled using Poisson regression with robust error variance. Multivariate models controlled for other HPV types, cumulative years of exogenous testosterone use, race, age, lifetime number of receptive anal intercourse partnerships, body mass index, tobacco smoking, HIV-infection and CD4+ T-cell counts among HIV-infected, and blood draw timing. Results Participants were, on average, 60 (+5.4) years of age, White (86%), and HIV-uninfected (56%); Twenty-four percent tested positive for anal HPV16 and/or 18-DNA (HPV16 prevalence=17.1%, HPV18=9.1%). In adjusted analysis, each half-log10 increase of FT was associated with a 1.9-fold (95% Confidence Interval: 1.11, 3.24) higher HPV16/18 prevalence. Additionally, other Group 1 high-risk HPVs were associated with a 1.56-fold (1.03, 2.37) higher HPV16/18 prevalence. Traditional risk factors for HPV16/18 infection (age, tobacco smoking; lifetime number of sexual partners, including the number of receptive anal intercourse partnerships within 24 months preceding HPV testing) were poorly correlated with one another and not statistically significantly associated with higher prevalence of HPV16/18 infection in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Conclusions Higher free testosterone was associated with increased HPV16/18 prevalence

  14. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits testosterone level through disturbed hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis and ERK-mediated 5α-Reductase 2.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mei; Guan, Xie; Wei, Li; Li, Peng; Yang, Min; Liu, Changjiang

    2016-09-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has reproductive toxicity and can affect male reproductive development. In order to clarify adverse effects of DEHP on testicular physiology and testosterone production, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed daily with DEHP by gavage for 30days; TM3 cells (mouse Leydig cell line) were treated with DEHP for 24h after pretreatment with vitamin C or U0126. Results indicated that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis was disturbed and serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels were decreased following DEHP exposure. Histomorphological changes of rat testes were also observed, such as deformed seminiferous tubules, aggregated chromatin, multiple vacuoles, swollen mitochondria, apoptotic germ cells and Sertoli cells, as well as increased Leydig cell numbers. Moreover, DEHP caused oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro and then induced the ERK pathway, which was required to mediate 5α-Reductase 2 and scavenger receptor class B-1 (SRB1) levels. However, levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), P450 17α-hydroxylase/17.20 lyase (P450c17), and P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) were not significantly altered after DEHP exposure. Taken together, DEHP-disturbed HPT axis and induced 5α-Reductase 2 contribute to the reduction of serum testosterone level. The activated ERK pathway is required to modulate expressions of 5α-Reductase 2 and SRB1. PMID:27155079

  15. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa) after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone. PMID:25652639

  16. Testosterone in tropical birds: effects of environmental and social factors.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Moore, Ignacio T; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Grafen, Alan; Wingfield, John C

    2004-09-01

    Previous investigations suggest that male tropical birds have lower plasma testosterone concentrations than northern latitude species. To test whether this generalization is valid, we analyzed all currently available plasma testosterone data of tropical birds. We focused on peak breeding testosterone levels using phylogenetic and conventional statistics. Explanatory variables considered were social mating system, type of territoriality, breeding season length, and altitude. On average, tropical birds had lower mean peak testosterone levels than northern temperate birds. However, in several tropical species, testosterone levels were well within the range of northern latitude birds. Without controlling for phylogeny, breeding season length, type of territoriality, and altitude explained a significant proportion of the variance in testosterone levels. The shorter the breeding season, the higher the testosterone levels. Tropical birds that defend a breeding season territory had higher testosterone levels than birds that were year-round territorial or colonial, and testosterone levels were positively correlated with altitude. When controlling for phylogeny, only breeding season length predicted testosterone levels. In conclusion, we propose to refine previous notions of low plasma testosterone levels in tropical birds: short breeding seasons and perhaps environmental conditions at high altitudes precipitate conditions under which high testosterone levels are beneficial in the tropics. PMID:15478088

  17. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan) PMID:24799863

  18. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels. PMID:25652634

  19. Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Ziegler, T E

    2007-12-01

    In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. PMID:17427976

  20. Effects of dutasteride on lower urinary tract symptoms: a prospective analysis based on changes in testosterone/dihydrotestosterone levels and total prostatic volume reduction.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Miyagi, Tohru; Nakashima, Takao; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzed the effects of dutasteride on lower urinary tract symptoms based on the association between changes in the total testosterone (TT)/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels and total prostate volume (TPV) reduction. Sixty participants diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia were given 0.5 mg of dutasteride daily for 52 weeks. Measures of TT and DHT levels, TPV and uroflowmetry were obtained before and after dutasteride treatment. Forty-three patients demonstrated a TPV reduction of ≥5% (Group 1), whereas the remaining 17 patients demonstrated a TPV reduction of <5% (Group 2). DHT suppression and DHT/TT ratio at baseline were significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2. International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) and uroflowmetry were significantly improved in both groups. In Group 2, nine patients demonstrated some improvement in IPSS (Group 2A), whereas eight did not (Group 2B). The rate of TT increase and improvement in voiding symptoms were significantly higher in Group 2A than Group 2B. Dutasteride-induced TPV reduction is dependent on individual 5-α reductase inhibitor activity. Some patients demonstrating smaller dutasteride-induced TPV reduction may experience an improvement in voiding symptoms owing to an increased level of testosterone. PMID:26890877

  1. The correlation of interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor to oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels in periovulatory follicular fluid of in-vitro fertilization patients.

    PubMed

    Barak, V; Mordel, N; Holzer, H; Zajicek, G; Treves, A J; Laufer, N

    1992-04-01

    Data has accumulated suggesting reciprocity between cytokines and the reproductive system. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the correlation between interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) concentrations in follicular fluid and its oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. A total of 39 follicular fluid samples, from eight patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer were evaluated. All of the patients were treated by a midluteal (long) protocol involving a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) coupled with follicular phase human menopausal gonadotrophin. Mean levels in follicular fluid of IL-1, TNF, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone were 1.58 +/- 0.42 fmol/0.1 ml, 4.69 +/- 4.18 pg/ml, 28.5 +/- 58.1 ng/ml, 2360.5 +/- 2846.3 ng/ml and 7.22 +/- 7.08 ng/ml respectively. There was a significant (P less than 0.01) positive correlation between IL-1 and progesterone levels. There was no significant correlation between the different lymphokines and oestradiol secretion, oocyte fertilization, embryo quality and pregnancy rates. It is concluded that IL-1 and TNF exist in follicular fluid. It may be hypothesized that IL-1 has a local regulatory action, possibly promoting luteinization. PMID:1522186

  2. Roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis present local alteration in vitamin D3, testosterone and estradiol levels as well as estrogen receptor 2 (beta) expression.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André G; Dornas, Rubem A P; Praes, Lílian C; Hess, Rex A; Mahecha, Germán A B; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2011-09-01

    Epididymal lithiasis is a reproductive dysfunction of roosters that is associated with loss of fertility and is characterized by the formation of calcium stones in the lumen of the efferent ductules of the epididymal region. The efferent ductules of birds are responsible for the reabsorption of the fluid coming from the testis as well as luminal calcium. It has been hypothesized that the epididymal stone formation may be related to the impairment of local fluid or calcium homeostasis, which depends on hormones such as estradiol (E(2)). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate possible alterations in the expression of ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2) in the epididymal region of roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis. The study was performed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays. In addition, the concentrations of E(2), vitamin D3, and testosterone, which are also key hormones in maintenance of calcium homeostasis, were determined in the plasma and epididymal region, by ELISA. It was observed that ESR2 expression is increased in all segments of the epididymal region of affected roosters, whereas ESR1 levels are not altered. Moreover, the hormone concentration profiles were changed, as in the epididymal region of roosters with lithiasis the E(2) levels were increased and vitamin D3 as well as testosterone concentrations were significantly decreased. These results suggest that a hormonal imbalance may be involved with the origin and progression of the epididymal lithiasis, possibly by affecting the local fluid or calcium homeostasis. PMID:21670126

  3. Testosterone deficiency myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, R W; Woodrow, D F; Barrett, M C; Press, M; Dick, D J; Rowe, R C; Lane, R J

    1995-01-01

    Testosterone is recognized to have a positive effect on nitrogen balance and muscle development in hypogonadal men, but significantly myopathy secondary to testosterone deficiency has been reported only rarely. We describe a patient who presented with a myopathy associated with testosterone deficiency, and who demonstrated a significant functional and myometric response to treatment. PMID:7562829

  4. High testosterone levels and sensitivity to acute stress in perpetrators of domestic violence with low cognitive flexibility and impairments in their emotional decoding process: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Sariñana-González, Patricia; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Hormonal and neuropsychological impairment in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could play a role in domestic violence. For characterizing whether there is a specific psychobiological response to stress, participants who had previously been jailed for IPV and controls were compared for testosterone and cortisol levels, tested for 2D:4D ratio (as an indicator of masculinization), and given several trait questionnaires and neuropsychological tests related to executive functions and theory of mind. After performing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), IPV perpetrators experienced decreases in salivary testosterone (T) levels, a moderate worsening of mood, slight anxiety, and a salivary cortisol (C) level increase. Moreover, high basal T was related with high levels of anger and anxiety and worse mood. However, that basal mood does not significantly alter T levels in response to stress. Nonetheless, controls experienced smaller changes in T and larger changes in C and psychological mood. With respect to neuropsychological and cognitive empathic features, IPV perpetrators showed poorer executive performance and emotional recognition than controls. In addition, deficits in both neuropsychological domains were positively associated. Regarding emotional empathy, IPV perpetrators showed higher levels of personal distress than controls. The 2D:4D ratio was lower in IPV perpetrators than in controls. Moreover, only in the former a smaller 2D:4D ratio was related to large increases in T in response to stress and poor emotional recognition. Together with social aspects involved in IPV, differences in psychobiological variables and their relationships could play a relevant role in the onset and perpetuation of violent behavior. PMID:23677518

  5. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Thomas R; Chughtai, Bilal; Kaplan, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone) should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients. PMID:25337845

  6. [Testosterone in the management of metastatic prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Wolff, J M; Schmid, H P

    2015-11-01

    Background Among all cancer types, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer and is the third-leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The biologic function of the prostate is decisively influenced by testosterone and its metabolic product dihydrotestosterone. However, there is general uncertainty about the role of testosterone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For many years, the androgen hypothesis had been accepted to explain the correlation between testosterone levels and the development or progression of PCa. However, extensive study analyses revealed contradictory results, leading to a reconsideration of the androgen hypothesis. High serum testosterone levels do not predispose to PCa development and low serum testosterone levels are not protective. The importance of testosterone levels in patients with mCRPC has been shown in several registration studies with new drugs, such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. There is growing evidence suggesting a prognostic role of testosterone levels in mCRPC. PMID:26113300

  7. Testosterone improves motor function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E; Thomas, D; Burnet, R

    2006-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) there is increasing evidence that sex steroids such as estradiol and testosterone modulate, either as a positive or negative effect, the clinical expression of a variety of movement disorders involving the nigrostriatum. Testosterone deficiency is common in the older male population and has an increased prevalence in parkinsonian patients. Testosterone therapy has been shown to improve the non-motor symptoms of PD but evidence for a direct effect of testosterone on motor symptoms is lacking. This case report demonstrates a significant improvement in the resting tremor and fine motor control after testosterone administration in a parkinsonian patient with testosterone deficiency (1 nmol/L). Motor symptom change was shown by serial assessment of the patient's handwriting, self-reporting using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and measurement of resting tremor amplitude by an accelerometer. The improvement in motor symptoms correlated with serum testosterone levels. The use of testosterone replacement in those men with decreased levels may improve the motor symptoms as well as increase general wellbeing. PMID:16410216

  8. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  9. Assessing bioavailability levels of metals in effluent-affected rivers: effect of Fe(III) and chelating agents on the distribution of metal speciation.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuping; Naito, Wataru; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of Fe(III) and anthropogenic ligands on the bioavailability of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb, concentrations of bioavailable metals were measured by the DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) method in some urban rivers, and were compared with concentrations calculated by a chemical equilibrium model (WHAM 7.0). Assuming that dissolved Fe(III) (<0.45 μm membrane filtered) was in equilibrium with colloidal iron oxide, the WHAM 7.0 model estimated that bioavailable concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Zn were slightly higher than the corresponding values estimated assuming that dissolved Fe(III) was absent. In contrast, lower levels of free Pb were predicted by the WHAM 7.0 model when dissolved Fe(III) was included. Estimates showed that most of the dissolved Pb was present as colloidal iron-Pb complex. Ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) concentrations at sampling sites were predicted from the relationship between EDTA and the calculated bioavailable concentration of Zn. When both colloidal iron and predicted EDTA concentrations were included in the WHAM 7.0 calculations, dissolved metals showed a strong tendency to form EDTA complexes, in the order Ni > Cu > Zn > Pb. With the inclusion of EDTA, bioavailable concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Zn predicted by WHAM 7.0 were different from those predicted considering only humic substances and colloidal iron. PMID:27533864

  10. Review of health risks of low testosterone and testosterone administration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Huanguang; Sullivan, Charles T; McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Morrow, Matthew; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Hypogonadism is prevalent in older men and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older hypogonadal men is a promising therapy. However, a number of important clinical concerns over TRT safety remain unsolved due to a lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials directly comparing the health risks of untreated hypogonadism vs long-term use of TRT. Meta-analyses of clinical trials of TRT as of 2010 have identified three major adverse events resulting from TRT: polycythemia, an increase in prostate-related events, and a slight reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There are other purported health risks but their incidence can be neither confirmed nor denied based on the small number of subjects that have been studied to date. Furthermore, subsequent literature is equivocal with regard to the safety and utility of TRT and this topic has been subject to contentious debate. Since January 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration has released two official announcements regarding the safety of TRT and clinical monitoring the risks in TRT users. Additionally, the health risks related to the clinical presentation of low or declining testosterone levels not been resolved in the current literature. Because TRT is prescribed in the context of putative risks resulting from reduced testosterone levels, we reviewed the epidemiology and reported risks of low testosterone levels. We also highlight the current information about TRT utilization, the risks most often claimed to be associated with TRT, and current or emerging alternatives to TRT. PMID:25879005

  11. What is the impact of low testosterone levels on the anatomical and behavioral repertoire of long-term enriched housing of male mice?

    PubMed

    Lima, F B; Spinelli de Oliveira, E

    2014-10-01

    Environmental enrichment is a strategy to improve animal welfare, providing brain plasticity with changes at cellular, molecular and behavioral levels. In order to test the long-term effects of enriched housing and the importance of testosterone levels for the expression of behavioral plasticity, 28 categories were assessed in 45 adult Swiss mice, subdivided in prepubertal castrated and non-castrated groups, maintained for seven months as three non-sibling mates. Enrichment consisted of introducing insets for gnawing, climbing and hiding. Tests of spontaneous exploration (barrier), territoriality (intruder) and hierarchical organization (group) were applied at once. Measurements of body weight and the relative weight of key organs were done at the end of the experiment. Mice kept in enriched cages, either castrated or non-castrated, showed more spontaneous exploration than those raised in standard cages. Non-castrated mice housed in structured cages had a lower frequency of attack in the resident-intruder test than the non-castrated standard caged mice, indicating a decrease in territoriality in the first group. Independent of the housing conditions, castrated mice showed reduction of offensive, defensive, and social contacts, as well as low frequency of attack in both agonistic tests. The well-known importance of testes to ensure the expression of aggressive and social contact behaviors was therefore not challenged by the enrichment condition. Behavioral repertoire at the home cage, performance in the group-test, and organometric measurements were not significantly different between the groups kept in enriched and non-enriched cages. Our results suggest that the experience in enriched environment does not increase aggressiveness in their routine in the home-cage nor negatively influence physiological parameters, independently of the testosterone level. PMID:25256162

  12. Experiment K-6-16. Morphological examination of rat testes. The effect of Cosmos 1887 flight on spermatogonial population and testosterone level in rat testes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Vasques, M.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    Testes from rats flown on Cosmos 1887 for twelve and a half days were compared to basal control, synchronous control and vivarium maintained rats. When the mean weights of flight testes, normalized for weight/100 gms, were compared to the vivarium controls they were 6.7 percent lighter. Although the flight testes were lighter than the synchronous, the difference is not significant. Counts of spermatogonial cells from 5 animals in each group revealed a 4 percent decrease in flight compared to vivarium controls. In both cases the t-Test significance was less than 0.02. The serum testosterone levels of all animals (flight, synchronous and vivarium) were significantly below the basal controls.

  13. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies. PMID:16188729

  14. Current topics in testosterone replacement of hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    All forms of hypogonadism - primary, secondary and late-onset - require testosterone substitution. The indication is given when the patient presents with symptoms of androgen deficiency and the serum testosterone levels are below normal. Several testosterone preparations and modes of application are available of which those producing physiologic serum levels should be preferred e.g. preferentially transdermal gels and long-acting intramuscular testosterone undecanoate. Testosterone substitution must be monitored at regular intervals, best at 3, 6 and 12 months after initiation and then annually. Parameters for surveillance include well-being, libido and sexual activity, measurement of serum testosterone levels, haemoglobin and haematocrit, PSA and digital rectal examination, and, biannually, bone mineral density. Testosterone has positive effects on comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type II, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. PMID:25617174

  15. Transdermal delivery of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2015-05-01

    Male hypogonadism has been treated with exogenous testosterone since the 1930s. The early transdermal patches of testosterone became available in the 1980s with gel and solution preparations following subsequent decades. This review focusses on the skin permeation characteristics of testosterone, pharmacokinetics following application of transdermal formulations and formulations currently available. At present, gels dominate the market for transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, presumably because of their greater patient acceptability and non-occlusive nature compared with patches. However, specific incidences of secondary transfer of gels to children with consequent unwanted effects such as precocious puberty have been reported. A regulatory review of all testosterone replacement therapies is currently underway which may have implications for future prescribing practices of transdermal testosterone products. PMID:25709060

  16. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  17. Low-level laser therapy to recovery testicular degeneration in rams: effects on seminal characteristics, scrotal temperature, plasma testosterone concentration, and testes histopathology.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; de Arruda, Rubens Paes; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; de Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Lançoni, Renata; de Almeida, Tamie Guibu; Storillo, Vanessa Martins; Vellone, Vinicius Silva; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Thomé, Helder Esteves; Canella, Carolina Luz; De Andrade, André Furugen Cesar; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to recovery testicular degeneration in rams. In the first study, rams were induced to testicular degeneration by scrotal insulation, and then, they were treated using LLLT at 28 J/cm(2) (INS28) or 56 J/cm(2) (INS56) energy densities. Sperm kinetics, morphology, and membranes integrity as well as proportion of lumen area in seminiferous tubule were assessed. In the second study, rams were submitted or not to scrotal insulation and treated or not by the best protocol of LLLT defined by experiment 1 (INS28). In this study were evaluated sperm kinetics, morphology, membranes integrity, ROS production, and DNA integrity. Testosterone serum concentration and proportion of lumen area in seminiferous tubule were also analyzed. Insulation was effective in promoting sperm injuries in both experiments. Biostimulatory effect was observed in experiment 1: INS28 presented smaller proportion of lumen area (P = 0.0001) and less degeneration degree (P = 0.0002). However, in experiment 2, there was no difference between the groups (P = 0.17). In addition, LLLT did not improve sperm quality, and there was a decreasing for total and progressive motility (P = 0.02) and integrity of sperm membranes (P = 0.01) in LLLT-treated groups. Moreover, testosterone concentration was not improved by LLLT (P = 0.37). Stimulation of aerobic phosphorylation by LLLT may have led to a deregulated increase in ROS leading to sperm damages. Thus, LLLT at energy of 28 J/cm(2) (808 nm of wavelength and 30 mW of power output) can induce sperm damages and increase the quantity of cells in seminiferous tubule in rams. PMID:26914685

  18. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  19. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  20. Are testosterone levels and depression risk linked based on partnering and parenting? Evidence from a large population-representative study of U.S. men and women.

    PubMed

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-08-01

    Partnered adults tend to have lower risks of depression than do single individuals, while parents are more commonly depressed than non-parents. Low testosterone men, and possibly women, are also at greater risk of depression. A large body of research has shown that partnered parents have lower testosterone than single non-parents in some cultural settings, including the U.S. Here, we drew on a large (n = 2438), U.S.-population representative cohort of reproductive aged adults (age: 38.1 years ± 11.1 SD) to test hypotheses regarding the intersections between partnering and parenting, testosterone, socio-demographic characteristics, and depression outcomes. Men and women's depression prevalence did not vary based on testosterone. Partnered fathers had lower testosterone than single (never married, divorced) non-fathers, but were less commonly depressed than those single non-fathers. Partnered mothers had reduced testosterone compared to never married and partnered non-mothers. Never married mothers had higher depression prevalence and elevated depressive symptomology compared to partnered mothers; these differences were largely accounted for by key health-related covariates (e.g. cigarette smoking, BMI). We found significant three-way-interactions between socioeconomic status (SES), testosterone, and parenting for adults' depression risks. High testosterone, high SES fathers had the lowest prevalence of mild depression, whereas low testosterone, low SES non-fathers had the highest. Compared to other mothers, low SES, low testosterone mothers had elevated prevalence of mild depression. Overall, low SES, high testosterone non-mothers had substantially elevated depression risks compared to other women. We suggest that psychobiological profiles (e.g. a male with low testosterone) can emerge through variable psychosomatic and psychosocial pathways and the net effect of those profiles for depression are influenced by the social (e.g. partnering and parenting status

  1. Testosterone and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Mazur, Allan; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2006-01-01

    Popular perceptions of the effect of testosterone on "manly" behavior are inaccurate. We need to move away from such simplistic notions by treating testosterone as one component along with other physiological, psychological and sociological variables in interactive and reciprocal models of behavior. Several hormones can now be measured in saliva,…

  2. Sub-chronic testosterone treatment increases the levels of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-α, β and γ in the kidney of orchidectomized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Loh, Su Yi; Giribabu, Nelli; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been reported to cause blood pressure to increase. However mechanisms that underlie the effect of this hormone on this physiological parameter are currently not well understood. The aims of this study were to investigate effects of testosterone on expression of α, β and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in kidneys, the channel known to be involved in Na(+) reabsorption, which subsequently can affect the blood pressure. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orchidectomized fourteen days prior to receiving seven days treatment with testosterone propionate (125 µg/kg/day or 250 µg/kg/day) with or without flutamide (androgen receptor blocker) or finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor). Following sacrifice, the kidneys were removed and were subjected for α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. The distribution of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins in kidneys were observed by immunofluorescence. Results. The α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNA levels in kidneys were enhanced in rats which received testosterone-only treatment. In these rats, α, β and γ-ENaC proteins were distributed in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons. Co-treatment with flutamide or finasteride resulted in the levels of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs in kidneys to decrease. In conclusions, increases in α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA levels in kidneys mainly in the distal tubules and collecting ducts under testosterone influence might lead to enhance Na(+) reabsorption which subsequently might cause an increase in blood pressure. PMID:27413634

  3. Sub-chronic testosterone treatment increases the levels of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-α, β and γ in the kidney of orchidectomized adult male Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been reported to cause blood pressure to increase. However mechanisms that underlie the effect of this hormone on this physiological parameter are currently not well understood. The aims of this study were to investigate effects of testosterone on expression of α, β and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in kidneys, the channel known to be involved in Na+ reabsorption, which subsequently can affect the blood pressure. Methods. Adult male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were orchidectomized fourteen days prior to receiving seven days treatment with testosterone propionate (125 µg/kg/day or 250 µg/kg/day) with or without flutamide (androgen receptor blocker) or finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor). Following sacrifice, the kidneys were removed and were subjected for α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. The distribution of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins in kidneys were observed by immunofluorescence. Results. The α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNA levels in kidneys were enhanced in rats which received testosterone-only treatment. In these rats, α, β and γ-ENaC proteins were distributed in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons. Co-treatment with flutamide or finasteride resulted in the levels of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs in kidneys to decrease. In conclusions, increases in α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA levels in kidneys mainly in the distal tubules and collecting ducts under testosterone influence might lead to enhance Na+ reabsorption which subsequently might cause an increase in blood pressure. PMID:27413634

  4. The evidence for seasonal variations of testosterone in men.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Kovac, Jason R; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-03-01

    Ample evidence exists to support the concept of diurnal variations in testosterone levels; however, substantiation for seasonal fluctuations is sparse and inconsistent. Since circadian disparities exist, laboratory screening for hypogonadism has traditionally been conducted using serum testosterone levels obtained in the early morning. Should circannual variability of testosterone be confirmed, it would make the monitoring of testosterone levels more difficult while forcing the development of seasonal reference standards to allow for comparison. Moreover, decisions to begin treatment and adjustment of practice patterns would likely follow. This review thoroughly explores all of the available evidence concerning seasonal variations in testosterone levels. The impacts of melatonin, vitamin D, sleep-wake cycles, light exposure, physical activity, BMI, and waist circumference are also discussed. Current research suggests that while some evidence exists to support the notion of seasonal testosterone variations, the discussed inconsistencies preclude the incorporation of this concept into current clinical standards. PMID:23294933

  5. Testosterone treatment is immunosuppressive in superb fairy-wrens, yet free-living males with high testosterone are more immunocompetent.

    PubMed

    Peters, A

    2000-05-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis proposes that the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone enforces honesty of sexual signalling via a physiological trade-off between signal intensity and immunocompetence. However, evidence that testosterone is immunosuppressive is scant, particularly in birds. I studied the correlation between immunocompetence and testosterone in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus), a species with intense intersexual selection. Males are seasonally dichromatic and testosterone increases during the moult from dull brown eclipse plumage into bright nuptial plumage. I determined the primary antibody response to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in (i) control and testosterone-implanted males in captivity, and (ii) a cross-section of free-living males with basal and elevated testosterone (in eclipse plumage, moulting and in nuptial plumage). Experimental treatment with testosterone decreased the likelihood of an antibody response to SRBCs in captive birds. In contrast, free-living males which had acquired the nuptial plumage and had naturally elevated testosterone were more likely to respond to SRBCs than males in eclipse plumage with basal testosterone levels. The association between higher immunocompetence and higher immunosuppressive testosterone could arise if both are positively correlated with male phenotypic quality In addition, the association could result if males compensate for potential immunosuppression by enhancing their humoral immune responses, particularly since high testosterone is linked to other demanding activities such as moulting and courtship displays. PMID:10853730

  6. Comparative safety of testosterone dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Layton, J. Bradley; Meier, Christoph R.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Stürmer, Til; Jick, Susan S.; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increases in testosterone use and mixed reports of adverse events have raised concerns about the cardiovascular safety of testosterone. Testosterone is available in several delivery mechanisms with varying pharmacokinetics; injections cause spikes in testosterone levels, while transdermal patches and gels cause more subtle but sustained increases. The comparative cardiovascular safety of gels, injections and patches has not been studied. Objective To determine the comparative cardiovascular safety of testosterone injections, patches, and gels. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Administrative claims from a commercially-insured and Medicare population in the United States, and general practitioner records from the United Kingdom, years 2000 – 2012 Participants Adult (18+), male initiators of testosterone patches, gels, or injections following 180 days free of any testosterone use Exposure New initiation of a testosterone dosage form, followed for up to one year Main Outcomes and Measures In- or outpatient medical records, diagnoses, or claims for: cardio- and cerebrovascular events, including myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina, stroke, composite acute event (MI, unstable angina, or stroke); venous thromboembolism (VTE); mortality, and all-cause hospitalization. Results We identified 431,687 testosterone initiators between the 3 datasets: 36% injection, 9% patch, 55% gel. Medicare had a majority of injection initiators (51%); the US commercially-insured population had majority gel initiators (56%); the United Kingdom had equal proportions of injections and gels (~41%). When compared to gels, injection initiators had higher hazards of CV events (MI, UA, and stroke) (HR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.18–1.35), hospitalization (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.13–1.18), and death (HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.15–1.56), but not VTE (HR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.76–1.11). Patches did not confer increased hazards of CV events compared to gels (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 0.94–1

  7. Regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in rat's stomach and adipose tissue is dependent on age, testosterone levels and lactating status.

