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Sample records for biochemical blood parameters

  1. Laser correlation spectroscopy for determining biochemical parameters of whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Prigun, Natali P.

    1999-02-01

    Correlation spectroscopy methods are widely used to study dynamical, morphological and optical parameters of biological objects. This work makes an attempt to explore these methods (in particular, due to their expressively) for diagnosing whole blood under normal and pathological states (cardiovascular diseases). Not only morphological characteristics of blood elements are known to change under diseases, but also its biochemical composition does. However, the biochemical analysis of blood is rather time and labor consuming. The paper is directed to investigate the correlation between optical characteristics of light scattering by blood and its biochemical parameters. Samples of whole blood were in vitro investigated for ills with different diagnoses and extend of cardio-vascular diseases as well as for essentially healthy donors. Simultaneous with the above characteristics we have monitored volumetric concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocytes and hemoglobin. The analysis of obtained results has show that the width of spectrum is greater for samples from healthy persons then from ills. Comparison of measured data on frequency spectrum, diffuse reflectivity's, biochemical and morphological blood parameters of the studied samples has shown the high correlation between the spectrum halfwidth and concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocyte setting rate. Some poorer correlation with spectrum occurs for concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. Thus, these are revealed an opportunity to design on express non-invasive method for determining the possibility of atherosclerotic disease.

  2. Infrared spectra in monitoring biochemical parameters of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Jain, N.; Singh, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is gaining recognition as a promising method. The infrared spectra of selected regions (2000-400cm-1) of blood tissue samples are reported. Present study related to the role of spectral peak fitting in the study of human blood and quantitative interpretations of infrared spectra based on chemometrics. The spectral variations are interpreted in terms of the biochemical and pathological processes involved. The mean RNA/DNA ratio of fitted intensities and analytical area as calculated from the transmittance peaks at 1121cm-1/1020cm-1 is found to be 0.911A.U and 2.00A.U. respectively. The ratio of 1659cm-1/1544cm-1 (amide-I/amide-II) bands is found to shed light on the change in the DNA content. The ratio of amide-I/amide-II is almost unity (≈1.054) for blood spectra. The deviation from unity is an indication of DNA absorption from the RBC cells. The total phosphate content has found to be 25.09A.U. The level for glycogen/phosphate ratio (areas under peaks 1030cm-1/1082cm-1) is found to be 0.286A.U. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated carbonyl compounds (C=O) in blood samples is in form of esters and the analytical areas under the spectral peaks at 1740cm-1 and 1731cm-1 for unsaturated esters and saturated esters respectively found to be 0.618A.U.

  3. [Blood biochemical parameters of tilted primates periodically subjected to gravitational stimuli].

    PubMed

    Dotsenko, M A; Aiusheva, I A; Rudneva, R I; Korol'kov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Head-down tilting of primates (HOT) is a universal method of studying the hypokinetic syndrome effects on functionality of various body systems. Clinical biochemical blood assay was performed in a 25-day HDT experiment (-5 degrees) with 11 Macaca rhesus. One group of animals was kept tilted all the time through, whereas the other was periodically returned into the orthostatic position for 30 to 120 minutes 4-5 times a week. Dry chemistry was employed in biochemical analysis of blood serum and enzyme immunodetection (EID) in measuring blood hormones. As a rule, the biochemical parameters of primates' serum were within the physiological norm range. Shifts in protein, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism were sought for and enzymic activity in blood serum and hormone concentrations were determined. HDT did not produce noteworthy changes in blood concentrations of somatotropic hormone, thyrotrophic hormone (TTH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) or cortisol. Animals of both groups showed statistically reliable decrease in blood osteocalcine. The preventive complex did not contribute materially to the control of metabolic homeostasis and endocrine function of the primates adapting to the 25-day HDT. PMID:18350838

  4. Modulation of specific biochemical blood parameters by helminth infection in laboratory Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Szweda, M; Szarek, J; Babińska, I; Sokół, R; Raś-Noryńska, M; Kołodziejska-Sawerska, A; Mecik-Kronenberg, T

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent effect of helminths infection on biochemical blood parameters in Beagles intended for laboratory use which may contribute to a change of experimental results. As a result of research, the authors confirmed the negative effect of helminth invasion on the metabolism of the liver and kidney in laboratory dogs. Stool samples from thirty Beagle puppies were examined for parasites before the puppies were moved to the animal facility, and all were dewormed with Vetminth paste on the day they were moved. Stool examination was performed three more times and animals were given Drontal Plus flavor (Bayer) and Baycox 5% (Bayer). A fourth parasitological examination revealed no intestinal parasites in the feces. Three blood biochemical tests were performed. Experimental results clearly indicate the significant impact of intestinal parasites in dogs used in experiments. PMID:22844719

  5. The dynamics of blood biochemical parameters in cosmonauts during long-term space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markin, Andrei; Strogonova, Lubov; Balashov, Oleg; Polyakov, Valery; Tigner, Timoty

    Most of the previously obtained data on cosmonauts' metabolic state concerned certain stages of the postflight period. In this connection, all conclusions, as to metabolism peculiarities during the space flight, were to a large extent probabilistic. The purpose of this work was study of metabolism characteristics in cosmonauts directly during long-term space flights. In the capillary blood samples taken from a finger, by "Reflotron IV" biochemical analyzer, "Boehringer Mannheim" GmbH, Germany, adapted to weightlessness environments, the activity of GOT, GPT, CK, gamma-GT, total and pancreatic amylase, as well as concentration of hemoglobin, glucose, total bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total, HDL- and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides had been determined. HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio also was computed. The crewmembers of 6 main missions to the "Mir" orbital station, a total of 17 cosmonauts, were examined. Biochemical tests were carryed out 30-60 days before lounch, and in the flights different stages between the 25-th and the 423-rd days of flights. In cosmonauts during space flight had been found tendency to increase, in compare with basal level, GOT, GPT, total amylase activity, glucose and total cholesterol concentration, and tendency to decrease of CK activity, hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol concentration, and HDL/LDL — cholesterol ratio. Some definite trends in variations of other determined biochemical parameters had not been found. The same trends of mentioned biochemical parameters alterations observed in majority of tested cosmonauts, allows to suppose existence of connection between noted metabolic alterations with influence of space flight conditions upon cosmonaut's body. Variations of other studied blood biochemical parameters depends on, probably, pure individual causes.

  6. The effects of copper on blood and biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dethloff, G.M.; Schlenk, D.; Khan, S.; Bailey, H.C.

    1999-01-01

    Metals are released into aquatic systems from many sources, often at sublethal concentrations. The effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on fish are not entirely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical effects of a range of copper concentrations (6.4, 16.0, 26.9 ??g Cu/L) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) over a prolonged period of time. Trout were exposed to copper, and, at intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, and plasma cortisol levels were elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L at day 3 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Plasma protein and lactate levels were not significantly altered in trout from any copper treatment. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression were consistently elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L. Both of these parameters stabilized by day 3, with only hepatic copper concentration showing a further increase at day 21. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression appear to be robust indicators of copper exposure. Most blood-based parameters evaluated appear to be associated with a transitory, nonspecific stress response. The return of elevated hematological and biochemical parameters to control levels after 3 days and thestabilization of hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression and copper concentration over a similar time period suggested acclimation to dissolved copper at 26.9 ??g/L. Further analysis of the data on blood-based parameters indicated that certain parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) may be useful in field monitoring.

  7. Effect of age and gender on some blood biochemical parameters of apparently healthy small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Shumaila; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Khan, Bakhtyawar Ali; Durrani, Sobia; Ali, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report and compare the hematological and serum biochemical profile of goat and sheep from Rahim Yar Khan district in Southern Punjab. Methods One hundred and twenty blood samples (98 goat and 22 sheep) were collected and their blood glucose, hemoglobin and serum biochemical parameters, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by using spectrophotometer. Parameters were compared between goat and sheep. Results It was observed that glucose (P=0.001), LDH (P=0.001) and ALT (P=0.001) concentrations differed significantly between sheep and goats. The studied parameters were compared between buck and goats and also between young goats (less than 12 months old) and adults (more than 12 months old). It was found that age and gender did not affect these hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusions It can be concluded that sheep have overall higher values than goats for studied hematological and serum biochemical parameters. PMID:23569919

  8. Blood concentration of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead in horses and its relation to hematological and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Halo, Marko; Formicki, Grzegorz; Lukac, Norbert; Cupka, Peter; Schwarcz, Pavol; Kovacik, Anton; Tusimova, Eva; Kovacik, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution results in serious health hazards to animals and blood analysis serves as a good alternative for health status assessment. The target of this study was to analyze the concentration of selected metals in equine blood, to analyze the blood parameters and to find possible correlations. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of healthy adult horses. The highest concentration of all elements was found in whole blood (Cu 3.84 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Cd = 0.81 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Zn 26.67 ± 14.12 mg L(-1); Pb 9.33 ± 5.76 mg L(-1)). Higher concentrations of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead were detected in blood clots compared to blood sera (44.04%). A similar tendency was found for cadmium (50%), zinc (13.08%) and lead (46.02%), which showed generally higher concentrations in blood clots (cells). Correlation analysis proved some relations between analyzed elements. In blood clots there is a strong positive correlation between Cd - Pb (r = 0.93) and Zn - Pb (r = 0.71) was detected. For biochemical and hematological parameters mainly medium correlations were detected. Obtained results prove different correlations of analyzed elements in blood components as well as the effect on parameters of blood biochemical and hematological profiles. PMID:24766599

  9. The Effects of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Blood Hematological-Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Attarzadeh Hosseini, Seyyed Reza; Hejazi, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious obligation and belief for healthy adult Muslims. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Ramadan Fasting and physical activity on ‘Blood Hematological-Biochemical Parameters’. Materials and Methods: In this study, twenty-six healthy males in two experimental groups were compared in two different instances before and after the training period. The groups which were selected by convenience sampling method were divided into two non-active fasting (n=13) and active fasting (n=13) groups. For comparison purposes between groups, paired and independent sample t-test was performed, respectively, after ensuring their normality within a significance level of P≤0.05. Results: HDL-C increased significantly in both active and non-active fasting groups, Moreover, amount of hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), TC, LDL, VLDL, LDL/HDL and TC/ HDL decreased significantly. Amount of hemoglobin (Hgb) and glucose reduced significantly in the active-fasting group. The variation of the means between the groups in the Hgb index and LDL/HDL were statistically significant. Conclusion: Fasting during the month of Ramadan by regular physical activity caused positive alterations in Hematological-Biochemical Index. These changes may be due to the alterations in diet, biology response of the body to the starving and physical activity during this month. PMID:23997915

  10. The Effect of Occupational Noise Exposure on Blood and Biochemical Parameters: A Case Study of an Insulator Manufacturer in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hamzeh; Alimohammadi, Iraj; Roshani, Saman; Pakzad, Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad Bagher; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Occupational noise is among the most critical occupational hazards, which, in addition to hearing loss, can cause other adverse consequences on an individual’s physical and mental health. Long-term exposure to noise can affect blood and biochemical parameters and subsequently lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of occupational exposure to noise on blood and biochemical parameters of workers in an insulator manufacturing plant. Methods This case-control study was conducted on workers in the production section (49 people as a case group) and the administrative staff (10 people as a control group) in one insulator manufacturing plant from 2010 to 2014. To assess individual exposure of workers to noise, the noise dosimeter model TES-1355 was used. Noise dosimetry testing was done based on the exposure pattern of workers to noise in compliance with the Iranian national standard (the criterion level of 85 dBA and the exchange rate of Q = 3 dBA). Blood parameters such as blood glucose, cholesterol, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were studied in production workers (case) and administrative staff (control) over five consecutive years. The data were analyzed by software (SPSS-22) using the t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Fisher exact test, and Greenhouse-Geisser test. Results No significant difference was found among the demographic data of the two groups (p > 0.05). Average of glucose and cholesterol levels in the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05) and blood glucose levels in the case group significantly reduced over time and cholesterol increased (p < 0.001). Mean difference of RBC number, WBC number, and serum levels of Hb and Hct was statistically significant between the two groups (p < 0.05). In addition, these hematological parameters increased among workers during these years. Conclusion Occupational exposure to noise may have a significant effect on an individual’s blood parameters, which will cause harmful effects on worker health. Therefore, industrialists must take preventive measures in the field of noise control. PMID:26955444

  11. [Biochemical parameters of blood plasma of the harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777 (Pinnipedia, Procidae) of various ages].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    2007-01-01

    Results of study of several blood biochemical parameters of the harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777, from birth to the adult state are presented. The following age groups of the animals have been studied--newborns, 1.5-2 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and adults (older than 6 months). The content of total protein and its fractions, free amine nitrogen, urea, creatinine, glucose, total lipids, total calcium, and inorganic phosphorus was determined in the seal blood plasma. Differences of the degree of expression of levels of all studied parameters in the course of early postnatal ontogenesis of the animals have been established. The most significant metabolic changes in the harp seals were revealed at the period of end of weaning and transition to independent ingestion and then after the first year of life. PMID:17725029

  12. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Improved some of Biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Disturbances of Red Blood Cells in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Zare Moaiedi, Maasoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has a broad spectrum of biologic properties against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GSPE on biochemical factors and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocyte in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced through single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg.Kg-1, i.p). Forty Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four Groups: Group 1, healthy control group; Group 2, healthy group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1); Group 3, diabetic control group; Group 4, diabetic group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1) for 4 weeks. At the end, the experimental animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected and plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. The results show, treatment with GSPE significantly reduced (P<0.001) urine volume, proteinuria and biochemical factors such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein as well as malondialdehyde. Also GSPE treatment significantly (P<0.005) increased high density lipoprotein, total protein and albumin. Moreover GSPE significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity such as: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. These results suggest that GSPE can ameliorate biochemical abnormalities and antioxidant system status in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats probably by its potent antioxidant features. PMID:25561939

  13. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and blood biochemical parameters in patients prepared for bariatric surgery: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Morbid obesity needs to be treated by bariatric procedures. Proper dietary preparation of patients before surgery conditions their postoperative status. Aim Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and biochemical parameters of the blood in patients being prepared for different bariatric procedures. Material and methods The study involved a group of 27 obese adults: 19 women (mean age: 40.4 ±13.9 years) and 8 men (mean age: 39.6 ±12.7 years) qualified for bariatric procedures. Body composition, dietary habits and selected biochemical parameters of blood were assessed. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using Statistica 9.0. Results Daily food rations consumed by women provided 1910.6 ±915.9 kcal/day, and by men 2631 ±1463.2 kcal/day on average. In both groups, the consumption of major nutrients was found to be inadequate. In both groups, deficiency was observed in the dietary intake of folic acid and potassium. Additionally, there was a decrease in the intake of vitamin D3, calcium and iron in women and magnesium in men. In the two groups, disturbances were noted in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions Our study indicates the necessity for dietary instructions in bariatric patients with regard to proper dietary habits and to reduce the risk of malnutrition before and after surgery. PMID:23256020

  14. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    PubMed

    Bubel, F; Dobrzański, Z; Gaweł, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l). PMID:25928920

  15. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, J. W.; Wang, X. P.; Wang, C. Y.; Zhu, Y. L.; Li, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, nitrogen (N) metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.001). The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN) content linearly decreased (0.047), while digestible N (DN), retained N (RN), efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN) and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN) linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively). Serum phosphorus (P) ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036). The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG) (p = 0.002) and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) content (p = 0.016). The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE) in the plasma (p<0.001). In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits. PMID:25049763

  16. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  17. Correlation of different biochemical parameters in blood sera of healthy and sick cows.

    PubMed

    Klimiene, I; Spakauskas, V; Matusevicius, A

    2005-02-01

    Metabolic diseases of cows represent the leading internal pathology in Lithuania in terms of incidence and economic impact. This paper summarizes the mineral metabolic state of milk cows, and details the influence of feeding on serum levels of calcium, nonorganic phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, glucose, total protein, and urea quantity, and correlationd among them, in healthy dry or post-calving cows as well as in cows with osteomalacia and milk fever after calving. There was less pronounced hypocalcaemia and there were only minor changes in phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium in the serum of healthy dry and post-calving cows that had silage and mineral-vitamin supplements, compared to cows that did not have supplements and silage. There was a fall in calcium and phosphorus (to 1.89 +/- 0.12 mmol/L and 0.71 +/- 0.06 mmol/L, respectively) in the blood of cows sick with milk fever after calving, while levels of magnesium and potassium were increased. The correlation between calcium and phosphorus was r = 0.6993, p < 0.001 in the serum of sick cows. There was a fall in calcium, phosphorus and magnesium (to 1.86 +/- 0.46 mmol/L, 0.75 +/- 0.37 mmol/L, and 0.60 +/- 0.19 mmol/L, respectively) and an increase in sodium level (to 158.90 +/- 19.30 mmol/L) in the blood of cows with osteomalacia in comparison with healthy cows. PMID:15730133

  18. Changes in selected biochemical parameters in the kidney and blood of the fish, Tilapia mossambica (Peters), exposed to heptachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Radhaiah, V.; Girija, M.; Rao, K.J.

    1987-12-01

    Pesticides used in pest control programs seem to produce many physiological and biochemical changes in fresh water organisms by influencing the activities of several enzymes. Alterations in the chemical composition of the natural aquatic environment usually effect behavioral and physiological systems of the inhabitants, particularly of the fish. Although some data are available on the effects of different pesticides on the biochemical aspects of fish gill, data on heptachlor toxicity on T. mossambica kidney are lacking. Therefore, an attempt has been made to observe certain biochemical paramets of fish, T. mossambica under heptachlor intoxication. Investigation of this nature is useful in understanding the orientation of biochemical changes during sublethal toxicity to ascertain the degree of intensity of the toxicity of heptachlor on the kidney.

  19. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions. PMID:24096939

  20. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  1. On the correlation between individual biochemical parameters of human blood serum following space flight and their basal values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Huntoon, C.; Natochin, Yu. V.

    The article presents data concerning the osmolality and concentration of electrolytes and hormones regulating their balance for blood serum of 223 cosmonauts and astronauts. The obtained results allow us to judge the constancy of physicochemical parameters for the blood serum of healthy individuals and how they react to extreme conditions of space flight. The parameters used for evaluation included not just absolute values for the examined indices, but also how they responded to space flight, the dependence on baseline values and the interrelationship between ions. These data are important to predict the effect of exposure to extreme conditions and point to what extent the effect depends on the characteristics of the individual.

  2. [Bone healing and biochemical blood parameters after arteficial osteotomy of rabbits' femur treated by low-frequency magnetic field].

    PubMed

    Turk, Z

    2001-01-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the effect of magnetic fields on bone fracture healing and biochemical indices of bone turnover. Young male "White Newzealand Rabbits" were exposed after osteotomy of the femur of the hind-paw in narcosis for 31 days in a low-frequency magnetic field (field parameters: frequency 15.3 Hz, signal form: sine, magnetic field strength: 50 microT peak value). Eight animals each were assigned randomly for a single blind study to 3 groups. Controls were kept in a sham-exposition cage without magnetic field influence and were compared with a group in (Pseudo-) Helmholtz-coil arrangement with a horizontal magnetic field and a further group in a cylinder coil (vertical magnetic field). The daily duration of stay in the (sham-) exposition arrangements amounted to 30 minutes respectively. The activities of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) and creatinkinase (CK) were evaluated preoperatively, after the 19th and 31st experimental day, the callus density by means of computertomography after the 31st experimental day (two-tailed t-test). The densitometrically assessed callus densities of the magnetically treated groups were highly significant (p < 0.0001) compared with the controls. In spite of accelerated fracture healing the activities of the ALP were lower at both postoperative examinations than preoperatively, in the cylinder-coil the activity proved to be significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the controls after 31 days. Significant differences in CK were detected at no time. In conclusion, we confirm the positive magnetic field effects on fracture healing. The mechanisms of interaction of magnetic field and bone fracture healing remain to be clarified. PMID:15503621

  3. Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

  4. The effect of feeding rations with different ratios of concentrate to alfalfa hay on blood hematological and biochemical parameters of farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Kazemi-Bonchenari, Mehdi; Khaltabadi-Farahani, Amir Hossein; Khodaei Motlagh, Mahdi

    2013-10-01

    A two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. A total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. In the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h of fasting. All rations resulted in no significant change in hematological parameters. However, with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.089); whereas the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) tended to be higher (P values 0.069, 0.072 and 0.094, respectively). In terms of plasma biochemical parameters, increasing the ratio of concentrate to alfalfa hay in ostrich diets resulted in significant (P < 0.05) depression in the values of glucose (up to 20.2 %), total cholesterol (up to 19.2 %), creatine kinase (up to 27.9 %), and aspartate aminotransferase (up to 29.9 %). Additionally, the 65:35 or 60:40 rations caused a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (27.9 and 42 %, respectively; P = 0.008) compared to the 70:40 ration. Without exception, no rations affected the values of leukocyte subsets, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein. Based on our results, the concentrate to alfalfa ratio of 60:40 could be suggested as optimum ratio for good health conditions of juvenile ostriches. PMID:23575919

  5. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  6. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Morphine on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters in an Inflammatory Condition in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chahkandi, Mohadeseh; Askari, Nayerreh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Opiates affect blood factors as well as pain and inflammation in a gender-dependent manner. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of morphine on serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea in gonadectomized and inflammation conditions. Methods Animals were divided as follows: control group, carrageenan and chronic morphine recipients, acute morphine recipients, chronic morphine recipients, carrageenan recipients, acute morphine and carrageenan recipients, gonadectomized group, gonadectomized recipients of carrageenan, gonadectomized recipients of morphine, gonadectomized recipients of chronic morphine, gonadectomized recipients of carrageenan and chronic morphine, gonadectomized recipients of acute morphine and carrageenan. Findings Our results have shown that acute and chronic morphine elevates blood glucose level in the acute and chronic morphine group. Cholesterol level has shown to be increasing in the morphine and carrageenan recipient group compared with a group which merely received morphine. Triglyceride has shown to be decreasing in acute and chronic morphine recipient group compared with control group. A significant increase in serum urea was observed in acute and chronic morphine recipients compared with the carrageenan recipient group. Conclusion Morphine alters the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and urea in the normal and inflammatory conditions differently, hence, this finding should be considered in the patients who use morphine as a relief of pain, especially in an inflammatory condition. PMID:26885349

  7. Effects of dietary crude protein and electrolyte balance on production parameters and blood biochemicals of laying hens under tropical summer condition.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP) and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on productive performance, egg quality, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared during hot summer months. The average minimum and maximum room temperatures recorded from 32 to 42 weeks of age were 27.2 and 36.5 °C, respectively, with relative humidity ranging from 48 to 56 %. A total of 144 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens were assigned to each of four dietary treatments with six replicate cages of six birds. The treatments were as follows: CP 15.4 % + DEB 165 mEq/kg (group 1), CP 15.4 % + DEB 250 mEq/kg (group 2), CP 13.9 % + DEB 165 mEq/kg (group 3), and CP 13.9 % + DEB 250 mEq/kg (group 4). In groups 3 and 4, feed conversion ratio and blood uric acid were decreased (P < 0.05); but the plasma triglyceride level was increased (P < 0.05) compared to groups 1 and 2. Low-CP diet with DEB 250 (group 4) also induced significant increases of average egg production and eggshell thickness compared to group 1. Blood pH, Na(+), and HCO3 (-) values were also higher (P < 0.05) in groups 2 and 4 than in the other groups. These results indicate that, under tropical conditions, using a DEB of 250 mEq/kg achieves a correction of the lay-induced metabolic acidosis and induces a positive effect on eggshell quality when the hens were fed low-protein diet. PMID:24531894

  8. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). The FCR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly lower than the control (p < 0.05). Carps on B2, B3, and B4 diets showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of triglyceride than the control. B4-fed carps showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol than the control. However there was no remarkable difference (p > 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the content of MHC among the five groups. In conclusion, antimicrobial peptide can reduce triglyceride levels in serum, enrich oxidation resistance, and improve immunity of the common carp. It showed that appropriate concentration of antibacterial peptide as supplements in diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. PMID:26386195

  9. Some blood biochemical parameter values in a herd of American bison (Bison bison L.) from an experimental animal farm in Poland.

    PubMed

    Brzuski, Paweł; Cywicka, Dominika; Hedrzak, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The blood samples of 17 bison (7 cows, a heifer, a young bull and 8 calves) formed the basis for conducting analyses of blood plasma. The measurements were carried out by using ionoselective electrodes aided by a Hitachi 917 biochemical analyser. An interpretation of the results was possible due to comparison with the results of similar analyses completed in the United States. Many differences in blood chemistry values in bison bred at Kurozweki were found in comparison to bison from the US. PMID:20968177

  10. The suitability of some blood gas and biochemical parameters as diagnostic tools or early indicators of ascites syndrome in broiler sire lines.

    PubMed

    Hasanpur, K; Nassiri, M R; Hosseini Salekdeh, G; Vaez Torshizi, R; Pakdel, A; Kermanshahi, H; Naghous, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent few years, there have been some attempts to find a reliable indicator trait as a selection criterion against susceptibility to ascites syndrome (AS). Blood parameters were of great interest as they could be measured in live animals without implementing an ascites-inducing challenge (AIC). In this work, the suitability of some blood parameters was evaluated for diagnosing AS-susceptible chicks in later steps of the disease in trial 1 as well as their early predictive ability in trial 2. In the first trial, one hundred 1-day-old chicks from two pure broiler lines namely S1 and S2 and, in the second trial, 226 1-day-old chicks from line S2 were subjected to AIC. Saline drinking water (1200 mg/l) and lower-than-standard ambient temperatures were the implemented AICs in trials 1 and 2 respectively. The blood parameters including pH, partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ), bicarbonate ion concentration (BIC), percentage of haematocrit (HCT) and saturated haemoglobin (SaO2 ) were measured twice per each bird at days 28 and 35 in trial 1 and once in trial 2 at day 21. The results of the first trial revealed that in line S2 some of the blood parameters differed significantly between the ascitic and non-ascitic groups following exposure to AIC. In this line, the incidence of AS was accompanied by a lower pO2 , SaO2 and BIC, while with higher pCO2 and HCT values. In the second trial, however, although almost all of the parameters showed meaningful differences between the ascitic and non-ascitic broilers, only mean difference of BIC parameter was statistically significant. The general conclusion of this study is that the blood parameters can somewhat have diagnostic ability in the condition in which the AIC is already present, whereas the results did not approve their usefulness as early predictors of AS. PMID:26608233

  11. Biochemical effects of lead exposure on systolic & diastolic blood pressure, heme biosynthesis and hematological parameters in automobile workers of north karnataka (India).

    PubMed

    Dongre, Nilima N; Suryakar, Adinath N; Patil, Arun J; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Rathi, Dileep B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of lead exposure on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heme biosynthesis related and hematological parameters of automobile workers. For this study 30 automobile workers were selected and compared with 30 age matched healthy control subjects. Significantly increased blood lead (364%, P < 0.001) and urinary lead (176%, P < 0.001) levels were observed in automobile workers (study group) as compared to controls. Systolic blood pressure (5.32%, P < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (5.87%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the automobile workers as compared to controls. The significantly decreased non-activated erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) (-18.51%, P < 0.01) and activated δ-ALAD (-13.29%, P < 0.05) levels were observed in automobile workers as compared to normal healthy control subjects. But the ratio of activated/non-activated δ-ALAD was significantly increased (43.83%, P < 0.001) in automobile workers as compared to controls. Excretions of δ-aminolevulinic acid (83.78%, P < 0.001) and porphobilinogen (37%, P < 0.001) in urine were significantly increased in the study group as compared to the controls. In automobile workers heamoglobin (-11.51%, P < 0.001), hematocrit (-4.06%, P < 0.05), mean corpuscle volume (-3.34%, P < 0.05), mean corpuscle hemoglobin (-5.66%, P < 0.01), mean corpuscle hemoglobin concentration (-7.67%, P < 0.001), red blood cell count (-14.6%, P < 0.001) were significantly decreased and total white blood cell count (11.44%, P < 0.05) increased as compared to the controls. The results of this study clearly indicate that the absorption of lead is more in automobile workers and it affects on blood pressure, heme biosynthesis and hematological parameters observed in this study group. PMID:23024478

  12. Effects of iron-glycine chelate on growth, carcass characteristic, liver mineral concentrations and haematological and biochemical blood parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, M; Samolińska, W; Bujanowicz-Haraś, B

    2015-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of additive iron-glycine chelate on the production performance, slaughter yield, mineral deposition in the liver and the metabolic blood panel in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were allotted into five groups with five replicates of 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with the organic form iron (Fe-Gly at the rate of 25%, 50% or 100% of the total requirements of the elements) and inorganic Fe (FeSO4 at the rate of 50% or 100%). In the experiment, iron was added to the premix (containing no Fe) in an amount of 40 or 20 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups I and II, in the form of FeSO4 , and in an amount of 40, 20 or 10 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups III, IV and V, in the form of Fe-Gly. The study covering the period from the first to the 42nd day of breeding revealed that the production performance and slaughter yield were not dependent on the form and amount of added Fe. In the experimental groups with the addition of Fe-Gly of 20 or 10 mg/kg, there were no deaths of chickens during the whole fattening period. As a result, introducing an organic form of iron covering 50% and 25% of the birds' requirement increased the effectiveness of chicken fattening (European Efficiency Index) (p < 0.01). An organic Fe compound (40, 20 or 10 mg/kg) added to mixtures contributed to significant changes in the level of biochemical and haematological indicators in blood. The study demonstrated that an addition of Fe-Gly to mixtures for broilers can be fully effective in terms of production and health performance even if the suggested requirement for this element is 50% or 25% covered. PMID:25865671

  13. [Effect of stress actions on some hematologic and biochemical parameters of rat blood and on energetic intermolecular interactions in lipid extract under effect of light radiation].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Tavrovskaia, T V; Skverchinskaia, E A; Shukoliukova, E P; Maslov, M N; Krivchenko, A I

    2012-01-01

    Comparative study has been carried of effect of the three-day long starvation, running, and their combination on morphological parameters of rat blood, lipid metabolism, and activity of blood Na,K-ATPase. Different effect has been shown of these stress factors on the blood erythrocyte composition. Starvation is accompanied by the most pronounced release of stored erythrocyte into blood, which results in a significant decrease both of the total amount of reticulocytes and the complete absence of reticulocytes of the I stage of maturity (the youngest). The running on treadmill led to a significant increase of the total amount of blood reticulocytes and to multiple increase of immature reticulocytes (RC-I and RC-II), which can indicate some stress of the bone marrow erythroid stem line. The curve of acid resistance of blood reticulocytes has shown the animal to experience the greatest stress at a combination of starvation and running. Starvation and running produced different effects on blood lipid characteristics. The content of triacylglycerides (TAG) in blood rose by 40% at starvation and decreased by 30% at running, a similar tendency being found for index of atherogeneity. The fatty acid composition of blood phospholipids at running and its combination with starvation practically did not differ from control. A change of Na,K-ATPase, which is so characteristic of reaction to various kinds of stress, sharply fell at starvation (by 22%), but increased at running (by 13%) and decreased markedly at combination of these actions. Absorption spectra of lipid extracts of the whole blood of the rats submitted to various stress actions showed that extracted from blood (at different amount depending on the kind of action) is an organic substance with coupled bonds, which absorbs light in the diapason of 360-620 nm. The absorption of light in the diapason of 400-410 nm has been found to belong to the Soret band of ferroheme and ferriheme. The shift of the Soret band indicates electron transitions in the iron cation. By the change and disappearance of the Soret band, it is possible to judge about the processes occurring in the lipid extract. The disappearance of the Soret band in the lipid extract indicates formation in it of steady radicals as a result of the ferriheme disintegration due to accumulation of energy in porphyrin, which does not seem to occur in the blood cell membranes. The iron atom in the ferriheme molecule is known to accept electron and yields a part of energy probably to porphyrin. Then ferriheme yields electron and becomes ferriheme with excess of energy in porphyrin. Hence, at admission of the next electron to the iron atom the porphyrin molecule is to get rid of the energy obtained earlier to prevent its disintegration. The heme is possible to be an accumulator and distributor of energy in tissue. PMID:23401964

  14. The effects of different levels of Chlorella microalgae on blood biochemical parameters and trace mineral concentrations of laying hens reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi kor, Nasroallah; Akbari, Mohsen; Olfati, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different supplementation levels of Chlorella microalgae on serum metabolites and the plasma content of minerals in laying hens reared under heat stress condition (27.5-36.7 °C, variable). A total number of 378 (40 weeks of age, with mean body weight of 1390 ± 120 g) were randomly allocated to six treatments with seven replicates. The birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (C, T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) with 7 replicate cages of 9 birds. C. microalgae at the rates of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm with water were offered to groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, while group C served as a control. At 71 days of trial, blood samples (14 samples per treatment) were taken for measuring serum metabolites and at 72 days for plasma mineral analysis. The results of this experiment showed that the supplementation of 200-500 ppm C. microalgae decreased the serum content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL ( P < 0.05) whereas HDL content increased ( P < 0.05) in the hens supplemented with C. microalgae (300 or 400 and 500 ppm). C. microalgae at rates of 300-500 ppm caused a marked ( P < 0.05) increase in the plasma content of manganese or iodine and selenium but other minerals were not statistically different among treatments. Overall, from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that supplementation of C. microalgae at high rates was beneficial on blood parameters of laying hens reared under heat stress.

  15. The effects of different levels of Chlorella microalgae on blood biochemical parameters and trace mineral concentrations of laying hens reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Moradi Kor, Nasroallah; Akbari, Mohsen; Olfati, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different supplementation levels of Chlorella microalgae on serum metabolites and the plasma content of minerals in laying hens reared under heat stress condition (27.5-36.7 °C, variable). A total number of 378 (40 weeks of age, with mean body weight of 1390 ± 120 g) were randomly allocated to six treatments with seven replicates. The birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (C, T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) with 7 replicate cages of 9 birds. C. microalgae at the rates of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm with water were offered to groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, while group C served as a control. At 71 days of trial, blood samples (14 samples per treatment) were taken for measuring serum metabolites and at 72 days for plasma mineral analysis. The results of this experiment showed that the supplementation of 200-500 ppm C. microalgae decreased the serum content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (P < 0.05) whereas HDL content increased (P < 0.05) in the hens supplemented with C. microalgae (300 or 400 and 500 ppm). C. microalgae at rates of 300-500 ppm caused a marked (P < 0.05) increase in the plasma content of manganese or iodine and selenium but other minerals were not statistically different among treatments. Overall, from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that supplementation of C. microalgae at high rates was beneficial on blood parameters of laying hens reared under heat stress. PMID:26431701

  16. The effects of different levels of Chlorella microalgae on blood biochemical parameters and trace mineral concentrations of laying hens reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi kor, Nasroallah; Akbari, Mohsen; Olfati, Ali

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different supplementation levels of Chlorella microalgae on serum metabolites and the plasma content of minerals in laying hens reared under heat stress condition (27.5-36.7 °C, variable). A total number of 378 (40 weeks of age, with mean body weight of 1390 ± 120 g) were randomly allocated to six treatments with seven replicates. The birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (C, T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) with 7 replicate cages of 9 birds. C. microalgae at the rates of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm with water were offered to groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, while group C served as a control. At 71 days of trial, blood samples (14 samples per treatment) were taken for measuring serum metabolites and at 72 days for plasma mineral analysis. The results of this experiment showed that the supplementation of 200-500 ppm C. microalgae decreased the serum content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (P < 0.05) whereas HDL content increased (P < 0.05) in the hens supplemented with C. microalgae (300 or 400 and 500 ppm). C. microalgae at rates of 300-500 ppm caused a marked (P < 0.05) increase in the plasma content of manganese or iodine and selenium but other minerals were not statistically different among treatments. Overall, from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that supplementation of C. microalgae at high rates was beneficial on blood parameters of laying hens reared under heat stress.

  17. The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026 used alone or with vitamin-mineral premix on biochemical parameters of blood and milk in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwańska, S; Strusińska, D; Zalewski, W

    1999-01-01

    When evaluating the effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026) supplied with or without a vitamin premix and mineral bioplexes on some intermediates and end-products involved in the synthesis of milk constituents in 30 early-lactation Black and White Lowland cows, no significant differences were found in the glucose level, mineral contents and enzyme activities of the blood serum. The effect of yeast culture on the availability of minerals for milk synthesis depended upon the dynamics of degradation of mineral bioplexes in the rumen and the cows' mineral status. The insignificant increase found in blood total protein content and the simultaneous small differences in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) values in cows supplied with the yeast culture were probably associated with a high ammonia incorporation into microbial protein in the rumen, which increased protein supply for milk protein synthesis and decreased the nitrogen loss. PMID:10213929

  18. Parameter estimation in stochastic biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Reinker, S; Altman, R M; Timmer, J

    2006-07-01

    Gene regulatory, signal transduction and metabolic networks are major areas of interest in the newly emerging field of systems biology. In living cells, stochastic dynamics play an important role; however, the kinetic parameters of biochemical reactions necessary for modelling these processes are often not accessible directly through experiments. The problem of estimating stochastic reaction constants from molecule count data measured, with error, at discrete time points is considered. For modelling the system, a hidden Markov process is used, where the hidden states are the true molecule counts, and the transitions between those states correspond to reaction events following collisions of molecules. Two different algorithms are proposed for estimating the unknown model parameters. The first is an approximate maximum likelihood method that gives good estimates of the reaction parameters in systems with few possible reactions in each sampling interval. The second algorithm, treating the data as exact measurements, approximates the number of reactions in each sampling interval by solving a simple linear equation. Maximising the likelihood based on these approximations can provide good results, even in complex reaction systems. PMID:16986618

  19. [Biochemical parameters of blood and morpho-functional state of the liver of experimental animals by the actions of lead sulfide nanoparticles in different time study].

    PubMed

    Omel'chuk, S T; Aleksiĭchuk, V D; Sokurenko, L M

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical studies revealed that alanine aminotransferase levels changing first during short action (30 injections) of lead sulfide nanoparticles of size 10 and 30 nm, and the ionic form of a 400 nm lead while the growth of both enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) activity during long-term exposure (60 injections) is the same intensity. It it confirmed by the value of de Ritis coefficient, which is statistically the same as control. Morphological studies also confirm these data--degenerative changes of hepatocytes, reactive changes of the stroma and vascular responses were detected. It is shown that the severity of metabolic and morphological damages in the liver increased with prolonging the duration of lead nanoparticles intake. PMID:25286610

  20. Biochemical blood markers and sampling sites in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Koichi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Saka, Kanju; Nakajima, Makoto; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2008-07-01

    Forensic pathologists often hesitate to use biochemical blood markers due to the risk of large postmortem changes and deviations from healthy subjects. Biochemical analyses of postmortem blood, if possible, may help to evaluate pathological status and determining the cause of death in forensic diagnosis, for example, in sudden unexpected death without obvious cause, or young adults with no apparent cause of death or antemortem information. Even commercially available biochemical markers were re-evaluated in the blood samples of 164 forensic autopsy cases. Biochemical markers examined were HbA1c, fructosamine, blood nitrogen urea (BUN), creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP), triglyceride, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP) and pseudocholine esterase (pChE). We collected cardiac blood (left cardiac blood and right cardiac blood) and peripheral blood (femoral vein blood) to clarify the differences in measured values by sampling site. The measured values were analyzed in relation to postmortem interval, etiology of death and sampling sites. Of all eleven markers, HbA1c is the most useful and reliable because of its negligible postmortem changes and small deviation from healthy subjects. Total bilirubin, BUN, CRP and total cholesterol can be useful if we set appropriate limit ranges and pay attention to the interpretation. For the evaluation of changes due to postmortem intervals, none of the markers except for triglyceride showed significant changes up to three days postmortem. As for sampling sites, femoral vein blood is generally recommended considering postmortem changes, but left cardiac blood was suitable for creatinine, pChE, and total cholesterol. For clinical forensic diagnosis of biochemical blood markers, we must determine the "forensic abnormal value" after collecting more cases by known causes with more information about the population. PMID:18511006

  1. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  2. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p < 0.05). Haematological variables including globular volume and erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) at all time points after collection and increased (p < 0.01) at all time points after reinfusion. There was a significant increase in total protein and calcium at all time points after reinfusion (p < 0.05). Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection. PMID:22607611

  3. The equation for prediction of blood viscosity from biochemical laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, B.; Yigitarslan, S.

    2015-03-01

    In most cases, the viscosity of blood is measured after adulteration with heparin or EDTA. The aim of the present research was to derive an equation that can be used for determination of viscosity from biochemical data. Blood samples taken from seven healthy people were analyzed in biochemical laboratory and their viscosities were measured by adding EDTA as anticoagulant. Ten parameters of biochemical laboratory including blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes) and their functional products that directly affect the blood viscosity were chosen. Several equations relating viscosity to those parameters were derived by using a computer program. According to the regression analysis of the functions derived, the viscosity equation was obtained. This equation can be used for determination of blood viscosity from classical laboratory analysis. The advantages of using the derived equation are elimination of anticoagulant addition and elimination of Fahraeus_Lindquist effect. After proving that the equation is acceptable for numerous people, apparent viscosity changes can be followed during any disease and successfulness of anticoagulant drugs can be investigated.

  4. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

  5. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to

  6. Effect of Tamra Bhasma (Calcined Copper) on Ponderal and Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Ruknuddin, Galib; Biswajyoti, J Patgiri; Kumar, Prajapati Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tamra Bhasma (TB) and its forms like Somnathi Tamra Bhasma (STB), etc., are in vogue since centuries in Ayurveda. The present study is carried out to evaluate the effect of TB and STB in different dose levels on ponderal and biochemical parameters in wistar strain albino rats to provide scientific basis for its safety profile. Materials and Methods: TB and STB were prepared as per the classical guidelines and administered to wistar strain albino rats for 45 consecutive days. Blood was collected and rats were sacrificed on the 46th day. Ponderal and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: Results showed significant decrease in serum cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Comparatively, all the differences in between the groups are insignificant and no pathological changes at ponderal and biochemical levels were observed. Conclusion: Based on these observations, it can be said that these formulations can be safely used in cases of hyperlipidemia. PMID:25253924

  7. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  8. Effect of taking dietary supplement on hematological and biochemical parameters in male bodybuilders an equation model

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Maracy, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Yeroshalmi, Shemouil; Zamani-Moghaddam, Ali; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: The improved physical action following administration of supplements to bodybuilders was supported by changes in laboratory parameters. Despite the fact that these supplements are sometimes associated both advantage and side effects, this study were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the possible effects of some commonly used supplements in bodybuilders on the hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 40 male bodybuilders as cases and 40 controls in the age group of 20-40 years. They used different kinds of supplements for 1 year. In general, all the supplements used were classified into two groups: hormonal and non-hormonal. Laboratory tests were requested for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: In an equation model, we found that weight (P = 0.024), duration of bodybuilding (P < 0.001), and duration of hormone supplement consumption (P < 0.001) were loaded significantly on the latent variables, demographic and dietary supplement, respectively. The relationship between dietary supplement and biochemical and hematological parameters was significant (P = 0.01) and some of these parameters including creatinine (P = 0.023), blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P < 0.001), and red blood cell distribution (RDW) (P = 0.046) had a significant role than others. In a multivariate regression model, we found that WBC (P < 0.001), platelets (P < 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P < 0.001), creatinine (P < 0.001), AST (P = 0.005), and ALT (P = 0.001) were higher in athletes than in controls. Conclusions: It is strongly advised that there should be some concerns about possible supplement-induced changes in the laboratory exams for bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in athletes. PMID:26793253

  9. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. PMID:25837382

  10. [Hemolysis influence on twenty-two biochemical parameters measurement].

    PubMed

    Ali, Damien; Sacchetto, Emilie; Dumontet, Erwan; Le Carrer, Didier; Orsonneau, Jean-Luc; Delaroche, Odile; Bigot-Corbel, Edith

    2014-01-01

    The study of the influence of hemolysis was determined experimentally for twenty two biochemical parameters on the analyzer Cobas 6000 ce (Roche Diagnostics). The addition method of hemolysate was used to create an increasing concentration of hemoglobin ranging from 0 to 2000 μmol/L. The limit of 10% variation was chosen to define the influence of hemolysis on the measurement. The parameters studied were classified into several categories: the parameters for which hemolysis does not influence the measurement: albumin, uric acid, calcium, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, NT -pro BNP, S100 protein, and urea; parameters impacted positively leading to an overestimation of the result: aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, magnesium, magnesium, total protein, triglycerides; and negatively impacted settings so causing an underestimation of the result: alanine amino- transferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, troponin T hypersensitive. Certain parameters influence of hemolysis varies depending on the magnitude of the measured parameter this interference being observed for normal values but disappearing for pathological values: creatinine, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, or the inverse interference is greater than for conventional pathological values: lipase, alanine amino-transferase. Knowledge of this variability interference allows the biologist to adapt its methods of reporting in the case of haemolysed samples. PMID:24876141

  11. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  12. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition. PMID:26471188

  13. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  14. Blood biochemical values in Japanese Black breeding cows in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    OTOMARU, Konosuke; SHIGA, Hanae; KANOME, Junko; YANAGITA, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    To obtain blood biochemical basic data of Japanese Black breeding cows in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, blood samples were obtained from 857 clinically healthy multiparous cows on 71 farms. Cows were divided into three stages: the prepartum stage (between 20 and 80 days before parturition, n=290), lactation stage (between 20 and 80 days after parturition, n=283) and maintenance stage (between 120 and 200 days after parturition, n=284). The mean concentration of total protein and total cholesterol, and the mean activities of aspartate aminotransferase in the lactation stage tended to be higher than those in the prepartum and maintenance stages. The mean concentration of glucose in the prepartum stage tended to be lower than that in the lactation and the maintenance stages. The mean concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate in the prepartum stage tended to be higher than those in the lactation and maintenance stages. The mean concentration of serum retinol was approximately 30 µg/dl in all stages. These results suggest that the blood biochemical values of multiparous Japanese Black cows vary with breeding stages, and it is considered that the blood parameters obtained in this study are useful as indices for health management of Japanese Black breeding cows. PMID:25866410

  15. Blood biochemical values in Japanese Black calves in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    OTOMARU, Konosuke; WATAYA, Kenta; UTO, Takehiko; KASAI, Kei

    2015-01-01

    To obtain blood biochemical basic data of Japanese Black calves in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, blood samples were obtained from 582 clinically healthy calves on 27 farms. Calves were divided into three stages: the suckling stage (between 14 and 90 days of age, n=191), the early growing stage (between 91 and 180 days of age, n=200) and the late growing stage (between 181 and 270 days of age, n=191). The mean concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, calcium and zinc, and the mean activities of γ-glutamyltransferase and alkaine phospatase in the suckling stage were significantly higher than those in the early and late growing stages (P<0.01). The mean concentration of total protein, albumin and globulin increased gradually with growing. The mean concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate in the suckling stage was below 150 µmol/l, however, it elevated above 400 µmol/l in the early and late growing stages. The mean concentration of copper concentration was above 70 µg/dl in all stages. The mean concentration of zinc was between 90 and 110 µg/dl in all stages. These results suggest that the blood biochemical values of Japanese Black calves vary with growing stages, and the blood parameters obtained in this study are considered useful as indices for health management of Japanese Black calves. PMID:26346653

  16. Raman spectroscopy of stored red blood cells: evaluating clinically-relevant biochemical markers in donated blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Chad G.; Buckley, Kevin; Chen, Deborah; Schulze, H. G.; Devine, Dana V.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F. B.

    2015-07-01

    Modern transfusion medicine relies on the safe, secure, and cost-effective delivery of donated red blood cells (RBCs). Once isolated, RBCs are suspended in a defined additive solution and stored in plastic blood bags in which, over time, they undergo chemical, physiological, and morphological changes that may have a deleterious impact on some patients. Regulations limit the storage period to 42 days and the cells do not routinely undergo analytical testing before use. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy to interrogate stored RBCs and we identify metabolic and cell-breakdown products, such as haemoglobin and membrane fragments, that build-up in the blood bags as the cells age. Our work points the way to the development of an instrument which could quickly and easily assess the biochemical nature of stored RBC units before they are transfused.

  17. Dynamics of blood plasma by spectropolarimetry and biochemical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuka, Tetjana; Prydij, Olexander; Gruia, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  18. Some Biochemical and Hematological Parameters among Petrol Station Attendants: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A.; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Bazeed, Fagr B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe selected biochemical and hematological parameters (blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions) in petrol station attendants in Mansoura city. Methods. This is a comparative cross-sectional study. The exposed group included 102 petrol station attendants. They were compared to a matched group of healthy 102 male service and office workers at the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University. The results of blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions were compared between both groups. Results. Mean Red Blood Cells (RBCs) count, hemoglobin level, and Hematocrit (HCT) level were significantly lower in petrol station attendants than the comparison group. All other blood picture parameters showed nonsignificant difference between both groups. Liver enzymes, renal functions, serum albumin, and total protein showed statistically nonsignificant difference between both groups except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) which was significantly higher in petrol station attendants. Conclusions. Some laboratory parameters among petrol station attendants showed changes that could be attributed to workplace exposure and should be given attention at preemployment and periodic medical examination. PMID:26634207

  19. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Mayengbam, P.; Tolenkhomba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05) and lower MCH concentration (MCHC) during summer season (p<0.05). Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05). Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na) and lower potassium (K) in rainy season (p<0.05). Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05). Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets. PMID:27065639

  20. [Influence of anticoagulant on the plasma level of fifteen biochemical parameters].