    PubMed

    Senin, Lucia L; Al-Massadi, Omar; Barja-Fernandez, Silvia; Folgueira, Cintia; Castelao, Cecilia; Tovar, Sulay A; Leis, Rosaura; Lago, Francisca; Baltar, Javier; Baamonde, Ivan; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Seoane, Luisa M

    2015-08-15

    Nesfatin-1, which is derived from the NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) precursor, was recently identified as an anorexigenic peptide that is produced in several tissues including the hypothalamus. Currently, no data exist regarding the regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in peripheral tissues, such as gastric mucosa and adipose tissue, through different periods of development. The aim of the present work was to study the variations on circulating levels, mRNA expression and tissue content in gastric mucosa and adipose tissue of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with age and specially in two clue periods of maturation, weaning and puberty. The weaning period affected NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in gastric tissue. The testosterone changes associated with the initiation of puberty regulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production via adipose tissue and gastric NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production. In conclusion, the production of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 by the stomach and adipose tissue fluctuates with age to regulate energy homeostasis during different states of development. PMID:25916958

  8. Effects of climate on the thermoregulatory responses of male buffalo ( Bubalus-bubalis) calves supplemented with different levels of testosterone and TDN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the changes in the thermoregulatory responses due to changing climate, androgen and TDN percent in 12 buffalo male calves from 4 months of age for a period of two years. The results obtained were: (1) The amplitudes of the diurnal cycles in rectal temperature (Tre) in each month of the experiment were very similar but longer in summer months as compared to winter months, (2) The correlation between Tre and ambient temperature (Ta) was high in all months. (3) Buffalo calves without testosterone supplementation on 70% TDN showed maximum rise in Tre by 0.076 0‡C per degree of ambient temperature, indicating more strain, (4) Highest respiratory frequencies occurred at 10:00 h during summer months. Subgroup 2 of group 1 showed the maximum rise by 311% in respiratory frequency in summer over winter due to least acclimatization, (5) The mean daily increase by 9.94‡C in ambient temperature doubled the respiratory frequency of male buffalo calves from January to April, and (6) Androgen therapy and higher TDN percent level helped the male buffalo calves to adjust better and sooner than the other calves to changing climates.

  9. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD. PMID:25532575

  10. Testosterone, cortisol, and psychopathic traits in men and women.

    PubMed

    Welker, Keith M; Lozoya, Elianna; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Neumann, Craig S; Carré, Justin M

    2014-04-22

    Cortisol and testosterone are theorized to independently and jointly influence antisocial behaviors. The current research examined the independent and interactive effects of baseline testosterone and cortisol on individual differences in psychopathic traits in a relatively large non-clinical sample (N=237). Participants completed the Self-Report Psychopathy - Short Form (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and provided saliva samples. Analyses indicated that testosterone and cortisol were positively correlated with psychopathic traits in men, but beyond these effects, cortisol moderated the relationship between testosterone and psychopathy in men. The relationship between testosterone and psychopathy within men was positive when cortisol levels were high, but negative when cortisol levels were low. These results have implications for work surrounding the dual hormone hypothesis and suggest that nonclinical variability in psychopathy can be predicted by baseline testosterone and cortisol. PMID:24631306

  11. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology. PMID:26504229

  12. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men

    PubMed Central

    van Anders, Sari M.; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to “sex differences” in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology. PMID:26504229

  13. Testosterone and the breast.

    PubMed

    Shufelt, Chrisandra L; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2008-09-01

    Although women have been treated with testosterone (T) for female sexual dysfunction since the 1950s, the role of T in normal female physiology is not yet fully defined. One of the major safety concerns of androgen therapy is whether androgens have a stimulatory effect on the breast that could lead to breast carcinomas. The proposed mechanisms for such stimulation include local estrogen production from the aromatase enzyme complex present in the breast tissue or by the direct stimulation of the androgen receptor. Predominant data from in vitro studies have shown that androgens actually have apoptotic and antiproliferative effects and not stimulatory effects. Animal models have shown similar results to in vitro studies, finding that androgens inhibit breast cancer growth. Prospective and retrospective epidemiological analyses have shown mixed outcomes, with no clear consensus regarding androgen use and breast cancer risk. Hyperandrogenism in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome with elevated levels of endogenous T is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and may, in fact, be protective. Another human model with excess of T is female-to-male transgenderism, in which genotypic women are treated with large doses of exogenous T with no increased risk. High-dose androgen therapy also has been effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Thus, the preponderance of data suggests that T use in females is not associated with an increased risk of breast carcinoma. PMID:18714077

  14. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  15. The role of testosterone in trichloroethylene penetration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, K.; Abdel-Rahman, M.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Sex differences are known to exist in the metabolism and bioavailability of trichloroethylene (TCE). This study revealed that dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE in vitro was twofold greater in untreated female than in untreated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Since testosterone has been shown to mediate a wide variety of sex differences, its role in dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE was investigated. Penetration was measured by using an in vitro evaporation-penetration cell with a 10-hour collection period. Depriving male rats of testosterone (by castration) resulted in increased values for total penetration, area under the curve (AUC), and penetration slopes compared to those found in the female control group. Administration of testosterone to female animals produced values for total penetration, AUC, and penetration slopes significantly lower than those of the female control group.

  16. Bioavailability and microbial adaptation to elevated levels of uranium in an acid, organic topsoil forming on an old mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Joner, Erik Jautris; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Gouget, Barbara

    2007-08-01

    An old mine spoil at a 19th-century mining site with considerable residues of uranium (400-800 mg U/kg) was investigated with respect to U concentrations in soil and plants and tolerance to U in the soil microbial community in order to describe the bioavailability of U. Measurements of soil fractions representing water-soluble U, easily exchangeable U, and U bound to humified organic matter showed that all fractions contained elevated concentrations of U. Plant U concentrations were only 10 times higher at the mine spoil site compared to the reference site (3 mg U/kg vs 0.3 mg U/kg), while the most easily available soil fractions contained 0.18 to 0.86 mg U/kg soil at the mine spoil. An ecotoxicity bioassay using incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the indigenous microbial communities of the two soils in the presence of increasing U concentrations showed that microorganisms at the mining site were sensitive to U but also that they had acquired a substantial tolerance toward U (EC50, the effective concentration reducing activity by 50% of UO2-citrate was approximately 120 microM as compared to 30 microM in the reference soil). In the assay, more than 40% of the microbial activity was maintained in the presence of 1 mM UO2-citrate versus 3% in the reference soil. We conclude that U-enriched mining waste can contain sufficiently elevated concentrations of bioavailable U to affect indigenous microorganisms and that bioavailable U imposes a selection pressure that favors the development of a highly uranium-tolerant microbial community, while plant uptake of U remains low. PMID:17702337

  17. Testosterone Therapy in Adult Men with Androgen Deficiency Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood levels of testosterone of 300–1,000 ng/dL are considered normal, but these levels may ... blood PSA (prostate specific antigen) level over 4 ng/ mL (which suggests prostate cancer or other prostate ...

  18. THE TESTOSTERONE TRIALS: THE DESIGN OF SEVEN COORDINATED TRIALS TO DETERMINE IF TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT BENEFITS ELDERLY MEN

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Peter J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Cunningham, Glenn R; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bhasin, Shalender; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Gill, Thomas M; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Rosen, Raymond C; Resnick, Susan M; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Fluharty, Laura; Pahor, Marco; Ensrud, Kristine E; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Crandall, Jill P; Wang, Christina; Budoff, Matthew J; Wenger, Nanette K; Mohler, Emile R; Bild, Diane E; Cook, Nakela L; Keaveny, Tony M; Kopperdahl, David L; Lee, David; Schwartz, Ann V; Storer, Thomas W; Ershler, William B; Roy, Cindy N; Raffel, Leslie J; Romashkan, Sergei; Hadley, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of low testosterone levels in men increases with age, as does the prevalence of decreased mobility, sexual function, self-perceived vitality, cognitive abilities, bone mineral density, and glucose tolerance, and of increased anemia and coronary artery disease. Similar changes occur in men who have low serum testosterone concentrations due to known pituitary or testicular disease, and testosterone treatment improves the abnormalities. Prior studies of the effect of testosterone treatment in elderly men, however, have produced equivocal results. Purpose To describe a coordinated set of clinical trials designed to avoid the pitfalls of prior studies and determine definitively if testosterone treatment of elderly men with low testosterone is efficacious in improving symptoms and objective measures of age-associated conditions. Methods We present the scientific and clinical rationale for the decisions made in the design of this trial. Results We designed The Testosterone Trials as a coordinated set of seven trials to determine if testosterone treatment of elderly men with low serum testosterone concentrations and also symptoms and objective evidence of impaired mobility and/or diminished libido and/or reduced vitality would be efficacious in improving mobility (Physical Function Trial), sexual function (Sexual Function Trial), fatigue (Vitality Trial), cognitive function (Cognitive Function Trial), hemoglobin (Anemia Trial), bone density (Bone Trial), and coronary artery plaque volume (Cardiovascular Trial). The scientific advantages of this coordination were common eligibility criteria, treatment and monitoring and the ability to pool safety data. The logistical advantages were a single steering committee, data coordinating center and data safety monitoring board (DSMB), the same clinical trial sites, and the possibility of men participating in multiple trials. The major consideration in subject selection was setting the eligibility criterion

  19. Could you have low testosterone?

    MedlinePlus

    Male menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism ... Testosterone makes a man look and feel like a man. In a man, this hormone helps: Keep ...

  20. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  1. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  2. Testosterone and Child and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Parent-Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of families with 6- to 18-year-olds, this study found that sons' and daughters' testosterone levels showed little direct connection to risk behavior or depressive symptoms. As parent-child relationship quality increased, testosterone-related adjustment problems were less evident. When relationship quality decreased, testosterone-linked…

  3. Understanding testosterone variation in a tropical lek-breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Thomas B.; Horton, Brent M.; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Male reproductive coalitions, in which males cooperate to attract females, are a rare strategy among vertebrates. While some studies have investigated ultimate aspects of these relationships, little is known about the mechanistic role that hormones play in modulating cooperative behaviours. Here, we examined male testosterone variation in a tropical lekking bird, the wire-tailed manakin (Pipra filicauda), which exhibits cooperative male–male display coalitions. We found that testosterone levels in territorial males were comparable to those of temperate breeding birds, a surprising result given their environmental, social and reproductive dynamics. In addition, social status rather than plumage was a strong predictor of testosterone variation. Territorial males had significantly higher testosterone levels than did two other plumage classes of floater males, who do not hold territories. We hypothesize that testosterone variation plays an important role in the establishment of male dominance hierarchies (competition), while concurrently facilitating stable display partnerships (cooperation). PMID:21325306

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Testosterone among Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yeran; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of low testosterone level is particularly high among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and has been associated with mortality. In populations without ESRD, low testosterone level has also been associated with a number of morbidities including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, low muscle mass, low bone mass, low physical performance, and frailty. However, there is controversy regarding what constitutes low testosterone level in the aging population and at what level replacement therapy with testosterone is indicated. There are no randomized controlled trials investigating long-term outcomes of testosterone replacement therapy in populations with or without ESRD. Available trial results suggest equivocal improvements in sexual function. Muscle mass and bone mineral density appear to improve, but results in physical function and performance are mixed and there are no data on fracture prevention. Some recent data suggest harm when testosterone was given to men with limited mobility. Finally, there is little evidence that testosterone adds to existing erythropoietin agents in the treatment of anemia in ESRD. Due to lack of evidence supporting long-term use of testosterone, the authors recommend against the routine use of testosterone in ESRD patients with low testosterone levels. Testosterone treatment can be considered in those with low bone mass and total testosterone level <200 ng/dl, or in younger patients with sexual complaints with total testosterone level lower than the reference range. It is important to engage patients in discussion of risks and benefits before initiating testosterone therapy; testosterone therapy should be discontinued if the intended treatment effect is not observed after short-term use. PMID:25376701

  5. Testosterone nasal gel (Natesto) for hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    2015-05-11

    In one study, Natesto nasal gel administered intranasally 3 times daily was effective in raising low serum testosterone levels into the normal range in patients with hypogonadism. Whether patients will find this method of administration more acceptable than an intramuscular injection every 2-4 weeks or once-daily application to the skin remains to be determined. Based on the lack of convincing evidence of benefit in older men and concerns about its safety, the FDA has warned against using testosterone to treat hypogonadism due solely to aging. PMID:25941957

  6. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management

    PubMed Central

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen deficiency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:24407187

  7. Assessment of trace metals contamination level, bioavailability and toxicity in sediments from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-11-01

    Trace metals have the potential to associate with sediments that have been recognised as significant source of contamination for the benthic environment. The current study aims assessing the trace metals contamination level in sediments from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary, and to examine their bioavailability to predict potential toxicity of sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected between June 2012 and January 2013 in three sampling periods from eight stations. Trace metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. Geoaccumulation indexes (Igeo) showed strong pollution by Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb confirmed by enrichment factor (EF) suggesting that these metals derived from anthropogenic sources. Toxicity indexes exceeded one in several sites suggesting the potential effects on sediment-dwelling organisms, which may constitute a risk to populations' health. However, seasonal variability of metal bioavailability was noted, revealing the best period to monitor metal contamination. From an ecotoxicological point of view, concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were above the effects range low threshold limit of the sediment quality guidelines for adverse biological effects. In addition, with Pb concentrations above the effect range medium values in some sites, biological effects may occur. PMID:25592460

  8. Testosterone Therapy Can Interact With Thrombophilia, Leading to Osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Riaz, Rashid; Prince, Marloe; Freiberg, Richard A; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Although this effect is not widely recognized, testosterone therapy can interact with thrombophilia, causing osteonecrosis. In 12 men and 4 women who had idiopathic osteonecrosis a median of 6 months after the onset of testosterone therapy, the authors examined the interaction between testosterone therapy and previously undiagnosed thrombophilia. The authors hypothesized that patients who had osteonecrosis after starting testosterone therapy were more likely than 110 normal control subjects or 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy to have thrombophilia. Measures of thrombophilia included Factor V Leiden, prothrombin, PAI-1 gene mutations, Factor VIII, Factor XI, anticardiolipin antibody immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M, and homocysteine values. In 10 cases, osteonecrosis occurred 6 months or less after the onset of testosterone therapy, and in all 16 cases, it occurred after a median of 6 months of testosterone therapy. Of the 16 cases, 5 (31%) were Factor V Leiden heterozygotes vs 2 of 109 (2%) healthy control subjects (P=.0003) and 4 of 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy (P=.04). Of the 16 cases, 4 (25%) had high (>150%) Factor VIII levels vs 7 of 103 (7%) healthy control subjects (P=.04), and 3 (19%) had high (>150%) Factor XI levels vs 3 of 101 (3%) healthy control subjects (P=.03). Of the 16 patients with osteonecrosis, 14 (88%) had at least 1 abnormal procoagulant value (of the 8 measured) vs 47 of 110 (43%) healthy control subjects (P=.0009). Of the 5 men whose serum estradiol level was measured while they were receiving testosterone therapy, this level was high (≥42.6 pg/mL) in 4. When testosterone therapy is given to patients with thrombophilia, they are at increased risk for osteonecrosis. PMID:26652327

  9. Sludge organics bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Eiceman, G.E.; Bellin, C.A.; Ryan, J.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. Available data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. Sludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical concentrations in soil-sludge mixtures 50 to 100 fold lower. Plant uptake at these pollutant concentrations (and at much higher concentrations) is minimal. Chemicals are either (1) accumulated at extremely low levels (PCBs), (2) possibly accumulated, but then rapidly metabolized within plants to extremely low levels (DEHP), or (3) likely degraded so rapidly in soil that only minor contamination occurs (PCP and 2,4-DNP).

  10. The use of testosterone as a male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K; Bremner, W J

    1998-10-01

    Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. Low levels of these hormones decrease endogenous testosterone secretion from the testis and deprive developing sperm of the signals required for normal maturation. Interference with sperm maturation causes a decline in sperm production and can lead to reversible infertility in men, raising the possibility that testosterone could be utilized in a commercially available contraceptive. To this end, testosterone has been studied alone and in combination with either gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues or progestins in efforts to improve its contraceptive efficacy. In this chapter, we will review efforts to use testosterone to create a safe, convenient, efficacious contraceptive method for men. PMID:10332567

  11. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T.; Thune, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes. PMID:23123222

  12. Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, S; Woodhouse, L; Storer, T W

    2001-07-01

    In spite of the widespread abuse of androgenic steroids by athletes and recreational body-builders, the effects of these agents on athletic performance and physical function remain poorly understood. Experimentally induced androgen deficiency is associated with a loss of fat-free mass; conversely, physiologic testosterone replacement of healthy, androgen-deficient men increases fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis. Testosterone supplementation of HIV-infected men with low testosterone levels and of older men with normally low testosterone concentrations also increases muscle mass. However, we do not know whether physiologic testosterone replacement can improve physical function and health-related quality of life, and reduce the risk of falls and disability in older men or those with chronic illness. Testosterone increases maximal voluntary strength in a dose-dependent manner and thus might improve performance in power-lifting events. However, testosterone has not been shown to improve performance in endurance events. The mechanisms by which testosterone increases muscle mass are not known, but probably involve alterations in the expression of multiple muscle growth regulators. PMID:11431134

  13. TESTOSTERONE, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE, AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN OLDER MEN: RESULTS FROM THE MASSACHUSETTS MALE AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript examines the relationships of total testosterone (T), bioavailable T, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) to measures of physical performance in a large, population-based, random sample of men. In the most recent wave of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, measur...

  14. Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Joel; Glueck, Charles J; Prince, Marloe; Riaz, Rashid; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    We screened previously undiagnosed thrombophilia (V Leiden-prothrombin mutations, Factors VIII and XI, homocysteine, and antiphospholipid antibody [APL] syndrome) in 15 men and 2 women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) or osteonecrosis 7 months (median) after starting testosterone therapy (TT), gel (30-50 mg/d), intramuscular (100-400 mg/wk), or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (6000 IU/wk). Thrombophilia was studied in 2 healthy control groups without thrombosis (97 normal controls, 31 subjects on TT) and in a third control group (n = 22) with VTE, not on TT. Of the 17 cases, 76% had ≥1 thrombophilia vs 19% of 97 normal controls (P < 0.0001), vs 29% of 31 TT controls (P = 0.002). Cases differed from normal controls by Factor V Leiden (12% vs 0%, P = 0.021), by high Factor VIII (>150%) (24% vs 7%, P = 0.058), by high homocysteine (29% vs 5%, P = 0.007), and from both normal and TT controls for APL syndrome (18% vs 2%, P = 0.023, vs 0%, P = 0.04). Despite adequate anticoagulation with TT continued after the first deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus (DVT-PE), 1 man sustained 3 DVT-PEs 5, 8, and 11 months later and a second man had 2 DVT-PEs 1 and 2 months later. Of the 10 cases with serum T measured on TT, 6 (60%) had supranormal T (>800 ng/dL) and of 9 with estradiol measured on TT, 7 (78%) had supranormal levels (>42.6 pg/mL). TT interacts with thrombophilia leading to thrombosis. TT continuation in thrombophilic men is contraindicated because of recurrent thrombi despite anticoagulation. Screening for thrombophilia before starting TT should identify subjects at high risk for VTE with an adverse the risk to benefit ratio for TT. PMID:25639953

  15. Late-Onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Replacement in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rajib K; Bhattacharya, Shelley B

    2015-11-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism is an underdiagnosed and easily treated condition defined by low serum testosterone levels in men older than 65 years. When treated, a significant improvement in quality of life may be reached in this rapidly rising sector of the population. During the evaluation, laboratory tests and a full medication review should be performed to exclude other illnesses or adverse effects from medications. The major goal of treatment in this population is treating the symptoms related to hypogonadism. There has not been clear evidence supporting universally giving older men with low serum testosterone levels and hypogonadal symptoms testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:26476121

  16. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Results: Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P < 0.018). Also, a positive correlation was observed between basal plasmatestosterone levels and criminal thinking traits (r = 0. 376, P < 0.05) and Millon compulsive (r = 0.386, P < 0.010) in both genders. In female participants, a positive correlation between basal plasmatestosterone levels and psychoticism (r = 0. 25, P < 0.019) and Cloninger AUTO TCI (r = 0.507, P < 0.004) was observed. In males participants positive correlation between baseline plasmatic Testosterone levels and Millon Antisocial trait (r = 0. 544, P < 0.19) and Millon Hypomania trait (r = 0. 485, P < 0.41) and Millon Drug Abuse trait (r = 0.632, P < 0.05) was reported. Conclusion: Our results suggest gender differences in clinical and personality variables related with basal plasma testosterone level. In men, high plasma testosterone levels were associated with clinical traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits. PMID:26664080

  17. Long-lived testosterone esters in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, W; Shackleton, C H; Pahuja, S L; Hochberg, R B

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become increasingly clear that steroid hormones are enzymatically esterified with fatty acids. These steroidal esters are the natural analogs of synthetic esters that are used therapeutically. One such family of pharmacological steroids is the synthetic alkyl esters of testosterone, androgens with great hormonal potency. We have investigated whether testosterone esters exist naturally by using the rat as a model. Most tissues of male rats, including blood, have very little if any ester (quantified by immunoassay as a nonpolar saponifiable metabolite), but fat and testes have sizable quantities, approximately 3 ng of testosterone equivalents per g of tissue. Testosterone in fat averages 9 ng/g. The fat from female rats and long-term (> 2 weeks) castrated males has no detectable testosterone ester. The presence of testosterone esters was confirmed by GC/MS, which clearly showed the presence of testosterone in the hydrolyzed ester fraction of fat from intact males but not long-term castrates. Upon castration, testosterone levels in the fat completely disappear within 6 hr. To the contrary, it is not until 48 hr after castration that a measurable fall in the testosterone ester fraction was observed; even after 10 days a small amount of ester is still present in the fat. These experiments demonstrate the existence of a previously unknown androgen with a potentially important physiological impact; testosterone esters, natural analogs of potent therapeutic agents, occur in the fat where they can serve as a reservoir of preformed androgen to stimulate neighboring target tissues. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7878017

  18. Pituitary and testis responsiveness of young male sheep exposed to testosterone excess during fetal development.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Mónica P; Rojas-Garcia, Pedro P; Einspanier, Ralf; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces reproductive disturbances in both female and male sheep. In females, it alters the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. In males, prenatal testosterone excess reduces sperm count and motility. Focusing on males, this study tested whether pituitary LH responsiveness to GNRH is increased in prenatal testosterone-exposed males and whether testicular function is compromised in the testosterone-exposed males. Control males (n=6) and males born to ewes exposed to twice weekly injections of 30  mg testosterone propionate from days 30 to 90 and of 40  mg testosterone propionate from days 90 to 120 of gestation (n=6) were studied at 20 and 30 weeks of age. Pituitary and testicular responsiveness was tested by administering a GNRH analog (leuprolide acetate). To complement the analyses, the mRNA expression of LH receptor (LHR) and that of steroidogenic enzymes were determined in testicular tissue. Basal LH and testosterone concentrations were higher in the testosterone-exposed-males. While LH response to the GNRH analog was higher in the testosterone-exposed males than in the control males, testosterone responses did not differ between the treatment groups. The testosterone:LH ratio was higher in the control males than in the testosterone-exposed males of 30 weeks of age, suggestive of reduced Leydig cell sensitivity to LH in the testosterone-exposed males. The expression of LHR mRNA was lower in the testosterone-exposed males, but the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes did not differ between the groups. These findings indicate that prenatal testosterone excess has opposing effects at the pituitary and testicular levels, namely increased pituitary sensitivity to GNRH at the level of pituitary and decreased sensitivity of the testes to LH. PMID:23579187

  19. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    PubMed Central

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (p < .05, .005, and .01, respectively) during testosterone replacement compared with the induced hypogonadal condition (leuprolide plus placebo); cortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (p < .1). Paradoxically, CRH-stimulated ACTH was increased significantly during testosterone replacement (p < .05). The cortisol:ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (p < .1). A mixed effects regression model showed that testosterone but not estradiol or CBG significantly contributed to the variance of cortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone. PMID:15841103

  20. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

  1. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  2. The Effect of Testosterone on Men With Andropause

    PubMed Central

    Sofimajidpour, Heshmatollah; Teimoori, Taher; Gharibi, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Andropause is the gradual reduction of the male sex hormone (testosterone) with increasing age. Its symptoms are sexual dysfunction, weakness, fatigue, insomnia, loss of motivation, mood disorders and reduction of bone density. Treatment of andropause with testosterone has been recently considered. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone in the treatment of andropause in men. Patients and Methods: For men who met the inclusion criteria (50 years of age and older) laboratory tests and clinical examinations were conducted by an urologist in order to diagnose prostate cancer, prostate disease, urinary tract infection and active urinary retention. After obtaining consent, the patients were enrolled in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage, mean, standard deviation) and the paired t-test were used to compare levels of testosterone. To determine the correlation between age and testosterone levels, the Pearson correlation was used. Finally, to compare the treatment processes during the treatment period the repeated measures ANOVA was used. Results: The mean age of patients was 56.57 ± 3.21 years. A total of 31 patients (39%) were smokers, among them 30% smoked daily, 2.5% weekly and 6% smoked for fun. The mean testosterone level before treatment was 240.6 ± 125.4 and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment the level was raised, so that at the end of the sixth months it was 578.7 ± 141.7. The level of increase was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Treatment with testosterone in men over 50 years with andropause will increase testosterone levels and also quality of life, sexual desire, erection, energy levels, ability to exercise and feel the joy of life more than before. Depression was decreased and they had sleepy feelings after dinner. PMID:26756004

  3. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  4. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ≥ 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level. PMID:26101490

  5. "Mitochondrial Eve", "Y Chromosome Adam", testosterone, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    I suggest primate evolution began as a consequence of increased testosterone in males which increased aggression and sexuality, therefore, reproduction and success. With time, negative effects of excessive testosterone reduced spermatogenesis and started a decline of the group. Approximately 30-40 million years ago, the gene DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) appeared on the Y chromosome, increased spermatogenesis, and rescued the early primates from extinction. (Note: DAZ is considered by some to specifically, positively affect spermatogenesis; others suggest it has no effect on spermatogenesis.) Hominid evolution continued with increasing testosterone. The advent of increased testosterone in females of Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) increased the female-to-male body size ratio, and eventually produced another era of excessive testosterone. Excessive testosterone caused a reduction in population size (bottleneck) that produced the "Mitochondrial Eve" (ME) mechanism. (Only certain females continued during the bottleneck to transmit their mitochondrial DNA.) That is, the ME mechanism culminated, again, in excessive testosterone and reduced spermatogenesis in the hominid line. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 years ago, a "doubling" of the DAZ gene occurred on the Y chromosome in hominid males which rescued the hominid line with increased spermatogenesis in certain males. This produced the "Y Chromosome Adam" event. The doubling of DAZ allowed further increases in testosterone in hominids that resulted in the increased size and development of the brain. Modern humans periodically fluctuate between the positive and negative consequences of increased levels of testosterone, currently identifiable as the secular trend, increased infections, and reduced spermatogenesis. PMID:12449688

  6. Medical Manuscript: Serum Total Testosterone as a Prognostic Indicator in Male Patients With Terminal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Won; Hwang, In Cheol; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Kyung, Sun Young; Ahn, Hong Yup

    2016-06-01

    The role of total serum testosterone in the prognosis of terminal cancer is unclear. We retrospectively investigated the total serum testosterone level in 69 male patients with terminal cancer in a palliative care unit. The association between the serum testosterone level and survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazard model. The median value of serum total testosterone was 44.5 ng/dL, far lower than previously reported in patients with advanced cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed thrombocytopenia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.68), hypoalbuminemia (aHR, 2.02), azotemia (aHR, 2.67), and lower serum testosterone level (aHR, 2.03) were significantly negatively prognostic of survival. Lower serum testosterone level was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for life expectancy in male patients with terminal cancer. PMID:25712105

  7. Testosterone replacement attenuates cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived lean rats, but not in obese rats, by mitigating brain oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Testosterone replacement improves metabolic parameters and cognitive function in hypogonadism. However, the effects of testosterone therapy on cognition in obese condition with testosterone deprivation have not been investigated. We hypothesized that testosterone replacement improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats had either a bilateral orchiectomy (ORX: O, n = 24) or a sham operation (S, n = 6). ORX rats were further divided into two groups fed with either a normal diet (NDO) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) and were given either castor oil or testosterone (2 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 4 weeks. At the end of this protocol, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and brain mitochondrial function were determined. We found that testosterone replacement increased peripheral insulin sensitivity, decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, and attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production in HFO rats. However, testosterone failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in HFO rats. In contrast, in NDO rats, testosterone decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production, and restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function. These findings suggest that testosterone replacement improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and decreased oxidative stress levels, but failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats. However, it provided beneficial effects in reversing cognitive impairment in testosterone-deprived non-obese rats. PMID:26277724

  8. Bioavailability of xenobiotics in the soil environment.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Arata; Bhula, Raj; Burns, G Richard; Carazo, Elizabeth; Felsot, Allan; Hamilton, Denis; Harris, Caroline; Kim, Yong-Hwa; Kleter, Gijs; Koedel, Werner; Linders, Jan; Peijnenburg, J G M Willie; Sabljic, Aleksandar; Stephenson, R Gerald; Racke, D Kenneth; Rubin, Baruch; Tanaka, Keiji; Unsworth, John; Wauchope, R Donald

    2010-01-01

    It is often presumed that all chemicals in soil are available to microorganisms, plant roots, and soil fauna via dermal exposure. Subsequent bioaccumulation through the food chain may then result in exposure to higher organisms. Using the presumption of total availability, national governments reduce environmental threshold levels of regulated chemicals by increasing guideline safety margins. However, evidence shows that chemical residues in the soil environment are not always bioavailable. Hence, actual chemical exposure levels of biota are much less than concentrations present in soil would suggest. Because "bioavailability" conveys meaning that combines implications of chemical sol persistency, efficacy, and toxicity, insights on the magnitude of a chemicals soil bioavailability is valuable. however, soil bioavailability of chemicals is a complex topic, and is affected by chemical properties, soil properties, species exposed, climate, and interaction processes. In this review, the state-of-art scientific basis for bioavailability is addressed. Key points covered include: definition, factors affecting bioavailability, equations governing key transport and distributive kinetics, and primary methods for estimating bioavailability. Primary transport mechanisms in living organisms, critical to an understanding of bioavailability, also presage the review. Transport of lipophilic chemicals occurs mainly by passive diffusion for all microorganisms, plants, and soil fauna. Therefore, the distribution of a chemical between organisms and soil (bioavailable proportion) follows partition equilibrium theory. However, a chemical's bioavailability does not always follow partition equilibrium theory because of other interactions with soil, such as soil sorption, hysteretic desorption, effects of surfactants in pore water, formation of "bound residue", etc. Bioassays for estimating chemical bioavailability have been introduced with several targeted endpoints: microbial

  9. Testosterone induces leucocyte migration by NADPH oxidase-driven ROS- and COX2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Debbas, Victor; Dull, Randal O; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Touyz, Rhian M; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms whereby testosterone increases cardiovascular risk are not clarified. However, oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be determinants. Herein, we sought to determine whether exogenous testosterone, at physiological levels, induces leucocyte migration, a central feature in immune and inflammatory responses and the mediating mechanisms. We hypothesized that testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-driven reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent mechanisms. Sixteen-week-old Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection (5 ml) of either testosterone (10(-7) mol/l) or saline. Rats were pre-treated with 5 ml of sodium salicylate (SS, non-selective COX inhibitor, 1.25 × 10(-3) mol/l, 1 h prior to testosterone or saline), flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist, 10(-5) mol/l), apocynin (NADPHox inhibitor, 3 × 10(-4) mol/l), N-[2-Cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl]methanesulfonamide (NS398, COX2 inhibitor, 10(-4) mol/l) or saline, 4 h before testosterone or saline administration. Leucocyte migration was assessed 24 h after testosterone administration by intravital microscopy of the mesenteric bed. Serum levels of testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. NADPHox activity was assessed in membrane fractions of the mesenteric bed by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and in isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by HPLC. NADPHox subunits and VCAM (vascular cell adhesion molecule) expression were determined by immunoblotting. Testosterone administration did not change serum levels of endogenous testosterone, but increased venular leucocyte migration to the adventia, NADPHox activity and expression (P < 0.05). These effects were blocked by flutamide. SS inhibited testosterone-induced leucocyte migration (P<0.05). Apocynin and NS398 abolished testosterone-induced leucocyte migration and NADPHox activity (P<0.05). Testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPHox- and COX2-dependent mechanisms and

  10. Testosterone Supplementation Therapy in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical complex of risk factors including increased waist circumference, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure and insulin resistance whose presence increases the likelihood of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. With a quarter of the American adult population affected, MetS has been referred to as the most significant public health threat of the 21st century. While lifestyle modification and weight loss are recommended, no specific pharmacological treatment is known. Given that low levels of testosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS and an inverse relationship exists between circulating testosterone and the development of MetS, it is tempting to speculate that men with MetS may benefit from testosterone supplementation therapy (TST). As such, this review seeks to examine the role of testosterone and the use of TST as a treatment modality in men with MetS. PMID:25387223

  11. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  12. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  13. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  14. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  15. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  16. Low serum testosterone increases mortality risk among male dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:19144759

  17. Supra-physiological dose of testosterone induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pirompol, Prapawadee; Teekabut, Vassana; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone and androgenic anabolic steroids have been misused for enhancement of physical performance despite many reports on cardiac sudden death. Although physiological level of testosterone provided many regulatory benefits to human health, including the cardiovascular function, supra-physiological levels of the hormone induce hypertrophy of the heart with unclear contractile activation. In this study, dose- and time-dependent effects of high-testosterone treatment on cardiac structure and function were evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into four groups of testosterone treatment for 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BW for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Increases in both percentage heart:body weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in representing hypertrophy of the heart were significantly shown in all testosterone-treated groups to the same degree. In 4-week-treated rats, physiological cardiac hypertrophy was apparent with an upregulation of α-MHC without any change in myofilament contractile activation. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy was observed in 8- and 12-week testosterone-treated groups, as indicated by suppression of myofilament activation and myocardial collagen deposition without transition of MHC isoforms. Only in 12-week testosterone-treated group, eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was demonstrated with unaltered myocardial stiffness, but significant reductions in the phosphorylation signals of ERK1/2 and mTOR. Results of our study suggest that the outcome of testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not dose dependent but is rather relied on the factor of exposure to duration in inducing maladaptive responses of the heart. PMID:26850730

  18. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Choobineh, Hamid; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Pasalar, Parvin; Jahanzad, Issa; Ghorbani, Rostam; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonylation (PCO), as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay. Results Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration. PMID:27123205

  19. Estrogen, testosterone, and sequential movement in men.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jessica A; Young, Laura A; Neiss, Michelle B; Samuels, Mary H; Roselli, Charles E; Janowsky, Jeri S

    2008-10-01

    Behavioral and physiological data suggest that the striatal dopaminergic system is important in the production and execution of sequential movements. Striatal function is also modulated by sex hormones, and previous studies show that estradiol is related to sequential movement in women. The authors examined whether sex hormones are involved in the production of sequential movement in healthy older and younger men. Testosterone was modified for a 6-week period such that levels in older men matched those of younger men, the conversion of testosterone to estradiol was blocked, the production of testosterone was blocked, or the men received no treatment (placebo). Sequential movement was measured before and after hormone treatment. Older men were slower and more accurate than younger men on the sequential movement task pre- and posttreatment. Hormone manipulation had no effect on movement speed. Hormone levels were not correlated with sequential movement performance in either older or younger men, suggesting that sex hormones do not modulate sequential movement in men, and hormone replacement may not restore a loss of sequential movement ability in elderly men or men with Parkinson's disease. PMID:18823152

  20. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P < 0.01) on landing day after these flights and after short-duration space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  1. Could you have low testosterone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism ... Some symptoms may be a normal part of aging. For example, it is normal to feel less ...

  2. Bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of a single meal of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosides: a crossover study in humans.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Klaus; Buhrke, Thorsten; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    The acute toxicity of cyanide is determined by its peak levels reached in the body. Compared to the ingestion of free cyanide, lower peak levels may be expected after consumption of foods containing cyanogenic glycosides with the same equivalent dose of cyanide. This is due to possible delayed and/or incomplete release of cyanide from the cyanogenic glycosides depending on many factors. Data on bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosides as presented herein were necessary to allow a meaningful risk assessment for these foods. A crossover study was carried out in 12 healthy adults who consumed persipan paste (equivalent total cyanide: 68 mg/kg), linseed (220 mg/kg), bitter apricot kernels (about 3250 mg/kg), and fresh cassava roots (76-150 mg/kg), with each "meal" containing equivalents of 6.8 mg cyanide. Cyanide levels were determined in whole blood using a GC-MS method with K(13)C(15)N as internal standard. Mean levels of cyanide at the different time points were highest after consumption of cassava (15.4 µM, after 37.5 min) and bitter apricot kernels (14.3 µM, after 20 min), followed by linseed (5.7 µM, after 40 min) and 100 g persipan (1.3 µM, after 105 min). The double dose of 13.6 mg cyanide eaten with 200 g persipan paste resulted in a mean peak level of 2.9 µM (after 150 min). An acute reference dose of 0.075 mg/kg body weight was derived being valid for a single application/meal of cyanides or hydrocyanic acid as well as of unprocessed foods with cyanogenic glycosides also containing the accompanying intact β-glucosidase. For some of these foods, this approach may be overly conservative due to delayed release of cyanide, as demonstrated for linseed. In case of missing or inactivated β-glucosidase, the hazard potential is much lower. PMID:25708890

  3. Testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular mortality

    PubMed Central

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    New concerns have been raised regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy (TTh). These concerns are based primarily on two widely reported retrospective studies. However, methodological flaws and data errors invalidate both studies as credible evidence of risk. One showed reduced adverse events by half in T-treated men but reversed this result using an unproven statistical approach. The authors subsequently acknowledged serious data errors including nearly 10% contamination of the dataset by women. The second study mistakenly used the rate of T prescriptions written by healthcare providers to men with recent myocardial infarction (MI) as a proxy for the naturally occurring rate of MI. Numerous studies suggest T is beneficial, including decreased mortality in association with TTh, reduced MI rate with TTh in men with the greatest MI risk prognosis, and reduced CV and overall mortality with higher serum levels of endogenous T. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated benefits of TTh in men with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Improvement in CV risk factors such as fat mass and glycemic control have been repeatedly demonstrated in T-deficient men treated with T. The current evidence does not support the belief that TTh is associated with increased CV risk or CV mortality. On the contrary, a wealth of evidence accumulated over several decades suggests that low serum T levels are associated with increased risk and that higher endogenous T, as well as TTh itself, appear to be beneficial for CV mortality and risk. PMID:25432501

  4. Mechanism of Testosterone Deficiency in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Haolin; Brown, Terry R.; Zirkin, Barry R.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle) exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels compared with wild type (WT) mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol)- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi) exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease. PMID:26023917

  5. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Cummings, Daniel K; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Holman, Darryl J; Smith, Eric A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16-80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (p<0.001) equivalent to a 48.6% rise, after one hour of tree chopping. Age had no effect on baseline (p=0.656) or change in testosterone (p=0.530); self-reported illness did not modify testosterone change (p=0.488). A comparison of these results to the relative change in testosterone during a competitive soccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning. PMID:24187482

  6. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers

    PubMed Central

    TRUMBLE, BENJAMIN C; CUMMINGS, DANIEL K; O’CONNOR, KATHLEEN A; HOLMAN, DARRYL J; SMITH, ERIC A; KAPLAN, HILLARD S; GURVEN, MICHAEL D

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16–80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (p<0.001) equivalent to a 48.6% rise, after one hour of tree chopping. Age had no effect on baseline (p=0.656) or change in testosterone (p=0.530); self-reported illness did not modify testosterone change (p=0.488). A comparison of these results to the relative change in testosterone during a competitive soccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning. PMID:24187482

  7. Testosterone during Pregnancy and Gender Role Behavior of Preschool Children: A Longitudinal, Population Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J.; Golding, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Related blood levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in pregnant women to gender role behavior among 342 male and 337 female offspring at 3.5 years. Found that testosterone levels related linearly to girls' gender role behavior. Neither hormone related to boys' gender role behavior. Other factors, including older brothers or…

  8. Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males. PMID:26626441

  9. Time for international action on treating testosterone deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Aim Testosterone deficiency is having an increasing impact on men's health because of global aging, higher levels of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome and adverse environmental factors such as stress xenoestrogens and anti-androgens. The question addressed is to what extent the large body of evidence on the benefits and safety of testosterone therapy is applied in clinical practice. Methods Demographic data for men over the age of 50 from different regions of the world have been compared with the number of men in that age group estimated from sales figures to be receiving testosterone treatment. Results On the basis of estimate that 20% of men over 50 in the general population of each region could be expected to have testosterone deficiency symptoms, on average only these men (0.69%) in most European countries were receiving treatment. Proportion was higher in the UK (1.00%) and Germany (1.89%), but lower in France (0.49%), Italy (0.51%) and Russia (0.54%). Interestingly, Australia had higher figures (1.64%), in spite of tight state control measures on androgen use. The USA has the highest treatment rate (7.96%) and this is increasing rapidly. If the basis for the diagnosis was the more conventional combination of symptoms plus biochemical evidence of low total and free testosterone levels, androgen deficiency would be expected in at least 5% of men over 50, and percentage treatment rates therefore four times higher. However, even on that basis, only in the USA do these exceed 10%. Conclusions International action is urgently needed to raise awareness in the medical profession in the various countries of these remarkably low levels of testosterone treatment. Improvement in this requires education and motivation of doctors and those regulating the healthcare systems. A public awareness campaign is needed to educate men about the symptoms of testosterone deficiency and its impact on their health. PMID:19326293

  10. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

  11. Influence of testosterone gel treatment on spermatogenesis in men with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    George, Mskhalaya; Yulia, Tishova; Svetlana, Kalinchenko

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of androgen deficiency in reproductive-aged men is increasing and needs new approach to long-term hypogonadism treatment that can preserve fertility. An open non-controlled pilot study included 18 men with eugonadotropic hypogonadism, who received transdermal testosterone gel treatment for 3 months. Sperm analysis was made before treatment and after 3 month of testosterone therapy. Testosterone level was normalized in all patients, but no negative effect was observed on spermatogenesis. Testosterone gel therapy may be a therapy of choice in hypogonadal men of reproductive age but further studies are needed. PMID:25200823

  12. [The role of testosterone in regulating the aggressive behavior of male laboratory mice of different strains].

    PubMed

    Diuzhikova, N A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of testosterone on aggressive behaviour, on urinal pheromonal activity, on weight of the preputial gland, seminal vesicles and coagulating glands of male mouse CBA, C57BL/6 and hybrids CBAB6F1 was studied. The interstrain differences in reactivity to testosterone in aggressive behaviour tests and in seminal vesicles and coagulating gland weight were found. The urinal pheromonal characteristics were not changed by testosterone influence. No significant correlations between the aggressive behaviour parameters, urinal pheromonal activity, testosterone plasma levels and reactivity to its action were discovered. PMID:7941714

  13. The Effects of Testosterone Supplementation on Cognitive Functioning in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Wahjoepramono, Eka J; Asih, Prita R; Aniwiyanti, Vilia; Taddei, Kevin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Fuller, Stephanie J; Foster, Jonathan; Carruthers, Malcolm; Verdile, Giuseppe; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-01-01

    Reduction in testosterone levels in men during aging is associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Animal studies have shown benefits for testosterone supplementation in improving cognition and reducing Alzheimer's disease pathology. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of men with subjective memory complaint and low testosterone levels, we investigated whether testosterone treatment significantly improved performance on various measures of cognitive functioning. Forty-four men were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to establish the baseline prior to being randomly divided into two groups. The first group (Group A) received 24 weeks of testosterone treatment (T treatment) followed by 4 weeks washout, and then 24 weeks of placebo (P); the second group (Group B) received the same treatments, in reverse order (Placebo, washout, and then T treatment). In group A (TèP), compared to baseline, there was a modest (1 point) but significant improvement in general cognitive functioning as measured by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) following testosterone treatment. This improvement from baseline was sustained following the washout period and crossover to placebo treatment. Similar Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were observed when comparing testosterone treatment with placebo. In group B (PèT) a significant increase was observed from baseline following testosterone treatment and a trend towards an increase when compared to placebo treatment. Improvements in baseline depression scores (assessed by Geriatric Depression Scale) were observed following testosterone/placebo treatment in both groups, and no difference was observed when comparing testosterone with placebo treatment. Our findings indicate a modest improvement on global cognition with testosterone treatment. Larger clinical trials with a longer follow- up and with the inclusion of blood and brain imaging markers are now needed to conclusively

  14. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    PubMed Central

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  15. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  16. The effects of castration followed testosterone supplementation in prostatic complex of Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-06-01

    The prostatic complex (ventral and dorsal regions) of Artibeus planirostris exhibits seasonal variations throughout the year. Circulating testosterone was correlated with prostate weight, showing an increase from autumn to summer, with the highest peak in summer corresponding to the largest breeding season. This indicates that the level of serum testosterone influences variations in both testicular and prostatic weights. Serum testosterone levels seem to be closely related to the different responses of these glands throughout the year. The castration (consequent suppression of testosterone) and subsequent hormone supplementation may elucidate the relationship of these two glandular types with testosterone. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of castration and the testosterone supplementation in the male prostatic complex of A. planirostris. The results indicated that both prostatic regions were affected by the ablation of testosterone, presenting a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the prostate was responsive to hormonal supplementation, having a recovery of the active morphophysiological pattern with testosterone supplementation. However, data have shown that the ventral region was more sensitive to changes in testosterone than the dorsal, presenting greater cell renewal. PMID:27032910

  17. Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Friedman, Joel; Hafeez, Ahsan; Hassan, Atif; Wang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    We assessed previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis in 11 testosterone (T)-taking men, five of whom developed deep venous thrombosis (DVT), four pulmonary embolism, one spinal cord infarction, and one osteonecrosis 3.5 months (median) after starting T gel (50-160 mg/day) or T intramuscular (50-250 mg/week). In the order of referral because of thrombosis after starting T, thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis was studied in 11 men, and, separately, in two control groups without thrombosis - 44 healthy normal male controls and 39 healthy men taking T. Nine men had DVT or DVT-pulmonary embolism after 3.5 months (median) on T, one spinal cord infarction after 5 days on T, and one had osteonecrosis (knee and then hip osteonecrosis after 6 and 18 months on T). Four of the 11 men (36%) had high factor VIII (≥150%) vs. one of 42 (2%) controls (P = 0.005), and vs. one of 25 (4%) T-controls, (P = 0.023). Of the 11 men, two (18%) had factor V Leiden heterozygosity vs. none of 44 controls, (P = 0.04) and vs. none of 39 T-controls(P = 0.045). Of the 11 men, three had 4G4G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 homozygosity, one prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity, one low protein S, and one high factor XI. When T was continued, second DVT-pulmonary embolism recurred in three of 11 men despite adequate anticoagulation. T interacts with thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis leading to thrombosis. Men sustaining DVT-pulmonary embolism-osteonecrosis on T should be studied for thrombophilia. Continuation of T in thrombophilic men appears to be contraindicated because of recurrent thrombosis despite adequate anticoagulation. Before starting T, to prevent T-associated thrombosis, we recommend measures of factor V Leiden, factor VIII, and the prothrombin gene. PMID:24732175

  18. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del

  19. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del

  20. Serum testosterone concentration, efficiency of estrus detection and libido expression in androgenized beef cows.

    PubMed

    Nix, J P; Spitzer, J C; Chenoweth, P J

    1998-04-15

    Twenty multiparous, cyclic, nonlactating beef cows were blocked by dominance rank and randomly and equally allotted to 1 of 4 treatment groups: an untreated control group, a synovex-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with no additional hormones, a testosterone-treated group which received 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 with additional 1000 mg, s.c. doses of testosterone enanthate every 14 d, and a synovex + testosterone-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 only. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture once a week beginning 3 wk prior to start of treatment. In addition, samples were collected just prior to treatment; once a day for 1 wk after initiation of treatment; and then twice a week until 225 d after treatment. Efficiency of estrus detection was assessed 22 d prior to start of treatment and every 14 d thereafter for 98 d, using estrus detection trials with synchronized females or modified libido tests. Scores for estrus detection trials included total mounts in 1 h and the percentage of estrous cows detected. Libido was scored on a scale of 0 through 6. All testosterone treatments raised plasma testosterone concentrations above control and pretreatment levels (testosterone and synovex + testosterone > synovex > control; all P < 0.05). Synovex-, testosterone- and synovex + testosterone-treated females performed more mounts in 1 h than the controls (18, 9, 6 and 1, respectively; all P < 0.05). All testosterone-treated cows mounted a higher number of estrous females than the controls (P < 0.05). Only synovex + testosterone- and testosterone-treated cows received libido scores above pretreatment and control values. However, libido of testosterone-treated cows decreased over time, while that of synovex + testosterone-treated females remained high until Day 98. Libido scores correlated positively with the number of mounts in 1

  1. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Fox, Elliott C.; Larsen, Gregory D.; Batson, Christopher G.; Wagner, Benjamin A.; Maher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats’ strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. PMID:23597827

  2. Criteria to indicate testosterone administration.

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T; Brooks, R V; Collyer, S C; Cowan, D A; Nanjee, M N; Southan, G J; Wheeler, M J

    1990-01-01

    A detection method for testosterone administration was developed using radioimmunoassay to measure the urinary ratios of testosterone (T) to epitestosterone (E) and to luteinizing hormone (LH). A comparative study of the effect on these ratios of a single intramuscular injection of testosterone heptanoate followed by stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in three normal men was undertaken. To allow immediate investigation, a commercially supplied epitestosterone antiserum was used. This study showed that both T/E and T/LH ratios could be used to detect testosterone administration, the latter also being an indicator of HCG use due to cross-reactivity with the LH antiserum. Subsequently, an epitestosterone antiserum of superior specificity was raised and used in a study to demonstrate the insignificant effect of exercise on these ratios. Finally, an intramuscular injection of a combined preparation of testosterone/epitestosterone heptanoates resulted in raised ratios of T/LH but not of T/E. This demonstrated the importance of the T/LH ratio in circumstances where the T/E ratio can be easily circumvented. PMID:2097025

  3. TESTOSTERONE AND SPORT: CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.; Stanton, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids enhance athletic performance in men and women. As a result, exogenous androgen is banned from most competitive sports. However, due to variability in endogenous secretion, and similarities with exogenous testosterone, it has been challenging to establish allowable limits for testosterone in competition. Endogenous androgen production is dynamically regulated by both exercise and winning in competition. Furthermore, testosterone may promote athletic performance, not only through its long-term anabolic actions, but also through rapid effects on behavior. In women, excess production of endogenous testosterone due to inborn disorders of sexual development (DSD) may convey a competitive advantage. For many years, female competitors have been subject to tests of sexual genotype and phenotype known as gender verification. Although gender verification has not identified any normal man competing as a woman, this process has identified women athletes with DSD. As understanding of DSD has expanded in recent years, women with DSD are increasingly able to continue athletic competition. PMID:21983229

  4. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  5. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD. PMID:26402923

  6. Testosterone Administration Decreases Generosity in the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Paul J.; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-01-01

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825

  7. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-01-01

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825

  8. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N; Marlowe, Frank W; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-22

    The 'challenge hypothesis' posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male-male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  9. Testosterone regulates metabolism of plasma chylomicrons in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Staprans, I.; Rapp, J.H.; Pan, X.M.; Ong, D.L.; Feingold, K.R. )

    1990-07-01

    Previously we demonstrated a marked sex difference in the metabolism of chylomicrons in adult rats. In males, radiolabeled chylomicrons displayed a longer dwell time on endothelial surfaces, which resulted in a decreased chylomicron uptake by the liver. The increased rate of chylomicron metabolism in females was associated with increased postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of physiological doses of sex steroid hormones on the metabolism of chylomicrons and postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity. No sex differences were found in prepubertal animals. We also found no difference in chylomicron metabolism in control female, castrated female, estrogen-treated female, castrated male, and estrogen-treated male rats. However, control male, testosterone-treated male, and testosterone-treated female rats showed increased endothelial binding of chylomicrons and decreased chylomicron uptake by the liver. Postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity also was decreased by testosterone administration. In parallel with the alterations in chylomicron metabolism, serum high density lipoprotein levels in male rats decreased with testosterone administration. These results indicate that the differences in chylomicron metabolism, postheparin lipoprotein lipase activities, and serum high density lipoprotein levels observed between male and female rats are due to testosterone.