    PubMed

    Sacchetto, Emilie; Ali, Damien; Dumontet, Erwan; Le Carrer, Didier; Orsonneau, Jean-Luc; Delaroche, Odile; Bigot-Corbel, Edith

    2014-01-01

    The study of the influence of the anticoagulant used in blood collection tubes to obtain plasma was performed for fifteen biochemical parameters measured with automated Cobas 6000 (Roche Diagnostics). For each parameter tested the entire measurement domain was studied. The comparison of results obtained on plasma blood sample obtained by lithium heparin and EDTA include: correlation, the limits of acceptability in the standards of monitoring and interpretation standards regression defined by the SFBC and analysis of Bland-Altman. The parameters studied were classified into three categories. The parameters for which the assay is not influenced by the nature of the anticoagulant used: apolipoprotéin A1, apolipoprotein B, alanine amino-transferase, creatine kinase, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, lipase, NT-Pro BNP, troponine T and urea. The parameters for which the results are underestimated EDTA plasma, including those for which the impact is moderate and for which the interpretive standards are not changed: triglycerides, and those for which performance standards are changed on one or more levels: aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase; and finally the not practicable EDTA plasma parameters: alkaline phosphatase. PMID:24876145

  1. Osmotic parameters of red blood cells from umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Zhurova, Mariia; McGann, Locksley E; Acker, Jason P

    2014-06-01

    The transfusion of red blood cells from umbilical cord blood (cord RBCs) is gathering significant interest for the treatment of fetal and neonatal anemia, due to its high content of fetal hemoglobin as well as numerous other potential benefits to fetuses and neonates. However, in order to establish a stable supply of cord RBCs for clinical use, a cryopreservation method must be developed. This, in turn, requires knowledge of the osmotic parameters of cord RBCs. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the osmotic parameters of cord RBCs: osmotically inactive fraction (b), hydraulic conductivity (Lp), permeability to cryoprotectant glycerol (Pglycerol), and corresponding Arrhenius activation energies (Ea). For Lp and Pglycerol determination, RBCs were analyzed using a stopped-flow system to monitor osmotically-induced RBC volume changes via intrinsic RBC hemoglobin fluorescence. Lp and Pglycerol were characterized at 4°C, 20°C, and 35°C using Jacobs and Stewart equations with the Ea calculated from the Arrhenius plot. Results indicate that cord RBCs have a larger osmotically inactive fraction compared to adult RBCs. Hydraulic conductivity and osmotic permeability to glycerol of cord RBCs differed compared to those of adult RBCs with the differences dependent on experimental conditions, such as temperature and osmolality. Compared to adult RBCs, cord RBCs had a higher Ea for Lp and a lower Ea for Pglycerol. This information regarding osmotic parameters will be used in future work to develop a protocol for cryopreserving cord RBCs. PMID:24727610

  2. Influence of Fasciola hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    PubMed Central

    Hodžić, A; Zuko, A; Avdić, R; Alić, A; Omeragić, J; Jažić, A

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver. Methods Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 34) and infected group (n = 29). For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used. Results Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05) of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST) between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected. Conclusion Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica. PMID:23682266

  3. Hematologic and serum biochemical parameters of apparently healthy rescued formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla).

    PubMed

    Chin, Shih-chien; Lien, Chen-yah; Chan, Yating; Chen, Chun-lin; Yang, Yi- ching; Yeh, Lih-seng

    2015-03-01

    Natural habitats of pangolins are rapidly deteriorating because of extensive farming, logging, and human construction activities. In addition, the illegal trading of pangolins substantially accelerated the decline of the pangolins' population in southeastern Asia. The maintenance of confiscated pangolins in rescue centers is currently a daunting task for veterinarians and conservation biologists. There is limited information in the literature about the reference values regarding the physiology of pangolins. The purpose of this study is to establish reliable hematologic and serum biochemical reference values for the Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla). Blood samples were collected from 51 apparently healthy pangolins from a population of 117 rescued pangolins at the Taipei Zoo. Sex-related differences were observed in platelet count, alanine aminotransferase level, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total protein level. Age-related differences were also noted; juveniles have significantly higher platelet counts and alkaline phosphatase levels than their adult counter parts. The hematologic and serum biochemical reference values for the Formosan pangolin presented in this study can be applied in the medical care of this important species during rescue attempts. It is the first systematic report of blood parameters of apparently healthy pangolins and provides a basis for future investigation of this species. The reference values reported in this study may also be applicable to other pangolin species in the genus Manis. PMID:25831578

  4. Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in small ruminants naturally infected with Babesia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Babesia ovis plays an important role in causing anemia and kidney dysfunction in affected animals. There are few extensive studies about hematological and biochemical findings of small ruminants' babesiosis caused by B. ovis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on some hematological and biochemical parameters in infected small ruminants with B. ovis. A total of 280 sheep and 122 goats from 40 herds were randomly examined for the presence of B. ovis in blood samples. Of 402 samples, 67 animals (16.7%) were positive for B. ovis of which 52 (18.5%) were sheep and 15 (12.2%) goats, respectively. The infected animals were divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1%, 2%, and 3%). As a control group, 67 uninfected animals were also selected from the same farms. With increase in parasitemia rates, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBCs), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while, total leukocyte count, number of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil showed a significant increase (P < 0.05). Infected animals presented a significant elevation (P < 0.05) of total proteins and significantly lower level (P < 0.05) of albumin compared to non-infected animals. Significant elevation (P < 0.05) of BUN, creatinine, cholestrol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL level were found with parasitemia progression. PMID:25653743

  5. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  6. Changes in biochemical, hemodynamic, and dialysis adherence parameters in hemodialysis patients during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Alshamsi, Shaikha; Binsaleh, Fatima; Hejaili, Fayez; Karkar, Ayman; Moussa, Dujana; Raza, Hamad; Parbat, Parkash; Al Suwida, Abdulkareem; Alobaili, Saad; AlSehli, R; Al Sayyari, Abdulla

    2016-04-01

    This paper aimed to study the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical and clinical parameters and compliance for dialysis. A prospective multicenter observational cross-sectional study comparing fasting with a non-fasting stable adult hemodialysis patients for demographic and biochemical parameters, compliance with dialysis, inter-dialytic weight gain, pre- and post-blood pressure, and frequency of intradialytic hypotensive episodes was carried out. Six hundred thirty-five patients, of whom 64.1% fasted, were studied. The fasters were younger (53.3 ± 16.2 vs. 58.4 ± 16.1 years; P = 0.001) but had similar duration on dialysis (P = 0.35). More fasters worked (22.0% vs. 14.6%; P = 0.001) and missed dialysis sessions during Ramadan. No differences were noted between groups in sex, diabetic status, or dialysis shift or day. There were no differences in the pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure; serum potassium, albumin or weight gain; diabetic status; sex; and dialysis shift time or days. However, serum phosphorous was significantly higher in the fasting group (2.78 ± 1.8 vs. 2.45 ± 1.6 mmol/L; P = 0.045). There were no intragroup differences in any of the parameters studied when comparing the findings during Ramadan with those in the month before Ramadan. Fasters were significantly younger and more likely to be working, to miss dialysis sessions, and to have higher serum phosphorous levels. No other differences were observed. PMID:26420510

  7. Impact of Delayed Analysis in Avian Blood Biochemical Values Measured With the Abaxis VetScan VS2.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Sharman M; Boyd, Janice D; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2015-09-01

    For biochemical analysis with a point-of-care biochemical analyzer, standard procedure is to analyze the sample as rapidly as possible (<1 hour) after venipuncture to minimize any changes in analyte concentrations that might occur over time. However, under some circumstances, such as when collecting blood at remote field sites, a longer delay may be unavoidable. This study evaluates the effect of delayed analysis time under unrefrigerated conditions on avian (psittacine) biochemical analyte concentrations obtained with the VetScan VS2 using Avian/Reptilian Profile Plus rotors. Venipuncture was performed on a group of 36 psittacine birds as part of routine health checks in a research aviary (Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine, College Station, TX, USA). Whole blood was kept at room temperature and analyzed at 4 time intervals: <1, 3, 6, and 24 hours after venipuncture. At 3 hours or less after collection, most biochemical parameters changed by <2%, with the exception of phosphorus (decrease of about -9%). Major increases by 24 hours after collection were observed in phosphorus (+67%) and potassium (+103%) concentrations, whereas aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid, glucose, and sodium concentrations also showed statistically significant changes. Our results suggest that accurate information from analyses using the VetScan VS2 may be obtained for up to 3 hours after venipuncture without refrigeration, but researchers and clinicians do need to exercise care when interpreting blood chemistry analyte concentrations obtained after multihour delays between venipuncture and sample analysis. PMID:26378666

  8. Dietary effects of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Sakineh; Teimouri, Mahdi; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (n=180; 1018 g) were randomly divided into fifteen 300 L fiberglass tanks in triplicates for a period of ten weeks. The RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, total protein and albumin levels increased significantly in the groups supplemented with S. platensis. Dietary inclusion of S. platensis had no significant effects on hematocrit, cholesterol, triglyceride and lactate of the blood. HDL-cholesterol was larger in rainbow trout fed 10% S. platensis in comparison with the other diets, whereas LDL-cholesterol significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. Cortisol and glucose significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. The present results demonstrate that inclusion of 10% S. platensis can be introduced as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout diets. PMID:26267095

  9. Intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus alters plasma and brain biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S; Lara, Marcus V S; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2014-11-01

    Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

  10. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S.; Lara, Marcus V. S.; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2014-01-01

    Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

  11. Effects of Khaya senegalensis leaves on performance, carcass traits, hemtological and biochemical parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Wareth, A. A. A.; Hammad, Seddik; Ahmed, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group). Group I (control) received standard rabbit diet. Rabbits in group II and group III were fed standard rabbit diet supplemented with 35 % and 65 % KS leaves, respectively. All rabbits were fed daily for 25 days. The performance parameters and carcass criteria, including daily body weight gain, final body weight, and the percentage of dressing, were increased in rabbits fed 35 % KS when compared to the control group. Kidney and liver weight ratios increased significantly in group II but dropped in group III. Furthermore, liver enzymes - alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and kidney function parameters - urea, and creatinine - increased in both group II (significant P<0.05) and in group III (significant P<0.01) when compared to the control group. Moreover, KS leaves induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total white blood cell count, the percentage of granulocytes and the platelet count; whereas, the percentage of lymphocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not statistically significantly changed. This study demonstrates that the performance parameters and carcass traits are improved by the replacement of rabbit's diet with KS leaves. However, KS leaves may adversely affect liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the maximum tolerable and toxic, as well as lethal doses, and to isolate the pharmacologically active components from KS leaves. PMID:26417277

  12. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

    PubMed

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell. PMID:26984406

  13. Blood parameters of clinically normal captive bobcats (Felis rufus).

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Leopold, B D; Gray, M J; Woody, B J

    1999-06-01

    Data on blood parameters were obtained from 56 (32 female, 24 male) clinically healthy, captive bobcats (Felis rufus). The animals were housed under ambient conditions at the Mississippi State University Captive Bobcat Facility. Samples were collected opportunistically between 1982 and 1995. Differences (P < or = 0.05) in blood parameters existed between sexes, among age classes (kitten, subadult, adult, and geriatric), and among stages in the reproductive cycle (breeding, parturition, recycling, and anestrus). Blood parameters for bobcats were similar to reported values for domestic cats (Felis catus). These results can be used as as reference to indicate when blood parameter aberrations exist in bobcats. PMID:10484139

  14. The effects of L-tryptophan and melatonin on selected biochemical parameters in patients with steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Cichoz-Lach, H; Celinski, K; Konturek, P C; Konturek, S J; Slomka, M

    2010-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease and nonalcocholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is its advanced form. Oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis may be involved in pathogenesis of NASH and particularly in progress of NASH to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which are initiated by the inflammation and which promote the progress of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin and L-tryptophan on selected biochemical parameters of blood in patients with NASH. Forty five patients with NASH, confirmed by histopathological examination of liver biopsy samples, were admitted to the study. They were divided into three groups (I, II and III). The first group (group I, n=15) received preparation Essentiale forte 3 times a day and tryptophan 500 mg twice daily for 4 weeks. In the second group (group II, n=15), Essentiale forte three times a day was administered with melatonin 5 mg applied twice a day for 4 weeks. The third group (group III, n=15) received only Essentiale forte with placebo three times a day for 4 weeks. After four-week treatment we found statistically significant reduction in GGTP, triglycerides and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the melatonin-treated (group I) and the L-tryptophan-treated patients (group II). Plasma level of melatonin was significantly elevated in groups treated with tryptophan (group I) and melatonin (group II), but remained unchanged in placebo-treated group (group III). Among patients from the third group (treated with placebo) no statistically significant differences in the measured biochemical parameters were observed. The present study suggests that melatonin and tryptophan have the significant impact on the reduction in plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and may be useful in the treatment of patients with NASH. PMID:21081801

  15. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepesh Bharat; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Vinod; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Muneendra; Kushwaha, Raju; Vaswani, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1) served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental groups in the present study, cell-mediate immune response (response to PHA-P) was found higher in 5%, 7.5%, and 10% replacement groups than control(p<0.05). Conclusion: Similar blood biochemical parameters and higher cell-mediated immune response in Azolla replacement group indicated immune-modulatory effect of Azolla meal without any toxicity. PMID:27051207

  16. The effects of levamisole poisoning on the haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gokce, H I; Gunes, V; Erdogan, H M; Citil, M; Akca, A; Yuksek, N

    2004-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate possible organ and system disorders associated with experimentally induced levamisole poisoning in dogs. For this purpose, twelve clinically healthy dogs of different ages, sexes and breeds were used. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B) and given levamisole orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight daily for three days. The dogs in Group B were also injected with atropin sulphate (0.04 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously (sc) 1 hour after each administration of levamisole. Routine clinical examinations were made and some haematological, biochemical and blood gas parameters were established at various times after administration of levamisole. The dogs in Group A developed severe neurological signs, gastric haemorrhage, bloody vomiting, colic, anaemia and four dogs died. In Group B these signs were mild and only one dog died. Levamisole poisoning was characterised by a significant reduction in the total number of red blood cells (RBCs), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), and by anaemia. Peripheral blood pH, actual bicarbonate of plasma (HCO3), actual base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and saturated oxygen (O2SAT) increased in both groups of animals and these dogs developed metabolic alkalosis 48 hours after the first administration of levamisole. The results of the study also show that levamisole poisoning in dogs causes a significant increase in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and in the concentration of urea in both Group A and Group B. In the study, atropin sulphate reduced the severity of the clinical signs and the number of deaths, but it was not alone sufficient to remedy levamisole poisoning in dogs. PMID:15032267

  17. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but antioxidant capacity was decreased in cold-induced ascites broilers. Serum glucose level was significantly increased, with liver M-PEPCK expression higher in ascites broilers, which implied that some potential regulatory reagents may reduce ascites susceptibility and mortality under cold temperature by increasing liver gluconeogenesis level. PMID:23232037

  18. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Yuming; Ning, Dong; Peng, Yunzhi; Cai, Hong; Tan, Jianzhuang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but antioxidant capacity was decreased in cold-induced ascites broilers. Serum glucose level was significantly increased, with liver M-PEPCK expression higher in ascites broilers, which implied that some potential regulatory reagents may reduce ascites susceptibility and mortality under cold temperature by increasing liver gluconeogenesis level. PMID:23232037

  19. Impact of Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test versus soccer match on physiological, biochemical and neuromuscular parameters.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, José; Rebelo, António; Oliveira, Eduardo; Silva, João Renato; Marques, Franklim; Ascensão, António

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) versus soccer match on heart rate (HR), muscle damage, redox status, blood leukocytes and neuromuscular function throughout 72 h recovery. Sixteen male soccer players (21.3 +/- 1.1 years; 175.0 +/- 6.0 cm; 70.7 +/- 6.3 kg) completed LIST and performed a soccer match separated by 2 weeks and data were collected before, 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h after LIST and match. HR, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, myoglobin (Mb), uric acid (UA), protein sulfhydryls (-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, total antioxidant status (TAS), blood leukocyte counts, delayed onset muscle soreness, 20 m sprint and jump performances, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion were analyzed. HR after LIST was significantly lower than after the match. Post-match TAS was lower and UA was higher than after LIST. Thirty minutes and 24 h after soccer MDA was higher and -SH was lower than after LIST (P < 0.05). LIST and soccer match induced elevation in total leukocytes and a reduction in lymphocytes at 30 min. This reduction in blood lymphocytes 30 min after match was lower than after LIST. In conclusion, the impact of both exercises did not differ regarding the observed muscle damage markers and some neuromuscular parameters, although soccer requires higher cardiac demand and induced higher changes on redox status, adenine nucleotide metabolism and on lymphocyte counts than LIST, which should be taken into account when using LIST to simulate a match to study these type of physiological and biochemical-related endpoints. PMID:19756713

  20. Glycated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters in Sudanese diabetics.

    PubMed

    Atabani, G S; Saeed, B O; el Mahdi, E M; Adam, M E; Hassan, D A

    1989-07-01

    Fasting levels of glycated haemoglobin, cholesterol and triglycerides were studied in 44 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), 31 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 28 healthy Sudanese individuals. Results confirmed previous observations showing correlation of glycated haemoglobin with fasting blood glucose in NIDDM (r = 0.634; P less than 0.001), and with cholesterol in IDDM (r = 0.355; P less than 0.05). No correlation of glycated haemoglobin with triglycerides was observed in either group of diabetics. A negative correlation was demonstrated between glycated haemoglobin and the duration of diabetes (r = -0.552; P less than 0.01) in IDDM. It seemed that control improved in these patients as their diabetes progressed, probably through self-education. PMID:2764486

  1. Does oral coenzyme Q10 plus NADH supplementation improve fatigue and biochemical parameters in chronic fatigue syndrome?

    PubMed

    Castro-Marrero, Jess; Cordero, Mario D; Segundo, Mara Jos; Sez-Francs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Romn-Malo, Lourdes; Aliste, Luisa; Fernndez de Sevilla, Toms; Alegre, Jos

    2015-03-10

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic and extremely debilitating illness characterized by prolonged fatigue and multiple symptoms with unknown cause, diagnostic test, or universally effective treatment. Inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and CoQ10 deficiency have been well documented in CFS. We conducted an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the benefits of oral CoQ10 (200?mg/day) plus NADH (20?mg/day) supplementation on fatigue and biochemical parameters in 73 Spanish CFS patients. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02063126). A significant improvement of fatigue showing a reduction in fatigue impact scale total score (p<0.05) was reported in treated group versus placebo. In addition, a recovery of the biochemical parameters was also reported. NAD+/NADH (p<0.001), CoQ10 (p<0.05), ATP (p<0.05), and citrate synthase (p<0.05) were significantly higher, and lipoperoxides (p<0.05) were significantly lower in blood mononuclear cells of the treated group. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the oral CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation could confer potential therapeutic benefits on fatigue and biochemical parameters in CFS. Larger sample trials are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25386668

  2. Does Oral Coenzyme Q10 Plus NADH Supplementation Improve Fatigue and Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Mario D.; Segundo, María José; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Román-Malo, Lourdes; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic and extremely debilitating illness characterized by prolonged fatigue and multiple symptoms with unknown cause, diagnostic test, or universally effective treatment. Inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and CoQ10 deficiency have been well documented in CFS. We conducted an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the benefits of oral CoQ10 (200 mg/day) plus NADH (20 mg/day) supplementation on fatigue and biochemical parameters in 73 Spanish CFS patients. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02063126). A significant improvement of fatigue showing a reduction in fatigue impact scale total score (p<0.05) was reported in treated group versus placebo. In addition, a recovery of the biochemical parameters was also reported. NAD+/NADH (p<0.001), CoQ10 (p<0.05), ATP (p<0.05), and citrate synthase (p<0.05) were significantly higher, and lipoperoxides (p<0.05) were significantly lower in blood mononuclear cells of the treated group. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the oral CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation could confer potential therapeutic benefits on fatigue and biochemical parameters in CFS. Larger sample trials are warranted to confirm these findings. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 679–685. PMID:25386668

  3. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on emotional behavior and biochemical parameters in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Khemissi, Wahid; Mrad, Imen; Rihane, Naima; Ben Slama, Imen; Mir, Lassaad E; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Ben Rhouma, Khemais; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology is becoming a potential source for human exposure to nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been widely produced in industrial processes for several years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on plasmatic biochemical parameters and the emotional behavior in adult Wistar rats. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 nanoparticles (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg. For toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles sample, body weight, organ coefficient, blood biochemistry panel assay (AST, ALT, LDH, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose content) and emotional behavior parameters were determined. Sub-acute TiO2 nanoparticles treatment decreased the body weight, but increased the relative brain weight. Biochemical assessment in plasma samples showed that TiO2 nanoparticles injection increased uric acid concentration and AST activity in rats. However, the same treatment decreased the creatinine level, but had no effect on glucose concentration, ALT and LDH activity. The emotional behavior of control and treated rats was tested in elevated plus-maze. Interestingly, our results showed that TiO2-treated rats spent more time in the secured closed arms and entered the anxiogenic open arms less frequently than control. Our results suggest that TiO2 nanoparticles intoxication could altered biochemical parameters related to changes in organ function and leads to emotional behavior impairment of rats. PMID:23682022

  4. The Effects of Ethanol on the Morphological and Biochemical Properties of Individual Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Yun; Park, Hyun Joo; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yong Keun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of ethanol exposure on human red blood cells (RBCs) using quantitative phase imaging techniques at the level of individual cells. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of RBCs were measured using common-path diffraction optical tomography, from which morphological (volume, surface area, and sphericity); biochemical (hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Hb content); and biomechanical (membrane fluctuation) parameters were retrieved at various concentrations of ethanol. RBCs exposed to the ethanol concentration of 0.1 and 0.3% v/v exhibited cell sphericities higher than those of normal cells. However, mean surface area and sphericity of RBCs in a lethal alcoholic condition (0.5% v/v) are not statistically different with those of healthy RBCs. Meanwhile, significant decreases of Hb content and concentration in RBC cytoplasm at the lethal condition were observed. Furthermore, dynamic fluctuation of RBC membranes increased significantly upon ethanol treatments, indicating ethanol-induced membrane fluidization. PMID:26690915

  5. Biochemical and immunological parameters as indicators of osteoarthritis subjects: role of OH-collagen in auto-antibodies generation

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Jalaluddin M.; Haque, Quazi S.; Tabrez, Shams; Choi, Inho; Ahmad, Saheem

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by inflammation of the knee joint, which is caused by accumulation of cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the extracellular matrix as an early immune response to infection. The articular cartilage destruction is discernible by elevated tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In this study, blood samples of knee osteoarthritis patients were analyzed for biochemical and physiological parameters based on the lipid profile, uric acid, total leukocyte count (TLC), hemoglobin percentage (Hb%) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Furthermore, immunological parameters including TNF-α , interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CRP were analyzed. The presence of antibodies against hydroxyl radical modified collagen-II (•OH-collagen-II) was also investigated in arthritis patients using direct binding ELISA. The uric acid and lipid profiles changed extensively. Specifically, increased uric acid levels were associated with OA in both genders, as were enhanced immunological parameters. The TNF-α level also increased in both genders suffering from OA. Finally, auto-antibodies against OH-collagen II antigen were found in the sera of arthritis patients. These results indicated that immunological parameters are better predictors or indexes for diagnosis of OA than biochemical parameters. PMID:26933405

  6. Biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters influencing thyroid nodules elasticity.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Woliński, Kosma; Stangierski, Adam; Gurgul, Edyta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Elastography is a method of tissue stiffness assessment. It has already been demonstrated that thyroid cancers are less elastic than benign lesions. However, little is known about other factors, which might influence the stiffness of thyroid nodules and disrupt the prediction of malignancy using this technique. The aim of this study was to conduct the first systematic assessment of factors potentially affecting the elasticity of thyroid lesions. One hundred and twenty-two patients with thyroid nodular disease admitted for thyroidectomy underwent preoperative ultrasonography and sonoelastography. The definite diagnosis of thyroid lesions was based on histological examination. What was evaluated in the study was the influence of composition, size, localization, nodularity, and selected laboratory parameters on thyroid nodule elasticity. Firstly, association between the above-mentioned factors and elasticity was assessed in benign lesions. Secondly, all nodules (benign and malignant) were divided into subgroups according to the presence or absence of particular features, which turned out to be an important disturbing factor increasing the stiffness of the lesion in the first step of analysis. There were 22 malignant and 371 benign lesions. The analysis of benign lesions revealed that the presence calcifications (p < 0.0001) significantly increased nodule stiffness. Partially, cystic nodules were significantly less elastic than solid ones (p = 0.03). There was also positive correlation between nodule size and stiffness (p < 0.0001). Lesions localized in the isthmus were significantly less elastic than nodules in other localizations. (p = 0.0001). Solitary nodules were less elastic than lesions in multinodular goiter (p = 0.006). Correlation between Tg concentration and stiffness was significant (p < 0.0001, r = 0.24). The concentration of anti-thyroid autoantibodies was associated with stiffness at the border of significance. However, there was no significant difference between benign lesions in patients with diagnosed chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and patients without the disease. The analysis of the entire group of nodules revealed that shear wave elastography is a valuable modality of thyroid nodule assessment, with sensitivity of over 95 % and specificity of about 70 %. However, the stiffness value of the lesion might be increased in the case of nodules containing calcifications, cystic component, and those of size above 20 mm. Certain clinical conditions or attributes of the lesions influence the stiffness values of thyroid nodules. Identifying these variables is the basis for a credible interpretation of the results of a sonoelastographic examination and makes it possible to estimate the risk of thyroid nodule malignancy adequately. PMID:24535467

  7. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  8. Pharmacodynamic interaction of fenugreek, insulin and glimepiride on sero-biochemical parameters in diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Haritha, C.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, Y. Ramana; Anilkumar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the pharmacodynamic interaction of fenugreek, insulin and glimepiride on sero-biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 male Sprague-Dawley rats, randomly divided into seven Groups. Group 1: Non-diabetic control; Group 2: Streptozotocin induced diabetic control; Groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with insulin, glimepiride and fenugreek seed powder, respectively; Groups 6 and 7: Insulin + fenugreek seed powder treatment and glimepiride + fenugreek seed powder treatment respectively, in diabetic rats. Body weights, blood glucose, lipids total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and proteins (total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratios) were studied at different time intervals. Rats were sacrified at the end of 8 weeks, pancreas and aorta collected for histopathological study. Results: The results of Group 2 showed significantly (p<0.05) higher concentration of glucose, TC, TG, LDL, globulin, A/G ratios and significantly (p<0.05) lower concentration of albumin, total protein, HDL and body weights when compared to Group 1 at the end of 4th and 8th weeks intervals with marked alteration in histopathology of pancreas and aorta. All the treatment Groups 3-7 showed significantly (p<0.05) improvement in the all the parameters and the Groups 6 and 7 showed highest decrease in the concentration blood glucose, TC, TG, LDL and increase in the albumin, total protein and body weights during 6th and 8th week, respectively. Conclusion: The treatment with fenugreek, insulin and glimepiride countered the alteration in the sero biochemical parameters in diabetic rats, and their combination was found a positive interaction in improving the sero biochemical status of diabetic rats. PMID:27047152

  9. [Design of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Zhang, D L; Bai, H W; Zhang, D A

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents the realization and design of a kind of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit. The auto-acquisition of blood-pressure parameter controlled by 89C2051 single chip microcomputer is accomplished by collecting and processing the driving signal of LCD. The circuit that is successfully applied in the home unit of telemedicine system has the simple and reliable properties. PMID:12583093

  10. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical and Anthropometric Parameters in Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Trabelsi, Khaled; el Abed, Kais; Trepanowski, John F.; Stannard, Stephen R.; Ghlissi, Zohra; Ghozzi, Hanene; Masmoudi, Liwa; Jammoussi, Kamel; Hakim, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on several biochemical and anthropometric parameters in physically active men by comparing fasters and nonfasters before, during, and after Ramadan. Methods Eighteen physically active men (10 fasters and 8 nonfasters) participated in this study. Subjects visited the laboratory for a total of four sessions on the following occasions: three days before Ramadan (Bef-R), the 15th day of Ramadan (Mid-R), the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R), and 21 days after Ramadan (Post-R). During each session, subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, completed a dietary questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample. Results Body weight and body fat percentage decreased in fasters by 1.9% (P<0.001) and 6.2% (P=0.003), respectively, but increased in nonfasters by 2.2% (P<0.001) and 10.2% (P=0.001), respectively, from Bef-R to End-R. Fasters’ hematocrit and hemoglobin increased by 5.3% (P<0.001) and 6.3% (P=0.01), respectively, from Bef-R to End-R, while neither of these parameters changed in nonfasters. Fasters experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urea (8.7%; P<0.001), creatinine (7.5%; P<0.001), uric acid (12.7%; P<0.001), serum sodium (1.9%; P<0.001), serum chloride (2.6%; P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.3%; P<0.001). Of these parameters, only creatinine increased (4.4%; P=0.01) in nonfasters. Conclusion We conclude that Ramadan fasting lowers body weight and body fat percentage and can elevate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in physically active men. However, practicing aerobic exercise during a hot and humid Ramadan month can induce a state of dehydration marked by an increase in some renal function markers and serum electrolytes. PMID:22375232

  11. Biochemical parameters to assess choroid plexus dysfunction in Kearns-Sayre syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Tondo, Mireia; Málaga, Ignácio; O'Callaghan, Mar; Serrano, Mercedes; Emperador, Sonia; Ormazabal, Aida; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Montoya, Julio; Garcia-Silva, Maria T; Martin-Hernandez, Elena; Garcia-Cazorla, Angels; Pineda, Merce; Artuch, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Our aim was to assess biochemical parameters to detect choroid plexus dysfunction in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) patients. We studied CSF from 7 patients with KSS including total proteins, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, homovanillic acid (HVA) and Selenium (Se) concentrations. High Se values, increased HVA and total protein concentrations and decreased 5-MTHF values were observed in all cases. This pattern seems very specific to KSS since it was only detected in 7 patients out of 1850 CSF samples analysed, and may represent a good biochemical model for evaluating choroid plexus dysfunction. The accumulated Se in CSF might have deleterious consequences such as toxicity effects. PMID:21745599

  12. Contaminant concentrations, biochemical and hematological biomarkers in blood of West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anzolin, D G; Sarkis, J E S; Diaz, E; Soares, D G; Serrano, I L; Borges, J C G; Souto, A S; Taniguchi, S; Montone, R C; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2012-07-01

    The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is threatened with extinction in Brazil, and this study focused on nondestructive blood samples analyzed for metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as biochemical and hematological biomarkers. Studied manatees were kept at Projeto Peixe-Boi headquarters in Pernambuco State, and at two natural areas in estuaries where they are released to the wild. Manatees kept at the natural estuary in Paraiba State have blood concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Sn that are 11, 7, 8 and 23 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations found in blood of animals from the same species in Florida, USA. An inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in manatees kept at the two reintroduction sites in Alagoas and Paraiba States indicated possible exposure of the animals to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides. PCBs and OCPs were not detected. Results from this study will help delineate conservation efforts in the region. PMID:22626623

  13. Effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on anemia of hemodialysis patients and relevant biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Xu, X F; Hu, J P; Cheng, X; Yu, G J; Luo, F; Zhang, G S; Yang, N; Shen, P

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on the anemia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, as well as the relevant biochemical parameters. We selected 72 patients who had received regular MHD treatment two or three times a week for more than 3 months in the Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Zhengzhou City of Henan Province from March 2014 to March 2016. They were equally divided into a treatment group and a control group. Haemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) of the treatment group increased significantly after treatment (p less than 0.01), but less in the control group (p less than 0.05); Also serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TAST) of the treatment group increased significantly after treatment (p less than 0.01); SF of the control group also increased significantly (p less than 0.01) and TAST of the control group increased (p less than 0.05) but less than in the treatment group. No obvious changes of serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), C-reactive protein (CRP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found in either groups after treatment (p>0.05). Albumin (ALB) dosage of the treatment group increased after treatment (p less than 0.05) while hemopoietin (EPO) decreased significantly (p less than 0.01). ALB and EPO of the control group had no obvious changes after treatment (p>0.05). ALB level of the treatment group increased more significantly than in the control group (p less than 0.05), while EPO dosage decreased more significantly than in the control group (p less than 0.05). Therefore, the combination of conventional western medicine and sodium ferrous chlorophyll can effectively improve anemia conditions of MHD patients and their quality of life. PMID:27049084

  14. Hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population: defining reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Shrilekha; Domalapalli, Suhasini; Muthu, Sundaram; Swaminathan, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Vivek A; Sekhar, Lalitha; Pandeya, Palak; Balasubramaniam, Udhaya

    2014-07-01

    Clinical reference intervals among Indian population are poorly defined. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish local clinical laboratory reference intervals for healthy Indian population. The present study aimed to identify the 95 % reference interval for hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population. We undertook a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted at Apollo Hospitals Educational and Research Foundation across India. Of which 10,665 reference individuals identified as healthy by physicians. The 95 % of the reference distribution was estimated using 2.5th and 97.5th percentile reference limits. The 95 % reference intervals for hemoglobin (Males: 12.3-17 g/dL; Females: 9.9-14.3 g/dL), platelet count (Males: 1.3-3.8; Females: 1.3-4.2 Lakhs/µL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Males: 2-22; Females: 4-55 mm/h), serum uric acid in males: 3.5-8.2 mg/dL, gamma glutamyl transferase (Males: 13-61 U/L), fasting blood glucose (Males: 78-110 mg/dL), total cholesterol (Males: 115-254 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (Males: 60-176 mg/dL) and triglycerides (Males: 55-267 mg/dL, Females: 52-207 mg/dL) were different from currently used reference values. Additionally need for gender based partitioning were observed for triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase. The observed findings are of clinical significance and it needs to be validated with additional community based studies. PMID:24966476

  15. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    PubMed

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga. PMID:24516872

  16. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during a decompression procedure involving eight hours of oxygen prebreathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 8 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate space-flight extravehicular activity (EVA) for 6 h. Several statistically significant changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure: increases in calcium, magnesium, osmolality, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, monocytes, and prothrombin time, and decreases in chloride, creatine phosphokinase and eosinophils. The changes, however, were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression profile used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during EVA.

  17. Effects of water-current speed on hematological, biochemical and immune parameters in juvenile tinfoil barb, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Bleeker, 1854)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiming; Song, Bolan; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of water-current speed on hematological, biochemical and immune parameters in juvenile tinfoil barb ( Barbonymus schwanenfeldii). Blood samples were taken on days 1, 23 and 45 from control fish and from two training groups maintained at current speeds of 0.06 bl/s (body length per second), 0.66 bl/s, and 1.92 bl/s, respectively. Significantly increased red-blood-cell counts and hematocrit were observed in the post-training groups on days 23 and 45. Significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations were also observed in the 1.92 bl/s group on days 23 and 45. In contrast, values of mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the 1.92 bl/s group than in the other groups on day 45. Nitroblue-tetrazolium-positive cells and lysozyme and superoxidase dismutase activities in the plasma increased significantly with increasing training intensity on days 23 and 45. Antibacterial activities were significantly increased in the trained groups compared with the control group on day 23; significantly elevated alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in the 1.92 bl/s groups on day 45. Therefore, training intensities of 0.66 and 1.92 bl/s enhanced the blood oxygen-carrying capability and plasma immune parameters of juvenile tinfoil barbs.

  18. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Hmoud F.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC 50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  19. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Balawi, Hmoud F. Al-Kahem; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2015-10-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  20. Trigonella foenum-graecum protection against deltamethrin-induced toxic effects on haematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Mahmoud, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is enriched with many active ingredients. TFG oil was evaluated for its protective effect against deltamethrin toxicity in rats. Rats of the control group were administered saline. The 2nd group was administered deltamethrin (DLM) orally at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass. The 3rd and 4th groups were administered DLM at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass and were fed diets containing 2.5% and 5% TFG oil, respectively. DLM intoxication reduced red blood cell and platelet counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit value while it induced leucocytosis. Furthermore, it increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, and creatinine; increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation; decreased serum acetylcholine esterase level; and decreased hepatic, renal, and brain antioxidant markers' activities. However, TFG oil kept the studied hematological and biochemical parameters within normal ranges. In addition, it prevented lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by DLM intoxication in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, these results indicated that TFG oil inhibited the toxic effects of DLM on hematological and biochemical parameters as well as oxidative status by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities, and it appeared to be a promising protective agent against DLM-induced toxicity. PMID:25029214

  1. Age-Related Alterations in Blood Biochemical Characterization of Hepatorenal Function in the PCK Rat: A Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yuichi; Brock, William J; Ito, Yuko; Morishita, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    PCK rats develop age-related polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and liver disease and have been used to investigate pharmacotherapies to ameliorate hepatorenal lesions for patients with PKD. The PCK rat may be useful to understand the possible susceptibility to hepatotoxicity observed in the patient with PKD having hepatic polycystic lesions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the background blood biochemical changes that reflect the hepatorenal function of PCK rats as well as the terminal histopathology in order to determine whether this model would be suitable for extrapolating the susceptibility of hepatotoxicity in patients. The blood biochemical parameters of hepatorenal function and histopathology were investigated in PCK rats at ages 5 to 19 weeks and compared to those outcomes in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat. There were notable blood biochemical changes possibly due to biliary dysgenesis in the PCK rat as early as 5 weeks of age. High levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bile acids persisted throughout the study compared to the SD rat. Increased aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and hyperlipidemia and a decrease in albumin were also evident at 10 to 19 weeks of age possibly due to progression of cholestatic liver dysfunction secondary to age-related liver cystic progression. Increased liver weights generally correlated with the severity of biliary and hepatic histopathological changes. In male PCK rats, age-related increases in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine at 10 to 19 weeks of age were observed, and the cystic progression was more severe than that in females. These data indicate that the PCK rat showed notable blood biochemical changes reflecting alteration of the liver function compared to the SD rat. Also, there was a large individual variation in these parameters possibly due to variable progression rate of biliary dysgenesis and subsequent liver damages in PCK rats. PMID:26503599

  2. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Rida; Yrjälä, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 μgmL−1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology. PMID:25242944

  3. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  4. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium.

    PubMed

    Batool, Rida; Yrjälä, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 μgmL(-1) caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology. PMID:25242944

  5. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?kov, Petra; Vosl?ov, Eva; Bed?ov, Iveta; Pit?kov, Vladimra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimr

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  6. Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical Parameters during Long Term Exposure of Arsenic in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Tapan Kumar; Mani, Veena; Kaur, Harjit; Kewalramani, Neelam; Agarwal, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was designed to determine whether supplementation of different level of vitamin E for 12 months to arsenic exposed goats (50 ppm as sodium arsenite) affords protection against the blood hemato-biochemical parameters caused by the metalloid. A total of 24 crossbred (Alpine×Beetal) lactating goats were assigned randomly into 4 equal groups (control, T1, T2 and T3) of 6 in each, on the basis of average body weight (36.10±0.11 kg) and milk yield (1.61±0.04 kg/d). The animals in T1, T2 and T3 were given 50 ppm arsenic, while in T2 and T3, additionally; vitamin E at the rate of 100 IU and 150 IU/kg dry matter (DM) respectively was additionally supplemented for the period of 12 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte (TLC) and blood lymphocyte % were decreased (p<0.05) in arsenic fed groups and vitamin E supplementation in the experimental group showed a protective potential. Significant increases (p<0.05) in aspertate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities among arsenic supplemented groups were recorded, however vitamin E supplementation at higher doses showed a protective effect (p<0.05) against AST but in the case of ALT no ameliorating effect was found in either of the doses. Plasma total protein was decreased (p>0.05) but creatinine level was periodically increased in all As supplemented groups and vitamin E supplementation did not produce any protective effect. It can be concluded that arsenic exposure resulted in varying degree of changes in hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats but concomitant treatment with Vitamin E is partially helpful in reducing the burden of arsenic induced effect. PMID:25049689

  7. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Adams, F.; Bellairs, G.; Bird, A. R.; Oguntibeju, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion. PMID:25710038

  8. Toxicity assessment of two soils from Jales mine (Portugal) using plants: growth and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Santos, Conceição; Pinto, Glória; Costa, Armando; Monteiro, Marta; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2006-02-01

    Contaminants in soils can enter food chains through primary producers. Bioavailable contaminants can induce growth, and reproductive or biochemical changes in plants. To evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals in two soils from Jales mine surroundings, bioassays with the plants Brassica rapa (RCBr) and Avena sativa were performed. Biochemical parameters (protein and malondialdehyde [MDA] content, and catalase and peroxidase activities) were also measured. The soils had different heavy metal contents: JNC soil contained low heavy metal concentrations, whereas JC soil had high heavy metal contents. Results stressed the difference between species sensitivity, with A. sativa showing no toxicity effects when exposed to both soils. On the other hand, B. rapa presented a decrease in growth parameters when exposed to JNC soil and no changes when exposed to JC soil. A Life Cycle Bioassay confirmed this trend for B. rapa exposed to JNC soil, but also evidenced that JC soil was affecting B. rapa in terms of flower and seed pod production. Biochemical assays showed that plants affected by heavy metals also displayed oxidative stress, with an increase in MDA production, reduction of protein content, and reduction of catalase and peroxidase activities. All bioassays revealed that JNC soil, although with a lower heavy metal content, had a higher bioavailable fraction when compared to JC soil, which consequently increased its toxicity to plants. PMID:16307215

  9. Bayesian inference of biochemical kinetic parameters using the linear noise approximation

    PubMed Central

    Komorowski, Michał; Finkenstädt, Bärbel; Harper, Claire V; Rand, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background Fluorescent and luminescent gene reporters allow us to dynamically quantify changes in molecular species concentration over time on the single cell level. The mathematical modeling of their interaction through multivariate dynamical models requires the deveopment of effective statistical methods to calibrate such models against available data. Given the prevalence of stochasticity and noise in biochemical systems inference for stochastic models is of special interest. In this paper we present a simple and computationally efficient algorithm for the estimation of biochemical kinetic parameters from gene reporter data. Results We use the linear noise approximation to model biochemical reactions through a stochastic dynamic model which essentially approximates a diffusion model by an ordinary differential equation model with an appropriately defined noise process. An explicit formula for the likelihood function can be derived allowing for computationally efficient parameter estimation. The proposed algorithm is embedded in a Bayesian framework and inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Conclusion The major advantage of the method is that in contrast to the more established diffusion approximation based methods the computationally costly methods of data augmentation are not necessary. Our approach also allows for unobserved variables and measurement error. The application of the method to both simulated and experimental data shows that the proposed methodology provides a useful alternative to diffusion approximation based methods. PMID:19840370

  10. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely. PMID:25686027

  11. Effects of cadmium on consumption, assimilation and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna: possible implications for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Bodar, C W; van der Sluis, I; Voogt, P A; Zandee, D I

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of cadmium on consumption, assimilation rates and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna were determined. 2. The consumption and assimilation rates of 14 days 1.0 ppb Cd treated animals tended to decrease slightly, the decline of these rates at 5.0 ppb Cd (14 days), however, was highly significant (P less than 0.001). 3. The assimilation efficiencies of daphnids exposed to cadmium did not significantly differ from control. 4. No notable changes in the biochemical composition of daphnids could be noticed after 7, 14 and 21 days of cadmium exposure. 5. It seems as if not one metabolic process in particular was depressed due to cadmium, but metabolic activities seemed to be inhibited on the whole. 6. Results are discussed in relation with data of a previous study on the reproduction of D. magna under cadmium stress. PMID:2902995

  12. A Model Incorporating Some of the Mechanical and Biochemical Factors Underlying Clot Formation and Dissolution in Flowing Blood

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple interacting mechanisms control the formation and dissolution of clots to maintain blood in a state of delicate balance. In addition to a myriad of biochemical reactions, rheological factors also play a crucial role in modulating the response of blood to external stimuli. To date, a comprehensive model for clot formation and dissolution, that takes into account the biochemical, medical and rheological factors, has not been put into place, the existing models emphasizing either one or the other of the factors. In this paper, after discussing the various biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors at some length, we develop a modelmore » for clot formation and dissolution that incorporates many of the relevant crucial factors that have a bearing on the problem. The model, though just a first step towards understanding a complex phenomenon, goes further than previous models in integrating the biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors that come into play.« less

  13. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood. However,SE infection was hard to be observed from the appearances of layer and egg. It might be a dangerous risk to human health. PMID:24405886

  14. Changes in blood biochemical markers before, during, and after a 2-day ultramarathon

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Kazuyuki; Hosono, Akihiro; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Ghadimi, Reza; Fuku, Mizuho; Goto, Chiho; Imaeda, Nahomi; Tokudome, Yuko; Hoshino, Hideki; Marumoto, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2016-01-01

    We studied changes in blood markers of 18 nonprofessional, middle-aged runners of a 2-day, 130 km ultramarathon. Blood was sampled at baseline, after the goals on the first and second day, and at three time points (1, 3, and 5/6 days) after the race. Blood indices showed three patterns. First pattern indices showed essentially no changes after the two goals and after the race, including red blood cell indices, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Second pattern markers, including the majority of indices, were elevated during the race (and also after the race for some parameters) and then returned to baseline afterward, including hemolysis/red blood cell destruction markers (indirect bilirubin) and an iron reservoir index (ferritin), muscle damage parameters (uric acid, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase), renal function markers (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), liver injury index (alanine aminotransferase), lipid metabolism indices (free fatty acid), reactive oxygen species and inflammation parameters (white blood cells, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein), and energy production and catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine). Third pattern index of a lipid metabolism marker – triglyceride – decreased during the race periods and started returning to baseline from then onward. Some hormonal markers such as insulin, leptin, and adiponectin showed unique patterns. These findings appeared informative for nonprofessional athletes to know about an optimal physical activity level, duration, and total exercise for elevating physical performance and monitoring physical/mental conditioning as well as for prevention of overtraining and physical injuries. PMID:27186145

  15. Correlation between ABO Blood Group, and Conventional Hematological and Metabolic Parameters in Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Terenziani, Isabella; Bonfanti, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Background Although several studies have investigated and confirmed the existence of an association between ABO blood type and several human disorders, especially with cardiovascular disease, little is known on the physiological influence or association of ABO blood groups on basal levels of some conventional hematological and metabolic parameters. Study Design and Methods A total number of 7,723 consecutive healthy blood donors underwent laboratory testing at the time of their first blood donation, which apart from ABO typing included assessment of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides, creatinine, iron, ferritin, uric acid, glucose, hemoglobin, and platelet count. Results The most relevant finding was the identification of significantly higher values of total cholesterol and HDL-c in subjects with blood group A compared with those with O blood type, with the highest levels being observed in A1 subtype. Conclusions The positive association between A blood type and plasma lipid levels supports its potential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the clinical observations of increased vulnerability to cardiovascular disease of individuals with non-O blood groups. PMID:26595152

  16. Changes in serum mineral concentrations, biochemical and hematological parameters in horses with pica.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Ismail; Onmaz, Ali Cesur; Aypak, Serap Unubol; Gunes, Vehbi; Kucuk, Osman

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare hematological, some biochemical parameters, and serum trace element concentrations in horses with or without pica. Fifteen horses with pica (group I) and another 15 healthy horses without pica (group II) were used. The hematological parameters were not changed between the two groups. In group I, hemoglobin values were lower than those of group II. However, the difference in hemoglobin values between the two groups was not significant (P > 0.05). Serum iron and copper concentrations and the copper/zinc ratio were lower in group I than those of group II (P < 0.05). The other biochemical parameters were not found to be statistically different between the two groups (P > 0.05). It was concluded that serum iron and copper deficiency may play an important role for the etiology of pica in horses. Prophylactic use of iron and copper supplements in horses may be beneficial to prevent pica. PMID:20213346

  17. Spent Mushroom Substrate Influences Elk (Cervus Elaphus Canadensis) Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Sang Woo; Do, Yoon Jung; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Yeoung Gyu; Yang, Boh Suk; Shin, Daekeun; Cho, Young Moo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived from Pleurotus eryngii on the hematological and biochemical blood properties of elk. A total of 18, two and three-year-old elk were fed three different levels of SMS (0, 15 and 20%) in a corn-wheat bran diet for 80 days. The results indicated significantly high levels of blood monocytes, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (HCT) in elk fed 15% or 20% SMS (p<0.05) compared to control animals. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose concentrations were also significantly elevated in elk fed both 15% and 20% SMS. The inclusion of SMS in the elk diet did not affect serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, or low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations; however, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in SMS-fed groups. In addition, 20% SMS in the diet increased serum iron and testosterone concentrations in elk. These results indicate that adding SMS to the diet of elk can increase their Hgb, serum BUN, glucose, and HDL-cholesterol concentration; therefore, diets containing SMS may enhance the physiologic condition of elk during growth. PMID:25049569

  18. Effects of Malaria Parasite Density on Blood Cell Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kotepui, Manas; Piwkham, Duangjai; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit

    2015-01-01

    Changes in blood cell parameters are already a well-known feature of malarial infections. To add to this information, the objective of this study was to investigate the varying effects that different levels of parasite density have on blood cell parameters. Patients diagnosed with malaria at Phobphra Hospital, Tak Province, Thailand between January 1st 2009 and January 1st 2012 were recruited as subjects for data collection. Blood cell parameters of 2,024 malaria-infected patients were evaluated and statistically analyzed. Neutrophil and platelet counts were significantly higher, however, RBC count was significantly lower in patients with P. falciparum infection compared to those with P. vivax infection (p<0.0001). Leukocyte counts were also significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia. In terms of differential leukocyte count, neutrophil count was significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia (p<0.0001). On the other hand, both lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly lower in patients with high parasitemia (p<0.0001). RBC count and Hb concentration, as well as platelet count were also significantly reduced (p<0.05) and (p<0.0001), respectively. To summarize, patients infected with different malaria parasites exhibited important distinctive hematological parameters, with neutrophil and eosinophil counts being the two hematological parameters most affected. In addition, patients infected with different malarial densities also exhibited important changes in leukocyte count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during the infection. These findings offer the opportunity to recognize and diagnose malaria related anemia, help support the treatment thereof, as well as relieve symptoms of severe malaria in endemic regions. PMID:25807235

  19. Sperm quality and selected biochemical parameters of seminal fluid in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Wąchocka, A; Brodzki, P; Wrona, Z; Piech, T; Wawron, W; Chałabis-Mazurek, A

    2015-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs is most commonly associated with age and increasing concentrations of dihydrotesterone, a hormone that stimulates growth and secretion of the prostatic epithelial cells. During this process, the biochemical composition of prostatic secretion changes, which can affect the quality of semen and limit the ability of the sperm to contribute to fertilization. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine possible correlation between BPH and biological quality of semen. The study was performed in 11 sexually mature dogs of various breeds. Animals were divided into two groups: healthy dogs (Group I; n = 5; mean age 4.32; SEM = 1.28) and dogs with BPH (Group II n = 6; mean age 6.16; SEM = 0.65). Semen and prostate secretions were collected and evaluated in this study. Standard semen examinations were conducted in the ejaculates collected; moreover, the extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation was determined. The selected biochemical parameters were determined in the prostate secretion. According to the examination results, there were no significant differences in standard semen parameters between the two groups of dogs. Nevertheless, morphological tests of semen in dogs with BPH demonstrated elevated percentages of primary defects in spermatozoa. A significant increase (P = 0.01) in DNA defragmentation of sperm was found in dogs with BPH. Moreover, changes in the biochemical composition of prostate secretion were demonstrated. In dogs with BPH, pH of prostate secretions was greater (P = 0.03), concentrations of cholesterol increased while concentrations of Zn and Cu decreased. The study findings reveal that BPH does not change semen quality in dogs. PMID:26275963

  20. Flux module decomposition for parameter estimation in a multiple-feedback loop model of biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiro; Minamida, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Computer simulation is an important technique to capture the dynamics of biochemical networks. Since few quantitative values are measured in vivo, the values for unmeasured parameters should be estimated so that the simulation agrees with the experimental data. Considering the sparsity and error rates of experimentally measured data, the first thing is not to find a numerically exact and global solution but to explore a variety of the plausible parameter solutions. To find many plausible parameter solutions without any biases, we developed the two-phase search (TPS) method. However, calculation complexity makes it hard for TPS to optimize a large-scale dynamic model. In this study divide-and-conquer methods are used to solve this problem. The flux module decomposition (FMD) is first proposed that separates a complex, large-scale dynamic model into multiple flux modules without deteriorating its basic control architectures. FMD is combined with TPS, named FMD-TPS, to find many plausible parameter solutions for a dynamic model. To demonstrate the feasibility of FMD-TPS, it is applied to the E. coli ammonia assimilation system that consists of multiple-feedback loops. The variability of the solutions is verified by measuring the space distribution of the parameter solution vectors and by defining the binary vectors checking the consistency with biological behaviors. Compared with non-decomposition methods, FMD-TPS efficiently explored a variety of plausible parameter solutions that reproduce the dynamic behaviors in vivo. PMID:22820677

  1. A new trend to determine biochemical parameters by quantitative FRET assays

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jia-yu; Song, Yang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been widely used in biological and biomedical research because it can determine molecule or particle interactions within a range of 1–10 nm. The sensitivity and efficiency of FRET strongly depend on the distance between the FRET donor and acceptor. Historically, FRET assays have been used to quantitatively deduce molecular distances. However, another major potential application of the FRET assay has not been fully exploited, that is, the use of FRET signals to quantitatively describe molecular interactive events. In this review, we discuss the use of quantitative FRET assays for the determination of biochemical parameters, such as the protein interaction dissociation constant (Kd), enzymatic velocity (kcat) and Km. We also describe fluorescent microscopy-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction affinity determination in cells as well as fluorimeter-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction and enzymatic parameter determination in solution. PMID:26567729

  2. Influence of Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica on certain biochemical haemolymph parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina.