  10. Green tea polyphenols inhibit testosterone production in rat Leydig cells

    PubMed Central

    Figueiroa, Marina S; César Vieira, Juliany S B; Leite, Disleide S; Filho, Ruben C O Andrade; Ferreira, Fabiano; Gouveia, Patrícia S; Udrisar, Daniel P; Wanderley, Maria I

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its polyphenol constituents, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (−)-epicatechin (EC), on basal and stimulated testosterone production by rat Leydig cells in vitro. Leydig cells purified in a Percoll gradient were incubated for 3 h with GTE, EGCG or EC and the testosterone precursor androstenedione, in the presence or absence of either protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC) activators. The reversibility of the effect was studied by pretreating cells for 15 min with GTE or EGCG, allowing them to recover for 1 h and challenging them for 2 h with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or androstenedione. GTE and EGCG, but not EC, inhibited both basal and kinase-stimulated testosterone production. Under the pretreatment conditions, the inhibitory effect of the higher concentration of GTE/EGCG on hCG/LHRH-stimulated or 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-induced testosterone production was maintained, whereas androstenedione-supported testosterone production returned to control levels. At the lower concentration of GTE/EGCG, the inhibitory effect of these polyphenols on 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-supported testosterone production was reversed. The inhibitory effects of GTE may be explained by the action of its principal component, EGCG, and the presence of a gallate group in its structure seems important for its high efficacy in inhibiting testosterone production. The mechanisms underlying the effects of GTE and EGCG involve the inhibition of the PKA/PKC signalling pathways, as well as the inhibition of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase function. PMID:19330017

  11. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  12. A microcosm study to support aquatic risk assessment of nickel: Community-level effects and comparison with bioavailability-normalized species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Knopf, Burkhard; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfers, Christoph; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Schlekat, Chris; Garman, Emily Rogevich

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic risk assessment for nickel (Ni) in the European Union is based on chronic species sensitivity distributions and the use of bioavailability models. To test whether a bioavailability-based safe threshold of Ni (the hazardous concentration for 5% of species [HC5]) is protective for aquatic communities, microcosms were exposed to 5 stable Ni treatments (6-96 μg/L) and a control for 4 mo to assess bioaccumulation and effects on phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton, and snails. Concentrations of Ni in the periphyton, macrophytes, and snails measured at the end of the exposure period increased in a dose-dependent manner but did not indicate biomagnification. Abundance of phytoplankton and snails decreased in 48 μg Ni/L and 96 μg Ni/L treatments, which may have indirectly affected the abundance of zooplankton and periphyton. Exposure up to 24 μg Ni/L had no adverse effects on algae and zooplankton, whereas the rate of population decline of the snails at 24 μg Ni/L was significantly higher than in the controls. Therefore, the study-specific overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) is 12 μg Ni/L. This NOAEC is approximately twice the HC5 derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution considering the specific water chemistry of the microcosm by means of bioavailability models. Thus, the present study provides support to the protectiveness of the bioavailability-normalized HC5 for freshwater communities. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1172-1182. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26387764

  13. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  14. Is Testosterone Deficiency A Possible Risk Factor For Priapism Associated With Sickle Cell Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Belinda F.; Anele, Uzoma A.; Reid, Marvin E.; Madden, Wendy A.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the association of testosterone deficiency and priapism in adult men with SCD. Methods A cross-sectional study of 50 adult men with homozygous S SCD was performed. All patients had early morning blood taken for total and free testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, lipid levels, LDH and hematological indices. Patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding priapism frequency, duration, and treatment. Testosterone deficiency was defined as a serum total testosterone < 12 nmol/L (346 ng/dl). Results The mean age of the study population was 34.2 ± 8.9 years. Priapism was noted in 24 (48%) patients and was most frequently seen in men between ages 18–25 years. Testosterone deficiency was observed in 11 of 50 (22 %) of all patients, and particularly in 6 of 24 (25%) patients with histories of priapism. There was no difference in mean total testosterone levels in patients with and without a history of priapism (16.7± 4.9 nmol/L and 15.4±5.9 nmol/L, respectively) (p=0.43). Similarly, there was no difference in serum LH and FSH levels based on history of priapism. Conclusion Testosterone deficiency is prevalent in patients with SCD; however, we did not identify an association based on a history of priapism. Larger, prospectively gathered data is needed to define the priapism profile of SCD patients with testosterone deficiency. PMID:25371242

  15. The effects of circulating testosterone and pubertal maturation on risk for disordered eating symptoms in adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, K. M.; Burt, S. A.; Sisk, C. L.; Nigg, J. T.; Klump, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone may be a biological factor that protects males against eating disorders. Elevated prenatal testosterone exposure is linked to lower levels of disordered eating symptoms, but effects emerge only after mid-puberty. Whether circulating levels of testosterone account for decreased risk for disordered eating in boys after mid-puberty is currently unknown; however, animal data support this possibility. In rodents, prenatal testosterone’s masculinizing effects on sex-differentiated behaviors emerge during puberty when circulating levels of testosterone increase and ‘activate’ the expression of masculinized phenotypes. This study investigated whether higher levels of circulating testosterone predict lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys, and in particular whether effects are associated with advancing pubertal maturation. Method Participants were 213 male twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. The Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire assessed several disordered eating symptoms. The Pubertal Development Scale assessed pubertal status. Afternoon saliva samples were assayed for testosterone using enzyme immunoassays. Results Consistent with animal data, higher levels of circulating testosterone predicted lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys and effects emerged with advancing puberty. Results were not accounted for by several important covariates, including age, adiposity, or mood/anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Findings suggest that elevated circulating testosterone may be protective and underlie decreased risk for eating pathology in males during/after puberty, whereas lower levels of testosterone may increase risk and explain why some, albeit relatively few, males develop eating disorders. PMID:24406155

  16. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas.

    PubMed

    Beehner, Jacinta C; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2009-10-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal taxa. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the life span of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across taxa were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by 1 year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after 3 years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  17. Control of the misuse of testosterone in castrated horses based on an international threshold in plasma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, David K K; Riggs, Christopher M; Sidlow, Gordon; Stewart, Brian D; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone is an endogenous steroid produced primarily in the testes. Trace levels of testosterone are found in urine samples from geldings, as testosterone is also secreted by the adrenal. An international threshold of free and conjugated testosterone in urine (20 ng/mL) was adopted by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA) in 1996 for controlling testosterone misuse in geldings. In view of the recent popularity of using blood in doping control testing, it is necessary to establish a threshold for testosterone in gelding plasma. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method was developed for quantifying low levels of free testosterone in gelding plasma. Based on a population study of 152 post-race plasma samples, the mean ± SD concentration of plasma testosterone was determined to be 14.7 ± 6.8 pg/mL. Normal distribution could be obtained after square-root or cube-root transformation, resulting in respective tentative thresholds of 49 or 55 pg/mL (corresponding to a risk factor of less than 1 in 10 000). A rounded-up threshold of 100 pg/mL of free testosterone in plasma was proposed. Based on the administration of Testosterone Suspension 100 to six geldings, the same average detection time of 14 days was observed in either plasma or urine using the proposed plasma threshold and the existing international urine threshold. The maximum detection time was 18 days in plasma and 20 days in urine. The results demonstrated the proposed plasma threshold is effective in controlling the misuse of testosterone in geldings. Similar results were subsequently obtained in Europe, and this proposed threshold was adopted by IFHA in October 2013. PMID:24889217

  18. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  19. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  20. Effect of testosterone therapy on the female voice

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, R.; York, A.; Dimitrakakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This prospective study was designed to investigate the effect of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implants, on the female voice. Methods Ten women who had opted for testosterone therapy were recruited for voice analysis. Voices were recorded prior to treatment and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months while on testosterone therapy. Acoustic samples were collected with subjects reading a sentence, reading a paragraph, and participating in a conversation. Significant changes in the voice over time were investigated using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with the fundamental frequency (F 0) as a response variable. Demographic variables associated with characteristics of the voice were assessed. Results There were no significant differences in average F 0 related to smoking history, menopausal status, weight, or body mass index. There was no difference in average fundamental speaking frequency (sentence, paragraph, conversation) between the pre-treatment group and any post-treatment group at 3 and 12 months. There was an increase in sentence speech F 0 at 6 months. Two of three patients with lower than expected F 0 at baseline improved on testosterone therapy. Conclusion Therapeutic levels of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implant, had no adverse affect on the female voice including lowering or deepening of the voice. PMID:26857354

  1. Effects of hypoxia on testosterone release in rat Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Chen, Te-Jung; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect and action mechanisms of intermittent hypoxia on the production of testosterone both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were housed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O(2) + 88% N(2), 1.5 l/ml) 8 h/day for 4 days. Normoxic rats were used as control. In an in vivo experiment, hypoxic and normoxic rats were euthanized and the blood samples collected. In the in vitro experiment, the enzymatically dispersed rat Leydig cells were prepared and challenged with forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator, 10(-4) M), 8-Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP, 10(-4) M), hCG (0.05 IU), the precursors of the biosynthesis testosterone, including 25-OH-C (10(-5) M), pregnenolone (10(-7) M), progesterone (10(-7) M), 17-OH-progesterone (10(-7) M), and androstendione (10(-7)-10(-5) M), nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, 10(-6)-10(-4) M), nimodipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, 10(-5) M), tetrandrine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, 10(-5) M), and NAADP (calcium-signaling messenger causing release of calcium from intracellular stores, 10(-6)-10(-4) M). The concentrations of testosterone in plasma and medium were measured by radioimmunoassay. The level of plasma testosterone in hypoxic rats was higher than that in normoxic rats. Enhanced testosterone production was observed in rat Leydig cells treated with hCG, 8-Br-cAMP, or forskolin in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Intermittent hypoxia resulted in a further increase of testosterone production in response to the testosterone precursors. The activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was stimulated by the treatment of intermittent hypoxia in vitro. The intermittent hypoxia-induced higher production of testosterone was accompanied with the influx of calcium via L-type calcium channel and the increase of intracellular calcium via the mechanism of calcium mobilization. These results suggested that the intermittent hypoxia stimulated the secretion of testosterone at least in

  2. Human Folate Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Ohrvik, Veronica E.; Witthoft, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    The vitamin folate is recognized as beneficial health-wise in the prevention of neural tube defects, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, poor cognitive performance, and some forms of cancer. However, suboptimal dietary folate intake has been reported in a number of countries. Several national health authorities have therefore introduced mandatory food fortification with synthetic folic acid, which is considered a convenient fortificant, being cost-efficient in production, more stable than natural food folate, and superior in terms of bioavailability and bioefficacy. Other countries have decided against fortification due to the ambiguous role of synthetic folic acid regarding promotion of subclinical cancers and other adverse health effects. This paper reviews recent studies on folate bioavailability after intervention with folate from food. Our conclusions were that limited folate bioavailability data are available for vegetables, fruits, cereal products, and fortified foods, and that it is difficult to evaluate the bioavailability of food folate or whether intervention with food folate improves folate status. We recommend revising the classical approach of using folic acid as a reference dose for estimating the plasma kinetics and relative bioavailability of food folate. PMID:22254106

  3. Decreased Serum Free Testosterone in Workers Exposed to High Levels of Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DBP) and Di-2-ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP): A Cross-Sectional Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guowei; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Yoshimura, Mariko; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Ping; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Inoue, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Background Observations of adverse developmental and reproductive effects in laboratory animals and wildlife have fueled increasing public concern regarding the potential for various chemicals to impair human fertility. Objective Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to high levels of phthalate esters on the balance of gonadotropin and gonadal hormones including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, free testosterone (fT), and estradiol. Methods We examined urine and blood samples of 74 male workers at a factory producing unfoamed polyvinyl chloride flooring exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and compared them with samples from 63 male workers from a construction company, group matched for age and smoking status. Results Compared to the unexposed workers, the exposed workers had substantially and significantly elevated concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP; 644.3 vs. 129.6 μg/g creatinine, p < 0.001) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; 565.7 vs. 5.7 μg/g creatinine, p < 0.001). fT was significantly lower (8.4 vs. 9.7 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.019) in exposed workers than in unexposed workers. fT was negatively correlated to MBP (r = −0.25, p = 0.03) and MEHP (r = −0.19, p = 0.095) in the exposed worker group. Regression analyses revealed that fT decreases significantly with increasing total phthalate ester score (the sum of quartiles of MBP and MEHP; r = −0.26, p = 0.002). Conclusion We observed a modest and significant reduction of serum fT in workers with higher levels of urinary MBP and MEHP compared with unexposed workers. PMID:17107847

  4. Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

  5. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  6. Bioavailability and generic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Mindel, J S

    1976-01-01

    Although oral drug bioinequivalence has been attributed to a number of causes (excipients, dosage form, variation in dissolution time, and aging) less is known about bioavailability problems of topical medications in ophthalmology. Factors that can alter drug absorption from solutions (pH, partition coefficient, container impurities, contact time, etc.) are noted, and cases in which bioavailability problems should be considered as causes of therapeutic failure are discussed. Various attitudes representing pharmaceutical companies, the federal government, pharmacists, consumers and physicians toward the related problems of bioinequivalence and generic prescribing are examined. Techniques for in vivo and in vitro drug testing and for establishing uniform conditions of drug manufacture and storage can contribute to identification and minimization of bioavailability problems. A rational program based on a combination of such techniques could, ultimately, lead to establishment of the terms "generic equivalency" and "therapeutic equivalency" as synonymous. PMID:13505

  7. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  8. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  9. Hot or not: the effects of exogenous testosterone on female attractiveness to male conspecifics in the budgerigar.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Stefanie E P; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M; Pinxten, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work. PMID:23951365

  10. Hot or Not: The Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Female Attractiveness to Male Conspecifics in the Budgerigar

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work. PMID:23951365

  11. [Testosterone assays using non recommended methods lead to misdiagnosis in women].

    PubMed

    Taibi, Ludmia; Giton, Frank; Moutereau, Stéphane; Fiet, Jean; Guéchot, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    French and US endocrine societies recommend using GC-MS or RIA after purification (extraction + chromatography) to assess blood levels of testosterone in women. However, most of laboratories use automatized methods that have to be reserved to measure testosterone levels in men. The aim of this study was to show the consequences of analytical discrepancies of some immunological methods on the diagnostics values of testosterone levels assayed in women. Compared to GC-MS the correlations of the assayed levels varied (Spearman's rank correlation coefficients: 0.935; 0.793; 0.841; 0.852 respectively for RIA Immunotech™ with extraction and chromatographic purification; Testosterone Access-DxI800®; Testosterone Immulite 2000®; Testosterone II Cobas E601®). The testosterone levels allowed an accurate conclusion in 95.2 %; 75.8 %; 77.4 %; 89.8 % of patients, respectively. The agreement with GC-MS results was very good for RIA method (κ=0,840), moderate for DxI800® method (κ=0,414), moderate for Immulite® method (κ=0,467), good for Cobas® method (κ=0,667). Most of discordances are false hypertestosteronemia. The use of non recommended methods may leads to nosological errors (misclassification rates of 10 to 25% with automatized methods) that causes loss of chance in part of female patients. PMID:21159578

  12. Testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio is associated with female facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Probst, Fabian; Bobst, Cora; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between facial shape and attractiveness has been extensively studied, yet few studies have investigated the underlying biological factors of an attractive face. Many researchers have proposed a link between female attractiveness and sex hormones, but there is little empirical evidence in support of this assumption. In the present study we investigated the relationship between circulating sex hormones and attractiveness. We created prototypes by separately averaging photographs of 15 women with high and low levels of testosterone, oestradiol, and testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio levels, respectively. An independent set of facial images was then shape transformed toward these prototypes. We paired the resulting images in such a way that one face depicted a female with high hormone level and the other one with a low hormone level. Fifty participants were asked to choose the more attractive face of each pair. We found that low testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio and low testosterone were positively associated with female facial attractiveness. There was no preference for faces with high oestradiol levels. In an additional experiment with 36 participants we confirmed that a low testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio plays a larger role than low testosterone alone. These results provide empirical evidence that an attractive female face is shaped by interacting effects of testosterone and oestradiol. PMID:25730636

  13. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; González, L C; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Aguilar, E

    1999-05-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has emerged recently as a pivotal signal in the regulation of fertility. Although the actions of leptin in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly at the hypothalamic level, the potential direct effects of leptin at the pituitary and gonadal level have been poorly characterised. In the present study, we first assessed the ability of leptin to regulate testicular testosterone secretion in vitro. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate whether leptin can modulate basal gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) release by incubated hemi-pituitaries from fasted male rats. To attain the first goal, testicular slices from prepubertal and adult rats were incubated with increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Assuming that in vitro testicular responsiveness to leptin may be dependent on the background leptin levels, testicular tissue from both food-deprived and normally-fed animals was used. Furthermore, leptin modulation of stimulated testosterone secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with different doses of leptin in the presence of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). In addition, analysis of leptin actions on pituitary function was carried out using hemi-pituitaries from fasted adult male rats incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Serum testosterone levels, and basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by incubated testicular tissue were significantly decreased by fasting in prepubertal and adult male rats. However, a significant reduction in circulating LH levels was only evident in adult fasted rats. Doses of 10(-9)-10(-7) M leptin had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes from prepubertal rats, regardless of the nutritional state of the donor animal. In contrast, leptin significantly decreased basal and hCG-induced testosterone secretion by testes from fasted and fed

  14. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Decreases Aldosterone Production but Maintains Normal Plasma Volume and Increases Blood Pressure in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-08-01

    Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin. The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. Accordingly, plasma aldosterone levels were lower in testosterone females. Plasma volume and serum and urine Na(+) and K(+) levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone females; however, prenatal testosterone exposure significantly increased plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II levels and arterial pressure in adult females. In testosterone females, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, while contractile responses to vasopressin were unaffected. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression was increased, while angiotensin II type-2 receptor was decreased in testosterone arteries. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. Elevated angiotensin II and vasopressin levels along with enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II may serve as an underlying mechanism to maintain plasma volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels and mediate hypertension in adult testosterone females. PMID:27385784

  15. Parents’ Testosterone and Children’s Perception of Parent-Child Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Alan; Hibel, Jacob; Granger, Douglas A.; Johnson, David

    2011-01-01

    We examine the link between parental testosterone and children’s perceptions of their relationship with their mother and father. Using data from 352 predominantly white working and middle class families, we find no direct link between mother’s and father’s testosterone and parent-child closeness. However, the association between mothers’ testosterone and mother-child closeness appears to be influenced by the quality of two other family relationships. When father’s marital satisfaction is low, mothers with high testosterone have a poorer relationship with their children. And, when fathers report low levels of intimacy with their children, high testosterone women have a poorer relationship with their children. No comparable associations were observed among fathers. PMID:21843525

  16. Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Risk in Young Healthy Men Treated with Injectable Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robert S.; Cook, Kelly R.; Reilly, William G.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between testosterone therapy and new myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke events in a series of patients treated at Low T Centers across the United States, consisting of mainly young (mean age = 46), otherwise, healthy men. Electronic medical records were queried between the years 2009 and 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with hypogonadism, MI, and stroke, as indicated by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of MI and stroke events was compared to community-based registries. 39,936 patients recruited from 40 Low T Centers across the United States were treated and 19,968 met eligibility criteria for receiving testosterone treatment. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI in testosterone- (T-) treated versus nontreated patients was 0.14 (C.I. = 0.08 to 0.18, P < 0.0001) whereas the IRR for stroke for T-treated versus nontreated patients was 0.11 (C.I. = 0.02 to 0.13, P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of worsening preexisting MI or stroke in patients treated with testosterone. The experience in Low T Centers shows that, in an injectable testosterone patient registry, testosterone is generally safe for younger men who do not have significant risk factors. Of patients that developed MI with testosterone, there was no association with testosterone or hematocrit levels. PMID:26124832

  17. Interaction of APOE genotype and testosterone on episodic memory in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Panizzon, Matthew S; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Spoon, Kelly M; Mendoza, Sally P; Jacobson, Kristen C; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K; McKenzie, Ruth; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William S; Franz, Carol E

    2014-07-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone are believed to be a key component of the processes that contribute to cognitive aging in men. The APOE-ε4 allele may interact with testosterone and moderate the hormone's association with cognition. The goals of the present study were to examine the degree to which free testosterone is associated with episodic memory in a community-based sample of middle-aged men, and examine the potential interaction between free testosterone and the APOE-ε4 allele. Data were used from 717 participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Average age was 55.4 years (standard deviation = 2.5). Significant positive associations were observed between free testosterone level and verbal episodic memory, as well as a significant interaction between free testosterone and APOE-ε4 status. In ε4 carriers free testosterone was positively associated with verbal episodic memory performance (story recall), whereas no association was observed in ε4 noncarriers. Results support the hypothesis that APOE-ε4 status increases susceptibility to other risk factors, such as low testosterone, which may ultimately contribute to cognitive decline or dementia. PMID:24444806

  18. Maternal testosterone and reproductive outcome in a rat model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Liat; Hazut, Noa; Tabachnik, Tzlil; Weller, Aron; Koren, Lee

    2016-09-01

    Global sex differences in obesity rates are persistent, suggesting the involvement of sex steroids. In addition, adipose tissue is a metabolic site for steroidogenesis. Here, we compared female reproductive parameters in a rat model of obesity, with the same parameters in its lean control strain, and tested for an association with integrated measures of corticosterone and testosterone. Steroids were extracted and quantified from 17 Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; an animal model for obesity) and 13 Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; the lean control strain) hair samples that were collected after weaning offspring. The obese OLETF mothers had higher hair testosterone levels than the control LETO strain. Overall, testosterone, but not corticosterone, predicted litter sex ratios. Younger mothers with large litters and older mothers with small litters tended to have the highest sex ratios (i.e., male-biased litters). In the lean LETO strain, but not in the obese OLETF, maternal testosterone was positively associated with litter size and number of male pups. Corticosterone did not differ between the two strains and was not associated with testosterone or with reproductive parameters. This study suggests that long-term circulating testosterone is associated with female reproduction in multiple ways. The possible trade-off between litter size and sex ratio may be mediated by testosterone and influenced by body fat and composition, which influence the individual's well-being. Exploring the multiple roles of testosterone in females may also help explain the complex relationship between obesity and reproduction. PMID:27125699

  19. A clinical update on female androgen insufficiency--testosterone testing and treatment in women presenting with low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne

    2006-05-01

    The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development. PMID:16800391

  20. Arsenic Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility, And Speciation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term bioavailability has many different meanings across various disciplines. Often bioavailability is concerned with human health aspects such as the case of urban children interacting with contaminated soil. The still utilized approach to base risk assessment on total meta...

  1. Detection of testosterone esters in blood.

    PubMed

    Forsdahl, Guro; Erceg, Damir; Geisendorfer, Thomas; Turkalj, Mirjana; Plavec, Davor; Thevis, Mario; Tretzel, Laura; Gmeiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Injections of synthetic esters of testosterone are among the most common forms of testosterone application. In doping control, the detection of an intact ester of testosterone in blood gives unequivocal proof of the administration of exogenous testosterone. The aim of the current project was to investigate the detection window for injected testosterone esters as a mixed substance preparation and as a single substance preparation in serum and plasma. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of blood collection devices was evaluated. Collection tubes with stabilizing additives, as well as non-stabilized serum separation tubes, were tested. A clinical study with six participants was carried out, comprising a single intramuscular injection of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (Nebido(®)) or a mixture of 30 mg testosterone propionate, 60 mg testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg testosterone decanoate (Sustanon(®)). Blood was collected throughout a testing period of 60 days. The applied analytical method for blood analysis included liquid-liquid extraction and preparation of oxime derivatives, prior to TLX-sample clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. All investigated testosterone esters could be detected in post-administration blood samples. The detection time depended on the type of ester administered. Furthermore, results from the study show that measured blood concentrations of especially short-chained testosterone esters are influenced by the type of blood collection device applied. The testosterone ester detection window, however, was comparable. PMID:26695486

  2. Increased physical activity has a greater effect than reduced energy intake on lifestyle modification-induced increases in testosterone.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity results in reduced serum testosterone levels, which causes many disorders in men. Lifestyle modifications (increased physical activity and calorie restriction) can increase serum testosterone levels. However, it is unknown whether increased physical activity or calorie restriction during lifestyle modifications has a greater effects on serum testosterone levels. Forty-one overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and calorie restriction). We measured serum testosterone levels, the number of steps, and the total energy intake. We divided participants into two groups based on the median change in the number of steps (high or low physical activities) or that in calorie restriction (high or low calorie restrictions). After the program, serum testosterone levels were significantly increased. Serum testosterone levels in the high physical activity group were significantly higher than those in the low activity group. This effect was not observed between the groups based on calorie restriction levels. We found a significant positive correlation between the changes in serum testosterone levels and the number of steps. Our results suggested that an increase in physical activity greatly affected the increased serum testosterone levels in overweight and obese men during lifestyle modification. PMID:26798202

  3. SLUDGE ORGANICS BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. vailable data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. ludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical c...