    PubMed

    Mantawy, Mona M; Hamed, Manal A; Sammour, Elham M; Sanad, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The work investigated the molluscicidal potency of dried Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica leaves on selected biochemical parameters of Bionimphalaria alexandrina, in order to render them, physiologically, unsuitable for S. mansoni infection or at least disturb the life-cycle of the parasite within its respective snail host. The effect of the two plants on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase (AP), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose content were studied. This work was extended to evaluate the effect of these two plants on protein profile as well as total protein (TP) content of snail's in haemolymph after 24 hours and one week of snails plants feeding. The study revealed that both plants induced marked alteration in all the measured parameters, where LC50 of C. spinosa after fed one week showed the most potent effect. PMID:15287187

  3. Effects of the surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA) on genotoxic, biochemical and physiological parameters of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Claudia D C; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2014-09-01

    The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA) is added to several formulations of glyphosate herbicides that are widely used in agriculture and can contaminate aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, an integrated approach examining genotoxic, biochemical and physiological parameters was employed to evaluate acute effects of POEA on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to 0.15 mg·L(-1) (POEA 1), 0.75 mg·L(-1) (POEA 2) and 1.5 mg·L(-1) (POEA 3) of POEA or only water (CTR), and after 24h exposure samples of blood and liver were taken. Compared with CTR, liver of fish exposed to POEA 2 and POEA 3 showed increased activity of 7 ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and increased content of glutathione, whereas the activity of glutathione-S-transferase was diminished. On the other hand, fish of the group POEA 1 showed an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and in the occurrence of lipid peroxidation. Fish exposed to POEA 3 presented increased hepatic activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduced plasma cortisol. The exposure to POEA at all concentrations tested caused an increase in plasma lactate and a decrease in the hepatic activity of catalase, in the number of red blood cells and in hemoglobin content. The comet assay used for analyzing DNA damage in blood cells indicated the genotoxicity of the surfactant at all concentrations tested. Taken together these results show that POEA can cause effects at various levels, such as hemolysis, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, which are directly related to an imbalance in the redox state of the fish. PMID:24955954

  4. Design and Development of Microcontroller-Based Clinical Chemistry Analyser for Measurement of Various Blood Biochemistry Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, S. R.; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K. K.; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  5. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  6. Biochemical and hematologic parameters for children in the middle belt of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dosoo, David K; Asante, Kwaku P; Kayan, Kingsley; Adu-Gyasi, Dennis; Osei-Kwakye, Kingsley; Mahama, Emmanuel; Danso, Samuel; Amenga-Etego, Stephen; Bilson, Philip; Koram, Kwadwo A; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Reference values derived from developed countries are used in many countries in Africa for interpretation of laboratory results obtained during routine healthcare and clinical trials. Use of locally derived reference values has been recommended. The purpose of the study was to establish age- and sex-specific reference values for children in the middle belt of Ghana. Reference values were determined for 21 biochemical and 18 hematologic parameters by using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A3 guidelines in a sample of 1,442 healthy children. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, erythrocytes, urea, and creatinine were lower when compared with values from northern countries but alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were higher. A panel of locally relevant age- and sex-specific reference values was established for commonly used biochemical and hematologic tests in children in the middle part of Ghana. This will help in interpretation of laboratory results for clinical management of patients, screening, and safety monitoring during clinical trials. PMID:24591437

  7. Symptoms in hemodialysis patients and their relationship with biochemical and demographic parameters.

    PubMed

    Virga, G; Mastrosimone, S; Amici, G; Munaretto, G; Gastaldon, F; Bonadonna, A

    1998-12-01

    Symptoms can markedly influence the hemodialysis patients well-being and quality of life. The aim of this paper is to study the frequency of symptoms at home and how these relate to biochemical and treatment variables. Seventy-three hemodialysis patients were questioned on the absence, occasional presence or daily recurrence (score = 0, 1, 2) of 14 symptoms and a record was made of their biochemical parameters, age, time on treatment and KtIV as a function of each symptom. The following relationships were detected: thirst with high Osm and BUN; asthenia with old age and hypoalbuminemia; insomnia with hypercalcemia; hypersomnia with hypoxemia and hypernatremia; anorexia with hypokalemia; dyspnea with old age, hypernatremia and hypokalemia; dysgeusia with hypoxemia; nausea with alkalemia, hypoxemia and low BUN; vomiting with alkalemia. Pruritus, arthralgia, restless legs syndrome, cramp and tremor showed no relationships. Monitoring acid-base balance and plasma electrolytes could help to alleviate symptoms and ameliorate quality of life of hemodialysis patients. PMID:9988355

  8. Effects of BDE-99 on hormone homeostasis and biochemical parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Virginia; Linares, Victoria; Bellés, Montserrat; Albina, María Luisa; Pujol, Andreu; Domingo, José L; Sánchez, Domènec J

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of BDE-99 on hormone homeostasis, as well as in urinary and serum biochemical parameters of adult male rats. Animals (10 per group) received BDE-99 by gavage at single doses of 0, 0.6 and 1.2mg/kg. Forty-five days after BDE-99 exposure, urine and serum samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical analysis. Oxidative stress (OS) markers in erythrocytes, plasma and urine were also evaluated. Urinary excretion of total protein significantly increased following BDE-99 exposure, while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamil transferase (GGT), and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities significantly decreased. Liver toxicity was evidenced by elevated serum activities of the enzymes glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Following BDE-99 administration, OS markers in erythrocytes showed an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and a reduction in glutathione reductase (GR) activity. In urine, isoprostane levels increased after BDE-99 exposure. The hormonal analysis showed a significant decrease in testosterone and progesterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that BDE-99 interacts with hormonal response. Moreover, BDE-99 administration to adult male rats showed signs of renal and hepatic toxicity. PMID:20488217

  9. Effects of dietary zinc and L-arginine supplementation on total antioxidants capacity, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, egg weight, and blood biochemical values in Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Atakisi, Onur; Atakisi, Emine; Kart, Asim

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of dietary zinc and L-arginine supplementation on blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), some blood chemistry parameters, and egg weights of laying quails. Three groups of Japanese quails were fed with a diet containing L-arginine (5 mg/kg), zinc (60 mg/kg), and normal basal diet (control) for 30 days. TAC, lipid peroxidation, and biochemical analysis were performed in the blood of animals. L-Arginine and zinc supplementation improved TAC and reduced MDA concentrations compared to the control (P<0.05). In comparison to the control, blood NO concentrations were increased by Larginine (P<0.01) and zinc treatment (P<0.05). Both zinc (P<0.001) and L-arginine (P< 0.01) supplementation significantly increased egg weight in laying quails. Some of the blood chemistry parameters were also altered by the treatment of L-arginine and zinc supplementation. No difference was found in blood albumin and creatinine levels among the groups. Blood glucose (P=0.833) and total protein (P=0.264) levels in control and Larginine-treated groups were found to be similar. Glucose and total protein levels were decreased in zinc-supplemented animals compared to the control and L-arginine groups (P< 0.05). No difference was found in triglyceride levels between control and zinc-applied groups (P=0.197). However, L-arginine treatment reduced the blood triglyceride levels compared to the control (P<0.05). In conclusion, L-arginine and zinc supplementation could be beneficial and effective for decreasing oxidative stress, boosting antioxidant capacity, and improving egg weight in the blood of the animals. PMID:19396404

  10. Evaluation of bone metabolism in newborn twins using quantitative ultrasound and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Kara, Semra; Güzoğlu, Nilüfer; Göçer, Emine; Arıkan, Fatma Inci; Dilmen, Uğur; Dallar Bilge, Yıldız

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is one of the important complications of prematurity. Early and adequate nutritional interventions may reduce the incidence and potential complications of MBD. The present study aimed to evaluate bone metabolism in twins via biochemical parameters and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and to compare the results between twin pairs. Moreover, twin infants were evaluated in terms of potential risk factors likely to have impact on MBD. Forty-three pairs of twins were included in the study. Serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were assessed and bone mineral density was measured using QUS (speed of sound, SOS) at postnatal 30 d. Co-twin with the higher birth weight was assigned to Group 1 (n = 36) and the other twin was assigned to Group 2 (n = 36). Birth weight and head circumference were significantly higher in the infants of Group 1 compared with Group 2. No significant difference was found among the groups in terms of gender, history of resuscitation, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) or in the incubator, duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), type of nutrition, vitamin D use, biochemical parameters, and the SOS value. The factors likely to affect SOS, including type of pregnancy, maternal drug use, gender of infant, birth weight, head circumference at birth, gestational week, length of stay at the ICU, duration of TPN, type of nutrition, resuscitation, vitamin D use, and levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase were entered into the model. The phosphorus level and the maternal drug use were found to be the factors that significantly reduced SOS, whereas pregnancy after assisted reproductive techniques was found to be a significant enhancing factor. PMID:25777793

  11. Effects of temperature on cellular and biochemical parameters in the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Gallo, Chiara; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2011-06-01

    The effects of temperature on cellular and biochemical parameters of the crab Carcinus aestuarii were evaluated. Crabs were kept for 7 days at 4, 17 (reference value) and 30 °C (salinity of 35 psu), and total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte volume, haemocyte proliferation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity in both haemocyte lysate (HL) and cell-free haemolymph (CFH), CFH total protein and glucose levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in both gills and digestive gland were evaluated. The lowest and the highest temperature significantly decreased THC, whereas haemocyte volume and haemolymph glucose concentration did not differ significantly among experimental conditions. Haemolymph protein concentration significantly reduced in crabs maintained at 30 °C, when compared with that of animals kept at 4 and 17 °C. Haemocyte proliferation increased significantly in crabs kept at 4 and 30 °C, when compared with that of crabs held at 17 °C. Likewise, a significantly higher PO activity was recorded in CFH from crabs kept at 4 and 30 °C, than in control crabs. Conversely, PO activity did not vary significantly in HL. With regard to antioxidant enzyme activities, a significant decrease in CAT activity was observed in gills from crabs kept at 4 °C, when compared to that of crabs kept at 17 °C and 30 °C. Results obtained demonstrated that the highest and lowest temperature tested influenced crab biological responses, and indicated that C. aestuarii modulated its cellular and biochemical parameters (mainly haemocyte proliferation, CFH protein concentrations and CFH PO activity) in order to cope with temperature. PMID:21546077

  12. Changes in Hematological, Biochemical and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Following Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeong, Min Hwan; Jun, Je-Cheon; Kim, Tae-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Triplicate groups of fed and starved olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (body weight: 119.8±17.46 g), were examined over 42 days for physiological changes using hematological, biochemical, and non-specific immune parameters. No significant differences in concentrations of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit and plasma levels of total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and cortisol were detected between fed and starved groups at any sampling time throughout the experiment. In contrast, plasma total protein concentrations were significantly lower in starved fish than in fed fish from day 7 onwards. Moreover, plasma lysozyme concentrations were significantly higher in starved flounder from day 21 onwards. This result confirms that the response of olive flounder to short-term (less than about 1.5 months) starvation consists of a readjustment of metabolism rather than the activation of an alarm-stress response. The present results indicate that starvation does not significantly compromise the health status of fish despite food limitation. PMID:25178381

  13. Blood flow quantification using 1D CFD parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosig, Richard; Kowarschik, Markus; Maday, Peter; Katouzian, Amin; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    Patient-specific measurements of cerebral blood flow provide valuable diagnostic information concerning cerebrovascular diseases rather than visually driven qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a quantitative method to estimate blood flow parameters with high temporal resolution from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences. Using a 3D DSA dataset and a 2D+t DSA sequence, the proposed algorithm employs a 1D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for estimation of time-dependent flow values along a cerebral vessel, combined with an additional Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) for contrast agent propagation. The CFD system, followed by the ADE, is solved with a finite volume approximation, which ensures the conservation of mass. Instead of defining a new imaging protocol to obtain relevant data, our cost function optimizes the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the contrast agent in 2D+t DSA sequences. The visual determination of BAT is common clinical practice and can be easily derived from and be compared to values, generated by a 1D-CFD simulation. Using this strategy, we ensure that our proposed method fits best to clinical practice and does not require any changes to the medical work flow. Synthetic experiments show that the recovered flow estimates match the ground truth values with less than 12% error in the mean flow rates.

  14. Effect of Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Various Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Male Albino Mice following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Nabia; Gillani, Quratulane; Akbar, Atif

    2013-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to report the effect of 2% creatine monohydrate supplementation for 8, 12 and 15 weeks on hematology and serum biochemical profile of male albino mouse following hypoxic ischemic insult on postnatal day 10. Methods. 66 Blood samples (2% creatine monohydrate supplemented (N = 34) and unsupplemented (N = 32)) were analyzed for various hematological (blood glucose, packed cell volume, total WBC count, total RBC count) and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, total protein, triglycerides). Results. ALT had higher concentrations in mice feeding on normal diet for 8 (P > 0.01) and 12 weeks (P > 0.01) following asphyxia and in 12 weeks treatment without asphyxia (P = 0.006) when compared with the creatine supplemented mice. LDL (P = 0.011) and cholesterol (P > 0.01) had higher concentrations in mice on normal diet for 12 weeks following hypoxia ischemia. Cholesterol (P > 0.01) in 12 and glucose (P = 0.006) in 15 week treatment group had significantly lower concentrations in creatine supplemented male albino mice when compared with untreated group following hxpoic-ischemic insult. Conclusion. We concluded that creatine supplementation following hypoxic ischemic insult helps in maintain the normal blood chemistry. PMID:24170981

  15. Effects of 24 h ultra-marathon on biochemical and hematological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huey-June; Chen, Kung-Tung; Shee, Bing-Wu; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Jen; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To analyze detailed changes in hematology and biochemistry tests parameters before and after a long-distance race in ultramarathon runners. METHODS: Blood samples of 11 participants were obtained for standard analysis before, immediately after, two days after and nine days after the 2002 International Ultra-marathon 24 h Race and the International Association of Ultrarunners (IAU) Asia 24 h Championship. RESULTS: Total bilirubin (BIL-T), direct bilirubin (BIL-D), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased statistically significantly (P < 0.05) the race. Significant declines (P < 0.05) in red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were detected two days and nine days d after the race. 2 d after the race, total protein (TP), concentration of albumin and globulin decreased significantly. While BIL, BIL-D and ALP recovered to their original levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remained unchanged immediately after the race, but it was significantly decreased on the second and ninth days after the race. CONCLUSION: Ultra-marathon running is associated with a wide range of significant changes in hematological parameters, several of which are injury related. To provide appropriate health care and intervention, the man who receives athletes on high frequent training program high intensity training programs must monitor their liver and gallbladder function. PMID:15309724

  16. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  17. Blood serum biochemical changes in physically conditioned and unconditioned subjects during bed rest and chronic hyperhydration.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Y G; Naexu, K A; Federenko, Y F

    1992-02-01

    1. It has been suggested that prolonged exposure to a rigorous bed rest regimen (hypokinesia) may induce greater serum carbohydrate and electrolyte changes in physically conditioned than unconditional subjects and that chronic hyperhydration may normalize or attenuate the development of these biochemical alterations in physically conditioned subjects. 2. Serum carbohydrate and electrolyte changes were determined in 18 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest regimen. The subjects were divided into three equal groups. The first group consisted of six unconditioned subjects with VO2 max of 44 mL/kg bodyweight/min, the second group consisted of six conditioned subjects with VO2 max of 69 mL/kg bodyweight/min and the third group consisted of six conditioned subjects with VO2 max of 69 mL/kg bodyweight/min who consumed daily an additional amount of 26 mL water/kg bodyweight and 0.10 mg sodium chloride/kg bodyweight. 3. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under a rigorous bed rest regimen for 30 days. During the prehypokinetic period of 15 days and during the bed rest period of 30 days the concentrations of cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (total; T4), glucose, potassium, sodium and chloride were determined in blood serum of volunteers. 4. During the bed rest period of 30 days serum carbohydrate and electrolyte changes were more pronounced in physically conditioned than unconditioned hypokinetic subjects. In physically conditioned hyperhydrated subjects serum carbohydrate and electrolyte changes were less pronounced than in physically conditioned and unconditioned hypokinetic subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1555326

  18. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p?biochemical parameters but in line with OECD regulation. Gelam honey may have potential in controlling weight gain and triglyceride levels in female rats compared to Acacia honey. SD rats have some effect on biochemical parameters, an exploration of which would make for intriguing analysis. PMID:24885010

  19. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens. PMID:19096064

  20. Field-effect-based multifunctional hybrid sensor module for the determination of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans

    2002-02-01

    Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-situ electrochemical generation of chemical tracers is presented. Due to the fast response of the ISFET (usually in the millisecond range), an ISFET-based flow sensor is suitable for the measurement of the flow velocity in a wide range. With regard to practical applications, pH measurements with this ISFET were performed in rain droplets.

  1. Fast and neat--determination of biochemical quality parameters in cocoa using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krähmer, Andrea; Engel, Annika; Kadow, Daniel; Ali, Naailah; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Kroh, Lothar W; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-08-15

    The qualitative heterogeneity and increasing consumption of cocoa products require fast and efficient methods for quality assessment of fermented cocoa with regard to fermentation quality and flavor potential. To date, quality control is achieved by visual inspection (e.g., "cut test") and sensory testing. Chromatographic methods for quantification of flavor relevant substances are limited in their applicability in standard quality control due to laborious isolation and purification steps. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) method for routine analytical prediction of biochemical quality parameters. Different compound classes like phenolic substances (R(2)=0.93) or organic acids (R(2)=0.88) as well as individual substances like epicatechin (R(2)=0.93) or lactic acid (R(2)=0.87) could be precisely determined just as fermentation time (R(2)=0.92) and pH value (R(2)=0.94) presenting NIRS as fast and reliable alternative in routine quality assessment. PMID:25794734

  2. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  3. Effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Ayobami Oladele; Aderoju, Hameed Adeola; Alagbonsi, Isiaka Abdullateef

    2013-01-01

    While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress related diseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shown to cause oxidative stress. However, study is scanty on the likely role of Moringa oleifera in reducing cryptorchidism-induced oxidative stress in rats has not been studied. The present study looked into the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MEMO) on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats. Twenty male albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 each). Groups A and B were sham-operated and treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively, while groups C and D were rendered cryptorchid and also treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively. Cryptorchid rats had lower testicular weight, sperm count, germ cell count, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, testicular total protein and higher testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to sham-operated rats. MEMO had no significant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while it significantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and total protein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO ameliorates cryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress. PMID:24311830

  4. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1. 1US E...

  5. Effects of long-term valproic acid treatment on hematological and biochemical parameters in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: a retrospective naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Maya; Sachs, Ephi; Zivony, Amir; Remez, Roei; Ben Baruch, Reut; Amit, Ben H; Kronenberg, Sefi; Apter, Alan; Shoval, Gal; Weizman, Abraham; Zalsman, Gil

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term hematological and biochemical side effects of valproic acid (VPA) in psychiatric adolescent inpatients. A retrospective naturalistic study design was used. Participants were psychiatric inpatients treated with VPA, alone or in combination with other medications. Electronic medical files were reviewed for changes in hematological and biochemical parameters following a course of VPA treatment. One hundred and four adolescents aged 12-18 (mean 15.76±1.58) years fulfilled the study criteria. The mean blood level and duration of VPA treatment were 65.81±22.18 mcg/ml and 98.57±135.94 days, respectively. The mean levels of thyroid-stimulating hormones and triglyceride levels increased significantly from the first to the last measurement. Platelet count decreased significantly following VPA treatment. No correlation was observed between these parameters and age, duration of treatment, or VPA levels. No serious adverse events were reported. Long-term VPA treatment in adolescents with psychiatric disorders is associated with significant increases in triglyceride levels. Moreover, VPA-treated adolescent psychiatric inpatients may be at risk of developing pituitary-thyroid axis dysregulation and decreased platelet count. Therefore, baseline measurement of thyroid functions and metabolic and hematological parameters and monitoring throughout the treatment are recommended. PMID:26020713

  6. Recent developments in parameter estimation and structure identification of biochemical and genomic systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, I-Chun; Voit, Eberhard O

    2009-06-01

    The organization, regulation and dynamical responses of biological systems are in many cases too complex to allow intuitive predictions and require the support of mathematical modeling for quantitative assessments and a reliable understanding of system functioning. All steps of constructing mathematical models for biological systems are challenging, but arguably the most difficult task among them is the estimation of model parameters and the identification of the structure and regulation of the underlying biological networks. Recent advancements in modern high-throughput techniques have been allowing the generation of time series data that characterize the dynamics of genomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological responses and enable us, at least in principle, to tackle estimation and identification tasks using 'top-down' or 'inverse' approaches. While the rewards of a successful inverse estimation or identification are great, the process of extracting structural and regulatory information is technically difficult. The challenges can generally be categorized into four areas, namely, issues related to the data, the model, the mathematical structure of the system, and the optimization and support algorithms. Many recent articles have addressed inverse problems within the modeling framework of Biochemical Systems Theory (BST). BST was chosen for these tasks because of its unique structural flexibility and the fact that the structure and regulation of a biological system are mapped essentially one-to-one onto the parameters of the describing model. The proposed methods mainly focused on various optimization algorithms, but also on support techniques, including methods for circumventing the time consuming numerical integration of systems of differential equations, smoothing overly noisy data, estimating slopes of time series, reducing the complexity of the inference task, and constraining the parameter search space. Other methods targeted issues of data preprocessing, detection and amelioration of model redundancy, and model-free or model-based structure identification. The total number of proposed methods and their applications has by now exceeded one hundred, which makes it difficult for the newcomer, as well as the expert, to gain a comprehensive overview of available algorithmic options and limitations. To facilitate the entry into the field of inverse modeling within BST and related modeling areas, the article presented here reviews the field and proposes an operational 'work-flow' that guides the user through the estimation process, identifies possibly problematic steps, and suggests corresponding solutions based on the specific characteristics of the various available algorithms. The article concludes with a discussion of the present state of the art and with a description of open questions. PMID:19327372

  7. Recent Developments in Parameter Estimation and Structure Identification of Biochemical and Genomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chou, I-Chun; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2009-01-01

    The organization, regulation and dynamical responses of biological systems are in many cases too complex to allow intuitive predictions and require the support of mathematical modeling for quantitative assessments and a reliable understanding of system functioning. All steps of constructing mathematical models for biological systems are challenging, but arguably the most difficult task among them is the estimation of model parameters and the identification of the structure and regulation of the underlying biological networks. Recent advancements in modern high-throughput techniques have been allowing the generation of time series data that characterize the dynamics of genomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological responses and enable us, at least in principle, to tackle estimation and identification tasks using “top-down” or “inverse” approaches. While the rewards of a successful inverse estimation or identification are great, the process of extracting structural and regulatory information is technically difficult. The challenges can generally be categorized into four areas, namely, issues related to the data, the model, the mathematical structure of the system, and the optimization and support algorithms. Many recent articles have addressed inverse problems within the modeling framework of Biochemical Systems Theory (BST). BST was chosen for these tasks because of its unique structural flexibility and the fact that the structure and regulation of a biological system are mapped essentially one-to-one onto the parameters of the describing model. The proposed methods mainly focused on various optimization algorithms, but also on support techniques, including methods for circumventing the time consuming numerical integration of systems of differential equations, smoothing overly noisy data, estimating slopes of time series, reducing the complexity of the inference task, and constraining the parameter search space. Other methods targeted issues of data preprocessing, detection and amelioration of model redundancy, and model-free or model-based structure identification. The total number of proposed methods and their applications has by now exceeded one hundred, which makes it difficult for the newcomer, as well as the expert, to gain a comprehensive overview of available algorithmic options and limitations. To facilitate the entry into the field of inverse modeling within BST and related modeling areas, the article presented here reviews the field and proposes an operational “work-flow” that guides the user through the estimation process, identifies possibly problematic steps, and suggests corresponding solutions based on the specific characteristics of the various available algorithms. The article concludes with a discussion of the present state of the art and with a description of open questions. PMID:19327372

  8. Gender Differences in Biochemical and Electroneurographic Parameters of Median and Ulnar Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Tiric-Campara, Merita; Tupkovic, Emir; Denislic, Miro; Biscevic, Mirza; Skopljak, Amira; Zunic, Lejla; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Alajbegovic, Azra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article are demonstrated differences in the aspects of the metabolic syndrome (MSy) between genders, as well as the association of MSy and neuropathy. The aim: The aim of our study was that in patients with newly discovered metabolic syndrome of both sexes make comparison of fasting blood glucose levels and after oral glucose tolerance test, as well as neurophysiological parameters of n.medianus and n.ulnaris. Patients and methods: All participants were examined dermatologically. The analysis included the 36 male and 36 female respondents with a newly discovered MSy. Results: The average age of men was 52.75±7.5 (40-65) years and women 52.1±7.7 (38-67) years. The average value of fasting blood glucose in women was 5.86±0.87 (4.5-8) mmol/L, and non significantly higher in men (p=0.0969) as 6.19±0.8 (4.7-8) mmol/L. Average values of blood sugar 120 minutes after oral glucose tolerance test were not significantly different (p=0.7052), and was 5.41±1.63 (3.3-9.7) mmol/L in women and 5.27±1.52 (2.7-9.8) mmol/L in men. Median motor velocity were significantly higher in women for n.medianus on the left (p=0.0024), n.ulnaris on the left (p=0.0081) and n.ulnaris on the right side (p=0.0293), and the median motor terminal latency were significantly longer in n.ulnaris on the left (p=0.0349) and n.ulnaris on the right side (p=0.011). There was no significant difference in the sensory conductivity velocity in n.medianus and n.ulnaris between the groups, but the amplitude with the highest peak of the sensory response was significantly higher in n.medianus on the left (p=0.0269) and n.ulnaris on the left side (p=0.0009) in female patients. Conclusion: The results indicate that there are differences in neurophysiological parameters of the investigated nerves between the genders, and that tested nerve structures in the course of MSy are affected slightly more in men. There were no significant differences in skin changes between genders. PMID:26862246

  9. PREDICTING RODENT CARCINOGENICITY OF HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON BY IN VIVO BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty halogenated hydrocarbons of known rodent carcinogenicity (24 carcinogens, 16 noncarcinogens), including many promoters of carcinogenesis, nongenotoxic carcinogens and hepatocarcinogens were selected for study. he effects of these 40 chemicals on four biochemical assays (hep...

  10. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus): impact of gender and season

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus). Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years), middle-aged (4–5 years) and old (6–10 years). Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction), the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur. PMID:23131178

  11. Dietary Quality Indices and Biochemical Parameters Among Patients With Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi kani, Ali; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intake might have important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Although, there are some reports on dietary intake and anthropometrics measurements, few studies have focused on the markers of assessing whole diet like dietary quality indices. Objectives Therefore, our aim was to determine the diet quality indices and biochemical parameters among patients with NAFLD and healthy individuals. Patients and Methods This case-control study was performed on 100 patients with NAFLD and 100 healthy subjects who were attending to Gastrointestinal Research Center, Baqiyatallah University, Tehran, Iran during the recent years. Usual dietary intake was assessed by three dietary records (one weekend and two week days). Healthy eating index (HEI), dietary diversity score (DDS), dietary energy density (DED), mean adequacy ratio of nutrients (MAR) were assessed according to the standard methods. Results Patients with NAFLD had higher body mass index, weight and waist circumference compared to the healthy group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of liver enzymes, triglyceride, LDL, BUN, and uric acid were higher in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Although patients with NAFLD had higher energy, carbohydrate and fat intake, their values for antioxidant vitamins, calcium and vitamin D were lower than healthy subjects (P < 0.05). HEI and MAR were higher among healthy group, and DED was lower among them. Nutrient adequacy ratio for calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant micronutrients were lower in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions It seems that dietary quality indices may be associated with NAFLD. Calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant micronutrients intake might be lower among patients with NAFLD based on this case-control study. Further prospective studies should be conducted in this regard. PMID:24065998

  12. Preparation of acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels and their biocompatibility with some biochemical parameters of human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraydin, D.; Karadag, B.; Çetínkaya, S.; Güven, O.

    1995-09-01

    In this study, the biocompatibility of acrylamide and acrylamide maleic acid hydrogels prepared by using γ-rays has been investigated against some biochemical parameters of human serum. First, the swelling kinetics of acrylamide and acrylamide maleic acid hydrogels were investigated in distilled water and physiological saline solution and some swelling and diffusion parameters have been calculated. For the analysis of biocompatibility, acrylamide and acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels were incubated in 10 different human sera for 24 hours and their biocompatibility with some biochemical parameters have been investigated. No significant difference in values before and after the test procedures have been found. It is therefore concluded that acrylamide and acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels are biocompatible

  13. Supplementation with L-Glutamine and L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters and Jejunum Morphophysiology in Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Carlos Vinicius D.; Azevedo, Silvia C. S. F.; Bazotte, Roberto B.; Peralta, Rosane M.; Buttow, Nilza C.; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat D.; de Godoi, Vilma A. F.; Natali, Maria Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the supplementation with L-glutamine and glutamine dipeptide (GDP) on biochemical and morphophysiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. For this purpose, thirty animals were distributed into six groups treated orally (gavage) during thirty days: non diabetic rats (Control) + saline, diabetic + saline; Control + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Diabetic + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Control + GDP (400 mg/kg), Diabetic + GDP (400 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and confirmed by fasting glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. Physiological parameters, i.e., body mass, food intake, blood glucose, water intake, urine and faeces were evaluated during supplementation. After the period of supplementation, the animals were euthanized. The blood was collected for biochemical assays (fructosamine, transaminases, lipid profile, total protein, urea, ammonia). Moreover, the jejunum was excised and stored for morphophysiological assays (intestinal enzyme activity, intestinal wall morphology, crypt proliferative index, number of serotoninergic cells from the mucosa, and vipergic neurons from the submucosal tunica). The physiological parameters, protein metabolism and intestinal enzyme activity did not change with the supplementation with L-glutamine or GDP. In diabetic animals, transaminases and fructosamine improved with L-glutamine and GDP supplementations, while the lipid profile improved with L-glutamine. Furthermore, both forms of supplementation promoted changes in jejunal tunicas and wall morphometry of control and diabetic groups, but only L-glutamine promoted maintenance of serotoninergic cells and vipergic neurons populations. On the other hand, control animals showed changes that may indicate negative effects of L-glutamine. Thus, the supplementation with L-glutamine was more efficient for maintaining intestinal morphophysiology and the supplementation with GDP was more efficient to the organism as a whole. Thus, we can conclude that local differences in absorption and metabolism could explain the differences between the supplementation with L-glutamine or GDP. PMID:26659064

  14. Effects of moderate strength cold air exposure on blood pressure and biochemical indicators among cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiakun; Zhang, Shuyu; Wang, Chunling; Wang, Baojian; Guo, Pinwen

    2014-03-01

    The effects of cold air on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated in an experimental study examining blood pressure and biochemical indicators. Zhangye, a city in Gansu Province, China, was selected as the experimental site. Health screening and blood tests were conducted, and finally, 30 cardiovascular disease patients and 40 healthy subjects were recruited. The experiment was performed during a cold event during 27-28 April 2013. Blood pressure, catecholamine, angiotensin II (ANG-II), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), muscle myoglobin (Mb) and endothefin-1 (ET-1) levels of the subjects were evaluated 1 day before, during the 2nd day of the cold exposure and 1 day after the cold air exposure. Our results suggest that cold air exposure increases blood pressure in cardiovascular disease patients and healthy subjects via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that is activated first and which augments ANG-II levels accelerating the release of the norepinephrine and stimulates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The combined effect of these factors leads to a rise in blood pressure. In addition, cold air exposure can cause significant metabolism and secretion of Mb, cTnI and ET-1 in subjects; taking the patient group as an example, ET-1 was 202.7 ng/L during the cold air exposure, increased 58 ng/L compared with before the cold air exposure, Mb and cTnI levels remained relatively high (2,219.5 ng/L and 613.2 ng/L, increased 642.1 ng/L and 306.5 ng/L compared with before the cold air exposure, respectively) 1-day after the cold exposure. This showed that cold air can cause damage to patients' heart cells, and the damage cannot be rapidly repaired. Some of the responses related to the biochemical markers indicated that cold exposure increased cardiovascular strain and possible myocardial injury. PMID:24583830

  15. Effects of a joint supplement whose main components are resveratrol and hyaluronic acid on some biochemical parameters in aged lame horses

    PubMed Central

    EMEME, Mary U.; ABDULLAHI, Usman S.; SACKEY, Anthony K. B.; AYO, Joseph O.; MSHELIA, Wayuta P.; EDEH, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a supplement that contains resveratrol and hyaluronic acid (RH supplement) in aged lame horses. A total of 16 horses of both sexes, aged between 15 and 22 years, weighing between 350–450 kg and showing lameness due to arthritis of the knee, hock, stifle, and fetlock joints and stiffness owing to ageing were used for the study. They comprised eight horses that were administered the RH supplement for three weeks and eight others that served as controls and were given only a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain used as carrier in the supplement. Blood samples were collected from each horse before supplementation (week 0) and at weekly intervals for the three weeks of the experiment. Biochemical parameters including creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium were measured by standard methods. There was a significant (P˂0.05) reduction in values of creatine kinase and glucose in the horses administered the RH supplement. It was concluded that the RH supplement may reduce the level of these biochemical parameters and their deleterious effects especially during ageing in horses. PMID:27073333

  16. Effects of a joint supplement whose main components are resveratrol and hyaluronic acid on some biochemical parameters in aged lame horses.

    PubMed

    Ememe, Mary U; Abdullahi, Usman S; Sackey, Anthony K B; Ayo, Joseph O; Mshelia, Wayuta P; Edeh, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a supplement that contains resveratrol and hyaluronic acid (RH supplement) in aged lame horses. A total of 16 horses of both sexes, aged between 15 and 22 years, weighing between 350-450 kg and showing lameness due to arthritis of the knee, hock, stifle, and fetlock joints and stiffness owing to ageing were used for the study. They comprised eight horses that were administered the RH supplement for three weeks and eight others that served as controls and were given only a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain used as carrier in the supplement. Blood samples were collected from each horse before supplementation (week 0) and at weekly intervals for the three weeks of the experiment. Biochemical parameters including creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium were measured by standard methods. There was a significant (P˂0.05) reduction in values of creatine kinase and glucose in the horses administered the RH supplement. It was concluded that the RH supplement may reduce the level of these biochemical parameters and their deleterious effects especially during ageing in horses. PMID:27073333

  17. Analysis of oxidative status and biochemical parameters in adult patients with sickle cell anemia treated with hydroxyurea, Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira Neto, Paulo Florentino; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro; Elias, Darcielle Bruna Dias; de Araújo, Cleiton Pinheiro; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is a hemoglobinopathy caused by a mutation that results in the production of an abnormal hemoglobin molecule, hemoglobin S (Hb S). This is responsible for profound physiological changes, such as the sickling of red blood cells. Several studies have shown that hydroxyurea protects against vaso-occlusive crises. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with biochemical parameters in patients with sickle cell anemia treated with hydroxyurea. Methods The study was conducted with 20 male and 25 female patients at the Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio. The patients were divided into two groups: a study group (n = 12), patients with sickle cell anemia who were receiving hydroxyurea and a control group (n = 33) of sickle cell anemia patients not submitted to hydroxyurea treatment. The biochemical parameters analyzed were ferritin, transferrin, and serum iron. Glutathione was measured in its reduced form to analyze the oxidative state. Results The results showed insignificant increases in the levels of serum iron, transferrin and ferritin in patients treated with hydroxyurea when compared with those who did not take the medication. However, the glutathione levels were significantly higher in patients taking hydroxyurea than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that hydroxyurea possibly acts as an antioxidant by increasing glutathione levels. PMID:23049297

  18. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very low levels; site 4 had the highest concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) found either in oysters or in sediment samples. The major concentration of fecal sterol coprostanol was found at site 4, followed by site 3. After 14 days of allocation in the four selected sites, there was a significant difference in the enzymes analyzed at the monitored spots. The detection of different contaminants in oysters, seawater, and sediment samples in the present study shows the impact untreated or inadequately treated effluents have on coastal areas. These results highlight the need for public investment in adequate wastewater treatment and adequate treatment of oysters, ensuring safe areas for shellfish production as well as healthier bivalve mollusks for consumption. PMID:22036209

  19. Evaluation of biochemical parameters in platelet concentrates stored in glucose solution

    PubMed Central

    Amorini, Angela Maria; Tuttobene, Michele; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Denti, Gabriella

    2007-01-01

    Background Therapeutic storage of platelet concentrate is a challenging problem for Transfusion Medicine, so that many studies have been carried out with the aim of improving the duration of storage of platelet concentrates. Little attention, however, has been given to the most appropriate biochemical methods for evaluating the quality of the stored platelet concentrates. Material e methods Platelet concentrates (n=10) were saved under gentle stirring at 22ºC for a total period of 8 days. Glucose 0.5% (w/v) was added either at the beginning of storage (time 0) or on the fifth day of storage. One millilitre of each concentrate was withdrawn at time 0 and after 5, 6, 7 and 8 days of storage for microbiological culture, evaluation of pH, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), mean platelet volume, platelet haematocrit and analysis of metabolites of energy pathways (high energy phosphate derivatives, nucleosides, oxypurines and antioxidants) by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The addition of glucose 0.5% on day 5 did not produce significant differences in metabolites of energy pathways with respect to control platelet concentrates, whereas when the glucose was added at the beginning of storage (time 0) there was a recovery of ATP, GTP and a decrease of energetic catabolism, demonstrating a beneficial effect on energy metabolism. The changes in LDH values did not parallel those of the metabolites: indeed, only on day 7 of storage did the platelet concentrates treated with glucose on day 5 have significantly lower levels of this enzyme than those found in the other concentrates. The improvements produced by addition of glucose at time 0 were confirmed by morphological analyses (mean platelet volume, platelet haematocrit), and the pH. Conclusions The metabolic profile of glucose-enriched plasma concentrates on the fifth day of storage, and the different time course of increased LDH concentration, could represent valid parameters to interpret platelet vitality in the successive days of storage. These preliminary data also indicate that glucose might be a good additive for a new storage formulation. PMID:19204748

  20. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). PMID:25827627

  1. Study of a number of biochemical indices of the blood and tissue of dogs after prolonged gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Praslichka, T.; Mishurova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Malatova, Z.; Akhunov, A. A.; Markelov, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    The glucose content in blood and the lipid content in serum and tissues of dogs exposed to chronic radiation for 3 and 5 years were studied. In tissues of these animals, the concentration of soluble DNA and DNA contained in DNP was studied in the spleen, lymph node (deep cervical node) and bone marrow of thigh bones. Results indicate that chronic gamma irradiation significantly changes concentrations of glucose in the blood, and that of several lipids in serum and tissues. A reduction in the concentration of DNP in tested organs reflects changes in the relative number of cells with various nuclear cytoplasmic ratios; most pronounced changes in biochemical indices occur in dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation in doses of 125 rad per year.

  2. Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, W G; Middleton, J R; Spain, J N; Johnson, G C; Ellersieck, M R; Pithua, P

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential association between Ca status at calving and postpartum energy balance, liver lipid infiltration, disease occurrence, milk yield and quality parameters, and fertility in Holstein cows. One hundred cows were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on whole-blood ionized Ca concentration ([iCa]) on the day of calving [d 0; hypocalcemic [iCa] <1.0 mmol/L (n=51); normocalcemic [iCa] ≥ 1.0 mmol/L (n=49)]. Cows were blocked based on calving date and parity. Blood samples were collected approximately 14 d from expected calving date (d -14), the day of calving (d 0), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of plasma nonesterified fatty acid, iCa, total Ca, glucose, and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities. Liver biopsies were obtained from a subset of cows on d 0, 7, and 35 for quantification of lipid content. Milk samples were collected on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of somatic cell count and percentages of protein, fat, and solids-not-fat. Data for peak test-day milk yield, services per conception, and days open were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement Association herd records. Disease occurrence was determined based on herd treatment records. Hypocalcemic cows had significantly higher nonesterified fatty acids on d 0. Hypocalcemic cows also had significantly more lipid in hepatocytes on d 7 and 35 postpartum. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities or total and direct bilirubin concentrations. Milk protein percentage was lower in hypocalcemic cows on d 21 and 35. However other milk quality variables (somatic cell count, milk fat percentage, and solids-not-fat) and milk yield variables (peak test-day milk yield and 305-d mature-equivalent 4% fat-corrected milk yield) did not differ between groups. No differences were observed between groups in the occurrence of clinical mastitis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, or fertility measures (percentage cycling at 50-60 d postpartum, services per conception, or days open). These data suggest that early lactation fatty acid metabolism differs between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and their normocalcemic counterparts. PMID:24054301

  3. The influence of altitude and landforms on some biochemical and hematological parameters in Ouled Djellal ewes from arid area of South East Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Titaouine, Mohammed; Meziane, Toufik

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted on Ouled Djellal ewes in arid area of south-east Algeria in order to reveal the influence of altitude and landforms on some hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 ewes having 3-5 years of age, multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating and reared in arid areas of South East Algeria were included. Blood samples were divided according to factors of altitude and landform (plain region at 150 m above sea level, tableland region at 600 m above sea level and mountain region at 1000 m above sea level). The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, and plasma samples for biochemical analysis. Results: The study found lowest glucose concentrations were detected in tableland region at 600 m. In plain region at 150 m, ewes had a higher (p<0.01) concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride. Furthermore, a higher concentration of total proteins (p<0.01) and urea (p<0.05) were detected in plain region at 150 m. The average blood creatinine concentration in mountain ewes at 1000 m and tableland ewes at 600 m were higher (p<0.05) that in plain ewes at 150 m. The highest calcium concentration was found at the altitude of 150 m and the lowest at the altitude of 1000 m (1.12±0.35 mmol/L vs. 0.52±0.03 mmol/L). Phosphorus levels were higher at altitudes of 150 m than at the altitude of 600 m and 1000 m (0.93±0.42 mmol/L vs. 0.68±0.54 mmol/L, 0.23±0.01 mmol/L). The highest hemoglobin concentration and value of hematocrit were detected in mountain ewes at the altitude of 1000 m (120.61 g/L, 40%) and the lowest at the altitude of 150 m (73.2 g/L, 31%) (p<0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that hematological and biochemical parameters in Ouled Djellel ewes reared in arid area may be affected by altitude and landforms. PMID:27047010

  4. The Activity of Neutral α-Glucosidase and Selected Biochemical Parameters in the Annual Cycle of Breeding Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kotońska-Feiga, Julia; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Nowacki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate seasonal changes in the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral α-glucosidase, the level of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein in the annual breeding cycle of the carp. The study was conducted on fish from a fish farm in Lower Silesia (Poland). Blood serum was collected from the heart in: June, September and December of two consecutive years. The results of the study show that the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral α-glucosidase, as well as the results of basic biochemical parameters are highest in summer, when the fish seek and intake food intensively. The lowest values were observed in spring, when carp have the lowest metabolism after the wintering period. PMID:26559406

  5. PREDICTING RODENT CARCINOGENICITY OF AMES TEST "FALSE POSITIVES" BY IN VIVO BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-eight chemicals known to be mutagenic in the Ames test but not carcinogenic in rodent bioassays were selected for study. The effects of these chemicals on four biochemical assays (hepatic DNA damage by alkaline elution (DD), hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC), ...

  6. Correlation Analysis between Complex Relative Permittivity and Biochemical Components for Blood of Dialysis Patients before and after Hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Akira; Takata, Kazuyuki; Nagao, Hirotomo; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    We previously measured for healthy subjects and patients who require hemodialysis the complex relative permittivity (εr´-jεr´´) of whole blood, and found that εr´-axis intercept εrt´ of straight line approximation to the Cole-Cole plots at frequencies from 200 MHz to 1GHz is significantly different with a level of less than 1% among its averaged values for healthy subjects and patients before and after dialysis, though any correlations between εrt´ and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine being used as main indices for hemodialysis evaluation have not so far been clarified. In this study, to make correlation analyses between the intercept εrt´ and blood biochemical components for nine patients before and after hemodialysis, we measured six kinds of their blood components including BUN and creatinine, and calculated their Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients for εrt´ along with significant probability P based on a t-test. It should be noted that P is a reference probability to determine whether or not a null hypothesis can be rejected, and that the P value of 0.05 is commonly used as a significance level for statistical test. As a result, we found that a strong correlation with P < 0.05 is observed between εrt´ and albumin, while there are not always significant correlations with P > 0.05 between εrt´ and other blood components including BUN and creatinine. Although albumin is not used as an index for hemodialysis efficiency, it can reflect water amount in blood vessels and liver operation. This finding implies that εrt´ could be used as an index for evaluating blood viscosity and liver function.

  7. Biochemical changes correlated with blood thiamine and its phosphate esters levels in patients with diabetes type 1 (DMT1).

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alharbi, Mohammed; Wani, Kaiser; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Sheshah, Eman; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential enzyme cofactor in most organisms required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. However, little is known on the positive effects of thiamine in diabetic type 1 (DMT1) patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biochemical changes related to thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 outcomes among Saudi adults. We hypothesized that blood thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 manifestations might lead to an increase in metabolic syndrome. A total of 77 patients with DMT1 (age 35.8±5.5) and 81 controls (age 45.0±18.1) (total N = 158) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Saudi adults with diabetes type 1, a significant decrease in systolic (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.02). Moreover, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were significantly increased (P 0.001, 0.001 and 0.008, respectively) in patients with diabetes type 1 compared to controls. On the other hand, HDL, TMP, TDP and thiamine, were significantly decreased in patients with diabetes type 1 (P 0.005, 0.002, 0.005, and 0.002), respectively. A strong association between blood thiamine level and diabetes type 1 was detected in our study population. The results confirmed the role of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters, in preventing metabolic changes and complications of diabetes type 1. The levels of these thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters were correlated with diabetes related biomarkers including HDL, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as microalbuminuria, LDL and urine thiamine. The results support a pivotal role of blood thiamine and its phosphate esters in preventing the biochemical changes and complications in patients with DMT1. PMID:26722561

  8. Biochemical changes correlated with blood thiamine and its phosphate esters levels in patients with diabetes type 1 (DMT1)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alharbi, Mohammed; Wani, Kaiser; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Sheshah, Eman; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential enzyme cofactor in most organisms required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. However, little is known on the positive effects of thiamine in diabetic type 1 (DMT1) patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biochemical changes related to thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 outcomes among Saudi adults. We hypothesized that blood thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 manifestations might lead to an increase in metabolic syndrome. A total of 77 patients with DMT1 (age 35.8±5.5) and 81 controls (age 45.0±18.1) (total N = 158) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Saudi adults with diabetes type 1, a significant decrease in systolic (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.02). Moreover, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were significantly increased (P 0.001, 0.001 and 0.008, respectively) in patients with diabetes type 1 compared to controls. On the other hand, HDL, TMP, TDP and thiamine, were significantly decreased in patients with diabetes type 1 (P 0.005, 0.002, 0.005, and 0.002), respectively. A strong association between blood thiamine level and diabetes type 1 was detected in our study population. The results confirmed the role of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters, in preventing metabolic changes and complications of diabetes type 1. The levels of these thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters were correlated with diabetes related biomarkers including HDL, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as microalbuminuria, LDL and urine thiamine. The results support a pivotal role of blood thiamine and its phosphate esters in preventing the biochemical changes and complications in patients with DMT1. PMID:26722561

  9. Comparative study of selected blood biochemical components in milk or milk-replacer fed calves during the second week of life.

    PubMed

    Lepczyński, Adam; Herosimczyk, Agnieszka; Dratwa-Chałupnik, Alicja; Ozgo, Małgorzata; Michałek, Katarzyna; Malinowski, Eugeniusz; Skrzypczak, Wiesław Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on 13 male Polish Black and White dairy calves of 75% share of the Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed during the second week of life. The animals were divided into two groups. One group (n=7) was fed mother's milk and the second (n=6) milk replacer. The dynamics of changes in concentration of selected blood biochemical components connected with nitrogen metabolism (plasma total protein, albumin, urea, endogenous creatinine) and with mineral metabolism (sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and plasma osmotic pressure) were analyzed in both groups. The results show that the type of ingested food influences the concentration of indicators reflecting nitrogen metabolism. Changes of these parameters in calves fed milk replacer are possibly connected with advantageous catabolic changes. Stable concentrations of main extracellular fluid electrolytes and blood plasma osmotic pressure were found in both groups of calves. Constant blood plasma calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper concentrations observed during this study might also indicate the relative maturity of mechanisms maintaining water and electrolyte balance. Nevertheless, it seemsjustifiable to monitor the copper concentrations in plasma of young calves. PMID:22195473

  10. Studies of the biochemical regulation of blood cell formation. Final report, January 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwasser, E.

    1980-09-01

    This final report summarizes our most recent experimentation on the mechanism by which the erythropoietin interaction with cell surface receptors initiates nuclear RNA synthesis. It also describes the biological and biochemical effects of endotoxin-free erythropoietin, the finding that maximal hemoglobin synthesis in semi-solid medium probably requires cell-cell interactions and the initial clinical testing of erythropoietin in patients with anemia due to chronic renal disease.

  11. Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Élida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as “malnourished”) and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool. Conclusions In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken together, the results found in this work confirm the hypothesis that the nutritional condition of the host greatly influences the course of the infection. PMID:25254370

  12. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Avishek; Mohan, Jag; Sastry, Kochigant Venkata Hanumant

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN), Aseel peela (AP), and White leghorn (WLH)) day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates). WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP) activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk) than WLH. PMID:21234314

  13. Comparison of Hematologic and Biochemical Test Results in Blood Samples Obtained by Jugular Venipuncture Versus Nail Clip in Moluccan Cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tracy D; Lejnieks, Daniel V; Koepke, Hoyt; Grimson, Fiona; Szucs, Jennifer; Omaits, Kerri; Lane, Rosalie

    2015-12-01

    In birds, blood samples are often collected from the jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic vein. Samples are sometimes collected by toe nail clip, but concerns to avoid drawing blood from the nail include pain after nail clips for blood collection, potential differences in complete blood count (CBC) results, and potential contamination with uric acid values. To compare differences in biochemical and hematologic values in blood samples obtained by jugular venipuncture versus toenail clip, blood samples were collected from Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) (N = 23) and sent to a commercial laboratory for routine CBCs and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed good agreement between venipuncture and nail clip blood samples in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, heterophil count and percentage, lymphocyte count and percentage, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and uric acid values. Constant bias was found in values of bile acids, cholesterol, and hemoglobin. Proportional bias toward higher values in the jugular sample were found in total white blood cell (WBC) count and inorganic phosphorus. Serum calcium plots revealed a proportional bias toward higher values in the toe nail blood when values were increased. Results suggest some differences in WBC count, bile acids, calcium, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and phosphorus values between blood samples collected by jugular venipuncture and samples collected by toe nail clip, but the differences are mostly minor and, with the possible exception of inorganic phosphorus and marginally elevated or very low WBC counts, are unlikely to affect the use or interpretation of the avian blood panel. PMID:26771320

  14. Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, M Saeed; Khosravian-Hemamai, Mozhdeh; Nematollahi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 μg/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

  15. Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 μg/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

  16. A study of the noncompliance of blood banks on safety and quality parameters in blood donation camps in Bengaluru

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajat Kumar; Dhanya, Rakesh; Parmar, Lalith G.; Vaish, Arpit; Sedai, Amit; Periyavan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The compliance of safety and quality parameters laid out by national and international guidelines in outdoor blood donation camps has not been studied in India. Our study aimed at identifying, monitoring, analyzing, and developing preventive strategies for several key parameters associated with the quality and safety of outdoor voluntary blood donation camps (VBDC). Settings: The study covered a total of 424 VBDCs at various locations in Bengaluru, Karnataka (South India) from 2009 to 2013. Seven government hospitals based blood banks, three private hospitals based blood banks and two voluntary standalone blood banks participated in the VBDCs included in the study. Materials and Methods: At the onset, the quality and safety standards to be followed were discussed and agreed upon. During the study, noncompliance (NC) to the agreed upon standards were recorded and shared. Periodic trainings were also organized to help minimize NC. Results: One or more instances of NC in 73% of the VBDCs. Highest NC were observed associated with punctuality (34%), wearing gloves (16%), hemoglobin (Hb) estimation (11%) and donor screening and selection other than Hb check (8-9%). Conclusion: For all 16 parameters under study, significant NC was observed. As a whole private hospital based blood banks were more noncompliant. The high degree of NC to matters relating to quality and safety in VBDCs is high and warrants for urgent attention and further study. Our study also shows that regular monitoring and systematic and strategic intervention can decrease the rate of NC. PMID:25722568

  17. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p < 0.05) weight gain, absolute growth rate and specific growth rate. Feed intake significantly increased in fish fed with A. vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p < 0.05). Several haemato-biochemical indices were examined before and after fish were challenged with S. iniae pathogen containing 7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells mL(-1). A. vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in red blood cells, hematocrits (Hb), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, serum total protein, glucose and cortisol after challenge when compared to unsupplemented ones. Meanwhile, 4% A. vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p < 0.05) in RBC, Hb, Ht, WBC, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) after challenge compared to unsupplemented ones and other supplemented ones. In addition, lower mean corpuscular volume values (MCV) (p < 0.05) were observed in fish fed with A. vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) than those fed unsupplemented diet and 4% A. vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) within experimental groups after challenge; N/L ratio in A. vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p < 0.05) throughout challenge period; while those fed 4% A. vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.05, r = 0.53) between N/L ratio and glucose concentration, 96 h after challenge. Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia. PMID:25758848

  18. Effect of chronic phencyclidine administration upon blood biochemical profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, D G; Kineiko, R; Garcia-Soto, M

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three blood constituents were analyzed in rats chronically injected with phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust). After receiving three injections weekly for an average of 9 months the only analyte to significantly change was creatine phosphokinase (CPK), which showed a threefold elevation over the saline injected controls. PMID:6687096

  19. Intestinal Alterations, Basal Hematology, and Biochemical Parameters in Adolescent Rats Fed Different Sources of Dietary Copper.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is required for basically all biochemical and physiological processes in the body. The aim was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary copper on jejunal epithelium histomorphometry in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 5 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control group was fed with standard diet providing the required Cu level (5 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day) in an inorganic form (sulfate) covered 100 % of daily demand, and the other three groups were supplemented with Cu-glycine complex covered 50, 75, and 100 % daily demand. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses as well as histomorphometric examinations of the jejunal epithelium and liver were performed. Cu given in the organic form in 100 % of daily demand depressed the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth (P < 0.05) without an influence of the innervation of the jejunum. In turn, organic Cu given in 75 % of daily demand did not influence the intestinal morphology in adult rats. Dietary organic Cu given to rats covering the daily demand in 50 or 75 % appears to be less harmful with regard to the intestinal epithelium than when administered in 100 % of daily demand. PMID:26432448

  20. Copper bioavailability, blood parameters, and nutrient balance in mink.

    PubMed

    Wu, X Z; Zhang, T T; Guo, J G; Liu, Z; Yang, F H; Gao, X H

    2015-01-01

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of copper on plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, relative copper bioavailability, and retention of some minerals in male mink. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet, which mainly consisted of corn, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and soybean oil, with no copper supplementation. Mink in the other 9 treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Cu from reagent-grade copper sulfate (CuSO4), tribasic copper chloride (TBCC), or copper methionine (CuMet). Copper concentrations of the experimental diets were 50, 100, and 150 mg Cu/kg DM. Blood samples were collected via the toe clip at the end of study (d 42) to determine blood hematology and blood metabolites. A metabolism trial of 4 d was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. There was a linear (P < 0.01) effect of dose of Cu on plasma Cu concentrations, ceruloplasmin concentration, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity. A linear response to Cu dose was noted for fat (P < 0.05) digestibility. Supplemental dose of Cu linearly increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu and decreased (P < 0.05) liver Zn level but did not alter liver Fe. The concentration of liver Cu of the mink fed with TBCC and CuMet diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that fed CuSO4. Compared with CuSO4 (100%), relative bioavailability values of TBCC were 104 and 104%, based on serum ceruloplasmin and liver copper, respectively, and relative bioavailability values of CuMet were 130 and 111%. CuMet and TBCC are more bioavailable than CuSO4. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of CuMet obtained in this study was greater than that of CuSO4 and TBCC. Dose of Cu had an important effect on the regulating ceruloplasmin concentration, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity, and the digestion of dietary fat in mink. PMID:25568366

  1. Biochemical and Molecular Aspects of Vascular Adrenergic Regulation of Blood Pressure in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Schutzer, William E.; Mader, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, arterial insufficiency, and atherosclerosis are common disorders in the elderly that lead to significant morbidity and mortality. One common factor to these conditions is an age-related decline in vascular beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated function and subsequent cAMP generation. Presently, there is no single cellular factor that can explain this age-related decline, and thus, the primary cause of this homeostatic imbalance is yet to be identified. However, the etiology is clearly associated with an age-related change in the ability of beta-adrenergic receptor to respond to agonist at the cellular level in the vasculature. This paper will review what is presently understood regarding the molecular and biochemical basis of age-impaired beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling. A fundamental understanding of why β-AR-mediated vasorelaxation is impaired with age will provide new insights and innovative strategies for the management of multiple clinical disorders. PMID:21961055

  2. Biochemical parameters in the blood of Holstein calves given immunoglobulin Y-supplemented colostrums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In any calf rearing system it is desirable to obtain healthy animals, and reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Bovine syndesmochorial placentation prevents the direct transfer of bovine immunoglobulins to the fetus, and calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic. These calves therefore require colostrum immediately after birth. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (Ig) and its consumption results in the transfer of passive immunity to calves. The Ig absorption occurs within the first 12 h after birth. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY), derived from chicken egg yolk, has been used in the prevention and control of diseases affecting calves because it is very similar in structure and function to immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the current study, we sought to establish whether administration routes of colostrum supplemented with avian IgY affected passive immunity in calves. Results No significant differences were observed with respect to route of administration for colostrum. However, we did observe some differences in certain interactions between the various treatments. Calves fed colostrum containing egg yolk had higher levels of TP, ALB, and IgG, along with increased GGT activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that supplementing colostrum with egg yolk has a beneficial effect when given to calves, regardless of administration route. PMID:25022282

  3. Relationships between blood lactate parameters and endurance performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Charilaos

    The purpose of this study was to determine if one lactate threshold definition, as determined from an incremental maximal exercise test, correlates the best with the average speed of running during two different distances (10 km and 21.1 km). Thirteen well-trained runners (age: 30.9 +/- 2.2 yrs; height: 179.9 +/- 1.2 cm; weight: 70.5 +/- 1.8 kg; body fat: 8.5 +/- 1.0%; V˙O2max: 65.3 +/- 1.0 ml·kg -1·min-1) completed an incremental maximal exercise test to determine their individual lactate profile, one 10 km and one half marathon time trial (TT) on a treadmill. During these trials, oxygen consumption, heart rate, and blood responses were measured. Blood samples were collected through a venous catheter placed in an antecubital vein to determine lactate responses. Correlation coefficients between the running velocity at the different LT definitions and the average running speed during each time trial were calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A dependent t-test was used to determine statistical difference for the mean lactate response between the two running distances and a two-way ANOVA was used to determine the difference between trials over time. All the lactate threshold definitions were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.59; p < 0.05) with both distances. The LTlog was the definition with the highest correlation for both 10 km time trial (r = 0.926) and the half marathon (r = 0.906). The mean lactate concentration during the 10 km time trial (3.52 +/- 0.4 mmol/L) was significantly higher than the mean lactate concentration during the half marathon (1.86 +/- 0.3 mmol/L). These results indicate that any point on the lactate profile curve correlates with running performance with LTlog providing the highest correlation. However, the LT log was not the best indicator for each individual for each distance, indicating that there is a need to consider individual differences.

  4. Measuring the level of agreement in hematologic and biochemical values between blood sampling sites in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kimberly; Mitchell, Mark A; Norton, Terry; Krecek, Rosina C

    2012-12-01

    Conservation programs to protect endangered sea turtles are being instituted worldwide. A common practice in these programs is to collect blood to evaluate the health of the turtles. Several different venipuncture sites are used to collect blood from sea turtles for hematologic and biochemistry tests, depending on the species. To date, it is unknown what affect venipuncture site may have on sample results. The purpose of this study was to measure the level of agreement between hematologic and biochemistry values collected from the dorsal cervical sinus and the interdigital vein of leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtles. Paired heparinized blood samples were obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus and the interdigital vein of 12 adult female nesting leatherback sea turtles on Keys Beach, St. Kitts, West Indies. Even though the sample population was small, the data for each chemistry were normally distributed, except for creatine kinase (CK). There was no significant difference when comparing biochemistry or hematologic values by venipuncture site, except for CK (P = 0.02). The level of agreement between sampling sites was considered good for albumin, calcium, globulin, glucose, packed cell volume, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total protein, total solids, uric acid, white blood cell count, and all of the individual white cell types, while the level of agreement for aspartate aminotransferase and CK were considered poor. This information, coupled with the fact that the interdigital vein affords a less-invasive procedure, demonstrates that the interdigital vein is an appropriate location to use when establishing a hematologic and biochemical profile for leatherback sea turtles. PMID:23272336

  5. Dynamics of microbial communities related to biochemical parameters during vermicomposting and maturation of agroindustrial lignocellulose wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Scarce information is available on the changes in abundance of microbial taxa during vermicomposting. Quantitative PCR and DGGE analysis were used to monitor variations in the microbial structure, relative abundance of four bacterial classes and fungi over the vermicomposting and maturation period of wet olive cake (O) and vine shoots (W). Multivariate correlation analysis between microbial structure and abundance, earthworm biomass and enzyme activities revealed similar and divergent interactions in both processes. Although Eisenia fetida development was different, significant correlations were found with β-glucosidase activity and with bacterial and fungal structure. In the vermicomposting period of O and W, a decline was found in bacteria (94% and 77%), fungi (93% and 94%), and Gammaproteobacteria (56% and 71%) but an increase in Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria (62-79%). Alphaproteobacteria increased only in O (26%). Despite the different initial lignocellulose wastes, the mature vermicomposts were similar in microbial and biochemical properties. PMID:23948272

  6. [Dynamics of blood lymphocyte blast-transformation parameters during hemosorption in patients with gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zhidkov, K P; Fedorova, L A; Polevshchikov, A V; Nazarov, P G

    1992-03-01

    The influence of autotransfusions of hemosorbent-treated blood on parameters of DNA-synthetic activity of blood lymphocytes was studied in 114 patients with gastric ulcer. A statistically significant increase in parameters of DNA-synthetic activity of lymphocytes was recorded simultaneously with the appearance of morphological signs of blast transformation on electrograms. A conclusion has been made on association of lymphocyte blastogenesis under the influence of autotransfusions with the process of ulcerous sanagenesis acceleration. PMID:1516792

  7. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured at day 7 of the estrous cycle to start the SOV protocol, as well as on the day of embryo recovery (DER). The SOV group produced 7.5 ± 6.7 oocytes/embryos, of which 3.4 ± 4.7 were TE. Serum urea and E2 and uterine Glu, CK, LDH, TP, P4 and PGFM in the control group and serum P4 and PGFM and uterine LDH and PGFM in the SOV group were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at DER than day 7. At DER, uterine urea, LDH, PGFM and TP and serum urea, LDH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations were higher (p < 0.01) in the SOV group than the control. There was no significant variation in uterine bacteriology or cytology. Overall, these results infer that SOV affects both serum profile and uterine secretions, and that these changes may influence the number of TE. PMID:24675828

  8. HEMATOLOGIC AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF KELP GULLS (LARUS DOMINICANUS) CAPTURED IN THE CITY OF TALCAHUANO, CHILE.

    PubMed

    Doussang, Daniela; Merino, Victoria; Moreno, Lucila; Islas, Armando; Barrientos, Carlos; Mathieu, Christian; Cerda, Fabiola; López, Juana; Ortega, René; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide tools for future health-based monitoring programs, we developed reference intervals for hematology and plasma biochemistry and partitioned data for sex and season (winter and autumn). Ninety-one physically healthy kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) were sampled in the city of Talcahuano, Chile, during winter (July-September) of 2007, autumn (April-June) and winter of 2008, and autumn of 2009. After blood sampling, the kelp gulls were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin, total plasma protein (TPP), and complete blood count were performed. Alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid were analyzed. No significant differences were found between sexes (P>0.05). When a comparison was made between the two seasons, the values of PCV, TPP, white blood cell, heterophils, eosinophils, and monocytes were significantly higher in winter than in autumn (P<0.05) while and urea and uric acid concentrations were higher in autumn. Heterophils were the predominant circulating leukocyte for all birds. There was no significant difference in body condition between autumn and winter nor between sexes. Body condition showed a significant relationship with TPP and basophil concentration and ALP activity. PMID:26352947

  9. Weighted next reaction method and parameter selection for efficient simulation of rare events in biochemical reaction systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (wSSA) recently developed by Kuwahara and Mura and the refined wSSA proposed by Gillespie et al. based on the importance sampling technique open the door for efficient estimation of the probability of rare events in biochemical reaction systems. In this paper, we first apply the importance sampling technique to the next reaction method (NRM) of the stochastic simulation algorithm and develop a weighted NRM (wNRM). We then develop a systematic method for selecting the values of importance sampling parameters, which can be applied to both the wSSA and the wNRM. Numerical results demonstrate that our parameter selection method can substantially improve the performance of the wSSA and the wNRM in terms of simulation efficiency and accuracy. PMID:21910924

  10. Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge on the blood parameters of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-04-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the field of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  11. Effects of Chitin and Sepia Ink Hybrid Hemostatic Sponge on the Blood Parameters of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the field of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  12. Evaluation of selected biochemical parameters in the saliva of young males using mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Khalil, Ahmad M; Abu Samak, Mahmoud; Aljaberi, Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The biochemical status in the saliva of 12 males before/after using mobile phone has been evaluated. Radio frequency signals of 1800 MHz (continuous wave transmission, 217 Hz modulate and Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM - non-DTX]) with 1.09 w/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) value were used for 15 and 30 min. Cell phone radiation induced a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD); there was a statistically significant effect of talking time on the levels of SOD, F(2, 33) = 8.084, p < 0.05, ω = 0.53. The trend analysis suggests a significant quadratic trend, F(1, 33) = 4.891, p < 0.05; indicating that after 15 min of talking the levels of SOD increased, but as talking time increased the SOD activity started to drop. In contrast to this, there was no statistically significant effect of talking time on the level of salivary albumin, cytochrome c, catalase or uric acid. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation may exert an oxidative stress on human cells as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of the superoxide radical anion released in the saliva of cell phone users. PMID:24499288

  13. Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mahsa; Mansouri, Hakimeh

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. and investigation of effects of polyploidy induction on some primary and secondary metabolites. Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine (0, 0.1, 0.2 % w/v) for 24 or 48 h. The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids (43.33 %) and mixoploids (13.33 %) was obtained from the 24-h treatment in 0.2 and 0.1 % w/v, respectively. Colchicine with 0.2 % concentration and 48 h duration was more destructive than 24 h. The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants. Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids. Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable. PMID:25492688

  14. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  15. [Variation of biochemical parameters of the first morning urine during month of Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Zghal, Amel; Fellah, Hayet; Zerelli, Lilia; Daudon, Michel; Belkehia, Chelbi; Ben Ammar, Slim

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of fluid and diet restriction in fasting on biochemical factors of stone formation. Our study concernes 90 patients divided in three groups: healthy fasting patient (GI), healthy non fasting patient (G2) and non fasting patient with calcium lithiasis (G3). The promotors (oxalate, calcium, uric acid, phosphates) and inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) are statistically significant between G1, G2 and G3, G2. Supersaturation of urine with oxalate, uric acid and brushite are the same for (G1) and (G3) and higher than (G2). Crystalluria is more important in lithiasis subjects compared with healthy non fasting patients (58% vs 11,4%). Oxalate monohydrate (Whewellite) and uric crystal don't exist in the healthy non fasting people but reached 4% and 12% respectively in the lithiasis patient. The crystalluria profil is the same in the heathy fasting patients and calcium lithiasis patients. However healthy patients have equilibria between promotors and inhibitors of crystal formation which minimize the risk of crystalluria and subsequent stone formation. PMID:16370207

  16. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Tu, Kevin; Law, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and structurally overparameterized for interpreting the response of leaf net assimilation (A) to intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration (Ci). The use of conventional fitting methods may lead not only to incorrect parameters but also several previously unrecognized consequences. For example, the relationships between key parameters may be fixed computationally and certain fits may be produced in which the estimated parameters result in contradictory identification of the limitation states of the data. Here we describe a new approach that is better suited to the FvCB model characteristics. It consists of four main steps: (1) enumeration of all possible distributions of limitation states; (2) fitting the FvCB model to each limitation state distribution by minimizing a distribution-wise cost function that has desirable properties for parameter estimation; (3) identification and correction of inadmissible fits; and (4) selection of the best fit from all possible limitation state distributions. The new approach implemented theoretical parameter resolvability with numerical procedures that maximally use the information content of the data. It was tested with model simulations, sampled A/Ci curves, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of different tree species. The new approach is accessible through the automated website leafweb.ornl.gov.

  17. Liver function in Huntington's disease assessed by blood biochemical analyses in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Nørremølle, Anne; Hasholt, Lis; Hjermind, Lena E; Josefsen, Knud

    2016-03-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat elongation in the huntingtin gene. In addition to motor-, psychiatric- and cognitive dysfunction, peripheral disease manifestations in the form of metabolic changes and cellular dysfunction are seen. Blood levels of a wide range of hormones, metabolites and proteins have been analyzed in HD patients, identifying several changes associated with the disease. However, a comprehensive panel of liver function tests (LFT) has not been performed. We investigated a cohort of manifest and premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and controls, using a clinically applied panel of LFTs. Here, we demonstrate that the level of alkaline phosphatase is increased in manifest HD gene-expansion carriers compared to premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and correlate with increased disease severity indicated by the Unified Huntington's disease rating scale-Total Functional Capacity Score (UHDRS-TFC). For gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated levels were more frequent in the manifest groups than in both the HD gene-expansion negative controls and premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers. Finally, the manifest HD gene-expansion carriers displayed moderate increases in total cholesterol and blood glucose relative to the premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers, as well as increased C-reactive protein relative to HD gene-expansion negative controls. Our results show that LFT values are elevated more frequently in manifest compared to premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and controls. The majority of the manifest HD gene-expansion carriers receive medication, and it is possible that this can influence the liver function tests performed in this study. PMID:26944172

  18. Red Blood Cell Homeostasis: Pharmacological Interventions to Explore Biochemical, Morphological and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cluitmans, Judith C. A.; Gevi, Federica; Siciliano, Angela; Matte, Alessandro; Leal, Joames K. F.; De Franceschi, Lucia; Zolla, Lello; Brock, Roland; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J. W.; Bosman, Giel J. G. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    During their passage through the circulation, red blood cells (RBCs) encounter severe physiological conditions consisting of mechanical stress, oxidative damage and fast changes in ionic and osmotic conditions. In order to survive for 120 days, RBCs adapt to their surroundings by subtle regulation of membrane organization and metabolism. RBC homeostasis depends on interactions between the integral membrane protein band 3 with other membrane and cytoskeletal proteins, and with key enzymes of various metabolic pathways. These interactions are regulated by the binding of deoxyhemoglobin to band 3, and by a signaling network revolving around Lyn kinase and Src family kinase-mediated phosphorylation of band 3. Here we show that manipulation of the interaction between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton, using various pharmacological agents that interfere with protein-protein interactions and membrane lipid organization, has various effects on: (1) morphology, as shown by high resolution microscopy and quantitative image analysis; (2) organization of membrane proteins, as indicated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of vesicle generation; (3) membrane lipid organization, as indicated by flow cytometric analysis of phosphatidylserine exposure; (4) deformability, as assessed in capillary-mimicking circumstances using a microfluidics system; (5) deformability as determined using a spleen-mimicking device; (6) metabolic activity as indicated by metabolomics. Our data show that there is a complex relationship between red cell morphology, membrane organization and deformability. Also, our data show that red blood cells have a relatively high resistance to disturbance of membrane organization in vitro, which may reflect their capacity to withstand mechanical, oxidative and osmotic stress in vivo. PMID:27066490

  19. The effects of intellan and cytacon on hematological and biochemical parameter in rabbits: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Anser, Humera; Najam, Raheela; Khan, Saira Saeed; Riaz, Bushra; Sarfaraz, Sana

    2014-09-01

    Several plants have been selected based on their use in traditional systems of medicine, and research has identified a number of natural compounds that could act as Nootropicagents. In this study a herbal product Intellan containing Centella asiatica, Bacopa monniera, Coriandum sativum, Amomum subulatum, Emblica officinalis and another product Cytacon (Cyanocobalamine) were selected The study was designed on animal models to explore the effects on different parameters. For this the animals were given chronic dosing for 6-8 weeks during and after which the parameters were observed to determine their effects. The purpose of focusing on such formulations is to do hematological screening in long-term use. The hematological parameter included hemoglobin/HCT, total leucocyte count, platelets. The lymphocytes and the monocytes counts were increased significantly by intellan, while cyanocobalamine increases RBC counts, platelet counts, monocyte counts, hematocrit etc significantly. The SGPT, SGOT were found increased in both of these drugs. PMID:25176357

  20. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages. PMID:26119914

  1. Stochastic analyses of field-scale pesticide leaching risk as influenced by spatial variability in physical and biochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loll, Per; Moldrup, Per

    2000-04-01

    Field-scale pesticide leaching risk assessments were performed by incorporating a numerical, one-dimensional, water and pesticide transport and fate model into the two-step stochastic modeling approach by Loll and Moldrup [1998]. The numerical model included first-order pesticide degradation, linear equilibrium adsorption, and plant uptake of water and pesticide. Simazine was used as a model pesticide, and leaching risk was expressed as the cumulative mass fraction of applied pesticide leached below 100 cm after 1 year. Spatial variability in soil physical and biochemical data, as well as measured meteorological data from an average and a relatively wet year, was considered for two Danish field sites: (1) a coarse sandy soil, with relatively small variability in hydraulic properties, and (2) a sandy loam, with large variability in hydraulic properties. The two-step stochastic modeling approach was used to investigate the relative impact of spatial variability in saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks, soil-water retention through the Campbell [974] soil-water retention parameter b, and pesticide sorption through the organic carbon content (OC). For the coarse sandy soil, field-scale spatial variability in OC was the single most important parameter influencing leaching risk, whereas for the sandy loam, Ks was found more important than OC. The relative impact of field-scale spatial variability in these parameters was found independent of the meteorological conditions, whereas the absolute level of leaching risk was highly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Assuming a linear dependency between pesticide half-life and OC, a unified approach to modeling simultaneous field-scale variability in biodegradation and adsorption was proposed. Leaching risk assessments based on this approach showed that the parts of the field with both low biological activity and low adsorption capacity contributed with a dramatic increase in leaching risk, and suggested that field-scale spatial variability in biochemical processes can be of similar or larger importance than both hydraulic properties and meteorological conditions.

  2. Estimation of kinetic parameters related to biochemical interactions between hydrogen peroxide and signal transduction proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Paula; Antunes, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The lack of kinetic data concerning the biological effects of reactive oxygen species is slowing down the development of the field of redox signaling. Herein, we deduced and applied equations to estimate kinetic parameters from typical redox signaling experiments. H2O2-sensing mediated by the oxidation of a protein target and the switch-off of this sensor, by being converted back to its reduced form, are the two processes for which kinetic parameters are determined. The experimental data required to apply the equations deduced is the fraction of the H2O2 sensor protein in the reduced or in the oxidized state measured in intact cells or living tissues after exposure to either endogenous or added H2O2. Either non-linear fittings that do not need transformation of the experimental data or linearized plots in which deviations from the equations are easily observed can be used. The equations were shown to be valid by fitting to them virtual time courses simulated with a kinetic model. The good agreement between the kinetic parameters estimated in these fittings and those used to simulate the virtual time courses supported the accuracy of the kinetic equations deduced. Finally, equations were successfully tested with real data taken from published experiments that describe redox signaling mediated by the oxidation of two protein tyrosine phosphatases, PTP1B and SHP-2, which are two of the few H2O2-sensing proteins with known kinetic parameters. Whereas for PTP1B estimated kinetic parameters fitted in general the present knowledge, for SHP-2 results obtained suggest that reactivity towards H2O2 as well as the rate of SHP-2 regeneration back to its reduced form are higher than previously thought. In conclusion, valuable quantitative kinetic data can be estimated from typical redox signaling experiments, thus improving our understanding about the complex processes that underline the interplay between oxidative stress and redox signaling responses.

  3. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  4. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  5. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y W; Ning, D; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI) and ascites heart index (AHI) on d 21, lung index (LUI) on d 35 and liver index (LI) on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration and hematocrit (HCT) on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU) on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP) and globulin (GLO) content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD) level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06). L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA) content on d 28, 35 and 42. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that dietary L-carnitine supplementation reduced organ index, red blood cell counts and hematocrit, enhanced antioxidative capacity of the heart, enhanced liver enzymes activity involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, and reduced serum glucose and triglyceride. Therefore, it is suggested that L-carnitine can potentially reduce susceptibility and mortality due to ascites. PMID:25049781

  6. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. W.; Ning, D.; Peng, Y. Z.; Guo, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI) and ascites heart index (AHI) on d 21, lung index (LUI) on d 35 and liver index (LI) on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration and hematocrit (HCT) on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU) on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP) and globulin (GLO) content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and Na+-K+-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD) level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06). L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA) content on d 28, 35 and 42. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that dietary L-carnitine supplementation reduced organ index, red blood cell counts and hematocrit, enhanced antioxidative capacity of the heart, enhanced liver enzymes activity involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, and reduced serum glucose and triglyceride. Therefore, it is suggested that L-carnitine can potentially reduce susceptibility and mortality due to ascites. PMID:25049781

  7. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers.

    PubMed

    Closter, A M; van As, P; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2009-03-01

    Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO(2)), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO(2)), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO(2), 0.03 for pvO(2), and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 +/- 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 +/- 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO(2), the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (-0.62 +/- 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO(2). For pvCO(2), the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (-0.04 +/- 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study do not support the suggestion that blood gas parameters measured during wk 3 or 4 are useful traits to select against the susceptibility for ascites. PMID:19211516

  8. Model Reduction and Parameter Estimation of Nonlinear Dynamical Biochemical Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaodian; Medvedovic, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Parameter estimation for high dimension complex dynamic system is a hot topic. However, the current statistical model and inference approach is known as a large p small n problem. How to reduce the dimension of the dynamic model and improve the accuracy of estimation is more important. To address this question, we take some known parameters and structure of system as priori knowledge and incorporate it into dynamic model. At the same time, we decompose the whole dynamic model into subset network modules, based on different modules, we apply different estimation approaches. This technique is called Rao-Blackwellised particle filters decomposition methods. To evaluate the performance of this method, we apply it to synthetic data generated from Repressilator model and experimental data of the JAK-STAT Pathway, but this method can be easily extended to large scale cases. PMID:26816394

  9. Significant Biochemical, Biophysical and Metabolic Diversity in Circulating Human Cord Blood Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Malleret, Benoît; Xu, Fenggao; Mohandas, Narla; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Chu, Cindy; Leite, Juliana A.; Low, Kayen; Turner, Claudia; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Zhang, Rou; Bertrand, Olivier; Colin, Yves; Costa, Fabio T. M.; Ong, Choon Nam; Ng, Mah Lee; Lim, Chwee Teck; Nosten, Francois; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background The transition from enucleated reticulocytes to mature normocytes is marked by substantial remodeling of the erythrocytic cytoplasm and membrane. Despite conspicuous changes, most studies describe the maturing reticulocyte as a homogenous erythropoietic cell type. While reticulocyte staging based on fluorescent RNA stains such as thiazole orange have been useful in a clinical setting; these ‘sub-vital’ stains may confound delicate studies on reticulocyte biology and may preclude their use in heamoparasite invasion studies. Design and Methods Here we use highly purified populations of reticulocytes isolated from cord blood, sorted by flow cytometry into four sequential subpopulations based on transferrin receptor (CD71) expression: CD71high, CD71medium, CD71low and CD71negative. Each of these subgroups was phenotyped in terms of their, morphology, membrane antigens, biomechanical properties and metabolomic profile. Results Superficially CD71high and CD71medium reticulocytes share a similar gross morphology (large and multilobular) when compared to the smaller, smooth and increasingly concave reticulocytes as seen in the in the CD71low and CD71negativesamples. However, between each of the four sample sets we observe significant decreases in shear modulus, cytoadhesive capacity, erythroid receptor expression (CD44, CD55, CD147, CD235R, and CD242) and metabolite concentrations. Interestingly increasing amounts of boric acid was found in the mature reticulocytes. Conclusions Reticulocyte maturation is a dynamic and continuous process, confounding efforts to rigidly classify them. Certainly this study does not offer an alternative classification strategy; instead we used a nondestructive sampling method to examine key phenotypic changes of in reticulocytes. Our study emphasizes a need to focus greater attention on reticulocyte biology. PMID:24116088

  10. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies. PMID:25842337

  11. The influences of ambient temperature and crude protein levels on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q W; Feng, J H; Chao, Z; Chen, Y; Wei, L M; Wang, F; Sun, R P; Zhang, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ambient temperature, crude protein levels and their interaction on performance and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 216 Arbor Acre broiler chickens (108 males and 108 females) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and randomly reared at two temperatures (normal temperature: 23 °C; daily cyclic high temperature: 28-32 °C) and fed on three diets with different crude protein levels (153.3, 183.3 or 213.3 g/kg, with constant essential amino acids) from 28 to 42 days of age. Daily cyclic high ambient temperature decreased final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and serum total protein contents (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008 respectively), but increased feed/gain, mortality, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, serum uric acid contents and serum creatine kinase activity (p = 0.008, p = 0.003, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.003 respectively), irrespective of crude protein levels. At the ambient temperature, reducing crude protein levels resulted in an increase in feed/gain (p < 0.001), but a decrease in serum total protein and uric acid contents. Only serum creatine kinase activity in broiler chickens was interacted by daily cyclic high ambient temperature and dietary crude protein levels (p = 0.003). These results indicated that daily cyclic high ambient temperature had a great effect on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens, whereas dietary crude protein levels affected them partially. PMID:26249142

  12. Zinc-induced modulation of some biochemical parameters in a high- and a low-zinc-accumulating genotype of Cicer arietinum L. grown under Zn-deficient condition.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shadab Naseer; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comparative account of biochemical responses evoked by a high-zinc-accumulating (HZnG) and a low-zinc-accumulating (LZnG) genotype of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under conditions of zinc deficiency (0 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil) and on exogenous zinc supply (2.5, 5, and 10 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil), at different growth stages (pre-flowering, flowering, and post-flowering) of the crop. Both the genotypes exhibited significant variation in contents of chlorophyll, protein, nitrate, and leghemoglobin, and in the activity of enzymes (nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase, and carbonic anhydrase), under zinc-limiting condition. The HZnG maintained a significantly higher level of biochemical parameters at deficient zinc levels, while LZnG was more affected by Zn deficiency (with reduced biochemical attributes), compared to HZnG. However, application of soil zinc alleviated the Zn-induced disturbance and improved the biochemical parameters in both genotypes. The differential biochemical response of plants to Zn deficiency indicated existence of genotypic variation in efficient utilization of the available Zn. The HZnG was more effective in overcoming Zn deficiency than the LZnG. This study suggests that metal-dependent biochemical parameters can be used as reliable indices for selection of genotypes with a better Zn utilization capacity, i.e., the Zn-efficient genotypes. PMID:25673554

  13. Perioperative Blood Transfusion as a Significant Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence and Survival after Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Kwon; Kim, Hyung Suk; Park, Juhyun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyun Hoe; Kwak, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been conflicting reports regarding the association of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) with oncologic outcomes including recurrence rates and survival outcomes in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate whether perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) affects biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) following radical prostatectomy (RP) for patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 2,713 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed a comparative analysis based on receipt of transfusion (PBT group vs. no-PBT group) and transfusion type (autologous PBT vs. allogeneic PBT). Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to evaluate variables associated with BRFS, CSS, and OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival estimates for BRFS, CSS, and OS, and log-rank test was used to conduct comparisons between the groups. Results The number of patients who received PBT was 440 (16.5%). Among these patients, 350 (79.5%) received allogeneic transfusion and the other 90 (20.5%) received autologous transfusion. In a multivariate analysis, allogeneic PBT was found to be statistically significant predictors of BRFS, CSS, and OS; conversely, autologous PBT was not. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year BRFS (79.2% vs. 70.1%, log-rank, p = 0.001), CSS (98.5% vs. 96.7%, log-rank, p = 0.012), and OS (95.5% vs. 90.6%, log-rank, p < 0.001) in the allogeneic PBT group compared to the no-allogeneic PBT group. In the autologous PBT group, however, none of these were statistically significant compared to the no-autologous PBT group. Conclusions We found that allogeneic PBT was significantly associated with decreased BRFS, CSS, and OS. This provides further support for the immunomodulation hypothesis for allogeneic PBT. PMID:27159369

  14. Magnetic field effect on flow parameters of blood along with magnetic particles in a cylindrical tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shashi; Singh, Uaday; Katiyar, V. K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of external uniform magnetic field on flow parameters of both blood and magnetic particles is reported through a mathematical model using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approach. The fluid is acted upon by a varying pressure gradient and an external uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the cylindrical tube. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations were solved numerically and found that flow parameters are affected by the influence of magnetic field. Further, artificial blood (75% water+25% Glycerol) along with iron oxide magnetic particles were prepared and transported into a glass tube with help of a peristaltic pump. The velocity of artificial blood along with magnetic particles was experimentally measured at different magnetic fields ranging from 100 to 600 mT. The model results show that the velocity of blood and magnetic particles is appreciably reduced under the influence of magnetic field, which is supported by our experimental results.

  15. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical and Performance Parameters in Collegiate Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Bahman; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Moghadam, Mahdi Ghahremani; Ziyaolhagh, Seyed Javad; Rezaei, Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic power, strength, plasma lipids profile and serum glucose among collegiate wrestlers. Materials and Methods Fourteen male collegiate wrestlers (age, 20.12±2.5 yrs) volunteered as subjects for the study. Subjects were tested one week before the beginning of Ramadan, the last two days of Ramadan and the last two days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan. The paired sample t-test was used to assess the differences in pre and post-performance tests and repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test to determine differences between three blood samplings. Results The results showed that except for anaerobic power and strength, body weight, body fat percentage and aerobic power at 4th week of Ramadan were significantly lower than pre-Ramadan values (P=0.05). Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels decreased after Ramadan compared to pre-Ramadan (P= 0.011, P=0.001), however, a month after Ramadan, it reached to higher levels compared to pre-Ramadan period, which were not statistically significant. Similarly, significant decrease and increase were consequently observed in glucose and high density lipoprotein (P=0.001, P=0.045). Triacylglycerol and VLDL increased at the end of Ramadan compared to the period of time before Ramadan, and after Ramadan, it reached the lower levels compared to concentrations before Ramadan (P=0.133, P=0.133). Conclusion This study also indicated that Ramadan fasting appears to have significant effect on body composition, aerobic power and lipid profile. PMID:23653853

  16. Effect of carbaryl on some biochemical constituents of the blood and liver of Clarias batrachus, a fresh-water teleost.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B

    1999-08-01

    Carbaryl, a carbamate pesticide, (LC50 15.08 mg/l for 96 hr, i.e. lethal concentration with 50% mortality) induced perturbations in the levels of certain biochemical components including the activities of some enzymes in the blood and liver of the fresh-water catfish, Clarias batrachus exposed to sublethal concentrations (1, 2 and 4 mg/l) of the pesticide for 96 hr and 15 days. The pesticide caused a decrease in the levels of total protein and glucose with a concomitant increase in the levels of inorganic phosphate and lactic acid in fish serum. However, very little change was recorded in the serum cholesterol level. The treatment of the fish with carbaryl led to a marked increase in the activities of transaminases (GOT and GPT), phosphatases (acid and alkaline) and lactate dehydrogenase in the fish serum, the magnitude of the effect being dependent on the pesticide concentration and duration of exposure. The increase in lactic acid concentration with subsequent decrease in glucose concentration indicates an enhanced rate of glycolysis due to pesticide stress. Furthermore, the significant decrease in the activity of fish liver succinate dehydrogenase suggests that anaerobic metabolism was favored over aerobic oxidation of glucose through Kreb's cycle in order to mitigate the energy crisis for survival. The rise in the activities of transaminases and acid phosphatase due to pesticide intoxication suggest enhanced protein catabolism and probable hepatocellular damage in the organism. PMID:10478330

  17. Prognostic judgment at post-surgery by biochemical parameters in beef cattle with left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Taguchi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery. PMID:24998331

  18. Spaceflight effects on structural and some biochemical parameters of Brassica rapa photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Adamchuk, N I; Mikhaylenko, N F; Zolotareva, E K; Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A

    1999-07-01

    Chloroplasts play a crucial role in sustaining life on Earth by their dual property in performing the primary fixation of carbon and also in releasing oxygen for use in respiration. Collection of light and its transformation into chemical energy occurs in a thylakoid membrane which is one of the most remarkable transducing systems in the biological world. In order for the light-dependent reactions could take place, a high degree of molecular organization of its constituents is needed. Some results obtained in the framework of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment mission (STS-87) which was performed on board of the space shuttle "Columbia" are presented in the given paper. A goal of the study was to obtain data on some parameters of photosynthetic apparatus, namely the chloroplast structure, pigment content and lipid composition of Brassica rapa plants grown in microgravity. PMID:11543044

  19. Assessment of Various Biochemical Parameters and BMI in Patients with Skin Tags

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Vishal V.