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel testosterone transdermal delivery system (TTDS) using palm oil base

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Didi Erwandi Mohamad; Chik, Zamri; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahm; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s): Transdermal preparations for testosterone are becoming popular because of their unique advantages such as avoidance of first-pass effect, convenience, improved bioavailability, and reduction of systemic side effects. A novel testosterone transdermal delivery system (TDDS) was developed using a palm oil base called HAMIN™ (a commercial product) and tested using in vitro and in vivo skin permeability test methods. Materials and Methods: The physical characteristics of the formulation such as particle size and viscosity were determined by using Franz diffusion cell and Brookfield viscometer, respectively. In vivo skin permeability test was performed on healthy rabbits through the skin. Testosterone in serum was analyzed using the validated Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Results: In vitro study showed that the cumulative amount of testosterone diffused was between 40 to 1400 ngcm-² over a period of five hr after application of TDDS through the artificial Strat-M™ membrane. In the in vivo rabbit skin permeability test, the results indicated that testosterone was well absorbed with a mean Cmax and Tmax of 60.94 ngml-1 and 2.29 hr after application of TDDS while no increase was observed in placebo treatment. Particle size analysis ranged from 79.4 nm to 630.0 nm for placebo and 97 to 774.0 nm for TDDS. Conclusion: The formulation was successfully prepared using HAMIN™, which has demonstrated great potential for topical delivery of testosterone. PMID:26877845

  5. Hyperandrogenemia in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Exploration of the Role of Free Testosterone and Androstenedione in Metabolic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Rabe, Thomas; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT), elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT), normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT), elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT). Results Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT) have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda), triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (p<0.05 for all age- and BMI-adjusted analyses). In binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, odds ratio for insulin resistance was 2.78 (1.34–5.75, p = 0.006) for polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/HFT compared to NA/NFT. We found no significantly increased risk of metabolic disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/NFT. In multiple linear regression analyses (age- and BMI-adjusted), we found a significant negative association between androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05 for all). Conclusions Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype. Further, a

  6. Testosterone, hemostasis, and cardiovascular diseases in men.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Ellen; Vikan, Torkel; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Svartberg, Johan

    2011-02-01

    Men have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than women, and adverse thrombotic events increase with age. Recent experimental cross-sectional, and case-control studies have shown that testosterone may affect the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system in men in several ways. It has been hypothesized that physiological doses of testosterone would have a beneficial effect on tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and the development of CVD. The search for eternal youth has created a market for testosterone treatment in aging men during the last few years. However, whether testosterone supplementation could be useful in the treatment of testosterone-deficient elderly men is still controversial. The present review focuses on the coagulation system and CVD from the perspective of testosterone. PMID:21249606

  7. Treatment of pain in fibromyalgia patients with testosterone gel: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response.

    PubMed

    White, Hillary D; Brown, Lin A J; Gyurik, Robert J; Manganiello, Paul D; Robinson, Thomas D; Hallock, Linda S; Lewis, Lionel D; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2015-08-01

    To test our hypothesis that testosterone deficiency plays an important role in chronic pain, a Phase I/II pilot study was initiated with 12 fibromyalgia patients to verify that a daily dose for 28days with transdermal testosterone gel would 1) significantly and safely increase mean serum testosterone concentrations from low baseline levels to mid/high-normal levels, and 2) effectively treat the pain and fatigue symptoms of fibromyalgia. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that serum free testosterone concentrations were raised significantly above baseline levels, by assessment of maximum hormone concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters: free testosterone Cmax was significantly raised from a mean of 2.64pg/mL to 3.91pg/mL (p<0.05), and 24hour free testosterone AUC was significantly raised from a mean of 35.0pg-hr/mL to 53.89pg-hr/mL. Assessment of the typical symptoms of fibromyalgia by patient questionnaire and tender point exam demonstrated significant change in: decreased muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue, and increased libido during study treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesized ability of testosterone to relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptoms not tightly related to fibromyalgia were not improved. PMID:26004317

  8. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior. PMID:27372205

  9. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    PubMed

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear. PMID:27102919

  10. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  11. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  12. Effects of Nandrolone Stimulation on Testosterone Biosynthesis in Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Barone, Rosario; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Barone, Fulvio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Maglietta, Francesca; Sarni, Antonio Luciano; Di Felice, Valentina; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are among the drugs most used by athletes for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. A number of papers have showed the side effects of AAS in different organs and tissues. For example, AAS are known to suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. This study investigates the effects of nandrolone on testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells using various methods, including mass spectrometry, western blotting, confocal microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR. The results obtained show that testosterone levels increase at a 3.9 μM concentration of nandrolone and return to the basal level a 15.6 μM dose of nandrolone. Nandrolone-induced testosterone increment was associated with upregulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and downregulation of 17a-hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17A1). Instead, a 15.6 µM dose of nandrolone induced a down-regulation of CYP17A1. Further in vivo studies based on these data are needed to better understand the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and reproductive system impairment in male subjects. PMID:26626779

  13. Testosterone in sera of workers exposed to acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Ivănescu, M; Berinde, M; Simionescu, L

    1990-01-01

    Testosterone was measured through three consecutive years in sera from young and adult male subjects working in a chemical factory exposed to some complex chemical noxae, the major exposure being acrylonitrile (vinylcyanid). In the first yr, (group A), the blood was collected on May 1975 (no 39), the II-nd yr (group B) on March (no 109) and the III-rd yr (group C) on May (no 149). The exposure time varied in each group between 6 mos and 7-10 yrs. For comparison, blood samples were collected from 145 men of comparable age grouped in nonexposed: blood donors (no 37) (group a), new workers (no 23) (group b) and exposed to other chemical noxae in the same factory: Na cyanid (group c, no 23), cyan derivatives (group d, no 22) and pyrolysis (group no 39). The seasonal testosterone variations being considered, the Student's 't' test applied to the hormonal levels in acrylonitrile groups A, B and C showed non significant differences. However, the comparison of the testosterone concentrations in sera of the groups A, B and C vs the control groups investigated during the same month of the year showed much lower levels of the hormone in the first groups (p less than 0.001). These data are suggesting that the exposure to acrylonitrile either by direct participation to the technological chain or by working in the same noxious environment may influence the testosterone synthesis and/or secretion. PMID:2103974

  14. Transcriptional regulation of myotrophic actions by testosterone and trenbolone on androgen-responsive muscle.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; McCoy, Sean C; Ross, Heather H; Bernardo, Joseph A; Beharry, Adam W; Senf, Sarah M; Judge, Andrew R; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Cannady, Darryl F; Smith, Barbara K; Yarrow, Joshua F; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Androgens regulate body composition and skeletal muscle mass in males, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that trenbolone (a potent synthetic testosterone analogue that is not a substrate for 5-alpha reductase or for aromatase) induces myotrophic effects in skeletal muscle without causing prostate enlargement, which is in contrast to the known prostate enlarging effects of testosterone. These previous results suggest that the 5α-reduction of testosterone is not required for myotrophic action. We now report differential gene expression in response to testosterone versus trenbolone in the highly androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex of the adult rat after 6weeks of orchiectomy (ORX), using real time PCR. The ORX-induced expression of atrogenes (Muscle RING-finger protein-1 [MuRF1] and atrogin-1) was suppressed by both androgens, with trenbolone producing a greater suppression of atrogin-1 mRNA compared to testosterone. Both androgens elevated expression of anabolic genes (insulin-like growth factor-1 and mechano-growth factor) after ORX. ORX-induced increases in expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA were suppressed by trenbolone treatment, but not testosterone. In ORX animals, testosterone promoted WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP-2) gene expression while trenbolone did not. Testosterone and trenbolone equally enhanced muscle regeneration as shown by increases in LABC mass and in protein expression of embryonic myosin by western blotting. In addition, testosterone increased WISP-2 protein levels. Together, these findings identify specific mechanisms by which testosterone and trenbolone may regulate skeletal muscle maintenance and growth. PMID:24928725

  15. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-12-30

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially studies that use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for fetal testosterone. However, circulating testosterone consistently shows positive associations with antisocial behaviors throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, particularly in males. It is suggested that high fetal/circulating testosterone interactively influence the maturation and functionality of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry, right orbitofrontal cortex, and cortico-subcortical connectivity, resulting in a strong reward motivation, low social sensitivity, and dampened regulation of strong motivational/emotional processes. The link between these testosterone induced endophenotypes and actual display of antisocial behavior is strongly modulated by different social (e.g., social rejection, low SES) and genetic (e.g., MAOA, 5HTT) risk factors that can disturb socio-, psycho-, and biological development and interact with testosterone in shaping behavior. When these additional risk factors are present, the testosterone induced endophenotypes may increase the risk for a chronic antisocial lifestyle. However, behavioral endophenotypes induced by testosterone can also predispose towards socially adaptive traits such as a strong achievement motivation, leadership, fair bargaining behaviors, and social assertiveness. These adaptive traits are more likely to emerge when the high testosterone individual has positive social experiences that promote prosocial behaviors such as strong and secure attachments with his caregivers, affiliation with prosocial peers, and sufficient socioeconomic resources. A theoretical model is presented, various hypotheses are examined, and future venues for research are discussed. PMID:22925371

  16. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti Svartberg, Johan; Carlsen, Erik; Dueland, Svein; Haug, Egil; Skovlund, Eva; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

  17. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Meng, Xianghu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Niu, Yonghua; Cui, Kai; Wang, Shaogang

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED) in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05). The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05). Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS) expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05). In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways. PMID:27168996

  18. Increased hair testosterone but unaltered hair cortisol in female patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Spitzer, Carsten; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have reported on dysfunctions in steroid secretion, including altered cortisol and testosterone levels in borderline personality disorder (BDP) patients compared to healthy controls. The present study extends findings from blood and saliva studies to the cumulative measure of hair steroids. We investigated women with BPD (n=18) and age- and education-matched healthy women (n=17). We did not find differences between BPD patients and healthy women (p=0.40) concerning hair cortisol levels but increased hair testosterone levels among BPD patients compared to controls (p=0.03). These results remained when restricting the analyses to unmedicated patients. Our data indicate altered long-term testosterone but not cortisol levels in females with BPD. Future studies should address the possible impact of altered testosterone on medical illness processes including metabolic syndrome in this population. PMID:27290653

  19. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males. Methods In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results Overweight and obese (ow/obese) boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05). Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003) was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009) was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001), but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065) after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051) after adjusting for age. Conclusions Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age. PMID:26646112

  20. Testosterone and reward prediction-errors in healthy men and men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morris, R W; Purves-Tyson, T D; Weickert, C Shannon; Rothmond, D; Lenroot, R; Weickert, T W

    2015-11-01

    Sex hormones impact reward processing, which is dysfunctional in schizophrenia; however, the degree to which testosterone levels relate to reward-related brain activity in healthy men and the extent to which this relationship may be altered in men with schizophrenia has not been determined. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses in the striatum during reward prediction-errors and hormone assays to measure testosterone and prolactin in serum. To determine if testosterone can have a direct effect on dopamine neurons, we also localized and measured androgen receptors in human midbrain with immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. We found correlations between testosterone and prediction-error related activity in the ventral striatum of healthy men, but not in men with schizophrenia, such that testosterone increased the size of positive and negative prediction-error related activity in a valence-specific manner. We also identified midbrain dopamine neurons that were androgen receptor immunoreactive, and found that androgen receptor (AR) mRNA was positively correlated with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in human male substantia nigra. The results suggest that sex steroid receptors can potentially influence midbrain dopamine biosynthesis, and higher levels of serum testosterone are linked to better discrimination of motivationally-relevant signals in the ventral striatum, putatively by modulation of the dopamine biosynthesis pathway via AR ligand binding. However, the normal relationship between serum testosterone and ventral striatum activity during reward learning appears to be disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:26232868

  1. Latent trait testosterone among 18-24 year olds: Methodological considerations and risk associations.

    PubMed

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Chen, Frances R; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the relationship between latent trait testosterone (LTT) and risk-taking among 126 youth (M age=21.34years; 56% female; 52% African American). Latent state-trait (LST) modeling isolates observed variance of samples via their correlations into (1) a latent trait testosterone (LTT) factor capturing individual differences, and (2) a component of state testosterone factor (LST) capturing state-specific situational or environmental influences and random error variances. Participants provided four laboratory (20min apart) and four home (waking, 20-min post-waking, noon, evening) salivary samples (later assayed for testosterone). Participants reported risk-taking tendencies and behaviors via an Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview. Behavioral risk was measured using the Balloon Analog Risk Task. Results revealed: (1) LTT model invariance (operated similarly) for females and males; (2) LTT accounted for 18-89% (home samples) and 61-95% (lab samples) of the variance in testosterone levels, and (3) LTT was associated with risk-seeking behaviors and the strength of this association was similar across males and females. LST Modeling has potential to advance our understanding of testosterone-behavior associations to new limits by estimating stable trait-like components of the variance in testosterone levels. PMID:26852415

  2. Family cohesion moderates the relation between free testosterone and delinquent behaviors in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Brown, Kathleen M.; Lavigne, John V.; Stevens, Victor J.; Barton, Bruce A.; Chandler, Donald W.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the associations of free testosterone and family environment with delinquent and aggressive behaviors among adolescent boys and girls with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Methods Participants were 164 boys and 180 girls (ages 11–14 years). The female parent provided ratings of family cohesion and child aggressive and delinquent behaviors. Tanner ratings of pubertal development were obtained during physical examination, and a blood sample was drawn for assessment of serum levels of free testosterone. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant two-way interactions of free testosterone and family cohesion on delinquent behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. Specifically, under conditions of low family cohesion, free testosterone was positively associated with delinquent behaviors among boys, whereas no association between free testosterone and delinquent behavior was observed in families with high cohesion. In contrast, free testosterone was negatively associated with delinquent behaviors among adolescent girls in low cohesion families. For girls, family cohesion was negatively associated with aggressive behaviors; for boys, LDL-C was positively associated with aggressive behaviors. Conclusions Child gender and family environment factors appear to modify the associations between free testosterone and delinquent behaviors in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19465324

  3. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  4. The interaction of testosterone and cortisol is associated with attained status in male executives.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Gary D; Lerner, Jennifer S; Josephs, Robert A; Renshon, Jonathan; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    Are hormone levels associated with the attainment of social status? Although endogenous testosterone predicts status-seeking social behaviors, research suggests that the stress hormone cortisol may inhibit testosterone's effects. Thus, individuals with both high testosterone and low cortisol may be especially likely to occupy high-status positions in social hierarchies while individuals with high testosterone and high cortisol may not. We tested this hypothesis by recruiting a sample of real executives and examining testosterone, cortisol, and a concrete indicator of attained status: the number of subordinates over which the executive has authority. Despite the myriad nonhormonal factors that determine organizational promotion, the executives' endogenous testosterone and cortisol interacted to significantly predict hierarchical position: Testosterone positively predicted executives' number of subordinates, but only among low-cortisol executives. The results imply that reducing cortisol levels via stress reduction may be a critical goal not only because doing so will improve health but also because doing so may enhance leadership potential. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302434

  5. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  6. Pretreatment Serum Testosterone and Androgen Deprivation: Effect on Disease Recurrence and Overall Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S. Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Adamovich, Edward

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Low testosterone has been implicated as a possible adverse prognostic factor in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. We evaluated the impact of pretreatment serum testosterone on survival after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From October 2001 to November 2004, 619 patients underwent brachytherapy and 546 had a pretreatment serum testosterone level measured. Pretreatment serum testosterone levels were assigned by the following criteria: below-normal (n = 105), low normal (n = 246), mid normal (n = 132), high normal (n = 50), and above normal (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Cause of death was determined for each deceased patient. Results: Six-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were 97.7%, 99.8%, and 89.2%. When comparing patients with low or low normal testosterone with those with average or higher testosterone, there was no significant difference in bPFS (97.6% vs. 98.4%; p = 0.72), CSS (99.8% vs. 100%; p = 0.72), or OS (88.9% vs. 90.8%; p = 0.73). Among patients with average and higher pretreatment testosterone, there was no significant difference in outcomes when comparing patients who did and did not receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). For patients with low or low normal testosterone levels, there was no significant difference in bPFS or CSS when comparing patients who did and did not receive ADT. However, there was a trend toward lower OS in patients with baseline lower testosterone levels who also received ADT (83.9% vs. 91.3%, p = 0.075). Conclusions: Low pretreatment testosterone levels alone did not affect disease recurrence or OS. Patients with baseline low testosterone who also were treated with ADT had a trend toward decreased OS.

  7. Correlation between levels of sex hormones (progesterone, testosterone, and estrogen) and ecophysiological-behavior stages in two species of desert snails (Sphincterochila zonata and Sphincterochila prophetarum) in the Northern Negev Desert.

    PubMed

    Alon, G; Shore, L S; Steinberger, Y

    2007-03-01

    The steroidal hormonal profiles of two sympatric species of desert snails, Sphincterochila zonata and Sphincterochila prophetarium were determined at three ecophysiological-behavior stages, i.e., aestivation, cryptobiosis, and active-feeding phases. Live snails were collected in their natural habitat every month for 13 months, the corpi removed and extracted with organic solvents and the progesterone, testosterone, and estrogen concentrations determined by radioimmunoassay. In both these hermaphroditic species during aestivation, a peak of testosterone followed by a peak of estrogen was observed. During the brief active intervals, minor peaks of estrogen were also observed but these were much lower than seen during aestivation. Although the two species have different microhabitats during aestivation, there was little difference in the hormonal profile, although S. prophetarum had about two fold higher progesterone concentration than S. zonata. PMID:17289044

  8. Lack of evidence for meteorological effects on infradian dynamics of testosterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celec, Peter; Smreková, Lucia; Ostatníková, Daniela; Čabajová, Zlata; Hodosy, Július; Kúdela, Matúš

    2009-09-01

    Climatic factors are known to influence the endocrine system. Previous studies have shown that circannual seasonal variations of testosterone might be partly explained by changes in air temperature. Whether infradian variations are affected by meteorological factors is unknown. To analyze possible effects of meteorological parameters on infradian variations of salivary testosterone levels in both sexes, daily salivary testosterone levels were measured during 1 month in 14 men and 17 women. A correlation analysis between hormonal levels and selected meteorological parameters was performed. The results indicate that high testosterone levels are loosely associated with cold, sunny and dry weather in both sexes. However, only the correlations between testosterone and air temperature (men) and actual cloudiness (women) were statistically significant ( p < 0,05). Although some correlations reached the level of statistical significance, the effects of selected meteorological parameters on salivary testosterone levels remain unclear. Further longer-term studies concentrating on air temperature, cloudiness and average relative humidity in relation to the sex hormone axis are needed.

  9. No relation between 2D : 4D fetal testosterone marker and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Wouters, Jan; Lemay, Katrien; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-09-17

    It has been suggested that high levels of prenatal testosterone exposure are implied in the aetiology of dyslexia and its frequently co-occurring sensory problems. This study examined 2D : 4D digit ratio (a marker of fetal testosterone exposure) in dyslexic and normal reading children. No group differences in 2D : 4D were observed. Digit ratio did not show the postulated relation with reading, spelling, phonological ability, speech perception, auditory processing and visual processing. These findings challenge the validity of theories that allocate a prominent role to fetal testosterone exposure in the aetiology of dyslexia and its sensory impairments. PMID:17712280

  10. Prebiotics and calcium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin

    2003-03-01

    A prebiotic substance has been defined as a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Therefore, compared to probiotics, which introduce exogenous bacteria into the colonic microflora, a prebiotic aims at stimulating the growth of one or a limited number of the potentially health-promoting indigenous micro-organisms, thus modulating the composition of the natural ecosystem. In recent years, increasing attention has been focussed on the possible beneficial effects of prebiotics, such as enhanced resistance to invading pathogens, improved bowel function, anti-colon cancer properties, lipid lowering action, improved calcium bioavailability, amongst others. The objective of this review is to critically assess the available data on the effects of prebiotics on calcium bioavailability, and place it in the context of human physiology and, when possible, explain the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. The review will also try to highlight future areas of research that may help in the evaluation of prebiotics as potential ingredients for functional foods aimed at enhancing calcium bioavailability and protecting against osteoporosis. PMID:12691259

  11. Effect of acute DHEA administration on free testosterone in middle-aged and young men following high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te-Chih; Lin, Che-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yang; Ivy, John L; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-07-01

    With advancing age, plasma testosterone levels decline, with free testosterone levels declining more significantly than total testosterone. This fall is thought to underlie the development of physical and mental weakness that occurs with advancing age. In addition, vigorous exercise can also lower total and free testosterone levels with the decline greatest in physically untrained men. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of oral DHEA supplementation, a testosterone precursor, on free testosterone in sedentary middle-aged men during recovery from a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) bout of exercise. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted for 8 middle-aged participants (aged 49.3 ± 2.4 years) and an additional 8 young control participants (aged 21.4 ± 0.3 years). Each participant received DHEA (50 mg) and placebo on separate occasions one night (12 h) before a 5-session, 2-min cycling exercise (100% VO₂max). While no significant age difference in total testosterone was found, middle-aged participants exhibited significantly lower free testosterone and greater luteinizing hormone (LH) levels than the young control group. Oral DHEA supplementation increased circulating DHEA-S and free testosterone levels well above baseline in the middle-aged group, with no significant effect on total testosterone levels. Total testosterone and DHEA-S dropped significantly until 24 h after HIIT for both age groups, while free testosterone of DHEA-supplemented middle-aged men remained unaffected. These results demonstrate acute oral DHEA supplementation can elevate free testosterone levels in middle-aged men and prevent it from declining during HIIT. Therefore, DHEA supplementation may have significant benefits related to HIIT adaptation. PMID:23417481

  12. Determination of zinc, cadmium and lead bioavailability in contaminated soils at the single-cell level by a combination of whole-cell biosensors and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Tarayre, Cédric; Fischer, Christophe; Colinet, Gilles; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs) that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pP(ZntA)gfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pP(ZntA)gfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pP(ZntA)gfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed. PMID:25894939

  13. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Tarayre, Cédric; Fischer, Christophe; Colinet, Gilles; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs) that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed. PMID:25894939

  14. Effects of testosterone replacement in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad; Travison, Thomas G; Alford, Daniel; Knapp, Philip E; Teeter, Kjersten; Cahalan, Christine; Eder, Richard; Lakshman, Kishore; Bachman, Eric; Mensing, George; Martel, Marc O; Le, Dillon; Stroh, Helene; Bhasin, Shalender; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Symptomatic androgen deficiency is common in patients taking opioid analgesics, as these drugs potently suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, the efficacy of testosterone replacement in this setting remains unclear. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of testosterone replacement on pain perception and other androgen-dependent outcomes in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled trial at an outpatient academic research center. Participants were men aged 18 to 64 years on opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain, and total testosterone levels were <350 ng/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of daily transdermal gel that contained 5 g of testosterone or placebo. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported clinical pain and objectively assessed pain sensitivity. Sexual function, quality of life, and body composition were also assessed. The mean age was 49 years. The median total and free testosterone levels at baseline were 243 ng/dL and 47 pg/mL and 251 ng/dL and 43 pg/mL in the testosterone and placebo arm, respectively. Of the 84 randomized participants, 65 had follow-up data on efficacy outcomes. Compared with men assigned to the placebo arm, those assigned to testosterone replacement experienced greater improvements in pressure and mechanical hyperalgesia, sexual desire, and role limitation due to emotional problems. Testosterone administration was also associated with an improvement in body composition. There were no between-group differences in changes in self-reported pain. In conclusion, in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency, testosterone administration improved pain sensitivity, sexual desire, body composition, and aspects of quality of life. PMID:25599449

  15. The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male members of primate species that form multi-male groups typically invest considerable effort into attaining and maintaining high dominance rank. Aggressive behaviors are frequently employed to acquire and maintain dominance status, and testosterone has been considered the quintessential physiological moderator of such behaviors. Testosterone can alter both neurological and musculoskeletal functions that may potentiate pre-existing patterns of aggression. However, elevated testosterone levels impose several costs, including increased metabolic rates and immunosuppression. Cortisol also limits immune and reproductive functions. Methods To improve understanding of the relationships between dominance rank, hormones and infection status in nonhuman primates, we collected and analyzed 67 fecal samples from 22 wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Samples were analyzed for cortisol and testosterone levels as well as intestinal parasite prevalence and richness. 1,700 hours of observation data were used to determine dominance rank of each animal. We hypothesized that dominance rank would be directly associated with fecal testosterone and cortisol levels and intestinal parasite burden. Results Fecal testosterone (but not cortisol) levels were directly associated with dominance rank, and both testosterone and cortisol were directly associated with intestinal parasite richness (number of unique species recovered). Dominance rank was directly associated with helminth (but not protozoan) parasite richness, so that high ranking animals had higher testosterone levels and greater helminth burden. Conclusions One preliminary interpretation is that the antagonist pleiotropic effects of androgens and glucocorticoids place a cost on attaining and maintaining high dominance rank in this species. Because of the costs associated with elevated steroid levels, dominance status may be an honest signal of

  16. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  17. Drug Insight: testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Calof, Olga M; Storer, Thomas W; Lee, Martin L; Mazer, Norman A; Jasuja, Ravi; Montori, Victor M; Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with β-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle strength in HIV-positive men with weight loss, glucocorticoid-treated men, and older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels. The effects of testosterone on physical function and outcomes important to patients have not, however, been studied. In older men, increased hematocrit and increased risk of prostate biopsy and detection of prostate events are the most frequent, testosterone-related adverse events. Concerns about long-term risks have restrained enthusiasm for testosterone use as anabolic therapy. Selective androgen-receptor modulators that are preferentially anabolic and that spare the prostate hold promise as anabolic therapies. We need more studies to determine whether testosterone or selective androgen-receptor modulators can induce meaningful improvements in physical function and patient-important outcomes in patients with physical dysfunction associated with chronic illness or aging. PMID:16932274

  18. Evolution of testosterone treatment over 25 years: symptom responses, endocrine profiles and cardiovascular changes

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Malcolm; Cathcart, Paul; Feneley, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Testosterone treatment has evolved rapidly over the past 25 years as new, more effective and convenient methods have become available. This study reports experience with seven different methods, introduced on the market in the UK. Aim: To establish the symptom response when testosterone treatment was initiated on the basis of clinical features and symptoms of androgen deficiency, and the resulting endocrine, biochemical and physiological responses. Methods: Of 2693 patients attending the 3 Men’s Health Centers – The UK Androgen Study (UKAS), 2247 were treated. Treatments included pellet implants, oral testosterone undecanoate (Testocaps), mesterolone (Proviron), testosterone gel (Testogel), testosterone scrotal cream (Andromen) and scrotal gel (Tostran). Results: There was no correlation between initial testosterone level, initial symptom score or the success of treatment as defined by adequate resolution of symptoms. Despite the diverse endocrine patterns produced, the testosterone preparations appear equally safe over prolonged periods, with either no change or improvement of cardiovascular risk factors, especially in lowering cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: It is suggested that because of excessive reliance on laboratory measures of androgens and undue safety concerns, many men who could benefit from symptom relief, improvement in related clinical conditions and given preventive medical benefits remain untreated. PMID:26218766

  19. No Association between the 2D:4D Fetal Testosterone Marker and Multidimensional Attentional Abilities in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemiere, Jurgen; Boets, Bart; Danckaerts, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: It has been suggested that high levels of prenatal testosterone exposure are implied in the aetiology of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between the ratio of the length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio), a marker of fetal testosterone exposure, and the presence of ADHD-related…

  20. Dominance, Politics, and Physiology: Voters' Testosterone Changes on the Night of the 2008 United States Presidential Election

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Steven J.; Beehner, Jacinta C.; Saini, Ekjyot K.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Political elections are dominance competitions. When men win a dominance competition, their testosterone levels rise or remain stable to resist a circadian decline; and when they lose, their testosterone levels fall. However, it is unknown whether this pattern of testosterone change extends beyond interpersonal competitions to the vicarious experience of winning or losing in the context of political elections. Women's testosterone responses to dominance competition outcomes are understudied, and to date, a clear pattern of testosterone changes in response to winning and losing dominance competitions has not emerged. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study investigated voters' testosterone responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election. 183 participants provided multiple saliva samples before and after the winner was announced on Election Night. The results show that male Barack Obama voters (winners) had stable post-outcome testosterone levels, whereas testosterone levels dropped in male John McCain and Robert Barr voters (losers). There were no significant effects in female voters. Conclusions/Significance The findings indicate that male voters exhibit biological responses to the realignment of a country's dominance hierarchy as if they participated in an interpersonal dominance contest. PMID:19844583

  1. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  2. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m(2); all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  3. Influence of testosterone on the docility of German Simmental and Charolais heifers during behavior tests.