    2016-01-01

    Introdction Acrochordon or fibroepithelial polyp, commonly known as Skin tags (STs) are one of the most common benign skin condition, consisting of skin projecting from the surrounding skin, usually occurring on the eyelids, neck and axillae. Studies have found an association of STs with conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and atherogenic lipid profile. Abdominal obesity and the consequent insulin resistance are said be important contributing factors for diabetes, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease. Aim To highlight the association of lipid profile, BMI, glucose, HbA1c and leptin levels in patients with STs. Materials and Methods This was a case control study conducted at tertiary care hospital in South India from April 2013 to May 2014. The cases were chosen those who are having minimum of 3 STs attending the dermatology clinic. A total of 171 patients were screened, out of which 126 satisfied the criteria for inclusion and were included in the final analysis. The significance of the difference between the groups was assessed by Student t-test (two tailed, independent) to find the significance on continuous scale between two groups on metric parameters, between cases and controls and p-value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results Maximum cases were in males and in age group of 41-50 years. There was significant association between STs and triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and leptin levels. Other parameters were also altered but no statistically significant difference was seen. Conclusion STs are associated with change in markers of obesity and dyslipidaemia. Patients with STs need suitable interventions like weight reduction, smoking cessation, change in dietary habits. STs may also play a role in early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26894056

  20. Aluminium-induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2004-06-01

    For a long time, aluminium (Al) has been considered an indifferent element from a toxicological point of view. In recent years, however, Al has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders, such as dialysis dementia, the fulminant neurological disorder that can develop in patients on renal dialysis. Therefore, the present experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on certain hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 0mg AA and 0mg AlCl3/kg body weight (BW) (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3/kg BW (1/25 LD50); 34 mg AlCl3 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 16 weeks. Evaluations were made for lipid peroxidation, enzyme activities and hemato-biochemical parameters. Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (P<0.05) induced free radicals and decreased the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the levels of sulfhydryl groups (SH groups) in rabbit plasma, liver, brain, testes and kidney. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP), and phosphorylase activities were significantly decreased in liver and testes due to AlCl3 administration. While, plasma, liver, testes and brain lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly increased. Contrariwise, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly decreased in brain and plasma. Aluminium treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total lipids (TL), blood haemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), and increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and the concentrations of glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin and cholesterol. Ascorbic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals, TL, cholesterol, glucose and creatinine, and increased the activity of GST, SH groups, Hb, TEC and PCV. While, the rest of the tested parameters were not affected. Also, the present study showed that ascorbic acid can be effective in the protection of aluminium-induced toxicity. PMID:15125998

  1. A New Data Analysis System to Quantify Associations between Biochemical Parameters of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Mariano; Salmeron, M. Dolores; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Barbieri, Carlo; Mari, Flavio; Molina, Rafael I.; Costa, Pedro; Aljama, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background In hemodialysis patients, deviations from KDIGO recommended values of individual parameters, phosphate, calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH), are associated with increased mortality. However, it is widely accepted that these parameters are not regulated independently of each other and that therapy aimed to correct one parameter often modifies the others. The aim of the present study is to quantify the degree of association between parameters of chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD). Methods Data was extracted from a cohort of 1758 adult HD patients between January 2000 and June 2013 obtaining a total of 46.141 records (10 year follow-up). We used an advanced data analysis system called Random Forest (RF) which is based on self-learning procedure with similar axioms to those utilized for the development of artificial intelligence. This new approach is particularly useful when the variables analyzed are closely dependent to each other. Results The analysis revealed a strong association between PTH and phosphate that was superior to that of PTH and Calcium. The classical linear regression analysis between PTH and phosphate shows a correlation coefficient is 0.27, p<0.001, the possibility to predict PTH changes from phosphate modification is marginal. Alternatively, RF assumes that changes in phosphate will cause modifications in other associated variables (calcium and others) that may also affect PTH values. Using RF the correlation coefficient between changes in serum PTH and phosphate is 0.77, p<0.001; thus, the power of prediction is markedly increased. The effect of therapy on biochemical variables was also analyzed using this RF. Conclusion Our results suggest that the analysis of the complex interactions between mineral metabolism parameters in CKD-MBD may demand a more advanced data analysis system such as RF. PMID:26808154

  2. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  3. Appropriate biochemical parameters in first-trimester screening for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuckle, H S; van Lith, J M

    1999-06-01

    Meta-analysis was used to calculate maternal serum marker distribution parameters for Down syndrome risk estimation in the first trimester. Data from 44 series were combined: relating to pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A in 18, free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in 17, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in 26 and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in 9. All levels were expressed in multiples of the normal median (MOM) for gestational age. Individual PAPP-A levels were available for 439 first and second-trimester Down syndrome pregnancies. The median MOM value increased with gestation: 0.35 at 6-8 weeks (31 cases), 0.40 at 9-11 weeks (197), 0.62 at 12-14 weeks (113) and 0.94 thereafter (98). A cubic regression equation was fitted so it could be estimated for each week of gestation. For the other markers the median value in Down syndrome was estimated from the weighted mean across all first-trimester series: 1.98 MOM for free beta-hCG in 579 cases; 0.79 MOM for AFP in 243 and 0.74 MOM for uE3 in 226. Variance-covariance matrices were calculated directly in unaffected pregnancies and from the difference between affected and unaffected pregnancies in Down syndrome. Based on these parameters we estimate that screening at 9-11 weeks with PAPP-A and free beta-hCG will yield a 64.6 per cent detection rate for a 5 per cent false-positive rate. Adding a third marker will increase detection to 66.6 per cent for AFP and 68.6 per cent for uE3; using all four markers it increases to 70.1 per cent. Routine ultrasound nuchal translucency measurement in addition to serum testing will increase the rates to 86.4 per cent, 87.2 per cent, 87.9 per cent and 88.3 per cent, respectively. PMID:10416963

  4. Growth and biochemical parameters of Cicer arietinum L. grown on amended fly ash.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Tripathi, R D; Rai, U N; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Maathuis, F J M

    2007-11-01

    Growth and metal accumulation were investigated in two Cicer arietinum L. varieties (var. CSG-8962 and var. C-235) when grown in various combinations of fly ash (FA) amended with garden soil (GS), press mud (PM) or saw dust (SD). In addition, the levels of photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase (NR) activity, cysteine, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), and ascorbic acid were studied. FA amended with GS or PM led to a 5-10 times increase in biomass compared to FA control and was most pronounced in the less metal tolerant variety CSG-8962. Amendment of FA with either GS or PM only moderately increased the contents of some essential metals whereas the non-essential Cd and Cr remained similar or decreased slightly compared to FA control. FA combined with either GS or PM increased the amount of photosynthetic pigments and was largely absent when SD was added to FA. Improved nitrogen availability led to increased nitrate reductase (NR) activity with all amendments but less so with SD. Metal stress indicating parameters were generally reduced (cysteine and non-protein thiols) or unchanged (ascorbic acid). In conclusion, of the tested ameliorants both GS and PM greatly improved growth of C. arietinum making FA a suitable component of plant growth substrates. PMID:17342436

  5. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Latha, V

    2016-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) act as essential nutrients; however, they can be toxic at higher concentrations. In this study, earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was studied for its sensitivity to sublethal doses of Cr (8 ppm) and Zn (350 ppm) in terms of alterations occurred in oxidative stress indices and reproductive parameters in the testis. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the rate of food intake was observed on 7, 14 and 21 days of Cr toxicity; while increased rate was evident upon 7 days of Zn exposure. Changes evident in the rate of cocoon production (-39.54 and +38.63 %), hatchability (-77.85 and +30.0 %) highlight higher toxic potential of Cr than Zn, respectively. Moderate to severe vacuolization in spermatic follicles and higher incidence of tailless (+52.6 % in Cr and 20.8 % in Zn), and head bent (+18.8 % in Cr and 0 % in Zn) sperms were evident in Cr(VI) exposed worms emphasizing the higher vulnerability of E. eugeniae to Cr toxicity. A significant (p < 0.05) increase observed in catalase activity (+13.29 % in Zn and +20.88 % in Cr) and glutathione (+52.09 % in Zn and -7.70 % in Cr) suggests a higher compensatory antioxidant response in Zn-exposed worms than Cr. Variations observed in the activities of superoxide dismutase (-9.40 % in Zn and +24.0 % in Cr) and glutathione-s-transferase (-39.39 % in Zn and +1.29 % in Cr) emphasize the metal specific antioxidant responses in testis. Therefore, it can be implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate. PMID:26922588

  6. Is handgrip strength and key pinch measurement related with biochemical parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Bulent; Sumnu, Abdullah; Kaya, Ibrahim; Gursu, Meltem; Aydin, Zeki; Karadag, Serhat; Uzun, Sami; Tatli, Emel; Ozturk, Savas; Cetinus, Ercan; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds & Objective: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) frequently causes Protein Energy Wasting (PEW), which is an important morbidity and mortality factor. Although it is difficult to assess PEW with a reliable method, there are various methods such as Handgrip strength test (HST), serum albumin, cholesterol, etc. HST is a simple and reliable antropometric method which is used for nutritional status and body muscle strength. This study aims to assess the relationship between HST and biochemical markers in evolution of nutritional status of ESRD patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 36 consecutive patients, who are on peritoneal dialysis and 36 healthy –control subjects. Jamar-hand dynamometer was used for handgrip strength test; a pinch gauge was used for key pinch. Other antropometric tests included skin fold thicknesses at biceps, triceps, umbilical, suprailiac and subscapular regions; circumferences at waist hip, neck and midarm. Biochemical tests were performed only in Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) group. SPSS for Windows ver. 15.0 was used for statistics. Results: The mean age of patients was 49.3±14.4, and mean age of control group was 43.8±10.6 (p=0.075). In PD group dominant hand dynamometer test 1,2 and 3 results were 19.3±9.3 kg, 25.3±10.8 kg, 25.5± 10.6 kg and; 34.2±10.3 kg, 34.4±9.8 kg, 34.6±10.0 kg for control group (p< 0,001). Right key pinch results were 6.7±1.9 kg for patients; 13.5±4.5 kg for control group (p<0.001). Left key pinch results were 6.8±1.9 kg for patients; 13.2±4.4 kg for control group (p<0.001). There was not any significant relationship concerning handgrip or key pinch tests with biochemical parameters. Conclusion: Handgrip Strength Test and key pinch may be reliable, cheap and easily performed tests for the diagnosis of Protein Energy Wasting in patients on Peritoneal Dialysis. PMID:26430434

  7. Relationships among bulk soil physicochemical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters in an organic alfalfa-rice rotation system.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana R; Bello, Diana; Prieto-Fernández, Ángeles; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2015-08-01

    The microbial communities of bulk soil of rice paddy fields under an ancient organic agriculture regimen, consisting on an alfalfa-rice rotation system, were characterized. The drained soil of two adjacent paddies at different stages of the rotation was compared before rice seeding and after harvesting. The relationships among the soil microbial, physicochemical, and biochemical parameters were investigated using multivariate analyses. In the first year of rice cropping, aerobic cultivable heterotrophic populations correlated with lineages of presumably aerobic bacteria (e.g., Sphingobacteriales, Sphingomonadales). In the second year of rice cropping, the total C content correlated with presumable anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineae). Independently of the year of rice cropping, before rice seeding, proteolytic activity correlated positively with the cultivable aerobic heterotrophic and ammonifier populations, the soil catabolic profile and with presumable aerobes (e.g., Sphingobacteriales, Rhizobiales) and anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroidales, Anaerolineae). After harvesting, strongest correlations were observed between cultivable diazotrophic populations and bacterial groups described as comprising N2 fixing members (e.g., Chloroflexi-Ellin6529, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria). It was demonstrated that chemical parameters and microbial functions were correlated with variations on the total bacterial community composition and structure occurring during rice cropping. A better understanding of these correlations and of their implications on soil productivity may be valid contributors for sustainable agriculture practices, based on ancient processes. PMID:25850741

  8. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN HUMANS UPON EXPOSURE TO NITROGEN DIOXIDE WHILE AT REST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biochemical response to controlled exposures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 19 human subjects exposed to 0.2 ppm NO2 for 2 hr and compared to 15 control subjects exposed to filtered air for 2 hr. Seven biochemical blood parameters, including glutathione, red blood c...

  9. [Economy circuit of fetal circulation illustrated on the basis of personal quantitative Doppler blood flow parameters].

    PubMed

    Arabin, B; Saling, E

    1987-01-01

    Percentile curves of the mean blood flow velocity and the mean blood flow volume of the fetal aorta were calculated from a normal study group comprised of 290 pregnant women. Additionally ratios of the mean blood flow velocity or blood flow volume of the fetal common carotid artery and the fetal aorta were established. In a high risk group with a loss of end-diastolic blood flow velocities in the umbilical artery and/or fetal aorta and subsequent primary caesarean section due to fetal distress (pathological CTG) we investigated the course of the above mentioned parameters. The ratio of the mean velocity or the mean blood flow volumes showed and increased in all 10 cases of the high risk group from the first to the last measurement. In all cases the final level before the delivery was far above the 95th centile. The underlying pathophysiological occurrence of the conserving adaptation of the fetal circulation is expressed by the ratios. This is why we consider these parameters to be of great importance in the supervision of high risk pregnancies in the future. PMID:3331861

  10. Effects of depletion sampling by standard three-pass pulsed DC electrofishing on blood chemistry parameters of fishes from Appalachian streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Christine L.; Panek, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects on fishes captured by electrofishing techniques have long been recognized, although the extent of associated physical injury and behavioral alterations are highly variable and dependent on a number of factors. We examined the effects of three-pass pulsed DC (PDC) electrofishing on two salmonid species (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and five other genera (Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus) common to Appalachian streams. We examined the corresponding effects of PDC electroshock on the following physiological indicators of stress and trauma: blood glucose and serum lactate, as well as on other blood chemistry, namely, enzymes, electrolytes, minerals, and proteins. All species demonstrated physiological responses to PDC electroshock, indicated by the biochemical differences in blood parameters in unshocked and shocked groups of fish with or without gross evidence of hemorrhagic trauma. Serum lactate was the most consistent indicator of these effects. Significant differences in whole blood glucose levels were also noted in treatment groups in all species except Green Sunfish, although the patterns observed were not as consistent as for serum lactate. Elevations in the serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, in the electroshocked fish occurred only in the two salmonid species. In many instances, although blood parameters were elevated in electroshocked fish compared with the unshocked controls for a given species, there were no differences in those levels in electroshocked fish based on the presence of gross hemorrhagic trauma to axial musculature. While some of the blood parameters examined correlated with both the occurrence of electroshock and the resultant tissue injury, there was no apparent link between the altered blood chemistry and increased mortality 30 d after electrofishing.

  11. Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p < 0.05). Hence, the soaked Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities. PMID:24199486

  12. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The group fed 1% onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Haemoglobin, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil had no significant change (P > 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P < 0.05), while ALT and ALP levels were not influenced (P > 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that dietary onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile. PMID:26067169

  13. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  14. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER ON BLOOD COAGULATION PARAMETERS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine plan to evaluate the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators expect to measure platelet number, bl...

  15. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The

  16. The effect of pulsed IR-light on the rheological parameters of blood in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka-Bogusz, Honorata; Marcinkowska-Gapińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study we attempted to assess the effect of light of 855 nm wavelength (IR-light) on the rheological parameters of blood in vitro. As an anticoagulant, heparin was used. The source of IR-light was an applicator connected to the special generator--Viofor JPS®. The blood samples were irradiated for 30 min. During the irradiation the energy density was growing at twelve-second intervals starting from 1.06 J/cm2 to 8.46 J/cm2, then the energy density dropped to the initial value; the process was repeated cyclically. The study of blood viscosity was carried out with a Contraves LS40 oscillatory-rotational rheometer, with a decreasing shearing rate from 100 to 0.01 s⁻¹ over 5 min (flow curve) and applying constant frequency oscillations f=0.5 Hz with decreasing shear amplitude ˙γ0 (viscoelasticity measurements). The analysis of the results of rotational measurements was based on the assessment of hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at four selected shear rates and on the basis of the numerical values of parameters from Quemada's rheological model: k0 (indicating red cell aggregability), k∞ (indicating red cell rigidity) and ˙γc (the value of the shear rate for which the rouleaux formation begins). In oscillatory experiments we estimated viscous and elastic components of the complex blood viscosity in the same groups of patients. We observed a decrease of the viscous component of complex viscosity (η') at ˙γ0=0.2 s⁻¹, while other rheological parameters, k0, k∞, and relative blood viscosity at selected shear rates showed only a weak tendency towards smaller values after irradiation. The IR-light effect on the rheological properties of blood in vitro turned out to be rather neutral in the studied group of patients. PMID:24898338

  17. The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.

    PubMed

    van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M

    2010-08-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome. PMID:20634524

  18. Laser-based blood cell measurements for the biological reconstruction of ionizing radiation doses using a novel technique for cytometry/biochemical reaction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pleshanov, P.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Azarov, L.A.; Budayev, D.A.; Ossipenkov, A.L.; Shamayev, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A novel biodosimetry method based on the red blood cells analysis by means of laser flow cytometry and a specially designed monoclonal antibodies is used for reconstructing ionizing radiation doses for Chernobyl Accident victims. In addition to analysis of the patient`s blood samples, we are evaluating both spectroscopy procedures and laser-based flow techniques. It was shown that resonance energy transfer processes can take place among the two different dyes links to the spherical cell surface. This can affect the accuracy of rare mutant cell scoring. Also a new technique is described to provide conventional flow cytometric analysis and kinetic measurements of the elementary stages of biochemical reactions are described.

  19. Clinical, morphological, biochemical, imaging and outcome parameters in 21 individuals with mitochondrial maintenance defect related to FBXL4 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Martina; Karall, Daniela; Schossig, Anna; Abdenur, Jose E.; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Biagosch, Caroline; Distelmaier, Felix; Freisinger, Peter; Graham, Brett H.; Haack, Tobias B.; Hauser, Natalie; Hertecant, Jozef; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Leydiker, Karen; Lourenco, Charles M.; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Wolf, Nicole I.; Wortmann, Saskia B.; Taylor, Robert W.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Bonnen, Penelope E.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Prokisch, Holger; McFarland, Robert

    2016-01-01

    FBXL4 deficiency is a recently described disorder of mitochondrial maintenance associated with a loss of mitochondrial DNA in cells. To date, the genetic diagnosis of FBXL4 deficiency has been established in 28 individuals. This paper retrospectively reviews proxy-reported clinical and biochemical findings and evaluates brain imaging, morphological and genetic data in 21 of those patients. Neonatal/early-onset severe lactic acidosis, muscular hypotonia, feeding problems and failure to thrive is the characteristic pattern at first presentation. Facial dysmorphic features are present in 67 % of cases. Seven children died (mean age 37 months); 11 children were alive (mean age at follow-up 46 months), three children were lost to follow-up. All survivors developed severe psychomotor retardation. Brain imaging was non-specific in neonates but a later-onset, rapidly progressive brain atrophy was noted. Elevated blood lactate and metabolic acidosis were observed in all individuals; creatine kinase was elevated in 45 % of measurements. Diagnostic workup in patient tissues and cells revealed a severe combined respiratory chain defect with a general decrease of enzymes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism and a relative depletion of mitochondrial DNA content. Mutations were detected throughout the FBXL4 gene albeit with no clear delineation of a genotype- phenotype correlation. Treatment with Bmitochondrial medicationsˆ did not prove effective. In conclusion, a clinical pattern of early-onset encephalopathy, persistent lactic acidosis, profound muscular hypotonia and typical facial dysmorphism should prompt initiation of molecular genetic analysis of FBXL4. Establishment of the diagnosis permits genetic counselling, prevents patients undergoing unhelpful diagnostic procedures and allows for accurate prognosis. PMID:25868664

  20. Improvement of estimation parameter for frame-rate analysis of blood flow using laser speckle image sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Maeda, Takaaki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Funamizu, Hideki; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Improved estimation parameters are proposed for frame-rate analysis of blood flow in skin tissue and a blood vessel using laser speckle image sensing. These parameters are introduced for visualizing a blood flow distribution with improving image quality and computation time or with reducing effects of a speckle contrast and random noises. Experiments were conducted for sample models using ground-glass plates and fluid flow, human finger, human wrist and an anesthetized rat to confirm the feasibility of the proposed parameters.

  1. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  2. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  3. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  4. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN(-) in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD. PMID:26729113

  5. Protective effects of ectoine on behavioral, physiological and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna subjected to hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Adam; Stępniewska, Zofia

    2015-04-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is an osmoprotectant produced by halophilic microorganisms inducing protective effects against various stressful factors. However, little is known about its influence on aquatic invertebrates subjected to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-a commonly used oxidative disinfectant. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of H2O2 alone (at 5 and 10 mg/L) and in the combination with various concentrations of ECT (5, 10 and 25 mg/L) on behavioral, physiological and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna. The following endpoints were determined: mortality, heart rate, thoracic limb movement, total glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, catalase (CAT) activity and nitric oxide (NOx) level. The study showed that daphnids exposed to the combination of H2O2+ECT showed decreased mortality, attenuated inhibition of heart rate and thoracic limb activity, less decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, lower stimulation of CAT activity and NOx level when compared to the crustaceans exposed to H2O2 alone. The most pronounced alleviation of toxic effects was observed in the combination of 5 mg/L H2O2+25 mg/L ECT. The results suggest that protective effects of ECT in D. magna subjected to H2O2 may be related to antioxidative properties of the osmoprotectant. PMID:25704915

  6. The effects of dietary boron compounds in supplemented diet on hormonal activity and some biochemical parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Ismail; Akbel, Erten; Karabag, Funda; Ince, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of dietary boric acid or borax, as a boron (B) source, on hormonal status (leptin, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine) and some biochemical parameter levels as glucose, carnitine, nonesterified fatty acids, and betahydroxybutyric acid in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds especially borax decreased leptin, insulin, and glucose levels, whereas increased T3 and carnitine levels in plasma. In addition, body weight of rats was found to be low in the boric acid group at the end of 4 weeks. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases body weight, leptin, and insulin, whereas increases T3 levels in plasma, so enhances the metabolic activity of rats. Between the B compounds used in this study, it was found that borax had a greater effect on hormonal status than boric acid. PMID:23293135

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of commercial food waste and dairy manure: Characterizing biochemical parameters and synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Lodge, Jeffrey S; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion of commercial food waste is a promising alternative to landfilling commercial food waste. This study characterized 11 types of commercial food wastes and 12 co-digestion blends. Bio-methane potential, biodegradable fraction, and apparent first-order hydrolysis rate coefficients were reported based upon biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Food waste bio-methane potentials ranged from 165 to 496 mL CH4/g VS. Substrates high in lipids or readily degradable carbohydrates showed the highest methane production. Average bio-methane potential observed for co-digested substrates was -5% to +20% that of the bio-methane potential of the individual substrates weighted by VS content. Apparent hydrolysis rate coefficients ranged from 0.19d(-1) to 0.65d(-1). Co-digested substrates showed an accelerated apparent hydrolysis rate relative to the weighted average of individual substrate rates. These results provide a database of key bio-digestion parameters to advance modeling and utilization of commercial food waste in anaerobic digestion. PMID:27090232

  8. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN− in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD. PMID:26729113

  9. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, DW Winsett2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, DL Costa2, and WP ...

  10. Methods of mesophyll conductance estimation: its impact on key biochemical parameters and photosynthetic limitations in phosphorus-stressed soybean across CO2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photosynthetic potential in C3 plants is largely limited by CO2 diffusion through stomata (Ls) and mesophyll (Lm) and photo-biochemical (Lb) processes. Accurate estimation of mesophyll conductance (gm) using gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) parameters of the photosynthetic proces...

  11. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  12. Effect of pesticide exposure on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters in thai orchid farmers- a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-06-01

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32±1165.48 U/L, 11.61±4.09% and 312.26±164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85±1139.40 U/L, 14.32±4.23%, 420.34±195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031±0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018±0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted. PMID:26024358

  13. Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Thai Orchid Farmers—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32 ± 1165.48 U/L, 11.61 ± 4.09% and 312.26 ± 164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85 ± 1139.40 U/L, 14.32 ± 4.23%, 420.34 ± 195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031 ± 0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018 ± 0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted. PMID:26024358

  14. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  15. Qualitative assessment of red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nubesh S.; Luke, Roji; Soman, Rino Roopak; Krishna, Praveen M.; Safar, Iqbal P.; Swaminathan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anemia of chronic disease is defined as anemia occurring in chronic infections and inflammatory conditions that is not caused by marrow deficiencies or other diseases and in the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. The present case control study was aimed to assess the red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with mild, moderate, and severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A simple random sampling method was used to select 80 healthy male patients, who were divided into four groups based on full mouth periodontal examination as follows: group I patients comprised the control group (n = 20), which included patients with a clinically healthy periodontium, group II patients (n = 20) were diagnosed with mild chronic periodontitis, group III (n = 20) included moderate chronic periodontitis patients, and patients with severe chronic periodontitis formed group IV (n = 20). Laboratory blood investigations included total number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Results: Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in red blood cell parameters with increase in different grades of periodontitis. Conclusion: Results of the present study show a substantial decrease in red blood cell parameters with increase in the severity of periodontal destruction. PMID:26759801

  16. Life History Traits and Demographic Parameters of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Fed on Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Balsalobre, Agustin; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Marti, Gerardo A; Menu, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, feeds primarily on humans, but ethical reasons preclude carrying out demographical studies using people. Thus, most laboratory studies of T. infestans are conducted using bird or mammal live hosts that may result in different demographic parameters from those obtained on human blood. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the use of an artificial feeder with human blood would be operational to rear triatomines and estimate population growth rates. We estimated life history traits and demographic parameters using an artificial feeder with human blood and compared them with those obtained on live hens. Both groups of T. infestans were kept under constant conditions [28 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% relative humidity, a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h] and fed weekly. On the basis of age-specific survival and age-specific fecundity, we calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), the finite rate of population growth (λ), the net reproductive rate (Ro), and the mean generation time (Tg). Our results show differences in life history traits between blood sources, resulting in smaller population growth rates on human blood than on live hens. Although demographic growth rate was smaller on human blood than on hens, it still remains positive, so the benefit/cost ratio of this feeding method seems relatively attractive. We discuss possibility of using the artificial feeder with human blood for both ecological and behavioral studies. PMID:26373893

  17. Serum cortisol and haematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme variables in horse blood sampled in a slaughterhouse lairage, immediately before stunning and during exsanguination.

    PubMed

    Nemec Svete, A; Čebulj-Kadunc, N; Frangež, R; Kruljc, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme variables in the blood of horses sampled during the pre-slaughter period (in the lairage and in the stunning box) and during exsanguination. A total of 24 Slovenian warm-blooded horses were observed. Blood samples for determination of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemaglobin concentration) and antioxidant enzyme (whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) variables were collected by venipuncture of the left jugular vein in the lairage pen, 60 min before stunning (lairage) and immediately before stunning (stunning box). At exsanguination, blood samples were collected from the wound at the time of jugular vein sticking. During blood collection in the lairage pen and in the stunning box, horses were gently restrained with a halter. They were stunned using a penetrating captive bolt pistol impelled by air and were bled by jugular vein sticking. Horses were physically active in the lairage pen and in the race before entering the stunning box. After stunning, the horses showed paddling movements with their legs. In horses, the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, the serum potassium concentration, the activities of the serum muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and values of most of the other biochemical (Table 1) and haematological variables (Table 2), were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at exsanguination, than in blood sampled while they were in the lairage and in the stunning box. The serum concentrations of cortisol and chloride and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and antioxidant enzymes were not significantly different between the pre-slaughter period and exsanguination. All selected blood variables were not significantly different between the lairge and the stunning box sampling time, indicating no physiological stress responses of the investigated horses to stressors, such as novelty of the pre-slaughter environment and handling, present in the slaughterhouse between the lairage and the stunning box. However, the significantly higher values, at exsanguination, for the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, serum muscle enzyme activities and haematological variables, than during the pre-slaughter period, might partially be attributed to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, caused by stunning and bleeding. PMID:23217233

  18. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, G.H.; Litzow, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Correlation of Brain Neuropeptide (Nesfatin-1 and Orexin-A) Concentrations with Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Ustabaş Kahraman, Feyza; Vehapoğlu, Aysel; Özgen, İlker Tolga; Terzioğlu, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition continues to be a leading cause of stunted growth in many countries. This study aimed to investigate serum nesfatin-1 and orexin-A levels in underweight children and the potential correlations of these levels with anthropometric and nutritional parameters. Methods: The study enrolled 44 prepubertal children (between 2 and 12 years of age) with thinness grades of 1-3 and 41 healthy age- and gender-matched children. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters including nesfatin-1 and orexin-A concentrations were compared between the two groups. The correlations of nesfatin-1 and orexin-A with biochemical and anthropometric parameters were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were also performed for evaluating nesfatin-1 and orexin-A in distinguishing children with malnutrition from healthy controls. Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, vitamin B12 and insulin levels were significantly lower in the study group than controls (p=0.001, p=0.049 and p=0.033, respectively). Mean nesfatin-1 levels in the malnourished group was also significantly lower compared to the healthy controls (3871.2±1608.8 vs. 5515.0±3816.4 pg/mL, p=0.012). No significant difference was observed in the orexin-A levels between the two groups (malnourished vs. control groups: 1135.7±306.0 vs. 1025.7±361.6 pg/mL, p=0.141). Correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and a negative correlation of orexin-A with body mass index (BMI) z-score. ROC analysis demonstrated that nesfatin-1 and orexin-A cannot be used to distinguish children with malnutrition from healthy controls (AUC: 0.620, p=0.061 for nesfatin-1 and AUC: 0.584, p=0.190 for orexin-A). Conclusion: The positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and the negative correlation of orexin-A with BMI suggest that these neuropeptides may be a part of a protective mechanism in the maintenance of nutritional status and that they may have a role in regulating food intake in undernourished children. PMID:26831553

  20. Influence of capture method, habitat quality and individual traits on blood parameters of free-ranging lace monitors (Varanus varius).

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Tf; Jessop, Ts

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine baseline reference intervals for haematological and serum biochemical parameters in lace monitors, and to examine whether such values were influenced by capture method, expected differences in habitat food resource availability and a lizard's body size and body condition. METHODS Thirty-three wild Victorian lace monitors (Varanus varius) of unknown age and sex were captured by noose pole or aluminium box trap from Cape Conran in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. RESULTS No statistical differences between the two capture methods were noted for haematology. There was a significant difference in the serum glucose concentrations between the two methods of capture (higher concentration in box-trapped animals) because of a physiological response to capture stress. Habitat food quality did not appear to influence haematology or serum biochemistry. The packed cell volume (PCV) for the lace monitors was 0.29-0.43 L/L. Lymphocytes were identified as the most common leucocyte. The haemoprotozoan parasite, Haemogregarina varanicola, was found in all 33 blood samples. No correlation could be made between parasite burden and PCV, serum globulins or serum proteins, but animals in poor body condition were more likely to harbour large numbers of parasites. CONCLUSION The results of this study may be used as a basis for evaluating health in lace monitors. PMID:21864309

  1. Quantization and diagnosis of Shanghuo (Heatiness) in Chinese medicine using a diagnostic scoring scheme and salivary biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to establish a diagnostic scoring scheme for Shanghuo (Heatiness) and to evaluate whether Shanghuo is associated with biochemical parameters of salivary lysozyme (LYZ), salivary secreted immunoglobulin (S-IgA), salivary amylase (AMS), and saliva flow rate (SFR). Methods We collected 121 Shanghuo patients at the Affiliated Hospitals of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Guangdong Province, 60 cases as a Shanghuo recovered group, and 60 healthy cases as a healthy control group. The diagnostic scoring scheme was established by probability theory and maximum likelihood discriminatory analysis on the basis of epidemiology with the design of self-controlled clinical trial. Subsequently, we used the same methods to collect 120 Shanghuo patients, 60 Shanghuo recovered cases, and 60 healthy cases in both Hunan Province and Henan Province. The levels of LYZ, S-IgA, AMS, and SFR were tested when the patients suffered from Shanghuo or recovered, respectively. Results The diagnostic score table for Shanghuo syndrome was established first. In the retrospective tests, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive likelihood ratio of the diagnostic score table were 98.9%, 93.5%, 97.5%, and 14.34%, respectively. In the prospective tests, the corresponding values were 94.9%, 85.7%, 91.7%, and 6.64%, respectively. Shanghuo was classified into three degrees based on the diagnostic scores, common Shanghuo: 63–120; serious Shanghuo: 121–150; very serious Shanghuo: >150. A negative correlation was found between Shanghuo and S-IgA (R = -0.428; P = 0.000). The level of S-IgA was also affected by seasonal and regional factors. No significant correlations were found between Shanghuo and the levels of LYZ, AMS, and SFR. Conclusions In this study, Shanghuo could be diagnosed by the combination of the diagnostic score table and S-lgA level. PMID:24386887

  2. Comparison of sensory, microbiological, and biochemical parameters of microwave versus indirect UHT fluid skim milk during storage.

    PubMed

    Clare, D A; Bang, W S; Cartwright, G; Drake, M A; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J

    2005-12-01

    Shelf-stable milk could benefit from sensory quality improvement. Current methods of heating cause flavor and nutrient degradation through exposure to overheated thermal exchange surfaces. Rapid heating with microwaves followed by sudden cooling could reduce or eliminate this problem. The objectives for this study were focused on designing and implementing continuous microwave thermal processing of skim fluid milks (white and chocolate) to compare sensory, microbiological, and biochemical parameters with conventionally prepared, indirect UHT milks. All test products were aseptically packaged and stored at ambient temperature for 12 mo. Every 3 mo, samples were taken for microbiological testing, reactive sulfhydryl determinations, active enzyme analysis, instrumental viscosity readings, color measurements, and descriptive sensory evaluation. Microbiological plate counts were negative on all milks at each time point. Enzymatic assays showed that plasmin was inactivated by both heat treatments. 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) analysis, a measure of reactive sulfhydryl (-SH-) groups, showed that the initial thiol content was not significantly different between the microwave-processed and UHT-treated milks. However, both heating methods resulted in an increased thiol level compared with conventionally pasteurized milk samples due to the higher temperatures attained. Sulfhydryl oxidase, a milk enzyme that catalyzes disulfide bond formation using a variety of protein substrates, retained activity following microwave processing, and decreased during storage. Viscosity values were essentially equivalent in microwave- and UHT-heated white skim milks. Sensory analyses established that UHT-treated milks were visibly darker, and exhibited higher caramelized and stale/fatty flavors with increased astringency compared with the microwave samples. Sweet aromatic flavor and sweet taste decreased during storage in both UHT and microwave milk products, whereas stale/fatty flavors increased over time. Sensory effects were more apparent in white milks than in chocolate varieties. These studies suggest that microwave technology may provide a useful alternative processing method for delivery of aseptic milk products that retain a long shelf life. PMID:16291608

  3. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  4. Lumped-parameter tissue temperature-blood perfusion model of a cold-stressed fingertip.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, A; Stroschein, L A; Gonzalez, R R; Pandolf, K B

    1996-05-01

    A lumped-parameter model of a fingertip is presented. The semispherical model includes the effects of heat storage, heat exchange with the environment, and heat transport by blood perfusion. The thermal insulation on the surface of the fingertip is represented by the overall heat transfer coefficient that is calculated by common engineering formulas. The model is solved analytically for the simple case of constant blood perfusion rate. The general case of variable blood perfusion rates is solved by an Euler finite difference technique. At this stage, the model does not include active control mechanisms of blood perfusion. Thus the effects of cold-induced vasodilatation have to be superimposed and are modeled by symmetrical triangular waveforms because these were found to best depict the behavior of fingers exposed to cold environments. Results of this model were compared with experimental data obtained in two separate studies. One included 60-min infrared thermograms of the dorsal surface of bare hands of sedentary subjects horizontally suspended on a fish net in a 0 degree C environment. Another study, on gloved finger temperatures, involved 0 and -6.7 degrees C environments. Fingertip (nail bed) temperatures of both these studies were compared with model predictions. Blood perfusion rates were assumed and adjusted within physiologically reasonable limits. Comparison of measured and computed temperature records showed very good conformity in both cases studied. PMID:8727573

  5. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free β-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  6. [Basic values of blood coagulation parameters in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Hahn, N; Popov-Cenic, S; Dorer, A

    1996-01-01

    On 23 clinical healthy pigs (2-4 months of age, body weight 13-42 kg) under ketamin-pentobarbital anaesthesia blood plasma coagulation parameters have been investigated. To obtain basic values 26 parameters were measured: number of thrombocytes, parameters of thrombelastogram and resonance-thrombogram, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, reptilase time, factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrin degradation products D and E and euglobulin lysis-time. Parameters calculated in percent should be measured against a pig plasma pool. Measurement against a human plasma pool are hardly valid in values higher than 100%. In comparison to man the results indicate modifications of fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis in pigs. PMID:8593155

  7. Calcium supplementation and 4-week exercise on blood parameters of athletes at rest and exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Vedat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, experiments were designed to investigate if supplementation with calcium during 4 weeks had an effect on blood parameters in sedentary male athletes at rest and exhaustion. Thirty healthy subjects of ages ranging from 18 to 22 years were included in the study. The subjects were separated into three groups, as follows: Group 1 consisted sedentary athletes receiving 35 mg/kg/day calcium gluconate. Group 2 included subjects equally supplemented with calcium training 90 min/day for 5 days/week. Group 3 were subject to the same exercise regime but did not receive calcium supplements. Blood parameters were determined in the experimental subjects at rest and after exhaustion. The leukocyte count (WBC) of athletes in groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher at exhaustion (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the WBC of the two supplemented groups. The erythrocyte count (RBC) was increased in the supplemented athletes after training (p < 0.05), but hemoglobin, hematocrit, and thrombocyte levels remained unchanged. The mean corpuscular volume increased in the calcium-supplemented group at rest (p < 0.05). These results suggest that calcium supplementation only causes increases in white and red blood cell counts in athletes after exhaustion while other hematological parameters remain unchanged. PMID:19652928

  8. Evaluation of biochemical, hematological and oxidative parameters in mice exposed to the herbicide glyphosate-Roundup®

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Raquel; Locatelli, Gabriel Olivo; Pilati, Celso

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the toxicity of hepatic, hematological, and oxidative effects of glyphosate-Roundup® on male and female albino Swiss mice. The animals were treated orally with either 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight of the herbicide, on a daily basis for a period of 15 days. Distilled water was used as control treatment. Samples of blood and hepatic tissue were collected at the end of the treatment. Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum enzymes ALT, AST, and γ-GT and renal toxicity by urea and creatinine. We also investigated liver tissues histopathologically. Alterations of hematological parameters were monitored by RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and NPSH (non-protein thiols) were analyzed in the liver to assess oxidative damage. Significant increases in the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, and γ-GT) were observed for both herbicide treatments, but no considerable differences were found by histological analysis. The hematological parameters showed significant alterations (500 mg/kg body weight) with reductions of RBC, hematocrit, and hemoglobin, together with a significant increase of MCV, in both sexes of mice. In males, there was an important increase in lipid peroxidation at both dosage levels, together with an NPSH decrease in the hepatic tissue, whereas in females significant changes in these parameters were observed only at the higher dose rate. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate-Roundup® can promote hematological and hepatic alterations, even at subacute exposure, which could be related to the induction of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23554553

  9. Training-Level Induced Changes in Blood Parameters Response to On-Water Rowing Races

    PubMed Central

    Desgorces, François Denis; Testa, Marc; Petibois, Cyril

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated blood markers allowing discriminating physiological responses to on-water rowing races, notably regarding training volume of athletes and race duration. College (COL) and national (NAT) rowers performed a 1000- or 2000-m race. Capillary blood samples obtained before and post-race allowed an analysis of a wide range of serum parameters. COL rowers had a lower rowing experience and training volume than NAT. Races induced a higher lactate concentration increase in NAT compared to COL (10.45 ± 0.45 vs 13.05 ± 0.60; p ¼ 0.001). Race distance (2000 vs. 1000 m) induced a higher increase in fatty acids (0.81 ± 0.31 vs +0.67 ± 0. 41; p ¼ 0.05) and triglycerides concentration in NAT (0.33 ± 0.07 vs 0.15 ± 0.09; p ¼ 0.01), but remained comparable between NAT and COL for the 1000-m races. Amino acids concentrations increased in NAT (0.19 ± 0.03, p ¼ 0.01), but urea concentration increased only for NAT rowers having performed the 2000-m race (0.72 ± 0.22, p ¼ 0.05). Transferrin concentration decreased after the 2000-m race (-0.60 ± 0.25, p ¼ 0.05), and concentration changes of haptoglobin differed between NAT2000 (tendency to be reduced) and COL (tendency to by enhanced) (p ¼ 0.05). Our results confirmed that the training level in rowing is associated with higher glycolysis utilization during maximal 1000- and 2000-m exercise and no difference for similarly trained subjects at these two distances. Our study also demonstrated that a 2000-m race could initiate fatty and amino-acid metabolisms in highly trained subjects. Therefore, these changes in blood parameter responses to a characteristic rowing exercise highlighted the importance of monitoring the physiological effects of training in sporting conditions and according to individual characteristics. Key pointsRowing races despite their short duration could initiate fatty and amino-acids metabolisms.Effects of maximal exercise on metabolic blood parameters depend on individual capabilities, suggesting that the effects of exercise or training on a given blood parameter may be monitored relatively to individual maximal concentrations rather than by inter-individual comparison.High training level may lead to marked disruption of homeostasis which could be easily reversed by high recovery capabilities. PMID:24149946

  10. Study of blood flow parameters measured in femoral artery after exercise: correlation with maximum oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Piquet, L; Dalmay, F; Ayoub, J; Vandroux, J C; Menier, R; Antonini, M T; Pourcelot, L

    2000-07-01

    To study the recovery periods of blood flow parameters in muscles after anaerobic exercise, instantaneous and mean blood flow velocity curves were recorded in the femoral artery in 22 sportsmen at rest and during the first 4 min of recovery after exercise (Ruffier-Dickson test). A flat ultrasonic probe connected to a Doppler system (Flow-Tester) was fixed on the skin at the level of the common femoral artery. From Doppler recordings, we calculated periods of recovery (return to baseline) of femoral blood flow velocity (FBFV RP), heart rate (HR RP) and femoral stroke distance (FSD RP). Also, Ruffier-Dickson index (RDI), VO(2)max in mL/kg(-1)/min(-1) and number of training hours were determined. We observed a high correlation between FBFV RP and VO(2)max (p = 0. 0002), and significant correlation between FSD RP and VO(2)max (p = 0.0238) and RDI (p = 0.0451). In conclusion, there is a excellent correlation between blood flow velocity recovery period in femoral artery after moderate exercise and VO(2)max in high-level sportsmen. The method of testing is simple and based on conventional Doppler technique. It can be used for the follow-up of training levels in sportsmen. PMID:10996700

  11. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  12. Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase in pregnant women: Relationship to blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Prats-Puig, Anna; Puig, Teresa; Vázquez-Ruíz, Montserrat; Bruel, Monserrat; Mendoza, Ericka; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bassols, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme FASN (fatty acid synthase) is potentially related with hypertension and metabolic dysfunction. FASN is highly expressed in the human placenta. We aimed to investigate the relationship circulating FASN has with blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters in healthy pregnant women. Circulating FASN was assessed in 115 asymptomatic pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation along with C-peptide, fasting glucose and insulin, post-load glucose lipids, HMW-adiponectin and blood pressure (the latter was assessed in each trimester of gestation). At birth, newborns and placentas were weighed. FASN expression was also able to be assessed in 80 placentas. Higher circulating FASN was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a more favourable metabolic phenotype (lower fasting glucose and insulin, post load glucose, HbAc1, HOMA-IR and C-peptide), and with lower placental and birth weight (all p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Placental FASN expression related positively to circulating FASN (p < 0.005) and negatively to placental weight (p < 0.05). Our observations suggest a physiological role of placental FASN in human pregnancy. Future studies will clarify whether circulating FASN of placental origin does actually regulate placental and fetal growth, and (thereby) has a favourable influence on the pregnant mother’s insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. PMID:27090298

  13. Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase in pregnant women: Relationship to blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters.

    PubMed

    Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Prats-Puig, Anna; Puig, Teresa; Vázquez-Ruíz, Montserrat; Bruel, Monserrat; Mendoza, Ericka; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bassols, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme FASN (fatty acid synthase) is potentially related with hypertension and metabolic dysfunction. FASN is highly expressed in the human placenta. We aimed to investigate the relationship circulating FASN has with blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters in healthy pregnant women. Circulating FASN was assessed in 115 asymptomatic pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation along with C-peptide, fasting glucose and insulin, post-load glucose lipids, HMW-adiponectin and blood pressure (the latter was assessed in each trimester of gestation). At birth, newborns and placentas were weighed. FASN expression was also able to be assessed in 80 placentas. Higher circulating FASN was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a more favourable metabolic phenotype (lower fasting glucose and insulin, post load glucose, HbAc1, HOMA-IR and C-peptide), and with lower placental and birth weight (all p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Placental FASN expression related positively to circulating FASN (p < 0.005) and negatively to placental weight (p < 0.05). Our observations suggest a physiological role of placental FASN in human pregnancy. Future studies will clarify whether circulating FASN of placental origin does actually regulate placental and fetal growth, and (thereby) has a favourable influence on the pregnant mother's insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. PMID:27090298

  14. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; < 15lux) was applied constantly during dark period (EI; for experimental illumination groups) or only for handling and assessments (SI; for standard illumination groups). EI led to worse haematological and biochemical conditions, demonstrating that EI alone can influence physiological parameters and jeopardise result interpretation. SI promotes normal physiological conditions and greater aerobic tolerance than EI, showing the importance of a correct illumination pattern for all researchers that employ nocturnal rats for health/disease or sports performance experiments. PMID:27030633

  15. Dosimetric parameters as predictive factors for biochemical control in patients with higher risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Orio, Peter; Wallner, Kent . E-mail: kent.Wallner@med.va.gov; Merrick, Gregory; Herstein, Andrew; Mitsuyama, Paul; Thornton, Ken; Butler, Wayne; Sutlief, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the role of dosimetric quality parameters in maximizing cancer eradication in higher risk prostate cancer patients treated with palladium (Pd)-103 and supplemental beam radiation. Methods: One-hundred-seventy-nine patients treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation, with minimum 2 years follow-up prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values and posttreatment computed tomography scans were analyzed. Dosimetric parameters included the V100 (percent of the postimplant volume covered by the prescription dose), the D90 (the minimum dose that covered 90% of the post implant volume), and the treatment margins (the radial distance between the prostatic edge and the prescription isodose). Treatment margins (TMs) were calculated using premarket software. Results: Freedom from biochemical failure was 79% at 3 years, with 92 of the 179 patients (51%) followed beyond 3 years. In comparing patients who did or did not achieve biochemical control, the most striking differences were in biologic factors of pretreatment PSA and Gleason score. The V100, D90, and average TM all showed nonsignificant trends to higher values in patients with biochemical control. In multivariate analysis of each of the three dosimetric parameters against PSA and Gleason score, TM showed the strongest correlation with biochemical control (p = 0.19). Conclusions: For patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 brachytherapy and external beam radiation, biologic factors (PSA and Gleason score) were the most important determinants of cancer eradication. However, there is a trend to better outcomes among patients with higher quality implant parameters, suggesting that attention to implant quality will maximize the likelihood of cure.

  16. Evaluation of Serum Magnesium, Lipid Profile and Various Biochemical Parameters as Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramavataram, DVSS; Patel, Payal A.; Rupani, Mihir P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic inflammatory disease, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than the general population. Chronic inflammatory conditions are likely to alter magnesium level and various biochemical parameters. Objectives To study the probable changes in serum magnesium, lipid profile and various biochemical parameters and to assess risk factors of CVD in newly diagnosed RA patients compared to controls. Materials and Methods We studied 50 newly diagnosed RA adult patients and 50 healthy individuals as controls. Serum magnesium, calcium, lipid profile, uric acid and other biochemical parameters were measured in study subjects. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD and compared between RA subjects and controls by Independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation. Results We found decreased serum magnesium and calcium in RA subjects compared to the controls (p < 0.001). RA subjects had atherogenic lipid profile characterized by elevated total cholesterol (p = 0.054), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.008) and decreased HDL cholesterol (p <0.001). Serum uric acid was higher in RA cases compared to controls (p = 0.025). Serum magnesium was negatively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol in RA cases. Conclusion Decreased magnesium level, dyslipidemia and increased uric acid observed in our study together may be more potent risk factors for CVD in newly diagnosed RA subjects. We recommend that serum magnesium should be investigated as a part of cardiovascular risk management in RA. We suggest that decreased serum magnesium and increased serum uric acid may be considered as nontraditional risk factors of CVD in RA. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the impact of inflammation on various biochemical parameters and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with RA. PMID:26023546

  17. Effects of shear rate, confinement, and particle parameters on margination in blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabadi, Marmar; Ku, David N.; Aidun, Cyrus K.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of flow and particle properties on margination of particles in red blood cell (RBC) suspensions is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of cellar blood flow. We focus on margination of particles in the flow of moderately dense suspensions of RBCs. We hypothesize that margination rate in nondilute suspensions is mainly driven by the RBC-enhanced diffusion of marginating particles in the RBC-filled region. We derive a scaling law for margination length in a straight channel. Margination length increases cubically with channel height and is independent of shear rate. We verify this scaling law for margination length by DNS of flowing RBCs and marginating particles. We also show that rigidity and size both lead to particle margination with rigidity having a more significant effect compared to size within the range of parameters in this study.

  18. Partially developed speckle-fields dynamics for blood microcirculation and biovibration parameters measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper diffraction of focused laser beams in thin blood vessels is discussed. A theoretical description of this process is given, a number of model experiments are carried out. Relations establishing the dependence of the scattered field parameters on the characteristics of blood flow in vessels, the diameter of which is about erythrocytes size, are obtained. The relations between the optical signal characteristics and the position of the observation point of speckle- field is discussed. The investigations of the dependence of the space-time projection structure of the speckle-interferometer output signal on heart disease seriousness have been carried out. The novel technique of heart disease diagnostic is suggested. The results of experimental investigations of pulse waves, using the differential speckle-interferometer, are present. The traditional speckle-interferometer Michelson type and differential speckle-interferometer for cardiovibration measurements are compared. Difficulties, appearing from use of the suggested diagnostic method, are analyzed and ways of their elimination are found.

  19. Laser reflectance oximetry and Doppler flowmetry in assessment of complex physiological parameters of cutaneous blood microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaev, Andrey V.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Stewart, Neil A.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2013-03-01

    The integration of multiple optical techniques within a single diagnostic device is used to address the difficulties in standardising measurement of cutaneous blood micro-dynamics caused by high variability. We demonstrate the benefits of simultaneous assessment of blood relative volume (Vb), microcirculation index (Im) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), during long-term examination of healthy volunteers. Consequently, five rhythmic components: endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic, breath and heart pulses were established showing high variability up to 30 - 50% as well as in initial parameters around 16%. All rhythmic components were synchronous with some latency between Im and StO2 in the myogenic component supports the hypothesis of strong correlation between peripheral hemodynamics and oxygen utilisation in tissues.

  20. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:24124763

  1. Correlation between Blood Activin Levels and Clinical Parameters of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui; Wu, Michael; Chen, Yi; Allan, Carolyn A.; Phillips, David J.; Hedger, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Activins A and B, and their binding protein, follistatin, regulate glucose metabolism and inflammation. Consequently, their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) was examined. Methods. Blood was taken from fasted participants (34 males; 58 females; 5075 years) with diabetes or during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Clinical parameters were assessed, and blood assayed for activins, follistatin, and C-reactive protein. Results. Serum levels of activin A (93.3 27.0?pg/mL, mean SD), B (81.8 30.8?pg/mL), or follistatin (6.52 3.15?ng/mL) were not different (P > 0.05) between subjects with normal OGTT (n = 39), impaired glucose tolerance and/or fasting glucose (n = 17), or T2D (n = 36). However, activin A and/or activin B were positively correlated with parameters of insulin resistance and T2D, including fasting glucose (P < 0.001), fasting insulin (P = 0.02), glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.003), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; P < 0.001). Follistatin was positively correlated with HOMA-IR alone (P = 0.01). Conclusions. These data indicate that serum measurements of activin A, B, or follistatin cannot discriminate risk for T2D in individual patients, but the activins display a positive relationship with clinical parameters of the disease. PMID:23304117

  2. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. PMID:21982532

  3. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS INDICATING BIOMASS AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION OF MICROBIAL ASSEMBLIES IN ESTUARINE MUD FLAT SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial distribution of communities was examined in estuarine mud flat sediments by the biochemical analysis of the lipids and lipid components extracted from the sediments. Total phospholipid was used as a measure of total biomass, and fatty acids were used as indicators of ...

  4. PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS OF K2-TEMPERATURE RELATION AND LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES OF BOD (BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND) PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique is presented for finding the least squares estimates for the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and rate coefficient for the BOD reaction without resorting to complicated computer algorithms or subjective graphical methods. This may be used in stream water quali...

  5. Use of mid-infrared and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for characterization of soil biochemical parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rapidly characterize the quality of soils within agricultural landscapes is limited by the ability to rapidly measure soil biochemical properties. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis in the near-infrared (NIR, 400-2500 nm) and mid-infrared (MIR 2500-25000 nm) regions may provi...

  6. Erythrocyte membranes from slaughterhouse blood as potential drug vehicles: Isolation by gradual hypotonic hemolysis and biochemical and morphological characterization.

    PubMed

    Kostić, Ivana T; Ilić, Vesna Lj; Đorđević, Verica B; Bukara, Katarina M; Mojsilović, Slavko B; Nedović, Viktor A; Bugarski, Diana S; Veljović, Đorđe N; Mišić, Danijela M; Bugarski, Branko M

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of isolation process-gradual hypotonic hemolysis on chosen parameters of the erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) originating from bovine and porcine slaughterhouse blood. The estimation of the gradual hypotonic hemolysis as a drug loading procedure for the erythrocyte ghosts was performed as well. Based on the results derived from analysis of the osmotic properties of the erythrocytes, the gradual hemolysis was performed with high volume of erythrocytes and 35mM hypotonic sodium-phosphate/NaCl, enabling >90% of hemolysis for both types of erythrocytes. Detailed insight into ghosts' morphology by field emission-scanning electron microscopy revealed a distortion from erythrocyte shape and an altered surface texture with increased bilayer curvature for both samples. Compared to erythrocytes, an average diameter of ghosts from both type of erythrocytes decreased for only about 10%. The reported unidispersity of the isolated ghosts is of great importance for their potential application as vehicles of active compounds. Gradual hemolysis did not lead to substantial loss of cholesterol and membrane/cytoskeleton proteins. This result indicated the ghosts' possibility to mimic the chemical and structural anisotropic environment of in vivo cell membranes, which is of significance for drug diffusion and partition coefficients. Induced shift of phosphatidylserine to external surface of the ghosts demonstrated their potential application as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to cells of reticuloendothelial system. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a drug model - dexamethasone-sodium phosphate, and its interaction with structural components in both types of erythrocyte ghosts. PMID:25051307

  7. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus): antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin) on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus); in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l) and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA) and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the liver, kidney and gills while catalase activity was significantly decreased in the same tissues. This accompanied by significant increase in serum ALT, AST activity, urea and creatinine and a marked decrease in serum albumin and total proteins. Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l). Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish. PMID:22537979

  8. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females. PMID:26141747

  9. Rapid regulation of blood parameters under acute hypoxia in the Amazonian fish Prochilodus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Val, Adalberto Luis; Gomes, Katia Regina Maruyama; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Prochilodus nigricans, locally known as curimatã, is an Amazonian commercial fish that endures adverse environmental conditions, in particular low dissolved oxygen, during its migration. Poorer environmental conditions are expected in the near future. Prochilodus nigricans overcomes current seasonal and diurnal changes in dissolved oxygen by adjusting erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP, modulators of Hb-O2 affinity. Will this fish species be endangered under more extreme environmental conditions as hypoxia and acidification tend to occur in a shorter period of time? As P. nigricans does not exhibit any apparent morphological alterations to exploit the air-water interface, it must rely on fast adjustments of blood properties. To investigate this aspect, basic hematology indices, pHe, pHi, plasma lactate, erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP and functional properties of the hemolysate of P. nigricans were analyzed over a period of 6h in hypoxia and subsequent recovery in normoxia. The levels of erythrocytic GTP were four times higher than ATP and were reduced to ¼ of the original level after 3h under hypoxia. Erythrocytic levels of ATP were unaffected over the experimental period. All other analyzed blood parameters exhibited a time-course change in animals under hypoxia and returned to normoxic levels. Considering the hemolysate functional properties and the ability to regulate the above mentioned blood characteristics, P. nigricans is able to endure short-term changes in dissolved oxygen. PMID:25737030

  10. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Chapman, Robert W; Somerville, Stephen E; Guillette, Matthew P; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  11. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  12. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  13. Relating fibropapilloma tumor severity to blood parameters in green turtles Chelonia mydas.

    PubMed

    Hirama, Shigetomo; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Rea, Lorrie D; Kiltie, Richard A

    2014-08-21

    Fibropapillomatosis is a neoplastic disease that is commonly found in the green turtles Chelonia mydas in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In the current project, juvenile green turtles were captured with large-mesh tangle nets in the Indian River Lagoon and on nearshore reefs of Indian River County, Florida, USA, in 1998 and 1999. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the severity of the disease and the general health of green turtles as indicated by blood parameters. All turtles were measured and examined, and the overall severity of the disease was rated by the size, number, and location of external fibropapilloma tumors. Hematocrit, total protein, and hemoglobin concentration were measured and compared with tumor scores (tumor severity appraisal). As the tumor score increased, the blood parameters of turtles decreased; for instance, the percentage of decrease in hematocrit for mildly afflicted, moderately afflicted, and severely afflicted groups were 2.6, 18.3, and 45.5%, respectively. Severely afflicted turtles suffered from anemia, while individuals with mild affliction did not. PMID:25144118

  14. Effect of inflow cannula tip design on potential parameters of blood compatibility and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai Chun; Büsen, Martin; Benzinger, Carrie; Gäng, René; Bezema, Mirko; Greatrex, Nicholas; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    During ventricular assist device support, a cannula acts as a bridge between the native cardiovascular system and a foreign mechanical device. Cannula tip design strongly affects the function of the cannula and its potential for blood trauma. In this study, the flow fields of five different tip geometries within the ventricle were evaluated using stereo particle image velocimetry. Inflow cannulae with conventional tip geometries (blunt, blunt with four side ports, beveled with three side ports, and cage) and a custom-designed crown tip were interposed between a mixed-flow rotary blood pump and a compressible, translucent silicone left ventricle. The contractile function of the failing ventricle and hemodynamics were reproduced in a mock circulation loop. The rotary blood pump was interfaced with the ventricle and aorta and used to fully support the failing ventricle. Among these five tip geometries, high-shear volume ( γ ˙ ≥ 2778 / s , potential parameter of platelet activation) was found to be the greatest in the blunt tip. The cage tip was observed to have the highest low-shear volume and recirculation volume ( γ ˙ ≤ 100 / s and Vz  > 0, respectively; potential parameters of thrombus formation). The crown tip, together with conventional tip geometries with side ports (blunt with four side ports and beveled with three side ports) showed no significant difference in either high-shear volume or low-shear volume. However, recirculation volume was reduced significantly in the crown tip. Despite limited generalizability to clinical situations, these transient-state measurements supported the potential mitigation of complications by changing the design of conventional cannula tip geometries. PMID:25234762

  15. Effects of Postprandial Blood Pressure on Gait Parameters in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shailaja; Visvanathan, Renuka; Piscitelli, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH), a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 2 h of a meal, may detrimentally affect gait parameters and increase the falls risk in older people. We aimed to determine the effects of postprandial SBP on heart rate (HR), gait speed, and stride length, double-support time and swing time variability in older subjects with and without PPH. Twenty-nine subjects were studied on three days: glucose (“G”), water and walk (“WW”), glucose and walk (“GW”). Subjects consumed a glucose drink on “G” and “GW” and water on “WW”. The “G” day determined which subjects had PPH. On “WW” and “GW” gait was analyzed. Sixteen subjects demonstrated PPH. In this group, there were significant changes in gait speed (p = 0.040) on “WW” and double-support time variability (p = 0.027) on “GW”. The area under the curve for the change in gait parameters from baseline was not significant on any study day. Among subjects without PPH, SBP increased on “WW” (p < 0.005) and all gait parameters remained unchanged on all study days. These findings suggest that by changing gait parameters, PPH may contribute to an increased falls risk in the older person with PPH. PMID:27089361

  16. Effects of Postprandial Blood Pressure on Gait Parameters in Older People.

    PubMed

    Nair, Shailaja; Visvanathan, Renuka; Piscitelli, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH), a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 2 h of a meal, may detrimentally affect gait parameters and increase the falls risk in older people. We aimed to determine the effects of postprandial SBP on heart rate (HR), gait speed, and stride length, double-support time and swing time variability in older subjects with and without PPH. Twenty-nine subjects were studied on three days: glucose ("G"), water and walk ("WW"), glucose and walk ("GW"). Subjects consumed a glucose drink on "G" and "GW" and water on "WW". The "G" day determined which subjects had PPH. On "WW" and "GW" gait was analyzed. Sixteen subjects demonstrated PPH. In this group, there were significant changes in gait speed (p = 0.040) on "WW" and double-support time variability (p = 0.027) on "GW". The area under the curve for the change in gait parameters from baseline was not significant on any study day. Among subjects without PPH, SBP increased on "WW" (p < 0.005) and all gait parameters remained unchanged on all study days. These findings suggest that by changing gait parameters, PPH may contribute to an increased falls risk in the older person with PPH. PMID:27089361

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... which measure the number, size, and shape of cells and platelets in the blood. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion.

  18. Impact of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA in different dairy products on anthropometric and blood biochemical indices of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hütt, P; Songisepp, E; Rätsep, M; Mahlapuu, R; Kilk, K; Mikelsaar, M

    2015-01-01

    The blood pressure-lowering effect of dairy products holds the potential to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An open question is if the successful expression of functional properties of the probiotic strain depends on host biomarkers and/or food matrix properties. The probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain TENSIA® (DSM 21380) is a novel microorganism with antimicrobial and antihypertensive functional properties. The aim of this study was to characterise the functional properties of the probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA and compare its effects on host anthropometric, clinical, and blood biomarkers when consumed with cheese or yoghurt. This study involved two double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled exploratory trials (ISRCTN15061552 and ISRCTN79645828) of healthy adults over a three-week period. The three-week consumption of probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA in a daily dose of 1×1010 cfu in probiotic cheese or a daily dose of 6×109 cfu in yoghurt with different content of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids did not significantly change the body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose and lipid levels, or inflammatory markers in the blood. Reduced lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were detected, regardless of food matrix or baseline values for blood pressure and BMI. In conclusion, our study showed that three-week consumption of the probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA either in cheese or yoghurt lowered diastolic and systolic blood pressure regardless of food matrix and baseline values of blood pressure and BMI, confirming the impact of the functional properties of the probiotic strain in decreasing CVD risk. PMID:25524863

  19. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid. PMID:19566728

  20. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Allam, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  1. Hemodynamic Parameters in Blood Vessels in Choroidal Melanoma Xenografts and Rat Choroid

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Rod D.; Abbas, Asad; Bukhari, S. Omar; Wilson, Willie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary ocular cancer among the adult population. To avoid enucleation, there has been a concerted effort to develop therapies that spare the affected eye and the patient’s vision. Blood flow helps shape the tumor’s microenvironment, plays a key role in the tumor’s response to many different types of therapy, and is necessary for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. To rationally design new therapies and optimize existing treatments, it is essential to learn as much as possible about blood flow and the microcirculation in this tumor. In recent years, much has been discovered about the anatomy of the microvasculature and the dynamics of overall blood flow in choroidal melanoma, but little is known about the factors that determine microvascular blood flow. In this study hemodynamic parameters in individual microvessels of a human choroidal melanoma xenograft were compared with those same parameters in a normal rat choroid. Methods Nude, athymic WAG/RijHs-rnu rats were used in this study. The human choroidal melanoma cell line OCM-1 was used to grow solid tumors subcutaneously in the flanks of donor rats. Small pieces of these tumors were then implanted into the choroidal space of recipient rats. After 6 to 8 weeks, the rats were anesthetized with a subcutaneous injection of urethane, and the sclera was exposed. Rhodamine-labeled li-posomes and red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) were injected intravenously. Epifluorescent, intravital microscopy was used to visualize the flow of fluorescent RBCs through individual vessels in the choroid or tumor. Flow through multiple vessels was recorded on videotape for later analysis. From the recordings, RBC flux, RBC velocity (Vc), and microvascular hematocrit (HCTm) were determined. Similar experiments were performed in rats with no tumor growth, and these same parameters were calculated in normal choroidal vessels. RBC flow was characterized in 55 vessels in six OCM-1 tumors and in 153 choroidal vessels in five non–tumor-bearing rats. Results RBC flux was higher in larger tumor vessels (>30 μm in diameter) compared with similarly sized choroidal vessels. There were no differences in the velocities of RBCs through the two types of vessels. HCTm was significantly higher in medium-sized (>20 μm in diameter) and larger tumor vessels compared with normal choroidal vessels. Conclusions These experiments demonstrate differences between hemodynamic parameters in normal choroidal microvessels and microvessels in choroidal melanoma in this animal model. Because HCTm is a key determinant of apparent viscosity, abnormally high HCTm in the tumor vessels would increase vascular resistance and decrease flow. This could have a negative impact on the tumor oxygen levels and on the ability to deliver drugs effectively. On the contrary, higher local HCTm has also been shown to increase oxygen delivery. The impact and interplay of these two effects on tumor oxygenation remain to be determined. PMID:12202528

  2. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Respiratory Function Tests and Blood Parameters in Radiology Staff

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, M; Yasar, S; Kayan, M; Balci, UG; Öngel, K

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate pulmonary function tests and blood parameters and their relationship with sociodemographic data for radiology staff continuously exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and Method: Thirty-eight personnel from Suleyman Demirel University Training and Research Hospital, Radiology Unit, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data were evaluated by a questionnare that was developed by the researchers. Height and weight measurements were performed with a standard scale and meter. Routine blood parameters and spirometric lung function measurements of the cases were recorded. Statistical significances were determined by independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), bivariate correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPSS 18.0. Results: The mean age was 32.42 ± 5.5 years; 19 patients (50%) were male and 19 patients (50%) were female. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as 25.68 ± 0.47 for men and 24.58 ± 1.13 for women. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and maximum mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75) showed statistically significant differences between gender (p < 0.01). In addition, FEV1 and FEF25-75 also demonstrated statistically negatively significant difference with the type of task (p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative difference was found between FEF25-75 value and time to start smoking (p < 0.05). Among FVC, FEV1, PEF and FEF25-75 values and alcohol usage, statistically significant positive difference was detected (p < 0.05). Statistically significant positive difference was found among FVC, PEF and FEF25-75 values and sports activity (p < 0.05). According to BMI groups, statistically significant positive difference with FVC, FEV1 and PEF values were found (p < 0.05). Statistically significant correlations were found among FVC value and haemoglobin level (Hgb), haematocrit level (Hct) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), among FEV1 value and Hgb, MCV, among PEF value and red blood cell count (RBC), Hgb, Hct, MCV, red cell distribution width (RDW), and between FEF25-75 value and MCV. Conclusion: Although respiratory functions of radiology staff are affected by many factors, continuous exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the important parameters. Radiology staff should be informed about factors that negatively affect the respiratory functions. PMID:25303193

  3. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective. PMID:25416221

  4. Design and parameter estimation of hybrid magnetic bearings for blood pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tau Meng; Zhang, Dongsheng; Yang, Juanjuan; Cheng, Shanbao; Low, Sze Hsien; Chua, Leok Poh; Wu, Xiaowei

    2009-10-01

    This paper discusses the design and parameter estimation of the dynamics characteristics of a high-speed hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet (PM) brushless and sensorless DC motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five-degree-of-freedom with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers; among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. Test results show that the rotor can be stably supported to speeds of 14,000 rpm. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMBs system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air—in both the radial and axial directions. The radial stiffness of the HMBs is compared to the Ansoft's Maxwell 2D/3D finite element magnetostatic results. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamics characteristics of the HMBs system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamics properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  5. Effects of intraperitoneally injected silver nanoparticles on histological structures and blood parameters in the albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Sarhan, Osama Mohamed M; Hussein, Rehab M

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute dosing with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and identify potential ultrastructural alterations in the liver and kidney and their effect on blood parameters in the albino rat. Methods Twenty rats were used to assess the acute effects of AgNPs. Rats in the treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of distilled water containing AgNPs at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg body weight followed by a second injection after 48 hours. Control rats received two 0.5 mL doses of distilled water only. After 3 days, blood samples were collected, and the rat kidneys and livers were extracted and processed for electron microscopy to investigate for hematologic and histopathologic alterations. Results Renal tubules showed swollen epithelium with cytoplasmic vacuolization, thickening of the basement membrane, and destruction of some mitochondrial cristae. Podocytes showed elongation and swelling of their primary and secondary processes. The basement membrane of the capillary tufts became thicker. The hepatic tissue showed narrowing of the sinusoids, swollen hepatocytes with hypertrophied nucleoli, and accumulation of fat globules in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The hepatic sinusoids showed hypertrophied endothelial and Kupffer. Destructed cristae of some mitochondria, endosomes, and larger lysosomes filled with Ag-NPs were also observed in the Kupffer cells. Significant increases were observed in white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, granulocytes, and hemoglobin. There was a significant increase in serum creatinine, urea, and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases. Conclusion To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the ultrastructural changes in renal and liver tissue observed in this study have not been described before. Our results suggest that injection of AgNPs could have severe cytotoxic effects on the structure and function of these organs. PMID:24711700

  6. Blood pressure levels and variance assessed by ambulatory monitoring: optimal parameters.

    PubMed

    Yates, F E; Benton, L A

    1990-01-01

    We obtained multiple ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) records over five years from two trained, normotensive subjects experienced in wearing the apparatus. The resulting time series data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were used to suggest optimal parameters for monitoring by two instruments (Colin Medical Instruments ABPM-630 and Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer) and to compare two indirect methods (auscultatory and oscillometric). A 10-min sampling interval day and night provided sufficient density of data to support spectral analysis for ultradian rhythms in the frequency range of one cycle per hour to one cycle per 9 h on a 24-h record. Rhythms with major periods of approximately 3, 6, and 9 h were variously found in 94 normotensive subjects, aged 20 to 95 years, including the two trained subjects. When the monitoring period was extended to 72 h, the circadian (approximately 24 h) rhythm could be more sharply defined, as well as a 12-h harmonic. In some studies the two trained subjects wore two monitors, one on each arm, set to read simultaneously. From the simultaneous measurements on both arms, it was shown that averaging across three points (30 min of record) reduced the coefficient of variation between the two simultaneous records to 6% or less. Auscultatory and oscillometric methods were equally reliable. Echocardiographic data were obtained in five normotensive subjects and compared to their ABPM data. The ABPM records provided additional information about cardiovascular function not merely duplicating that obtained by acute stress tests, such as exercise or cold pressor responses, or echocardiography. Standards for ABPM are suggested. PMID:2221507

  7. Interactive effects of photoperiod and light intensity on blood physiological and biochemical reactions of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomize...

  8. Comparison of the predictive value of plateletcrit with various other blood parameters in gestational diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Sahbaz, Ahmet; Cicekler, Humeyra; Aynioglu, Oner; Isik, Hatice; Ozmen, Ulku

    2016-07-01

    Gestational diabetes is the most encountered metabolic disease in pregnancy and affects both the mother and fetus adversely. Low-grade subchronic inflammation is associated with gestational diabetes development. Platelets (PLT) play role in blood coagulation and inflammatory process. We aimed to compare the various platelet indices in patients with GDM and healthy pregnant controls and to determine whether PLT indices are useful in Gestational diabetes diagnosis. The present study was performed at the Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Statistically significant relationships with plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width and patients with GDM were found (p < 0.001). Plateletcrit had higher sensitivity and specificity than other platelet indices. Although plateletcrit is a largely unknown or an underestimated parameter in complete blood count, it gives more precise information than platelet count and mean platelet volume. Platelet-related indices and their determination are inexpensive and routinely ordered markers, the significance of which is often ignored. They may be useful in screening for gestational diabetes as an adjunct to oral glucose tolerance test. PMID:26758049

  9. Digestibility and blood parameters in the preruminant calf fed a clotting or a nonclotting milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Petit, H V; Ivan, M; Brisson, G J

    1988-04-01

    Eight male Holstein calves 7 to 10 d of age were fed a milk replacer containing a skim milk powder subjected to low-temperature drying either with or without addition of an oxalate-NaOH buffer known to prevent curd formation. The calves were used in a completely randomized design to study the effect of milk clotting on digestibility and blood parameters. Plasma glucose and plasma insulin were similar (P greater than .05) for the clotting and the nonclotting milk replacers. For both treatments, concentrations of glucose and insulin reached a peak 2 h postfeeding (P less than .01). Plasma triglycerides were higher (P less than .01) postfeeding for the nonclotting than for the clotting milk replacer. Plasma essential amino acids and plasma urea were higher, whereas plasma calcium was lower, for the nonclotting milk (P less than .01). Digestibility of dry matter, protein and fat was similar (P greater than .05) between clotting and nonclotting milk. The dry matter content of feces was not affected by clotting (P greater than .05). The data are interpreted to indicate that clotting of the milk replacer modifies blood concentrations of triglycerides, essential amino acids and urea without changing the digestibility of the diet. PMID:3288602

  10. Biodynamic parameters of micellar diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sidorkin, Vladimir A.; Fomin, Alexander S.; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu.; Dykman, Lev A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%. PMID:22122895

  11. Blood Parameters and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate Oral Supplementation in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Braz, ShélidaVasconcelos; Marçola, Tatiana Guerrero; McManus, Concepta; Caldeira, Denise Ferreira; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Paim, Tiago Prado; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Louvandini, Helder

    2015-11-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on various blood parameters and their possible toxicity on the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and testis were investigated. Twenty-four Santa Inês (SI) lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic (six animals/treatment): placebo, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of hay Panicum maximum cv Massai and concentrate. Blood and serum were collected fortnightly for analysis. On day 84, the animals were euthanized, and histopathological analysis in the liver, kidney, heart, lung, and testis was made. The liver and kidney were also submitted to electronic microscopy analysis. Differences between treatments (P < 0.05) were observed for packed cell volume (day 84), hemoglobin (day 84), total plasm protein (day 56 and day 84), and triglycerides (day 70). There was no statistically significant relationship between Cr supplementation and histopathology findings, although some animals treated with supplementary Cr showed morphological changes in the liver, kidney, and testis. Thus, the effectiveness of supplementation with Cr remains in doubt as to its physiological action and toxicity in sheep. PMID:25926085

  12. Blood Parameters and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate Oral Supplementation in Lambs.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Dallago BS; Braz S; Marçola TG; McManus C; Caldeira DF; Campeche A; Gomes EF; Paim TP; Borges BO; Louvandini H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on various blood parameters and their possible toxicity on the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and testis were investigated. Twenty-four Santa Inês (SI) lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic (six animals/treatment): placebo, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of hay Panicum maximum cv Massai and concentrate. Blood and serum were collected fortnightly for analysis. On day 84, the animals were euthanized, and histopathological analysis in the liver, kidney, heart, lung, and testis was made. The liver and kidney were also submitted to electronic microscopy analysis. Differences between treatments (P < 0.05) were observed for packed cell volume (day 84), hemoglobin (day 84), total plasm protein (day 56 and day 84), and triglycerides (day 70). There was no statistically significant relationship between Cr supplementation and histopathology findings, although some animals treated with supplementary Cr showed morphological changes in the liver, kidney, and testis. Thus, the effectiveness of supplementation with Cr remains in doubt as to its physiological action and toxicity in sheep.

  13. Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Andrey V; Dremin, Victor V; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A; Rafailov, Ilya E; Litvinova, Karina S; Palmer, Scott G; Stewart, Neil A; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik U

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has recently become more common in clinical medicine. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to the methodology and implementation of instruments with this technology. In this study, we aimed to assess individual variability of fluorescence parameters of endogenous markers (NADH, FAD, etc.) measured by fluorescent spectroscopy (FS) in situ and to analyse the factors that lead to a significant scatter of results. Most studied fluorophores have an acceptable scatter of values (mostly up to 30%) for diagnostic purposes. Here we provide evidence that the level of blood volume in tissue impacts FS data with a significant inverse correlation. The distribution function of the fluorescence intensity and the fluorescent contrast coefficient values are a function of the normal distribution for most of the studied fluorophores and the redox ratio. The effects of various physiological (different content of skin melanin) and technical (characteristics of optical filters) factors on the measurement results were additionally studied. The data on the variability of the measurement results in FS should be considered when interpreting the diagnostic parameters, as well as when developing new algorithms for data processing and FS devices. PMID:25922293

  14. Blood parameter and heart rate response to training in Andalusian horses.

    PubMed

    Agüera, E I; Rubio, M D; Vivo, R; Santisteban, R; Muñoz, A; Castejón, F

    1995-06-01

    A study was performed on Andalusian horses in order to assess the response of heart rate and various blood parameters to training. Two tests were performed, at two and four months of training respectively. Exercise schedules were of increasing intensity, over a distance of 1000 meters. Speed was progressively increased, from 4 m/s to 8.5 m/s, over four exercise stages. In both tests, a recovery period of 5 min followed each stage. Sample collection (by puncture of the external jugular vein) was performed with the animals at rest, within the first minute after each exercise stage, and at 10, 15, 20 and 30 min of final recovery. Samples for analysis contained plasma for measurement of lactate, glucose, ion and creatinine levels. Heart rate was measured using the Polar Sport tester. The most important parameters in both tests proved to be glucose level, heart rate and lactate concentration. Variations in electrolyte and creatinine levels were transitory, normal resting values being regained after 30 minutes' recovery. Response to daily training was most clearly reflected in altered lactate levels and heart rate; recovery improved with increased training which enhanced aerobic capacity and decreased metabolic acidosis. PMID:8532951

  15. Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalf, A.; Alhaj, M.; Al-homidan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of commercial probiotic (Bactocell®) on growth performance and blood parameters were evaluated. A total of 800 one day-old Ross broiler chicks were raised over 42 days. Chicks were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into four equally major groups each having two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that did not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the control starter and finisher diets supplemented with 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg feed, respectively. Weekly body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion were measured. Blood parameters at 1, 4 and 6 weeks of age including packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total protein, albumin, total lipid and cholesterol were determined. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results of the current study revealed that there was no significant change for Hb and PCV concentrations among different groups at all studied times. Also, total protein, lipids and albumin concentrations were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Chicken fed a diet containing various levels of probiotic showed a significant decrease (p ⩽ 0.05) in cholesterol concentration compared to control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the body weight and daily weight gain of broiler chicks at late ages (3–6 weeks). Also, the birds fed on probiotic levels 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet exhibited higher body weight among chicken groups at 6 weeks of age. Improved feed conversion was noticed in birds fed a diet supplemented with probiotic. There was no significant difference in mortality rate among groups. We concluded that use of selected commercial probiotic resulted in improved performance parameters and reduced serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. Moreover, supplementation of the probiotic to broilers in the levels of 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet was found to be better than control and 1.6 g/kg level indicating that increasing dietary probiotic level does not has the best performance. PMID:23961081

  16. [On Individualization of Therapeutic Doses of Optical Radiation according to Changes in Parameters of Blood Oxygenation].

    PubMed

    Zalesskaya, G A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of in vivo laser irradiation by optical radiation on blood from different patients is studied. The objects of research were three series of blood samples from patients whose treatment course included extracorporeal UV blood irradiation, intravenous laser blood irradiation and supra-venous blood laser irradiation. Before and after irradiation the results on optic oximetry and gas content of venous blood were compared. The results of positive and negative influence of blood irradiation on characteristics of an oxygen exchange in separate patients and on the maintenance of some products of metabolism are represented. It is shown that at the same power dose, their changes depend on individual, initial values of hemoglobin oxygen saturation of venous blood and its photoinduced changes which objectively reflect individual sensitivity of patients to the action of optical radiation on blood and can be used for assessment of the efficiency of phototherapy. PMID:26349218

  17. Analyzing the some biochemical parameters of diabetes mellitus and obese patients who applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine polyclinic and their prevalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageçili, Hasan; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Aydin, Ruken Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems throughout the World. Obese individuals body mass index (BMI) is >30 kg/m2. Obesity is characterized by increased waist circumference, total body fat and hyperglycemia. The increased triglyceride and cholesterol level is also shown in obese individuals. The development of obesity is largely due to the consumption of high energy food and sedentary lifestyle. This study was held with the participation of patients applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine policlinic for treatment. Our aim is to try to determine the biochemical relation and border line of obese and obese+diabetes mellitus patients. Patients and control group lipid profiles were studied in the hospital biochemisty laboratory. Laboratory results of diabetes+obese, obese and control groups were evaluated. Patients and control samples blood serum levels were compared according to their lipid profiles. In 2015, 735 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients applied to Endocrine polyclinic. Some of these patient's serum levels were evaluated. Difference between diabetes+obese and diabetes groups were near critical level for LDL and trigliserid. There were not observed statistically significant difference between groups in terms of HDL and cholesterol. There were found significant difference between groups for blood glucose p<0.003, age p<0.001. According to gender between women and men serum levels, ALT and AST levels; p<0.006 and cholesterol; p<0.04 were detected. According to participants education level blood biochemistry levels were observed statisticaly different p<0.001 with non-literacy group. In conclusion, obese and obese+diabetes patients blood serum values nearly close to each other. Obese subjects were been diabetic obese with age. In women obesity and diabetes mellitus prevalence were seen too much.

  18. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  19. Biochemical changes in blood of type 2 diabetes with and without metabolic syndrome and their association with metabolic syndrome components

    PubMed Central

    Zadhoush, Fouzieh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple factors are involved in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMII) to DMII with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular complications. To identify some of these factors, we aim to investigate the changes in erythrocyte membrane Na+/K+-ATPase activity, serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure in DMII with and without MetS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 155 male subjects distributed into three groups as healthy controls (50 non-DMII volunteers), Group I (50 DMII without MetS), and Group II (55 DMII with MetS). Fasting blood samples were taken for the measurement of glucose, insulin, HbA1c, hs-CRP and lipid profile. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was determined in erythrocyte ghost. Results: Na+/K+-ATPase activity was significantly decreased in DMII groups compared with controls. No significant difference was shown in Na+/K+-ATPase activity between DMII groups. Total ATPase activity, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were similar in the three groups. Levels of insulin, hs-CRP, triacylglycerols, systolic blood pressure, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, and body mass index were significantly elevated and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly decreased only in Group II. Significant differences in serum glucose and hip circumference were seen between the groups. No significant differences in HbA1c levels were observed between DMII groups. Conclusion: Changes in many of the measured risk factors that occurred only in Group II compared with controls and Group I may provide an explanation of how DMII progresses to DMII with MetS and future cardiovascular complications. PMID:26664424

  20. Structural and biochemical characterization of the KLHL3–WNK kinase interaction important in blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Frances-Rose; Sorrell, Fiona J.; Alessi, Dario R.; Bullock, Alex N.; Kurz, Thimo

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] and WNK4 regulate blood pressure by controlling the activity of ion co-transporters in the kidney. Groundbreaking work has revealed that the ubiquitylation and hence levels of WNK isoforms are controlled by a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3KLHL3) that utilizes CUL3 (Cullin3) and its substrate adaptor, KLHL3 (Kelch-like protein 3). Loss-of-function mutations in either CUL3 or KLHL3 cause the hereditary high blood pressure disease Gordon's syndrome by stabilizing WNK isoforms. KLHL3 binds to a highly conserved degron motif located within the C-terminal non-catalytic domain of WNK isoforms. This interaction is essential for ubiquitylation by CRL3KLHL3 and disease-causing mutations in WNK4 and KLHL3 exert their effects on blood pressure by disrupting this interaction. In the present study, we report on the crystal structure of the KLHL3 Kelch domain in complex with the WNK4 degron motif. This reveals an intricate web of interactions between conserved residues on the surface of the Kelch domain β-propeller and the WNK4 degron motif. Importantly, many of the disease-causing mutations inhibit binding by disrupting critical interface contacts. We also present the structure of the WNK4 degron motif in complex with KLHL2 that has also been reported to bind WNK4. This confirms that KLHL2 interacts with WNK kinases in a similar manner to KLHL3, but strikingly different to how another KLHL protein, KEAP1 (Kelch-like enoyl-CoA hydratase-associated protein 1), binds to its substrate NRF2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2). The present study provides further insights into how Kelch-like adaptor proteins recognize their substrates and provides a structural basis for how mutations in WNK4 and KLHL3 lead to hypertension. PMID:24641320

  1. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Eulaers, Igor; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ballesteros, Manuel; Eens, Marcel; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Johnsen, Trond V; Rigét, Frank F; Jensen, Asger L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2012-06-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid:creatinine ratios and liver enzymes ALKP and ALAT were positively correlated to PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFCs and/or PBDEs. Total bilirubin and glucose were negatively correlated to PCBs while magnesium and potassium were negatively correlated to HCB and p,p'-DDE. In addition, protein:creatinine and ALAT were also negatively correlated to PCBs and PFCs, respectively. The most significant relationships were found for the highly contaminated northern goshawks and white-tailed eagles. The statistical relationships between OHCs and BCCPs indicate that biochemical pathways could be influenced while it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles. PMID:22445502

  2. Survey of selected pathogens and blood parameters of northern yellowstone elk: Wolf sanitation effect implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; White, P.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The restoration or conservation of predators could reduce seroprevalences of certain diseases in prey if predation selectively removes animals exhibiting clinical signs. We assessed disease seroprevalences and blood parameters of 115 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) wintering on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park [YNP] during 2000-2005 and compared them to data collected prior to wolf (Canis lupus) restoration (WR) in 1995 and to two other herds in Montana to assess this prediction. Blood parameters were generally within two standard deviations of the means observed in other Montana herds (Gravelly-Snowcrest [GS] and Garnet Mountain [GM]), but Yellowstone elk had higher seroprevalences of parainfluenza-3 virus (95% CI YNP = 61.1-78.6, GS = 30.3-46.5) and bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type 1 (95% CI YNP = 15.9-31.9, GM = 0). In comparisons between pre-wolf restoration [pre-WR] (i.e., prior to 1995) seroprevalences with those post-wolf restoration [post-WR] in Yellowstone, we found lower seroprevalences for some disease-causing agents post-wolf restoration (e.g., bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type-1 [95% CI pre-WR = 73.1-86.3, post-WR = 15.9-31.9] and bovine-respiratory syncytial virus [95% CI pre-WR = 70.0-83.8, post-WR = 0]), but similar (e.g., Brucella abortus [95% CI pre-WR = 0-4.45, post-WR = 0-4.74] and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 0]) or higher for others (e.g., Anaplasma marginale [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 18.5-38.7] and Leptospira spp. [95% CI pre-WR = 0.5-6.5, post-WR = 9.5-23.5]). Though we did not detect an overall strong predation effect through reduced disease seroprevalence using retrospective comparisons with sparse data, our reference values will facilitate future assessments of this issue.

  3. Correlation of Blood Gas Parameters with Central Venous Pressure in Patients with Septic Shock; a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Baratloo, Alireza; Rahmati, Farhad; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Motamedi, Maryam; Gheytanchi, Elmira; Amini, Fariba; Safari, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between blood gas parameters and central venous pressure (CVP) in patients suffering from septic shock. Methods: Forty adult patients with diagnosis of septic shock who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. For all patients, sampling was done for venous blood gas analysis, serum sodium and chlorine levels. At the time of sampling; blood pressure, pulse rate and CVP were recorded. Correlation between blood gas parameters and hemodynamic indices were. Results: A significant direct correlation between CVP with anion gap (AG) and inversely with base deficit (BD) and bicarbonate. CVP also showed a relative correlation with pH, whereas it was not correlated with BD/ AG ratio and serum chlorine level. There was no significant association between CVP and clinical parameters including shock index (SI) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Conclusion: It seems that some of non invasive blood gas parameters could be served as alternative to invasive measures such as CVP in treatment planning of patients referred to an ED with septic shock.

  4. Effects of combined dietary chromium(III) propionate complex and thiamine supplementation on insulin sensitivity, blood biochemical indices, and mineral levels in high-fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Krl, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Michalak, S?awomir; Wjciak, Rafa? W; Bogda?ski, Pawe?

    2012-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the first step in glucose intolerance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thus effective prevention strategies should also include dietary interventions to enhance insulin sensitivity. Nutrients, such as microelement chromium(III) and thiamine, play regulatory roles in carbohydrate metabolism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the insulin-sensitizing potential of the combined supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) and thiamine in insulin resistance animal model (rats fed a high-fructose diet). The experiment was carried out on 40 nine-week-old male Wistar rats divided into five groups (eight animals each). Animals were fed ad libitum: the control diet (AIN-93M) and high-fructose diets with and without a combination of two levels of CrProp (0.1 and 1mg Cr/kg body mass/day) and two levels of thiamine (0.5 and 10mg/kg body mass/day) for 8weeks. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed to collect blood and internal organs for analyses of blood biochemical and hematologic indices as well as tissular microelement levels that were measured using appropriate methods. It was found that both supplementary CrProp and thiamine (given alone) have significant insulin-sensitizing and moderate blood-lipid-lowering properties, while the combined supplementation with these agents does not give synergistic effects in insulin-resistant rats. CrProp given separately increased kidney Cu and Cr levels, while thiamine alone increased hepatic Cu contents and decreased renal Zn and Cu contents. PMID:23065486

  5. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  6. Dissection of the Cord Blood Stromal Component Reveals Predictive Parameters for Culture Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Barilani, Mario; Lavazza, Cristiana; Viganò, Mariele; Montemurro, Tiziana; Boldrin, Valentina; Parazzi, Valentina; Montelatici, Elisa; Crosti, Mariacristina; Moro, Monica; Giordano, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, human cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CBMSCs) stand out for their biological peculiarities demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Here, we present our 9-year experience for the consistent isolation of CBMSCs. Although nearly one CB unit out of two retains the potential to give rise to MSC colonies, only 46% of them can be cultured till low passages (P≥4), but one-fourth of those reaches even higher passages (P≥8). Subsequent characterization for morphological, clonal, differentiation, and proliferation properties revealed two divergent CBMSC behaviors. In particular, a cumulative population doublings cut-off (CPD=15) was identified that undoubtedly distinguishes two growth curves, and different degrees of commitment toward osteogenesis were observed. These data clearly show the existence of at least two distinct CBMSC subsets: one mainly short-living and less proliferative (SL-CBMSCs), the other long-living, with higher growth rate, and, very importantly, with significantly (P≤0.01) longer telomere (LL-CBMSCs). Moreover, significant differences in the immunoprofile before seeding were found among CB units giving rise to LL-CBMSCs or SL-CBMSCs or showing no colony formation. Finally, all the aforementioned results provided a peculiar and useful set of parameters potentially predictive for CBMSC culture outcome. PMID:25046283

  7. Effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters of athletes at rest and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Vedat; Nizamlioglu, Mustafa; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2007-03-01

    The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters were studied during a period of 4 wk in adult tae-kwon-do athletes at rest and exhaustion. Thirty healthy subjects of ages ranging in age from 18 to 22 yr were included in the study. The subjects were separated into three groups, as follows: Group 1 consisted of subjects who did not train receiving 10 mg/kg/d magnesium. Group 2 included subjects equally supplemented with magnesium and exercising 90-120 min/d for 5 d/wk. Group 3 were subject to the same exercise regime but did not receive magnesium supplements. The leukocyte count (WBC) was significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in the subjects who did not receive any supplements (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the WBC of the two groups under magnesium supplementation. The erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and trombocyte levels were significantly increased in all groups (p < 0.05), but the hematocrit levels did not show any differences between the groups although they were increased after supplementation and exercise. These results suggest that magnesium supplementation positively influences the performance of training athletes by increasing erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels. PMID:17625241

  8. Effects of sodium selenite on some biochemical and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) exposed to Pb2+ and Cu2+.

    PubMed

    Ates, Burhan; Orun, Ibrahim; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Durmaz, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2008-03-01

    This study was carried out to understand the preventive effect of selenium (Se4+) on heavy metal stress induced by lead and copper in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Variation in glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver, spleen, heart, and brain tissues of rainbow trout after 72 h of exposure to Pb2+ and Cu2+ were investigated in the presence and absence of Se4+. In the presence of Se4+, Se-GSH-Px activity and SOD activity were found to be higher and MDA levels were lower compared with in its absence. Hematological parameters were also determined and it has been observed that total leukocyte count (WBC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were increased and erythrocyte number (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit value (Hct; P < 0.05) were decreased in fish exposed to heavy metals in the absence of selenium. Selenium presence recovered hematological parameters to normal levels. In the light of our findings, it could be stated that Pb2+ and Cu2+ lead to dramatic changes in biochemical and hematological parameters and selenium caused these parameters to converge to control levels when it was administered concurrently with these heavy metals. PMID:18649023

  9. Evaluation of Blood Regimen on the Survival of Cimex lectularius L. Using Life Table Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of bed bug development under varying conditions can lead to more sophisticated management techniques. Development rate, age and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain (HS) and field strain (ECL-05) of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) reared on two blood regimens: human or rabbit blood. Harlan and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on human blood had a life expectancy of 207 and 208 days respectively from the egg stage. Egg to adult development of HS bed bugs reared on human blood (~35 days) was significantly longer than that of the ECL-05 strain (~33 days) in the third, fourth, and fifth instars. The HS and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on rabbit blood had a life expectancy of 149 and 174 days respectively. Egg to adult development time of HS on rabbit blood (~52 days) was significantly longer than ECL-05 (~37 days) in every instar, and HS total life span was significantly shorter compared to ECL-05. Developmental differences based on strain and blood regimen suggest rabbit blood is an inferior blood source for colony maintenance, and strain has variable effects on bed bug development. Findings suggest that blood regimen should strongly be considered in bed bug colony maintenance. PMID:26464390

  10. Influence of repeated subcutaneous G-CSF injections on selected blood parameters relevant for monitoring programmes in sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Walpurgis, Katja; Slijepcevic, Mirjana; Wenzel, Folker; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Franz, Stefan; Schnzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-10-01

    The use of growth factors in sports is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC). While the beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on erythropoiesis and therefore its performance-enhancing properties have been well documented and established for decades, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relevance of the cytokine G-CSF in a doping control context, particularly concerning its influence on selected blood parameters representing central aspects of the Athlete Biological Passport. For that purpose, the effect of repeated subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) injections in therapeutic dosages (10 g/kg/d) on white blood cells, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and percent reticulocytes was analyzed by using commonly employed fluorescence flow cytometry-based approaches. A total of 20 people were tested (14 male, 6 female) and both white blood cell count and reticulocyte percentages were found to significantly increase following a 5-day treatment with G-CSF. Simultaneously, all other volume-dependent parameters (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) slightly but significantly decreased. Due to the relevance of these measurands for the validity of blood tests for doping controls and the anecdotal evidence of G-CSF being potentially misused by elite athletes, G-CSF analyses might be indicated in case of unusually altered blood profiles. PMID:23047806

  11. Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Popović, Mira; Kaurinović, Biljana; Trivić, Svetlana; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Bursać, Marija

    2006-07-01

    Extracts of celery leaves and roots in ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were evaporated to dryness and dissolved in 50% ethanol to make 10% (w[sol ]v) solutions. The potential protective action of the extracts was assessed by the corresponding in vitro and in vivo tests. In the in vitro experiments crude methanol extracts were tested as potential scavengers of free OH* and DPPH* radicals, as well as inhibitors of liposomal peroxidation (LPx). Analogous experiments were also carried out with the extracts of celery root, for comparison. The results obtained show that both the extracts of root and leaves are good scavengers of OH* and DPPH* radicals and reduce LPx intensity in liposomes, which points to their protective (antioxidant) activity. In vivo experiments were concerned with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx) in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of celery leaves, or in combination with CCl4. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts showed a certain protective effect. Of all the extracts the n-butanol extract showed the highest protective effect. Combined treatments with CCl4 and extracts showed both positive and negative synergism - inducing or suppressing the impact of CCl4 alone. The differences observed in the action of particular extracts are probably due to the different contents of flavonoids and some other antioxidant compounds. PMID:16685681

  12. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  13. Correlating Blood Immune Parameters and a CCT7 Genetic Variant with the Shedding of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the current study, 40 crossbred pigs were intranasally inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and monitored for Salmonella fecal shedding and blood immune parameters at 2, 7, 14 and 20 days post-inoculation (dpi). Using a multivariate permutation test, a positive correlation was...

  14. Methods of mesophyll conductance estimation: its impact on key biochemical parameters and photosynthetic limitations in phosphorus-stressed soybean across CO2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shardendu K; Reddy, Vangimalla R

    2016-06-01

    Despite the development of various methods, the rapid estimation of mesophyll conductance (gm ) for a large number of samples is still a daunting challenge. Although the accurate estimation of gm is critical to partition photosynthetic limitations by stomatal (Ls ) and mesophyll (Lm ) conductance and by photo-biochemical (Lb ) processes, the impact of various gm estimation methods on this is ambiguous. As phosphorus (P) starvation and elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) strongly affect photosynthetic processes, their combined effect on the proportional changes in these limitations are not well understood. To investigate this, while also evaluating distinct recent methods of gm estimation sharing few common theories and assumptions, soybean was grown under a range of P nutrition at ambient and eCO2 . Methods significantly affected gm and carboxylation efficiency (VCmax ) but not other photosynthetic parameters. In all the methods, all photosynthetic parameters responded similarly to treatments. However, the percentage difference between VCmax assuming finite and infinite gm was highly inconsistent among methods. The primary mechanism responsible for P limitation to soybean photosynthesis was not CO2 diffusion limitations but Lb comprised of reduced chlorophyll, photochemistry and biochemical processes. The eCO2 decreased Lb but increased Lm without affecting Ls across leaf P concentration. Although each method explored advances of our understanding about gm variability, they all require assumptions of varying degrees, which lead to the discrepancy in the gm values. Among the methods, the oxygen sensitivity-based gm estimation appeared to be suitable for the quick assessment of a large number of samples or genotypes. Digital tools are provided for the easy estimation of gm for some methods. PMID:26806194

  15. Effects of Replacement of Soybean Meal by Fermented Cottonseed Meal on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Immune Function of Yellow-feathered Broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, J W; Sun, H; Yao, X H; Wu, Y F; Wang, X; Feng, J

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effects of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) by solid-state fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and immune function of broilers. After inoculated with Bacillus subtilis BJ-1 for 48 h, the content of free gossypol in cottonseed meal was decreased from 0.82 to 0.21 g/kg. A total of 600, day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates of 50 chicks each. A corn-SBM based control diet was formulated and the experimental diets included 4, 8 or 12% FCSM, replacing SBM. Throughout the experiment, broilers fed 8% FCSM had higher (p<0.05) body weight gain than those fed 0, 4 and 12% FCSM. The feed intake in 8% FCSM group was superior (p<0.05) to other treatments from d 21 to 42. On d 21, the concentration of serum immunoglobin M in the 4% and 8% FCSM groups, as well as the content of complements (C3, C4) in 8% FCSM group were greater (p<0.05) than those in the SBM group. Besides, birds fed 8% FCSM had increased (p<0.05) serum immunoglobin M, immunoglobulin G and complement C4 levels on d 42 compared with bird fed control diet. No differences (p>0.05) were found between treatments regarding the serum biochemical parameters and the relative weights of immune organs. In conclusion, FCSM can be used in broiler diets at up to 12% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of SBM with FCSM may improve growth performance and immunity in broilers. PMID:25049578

  16. Effects of Replacement of Soybean Meal by Fermented Cottonseed Meal on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Immune Function of Yellow-feathered Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J. W.; Sun, H.; Yao, X. H.; Wu, Y. F.; Wang, X.; Feng, J.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effects of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) by solid-state fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and immune function of broilers. After inoculated with Bacillus subtilis BJ-1 for 48 h, the content of free gossypol in cottonseed meal was decreased from 0.82 to 0.21 g/kg. A total of 600, day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates of 50 chicks each. A corn-SBM based control diet was formulated and the experimental diets included 4, 8 or 12% FCSM, replacing SBM. Throughout the experiment, broilers fed 8% FCSM had higher (p<0.05) body weight gain than those fed 0, 4 and 12% FCSM. The feed intake in 8% FCSM group was superior (p<0.05) to other treatments from d 21 to 42. On d 21, the concentration of serum immunoglobin M in the 4% and 8% FCSM groups, as well as the content of complements (C3, C4) in 8% FCSM group were greater (p<0.05) than those in the SBM group. Besides, birds fed 8% FCSM had increased (p<0.05) serum immunoglobin M, immunoglobulin G and complement C4 levels on d 42 compared with bird fed control diet. No differences (p>0.05) were found between treatments regarding the serum biochemical parameters and the relative weights of immune organs. In conclusion, FCSM can be used in broiler diets at up to 12% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of SBM with FCSM may improve growth performance and immunity in broilers. PMID:25049578

  17. Comparison of the effects of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shixin; Wei, Chen; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to compare the effects of supplementing rare earth elements (REE) lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and praseodymium (Pr) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, methane (CH4) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged 12 months, with initial average liveweight of 333 9 kg and fitted with rumen cannulas, were fed with a basal ration composed of concentrate mixture and maize silage. Animals received a basal ration without adding REE (Control) or three treatments, i.e. supplementing LaCl3, CeCl3 or PrCl3 at 204 mg/kg DM to the basal ration, respectively, which were allocated in a 4 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 d, consisting of 12 d for pre-treatment and three subsequent days for sampling. Results showed that all tested levels of REE tended to increase neutral detergent fibre digestibility (p = 0.064) and tended to decrease rumen CH4 production (p = 0.056). Supplementing LaCl3 and CeCl3 decreased total N excretion and urinary N excretion, increased N retention (p < 0.05), tended to increase total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p = 0.053) and microbial N flow (p = 0.095), whereas supplementing PrCl3 did not affect N retention, urinary PD and microbial N flow. No differences were found in the effects of nutrient digestibility, CH4 production and plasma biochemical parameters among LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3. Further trials using graded levels of LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3 in a wide range are needed to obtain more pronounced results for comparing effects of La, Ce and Pr on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. PMID:25575216

  18. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese cabbage plants on levels of the photosynthetic apparatus and the whole plant, concerning its development and adaptation to a varying PPF level.

  19. [Study of rat blood serum biochemical indicators of cardiotoxic action of novel antitumor 4-thiazolidinone derivatives and doxorubicin in complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing polymeric carrier in the rat blood serum].

    PubMed

    Kobylyns'ka, L I; Havryliuk, D Ia; Riabtseva, A O; Mitina, N Ie; Zaichenko, O S; Zimenkovskyĭ, B S; Stoĭka, R S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the activity of enzymes which reflect cardiotoxic action in rats of novel synthetic 4-thiazolidone derivatives--3882, 3288 and 3833 that demonstrated antineoplastic effect in vitro towards 60 lines of human tumor cells tested in the framework of the program of screening new anticancer drugs at the National Cancer Institute (USA). Such action of these compounds was compared with the effect of well known anticancer agent doxorubicin and after conjugation of all above mentioned substances with new polyethylenglycol-containing polymeric comb-like carrier that was synthesized by the authors. Among the biochemical indicators of cardiotoxic action of anticancer agents, activity of the following enzymes in rat blood serum showed to be the most informative: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransterase. Tenfold injection of doxorubicin in a dose of 5.5 mg/kg of weight caused rats' death, while 3882, 3288 and 3833 preparations had not such action. Application of the doxorubicin in combination with polymeric carrier prolonged the survival time to 20 days. Thus, the injection of anticancer agents in a complex with polymeric carrier provides a significant decrease in their cardiotoxicity that was confirmed by the corresponding changes in the activity of marker enzymes: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in blood serum of treated rats. PMID:25816609

  20. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

    PubMed Central

    AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  1. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  2. Blood Pressure, Internal Carotid Atery Flow Parameters and Age-Related White Matter Hyperintensities

    PubMed Central

    Aribisala, Benjamin S; Morris, Zoe; Eadie, Elizabeth; Thomas, Avril; Gow, Alan; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Royle, Nataile A; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with hypertension. We examined interactions between blood pressure (BP), internal carotid artery (ICA) flow velocity parameters and WMH. We obtained BP measurements from 694 community-dwelling subjects at mean ages 69.6 (±0.8) and again at 72.6 (±0.7) years, plus brain MRI and ICA ultrasound at age 73±1 years. Diastolic and mean BP decreased and pulse pressure increased but systolic BP did not change between 70 and 73 years. Multiple linear regression, corrected for vascular disease and risk factors, showed that WMH at age 73 were associated with history of hypertension (β=0.13, p<0.001) and with BP at age 70 (systolic β=0.08, mean β=0.09, diastolic β=0.08, all p<0.05); similar but attenuated associations were seen for BP at age 73. Lower diastolic BP and higher pulse pressure were associated with higher ICA pulsatility index at age 73 (diastolic BP: standardized β, age 70=−0.24, p<0.001; pulse pressure age 70 β=0.19, p<0.001). WMH were associated with higher ICA pulsatility index (β=0.13, p=0.002) after adjusting for BP and correction for multiple testing. Therefore falling diastolic BP and increased pulse pressure are associated with increased ICA pulsatility index, which in turn is associated with WMH. This suggests that hypertension and WMH may either associate indirectly because hypertension increases arterial stiffness which leads to WMH over time, or co-associate through advancing age and stiffer vessels, or both. Reducing vascular stiffness may reduce WMH progression and should be tested in randomised trials, in addition to testing antihypertensive therapy. PMID:24470459

  3. Comparative toxicity of physiological and biochemical parameters in Euglena gracilis to short-term exposure to potassium sorbate.