    PubMed

    Geburt, Katrin; Piechotta, Marion; König von Borstel, Uta; Gauly, Matthias

    2015-03-15

    In beef cows, docility is important for animal welfare reasons, the farmer's and veterinarian's safety as well as for economic reasons. The hormone testosterone is often mentioned in the context with aggressions and docility. The present study tested the hypothesis that higher testosterone levels in beef cows are associated with more aggressive behavior and lower docility during behavior tests. German Simmental (beef) (n=21) and Charolais heifers (n=20) were subjected with one repetition to a chute test as well as a separation and restraint test. Heart rate, thermal images of the eye, saliva cortisol as well as saliva testosterone were collected along with behavioral parameters during the tests. For all physiological and most of the behavioral parameters significant breed differences were detected. Charolais heifers (0.10 ± 0.01 ng/ml saliva) had considerably higher testosterone levels compared with Simmental heifers (0.04 ± 0.01 ng/ml; P=0.0001). Interestingly, the Charolais heifers expressed a higher docility, so across breeds higher levels of testosterone are associated with higher docility. However, all the parameters presumably linked to stress (heart rate, eye temperature, cortisol levels) generally showed stronger correlations to behavior traits than testosterone (e.g., trait "time in corner" - testosterone: r=0.25 vs. cortisol: r=-0.43 (Fisher's r-to-z: P=0.0985); eye temperature: r=-0.65; (P=0.0005); heart rate: r=-0.60 (P=0.003)). Eye temperature correlated with both heart rate (r=0.68) and cortisol levels (r=0.62; both P<0.0001). Therefore, eye temperature more so than testosterone appears to be a suitable indicator of stress, and as such also an, albeit incomplete, indicator of docility in cattle. PMID:25624109

  4. Relationships among Musical Aptitude, Digit Ratio and Testosterone in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Borniger, Jeremy C.; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger), and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61), including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A) those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016) and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040) scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B) those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels) were more highly ranked (p = 0.007) in the orchestra, C) female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082) towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D) female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003) than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males. PMID:23520475

  5. Hemicellulose does not affect iron bioavailability in chicks.

    PubMed

    Fly, A D; Czarnecki-Maulden, G L; Fahey, G C; Titgemeyer, E C

    1996-01-01

    Two iron repletion experiments using hemoglobin as a response criterion were conducted to assess effects of hemicelluloses on iron bioavailability to chicks. In Experiment 1, iron bioavailability from intact fiber sources was determined by adding tomato pomace (14.6% hemicelluloses), soybean hulls (20.6% hemicelluloses), beet pulp (21.5% hemicelluloses), orchard grass (24.1% hemicelluloses) and corn fiber (55.2% hemicelluloses) to a casein dextrose basal diet providing 0.4-4.1% hemicelluloses to the diet. Test foods were analyzed for iron, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent residue, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, pectins and uronic acids. Hemicelluloses were determined by the difference of neutral detergent residue minus acid detergent fiber. Iron bioavailability was determined by the standard curve method to be (percent relative to ferrous sulfate using hemoglobin as the response criterion) as follows: tomato pomace, 82.0; soybean hulls, 94.0; beet pulp, 26.5; orchard grass, 68.9; corn fiber, 69.4. Iron bioavailability was not related to hemicellulose content of test foods or diets. In Experiment 2, the effect of psyllium husk (a fiber source that contains predominantly hemicelluloses) on iron bioavailability from ferrous sulfate was assessed. Bioavailability was determined by the slope ratio method where treatments consisted of graded levels of ferrous sulfate in the presence and absence of 5% dietary psyllium. Although iron intrinsic to psyllium was unavailable, bioavailability of ferrous sulfate iron was not affected (P > 0.05) by the presence of psyllium. Thus, there was no clear effect of hemicelluloses on iron bioavailability. However, some feeds that contained high levels of hemicelluloses had low intrinsic iron bioavailabilities, suggesting that other dietary factors are primarily responsible for determining iron bioavailability from these feed components. PMID:8558316

  6. The effects of testosterone manipulation on the body condition of captive male yellow-legged gulls.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Ferrer, Miguel; Figuerola, Jordi; Veira, José A R; Estepa, Julio; Torres, Luis M

    2002-02-01

    Persistently high testosterone levels are believed to be costly to males due to their negative effect on body condition. However, this assumption could not be validated when we analysed birds isolated from all social interactions. The hypothesis was tested on birds kept in isolation in order to analyse the effects of testosterone per se, and thereby exclude the influence of social interactions. Adult male yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans) were captured, and after a period of adjustment, some individuals were subcutaneously implanted with testosterone, while the rest were used as controls. The gulls received ad libitum food for 10 days and were then fasted for 4 days. Thyroid hormones, body-mass change, daily food intake, hematocrit and several plasma biochemical parameters were analysed. Treated (T)-males maintained constant levels of plasma total protein throughout the experiment, whilst control (C)-males showed a decrease. We did not find any other differences between groups for the other variables analysed. Since the implanted birds sustained high testosterone levels for a number of days, any cost to body condition would have been revealed if these costs levels were actually important. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a reduction in body condition can be directly produced by plasma testosterone, although total protein changes do suggest different anabolic patterns in testosterone-treated gulls. PMID:11818219

  7. Gene expression profiling in human whole blood samples after controlled testosterone application and exercise.

    PubMed

    Schönfelder, Martin; Hofmann, Hande; Anielski, Patricia; Thieme, Detlef; Oberhoffer, Renate; Michna, Horst

    2011-10-01

    Doping with anabolic agents is regulated within a number of sports. Testosterone and its functional analogs are popular compounds for increasing muscle mass, physical performance, recovery, and reducing body fat. While routine tests for anabolic drugs exist (e.g. hair, urine, and blood analysis), the aim of the present study is to determine specific gene expression profiles (induced by testosterone and exercise) which may be used as effective biomarkers to determine the use of anabolic drugs. In this study, whole blood samples of 19 male volunteers were analyzed by semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for gene expression profiles in the context of exercise and transdermal testosterone application (1.5 mg/kg body weight). The hormone application was monitored by urine and saliva analysis for testosterone. Both urinary and saliva levels indicate that transdermal testosterone application leads to an increase of testosterone, especially after exercise. RT-PCR results showed a clear variation in the expression of target genes as well as established housekeeping genes. Only one of the nine common housekeeping genes, cyclophilin b (PPIB), appears to be independent of both exercise and testosterone. Out of 14 candidate genes, five are unregulated; all others were more or less influenced by the mentioned variables. Only interleukin-6 appeared to be exclusively dependent on long-term testosterone application. This study indicates that many genes are not influenced by testosterone alone while exercise modulates gene expression in whole blood samples. As such, exercise must be considered when validating gene expression techniques for doping analysis. PMID:22031502

  8. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot. PMID:9215270

  9. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse.

    PubMed

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  10. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  11. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg−1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  12. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  13. Bioavailability of Cadmium in Inexpensive Jewelry

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer; Guinn, Daphne; Pearson, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the bioavailability of Cd in 86 components of 57 jewelry items found to contain high levels of Cd (> 10,000 ppm) by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), using extractions that simulate mouthing or swallowing of jewelry items. Methods: We screened jewelry for Cd content by XRF. Bioavailability was measured in two ways. Items were placed in saline solution at 37°C for 6 hr to simulate exposures from mouthing of jewelry items. Items were placed in dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 37°C for 6–96 hr, simulating the worst-case scenario of a child swallowing a jewelry item. Damaged pieces of selected samples were also extracted by both methods to determine the effect of breaching the outer plating on bioavailability. Total Cd content of all items was determined by atomic absorption. Results: The 6-hr saline extraction yielded as much as 2,200 µg Cd, and 24-hr dilute HCl extraction yielded a maximum of > 20,000 µg Cd. Leaching of Cd in dilute HCl increased linearly over 6–96 hr, indicating potential for increasing harm the longer an item remains in the stomach. Damage to jewelry by breaching the outer plating generally, but not always, increased Cd release. Bioavailability did not correlate directly with Cd content. Conclusions: These results indicate the potential for dangerous Cd exposures to children who wear, mouth, or accidentally swallow high-Cd jewelry items. PMID:21377949

  14. Micronutrient bioavailability research priorities.

    PubMed

    Casgrain, Amélie; Collings, Rachel; Harvey, Linda J; Boza, Julio J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2010-05-01

    A micronutrient bioavailability workshop, which involved international experts and members of the scientific community and the food industry, with interactive breakout sessions based on synectics principles, was organized by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe Addition of Nutrients to Food Task Force and the European Commission Network of Excellence European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned. After presentations by experts, a series of "challenge statements" was discussed. The aim was to address topical issues, in particular those that linked bioavailability with the derivation of micronutrient requirements and dietary recommendations, to identify gaps in knowledge and to consider research priorities. Several generic research priorities were identified, including improving the quality of dietary surveys/food composition tables, the need for more metabolic studies that use stable isotopes and high-quality longer-term interventions, and the development of multifactorial mathematical models. Among the common recurrent factors identified as important were polymorphisms/genotype, consideration of the whole diet, chemical form of the micronutrient, and the determination of physiologic requirements. The involvement of all participants in the structured discussions ensured a broad overview of current knowledge, state-of-the-art research, and consideration of priorities for future research. PMID:20200267

  15. [Parental Care and Testosterone Secretion in Forest Rodent Males: Sensitization and Androgenic Stimulation of Parental Behavior].

    PubMed

    Gromov, V S; Osadchuk, L V

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of males of three forest rodent species (Myodes clethrionomys, M. rutilus, Apodemus uralensis) to young animals in comparison with their dimensional characteristics and androgenization level was studied. Demonstration of parental care was detected in males of two vole species (M. clethrionomys and M. rutilus) in case of regular contacts with them (sensitization effect). It was demonstrated that the testosterone concentration in the blood serum, as well as the testosterone content in the testicles of the M. clethrionomys males (demonstrating the parental care), was higher than in the sample of males inclined to infanticide. An increased testosterone content in the testicles and blood serum was also found in the M. rutilus males that had contact with young animas. Neither demonstration of parental care nor significant differences in the testosterone concentration in the testicles and blood serum were detected in the A. uralensis males. PMID:26415283

  16. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael M; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-04-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  17. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  18. The association of testosterone, sleep, and sexual function in men and women.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Alvarenga, Tathiana F; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Hachul, Helena C; Tufik, Sergio

    2011-10-01

    Testosterone has been the focus of several investigations and review studies in males, but few have addressed its effects on sleep and sexual function, despite evidence of its androgenic effects on circadian activity in both sexes. Studies have been conducted to understand how sleeping increases (and how waking decreases) testosterone levels and how this rhythm can be related to sexual function. This review addresses the inter-relationships among testosterone, sexual function and sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing in both sexes, specifically its effects related to sleep deprivation. In addition, hormonal changes in testosterone that occur in the gonadal and adrenal axis with obstructive sleep apnea and other conditions of chronic sleep deprivation, and which consequently affect sexual life, have also been explored. Nevertheless, hormone-associated sleep disruptions occur across a lifetime, particularly in women. The association between endogenous testosterone and sex, sleep and sleep disturbances is discussed, including the results of clinical trials as well as animal model studies. Evidence of possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relationship is also described. Unraveling the associations of sex steroid hormone concentrations with sleep and sexual function may have clinical implications, as sleep loss reduces testosterone levels in males, and low sex steroid hormone concentrations have been associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:21890115

  19. Testosterone reduces cumulative burying in female Wistar rats with minimal participation of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana I; Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Jacome-Jacome, Emma

    2009-10-01

    Testosterone exerts anxiolytic effects, but the participation of its aromatase metabolic product estradiol is controversial. Therefore, we used the defensive burying paradigm in female Wistar rats to explore testosterone's (1.0 mg/rat, s.c.) interactions with picrotoxin (a noncompetitive gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor [GABA(A)] antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), formestane (an aromatase inhibitor; 3.0 mg/rat, s.c.), and tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor-beta antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.). Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were determined in the same rats. Burying latency and locomotion did not significantly change. Systemic testosterone administration enhanced serum testosterone and estradiol levels and reduced defensive burying. This reduction in total burying was blocked by pretreatment with picrotoxin and tamoxifen, but not formestane. We conclude that testosterone produced anxiolytic-like effects in female rats that were mediated by actions at the GABA(A) receptor, with participation of the estradiol receptor-beta, rather than estradiol aromatization. PMID:19520107

  20. Serum osteoprotegerin and sex steroid levels in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-Garcia, Rebeca; Avilés Perez, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez Ramírez, Amanda Rocio; Mijan, Jose Luis; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between sex steroids and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with prostate cancer is not well established. Our aim was to evaluate serum OPG levels in patients with prostate cancer and its relationship with sex steroids, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and fractures. We performed a cross-sectional study including 91 patients with prostate cancer. We determined: bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, bone turnover markers, serum levels of sex steroids and osteoprotegerin, and prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures. Serum OPG levels were higher in patients with vertebral fractures (8.02 ± 2.0 vs 4.91 ± 0.28 pmol/L; P < .05). OPG level and the duration of hormonal therapy were related (r = 0.299, P = .004), but this association did not persist after adjustment for age. In patients without androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total testosterone (r = 0.508, P = .001) and bioavailable testosterone (r = 0.311, P = .037). In patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with levels of total estradiol (r = 0.199, P = .18), bioavailable estradiol (r = 0.37, P = .009), and free estradiol (r = 0.349, P = .016). In conclusion, in patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, and free estradiol. Our hypothesis is that in patients with androgen deprivation therapy, the higher relative estrogen levels could stimulate OPG production in response to the higher resorption state. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of OPG in androgen deprivation therapy-mediated bone loss. PMID:21903971

  1. Testosterone enhancement of thyroid carcinoma in rats: the role of TSH

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; McCall, A.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-12-01

    Radiation treatment of Long-Evans male rats (40 mu Ci Na131I at the age of 2 months) led to a high incidence of thyroid follicular carcinomas at the age of 24 months; castration of males before irradiation caused a significant reduction in incidence of this tumor. In this study, replacement testosterone (T) was administered to castrated male rats by means of implanted, slow-release hormone-containing pellets (T-physiologic dose). Three testosterone doses (0.1T, 1.0T, and 30T) were used to treat groups of castrated irradiated and castrated nonirradiated rats from 2 to 18 months of age. The incidence of thyroid follicular carcinoma at 18 months in irradiated rats depended on the dose of replacement testosterone used. Tumor incidence was 8%, 14%, 41%, and 50% after treatment with 0T, 0.1T, 1.0T, and 30T, respectively. The incidence of thyroid follicular carcinoma in nonirradiated rats ranged from 0 to 7%. Mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values in irradiated animal groups were elevated significantly above those for age-matched nonirradiated animals. The degree of TSH elevation in irradiated animals was related directly to the testosterone-replacement level. All rat groups showed age-dependent decreases in serum T4 levels, and T4 levels were also lowered by replacement testosterone in nonirradiated castrated animals. In aging irradiated animals, serum T4 levels were similarly decreased by testosterone, despite elevated TSH levels in these groups. In this study, testosterone appeared to act indirectly to promote development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors by early and prolonged elevation of TSH levels.

  2. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-08-26

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Role of Testosterone in Mediating Prenatal Ethanol Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Activity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ni; Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Ellis, Linda; Viau, Victor; Weinberg, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prenatal ethanol (E) exposure programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) axes such that E rats show HPA hyperresponsiveness to stressors and altered HPG and reproductive function in adulthood. Importantly, prenatal ethanol may differentially alter stress responsiveness in adult male and female offspring compared to their control counterparts. To test the hypothesis that alterations in HPA activity in E males are mediated, at least in part, by ethanol-induced changes in the capacity of testosterone to regulate HPA activity, we explored dose-related effects of testosterone on HPA and HPG function in adult male offspring from prenatal E, pair-fed (PF) and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. Our data suggest that E males show changes in both HPA and HPG regulation, as well as altered sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of testosterone. While gonadectomy (GDX) reduced weight gain in all animals, low testosterone replacement restored body weights in PF and C but not E males. Further, sensitivity of the thymus and adrenal to circulating testosterone was reduced in E rats. In addition, stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) levels were increased in PF and C but not E males following GDX, and while low dose testosterone replacement restored CORT levels for PF and C, high testosterone levels were needed to normalize CORT levels for E males. A negative correlation between pre-stress testosterone and post-stress CORT levels in C but not in E and PF males further supports the finding of reduced sensitivity to testosterone. Importantly, testosterone appeared to have reduced effects on central corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) pathways in E, but greater effects on central arginine vasopressin (AVP) pathways in E and/or PF compared to C males. Testosterone also had less of an inhibitory effect on stress-induced luteinizing hormone increases in E than in PF and C males following GDX. In addition, androgen receptor mRNA levels in the medial

  4. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. PMID:27448713

  5. Effects of aromatase inhibition vs. testosterone in older men with low testosterone: randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, J P; Melvin, D; Simonsick, E M; Carlson, O; Shardell, M D; Ferrucci, L; Chia, C W; Basaria, S; Egan, J M

    2016-01-01

    Aging in men is associated with loss of bone mass, impaired physical function and altered body composition. The objective of this proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial was to determine the relative effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)) on bone mineral density, body composition, and physical performance in older men. The primary outcome was lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), and secondary outcomes were body composition, muscle strength, gait speed, and sex hormone concentrations. Forty three men (age range, 65-82 years; mean age 71 years) with low total T levels <350 ng/dL were randomized to one of three groups: 5 g transdermal testosterone gel (TT) (N = 16), anastrozole (AI) 1 mg (N = 14) or placebo daily (N = 13) for 12 months. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Both TT and AI increased serum TT levels (>500 ng/dL, p < 0.05) compared to baseline; T values remained stable throughout the duration of the trial. At 12 months, TT improved the primary outcome of lumbar spine BMD (p < 0.01).Both interventions improved knee strength at 12 months compared to baseline (p < 0.05) while lean body mass significantly increased only in the AI group at 6 and 12 months (1.49 ± 0.38 kg, p < 0.01; 1.24 ± 0.39 kg, p < 0.05, respectively) compared to baseline. Interestingly, TT improved fast gait speed at 3 and 12 months (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, this proof-of-concept study confirms that aromatization of T is required for maintaining BMD in older men with low-T levels. The trial also uncovered the novel finding that aromatization of T is required for improvement in fast gait speed, an observation that needs to be verified in future studies. PMID:26588809

  6. Effects of different doses of testosterone on gonadotropins, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and blood lipids in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Gårevik, Nina; Rane, Anders; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Ekström, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Aims To study the effect and time profile of different doses of testosterone enanthate on the blood lipid profile and gonadotropins. Experimental design Twenty-five healthy male volunteers aged 27–43 years were given 500 mg, 250 mg, and 125 mg of testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular doses of Testoviron® Depot. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), blood lipid profile (total cholesterol, plasma [p-] low-density lipoprotein, p-high-density lipoprotein [HDL], p-apolipoprotein A1 [ApoA1], p-apolipoprotein B, p-triglycerides, p-lipoprotein(a), serum [s-] testosterone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) were analyzed prior to, and 4 and 14 days after dosing. Testosterone and epitestosterone in urine (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio) were analyzed prior to each dose after a washout period of 6–8 weeks. Results and discussion All doses investigated suppressed the LH and FSH concentrations in serum. LH remained suppressed 6 weeks after the 500 mg dose. These results indicate that testosterone has a more profound endocrine effect on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis than was previously thought. There was no alteration in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels after testosterone administration compared to baseline levels. The 250 and 500 mg doses induced decreased concentrations of ApoA1 and HDL, whereas the lowest dose (125 mg) did not have any effect on the lipid profile. Conclusion The single doses of testosterone produced a dose-dependent increase in serum testosterone concentrations together with suppression of s-LH and s-FSH. Alterations in ApoA1 and HDL were observed after the two highest single doses. It is possible that long-time abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids will lead to alteration in vitamin D status. Knowledge and understanding of the side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids are important to the treatment and care of abusers of testosterone. PMID:25525405

  7. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. PMID:24548716

  8. REDD1 Is a Major Target of Testosterone Action in Preventing Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Zhao, Weidong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Yuanfei; Qin, Weiping; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A.; Blitzer, Robert D.; Cardozo, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a well-recognized and common cause of muscle atrophy that can be prevented by testosterone. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such protection have not been described. Thus, the global effects of testosterone on dexamethasone-induced changes in gene expression were evaluated in rat gastrocnemius muscle using DNA microarrays. Gene expression was analyzed after 7-d administration of dexamethasone, dexamethasone plus testosterone, or vehicle. Dexamethasone changed expression of 876 probe sets by at least 2-fold. Among these, 474 probe sets were changed by at least 2-fold in the opposite direction in the dexamethasone plus testosterone group (genes in opposition). Major biological themes represented by genes in opposition included IGF-I signaling, myogenesis and muscle development, and cell cycle progression. Testosterone completely prevented the 22-fold increase in expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1), and attenuated dexamethasone induced increased expression of eIF4E binding protein 1, Forkhead box O1, and the p85 regulatory subunit of the IGF-I receptor but prevented decreased expression of IRS-1. Testosterone attenuated increases in REDD1 protein in skeletal muscle and L6 myoblasts and prevented dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase at the mTOR-dependent site Thr389 in L6 myoblast cells. Effects of testosterone on REDD1 mRNA levels occurred within 1 h, required the androgen receptor, were blocked by bicalutamide, and were due to inhibition of transcriptional activation of REDD1 by dexamethasone. These data suggest that testosterone blocks dexamethasone-induced changes in expression of REDD1 and other genes that collectively would otherwise down-regulate mTOR activity and hence also down-regulate protein synthesis. PMID:20032058

  9. Testosterone Administration Related Differences in Brain Activation during the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Kopsida, Eleni; Berrebi, Jonathan; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of studies on the Ultimatum Game have shown that responders forfeit the rule of profit maximization and punish unfair proposers, by rejecting their offers. This behavior has been linked to increased amygdala, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. Studies have suggested a potential role of testosterone in the Ultimatum Game albeit with inconsistent findings. In the present study, we sought to further investigate the role of amygdala and testosterone in the Ultimatum Game, by conducting a double-blinded, single-administration study. Sixty milligram of Tostrex was administered to male and female healthy volunteers, 3 h prior to undergoing an fMRI session, during which they played a standard version of the Ultimatum Game. The behavioral analysis revealed a statistical trend, as participants in the testosterone group tended to accept a greater number of unfair offers than participants in the placebo group, irrespectively of gender. In terms of fMRI results, for the main contrast unfair>fair offers, the testosterone group displayed a greater activation in the right dlPFC compared to the placebo group. Increased testosterone levels were related to greater caudate activity. Our findings suggest a complex role of testosterone in social behavior and decision-making. PMID:26973448

  10. Testosterone Administration Related Differences in Brain Activation during the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Kopsida, Eleni; Berrebi, Jonathan; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of studies on the Ultimatum Game have shown that responders forfeit the rule of profit maximization and punish unfair proposers, by rejecting their offers. This behavior has been linked to increased amygdala, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. Studies have suggested a potential role of testosterone in the Ultimatum Game albeit with inconsistent findings. In the present study, we sought to further investigate the role of amygdala and testosterone in the Ultimatum Game, by conducting a double-blinded, single-administration study. Sixty milligram of Tostrex was administered to male and female healthy volunteers, 3 h prior to undergoing an fMRI session, during which they played a standard version of the Ultimatum Game. The behavioral analysis revealed a statistical trend, as participants in the testosterone group tended to accept a greater number of unfair offers than participants in the placebo group, irrespectively of gender. In terms of fMRI results, for the main contrast unfair>fair offers, the testosterone group displayed a greater activation in the right dlPFC compared to the placebo group. Increased testosterone levels were related to greater caudate activity. Our findings suggest a complex role of testosterone in social behavior and decision-making. PMID:26973448

  11. Sex Matters during Adolescence: Testosterone-Related Cortical Thickness Maturation Differs between Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bramen, Jennifer E.; Hranilovich, Jennifer A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Chen, Jessie; Rosso, Carly; Forbes, Erika E.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Worthman, Carol M.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in cortical thickness have been observed during adolescence, including thinning in frontal and parietal cortices, and thickening in the lateral temporal lobes. Studies have shown sex differences in hormone-related brain maturation when boys and girls are age-matched, however, because girls mature 1–2 years earlier than boys, these sex differences could be confounded by pubertal maturation. To address puberty effects directly, this study assessed sex differences in testosterone-related cortical maturation by studying 85 boys and girls in a narrow age range and matched on sexual maturity. We expected that testosterone-by-sex interactions on cortical thickness would be observed in brain regions known from the animal literature to be high in androgen receptors. We found sex differences in associations between circulating testosterone and thickness in left inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and right lingual gyrus, all regions known to be high in androgen receptors. Visual areas increased with testosterone in boys, but decreased in girls. All other regions were more impacted by testosterone levels in girls than boys. The regional pattern of sex-by-testosterone interactions may have implications for understanding sex differences in behavior and adolescent-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22479458

  12. Testosterone upregulates anion secretion across porcine vas deferens epithelia in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Alves, Fernando; Duncan, Cameron L; Schultz, Bruce D

    2009-10-01

    Testosterone induces and maintains prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, also known as cyclooxygenase 2) expression in vas deferens epithelial cells, but it remains unknown whether this has a physiological role in the context of male reproductive biology. Prostaglandins induce concentration-dependent increases in anion secretion in porcine vas deferens epithelial cell (1 degrees PVD) monolayers, where bicarbonate contributes to cAMP-stimulated anion secretion. Moreover, bradykinin induces anion secretion across 1 degrees PVD monolayers that is indomethacin sensitive, and both PTGS2 and PTGS1 are expressed in this model system. Therefore, it was hypothesized that testosterone modulates anion secretion across vas deferens epithelia via PTGS-dependent pathways and prostaglandin synthesis. Porcine vas deferens epithelial cells were isolated and cultured as monolayers on permeable supports until assayed in modified Ussing chambers. RNA and protein were isolated concurrently for semiquantitative expression analysis. Testosterone upregulated basal and bradykinin-induced short-circuit current across 1 degrees PVD monolayers, indicative of anion secretion. Testosterone also induced greater transepithelial electrical resistance. Increases in anion secretion were associated with preferential upregulation of PTGS2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, testosterone induced greater basal and bradykinin-induced anion secretion across vas deferens epithelial cells isolated from the distal segment of the duct. Taken together, these results suggest that testosterone upregulates epithelial responsiveness to acute modulations of anion secretion (likely bicarbonate secretion), which ultimately modifies the environment to which sperm are exposed. PMID:19474062

  13. Is Free Testosterone Concentration a Prognostic Factor of Survival in Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)?

    PubMed Central

    Niemczyk, Stanisław; Niemczyk, Longin; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Romejko-Ciepielewska, Katarzyna; Gomółka, Małgorzata; Saracyn, Marek; Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Lowered testosterone level in CRF patients is associated with elevated risk of death due to cardiovascular reasons, and is influenced by many factors, including acid-base balance disorders. Aims: evaluation of testosterone concentration (TT) and free testosterone concentration (fT) in pre-dialysis and dialysis patients; assessment of TT and fT relationships with biochemical parameters; evaluation of prognostic importance of TT and fT in predicting patient survival. Material/Methods 4 groups of men: 14 – on hemodialysis (HD), 13 – on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 9 – with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 8 – healthy (CG), aged 56±17, 53±15, 68±12, 43±10 years, respectively. TT and biochemical parameters were measured; fT was calculated. Results The lowest TT and fT were observed in HD and CRF, the highest – in CG (p=0.035 for TT; p=0.007 for fT). fT in CRF and CG were different (p=0.031). TT and age was associated in HD (p=0.026). Age and fT was strongly associated in PD (p<0.001). After adjustment for age, TT was negatively associated with BMI (p=0.013) and fT was positively associated with HCO3 level (p=0.007). fT was lower in those who died during 5 years of observation than in survivors (p=0.009). We have found that, opposite to TT, fT appeared to be a better predictor of 5-year survival than age. After combining pH and HCO3 levels into a single variable – no acidosis, acidosis with HCO3 normal serum level, acidosis with low concentrations of HCO3 and adjustment for age and the study group – a trend toward the lowest values of free testosterone in decompensated acidosis was observed (ptrend=0.027). Such a trend was not seen for testosterone concentrations (ptrend=0.107). Conclusions Total and free testosterone levels were lower in HD and pre-dialysis than in healthy patients. Free testosterone level may predict long-term survival better than age. Total and free testosterone levels are lower in metabolic acidosis and total and free

  14. Microbial reporters of metal bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Magrisso, Sagi; Erel, Yigal; Belkin, Shimshon

    2008-01-01

    Summary When attempting to assess the extent and the implications of environmental pollution, it is often essential to quantify not only the total concentration of the studied contaminant but also its bioavailable fraction: higher bioavailability, often correlated with increased mobility, signifies enhanced risk but may also facilitate bioremediation. Genetically engineered microorganisms, tailored to respond by a quantifiable signal to the presence of the target chemical(s), may serve as powerful tools for bioavailability assessment. This review summarizes the current knowledge on such microbial bioreporters designed to assay metal bioavailability. Numerous bacterial metal‐sensor strains have been developed over the past 15 years, displaying very high detection sensitivities for a broad spectrum of environmentally significant metal targets. These constructs are based on the use of a relatively small number of gene promoters as the sensing elements, and an even smaller selection of molecular reporter systems; they comprise a potentially useful panel of tools for simple and cost‐effective determination of the bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment, and for the quantification of the non‐bioavailable fraction of the pollutant. In spite of their inherent advantages, however, these tools have not yet been put to actual use in the evaluation of metal bioavailability in a real environmental remediation scheme. For this to happen, acceptance by regulatory authorities is essential, as is a standardization of assay conditions. PMID:21261850

  15. Modulating testosterone pathway: a new strategy to tackle male skin aging?

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Philippe; Scior, Thomas; Do, Quoc Tuan

    2012-01-01

    In men, the level of testosterone decreases with age. At the skin level, the result is observed as a decrease in density and in a lower elasticity. Identifying compounds that are able to increase the level of testosterone appears to be an attractive strategy to develop new antiaging bioactive ingredients for men. Reverse pharmacognosy was successfully applied to identify new natural compounds able to modulate testosterone levels. Among several in silico hits, honokiol was retained as a candidate as it has the greatest potential to become an active ingredient. This result was then validated in vitro on aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase type 1 and 2, which are two types of enzymes implicated in the degradation of free testosterone. Indeed, honokiol was identified as an inhibitor of aromatase, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of about 50 μM. In addition, honokiol was shown to be an inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase type 1, with an IC50 of about 75 μM. Taken together, these data indicate that honokiol modulates testosterone levels, and its structure has the potential to serve as a lead for future designs of highly selective inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase type 1. PMID:23049247

  16. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

    1988-07-01

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

  17. Alteration in sexually dimorphic testosterone biotransformation profiles as a biomarker of chemically induced androgen disruption in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, V S; McLachlan, J B; Falls, J G; LeBlanc, G A

    1999-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of environmental chemicals on androgen homeostasis in rodent models is confounded by high intraindividual and interindividual variability in circulating testosterone levels. Our goal was to evaluate changes in testosterone biotransformation processes as a measure of androgen homeostasis and as a biomarker of exposure to androgen-disrupting chemicals. Sex-specific differences in hepatic testosterone biotransformation enzyme activities were identified in CD-1 mice. Gonadectomy followed by replacement of individual steroid hormones identified specific sex differences in biotransformation profiles that were due to the inductive or suppressive effects of testosterone. Notably, significant androgen-dependent differences in testosterone 6[alpha]- and 15[alpha]-hydroxylase activities were demonstrated, and the ratio of 6[alpha]- and 15[alpha]-hydroxylase activities proved to be an excellent indicator of the androgen status within the animal. The male or "masculinized" testosterone 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio was significantly less than the female or "feminized" ratio. Male mice were exposed to both an antiandrogen, vinclozolin, and to a compound that modulates serum androgen levels, indole-3-carbinol, to test the utility of this ratio as a biomarker of androgen disruption. Treatment with the antiandrogen vinclozolin significantly increased the 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio. Indole-3-carbinol treatment resulted in a dose-dependent, but highly variable, decrease in serum testosterone levels. The 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio increased as serum testosterone levels decreased in these animals. However, the increase in the ratio was much less variable and more sensitive than serum testosterone levels. These investigations demonstrate that the 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio is a powerful measure of androgen modulation and a sensitive indicator of exposure to androgen-disrupting chemicals in CD-1 mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

  18. Effect of repeated administration of antidepressant drugs on the serum and brain concentration of testosterone and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Przegaliński, E; Warchoł-Kania, A; Budziszewska, B; Jaworska, L

    1987-01-01

    A repeated oral treatment (twice daily, for 21 consecutive days) with 10 mg/kg of antidepressants imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, mianserin affects the level of testosterone and its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and estradiol-17 beta) in the serum and brain structures (cerebral cortex, hypothalamus). Citalopram and mianserin increased significantly the serum testosterone concentration, while imipramine and amitriptyline reduced the concentration of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. In the cerebral cortex a reduction in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone after imipramine, and in the hypothalamus a decrease in testosterone level after amitriptyline were observed. None of the investigated drugs influenced estradiol-17 beta concentration in the serum or in the brain. PMID:3503989

  19. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  20. Testosterone as a biological marker in psychopathy and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Stålenheim, E G; Eriksson, E; von Knorring, L; Wide, L

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationships between testosterone and alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and specific personality characteristics and behaviors in a forensic psychiatric population. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT-DPC) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined in 61 male subjects undergoing forensic psychiatric examinations. All subjects had been detoxified from drugs and alcohol during previous incarceration in jail or hospital. TT and FT-DPC were found to be highly correlated (r=0.63, P < 0.0001). High concentrations of TT and SHBG were consistently related to type II alcoholism, but not pure alcohol dependence. TT and SHBG were also related to antisocial personality disorder. Furthermore, TT and SHBG were related to socially deviant behavior, reflected in factor 2 in the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). In a multiple regression, FT-DPC was also clearly associated with the psychopathy-related scales of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) when age and signs of hepatic damage were kept under control. PMID:9541143

  1. Testosterone deprivation accelerates cardiac dysfunction in obese male rats.

    PubMed

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-06-01

    Low testosterone level is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. As obese-insulin-resistant condition could impair cardiac function and that the incidence of obesity is increased in aging men, a condition of testosterone deprivation could aggravate the cardiac dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant subjects. However, the mechanism underlying this adverse effect is unclear. This study investigated the effects of obesity on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac mitochondrial function in testosterone-deprived rats. Orchiectomized or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n=36per group) were randomly divided into groups and were given either a normal diet (ND, 19.77% of energy fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 57.60% of energy fat) for 12weeks. Metabolic parameters, HRV, LV function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined at 4, 8, and 12weeks after starting each feeding program. We found that insulin resistance was observed after 8weeks of the consumption of a HFD in both sham (HFS) and orchiectomized (HFO) rats. Neither the ND sham (NDS) group nor ND orchiectomized (NDO) rats developed insulin resistance. The development of depressed HRV, LV contractile dysfunction, and increased cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production was observed earlier in orchiectomized (NDO and HFO) rats at week 4, whereas HFS rats exhibited these impairments later at week 8. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation accelerates the impairment of cardiac autonomic regulation and LV function via increased oxidative stress and impaired cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-orchiectomized male rats. PMID:27000685

  2. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-06-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group. PMID:25951882

  3. TESTOSTERONE AND SOCIAL ISOLATION INFLUENCE ADULT NEUROGENESIS IN THE DENTATE GYRUS OF MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Ibler, Erin; Inglis, William; Curtis, Molly G.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone has been previously shown to enhance adult neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus of adult male rats, whereas social isolation has been shown to cause a decrease in adult neurogenesis under some conditions. The current study tested the combined effects of testosterone and social isolation upon adult neurogenesis using two experiments involving adult male rats. For both experiments, half of the subjects were pair-housed and half were housed individually for the duration of the experiments (34 days). For experiment 1, the subjects were divided into four groups (n=8/group): 1) sham/pair-housed, 2) sham/isolated, 3) castrate/pair-housed, and 4) castrate/isolated. Rats in the castrate groups were bilaterally castrated, and rats in the sham groups were sham castrated. For experiment 2, all rats were castrated and the effects of testosterone were tested using daily injections of testosterone propionate (0.500 mg/rat for 15 days) or the oil vehicle. Subjects were divided into four groups (n =8/group): 1) oil/pair-housed, 2) oil/isolated, 3) testosterone/pair-housed, and 4) testosterone/isolated. All rats were injected with 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 200 mg/kg body mass) and immunohistochemistry was used to determine levels of neurogenesis following a 16-day cell survival period. For experiment 1, castrated subjects had significantly fewer BrdU-labeled cells along the granule cell layer and sub-granular zone (GCL+SGZ) of the dentate gyrus than did intact subjects, and this effect was mainly due to low levels of neurogenesis in the castrate/isolated group. For experiment 2, social isolation caused a significant decrease in neurogenesis within the GCL+SGZ relative to the pair-housed groups. Testosterone injections did not buffer against this effect but instead tended to cause a decrease in neurogenesis. Thus, social isolation reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of testosterone were inconsistent. This suggests that normal circulating levels of

  4. Testosterone and social isolation influence adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Ibler, E; Inglis, W; Curtis, M G

    2011-11-10

    Testosterone has been previously shown to enhance adult neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus of adult male rats, whereas social isolation has been shown to cause a decrease in adult neurogenesis under some conditions. The current study tested the combined effects of testosterone and social isolation upon adult neurogenesis using two experiments involving adult male rats. For both experiments, half of the subjects were pair-housed and half were housed individually for the duration of the experiments (34 days). For experiment 1, the subjects were divided into four groups (n=8/group): (1) sham/pair-housed, (2) sham/isolated, (3) castrate/pair-housed, and (4) castrate/isolated. Rats in the castrate groups were bilaterally castrated, and rats in the sham groups were sham castrated. For experiment 2, all rats were castrated, and the effects of testosterone were tested using daily injections of testosterone propionate (0.500 mg/rat for 15 days) or the oil vehicle. Subjects were divided into four groups (n=8/group): (1) oil/pair-housed, (2) oil/isolated, (3) testosterone/pair-housed, and (4) testosterone/isolated. All rats were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 200 mg/kg body mass), and immunohistochemistry was used to determine levels of neurogenesis following a 16-day cell survival period. For experiment 1, castrated subjects had significantly fewer BrdU-labeled cells along the granule cell layer and subgranular zone (GCL+SGZ) of the dentate gyrus than did intact subjects, and this effect was mainly due to low levels of neurogenesis in the castrate/isolated group. For experiment 2, social isolation caused a significant decrease in neurogenesis within the GCL+SGZ relative to the pair-housed groups. Testosterone injections did not buffer against this effect but instead tended to cause a decrease in neurogenesis. Thus, social isolation reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of testosterone were inconsistent. This suggests that normal circulating

  5. Investigation of testosterone-mediated non-transcriptional inhibition of Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    HU, ZHONGQIAN; MA, RUI; GONG, JIANBIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of short-term testosterone treatment on Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of male rats. Cells were loaded with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fura-2 and intracellular Ca2+ signals of VSMCs were measured using a Nikon TE2000-E live cell imaging workstation. The baseline level of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in resting state VSMCs was ~100 nmol/l. Testosterone alone led to a slow increase in [Ca2+]i, but there was no significant difference compared with the ethanol vehicle control. When VSMCs were stimulated with a high-potassium solution (containing 42 mmol/l of K+), [Ca2+]i rose rapidly and remained at a high plateau level. Short-term treatment using physiological (40 nmol/l) or supraphysiological (4 µmol/l) levels of testosterone at either the plateau phase or the pretreatment stage could significantly inhibit the [Ca2+]i increase induced by high-potassium solutions. Testosterone coupled to bovine serum albumin also had a similar effect and repetitive testosterone interventions over a short time-frame led to inhibition. Testosterone has a non-transcriptional inhibition effect on the [Ca2+]i of VSMCs and acts with the cell membranes of VSMCs to inhibit voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated Ca2+ influx, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying testosterone-mediated vasodilation. PMID:26893838

  6. Is the haematopoietic effect of testosterone mediated by erythropoietin? The results of a clinical trial in older men.

    PubMed

    Maggio, M; Snyder, P J; Ceda, G P; Milaneschi, Y; Luci, M; Cattabiani, C; Masoni, S; Vignali, A; Volpi, R; Lauretani, F; Peachey, H; Valenti, G; Cappola, A R; Longo, D; Ferrucci, L

    2013-01-01

    The stimulatory effects of testosterone on erythropoiesis are very well known, but the mechanisms underlying the erythropoietic action of testosterone are still poorly understood, although erythropoietin has long been considered a potential mediator. A total of 108 healthy men >65 years old with serum testosterone concentration <475 ng/dL were recruited by direct mailings to alumni of the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University, and randomized to receive a 60-cm(2) testosterone or placebo patch for 36 months. Ninety-six subjects completed the trial. We used information and stored serum specimens from this trial to test the hypothesis that increasing testosterone increases haemoglobin by stimulating erythropoietin production. We used information of 67 men, 43 in the testosterone group and 24 in the placebo group who had banked specimens available for assays of testosterone, haemoglobin and erythropoietin at baseline and after 36 months. The original randomized clinical study was primarily designed to verify the effects of testosterone on bone mineral density. The primary outcome of this report was to investigate whether or not transdermal testosterone increases haemoglobin by increasing erythropoietin levels. The mean age ± SD of the 67 subjects at baseline was 71.8 ± 4.9 years. Testosterone replacement therapy for 36 months, as compared with placebo, induced a significant increase in haemoglobin (0.86 ± 0.31 g/dL, p = 0.01), but no change in erythropoietin levels (-0.24 ± 2.16 mIU/mL, p = 0.91). Included time-varying measure of erythropoietin did not significantly account for the effect of testosterone on haemoglobin (Treatment-by-time: β = 0.93, SE = 0.33, p = 0.01). No serious adverse effect was observed. Transdermal testosterone treatment of older men for 36 months significantly increased haemoglobin, but not erythropoietin levels. The haematopoietic effect of testosterone does not appear to be mediated by stimulation of

  7. A testosterone-related structural brain phenotype predicts aggressive behavior from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Ducharme, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone represents a compelling mechanism through which this structural covariance may be developmentally regulated in humans. Although steroid hormone receptors can be found throughout the central nervous system, the amygdala represents a key target for testosterone-specific effects, given its high density of androgen receptors. In addition, testosterone has been found to impact cortical thickness (CTh) across the whole brain, suggesting that it may also regulate the structural relationship, or covariance, between the amygdala and CTh. Here, we examined testosterone-related covariance between amygdala volumes and whole-brain CTh, as well as its relationship to aggression levels, in a longitudinal sample of children, adolescents, and young adults 6-22 years old. We found: (1) testosterone-specific modulation of the covariance between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); (2) a significant relationship between amygdala-mPFC covariance and levels of aggression; and (3) mediation effects of amygdala-mPFC covariance on the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These effects were independent of sex, age, pubertal stage, estradiol levels and anxious-depressed symptoms. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that testosterone targets the neural circuits regulating affect and impulse regulation, and show, for the first time in humans, how androgen-dependent organizational effects may regulate a very specific, aggression-related structural brain phenotype from childhood to young adulthood. PMID:26431805

  8. Muscle specific miRNAs are induced by testosterone and independently upregulated by age

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Søren; Hvid, Thine; Kelly, Meghan; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Dethlefsen, Christine; Winding, Kamilla; Mathur, Neha; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente K.; Laye, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Age dependent decline in skeletal muscle function leads to impaired metabolic flexibility in elderly individuals. Physical activity and testosterone treatment have proven efficient strategies for delaying this condition. However, a common molecular pathway has not been identified. Muscle specific miRNAs (myomiRs) regulate metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle, are regulated by physical activity, and have response elements for testosterone in their promoter region. We therefore hypothesized that myomiRs would be regulated in skeletal muscle during aging. We further investigated any potential gender-dependent regulation of these miRNAs. We found that the myomiRs miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-133b were increased in skeletal muscle of elderly men compared to younger men. In addition, miR-133a/133b expression was markedly higher in women compared to men. Elimination of circulating testosterone in men was associated with lower levels of miR-133a and miR-133b. A positive regulatory effect of testosterone on miR-133a/133b expression was confirmed in castrated male C57BL/6J mice and in a model of primary human myocytes. Yet, an improvement of fitness level in the testosterone depleted men resulted in a down-regulation of miR133a/b. In conclusion, alterations in fitness level and circulating testosterone seem to represent two independent regulatory events where testosterone is a specific regulator of miR-133a/b expression. PMID:24478708

  9. Low serum testosterone predicts upgrading and upstaging of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Jiang, Chen-Yi; Mao, Shi-Kui; Cui, Di; Hao, Kui-Yuan; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Qi; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shu-Jie; Han, Bang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Often, pathological Gleason Score (GS) and stage of prostate cancer (PCa) were inconsistent with biopsy GS and clinical stage. However, there were no widely accepted methods predicting upgrading and upstaging PCa. In our study, we investigated the association between serum testosterone and upgrading or upstaging of PCa after radical prostatectomy (RP). We enrolled 167 patients with PCa with biopsy GS ≤6, clinical stage ≤T2c, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng ml−1 from April 2009 to April 2015. Data including age, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, comorbidity, clinical presentation, and preoperative serum total testosterone level were collected. Upgrading occurred in 62 (37.1%) patients, and upstaging occurred in 73 (43.7%) patients. Preoperative testosterone was lower in the upgrading than nonupgrading group (3.72 vs 4.56, P< 0.01). Patients in the upstaging group had lower preoperative testosterone than those in the nonupstaging group (3.84 vs 4.57, P= 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, as both continuous and categorical variables, low serum testosterone was confirmed to be an independent predictor of pathological upgrading (P = 0.01 and P= 0.01) and upstaging (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02) after RP. We suggest that low serum testosterone (<3 ng ml−1) is associated with a high rate of upgrading and upstaging after RP. It is better for surgeons to ensure close monitoring of PSA levels and imaging examination when selecting non-RP treatment, to be cautious in proceeding with nerve-sparing surgery, and to be enthusiastic in performing extended lymph node dissection when selecting RP treatment for patients with low serum testosterone. PMID:26732103

  10. A low-testosterone state associated with endometrioma leads to the apoptosis of granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoshihiro J; Tanabe, Akiko; Nakamura, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Hayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), the mechanism(s) underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis. PMID:25536335

  11. Low serum testosterone predicts upgrading and upstaging of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Jiang, Chen-Yi; Mao, Shi-Kui; Cui, Di; Hao, Kui-Yuan; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Qi; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shu-Jie; Han, Bang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Often, pathological Gleason Score (GS) and stage of prostate cancer (PCa) were inconsistent with biopsy GS and clinical stage. However, there were no widely accepted methods predicting upgrading and upstaging PCa. In our study, we investigated the association between serum testosterone and upgrading or upstaging of PCa after radical prostatectomy (RP). We enrolled 167 patients with PCa with biopsy GS ≤6, clinical stage ≤T2c, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng ml-1 from April 2009 to April 2015. Data including age, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, comorbidity, clinical presentation, and preoperative serum total testosterone level were collected. Upgrading occurred in 62 (37.1%) patients, and upstaging occurred in 73 (43.7%) patients. Preoperative testosterone was lower in the upgrading than nonupgrading group (3.72 vs 4.56, P< 0.01). Patients in the upstaging group had lower preoperative testosterone than those in the nonupstaging group (3.84 vs 4.57, P= 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, as both continuous and categorical variables, low serum testosterone was confirmed to be an independent predictor of pathological upgrading (P = 0.01 and P= 0.01) and upstaging (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02) after RP. We suggest that low serum testosterone (<3 ng ml-1 ) is associated with a high rate of upgrading and upstaging after RP. It is better for surgeons to ensure close monitoring of PSA levels and imaging examination when selecting non-RP treatment, to be cautious in proceeding with nerve-sparing surgery, and to be enthusiastic in performing extended lymph node dissection when selecting RP treatment for patients with low serum testosterone. PMID:26732103

  12. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    SciTech Connect

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  13. The Impact of Exogenic Testosterone and Nortestosterone-Decanoate Toxicological Evaluation Using a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Hanganu, Flavia; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Muselin, Florin; Butnariu, Monica; Constantin, Adriana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    The impact of exogenic testosterone (T): 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg.bw) and 19-nortestosterone 17-decanoate (ND): 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg.bw) in castrated male rats was evaluated based on: (a) weight increase of the androgen target tissues, respecting the Hershberger methodology; (b) the 17α and β-testosterone, 17 α and β-estradiol and 17 α and β-nortestosterone levels using the GC-MS/MS technique; and (c) observation of the serum free thyroxine levels (T4). Results revealed that T and ND significantly increased the weight of androgen target tissues as follows: ND was more influential on seminal vesicles, levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's glands and T (at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg.bw) influenced the weight of the ventral prostate and glans penis. Serum samples analyzed for steroid hormone levels showed the presence of 17β-testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17β-nor-testosterone, in castrated male rats injected with testosterone and nortestosterone, but no significant differences were found between thyroid responses and thyroid hormone levels. The results of this research proved the disrupting activity of T and ND when administered in high doses and the useful application of the Hershberger bioassay in the case of ND. PMID:25302584

  14. Di(n)butyl phthalate reduces testicular weight, testosterone and associated gene expression in fetal Harlan Sprague Dawley rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain phthalate esters (PE) cause reproductive malformations in male rats when exposure occurs during sexual differentiation in utero. Reductions in fetal testosterone levels are causally linked to the induction of these malformations. While reproductive development studies on ...

  15. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN REDUCES THE ACCUMULATION OF TESTOSTERONE AS FATTY ACID ESTERS IN THE MUD SNAIL (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated wit...