    PubMed

    Engel, Fernanda; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Heyder, Carmen Diamantina Teixeira; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei

    2015-01-01

    Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis; however, it has moderate toxicity to various species including rat, fish, bacteria and human health. The effects of potassium sorbate on the movement and photosynthetic parameters of Euglena gracilis were studied during short-term exposure. Potassium sorbate showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate E. gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), upward movement and alignment, with mean EC50 values of 2867.2 mg L(-1). The concentrations above 625 mg L(-1) of potassium sorbate induce an inhibition of the photosynthetic efficiency and electron transport rate and, in concentrations more than 2500.0 mg L(-1), the Euglena cells undergo a complete inhibition of photosynthesis even at low light irradiation. PMID:25314908

  4. Erythrocyte-mediated delivery of pravastatin: in vitro study of effect of hypotonic lysis on biochemical parameters and loading efficiency.

    PubMed

    Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Ibrahim, Mohamed F; Alanazi, Fars K

    2012-08-01

    Exposure of erythrocytes to hypotonic lysis creates pores in the cell membrane, through which pravastatin can enter and become trapped, after resealing them with a suitable buffer. We investigated the effects of tonicity, incubation time and drug concentration on drug loading into erythrocytes. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of pravastatin on erythrocyte oxidative stress markers and osmotic fragility behavior. Encapsulation was achieved using buffer solutions of different tonicities (0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% NaCl) and different drug concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 10 mg/mL) for a range of incubation times (15, 30, 60 and 120 min). The results demonstrated that controlled hypotonic lysis could entrap pravastatin in human erythrocytes, with acceptable loading parameters. The highest loading (34%) was achieved at 0.6% NaCl and 10 mg/mL pravastatin for 60 min incubation. At this pravastatin concentration, oxidative stress markers were similar to those seen in controls, and fragility and hematological parameters were unaffected in drug-loaded erythrocytes. These results indicate that the loading process and pravastatin concentration had no deleterious effects on the structure of pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes, suggesting that they may therefore have a similar life span to normal cells. Pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes may thus provide an effective extended-release-delivery system for pravastatin. PMID:22941486

  5. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Weight, (BP) and Biochemical Parameters in Middle Aged Hypertensive Subjects: An Observational Trial

    PubMed Central

    M, Salahuddin; AH, Sayed Ashfak; SR, Syed; KM, Badaam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ramadan fasting is a religious obligation which is practised by Muslim population all over the world. However, there is scarcity of scientific literature regarding its effects on health determinants in cardiovascular disturbances like hypertension. Objects:The present study was done to assess the (BP), body weight and serum cholesterol changes over the period of Ramadan fasting in patients with hypertension. Materails And Methods:This prospective observational trial was done on 15 hypertensive subjects who were in the age group of 35 to 65 years, who were determined to complete Ramadan fast. All subjects were on antihypertensive therapy. Outcome measures of (BP), body weight and serum cholesterol were assessed in all the subjects before and after Ramadan month. Results: Mean age of subjects was 44.6 ± 5.62 years. Systolic BP decreased from 148 ± 19.6 to 132.5 ± 17.9 mm of Hg. The decrease of 15.5 units (95% CI: 7.5 to 24.4) was statistically significant (p = 0.0009). Diastolic BP decreased from 90.4 ± 7.8 to 81.1 ± 6.3 mm of Hg. The decrease of 9.3 units (95% CI: 5.7 to 13) was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). There was statistically significant decrease in body weight from 66.6 ± 13 to 65.2 ± 12.7 kg (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in serum cholesterol from 187.3 ± 28.9 to 192.7 ± 31.3 mg% (p = 0.37). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients with continuation of their medicines showed a decrease in blood pressure and reduction in body weight at the end of Ramadan fasting duration. However there was no change found in serum cholesterol levels. PMID:24783068

  6. EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE. BLOOD LIPIDS AND COAGULATION PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in 50 and 100 ppm doses on response to treadmill exercise, blood coagulation and blood lipids in normal men. Twenty-three men were exposed to CO or to air in a double-blind protocol. After exposure, each underwent a graded ex...

  7. Induced changes in biochemical parameters of the molluscan tissues non-infected using two potent plants molluscicides.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sanaa A; Aly, Hanan F; Saba-el-Rigal, Nagy; Sammour, Elham M

    2004-08-01

    Effect of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) and Acacia arabica (A. arabica) dry powder as plant molluscicide on some glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes on snail tissues, was investigated. Lactate debydrogenase (LDH), Pyruvate Kinase (PK), Hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) as important glycolytic enzymes, were markedly manipulated by both plants when measured one day and one week post-treatment. On the other hand glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6Pase), fructose 1.6 diphosphatase (FDpase), phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) as gluconeogenic enzymes were significantly affected by the moluscicidal plants. In addition, some other parameters as glycogen, glucose, total protein, 5-nucleotidase alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) as kreb's cycle enzyme were tested. As conclusion, LC25 and LC50 concentrations of C. spinosa and A. arabica might render B. alexandrina physiologically unsuitable for S. mansoni infection. PMID:15287176

  8. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p < 0.01) with effect size of difference (r > 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p < 0.01, r > 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p < 0.01) with large effect size of difference (r > 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  9. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?

    PubMed

    Archontoulis, S V; Yin, X; Vos, J; Danalatos, N G; Struik, P C

    2012-01-01

    Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C(3) leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO(2) at the stomatal cavity (A(n)-C(i)), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (A(n)-I(inc)). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from A(n)-C(i) or from A(n)-I(inc) data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored A(n)-I(inc) data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model. PMID:22021569

  10. Identification of ticks and detection of blood protozoa in friesian cattle by polmerase chain reacton test and estimation of blood parameters in district Kasur, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Durrani, A Z; Kamal, N

    2008-08-01

    The study was carried out to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of theileriosis, and Babesia bovis, the causative agent for babesiosis, in Friesian cattle by PCR and conventional blood smear examination. One hundred blood samples obtained from diseased Friesian cattle kept on private livestock farms at Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan were collected in addition to 20 blood samples obtained from non-diseased animals. The disease manifestations observed clinically included high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, anorexia, loss of condition and rough hair coat. Neurologic sign of in coordination was also seen in weak animals. Signs of lacrimation, pale conjunctiva, diarrhoea, dyspnea and frothy nasal discharge were observed in only one animal. Clinically nine animals showed signs of haemoglobinuria. Diagnosis of bovine theileria and babesia species was based on finding many intraerythrocytic piroplasms of both blood protozoa with clinical signs associated with anaemia, lymph node hyperplasia and haemoglobinuria. One hundred samples of ticks were also collected for identification of vector. Results showed that the prevalence of Hyalomma tick was highest (15%) followed by Boophilus (12%), Haemaphysalis (5%) and Rhipicephalus (3%). The blood smear examination showed 21% (21/100) samples positive for blood parasites out of which 66.6% (14/ 21) samples were positive for theileriosis while 42.8% (9/21) were positive for babesiosis. It was also recorded that 66.66% (6/9) samples were positive for B.bigemina while 33.33% (3/9) were positive for B.bovis. The results showed that 60% (60/100) samples were positive for blood parasites by PCR test. Out of these 60% (36/60) were positive for T.annulata while 33.33% (20/60) were positive for babesia. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR test was higher than blood smear examination. The blood parameters in haemoparasites infection were also analyzed and the results showed significant decrease in total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin while MCV, MCH values increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal indicating macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. PMID:18575972

  11. Alteration of Blood Parameters and Histoarchitecture of Liver and Kidney of Silver Barb after Chronic Exposure to Quinalphos

    PubMed Central

    Mohammod Mostakim, Golam; Zahangir, Md. Mahiuddin; Monir Mishu, Mahbuba; Rahman, Md. Khalilur; Islam, M. Sadiqul

    2015-01-01

    Quinalphos (QP) is commonly used for pest control in the agricultural fields surrounding freshwater reservoirs. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic toxicity of this pesticide on blood parameters and some organs of silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations, 0.47 ppm and 0.94 ppm, of QP for a period of 28 days. All the blood parameters (red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and blood glucose except for white blood cells decreased with increasing concentration of toxicant and become significantly lower (p < 0.05) at higher concentration when compared with control. The derived hematological indices of mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were equally altered compared to control. Histoarchitectural changes of liver and kidney were observed after exposure to the QP. Hypertrophy of hepatocytes, mild to severe necrosis, ruptured central vein, and vacuolation were observed in the liver of treated groups. Highly degenerated kidney tubules and hematopoietic tissue, degeneration of renal corpuscle, vacuolization, and necrosis were evident in the kidney of treated groups. In conclusion, chronic exposure to QP at sublethal concentrations induced hematological and histological alterations in silver barb and offers a simple tool to evaluate toxicity derived alterations. PMID:26635877

  12. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    PubMed

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. PMID:23692154

  13. Aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in cord blood and amniotic fluid of high-risk pregnancies: a biochemical approach to the dynamic assessment of deviant fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Vanhaesebrouck, P; Kint, J; Van Kets, H; Govaert, P; Smets, K; Defoort, P; Leroy, J

    1994-07-01

    N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) concentration was measured in cord serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum from high-risk pregnancies. The fetal PIIINP variability was shown to be independent of the maternal serum PIIINP values. Although a highly significant negative correlation was found between the fetal propeptide level and gestational age in both appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates (n = 504) and small-for-gestational-age infants (n = 98), the PIIINP concentration in cord serum or amniotic fluid of small-for-gestational-age infants was significantly lower compared with that of appropriate-for-gestational-age infants matched for postconceptional age. PIIINP assay may thus serve as a dynamic biochemical indicator of deviant fetal growth. The PIIINP results were also related to the severity or duration of intrauterine growth retardation, as indicated by significantly lower propeptide cord serum values in nonmalformed small-for-gestational-age infants with small head circumference, known as an index for the chronicity of fetal nutritional deprivation. Preeclampsia, maternal diabetes or smoking, and congenital anomalies appeared not to be associated with any alteration of fetal propeptide concentration, provided they did not cause fetal growth deceleration. The finding of extremely high cord serum PIIINP values in six newborn infants with the Potter malformation sequence led to the speculation that large amounts of propeptides or their fragments usually are excreted by the fetal kidneys into the amniotic fluid. We suggest that determination of the PIIINP level in amniotic fluid or cord serum, obtained by amniocentesis and percutaneous umbilical sampling, may be a helpful adjunctive biochemical parameter in future research protocols assessing fetuses at risk for intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:7936841

  14. Zearalenone-induced changes in biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac tissue: Protective role of crocin.

    PubMed

    Salem, I Ben; Boussabbeh, M; Neffati, F; Najjar, M F; Abid-Essefi, S; Bacha, H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin from Fusarium species commonly found in food commodities and is known to cause reproductive disorders. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is haematotoxic and hepatotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Meantime, the available information on the cardiotoxic effects of ZEN is very much limited. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of ZEN in heart tissues of Balb/c mice. We demonstrated that ZEN (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.)) increased creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and induced oxidative stress as monitored by measuring the malondialdehyde level, the generation of protein carbonyls, the catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp 70). We also demonstrated that acute administration of ZEN triggers apoptosis in cardiac tissue. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of crocin (CRO), a natural carotenoid, to prevent ZEN-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. In fact, combined treatment of ZEN with different doses of CRO (50, 100, and 250 mg kg(-1) b.w.) showed a significant reduction of ZEN-induced toxicity for all tested markers in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that CRO was effective in the protection against ZEN-induced toxicity in cardiac tissue. PMID:26231423

  15. The Predictive Value of Cystatin C in Monitoring of B Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: Relation to Biochemical and Clinical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Softić, A.; Begić, L.; Halilbašić, A.; Vižin, T.; Kos, J.

    2013-01-01

    The predictive value of cystatin C as a marker of course of the disease has been evaluated. Fifty-two pairs of serum samples of patients with B non-Hodgkin lymphoma have been collected at the time of diagnosis and before fourth cycle of chemotherapy. The levels of cystatin C, CRP, β2M, LDH, and IL-6 in samples have been measured, and clinical parameters of course of the disease (B symptoms, clinical stage, patients' age, and IPI) have been noted. In total patient's group cystatin C levels correlated with β2M and IPI. In aggressive lymphomas, the inhibitor levels correlated with clinical stage of disease and were significantly higher in patients with elevated LDH activity. In aggressive nodal lymphomas its levels correlated with β2M, IPI, and clinical stage of disease. The cystatin C level was significantly increased in total group of patients over 60 years old, while in particular types of lymphoma, no statistical significance has been obtained. Our results indicate that cystatin C should be taken into consideration in disease monitoring. However, we expect that the disease-free and overall survival analysis will give the definitive answer about the reliability of cystatin C as an indicator of course of aggressive lymphomas. PMID:24167744

  16. Seasonal baseline levels of physiological and biochemical parameters in polar cod (Boreogadus saida): Implications for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nahrgang, Jasmine; Camus, Lionel; Broms, Fredrik; Christiansen, Jørgen S; Hop, Haakon

    2010-08-01

    Seasonality of biomarker baseline levels were studied in polar cod (Boreogadus saida), caught in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, in April, July, September and December, 2006-2007. Physiological parameters (condition factor, gonado- and hepato-somatic indexes, energy reserves, potential metabolic activity and antifreeze activity) in polar cod were used to interpret the seasonality of potential biomarkers. The highest levels of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity occurred concomitantly with the highest potential metabolic activity in July due to e.g. intense feeding. During pre-spawning, EROD showed significant inhibition and gender differences. Hence, its potential use in environmental monitoring should imply gender differentiation at least during this period. Glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities were stable from April to September, but changed in December suggesting a link to low biological activity. Knowledge of the biomarker baseline levels and their seasonal trends in polar cod is essential for a trustworthy interpretation of forthcoming toxicity data and environmental monitoring in the Arctic. PMID:20385393

  17. Body Composition, Hemodynamic and Biochemical Parameters in Young Female Normal-Weight Oligo-amenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibha; de Lourdes Eguiguren, Maria; Eysenbach, Lindsey; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Eddy, Kamryn; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Aims Low-weight hypogonadal conditions such as anorexia nervosa are associated with marked changes in body composition, hemodynamic and hematological parameters, and liver enzymes. The impact of athletic activity in normal-weight adolescents with/without amenorrhea on these parameters has not been assessed. Our aim was to examine these parameters in normal-weight athletes and non-athletes and determine any associations of body composition, oligo-amenorrhea and exercise intensity. Methods We assessed vital signs, complete blood counts, liver enzymes, and regional body composition in 43 oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OAA), 24 eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and 23 non-athletes 14-21 years of age. Results BMI was lower in OAA than EA. Systolic and pulse pressure, and temperature were lowest in OAA. Blood counts did not differ among groups. AST was higher in both groups of athletes, while ALT was higher in OAA than EA and non-athletes. Total and regional fat was lower in OAA than other groups, positively associated with heart rate and inversely with liver enzymes. Conclusions Athletic activity is associated with higher AST, whereas menstrual dysfunction is associated with lower total and regional fat and higher ALT. Higher liver enzymes are associated with reductions in total and regional fat. PMID:25376841

  18. Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes

    PubMed Central

    El-Nour, Hayat H. M.; Nasr, Soad M.; Hassan, Walid R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season. PMID:22629155

  19. Variations of biochemical parameters along a transect in the Southern Ocean, with special emphasis on volatile halogenated organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, K.; Bertilsson, S.; Chierici, M.; Fransson, A.; Froneman, P. W.; Lorén, A.; Pakhomov, E. A.

    2004-11-01

    A number of parameters of biogeochemical interest were monitored along a north-southerly transect (S 43-S 63°) in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean from the 8th to the 20th of December 1997. Changes in total dissolved inorganic carbon ( CT) and total alkalinity ( AT) were mostly dependent on temperature and salinity until the ice edge was reached. After this point only a weak correlation was seen between these. Highest mean values of CT and AT were observed in the Winter Ice Edge (WIE) (2195 and 2319 μmol kg -1, respectively). Lowest mean AT (2277 μmol kg -1) was observed in the Sub-Antarctic Front (SAF), whereas lowest mean CT concentration (2068 μmol kg -1) was associated with the Sub-Tropical Front (STF). The pH in situ varied between 8.060 and 8.156 where the highest values were observed in the southern part of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) and in the Summer Ice Edge (SIE) Region . These peaks were associated with areas of high chlorophyll a (chl a) and tribromomethane values. In the other areas the pH in situ was mainly dependent on hydrography. Bacterial abundance decreased more than one order of magnitude when going from north to south. The decrease appeared to be strongly related to water temperature and there were no elevated abundances at frontal zones. Microphytoplankton dominated in the SAF and APF, whereas the nano- and picoplankton dominated outside these regions. Volatile halogenated compounds were found to vary both with regions, and with daylight. For the iodinated compounds, the highest concentrations were found north of the STF. Brominated hydrocarbons had high concentrations in the STF, but elevated concentrations were also found in the APF and SIE regions. No obvious correlation could be found between the occurrence of individual halocarbons and chl a. On some occasions trichloroethene and tribromomethane related to the presence of nano- and microplankton, respectively.

  20. Blood parameters and metabolites in the teleost fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to sulfide or hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Affonso, E G; Polez, V L P; Corrêa, C F; Mazon, A F; Araújo, M R R; Moraes, G; Rantin, F T

    2002-11-01

    Juvenile tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, were exposed to sulfide and hypoxia for 12, 24, 48 and 96 h. Hemoglobin concentrations, red blood cell counts, and mean cell hemoglobin, were higher at 12 h in fish exposed to hypoxia. However, control fish and those exposed to sulfide and hypoxia had lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit at 96 h. Methemoglobin was higher than in the controls, probably due to the hypoxemia induced by these stressors. Sulfhemoglobin was not detected in significant amounts in the blood of fish exposed to sulfide (in vivo), yet hemoglobin converted into sulfhemoglobin at 1-15 mM sulfide in vitro. Anaerobic metabolism seemed to be an important mechanism for adapting to sulfide exposure and blood pH returned to control values after 24 h of sulfide, preventing acidosis. The high sulfide tolerance in tambaqui is associated with its high tolerance to hypoxia. PMID:12379422

  1. Effects of intravenous infusion of glycerol on blood parameters and urinary glycerol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Nishitani, Yasunori; Dohi, Michiko; Kageyama, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    In sports, the oral intake and intravenous administration of glycerol as a potential masking agent have been prohibited. The effect of glycerol on blood parameters was investigated by comparing the intravenous administration of glycerol (20g/200mL) with that of an electrolyte (8g glucose/200mL) as a comparator (n=7, fixed-dose-rate i.v. infusion, 200mL in 1h). This study was also designed to evaluate whether the urinary concentrations reached the positivity threshold after the intravenous infusion of glycerol. Significant decreases of the haemoglobin (HGB, g/dL), haematocrit (HCT, %) and OFF-h Score (OFF-score) values were observed after the infusion of glycerol (P<0.05 at 1-6h). The differences in the HGB, HCT and OFF-score between pre- and post-administration were -0.49±0.23g/dL (2h), -1.54±0.73% (2h) and -3.89±3.66 (2h), respectively. Glycerol infusion significantly increased the plasma volume by 12.1% (1h), 6.3% (2h) and 5.7% (3h) compared with the initial values. The infusion of the comparator also increased the plasma volume by 9.6% (1h), 5.8% (2h) and 4.9% (3h) compared with the values before infusion. There were no significant differences in the change of the plasma volume between the intravenous infusions of glycerol and the glucose-based electrolyte (as the comparator) (P≥0.05). This finding might indicate that glycerol itself only exhibited limited effects on the expansion of plasma. After administration of glycerol, the urinary glycerol concentrations increased from 0.0013±0.0004mg/mL to 6.86±2.86mg/mL at 1h and 6.45±3.08mg/mL at 2h. The intravenous infusion of glycerol can most likely be detected using the current urine analysis; however, the dependence of the concentration of urinary glycerol on the urine volume should be considered. PMID:26986972

  2. Integrated assessment of water quality of the Costa da Morte (Galicia, NW Spain) by means of mussel chemical, biochemical and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz; Albentosa, Marina; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; González, Juan J; Campillo, Juan A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental quality at some of the sites most severely affected by the Prestige oil spill off 2 years after the spillage (April and November 2004). For this purpose analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and several biochemical (antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and DT-diaphorase and lipid peroxidation) and physiological [scope for growth (SFG)] biomarkers were determined on wild mussel populations (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at four points along the Costa da Morte and compared with those of a reference site not affected by the oil spill. Results showed that PAH contents had markedly decreased 17 months after the accident, although they were higher in April than in November, when they showed values similar to background levels reported for this area. Nevertheless, the predominance of chrysene on PAH profiles, similarly to findings obtained immediately after the spill, indicated the Prestige as their main source. In spite of the low PAH levels recorded, antioxidant activity levels (explained through the integrated antioxidant response-IAR) were higher in the Costa da Morte than at the reference site either in April and November. In April IAR seems to be related to PAH levels found 3 months after the accident (February 2003), suggesting the persistence in the environment of oxidative stress-producing components from the spill. However, evidence of oxidative stress was not reflected at physiological level by scope for growth, with only very slight differences being observed between values from the reference site and those from Costa da Morte sites. In conclusion, although 2 years after the spill PAHs bioaccumulated by mussels from the Costa da Morte had decreased to background levels, biochemical parameters showed signals of oxidative stress in mussels from this area. However, SFG reflected a good health status for the mussel populations studied and did not reveal evidence of physiological disturbance either 17 or 24 months after the Prestige spill. PMID:20033486

  3. Influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth performance, innate immune response, biochemical parameters and disease resistance in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Nofouzi, Katayoon; Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Mohamad-Zadeh Jassur, Davood; Ashrafi-Helan, Javad

    2015-06-01

    The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on rainbow trout growth performance, innate immunity and biochemical parameters were studied. Rainbow trout (17-18 g) were exposed to electromagnetic fields (15 Hz) at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT, for 1 h daily over period of 60 days. Growth performance of fish improved in different treatment groups, especially at 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT. Immunological parameters, specifically hemagglutinating titer, total antiprotease and α1-antiprotease levels in treatment groups, were also enhanced. Total protein and globulin contents in the serum of fish exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT were significantly higher than those in the control group. No significant differences were found in serum enzyme activities, namely aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of fish in all treatment groups. Conversely, alkaline phosphatase level decreased in fish exposed to 0.01 and 50 µT electromagnetic fields. Meanwhile, electromagnetic induction at 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT enhanced fish protection against Yersinia ruckeri. These results indicated that these specific electromagnetic fields had possible effects on growth performance, nonspecific immunity and disease resistance of rainbow trout. PMID:25869215

  4. Effect of the treatment with Achyrocline satureioides (free and nanocapsules essential oil) and diminazene aceturate on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo, Guilherme M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Rech, Virginia Cielo; Oliveira, Camila B; Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Alves, Marta P; França, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Schwertz, Claiton I; Mendes, Ricardo E; Monteiro, Silvia G; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to verify the effect of the treatment with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanoencapsulated forms) and diminazene aceturate on hematological and biochemical variables in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. The 56 rats were divided into seven groups with eight rats each. Groups A, C and D were composed by uninfected animals, and groups B, E, F and G were formed by infected rats with T. evansi. Rats from groups A and B were used as negative and positive control, respectively. Rats from the groups C and E were treated with A. satureioides essential oil, and groups D and F were treated with A. satureioides nanoencapsulated essential oil. Groups C, D, E and F received one dose of oil (1.5 mL kg(-1)) during five consecutive days orally. Group G was treated with diminazene aceturate (D.A.) in therapeutic dose (3.5 mg kg(-1)) in an only dose. The blood samples were collected on day 5 PI for analyses of hematological (erythrocytes and leukocytes count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and biochemical (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, urea and creatinine) variables. A. satureioides administered was able to maintain low parasitemia, mainly the nanoencapsulated form, on 5 days post infection. On the infected animals with T. evansi treated with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanocapsules) the number of total leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes present was similar to uninfected rats, and different from infected and not-treated animals (leukocytosis). Treatment with A. satureioides in free form elevated levels of ALT and AST, demonstrating liver damage; however, treatment with nanoencapsulated form did not cause elevation of these enzymes. Finally, treatments inhibited the increase in creatinine levels caused by infection for T. evansi. In summary, the nanoencapsulated form showed better activity on the trypanosome; it did not cause liver toxicity and prevented renal damage. PMID:25499512

  5. Effects of Different Levels of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Seed Powder and Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Microbiota, and Immunity in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  6. Long-term effects of oral tea polyphenols and Lactobacillus brevis M8 on biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes, and cytokines expression in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-li; Li, Zong-jun; Wei, Zhong-shan; Liu, Ting; Zou, Xiao-zuo; Liao, Yong; Luo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term effects of oral tea polyphenols (TPs) and Lactobacillus brevis M8 (LB) on biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes, and cytokines expression in broilers. In experiment 1, 240 broiler chickens were selected to investigate the effects of 0.06 g/kg body weight (BW) TP and 1.0 ml/kg BW LB on broilers; in experiment 2, 180 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to three groups to investigate the effects of different dosages of TP (0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 g/kg BW) combined with 1.0 ml/kg BW LB on broilers; in experiment 3, 180 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to three groups to investigate the effects of different dosages of LB (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ml/kg BW) combined with 0.06 g/kg BW TP on broilers. The results showed that TP and LB affected serum biochemical parameters, and TP reduced serum cholesterol (CHO) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) abundances in a dosage-dependent manner (P<0.05) on Day 84. Meanwhile, broilers fed a diet supplemented with TP or LB had a lower intestinal lipase activity on Day 84 compared with the control group (P<0.05). Middle and high dosages of TP increased pancreatic lipase and proventriculus pepsin activities (P<0.05). Also middle and high dosages of LB significantly enhanced pancreatic lipase activity (P<0.05), while high LB supplementation inhibited intestinal trypsase (P<0.05) on Day 84. Furthermore, both TP and LB reduced intestinal cytokine expression and nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) mRNA level on Days 56 and 84. In conclusion, long-term treatment of TP and LB improved lipid metabolism and digestive enzymes activities, and affected intestinal inflammatory status, which may be associated with the NF-κB signal. PMID:26642185

  7. Misleading biochemical laboratory test results

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Amin A.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845

  8. Coupling 1D Navier Stokes equation with autoregulation lumped parameter networks for accurate cerebral blood flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaiyoung; Hu, Xiao; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2014-11-01

    The cerebral circulation is unique in its ability to maintain blood flow to the brain under widely varying physiologic conditions. Incorporating this autoregulatory response is critical to cerebral blood flow modeling, as well as investigations into pathological conditions. We discuss a one-dimensional nonlinear model of blood flow in the cerebral arteries that includes coupling of autoregulatory lumped parameter networks. The model is tested to reproduce a common clinical test to assess autoregulatory function - the carotid artery compression test. The change in the flow velocity at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during carotid compression and release demonstrated strong agreement with published measurements. The model is then used to investigate vasospasm of the MCA, a common clinical concern following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm was modeled by prescribing vessel area reduction in the middle portion of the MCA. Our model showed similar increases in velocity for moderate vasospasms, however, for serious vasospasm (~ 90% area reduction), the blood flow velocity demonstrated decrease due to blood flow rerouting. This demonstrates a potentially important phenomenon, which otherwise would lead to false-negative decisions on clinical vasospasm if not properly anticipated.

  9. Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Hemanta; Hazorika, Mousumi; Rajkhowa, Dipjyoti; Datta, Mrinmoy; Haldar, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of indigenous Ghungroo piglets in sub-tropical cold and humid climatic conditions of Tripura, a state of the north eastern hill (NEH) region of India. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 38 indigenous Ghungroo piglets from birth up to 60 days of age. Among the 38 piglets, 19 piglets were provided with supplemental heat ranging between 17.0°C and 21.1°C for the period of the first 30 days and thereafter between 24.1°C and 29.9°C for the next 30 days. The other 19 piglets were exposed to natural environmental minimum temperatures ranging between 7.2°C and 15.0°C during the first 30 days and then between 18.5°C and 25.5°C for the next 30 days. Results: The supplemental heat resulted in 10.6% reduction of piglet mortality from the 2nd till the 7th day of age. These beneficial effects could be related with the lower (p<0.05) plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and cortisol levels and higher (p<0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in heat supplemented group compared to control group. Plasma AP, GPT, glucose, triiodothyronine, and luteinizing hormone concentrations decreased (p<0.05) gradually with the advancement of age in both control and supplemental heat treated piglets. Conclusion: Supplemental heat could be beneficial since it is related to a reduction of piglet mortality during the first week of life under farm management system in the sub-tropical climate of NEH region of India. PMID:27182136

  10. Non-invasive in situ simultaneous measurement of multi-parameter mechanical properties of red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Huang, Yao-Xiong; Ji, Tao; Tu, Mei; Mao, Xuan; Chen, Wen-Xin; Chen, Guang-Wei

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new dynamic image analyzing technique that will give us the ability to measure the viscoelastic parameters of individual living red blood cells non-invasively, in situ and in real time. With this technique, the bending modulus KC, the shear elasticity mu and their ratio were measured under different temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and osmotic pressures. The results not only show the effects of external conditions on mechanical properties of cell membranes including deformability, flexibility, adhesive ability and plasticity, but also demonstrate that the technique can be used to measure cell membrane parameters continuously under several physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:15944754

  11. Immunological, ionic and biochemical responses in blood serum of the marine fish Trachinotus ovatus to poly-infection by Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Dan, Xueming; Li, Anxing

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the response of pompano fish (Trachinotus ovatus) to white spot disease, we used the protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans to infect live 450-g specimens at concentrations of 40,000 theronts/fish. We assessed the relative infection intensity (RII), serum immobilizing titer, and immunity-related enzyme activities (ACP, AKP, LZM), and assessed feeding, serum ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and K(+)) and blood biochemistry (ALT, AST, LDH) of pompano. The fish were then treated with a lethal dose of C. irritans (70,000 theronts/fish) and the number of deaths was recorded. We found that the relative infection intensities of the control group, group I, and group II were 0, 0.630 ± 0.179, and 0.014 ± 0.006. Poly-infection induced a significant increase in the serum immobilizing titer (853.33 ± 295.60) of group II. In terms of the biochemical assessment, group II had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities than the other groups, and the lowest lysozyme activity (P < 0.05), compared to higher activity in the control group and the highest level in group I. Only the fishes of group I had stopped feeding after treatment. The concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and Ca(2+) in blood serum did not differ significantly among the three groups, but K(+) concentration increased with the increasing infection frequency. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities in fish of group II were significantly higher than those of the other groups. Survival of the fish subjected to the lethal dose of C. irritans was 0, 0, and 100 in groups control, I, and II, respectively. In conclusions, based on the food intake of group II, along with the results of relative infection intensity, serum immobilizing titer, and survival, we speculate that the fish in that group acquired high protective immunity following poly-infection by C. irritans, experiencing limited harm for pompano. PMID:25917646

  12. Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity Oxidative Stress and Blood Lipoprotein Parameters in Volleyball Players and Sedentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokhan, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to measure, then compare sedentary blood lipoproteins, oxidant- antioxidant state and oxidative stress index in volleyball players. The experimental group of the research consists of regularly practising 20 boys between the ages of 12 and 17, and the control group comprises 32 children practising no particular sports branch, 12 of…

  13. Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity Oxidative Stress and Blood Lipoprotein Parameters in Volleyball Players and Sedentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokhan, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to measure, then compare sedentary blood lipoproteins, oxidant- antioxidant state and oxidative stress index in volleyball players. The experimental group of the research consists of regularly practising 20 boys between the ages of 12 and 17, and the control group comprises 32 children practising no particular sports branch, 12 of

  14. EFFECTS OF HEMORRHAGIC STRESS ON SEVERAL BLOOD PARAMETERS IN ADULT RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood was removed from ten adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on a sequential (7 days) weekly (4 weeks) and monthly (1 month) schedule and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein, acid phosphatase (AP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Of the parame...

  15. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity.

    PubMed

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of energy to cows which were similar in body condition score had only minor effects on periparturient immune system function and the metabolism of those cows. PMID:26479393

  16. The effect of Eucommia ulmoides leaf supplementation on the growth performance, blood and meat quality parameters in growing and finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Dae; Kim, Hoi Yun; Song, Young Min; Jung, Hyun Jung; Ji, Sang Yun; Jang, Hae Dong; Ryu, Jae Weon; Park, June Cheol; Moon, Hong Kil; Kim, In Cheul

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eucommia ulmoides leaf (EUL) supplementation on the growth performance, blood and meat quality parameters in growing and finishing pigs. Ninety gilts (L x LW x D, 20 kg initialBW) were housed 10 per pen in a front-open building with three replicate pens per treatment. Experimental treatment was started from the beginning of the growing stage (20 +/- 3 kg) by supplementing EUL at 0(C), 3(T1) and 5% (T2) to the growing and finishing diet. Pigs were slaughtered by electrical stunning at 105 +/- 3 kg live weight. Average daily feed intake (ADFI, kg/day) decreased (P < 0.05) by addition of EUL in growth performance, average daily gain (ADG, kg/day) was lower (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. In hematology, leukocytes (WBC, 10(3)/mm(3)) decreased (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. Erythrocytes (RBC, 10(6)/mm(3)), hemoglobin (HGB, g/dL) and hematocrit (HCT, %) increased (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. Platelet (PLT, 10(3)/mm(3)) was lower (P < 0.05) in T2 than in C and T1. In biochemical composition of serum, total protein (g/dL), r-GTP (micro/L), total cholesterol (mg/dL) and triglycerides (mg/dL) were lower (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. On longissimus dorsi muscle, crude protein was higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in C. Crude ash was higher (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. Yellow to blue color scale (CIE b*) in meat color was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 than in C. CIE b* in back fat color was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 than in the other treatments. In sensory evaluation scores for fresh meat, the values of meat color, fat color, drip loss and marbling were not significantly affected by addition of EUL. In cooked meat, the values of chewiness and overall acceptability were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. The results indicate that the addition of EUL affected growth performance, blood parameters and meat quality parameters in growing and finishing pigs. PMID:20163466

  17. Effects of niacin on milk production and blood parameters in early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Behnam; Vahdani, Narges; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the effects of niacin supplementation in the diet of high producing cows at early lactation, 21 holstein dairy cows were used in this experiment. Animal were assigned in to three groups based on their milk yield and calving date soon after parturition. They were received a basal diet and 0 (group 1), 6 (group 2), 12 (group 3) g of supplementation niacin per day over a 10 weeks experimental period. Milk volume was recorded and milk samples were collected for each cow at two weeks interval for analysis of fat, protein, lactose and SNF (Solid-None Fat). Blood samples were also taken for the measurement of glucose, triglyceride, Beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein at two weeks intervals. No significant difference were observed between milk yield, milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF content in cows received niacin compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Plasma glucose in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control were higher and this difference were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides were not significantly affected by niacin supplementation. BHBA were lower in cows received niacin and this difference were significant (p < 0.05). The trend of changes in the amount of blood total protein were identical in all three groups whole the level of this factor was always higher in control group compared to the others groups. Niacin has showed an increase in the level of plasma glucose and a notable decrease in the amount of blood triglyceride, beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein, which may be due to the effect of this vitamin on the energy metabolism in cows. PMID:18819645

  18. Hydro-Methanolic Extract of Cornus Mas L. and Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile and Hematological Parameters of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Bita; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Zakeri Milani, Parvin; Nourdadgar, Ashraf Sadat; Banan Khojasteh, Seyyed Mehdi; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cornus mas L, an olive-shaped red-colored single-seeded fruit, is used in traditional medicine in different parts of Europe and Asia. Objectives: In the present study, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, and the effects of 21 days of intraperitoneally (IP) administration of 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of C. mas hydro-methanolic extract on the rats hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The experimental study was carried out in Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: The hematology and biochemical tests were performed by the Technicon H1 Hematology Analyzer and enzymatic methods, respectively. Results: The results indicated that all doses of the extract caused significant (P < 0.05) decreases in the hemoglobin distribution width (HDW) (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2, P = 0.049) and platelet distribution width (PDW) (56.5 ± 1.8 vs. 63.9 ± 3.6, P = 0.001) of the treated groups vs. control group, whereas only high doses caused significant elevation in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (30.3 ± 0.8 vs. 28.6 ± 0.6, P = 0.047), mean platelet volume (MPV) (5.0 ± 0.6 vs. 4.1 ± 0.3, P = 0.002), total platelet mass (PCT) (0.33 ± 0.07 vs. 0.26 ± 0.01, P = 0.050), and significant decrease in the red cell distribution width (RDW) (13.8 ± 0.4 vs. 14.7 ± 1.3, P = 0.048) of the treated groups vs. control group. Conclusions: Decreasing effect of the extract on platelet activity might classify it as an alternative for antiplatelet therapy in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The results of this study suggested that further investigations with higher doses of C. mas fruit extract are necessary to obtain significant protective and nonprotective changes in hematological and biochemical parameters. PMID:25031858

  19. Basis of monitoring central blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters by peripheral arterial pulse waveform analyses.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro

    2013-01-01

    In hypertension clinics, central blood pressure (CBP) should be estimated, instead of directly measured, by the "signal processing" of a noninvasive peripheral pressure waveform. This paper deals with the data obtained in our three separate studies focusing on a major estimation method, i.e., radial artery late systolic shoulder pressure (rSBP2)-based CBP estimation. Study 1: Using a wave separation analysis of precise animal data of pressure wave transmission along the upper-limb arteries, we first demonstrate that pulse pressure amplification is largely attributable to local wave reflection alone. Study 2: A frequency component analysis of simultaneously recorded human central and radial artery pressure waveforms showed a predominance of lower (1st+2nd) harmonic components in determining the central augmentation peak amplitude. The features of a central pressure waveform, including its phase property, may contribute to the less-altered transmission of augmentation peak pressure to rSBP2. Study 3: Comparisons of noninvasive rSBP2 with direct or estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) revealed broad agreement but also augmentation-dependent biases. Based on the features of the biases as well as the counterbalanced relationship between pulse pressure amplification and the transmission-induced alterations of augmentation peak amplitude observed in Study 2, we propose an improved cSBP estimate, SBPm, the simple arithmetic mean of rSBP2 and peripheral systolic blood pressure. PMID:24109664

  20. Dried blood spots and sparse sampling: a practical approach to estimating pharmacokinetic parameters of caffeine in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Parul; Mulla, Hussain; Kairamkonda, Venkatesh; Spooner, Neil; Gade, Sonya; Della Pasqua, Oscar; Field, David J.; Pandya, Hitesh C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Dried blood spots (DBS) alongside micro‐analytical techniques are a potential solution to the challenges of performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in children. However, DBS methods have received little formal evaluation in clinical settings relevant to children. The aim of the present study was to determine a PK model for caffeine using a ‘DBS/microvolume platform’ in preterm infants. Methods DBS samples were collected prospectively from premature babies receiving caffeine for treatment of apnoea of prematurity. A non‐linear mixed effects approach was used to develop a population PK model from measured DBS caffeine concentrations. Caffeine PK parameter estimates based on DBS data were then compared with plasma estimates for agreement. Results Three hundred and thirty‐eight DBS cards for caffeine measurement were collected from 67 preterm infants (birth weight 0.6–2.11 kg). 88% of cards obtained were of acceptable quality and no child had more than 10 DBS samples or more than 0.5 ml of blood taken over the study period. There was good agreement between PK parameters estimated using caffeine concentrations from DBS samples (CL = 7.3 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 593 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 57 h) and historical caffeine PK parameter estimates based on plasma samples (CL = 4.9–7.9 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 640–970 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 101–144 h). We also found that changes in blood haematocrit may significantly confound estimates of caffeine PK parameters based on DBS data. Conclusions This study demonstrates that DBS methods can be applied to PK studies in a vulnerable population group and are a practical alternative to wet matrix sampling techniques. PMID:22822712

  1. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Eulaers, Igor; Eens, Marcel; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Einar Erikstad, Kjell; Johnsen, Trond; Schnug, Lisbeth; Rigét, Frank F; Jensen, Asger L

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled data showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), glucose and creatinine were significantly negatively correlated to various OHCs (all: p<0.05; r: -0.43 to -0.55; n=23), while alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), total protein, cholesterol, uric acid, total bilirubin, ratios protein:creatinine and uric acid:creatinine were significantly positively correlated to various OHCs (all: p<0.05; r: 0.43-0.96). Based on these relationships, we suggest that the OHC concentrations found in certain raptor chicks of Northern Scandinavia may impact blood plasma biochemistry in a way that indicates impacts on liver, kidney, bone, endocrinology and metabolism. In order to elaborate further on these relationships and mechanisms, we recommend that a larger study should take place in the near future. PMID:19800686

  2. Neonatal mortality from in utero exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Sprague-Dawley rats: dose-response, and biochemical and pharamacokinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Luebker, Deanna J; York, Raymond G; Hansen, Kristen J; Moore, John A; Butenhoff, John L

    2005-11-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a widely distributed, environmentally persistent acid found at low levels in human, wildlife, and environmental media samples. Neonatal mortality has been observed following PFOS exposure in a two-generation reproduction study in rats and after dosing pregnant rats and mice during gestation. Objectives of the current study were to better define the dose-response curve for neonatal mortality in rat pups born to PFOS-exposed dams and to investigate biochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters potentially related to the etiology of effects observed in neonatal rat pups. In the current study, additional doses of 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 2.0 mg/kg/day were included with original doses used in the two-generation study of 0.4 and 1.6 mg/kg/day in order to obtain data in the critical range of the dose-response curve. Biochemical parameters investigated in dams and litters included: (1) serum lipids, glucose, mevalonic acid, and thyroid hormones; (2) milk cholesterol; and (3) liver lipids. Pharmacokinetic parameters investigated included the interrelationship of administered oral dose of PFOS to maternal body burden of PFOS and the transfer of maternal body burden to the fetus in utero and pup during lactation, as these factors may affect neonatal toxicity. Dosing of dams occurred for 6 weeks prior to mating with untreated breeder males, through confirmed mating, gestation, and day four of lactation. Dose levels for the dose-response and etiological investigation were 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 mg/kg/day PFOS. Statistically significant decreases in gestation length were observed in the 0.8 mg/kg and higher dose groups. Decreases in viability through lactation day 5 were observed in the 0.8 mg/kg and higher dose groups, becoming statistically significant in the 1.6 and 2.0 mg/kg dose groups. Reduced neonatal survival did not appear to be the result of reductions in lipids, glucose utilization, or thyroid hormones. The endpoints of gestation length and decreased viability were positively correlated, suggesting that late-stage fetal development may be affected in pups exposed to PFOS in utero and may contribute to the observed mortality. Benchmark dose (BMD) estimates for decreased gestation length, birth weight, pup weight on lactation day 5, pup weight gain through lactation day 5, and viability resulted in values ranging from 0.27 to 0.89mg/kg/day for the lower 95% confidence limit of the BMD5 (BMDL5). Results of analyses for PFOS in biological matrices indicate a linear proportionality of mean serum PFOS concentration to maternal administered dose prior to mating and through the first two trimesters of gestation. However, at 21 days of gestation, mean serum PFOS concentrations were notably reduced from values measured earlier in gestation. Urinary and fecal elimination was low as expected from prior observations in adult rats. Significant transfer of PFOS from dam to fetus in utero was confirmed, and results suggest that dam and corresponding fetal body burdens, as indicated by serum and liver PFOS levels, correlate with neonatal survival. PMID:16129535

  3. The air-sea DMS exchange experiment at platform Noordwijk, Dutch coastal zone: I. Spatial and temporal variability of biochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefels, J.; Dacey, J. W. H.; Warneke, C.; Hintsa, E.; Zemmelink, H. J.

    2003-04-01

    One of the tasks within the project "Iron Resources and Ocean Nutrients - Advancement of Global Environmental Simulations" (IRONAGES) is to improve global ocean models with a functional description of the production of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in relation to biochemical parameters. Emission of DMS from sea to atmosphere and its subsequent oxidation in the atmosphere affects the radiative properties of skies and clouds and it is therefore an important parameter in climate models. The flux of DMS across the air-sea interface is, however, still inaccurately determined. Up to date, fluxes are calculated from the product of the concentration difference between sea and air (which is effectively equal to the sea water concentration) and a kinetic factor, known as the transfer velocity (k). Estimations of k vary by a factor of two. Moreover, the DMS concentration in the water is subject to a wide variety of biological, chemical and hydrographical processes. More accurate estimates of DMS-fluxes, can only be provided by direct flux measurements in combination with knowledge on the characteristics of the source area.. During a joint pilot study on platform "Noordwijk", 10 km off shore the Dutch coast, direct flux measurements were compared with the conventional estimation of the DMS-flux. DMS is produced by enzymatic cleavage of dimethylsulphonio-propionate (DMSP), a compound produced by marine algae. Both the production of DMSP and its conversion into DMS are subject to a complex set of processes, related to the functioning of the foodweb. In addition, the flux of DMS to the atmosphere is dependent on the wind speed and temperature and the background concentration of DMS in the atmosphere is affected by oxidation processes. Here, we present data on the temporal (daily) and spatial (in the fetch area of the platform) heterogeneity of biological and chemical parameters in this highly turbulent and heterogeneous area, and their relationship to the concentration of aqueous and atmospheric DMS. The results indicate that atmospheric background concentrations are correlated to the sea water concentration of DMS and to the heterogeneity of the passing water masses. In an accompanying presentation an elaboration will be given of the flux measurements.

  4. Effect of adriamycin on the morphology of the erythrocytes and blood parameters of the toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A; Osman, S I; Daabees, A Y; Toulan, B A

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the anticancer drug adriamycin on the morphology of the erythrocytes as well as some blood parameters were studied in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Injecting the toads subcutaneously in the dorsal lymph sac with adriamycin at a dose level of 2 mg/kg body weight once every three weeks for 12 weeks induced the formation of abnormalities in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the erythrocytes. Its administration also caused severe anaemia, since the number of red blood corpuscles, haemoglobin content and haematocrit values were obviously decreased throughout the whole experimental period. The total leucocytic count was also diminished. On the other hand, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased all over the experiment. PMID:1490008

  5. Effects of +G/sub x/ acceleration and aduetron on nuclei acid content and other parameters of mouse peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Minkova, M.I.; Nikolov, I.T.; Datsov, Y.R.; Pantev, T.P.; Tenchova, V.B.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of acceleration and adeturon, a radioprotector, on the content of nucleic acids and the count, composition and osmotic resistance of white and red blood cells was investigated. Male mice of the H strain were exposed to +20G sub x for 5 min. The above parameters were measured 1, 24, and 48 hours after the exposure. The nuclei acid content decreased significantly immediately after the exposure and tended to return to normal afterwards. The leucocyte count was increased during all observation periods, and the erythrocyte count was decreased 1 hour after the exposure. Osmotic resistance of white and red blood cells varied in a different manner after the exposure. Adeturon administered at optimal protective doses (300 mg/kg) modified regulatory mechanisms of the animal body.