  16. The behavior of chickens following embryonic treatment with testosterone propionate.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, J M; Wolfe, J L; Glick, B

    1975-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate an initial response and the flocking behavior of chicks treated embryonically with testosterone propionate (TP). The high (1.28 gm. %) and low (0.32 gm. %) levels of TP interfered with the response of these chicks to a specific stimulus. However, only the high level TP depressed the flocking response. TP administered prior to day 13 of embryonic development will depress sexual behavior in the chicken. These data suggest that TP influences a variety of behavioral patterns in the chicken. PMID:1228736

  17. Baseline cortisol moderates testosterone reactivity to women's intercollegiate athletic competition.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2015-04-01

    Recent research suggests that cortisol (C) level moderates testosterone (T) reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in men. The extent to which C moderates T reactivity in other circumstances and in women is not known. In this retrospective study, before- and after-competition salivary levels of C and T from 97 intercollegiate women athletes competing in one of four different sports (soccer, volleyball, softball, tennis) were used to evaluate the influence of before-competition C level on T reactivity in women's athletic competition. Athletic competition was associated with a substantial increase in salivary levels of C and T in the vast majority of athletes. Before-competition level of C significantly moderated testosterone reactivity to athletic competition - women with relatively low levels of C showed larger increases in T to competition than women with higher levels of C. Clearly, the moderating effect of C on T reactivity is not limited to laboratory settings intended to increase social stress, but is also seen in (as we show here) the context of athletic competition. PMID:25647361

  18. Caloric restriction increases serum testosterone concentrations in obese male subjects by two distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D M; Hahn, M; Oberhäuser, F; Malchau, G; Schubert, M; Heppner, C; Müller, N; Güdelhöfer, H; Faust, M; Krone, W; Laudes, M

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of serum testosterone is mainly regulated by the testicular function, which is under control of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A certain amount of testosterone is converted into β-estradiol by adipose tissue. Obesity in men is often associated with decreased androgen levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of caloric restriction on serum testosterone levels in obese men. Dietary intervention study was performed with a very low calorie diet (800 kcal/d) for 12 weeks. Thirteen obese human male subjects (median body mass index: 42.7 kg/m2) were included. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR). Testosterone (T), β-estradiol, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), LH, and FSH serum concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Statistical analysis was performed on baseline and values after 3 months. Caloric restriction significantly increased total testosterone (6.97 nmol/l to 13.21 nmol/l; p=0.001) and SHBG (22.11 nmol/l to 42.12 nmol/l; p=0.001) concentrations in serum. This is caused by a significant improvement of the testicular function (LH/T: 0.36-0.20; p=0.005) and a significant reduction of the T/β-estradiol conversion rate (73.59-104.29; p=0.003). There was a significant negative correlation of improvement of testicular function and LAR (rs=-0.683 (p=0.042)). In obese men caloric restriction significantly increases the serum testosterone concentration. This is achieved by 2 distinct mechanisms, that is, improvement of testicular function and reduced conversion of testosterone to β-estradiol by aromatase activity of the adipose tissue. PMID:24198220

  19. Effect of testosterone replacement treatment on constitutional and sexual symptoms in type 2 diabetic men: need for rules

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadis, Fotios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    In a recent publication, Gianatti and colleagues investigated the effect of testosterone treatment in obese, aging men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with mild to moderate symptoms, a modest reduction in testosterone levels, mild to moderate aging male symptoms, and erectile dysfunction.1 The authors could not show any significant improvement in constitutional or sexual symptoms in this group of men. This randomized double-blind, parallel, and placebo-controlled trial among other critically emphasizes the increased testosterone prescriptions worldwide and together with other corroborating or contradictory studies awakes the need for guidelines in the androgen replacement treatment. PMID:25432496

  20. Age-Related Testosterone Decline is due to Waning of Both Testicular and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Ron; Scovell, Jason M.; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Hypogonadism is a condition in which the endogenous secretion of testosterone is either insufficient or inadequate to maintain serum testosterone levels within normal range, and may manifest as a variety of signs and symptoms. Age-related hypogonadism is due to a combination of primary hypogonadism (testicular failure) and secondary hypogonadism (hypothalamic-pituitary axis failure). This review provides insight into the mechanisms resulting in the multifactorial nature of acquired androgen-deficiency, and outlines the current controversy regarding testosterone-replacement therapy in aging males. PMID:26075536

  1. Coordination of the cortisol and testosterone responses: A dual axis approach to understanding the response to social status threats.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent; Tackett, Jennifer L; Lechtreck, Maria T; Browning, Wesley R

    2015-12-01

    For many people, competitions, status challenges, and being evaluated by others result in increases in cortisol as well as testosterone. It is argued that physiological processes work in a coordinated fashion when facing social evaluative-competitive situations. Such a coordinated response may be part of an evolved system, monitoring and responding to threats to one's social status. In two studies, using within-person multi-level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that adult men, pre/early pubertal boys, and pre/early pubertal girls show a coordinated response in cortisol and testosterone (i.e., coupling of cortisol and testosterone responses) during a social evaluative situation. In Study 1, 85 men delivered speeches and performed difficult arithmetic tasks in front of critical evaluators, prepared for a competition, and provided multiple saliva samples throughout the procedure for cortisol and testosterone assays. In Study 2, 79 boys and 74 girls underwent similar procedures as in Study 1. Within-person analyses suggested that cortisol and testosterone responses were indeed positively associated for all three groups (men, boys, and girls). That is, on average a participant's cortisol and testosterone levels tended to rise and fall together throughout the procedure, suggesting that cortisol and testosterone show coordinated activation and deactivation (coupling) during social status threats. Furthermore, men with higher anxiety during the stressor tasks (Study 1; coded by raters from video recordings) and both boys and girls with higher parent reported trait negative affectivity (Study 2) had stronger coupling. Men (Study 1) higher in self-reported trait dominance and verbal dominance (coded by raters from video recordings during the stressor), and lower in basal testosterone had weaker coupling. A coordinated hormone response may have important adaptive functions when dealing with status threats; cortisol can mobilize energy resources and testosterone can

  2. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens),...

  7. Salivary testosterone and cortisol are jointly related to pro-environmental behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Recently, cortisol has been suggested to moderate the positive relationship between testosterone and antisocial behavior. More precisely, high testosterone levels have been found to be related to aggressive or dominant behavior especially when cortisol levels were low. In the present study, we aimed to extend these findings to pro-environmental behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In a first step, 147 male participants provided information on their everyday pro-environmental behavior by completing an online questionnaire on various energy-saving behaviors. In a second step, subjects provided two saliva samples for the assessment of testosterone and cortisol on two subsequent mornings after awakening. We found that testosterone was negatively related to pro-environmental behavior, but only in men with low cortisol. In conclusion, our findings provide first evidence for the joint association of testosterone and cortisol with everyday pro-environmental behavior. These results further reinforce the importance of considering interdependent hormone systems simultaneously rather than focusing on a single hormone. PMID:26566048

  8. The bioavailability of an orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    PubMed

    Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-05-01

    The relative bioavailability of an orally administered aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for intramuscular injection (Depo-Provera) was determined in relation to orally administered tablets. Serum levels of MPA were determined by radioimmunoassay following the administration of 400-mg doses to 19 adult male volunteers in a crossover design after an overnight fast. The two treatments were judged bioequivalent based upon a comparison of the resultant MPA serum levels and the derived bioavailability parameters. Hence, the intramuscular suspension administered orally offers an alternative means of achieving optimal serum levels of MPA in patients requiring high dose therapy. PMID:6222996

  9. Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

    2013-01-01

    The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression. PMID:24113579

  10. Supplementing iron bioavailability enhanced mung bean.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Vijayalakshmi; M, Amirthaveni; Tsou, Samson C S; S, Shanmugasundaram

    2008-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a major public health problem. The high incidence is either due to insufficient intake of iron or poor bio availability. Enhancing the bio availability is as important as increasing the intake. The absorption could be enhanced by including ascorbic acid and beta carotene containing fruits and vegetables into recipes of iron containing food preparations. The effect of supplementation of iron bio-availability enhanced mung bean preparations was studied on 75 women who were compared against 75 who served as controls and another 75 who consumed regular traditional recipes. The methodology included identification of suitable mung bean variety, assessing iron in vitro bio availability, mapping the anaemic women, estimating their iron levels, supplementation for one year and studying the effect of supplementation. Mung bean supplementation had increased serum protein levels from 5.36 to 6.73 g/dl, serum iron levels had increased from 16.6 to 46.7 microg/dl. The TIBC levels decreased from 555 to 508 microg/dl while serum ferritin levels increased from 3.56 to 5.94 microg/dl and Hb levels from 7.54 to 8.29 g/dl. Thus, improving the bioavailability of iron of food preparations, will improve the iron status of women. PMID:18296312

  11. Skin permeation of testosterone and its ester derivatives in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lee, C H; Kim, D D

    2000-04-01

    To establish the optimum conditions for improving the transdermal delivery of testosterone, we studied the relationship between the lipophilicity of testosterone ester derivatives and the rat skin permeation rate of testosterone. We performed a rat skin permeation study of testosterone and its commercially available ester derivatives, testosterone hemisuccinate, testosterone propionate and testosterone-17beta-cypionate, using an ethanol/water co-solvent system. The aqueous solubility and rat skin permeation rate of each drug, saturated in various compositions of an ethanol/water system, was determined at 37 degrees C. The aqueous solubility of testosterone and its ester derivatives increased exponentially as the volume fraction of ethanol increased up to 100% (v/v). The stability of testosterone propionate in both the skin homogenate and the extract was investigated to observe the enzymatic degradation during the skin permeation process. Testosterone propionate was found to be stable in the isotonic buffer solution and in the epidermis-side extract for 10h at 37 degrees C. However, in the skin homogenate and the dermis-side extract testosterone propionate rapidly degraded producing testosterone, implying that testosterone propionate rapidly degraded to testosterone during the skin permeation process. The steady-state permeation rates of testosterone in the ethanol/water systems increased exponentially as the volume fraction of ethanol increased, reaching the maximum value (2.69+/-0.69 microg cm(-2)h(-1)) at 70% (v/v) ethanol in water, and then decreasing with further increases in the ethanol volume fraction. However, in the skin permeation study with testosterone esters saturated in 70% (v/v) ethanol in water system, testosterone esters were hardly detected in the receptor solution, probably due to the rapid degradation to testosterone during the skin permeation process. Moreover, a parabolic relationship was observed between the permeation rate of testosterone and

  12. Changes in spatial cognition and brain activity after a single dose of testosterone in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Pintzka, Carl W S; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta K

    2016-02-01

    Studies have consistently shown that males perform better than females on several spatial tasks. Animal and human literature suggests that sex hormones have an important role in both establishing and maintaining this difference. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of exogenous testosterone on spatial cognition and brain activity in healthy women. A cross-sectional, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed in 42 healthy young women who either received one dose of 0.5mg sublingual testosterone or placebo. They then learned a virtual environment and performed navigation tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, their knowledge of the virtual environment, self-reported navigation strategy, and mental rotation abilities were measured. The testosterone group had improved representations of the directions within the environment and performed significantly better on the mental rotation task compared to the placebo group, but navigation success and navigation strategy were similar in the two groups. Nevertheless, the testosterone group had significantly increased activity within the medial temporal lobe during successful navigation compared to the placebo group, and a positive correlation between testosterone load and medial temporal lobe activity was found. Fetal testosterone levels, measured as second-to-fourth digit length ratio, interacted significantly with parahippocampal activity and tended towards giving higher mental rotation task scores. These results demonstrated that testosterone had a limited effect pertaining specifically to spatial cognition involving 3D-visualization in healthy women, while complex behaviors such as navigation, relying more on learned strategies, were not altered despite increased neuronal activity in relevant brain regions. PMID:26542812

  13. ANDROGENS AND OPIATES: TESTOSTERONE INTERACTION WITH MORPHINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION IN MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sarah E.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and opioids intersect in athletics. Evidence from humans and animals suggests that AAS may act in the brain via opioidergic mechanisms, and may potentiate effects of opioids. To determine if AAS enhance motivation for opioid intake, this study treated male rats chronically for 6 weeks with high levels of testosterone (7.5 mg/kg) or vehicle s.c. and tested them for morphine self-administration under fixed (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules. Initially, rats received chronic morphine infusion (16.8–50 mg/kg/day) over 7 days. Subsequently, rats were tested for morphine self-administration (3.2 mg/kg) 6h/day for 3 days under an FR1 schedule, and for 7 days under a PR 9-4 schedule. With FR1, controls self-administered more morphine (95.9±8.5 mg/kg), compared with testosterone-treated rats (63.2±7.2 mg/kg, p<0.05). Under PR, there was no effect of testosterone on morphine intake or operant responding (26.7±5.7 responses vs 30.9±5.9 responses for vehicle; n.s.). To determine if testosterone enhances morphine sedation, additional rats were treated with testosterone or vehicle and evaluated for locomotor behavior and rearing activity over 30 min in response to saline or 10 mg/kg morphine. Morphine inhibited locomotor activity and rearing; testosterone selectively reduced rearing behavior, but did not alter locomotor behavior. These results suggest that testosterone does not increase motivation for morphine. PMID:24488032

  14. Role of testosterone in resistance to development of stress-related vascular diseases in male and female organisms: models of hypertension and ulcer bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Pavlov, A.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I.; Zinchenko, E.; Kassim, M.; Al-Fatle, F.; Al Hassani, L.; Ulanova, M.; Gekaluk, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a relationship between stress-induced formation of hypertension and ulcer bleeding and the level of serum testosterone in female and male rats. We show that the secretion of testosterone is an important sign of severity of stress-induced damages of vascular homeostasis in males but not in females.

  15. Impact of Testosterone, Zinc, Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations on Sperm Parameters in Subfertile Men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Birsen; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Onaran, Ilhan; Alici, Bülent; Özkara, Hamdi; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the impact of testosterone, zinc, calcium and magnesium concentrations in serum and seminal plasma on sperm parameters. There were significant decrease in sperm parameters, serum and seminal plasma zinc levels in subfertile males. It indicates zinc has a essential role in male infertility; the determination the level of zinc during infertility investigation is recommended.

  16. Reduction of spermatogonia and testosterone in rat testes flown on Space Lab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, Delbert E.; Stevenson, J.; Black, S.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of space flight on rat testes were investigated. The weight, spermatogonial cell count, and testosterone levels in six rats flown on Space Lab-3 were measured. It is observed that compared to ground control rats the average weight loss was 7.1 percent and the spermatogonial cell count decreased by 7.5 percent. The data reveal that the testosterone level for large control rats was 9.13 ng/ml and 0.31 ng/ml for flight rats; and 2.54 ng/ml and 0.233 ng/ml for smaller control and flight rats, respectively. It is noted that spermatogenesis and testosterone production are reduced during spaceflight.

  17. Dynamics of testosterone concentration in male steppe lemmings (Lagurus lagurus) in the reproductive cycle reflects the species-specific mating system.

    PubMed

    Potapova, O F; Potapov, M A; Kondratyuk, E Yu; Evsikov, V I

    2016-05-01

    In the blood of male steppe lemmings, relatively low background levels of testosterone were detected, this is characteristic of a monogamous species. A significant increase in testosterone level, more expressed in sexually active males, was observed at the initial stage of formation of reproductive couples. Apparently, in the future, the couple will exist in a stable relationship, and, hence, the maintenance of a high testosterone level becomes excessive. The decrease in, and the relative "normalization" of, the hormone level during the existence of the pair, including raising of the young, promotes higher expression of the male paternal care of the offspring at the species level. PMID:27411829

  18. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  19. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  20. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  1. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  2. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol...

  3. Testosterone deficiency induced by progressive stages of diabetes mellitus impairs glucose metabolism and favors glycogenesis in mature rat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Rato, Luís; Alves, Marco G; Duarte, Ana I; Santos, Maria S; Moreira, Paula I; Cavaco, José E; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its prodromal stage, pre-diabetes, is rapidly increasing among young men, leading to disturbances in testosterone synthesis. However, the impact of testosterone deficiency induced by these progressive stages of diabetes on the metabolic behavior of Sertoli cells remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of testosterone deficiency associated with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes on Sertoli cells metabolism, by measuring (1) the expression and/or activities of glycolysis and glycogen metabolism-related proteins and (2) the metabolite secretion/consumption in Sertoli cells obtained from rat models of different development stages of the disease, to unveil the mechanisms by which testosterone deregulation may affect spermatogenesis. Glucose and pyruvate uptake were decreased in cells exposed to the testosterone concentration found in pre-diabetic rats (600nM), whereas the decreased testosterone concentrations found in type 2 diabetic rats (7nM) reversed this profile. Lactate production was not altered, although the expression and/or activity of lactate dehydrogenase and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were affected by progressive testosterone-deficiency. Sertoli cells exposed to type 2 diabetic conditions exhibited intracellular glycogen accumulation. These results illustrate that gradually reduced levels of testosterone, induced by progressive stages of diabetes mellitus, favor a metabolic reprogramming toward glycogen synthesis. Our data highlights a pivotal role for testosterone in the regulation of spermatogenesis metabolic support by Sertoli cells, particularly in individuals suffering from metabolic diseases. Such alterations may be in the basis of male subfertility/infertility associated with the progression of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26148570

  4. Intensive exercise training suppresses testosterone during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Stanford, K. I.; Stein, T. P.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest (BR) alter plasma hormone levels inconsistently. This may be due, in part, to prescription of heavy exercise as a countermeasure for ameliorating the adverse effects of disuse. The initial project was to assess exercise programs to maintain aerobic performance and leg strength during BR. The present study evaluates the effect of BR and the performance of the prescribed exercise countermeasures on plasma steroid levels. In a 30-day BR study of male subjects, the efficacy of isotonic (ITE, n = 7) or isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training was evaluated in contrast to no exercise (n = 5). These exercise countermeasures protected aerobic performance and leg strength successfully. BR alone (no-exercise group) did not change steroidogenesis, as assessed by the plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, aldosterone, and free (FT) and total testosterone (TT). In the exercise groups, both FT and TT were decreased (P < 0.05): FT during IKE from 24 +/- 1.7 to 18 +/- 2.0 pg/ml and during ITE from 21 +/- 1.5 to 18 +/- 1 pg/ml, and TT during IKE from 748 +/- 68 to 534 +/- 46 ng/dl and during ITE from 565 +/- 36 to 496 +/- 38 ng/dl. The effect of intensive exercise countermeasures on plasma testosterone was not associated with indexes of overtraining. The reduction in plasma testosterone associated with both the IKE and ITE countermeasures during BR supports our hypothesis that intensive exercise countermeasures may, in part, contribute to changes in plasma steroid concentrations during spaceflight.

  5. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  6. Testosterone Depletion Induces Demethylation of Murine Reelin Promoter CpG Dinucleotides: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Victor Augusto Moraes; Dantas, Marília de Souza; Silva, Leonardo Agostinho de Castro; Carneiro, Juliana Garcia; Schamber-Reis, Bruno Luiz Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by psychotic events, abnormal social behavior, false beliefs, and auditory hallucinations. Hypermethylation of the promoter region of reelin (RELN), a gene involved in regulation of neuronal positioning during telencephalic development, is strongly associated with low protein expression in several cortical structures and promoter hypermethylation in brain from postmortem SZ subjects. Recent experimental data suggests that testosterone is able to promote RELN demethylation, although no direct evidence of hormonal influence on reelin promoter methylation was obtained. We investigated if reduced levels of plasma testosterone in adult male mice lead to Reln promoter demethylation. Animals were administered with flutamide, an antiandrogenic compound, and reelin promoter methylation was assessed using methylationspecific PCR using bisulfite DNA from cerebellum. We found that flutamide was able to significantly lower plasma testosterone when compared to control mice, and treatment did not influence animal survival and body weight. We also show that low plasma testosterone was associated with demethylation of a cytosine residue located at -860 in reelin promoter region. These preliminary data suggest that androgenic hormones can influence cerebral reelin demethylation. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental approach directly linking testosterone depletion and RELN promoter methylation. PMID:26526966

  7. Strategies to Circumvent Testosterone Surge and Disease Flare in Advanced Prostate Cancer: Emerging Treatment Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Pokuri, Venkata K; Nourkeyhani, Houman; Betsy, Bodie; Herbst, Laurie; Sikorski, Marcus; Spangenthal, Edward; Fabiano, Andrew; George, Saby

    2015-07-01

    The testosterone surge and disease flare is a feared complication from initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma. It is a common practice to start an average 7-day pretreatment regimen with an antiandrogen agent before initiating GnRH agonist therapy, to circumvent disease flare from testosterone surge. However, this might not be the best strategy and can be harmful, especially in patients at high risk of imminent organ damage from minimal testosterone surge. Surgical castration is a simple and cost-effective method that should be considered in these scenarios. But most patients refuse this procedure because of the permanent and psychologic impact of surgery. Novel GnRH antagonists, such as degarelix, and cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, achieve castrate-equivalent serum testosterone levels much faster than traditional GnRH agonists without the need for coadministration of antiandrogens. This article reports on 3 cases of impending oncologic emergencies in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma treated promptly with degarelix and ketoconazole without any disease flare related to testosterone surge. In the setting of symptomatic hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, the authors suggest clinical trials using abiraterone, orteronel, and other newer agents that target the CYP17 axis (eg, ketoconazole) for fine-tuning the emergent medical castration methods and avoiding the dangers from the flare phenomenon. PMID:26150586

  8. Prenatal testosterone exposure is related to sexually dimorphic facial morphology in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Shafait, Faisal; Mian, Ajmal; Tan, Diana Weiting; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hart, Roger; Handelsman, David J; Goonawardene, Mithran; Eastwood, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal testosterone may have a powerful masculinizing effect on postnatal physical characteristics. However, no study has directly tested this hypothesis. Here, we report a 20-year follow-up study that measured testosterone concentrations from the umbilical cord blood of 97 male and 86 female newborns, and procured three-dimensional facial images on these participants in adulthood (range: 21-24 years). Twenty-three Euclidean and geodesic distances were measured from the facial images and an algorithm identified a set of six distances that most effectively distinguished adult males from females. From these distances, a 'gender score' was calculated for each face, indicating the degree of masculinity or femininity. Higher cord testosterone levels were associated with masculinized facial features when males and females were analysed together (n = 183; r = -0.59), as well as when males (n = 86; r = -0.55) and females (n = 97; r = -0.48) were examined separately (p-values < 0.001). The relationships remained significant and substantial after adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Adult circulating testosterone concentrations were available for males but showed no statistically significant relationship with gendered facial morphology (n = 85, r = 0.01, p = 0.93). This study provides the first direct evidence of a link between prenatal testosterone exposure and human facial structure. PMID:26400740

  9. A novel use for testosterone to treat central sensitization of chronic pain in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    White, Hillary D; Robinson, Thomas D

    2015-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a diffuse chronic pain condition that occurs predominantly in women and may be under-reported in men. Symptoms include a loss of feeling of well-being and generalized widespread flu-like muscle aches and pain that fail to resolve due to central sensitization of nociceptive neurons. It has commonalities with a myriad of other chronic pain conditions which include PTSD, "Gulf War Syndrome", and various stress-induced conditions caused, for example, by viral infection, emotional or physical stress, trauma, combat, accident or surgery. It is not understood why some individuals are susceptible to this condition and others are not. White et al., elsewhere in this issue, present a clinical feasibility study designed to test the hypothesis that 1) low or deficient testosterone serum levels are linked to a high risk for an inflamed nociceptive nervous system and resultant chronic pain states, and 2) a testosterone transdermal gel applied once a day by fibromyalgia patients can be an effective therapeutic against chronic pain. Here, a short profile of fibromyalgia is provided along with a brief summary of best practices currently recommended by clinical specialists. The link between testosterone and pain is then discussed, with an overview of scientific studies that lay the foundation for testosterone as a possible important additional therapeutic that has the potential to be safely administered and effective but also avoid the adverse effects of other therapeutics. Finally, novel mechanisms by which testosterone therapy is likely to down-modulate pain signaling are proposed. PMID:26004314

  10. The link between testosterone and amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex connectivity in adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sabine; Jolles, Dietsje J; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the most problematic and widespread forms of risk taking in adolescence. It has been hypothesized that sex hormones such as testosterone play an important role in risk taking by influencing the development of brain networks involved in emotion and motivation, particularly the amygdala and its functional connections. Connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be specifically related to alcohol use, given the association of this tract with top-down control over behavioral approach tendencies. In line with this, prior studies in adults indicate a link between alcohol use and functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as between testosterone and amygdala-OFC connectivity. We consolidated these research lines by investigating the association between alcohol use, testosterone and resting state functional brain connectivity within one large-scale adolescent sample (n=173, aged 12-25 years). Mediation analyses demonstrated an indirect effect of testosterone levels on alcohol use through amygdala-OFC intrinsic functional connectivity, but only in boys. That is, increased testosterone in boys was associated with reduced amygdala-OFC connectivity, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol intake. This study is the first to demonstrate the interplay between adolescent alcohol use, sex hormones and brain mechanisms, thus taking an important step to increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind this form of adolescent risk-taking. PMID:25618591

  11. Peripheral metabolism of testosterone during puberty in the male guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Robert, A; Delost, P

    1978-07-01

    Variations in the metabolic clearance rate and the production rate of testosterone during puberty in the male guinea-pig were established by single injection and constant infusion methods. Similar results were obtained; MCR (1/24h) increases from Day 20 to Day 70 and then stabilizes between Days 70 and 90 to levels comparable to those of a 6-month-old adult. MCR as 1/24 h/100 g decreases steadily between Days 20 and 60. The evolution of the testosterone production rate (PR: ng/24 h) is characterized by a marked rise between Days 20 and 70, and then a decrease up to Day 90, continuing until 6 months. PR as ng/24 h/100 g increases between Days 20 and 40, remains stable until Day 70, then decreases. Testosterone half-life is stable throughout the pubertal period. The rate of conversion of testosterone to androstenedione remains stable except for a rise between Days 50 and 60. We conclude that the increase in testosterone concentrations during puberty is due to a rise in the production rate and not to a decrease of clearance rate. PMID:690973

  12. Precocious puberty secondary to topical testosterone exposure.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Sherry Lynn; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of pronounced virilization, including marked penile and pubic hair growth, accelerated height velocity and skeletal maturation, and increased muscle mass in a 2.67 year-old boy resulting from presumed inadvertent, long-term exposure to a topical testosterone cream being used by his father. PMID:12585348

  13. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  14. Circulating testosterone and prostate-specific antigen in nipple aspirate fluid and tissue are associated with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Edward R; Tichansky, David S; Chervoneva, Inna; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary evidence has associated testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with breast cancer. Our objective was to determine whether a) testosterone levels in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), serum, or breast tissue are associated with breast cancer; b) testosterone levels in serum are associated with levels in NAF; c) PSA in NAF, serum, or breast tissue is associated with breast cancer; and d) serum PSA is associated with NAF PSA levels. We obtained 342 NAF specimens from 171 women by means of a modified breast pump. Additionally, we collected 201 blood samples from 99 women and 51 tissue samples from 41 subjects who underwent surgical resection for suspected disease. Women currently using birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy were excluded from the study. Controlling for age and menopausal status, serum testosterone was significantly increased in women with breast cancer (p = 0.002). NAF and serum testosterone levels were not associated. Neither NAF nor tissue testosterone was associated with breast cancer. Controlling for menopausal status and age, NAF PSA was significantly decreased in women with breast cancer (p < 0.001). We did not find serum PSA to be associated with breast cancer, although we found an indication that, in postmenopausal women, its levels were lower in women with cancer. Serum PSA was associated with NAF PSA in postmenopausal women (p < 0.001). PSA levels in cancerous tissue were significantly lower than in benign breast specimens from subjects without cancer (p = 0.011), whereas levels of PSA in histologically benign specimens from subjects with cancer were intermediate. Our results suggest that serum testosterone is increased and NAF PSA is decreased in women with breast cancer, with PSA expression being higher in normal than in cancerous breast tissues. NAF and serum PSA levels in postmenopausal women are correlated, suggesting that as laboratory assessment of PSA becomes more sensitive, serum PSA may become useful in

  15. Testing the interactive effects of testosterone and parasites on carotenoid-based ornamentation in a wild bird.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Padilla, J; Mougeot, F; Webster, L M I; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Piertney, S B

    2010-05-01

    Testosterone underlies the expression of most secondary sexual traits, playing a key role in sexual selection. However, high levels might be associated with physiological costs, such as immunosuppression. Immunostimulant carotenoids underpin the expression of many red-yellow ornaments, but are regulated by testosterone and constrained by parasites. We manipulated testosterone and nematode burdens in red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) in two populations to tease apart their effects on carotenoid levels, ornament size and colouration in three time-step periods. We found no evidence for interactive effects of testosterone and parasites on ornament size and colouration. We showed that ornament colouration was testosterone-driven. However, parasites decreased comb size with a time delay and testosterone increased carotenoid levels in one of the populations. This suggests that environmental context plays a key role in determining how individuals resolve the trade-off between allocating carotenoids for ornamental coloration or for self-maintenance needs. Our study advocates that adequately testing the mechanisms behind the production or maintenance of secondary sexual characters has to take into account the dynamics of sexual trait expression and their environmental context. PMID:20536879

  16. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; Bonanni, G; Mattarello, M J; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Palermo, M

    2003-09-01

    We have previously found that licorice can reduce serum testosterone in healthy men. These results were not confirmed in another study, where the same amounts of licorice did not decrease salivary testosterone values. In the actual study we treated more cases with the same amount of licorice and reproduced our previous data. The mean testosterone values decreased by 26 % after one week of treatment (p < 0.01). There was also a significant increase in 17-OHP and LH concentrations and a