  6. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values. PMID:26812808

  7. Tacrolimus in combination with FTY720--an analysis of renal and blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Ana Paula; Silva, Lea Bueno Lucas; Franco, Marcello; Burdmann, Emmanuel Almeida; Bueno, Valquiria

    2006-12-20

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are routinely used in immunosuppressive therapy and both Cyclosporine (CsA) and Tacrolimus (FK506) show similar efficacies to prevent rejection and death within the first year after organ transplantation. However, their use is limited by side effects such as kidney damage, hypertension, onset of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. It is a consensus that compared with CsA, FK506 causes less changes in blood pressures, serum lipids and renal function. Nevertheless, FK506 use is associated with a higher incidence of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). FTY720 is a new compound that has shown a protective effect in animal models with respect to rejection in transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury, autoimmune diseases and tumor development. FTY720 acts by altering lymphocytes homing from blood to peripheral lymphoid organs. In mice, FTY720 administered in combination with CsA during 21 days has prolonged skin allograft survival without causing significant renal changes. In a model of CsA-induced chronic nephropathy in rats, FTY720 administration prevented renal injury suggesting benefit from using a combination of these drugs. In a canine kidney allograft model, FTY720 in combination with low doses of CsA or FK506 showed an addictive anti-rejection effect without causing critical adverse effects. We therefore, investigated whether 21 days of FTY720 administration in association with FK506 could prevent renal damage and development of diabetes in mice. Mice receiving FK506 alone or FTY720 + FK506 during 21 days showed changes in kidney function and structure besides an increase in blood glucose and lymphopenia. The FTY720 + FK506 combination requires further investigation with an aim toward understanding the mechanisms involved with respect to side effects. PMID:17219691

  8. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

  9. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  10. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of curcumin on blood parameters, humoral immunity, and jejunum histology in Hy-line hens

    PubMed Central

    Arshami, Javad; Pilevar, Mohammad; Aami Azghadi, Mohammad; Raji, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn) is a medicinal plant that contains curcumin. There is a growing interest in using curcumin powder (CP) as feed additives for antioxidative and antimicrobial properties to improve human health. This study was conducted to determine the appropriate levels of CP on blood parameters, immunity, and histology of jejunum in hens. Materials and Methods: A total of 200, 58-wk-old Hy-line hens were randomly distributed into 4 treatments (0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5% CP or 0, 5, 15, and 25 g/kg feed, respectively) with 5 replicates (10 birds each) for 8 weeks using the completely randomized design. Blood samples were taken from 2 birds per replicate at weeks 61 and 65 to evaluate blood parameters. On weeks 63 and 65, two birds from each replicate received 0.5 ml SRBC (25%) injection in breast muscle and 7 days later, blood samples were collected to evaluate total Ig, IgG, and IgM titers in serum. Two hens were sacrificed at week 65 for the histological study of jejunum. Results: Curcumin reduced triglycerides at 1.5% and 2.5% and cholesterol and LDL at 2.5% (p<0.05). Improvement of total Ig and IgG titers after the 1st and 2nd injections were observed. Muscle thickness in jejunum increased (p<0.05) at 1.5% curcumin and the length and surface area of villus were enhanced as well. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that curcumin can be used as an antioxidant at 1.5% and antilipidemic agent at 2.5% in diet. PMID:25050272

  11. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract. PMID:26604360

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. PMID:25592965

  13. The treatment of bovine dermatophilosis and its effect on some haematological and blood chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Hamid, M E; Musa, M S

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated parenteral treatment of zebu cattle, with naturally and experimentally induced bovine dermatophilosis, in western Sudan, using four different antibiotic treatments. In terms of recovery rate, weight gain, avoiding relapse and preventing death, gentamycin was found to be the most effective treatment, followed by a combination of penicillin and streptomycin and, finally, long-acting oxytetracycline. However, enrofloxacin was not successful. A significant improvement in the red blood cell count was noticed among cattle treated with penicillin-streptomycin (p = 0.021) and gentamycin (p = 0.029). All treated cattle, except those treated with enrofloxacin, showed a significant improvement in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.021); mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.021), and white blood cell count (p < 0.021). Significant improvements were observed among treated cattle in their total levels of protein, calcium (p = 0.021) and cholesterol (p < 0.05), when compared to untreated cattle infected with Dermatophilus congolensis. This study recommends gentamycin as a drug of choice for the parenteral treatment of dermatophilosis. Treatment was not only effective in early, mild cases but also useful among moderately and heavily affected cattle. According to the observations of the authors, when no intervention took place, the condition of moderately and heavily affected cattle deteriorated and/or resulted in death. PMID:20462170

  14. A quantitative comparison of mechanical blood damage parameters in rotary ventricular assist devices: shear stress, exposure time and hemolysis index.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Katharine H; Zhang, Tao; Taskin, M Ertan; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2012-08-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have already helped many patients with heart failure but have the potential to assist more patients if current problems with blood damage (hemolysis, platelet activation, thrombosis and emboli, and destruction of the von Willebrand factor (vWf)) can be eliminated. A step towards this goal is better understanding of the relationships between shear stress, exposure time, and blood damage and, from there, the development of numerical models for the different types of blood damage to enable the design of improved VADs. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to calculate the hemodynamics in three clinical VADs and two investigational VADs and the shear stress, residence time, and hemolysis were investigated. A new scalar transport model for hemolysis was developed. The results were compared with in vitro measurements of the pressure head in each VAD and the hemolysis index in two VADs. A comparative analysis of the blood damage related fluid dynamic parameters and hemolysis index was performed among the VADs. Compared to the centrifugal VADs, the axial VADs had: higher mean scalar shear stress (sss); a wider range of sss, with larger maxima and larger percentage volumes at both low and high sss; and longer residence times at very high sss. The hemolysis predictions were in agreement with the experiments and showed that the axial VADs had a higher hemolysis index. The increased hemolysis in axial VADs compared to centrifugal VADs is a direct result of their higher shear stresses and longer residence times. Since platelet activation and destruction of the vWf also require high shear stresses, the flow conditions inside axial VADs are likely to result in more of these types of blood damage compared with centrifugal VADs. PMID:22938355

  15. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8-10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail. PMID:25243007

  16. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8–10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail. PMID:25243007

  17. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus). PMID:20806654

  18. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ahmed, Hela Ben

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change. PMID:26909467

  19. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    PubMed Central

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of energy to cows which were similar in body condition score had only minor effects on periparturient immune system function and the metabolism of those cows. PMID:26479393

  20. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and/or zinc chloride on biochemical parameters and mineral levels in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Amara, S; Slama, I Ben; Mrad, I; Rihane, N; Khemissi, W; El Mir, L; Rhouma, K Ben; Abdelmelek, H; Sakly, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential subacute toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in Wistar rats in comparison with reference toxicant, zinc chloride (ZnCl2), of a non-nanoparticulate form. We therefore studied the relationships between zinc (Zn) accumulation, liver and kidney trace element levels, and plasmatic biochemical parameters. Rats in all groups were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs and/or ZnCl2 solution (25 mg/kg) every other day for 10 days. The contents of trace element in the liver and kidney were slightly modulated after ZnO NPs and/or ZnCl2 solution exposure. The same treatment increased the aspartate aminotransferase activity and uric acid concentration. However, ZnO NPs or ZnCl2 solution decreased the creatinine levels, whereas the combined intake of ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 decreased the glucose concentration. Interestingly, the analysis of the lyophilized powder of liver using the x-ray diffractometer showed the degradation of ZnO NPs in ZnO-treated group, instead there is a lack of NPs ZnO biosynthesis from the ZnCl2 solution injected in rats. These investigations suggest that combined injection of ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 solution has a possible toxic effect in rats. This effect could be related to Zn(2+) ion release and accumulation of this element in organs. Our findings provide crucial information that ZnO appeared to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form. PMID:24501101

  1. Effects of supplementing rare earth element cerium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, S X; Wei, C; Zhao, G Y; Zhang, T T; Yang, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing rare earth element (REE) cerium (Ce) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4 ) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged at 14 months, with initial liveweight of 355 ± 8 kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannulas, were used as experimental animals. The cattle were fed with a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of concentrate mixture and corn silage. Four levels of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ·7H2 O, purity 99.9%), that is 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg CeCl3 /kg DM, were added to basal ration in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pre-treatment and the last 3 days were for sampling. The results showed that supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM increased neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (p < 0.05) and tended to increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility (p = 0.083). Supplementing CeCl3 at 80, 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate linearly (p < 0.05). Supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased total N excretion, urinary N excretion and increased N retention (p < 0.05), increased excretion of total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p < 0.05) and decreased CH4 /kg DMI (p < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM in the ration of beef cattle increased the digestibility of NDF, decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate, increased N retention and microbial N flow and decreased CH4 /kg DMI. PMID:25787979

  2. Towards noninvasive method for the detection of pathological tissue variations by mapping different blood parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Omar; Qananwah, Qasem; Abo Alam, Kawther; Bolz, Armin

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an early detection method for probing pathological tissue variations. The method could be used for classifying various tissue alteration namely tumors tissue or skin disorders. The used approach is based on light scattering and absorption spectroscopy. Spectral content of the scattered light provides diagnostic information about the tissue contents. The importance of this method is using a safe light that has less power than the used in the imaging methods that will enable the frequent examination of tissue, while the exiting modalities have drawbacks like ionization, high cost, time-consuming, and agents' usage. A modality for mapping the oxygen saturation distribution in tissues noninvasively is new in this area of research, since this study focuses on the oxygen molecule in the tissue which supposed to be homogenously distributed through the tissues. Cancers may cause greater vascularization and greater oxygen consumption than in normal tissue. Therefore, oxygen existence and homogeneity will be alternated depending on the tissue state. In the proposed system, the signal was extracted after illuminating the tissue by light emitting diodes (LED's) that emits light in two wavelengths, red (660 nm) and infrared (880 nm). The absorption in these wavelengths is mainly due to oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) while other blood and tissue contents nearly have low effect on the signal. The backscattered signal which is received by a photodiodes array (128 PDs) was measured and processed using LabVIEW. Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals have been measured at different locations. These signals will be used to differentiate between the normal and the pathological tissues. Variations in hemoglobin concentration and blood perfusion will also be used as an important indication feature for this purpose.

  3. Dopamine-β-Hydroxylase Activity and Levels of Its Cofactors and Other Biochemical Parameters in the Serum of Arsenicosis Patients of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Khalilur; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Arif, M.; Morshed, M. Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) is a neurotransmitter (catecholamine)-mediating enzyme, which catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine. The levels of DBH activity, its coenzyme (ascorbic acid) and cofactor (Cu++) and other biochemical parameters were measured in the serum of 32 arsenicosis patients of Bangladesh at three different age groups, namely, group 1 (10–18 years, 9 patients), group 2 (19–40 years, 14 patients) and group 3 (41–70 years, 9 patients) of the locality of Stadium Para of Meherpur district of Bangladesh. The values were compared with the same number of age-matched normal healthy individuals of the respective group. DBH activity was markedly decreased in the patients of group 1 as compared to that of the normal healthy people. The activities of DBH were decreased to lesser extents for the other two age groups. The total protein contents in the serum of arsenicosis patients were also significantly low as compared to that in the age-matched control groups. The levels of ascorbic acid and copper were found to be decreased in the serum of arsenicosis patients. The serum glucose levels were elevated in arsenicosis patients, as compared to that of the respective healthy controls. Other parameters, such as zinc and vitamin A levels were also decreased in the serum of arsenicosis patients. It was evident from the results of drinking of the arsenic contaminated water of shallow tube wells that the levels of DBH activity decreased significantly as compared to the control healthy persons. The levels of proteins, ascorbic acid, copper, zinc and vitamin A were decreased in the serum of people drinking the arsenic contaminated tube wells water as compared to that in the control healthy people with the exception that the levels of glucose were elevated in the serum of these patients. The pathophysiological significance of the results could be correlated with the decreased in proteins and that in DBH activities as DBH deficiency is characterized by lack of sympathetic noradrenergic function.The general physiologic findings of autonomic function indicate that complete DBH deficiency include minimal or absent plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine. PMID:24711750

  4. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  5. Organohalogen contaminants and Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in three colonies of North Atlantic Great skua (Stercorarius skua).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Leat, Eliza H K; Bourgeon, Sophie; Borgå, Katrine; Strøm, Hallvard; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Petersen, Aevar; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Magnusdottir, Ellen; Bustnes, Jan O; Furness, Robert W; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2013-06-01

    The present study compares blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) in birds from three geographically distinct North Atlantic Great skua (Stercorarius skua) colonies. Birds from these sites bioaccumulate different POP (persistent organic pollutant) concentrations and that enabled us to compare Great skua BCCPs in different exposure scenarios. Persistent organic pollutants (organochlorines: PCB, DDT, chlordanes, HCB, HCH, mirex and brominated flame retardants: PBDEs) and nineteen BCCPs were analysed in 114 adult Great skuas sampled during summer 2009 in North Atlantic colonies at Bjørnøya (n=42), Iceland (n=57) and Shetland (n=15). Specimens from Bjørnøya had the highest blood plasma concentrations of all contaminant groups followed by Iceland and Shetland birds, respectively (ANOVA: p<0.05). Most of the 19 BCCP parameters followed the pattern of colony differences found for contaminants, with Bjørnøya having the highest concentrations. However seven BCCPs, the three liver enzymes ALKP, ALAT and GGT as well as bile acids, cholesterol, sodium and potassium, did not differ between colonies (ANOVA: p>0.05). Therefore correlation analyses of these seven BCCPs vs. POPs were done on the combined colony data while the analyses of the remaining 12 BCCPs were carried out for each colony separately. The analyses of combined colony data showed that the blood plasma concentration of liver enzymes ALAT and GGT increased with increasing concentrations of ΣPBDE and ΣHCH, HCB and ΣCHL, respectively (all Pearson's p<0.05). In Great skuas from Shetland, the important osmotic transport protein albumin increased with increasing concentrations of ΣPCB and ΣDDT, while total blood plasma protein increased with ΣPCB, ΣDDT, ΣHCH and HCB concentrations (all Pearson's p<0.05). In both Bjørnøya and Iceland skuas, blood plasma pancreatic enzyme amylase decreased with increasing ΣHCH concentrations while the erythrocyte waste product total bilirubin in blood plasma increased with increasing ΣHCH and ΣPBDE concentrations in Iceland Great skuas (all Pearson's p<0.05). In Bjørnøya birds, blood plasma urea from protein metabolism (reflects kidney function) increased with increasing ΣPBDE concentrations (Pearson's p<0.05). Furthermore, a redundancy analysis showed that 10.6% of the variations in BCCPs could be explained by the variations in POP concentrations. Based on these results we suggest that liver and renal functions could be negatively affected by different POP compounds. It is, however, uncertain if the colony BCCP differences and their relationship to POP concentrations reflect health effects that could have an overall impact on the populations via reduced survival and reproduction parameters. PMID:23537726

  6. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    PubMed

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented. PMID:24707065

  7. Changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens due to growth hormone and testosterone injection.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, H; Ansari-Pirsaraei, Z

    2014-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens after injection of different doses of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (Ts). A total of 160 old laying hens (HyLine W-36) at 73 weeks of age were weighed individually and randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates and 10 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Growth hormone and Ts hormones were injected subcutaneously. Treatment groups were as follows: treatment 1: injection of 100 μl distiled water (control group), treatment 2: injection of 500 μg Ts/kg live-weight + 50 μgGH/kg live-weight, treatment 3: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 100 μgGH/kg live-weight and treatment 4: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 150 μgGH/kg live-weight. Plasma levels of oestradiol, T4 , LDL, HDL and cholesterol significantly increased in treatment 3 in relation to the control group. All injected hens showed significantly higher levels of glucose in relation to control group. The results showed the positive effects of GH and Ts administration on production performance and blood parameters which are associated with egg production potentiality and in turn may improve reproductivity (egg production) in old laying hens. The positive results of the study may be useful in animal selection and breeding programmes. PMID:23808354

  8. Influence of diets supplemented with vitamins C and E on pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) blood parameters.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Jaqueline Ins Alves; Ono, Eduardo Akifumi; de Menezes, Glauber Cruz; Brasil, Elenice Martins; Roubach, Rodrigo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmo

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets supplemented with 500, 800, 1200 mg kg-1 of vitamin C (ascorbic acid or AA) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol or alpha-T) on the physiological responses of pirarucu fed for 2 months. Weight and mortality were not affected by dietary vitamin type or their concentrations. Significant increase (p<0.05) on the red blood cells count was obtained on treatments with 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 and on the hemoglobin concentration on treatment with 500 mg alpha-T kg-1 relatively to control. Mean corpuscular volume presented a significant decrease (p<0.05) on treatment with 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 when compared to control. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly high (p<0.05) on treatment with 500 mg alpha-T kg-1. Only in vitamin C treatments, we noticed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the number of leucocytes relative to control. All fish in the vitamin-supplemented treatments, except 500 mg AA kg-1, had high total protein values compared to control. Fish treated with 800 or 1200 mg alpha-T kg-1 also showed increases in plasma glucose concentrations. Our results suggest that 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 are probably the most suitable concentrations for pirarucu diets, although high vitamin E diets are not necessary for quantitative leucocyte increases for this species. PMID:16716624

  9. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

    1988-01-01

    Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research. PMID:3349406

  10. Feeding heat-treated colostrum to neonatal dairy heifers: effects on growth characteristics and blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Heinrichs, A J

    2009-07-01

    Newborn Holstein heifer calves were studied to compare absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG(1) and IgG(2)), total serum protein concentration, lymphocyte counts, health scores, growth, and starter intake after receiving unheated or heat-treated colostrum. First-milking colostrum was collected from Holstein cows and frozen at -20 degrees C to accumulate a large batch. After thawing and mixing, half of the colostrum was transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers and frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. The remaining half was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers, and then frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. Forty heifer calves weighing > or =32 kg at birth were enrolled into 1 of 2 treatment groups before suckling occurred. For the first feeding, 3.8 L of colostrum was bottle fed by 1.5 to 2 h of age. For the second and third feedings, pasteurized whole milk at 5% of birth body weight (BW) was fed. Subsequently, calves received milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 10% of birth BW/d until wk 5. Milk replacer was reduced to 1 feeding of 5% birth BW until weaning at 6 wk of age. Blood samples and growth data were collected through wk 8. Batch heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 degrees C for 30 min lowered colostrum bacteria concentration while maintaining colostral IgG concentration and viscosity. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum had significantly greater IgG concentrations at 24 h and greater apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (IgG = 23.4 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 33.2%) compared with calves fed unheated colostrum (IgG = 19.6 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 27.7%). There was no difference between treatment groups in growth measurements, calf starter intake, lymphocyte counts, or health scores. PMID:19528603

  11. [Blood parameters variation in Calomys musculinus infected with Junin virus, strain XJCl3].

    PubMed

    Steyerthal, N L; Lampuri, J S; Coto, C E

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the alterations in homeostasis induced by Junin virus during acute and persistent infection of C. musculinus. Virus presence in brain, hematological response and glycemia levels were evaluated. Newborn C. musculinus inoculated with 4000 DL50 of Junin virus, strain XJCl3 by intraperitoneal route developed a typical acute disease, with 50-70% mortality. Virus was isolated from brain starting day 6 post-infection (Fig. 1) and the peak titer (10(8) DL50/ml) was reached at 12 days post-infection. Neutralizing anti-Junin virus antibodies were detected from day 11 post-infection and all chronically infected animals developed persistent levels of neutralizing antibodies. In the acute stage of infection, 40% of the animals developed lymphopenia and neutrophilia (Fig. 2) while a slight variation was observed in the monocyte population. An important hypoglycemia was also seen in the acute infection (mean = 3.52 mmol/l) in comparison with control values (mean = 6.21 mmol/l), p less than 0.01 (Fig. 3). By contrast during the chronic stage of infection, neither hematological parameters (Table 2) varied between infected and control animals. PMID:1966622

  12. Phthalate Levels in Cord Blood Are Associated with Preterm Delivery and Fetal Growth Parameters in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujing; Li, Junnan; Garcia, Jose M.; Lin, Hui; Wang, Yanzhou; Yan, Ping; Wang, Lingqiao; Tan, Yao; Luo, Jiaohua; Qiu, Zhiqun; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    Data concerning the effects of phthalate exposure on preterm delivery and fetal growth are limited in humans. In this paper, we assessed the relationship between 15 phthalate levels in cord blood and preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in 207 Chinese women going into labor. Exposure to phthalates except DCHP was associated with gestational age reduction and preterm delivery (p<0.05). There were associations between phthalates and fetal growth parameters, many of which disappeared when analyses were adjusted for gestational age, especially in male infants (Only DEEP was associated with birth weight; DEP, DNHP, BBP, DNP with abdominal circumference; DEP, DBP, DCHP, DEHP with femur length in female infants. And DPP, DBEP was associated with birth length in male infants. p<0.05). This study indicates that prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with younger gestational age and preterm delivery. Also, phthalate exposure may adversely affect fetal growth parameters via gestational age reduction and preterm delivery with a significant gender effect. PMID:24503621

  13. The effect of low-sodium dialysate on ambulatory blood pressure measurement parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Tosu, Aydin Rodi; Asker, Muntecep; Yaman, Mehmet; Babat, Naci; Soyoral, Yasemin; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Gur, Ali Kemal; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease is related to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorder among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-sodium dialysate on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels detected by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) in patients undergoing sustained HD treatment. Patients and methods The study included 46 patients who had creatinine clearance levels less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 and had been on chronic HD treatment for at least 1 year. After the enrollment stage, the patients were allocated low-sodium dialysate or standard sodium dialysate for 6 months via computer-generated randomization. Results Twenty-four hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP were significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group (P<0.05). No significant reduction was observed in both groups in terms of 24-hour DBP and daytime DBP (P=NS). No difference was found in the standard sodium dialysate group in terms of ABPM. Furthermore, IDWG was found to be significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group after 6 months (P<0.001). Conclusion The study revealed that low-sodium dialysate leads to a decrease in ABPM parameters including 24-hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP and it also reduces the number of antihypertensive drugs used and IDWG. PMID:26715849

  14. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  15. Deoxynivalenol in chicken feed alters the vaccinal immune response and clinical biochemical serum parameters but not the intestinal and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Zebeli, Q; Böhm, J

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) feeding either alone or in combination with a microbial feed additive (MFA) on the immune response to a viral vaccine and serum clinical chemical parameters. Forty 1-day-old boiler chicks were weighed and randomly divided into four groups, 10 birds in each group: (i) control group fed with basal diet; (ii) DON group fed with basal diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; (iii) DON + MFA group fed with basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed; and (iv) MFA group fed with basal diet supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed. At 35 days of age, birds were slaughtered and blood was collected for investigating the antibody titre against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and clinical chemical parameters. The results showed that DON reduced (p = 0.032) the titre against IBV, decreased (p = 0.005) the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) (4.2 ± 0.5 U/l) compared with control birds (6.4 ± 0.5 U/l), increased (p = 0.002) the serum cholesterol concentration (144 ± 6 mg/dl) compared with their control counterparts (123 ± 5 mg/dl) and increased (p = 0.074) the amount of circulating triglycerides (62.25 ± 7.50 mg/dl) compared with controls (39.55 ± 4.74). These results indicate that dietary DON altered the humoral immune response to viral vaccine and affected the serum clinical biochemistry. However, DON in combination with MFA did not affect serum IBV titre. Taken together, DON in the feed of broilers produced an impairment of the success of IBV vaccine and affected the health of birds. PMID:25900321

  16. Blood parameters in fattening pigs fed whole-ear corn silage and housed in group pens or in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Petrera, F; Dal Prà, A; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of whole-ear corn silage (WECS) in diets for advanced fattening heavy pigs (substitution for part of the dry corn and wheat bran) allocated or not in metabolic cages on the main blood parameters. The high-moisture shelled corn is largely used in pig feeding while WECS is less often used despite the fact that it increases the DM crop yield. Three experimental diets were fed to 27 barrows (Italian Large White × Italian Duroc), with an average BW of 98.2 (±5.6) kg at the start of the trial, and randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups including a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals (corn, barley, and wheat, 80.2% DM in total), soybean meal (9% DM), wheat bran (8% DM), minerals and supplements (2.8% DM), and 2 diets containing WECS (15 or 30% DM referred to as 15WECS and 30WECS, respectively) in partial or complete substitution for wheat bran and corn meal. The pigs were randomly housed in 9 pens with 3 animals per pen and 3 pens per dietary treatment. Six pigs per each of the 3 treatments were moved from the pens to individual metabolic cages for 3 consecutive periods (2 pigs per treatment per period). Each period lasted 14 d, and blood was collected at the start and at the end of the periods. Blood was drawn from the jugular vein before feed distribution in the morning, at 14 d intervals, and analyzed for hematological, metabolic, and serum protein profiles. The effect of the metabolic cage housing was included in the statistical model to compare the results obtained in the 2 different environments of restrained and group-housed barrows. The WECS affected the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The main diet effect on plasma metabolites was recorded for plasma NEFA, with higher values in WECS diets compared with the CON. The metabolic cage housing affected both hematological (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) and metabolic (protein and its fractions) items, which can be markers of hemodilution. These results indicate the possibility to use this feed in the diet of heavy pigs without negative effects on physiology. The absolute values from metabolic profile of pigs in metabolic cages must be considered with caution for possible comparisons with values obtained on-field in group pens, particularly because a different hemodilution may affect the results. PMID:26440170

  17. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  18. Preliminary studies on Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Berg.) and Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. aqueous extract: weight control and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Biavatti, M W; Farias, C; Curtius, F; Brasil, L M; Hort, S; Schuster, L; Leite, S N; Prado, S R T

    2004-08-01

    An infusion of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves (Guabiroba) and the herb Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. (Lythraceae) (Sete-sangrias) is traditionally used in the South of Brazil to treat high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effects of the aqueous extracts of these herbs were investigated in rats fed on a high calorie diet. Chronic treatment with the Guabiroba aqueous extract induced a significant reduction in weight gain in the rats, compared to the control group. Also, biochemical analysis showed that this treatment reduced the glycemia, while no effects on lipidic levels were observed. The biochemical analysis of the animals treated with Sete-sangrias aqueous extract showed no effect on glucose and triglyceride levels, while chronic treatment with the Sete-sangrias aqueous extract induced a significant reduction in plasma cholesterol in rats. PMID:15234782

  19. Reducing the number of parameters in 1D arterial blood flow modeling: less is more for patient-specific simulations

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Sally; Willemet, Marie; Chowienczyk, Phil J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-specific one-dimensional (1D) blood flow modeling requires estimating model parameters from available clinical data, ideally acquired noninvasively. The larger the number of arterial segments in a distributed 1D model, the greater the number of input parameters that need to be estimated. We investigated the effect of a reduction in the number of arterial segments in a given distributed 1D model on the shape of the simulated pressure and flow waveforms. This is achieved by systematically lumping peripheral 1D model branches into windkessel models that preserve the net resistance and total compliance of the original model. We applied our methodology to a model of the 55 larger systemic arteries in the human and to an extended 67-artery model that contains the digital arteries that perfuse the fingers. Results show good agreement in the shape of the aortic and digital waveforms between the original 55-artery (67-artery) and reduced 21-artery (37-artery) models. Reducing the number of segments also enables us to investigate the effect of arterial network topology (and hence reflection sites) on the shape of waveforms. Results show that wave reflections in the thoracic aorta and renal arteries play an important role in shaping the aortic pressure and flow waves and in generating the second peak of the digital pressure and flow waves. Our novel methodology is important to simplify the computational domain while maintaining the precision of the numerical predictions and to assess the effect of wave reflections. PMID:25888513

  20. Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: part I. Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organs development.

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Gu, H; Chang, L L; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

    2013-05-01

    Daidzein, an estrogen-like product, becomes increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals seeking a safe natural alternative to play a role of estrogen. However, there is little available safety data of it for raisers and consumers. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if the high-dose daidzein could affect the safety of hens selves, including laying performance, clinical blood parameters and organs development. Seven hundred and sixty-eight 56-week-old Hyline Brown were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 replicates of 24 birds each and 3weeks later fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg of daidzein/kg for 12weeks. The mortality was significantly decreased (P<0.05). No treatment related adverse clinical signs were observed. Mean egg production, egg mass and feed conversion of whole experiment period was significantly influenced by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05), showing significant quadratic response to increasing dietary daidzein supplement (P=0.029, P=0.003 and P=0.019, respectively). There was no statistically significant changes in haematology (P>0.05). In clinical chemistry parameters, total protein, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus were significantly affected by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be 50mg/kg. PMID:23391597

  1. Blood parameters as biomarkers of cadmium and lead exposure and effects in wild wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) living along a pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Tête, Nicolas; Afonso, Eve; Bouguerra, Ghada; Scheifler, Renaud

    2015-11-01

    Small mammal populations living on contaminated sites are exposed to various chemicals. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), two well-known nonessential trace metals, accumulate in different organs and are known to cause multiple adverse effects. To develop nonlethal markers in ecotoxicology, the present work aimed to study the relationships between blood parameters (hematocrit, leukocyte levels and granulated erythrocyte levels) and Cd and Pb concentrations in the soil and in the liver and kidneys of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Individuals were trapped along a pollution gradient with high levels of Cd, Pb and zinc (Zn) contamination. The results indicated that hematological parameters were independent of individual characteristics (age and gender). Blood parameters varied along the pollution gradient, following a pattern similar to the accumulation of Cd in the organs of the wood mice. No relationship was found between the blood parameters studied and Pb concentrations in the organs or in the environment. The hematocrit and leukocyte number decreased with increasing concentrations of Cd in the kidneys and/or in the liver. Moreover, the hematocrit was lower in the animals that were above the thresholds (LOAELs) for Cd concentrations in the liver. These responses were interpreted as a warning of potential negative effects of Cd exposure on the oxygen transport capacity of the blood (e.g., anemia). The present results suggest that blood parameters, notably hematocrit, may offer a minimally invasive biomarker for the evaluation of Cd exposure in further ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25559174

  2. Meat quality, oxidative stability and blood parameters from Graylag geese offered alternative fiber sources in growing period.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary fiber sources on the meat quality, oxidative stability, and blood parameters of growing Graylag geese (28-112d) were investigated. The birds were randomly allocated into 4 treatments, of which dietary fiber was mainly from corn straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS). No influence (P>0.05) on the basic chemical components, oxidative stability, or organoleptic traits of muscle were observed, except that birds fed SECS had a higher (P<0.05) protein proportion than those fed CSS or SERS, and CSS increased (P<0.01) the cholesterol content when compared to SEWS or SERS. Regarding fatty acid profile in meat, CSS and SECS increased (P<0.01) the proportion of C18:2n6t and decreased that of C21:0 and C22:0 when compared to the others. The birds fed SERS had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of C20:0 and C22:0 than the others, a higher proportion of C20:5n3, n-3 fatty acids, Δ-9 desaturase (18) index compared to those fed CSS or SECS, and a lower (P<0.01) proportion of C20:1n9 than those fed SECS or SEWS. Additionally, SEWS resulted in a higher (P<0.01) proportion of C20:2 when compared to the others. In conclusion, these fibers affect just the protein proportion, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of breast muscle, along with the concentration of TG and MDA in blood, but not the other characteristics. No superior fiber source exists with respect to meat quality, suggesting that Graylag geese feeding should make the most economically of the convenient fiber source with appropriate pretreatment. PMID:25717090

  3. Effect of short-term scrotal hyperthermia on spermatological parameters, testicular blood flow and gonadal tissue in dogs.

    PubMed

    Henning, H; Masal, C; Herr, A; Wolf, K; Urhausen, C; Beineke, A; Beyerbach, M; Kramer, S; Günzel-Apel, A-R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs on quantitative and qualitative ejaculate parameters, testicular blood flow and testicular and epididymal histology. After a control period, the scrotum of seven normospermic adult beagle dogs was insulated with a self-made suspensory for 48 h. Nine weeks later, two animals were castrated, while in five animals, scrotal hyperthermia was repeated. Dogs were castrated either 10 or 40 days thereafter. In each phase of scrotal insulation, average scrotal surface temperature increased by 3.0°C. Semen was collected twice weekly throughout the experiment. Total sperm count did not change after the first hyperthermia, but it slightly decreased after the second (p < 0.05). Profiles of sperm morphology and velocity parameters (CASA) rather indicated subtle physiological variations in sperm quality than effects of a local heat stress. Chromatin stability of ejaculated spermatozoa as indicated by SCSA remained constant throughout the experiment. Perfusion characteristics of the gonads, that is, systolic peak velocity, pulsatility and resistance index at the marginal location of the testicular artery, did not change due to hyperthermia (p > 0.05). Histological examination of excised testes and epididymides for apoptotic (TUNEL and activated caspase-3) and proliferating cells (Ki-67 antigen) indicated only marginal effects of scrotal insulation on tissue morphology. In conclusion, a mild short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs does not cause substantial changes in sperm quantity and quality. In contrast to other species, canine testes and epididymides may have a higher competence to compensate such thermal stress. PMID:24428565

  4. Seasonal variation in meteorological parameters and office, ambulatory and home blood pressure: predicting factors and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Myrsilidi, Aikaterini; Kollias, Anastasios; Destounis, Antonios; Roussias, Leonidas; Kalogeropoulos, Petros

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between seasonal variations in blood pressure (BP) and the corresponding changes in meteorological parameters and weather-induced patients' discomfort. Hypertensives on stable treatment were assessed in winter-1, summer and winter-2 with clinic (CBP), home (HBP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP). Discomfort indices derived from temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure that reflected subjects' discomfort were evaluated. Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension was assessed with a questionnaire. Sixty subjects (mean age 65.1±8.8 [s.d.], 39 men) were analyzed. CBP, HBP and daytime ABP were lower in summer than in winter (P<0.01). Nighttime ABP was unchanged, which resulted in a 55% higher proportion of non-dippers (P<0.001). All the discomfort indices that reflected weather-induced subjects' discomfort were higher in summer (P<0.05) and systolic daytime ABP was <110 mm Hg in 15 subjects (25%). Seasonal changes in temperature and the discomfort indices were correlated with BP changes (P<0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that winter BP levels, seasonal differences in temperature, female gender and the use of diuretics predicted the summer BP decline. In conclusion, all aspects of the BP profile, except nighttime ABP, are reduced in summer, resulting in an increased prevalence of non-dippers in summer with unknown consequences. Seasonal BP changes are influenced by changes in meteorological parameters, anthropometric and treatment characteristics. Trials are urgently needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of excessive BP decline in summer and management guidelines for practicing physicians should be developed. PMID:26333360

  5. Expression of candidate genes related to metabolism, immunity and cellular stress during massive mortality in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica larvae in relation to biochemical and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Genard, Bertrand; Moraga, Dario; Pernet, Fabrice; David, Elise; Boudry, Pierre; Tremblay, Réjean

    2012-05-10

    Quantification of mRNA of genes related to metabolism, immunity and cellular stress was examined in relation to a massive mortality event during the culture of American oyster larvae, Crassostrea virginica which was probably, in regard to previous microbiological analysis, induced by Vibrio infection. To document molecular changes associated with the mortality event, mRNA levels were compared to biochemical and physiological data, previously described in a companion paper. Among the 18 genes studied, comparatively to the antibiotic control, 10 showed a lower relative gene expression when the massive mortality occurred. Six of them are presumed to be related to metabolism, corroborating the metabolic depression associated with the mortality event suggested by biochemical and physiological analyses. Relationships between the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, and the mRNA abundance of genes linked to oxidative stress, cytoprotection, and immune response are also discussed. Finally, we observed an increase in the transcript abundance of two genes involved in apoptosis and cell regulation simultaneously with mortality, suggesting that these processes might be linked. PMID:22417898

  6. a statistical model based on serological parameters for predicting occult HBV infection: implications for organ/ blood donations.

    PubMed

    Coen, Sabrina; Angeletti, Claudio; Piselli, Pierluca; Tronchin, Michele; Vincenti, Donatella; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Galli, Claudio; Menzo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of hepatitis B virus by donors with occult HBV infection (OBI) is a threat for blood transfusion and organ/tissue transplantation. The risk of carrying HBV DNA is currently not predictable by simple serologic markers, while HBV DNA testing is not universally deployed. This study evaluated an integrated serologic approach for assessing this risk. Anti-HBc positive subjects (461 HIV-negative, 262 HIV-positive) were selected for the study. Serology was analyzed by a commercial CMIA technique. HBV DNA was analyzed by both commercial and home-brew real-time amplification assays. A penalized maximum likelihood logistic approach was used to analyze the data. In HBsAg-negative subjects (HIV-negative), anti-HBc signal/cut off values, the presence of anti-HBc IgM, the absence of anti-HBsAg, and the absence of anti-HCV were correlated to the probability of finding circulating HBV DNA. A model for predicting HBV DNA presence by 4 serological parameters is therefore proposed. The predictive value of the logistic model based on simple serologic markers may represent a reasonable tool for the assessment of HBV transmission risk by transfusion or organ/tissue donation in the context of limited resources and where nucleic acid testing is not performed. In addition, it may be helpful for assessing the risk of reactivation in immunosuppressed OBI patients. PMID:25742146

  7. Effects of emodin and vitamin C on growth performance, biochemical parameters and two HSP70s mRNA expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jianhua; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao; Ge, Xianping; Liu, Wenbin; Ye, Jinyun

    2012-05-01

    In order to study the effects of dietary emodin, high-dose vitamin C (Vc) and their combination on growth of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Y.) and its resistance to high temperature stress, 1200 healthy Wuchang bream with initial body weight of 133.44 ± 2.11 g were randomly divided into four groups: a control group fed with basal diet (containing 50.3 mg/kg Vc) and three treated groups fed with basal diets supplemented with 60 mg/kg emodin, 700 mg/kg Vc, and the combination of 60 mg/kg emodin + 700 mg/kg Vc, respectively. After feeding for 60 days, the growth performance of Wuchang bream was measured. Then 25 fish per tank were exposed to heat stress of 34 °C. The biochemical parameters of blood and liver, and expression levels of liver two HSP70s mRNA before and after heat stress were determined and the cumulative mortality of each group under heat stress was counted. The results showed that before stress, compared with the control, the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), serum total protein (TP), lysozyme (LSZ), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and expression level of HSP70 mRNA significantly increased in emodin and Vc groups while feed conversion rate (FCR), serum cortisol (COR), triglyceride (TG) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) contents decreased (P < 0.05); liver catalase (CAT) activity also significantly increased in emodin group (P < 0.05). Although serum TP, LSZ, and liver HSP70 mRNA levels significantly increased and liver MDA level decreased in combination group (P < 0.05), no synergism was observed. After heat stress, compared with the control, the serum TP, LSZ, ALP levels, liver SOD, CAT activities, and expression levels of HSC70 and HSP70 mRNAs increased in emodin and Vc groups in varying degrees and serum COR, glucose, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), TG and liver MDA levels decreased to some extent. Although these parameters had similar changing trend as above ones in combination group, it did not show any synergism either. Statistics showed that under heat stress, the cumulative mortalities of emodin and Vc groups, except at 6 h in emodin group, were significantly lower than that of the control (P < 0.05) while the difference between the combination and control groups was not significant (P > 0.05). Thus, the basal diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg emodin or 700 mg/kg Vc could promote the growth of Wuchang bream, reduce FCR, increase non-specific immunity of fish, antioxidant capacity, and two HSP70s mRNA expression levels, and enhance resistance to heat stress in fish. However, the combination of emodin and high-dose Vc showed no better effect. PMID:22281609

  8. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with significant acute enhancement of sperm parameters and with increased concentrations of serum T, LH, and FSH. Improvement of sperm parameters were significantly better in the ETx group verses the TTx group. These “acute” effects on spermiogenesis are reached with an unknown mechanism/s and suggest a number of pathways that need further human and/or experimental studies. PMID:24381868

  9. Effect of clenbuterol on cardiopulmonary parameters and intramuscular blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized ponies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong H.; Clarke, Kathleen W.; Alibhai, Hatim I. K.

    1994-09-01

    The cardiopulmonary affects and the affects on muscular microperfusion of the beta adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol (0.8 mcg/kg intravenously), were investigated in dorsally recumbent anesthetized ponies. Muscle microcirculation was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, utilizing fine optical fiber probes. Other measurements included heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, and arterial blood gas tensions. Clenbuterol injection caused a regular, but transitory rise in muscle microcirculation, an increase in heart rate, and cardiac output and a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. Clenbuterol did appear to prevent the continuing fall in arterial blood oxygen tensions seen in the treatment groups, but had only minimal affects in reversing the hypoxia already present.

  10. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  11. [Different CO2-stunning procedures and post mortem obtained lung lesions in response to the corneal reflex and parameters in blood of slaughtered pigs].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Helmut; Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Wolf, Katharina; Rindermann, Georg; Fries, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different CO2-stunning on the corneal reflex response and blood parameters in (arterio-venous) killing blood was investigated in n = 614 slaughter pigs (carcass weight = 92-94 kg) at two different abattoirs. CO2-anaesthesia lead to remarkable decrease of PO2 (hypoxaemia), increase of PCO2 (hypercapnia), decrease of pH (respiratory acidosis) and increase of [strong ion difference = SID3] (basic reaction caused by electrolytes). Pigs with subclinical post mortem obtained lung lesions showed no significant modified value of the reflex answer or changes in parameters of killing blood compared to the animals with healthy lungs. The CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and 120 s exposure time resulted in notably less undesired positive reflex responses (6% of slaughter pigs) than the CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and only 90 s exposure time (15% of slaughter pigs). The occurence of the positive reflex response, which means an inadequate depth of anaesthesia, in slaughter pigs can be safely eliminated by use of qualified cut off values of killing blood parameters. These parameters can be measured rapidly and validly with ion-sensitive electrodes, making a beneficial monitoring of the used CO2-stunning possible. PMID:19863003

  12. The effects of accelerated growth rates and estrogen implants in prepubertal Holstein heifers on growth, feed efficiency, and blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Lammers, B P; Heinrichs, A J; Kensinger, R S

    1999-08-01

    Sixty-eight Holstein heifers were used to determine the effects of accelerated growth rates by increased nutrient intake and estrogen implants on feed efficiency, structural growth, and blood parameters in heifers between 19 and 39 wk of age. At the beginning of the treatment period, the heifers were assigned to one of four treatment groups by using a randomized complete block design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The treatments were standard growth rate (700 g/d), accelerated growth rate (1000 g/d), standard growth rate with an estradiol implant, and accelerated growth rate with an estradiol implant. All heifers received the same diet, but dry matter intake was adjusted weekly to achieve the target rate of gain. Accelerating heifer growth rates from 705 to 1007 g/d improved feed efficiency 5.1%, increased the rate of withers height, heart girth, and hip width growth 12, 27, and 27%, respectively, and body condition scores 0.25 points. Estradiol implants improved feed efficiency 2.4% and decreased the rate of withers height 6% and heart girth growth 3.5%. Increased nutrient intake and average daily gain depressed mean plasma growth hormone and urea nitrogen content 17 and 7%, respectively, while elevating insulin-like growth factor-1 levels by 10%. Estradiol implants increased mean plasma growth hormone content by 29% and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels by 17%, but decreased urea nitrogen content by 11%. Feeding prepubertal heifers for accelerated growth rates increased structural growth with a small increase in body condition, whereas estradiol implants improved feed efficiency and decreased the growth rate of withers height and heart girth without affecting the rate of hip width growth. PMID:10480101

  13. Effect of graded physical load on the state of the liver from morphometric data and biochemical blood indices of rats against a background of hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikityuk, B. A.; Kogan, B. I.; Yermolyev, V. A.; Tindare, L. V.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted on 100 sexually immature inbred August and Wistar male rats in order to determine the effects hypokinesia, physical load and phenamine on the liver. Weight and linear dimension fell in hypokinesia; total serum protein lowered and aldolase and cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein levels rose. Blood sugar content rose and liver glycogen fell. Interlinear differences of these indices are found. Rehabilitated physical loading against hypokinesia background diminished and at times completely prevented its negative effect. Extent of correction depended on animal species. Evidence of genotypical conditionality of organism adaptation to physical load in hypokinesia was found.

  14. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  15. The effect of hormone therapy on biochemical and ultrasound parameters associated with atherosclerosis in 46,XY DSD individuals with female phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tsimaris, Pantelis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Athanasopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Rizos, Demetrios; Papamichael, Christos; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mastorakos, George; Creatsas, George

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormone therapy (HT) in the endothelial function of 46,XY disorders of sexual development (DSD) patients with female phenotype. Biochemical and ultrasound measurements were performed in 20 patients at initiation of oral 2 mg 17β-estradiol/1 mg norethisterone acetate, and after 6 months of therapy. Lipid profile, including total cholesterol (TC), LDL, HDL, triglycerides (TG) and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as well as levels of VE-Cadherin, E-Selectin, Thrombomodulin and vWf were determined. Ultrasonographic examinations included evaluation of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and measurement of Carotid and Femoral Intima Media Thickness (IMT). HT raised HDL (35.4 mg/dl versus 40.1 mg/dl, p = 0.019) while lowering TG (166 mg/dl versus 109 mg/dl, p = 0.026) and AIP (0.24 versus 0.04, p = 0.007). No changes were noted in TC and LDL (215.7 mg/dl versus 192.25 mg/dl and 87.46 mg/dl versus 76.35 mg/dl, respectively). There was significant reduction of VE-Cadherin (4.05 ng/ml versus 2.20 ng/ml, p = 0.002) and E-selectin (73.98 ng/ml versus 56.73 ng/ml, p = 0.004). No change was observed in Thrombomodulin and vWf (11.76 ng/ml versus 13.90 ng/ml and 80.75% versus 79.55%, respectively). FMD improved significantly (5.4% versus 8.15%, p = 0.003), while only carotid bulb IMT decreased significantly (0.65 mm versus 0.60 mm, p = 0.018). Overall, HT was found to improve biochemical and ultrasound markers of endothelial function in 46,XY DSD patients with female phenotype. PMID:24911331

  16. Biochemical responses to fibropapilloma and captivity in the green turtle.

    PubMed

    Swimmer, J Y

    2000-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters were compared for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) from both captive and wild populations in Hawaii (USA) and from a captive population from California (USA), during the period between 1994 and 1996. Statistical analysis did not detect an influence of disease in any of the blood parameters for free-ranging turtles; however, captive turtles in Hawaii with GTFP had significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and significantly lower levels of lactate compared to non-tumored captive turtles. Multivariate analysis found that biochemical profiles could be used to accurately predict if turtles were healthy or afflicted with GTFP. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified turtles as being with or without GTFP in 89% of cases, suggesting that diseased animals had a distinct signature of plasma biochemistries. Measurements of blood parameters identified numerous differences between captive and wild green turtles in Hawaii. Levels of corticosterone, lactate, triglyceride, glucose, and calcium were significantly higher in wild green turtles as compared to captive turtles, while uric acid levels were significantly lower in wild turtles as compared to captive turtles. Additionally, turtles from Sea World of California (San Diego, California, USA), which had been in captivity the longest, had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides as compared to nearly all other groups. Differences in diet, sampling methods, environmental conditions, and turtle size, help to interpret these results. PMID:10682751

  17. Effect of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) on performance, egg traits and blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant activity in laying Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Konca, Y; Yalcin, H; Karabacak, M; Kaliber, M; Durmuscelebi, F Z

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (HS) on performance, egg traits, serum lipid profile and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). 2. A total of 120 eight-week-old laying quail were divided into 4 experimental groups with 10 replicates. The treatments were as follows: (1) control diet (C, no HS in the diet); (2) 5% HS in the diet (HS5); (3) 10% HS in the diet (HS10); and (4) 20% HS in the diet (HS20). The quail were fed the experimental diets from 8 to 14 weeks of age. 3. There was no significant difference in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of the birds overall in the experiment. The egg production was not influenced by the HS contents in the diet; however the HS10 diet increased egg weight and egg-specific gravity. The carcass traits were not affected by the HS contents. 4. The serum triglyceride, cholesterol and the high density lipoprotein were not significantly altered; however, low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration in HS-supplemented groups were lower than that of the C group. 5. The malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and nitrogen oxide concentrations were not significantly affected, but in the HS10 and HS20, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) concentration was higher than in the C and HS5 groups. 6. The omega-3 fatty acid content of eggs increased linearly with increasing dietary HS content in the diet. 7. In conclusion, HS could be a potential feed and health benefit as a natural antioxidant in relation to decreasing serum LDL and increasing GSH-Px concentration in the liver of laying quail. PMID:25333932

  18. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body.

  19. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  20. Biochemical evidence for free radical-induced lipid peroxidation as a mechanism for subchronic toxicity of malathion in blood and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Kebryaeezadeh, Abbas; Hosseini, Ruhollah; Sabzevari, Omid

    2003-04-01

    Organophosphorus compounds may induce oxidative stress leading to generation of free radicals and alterations in antioxidant and scavengers of oxygen free radicals (OFRs). The effect of subchronic exposure to malathion in the production of oxidative stress was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Administration of malathion (100, 316, 1000, 1500 ppm) for 4 weeks increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in red blood cells (RBC) and liver. However, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were decreased in these samples. The increase in RBC and liver lipid peroxidation correlated well with the inhibition in RBC AChE and liver ChE activities. Elevation of MDA concentrations and increased activities of CAT and SOD showed significant correlations in both RBC and liver samples when different doses of malathion were used. The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of RBC AChE measurement as a good biomarker in the estimation of malathion-induced oxidative stress affecting blood and liver. PMID:12755471

  1. Effect of an isocaloric diet containing fiber-enriched flour on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in healthy non-obese non-diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Briganti, Silvia; Ermetici, Federica; Malavazos, Alexis E.; Dozio, Elena; Giubbilini, Paola; Rigolini, Roberta; Goggi, Silvia; Morricone, Lelio; Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco Corsi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of soluble fiber-enriched products on anthropometric and biochemical variables in 30 healthy non-obese, non-diabetic subjects. This was a randomized, controlled crossover, single-blind, dietary intervention study performed for 8 weeks. Subjects received an isocaloric diet with fiber-enriched products for the first 4 weeks and with regular flour products for the following 4 weeks, or vice versa. Weight, height, measures of fat distribution (waist, hip circumference), glucose, insulin and triglycerides were measured at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. BMI and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated. Weight and BMI decreased in the first period of isocaloric diet in both groups, regardless of the type of flour consumed (weight p<0.01, p<0.001 respectively; BMI p = 0.01, p<0.001 respectively). At the end of the 8 weeks, weight and BMI further decreased in the group consuming the fiber-enriched diet (p<0.01). Insulin resistance, estimated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment index and the Lipid Accumulation Product index, improved in all subjects after the fiber-enriched flour diet (p = 0.03, p = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, an isocaloric diet supplemented with fiber-enriched products may improve measures of fatness and insulin sensitivity in healthy non-obese non-diabetic subjects. We might hypothesize a similar effect also in subjects with metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26566307

  2. Effects of Low-Fat High-Fibre Diet and Mitratapide on Body Weight Reduction, Blood Pressure and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Dogs

    PubMed Central

    PEÑA, Cristina; SUAREZ, Lourdes; BAUTISTA-CASTAÑO, Inmaculada; JUSTE, M. Candelaria; CARRETÓN, Elena; MONTOYA-ALONSO, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare the impact on blood pressure and different metabolic parameters of a weight-loss program on obese dogs fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet and treated with a