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Laser correlation spectroscopy for determining biochemical parameters of whole blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation spectroscopy methods are widely used to study dynamical, morphological and optical parameters of biological objects. This work makes an attempt to explore these methods (in particular, due to their expressively) for diagnosing whole blood under normal and pathological states (cardiovascular diseases). Not only morphological characteristics of blood elements are known to change under diseases, but also its biochemical composition does. However, the biochemical analysis of blood is rather time and labor consuming. The paper is directed to investigate the correlation between optical characteristics of light scattering by blood and its biochemical parameters. Samples of whole blood were in vitro investigated for ills with different diagnoses and extend of cardio-vascular diseases as well as for essentially healthy donors. Simultaneous with the above characteristics we have monitored volumetric concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocytes and hemoglobin. The analysis of obtained results has show that the width of spectrum is greater for samples from healthy persons then from ills. Comparison of measured data on frequency spectrum, diffuse reflectivity's, biochemical and morphological blood parameters of the studied samples has shown the high correlation between the spectrum halfwidth and concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocyte setting rate. Some poorer correlation with spectrum occurs for concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. Thus, these are revealed an opportunity to design on express non-invasive method for determining the possibility of atherosclerotic disease.

Korolevich, Alexander N.; Prigun, Natali P.



The dynamics of blood biochemical parameters in cosmonauts during long-term space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the previously obtained data on cosmonauts' metabolic state concerned certain stages of the postflight period. In this connection, all conclusions, as to metabolism peculiarities during the space flight, were to a large extent probabilistic. The purpose of this work was study of metabolism characteristics in cosmonauts directly during long-term space flights. In the capillary blood samples taken from a finger, by "Reflotron IV" biochemical analyzer, "Boehringer Mannheim" GmbH, Germany, adapted to weightlessness environments, the activity of GOT, GPT, CK, gamma-GT, total and pancreatic amylase, as well as concentration of hemoglobin, glucose, total bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total, HDL- and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides had been determined. HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio also was computed. The crewmembers of 6 main missions to the "Mir" orbital station, a total of 17 cosmonauts, were examined. Biochemical tests were carryed out 30-60 days before lounch, and in the flights different stages between the 25-th and the 423-rd days of flights. In cosmonauts during space flight had been found tendency to increase, in compare with basal level, GOT, GPT, total amylase activity, glucose and total cholesterol concentration, and tendency to decrease of CK activity, hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol concentration, and HDL/LDL — cholesterol ratio. Some definite trends in variations of other determined biochemical parameters had not been found. The same trends of mentioned biochemical parameters alterations observed in majority of tested cosmonauts, allows to suppose existence of connection between noted metabolic alterations with influence of space flight conditions upon cosmonaut's body. Variations of other studied blood biochemical parameters depends on, probably, pure individual causes.

Markin, Andrei; Strogonova, Lubov; Balashov, Oleg; Polyakov, Valery; Tigner, Timoty


The effects of copper on blood and biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metals are released into aquatic systems from many sources, often at sublethal concentrations. The effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on fish are not entirely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical effects of a range of copper concentrations (6.4, 16.0, 26.9 ??g Cu/L) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) over a prolonged period of time. Trout were exposed to copper, and, at intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, and plasma cortisol levels were elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L at day 3 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Plasma protein and lactate levels were not significantly altered in trout from any copper treatment. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression were consistently elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L. Both of these parameters stabilized by day 3, with only hepatic copper concentration showing a further increase at day 21. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression appear to be robust indicators of copper exposure. Most blood-based parameters evaluated appear to be associated with a transitory, nonspecific stress response. The return of elevated hematological and biochemical parameters to control levels after 3 days and thestabilization of hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression and copper concentration over a similar time period suggested acclimation to dissolved copper at 26.9 ??g/L. Further analysis of the data on blood-based parameters indicated that certain parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) may be useful in field monitoring.

Dethloff, G. M.; Schlenk, D.; Khan, S.; Bailey, H. C.



The Effects of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Blood Hematological-Biochemical Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious obligation and belief for healthy adult Muslims. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Ramadan Fasting and physical activity on ‘Blood Hematological-Biochemical Parameters’. Materials and Methods: In this study, twenty-six healthy males in two experimental groups were compared in two different instances before and after the training period. The groups which were selected by convenience sampling method were divided into two non-active fasting (n=13) and active fasting (n=13) groups. For comparison purposes between groups, paired and independent sample t-test was performed, respectively, after ensuring their normality within a significance level of P?0.05. Results: HDL-C increased significantly in both active and non-active fasting groups, Moreover, amount of hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), TC, LDL, VLDL, LDL/HDL and TC/ HDL decreased significantly. Amount of hemoglobin (Hgb) and glucose reduced significantly in the active-fasting group. The variation of the means between the groups in the Hgb index and LDL/HDL were statistically significant. Conclusion: Fasting during the month of Ramadan by regular physical activity caused positive alterations in Hematological-Biochemical Index. These changes may be due to the alterations in diet, biology response of the body to the starving and physical activity during this month.

Attarzadeh Hosseini, Seyyed Reza; Hejazi, Keyvan



The effects of ramadan fasting and physical activity on blood hematological-biochemical parameters.  


Objective(s) : Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious obligation and belief for healthy adult Muslims. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Ramadan Fasting and physical activity on 'Blood Hematological-Biochemical Parameters'. Materials and Methods: In this study, twenty-six healthy males in two experimental groups were compared in two different instances before and after the training period. The groups which were selected by convenience sampling method were divided into two non-active fasting (n=13) and active fasting (n=13) groups. For comparison purposes between groups, paired and independent sample t-test was performed, respectively, after ensuring their normality within a significance level of P?0.05. Results: HDL-C increased significantly in both active and non-active fasting groups, Moreover, amount of hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), TC, LDL, VLDL, LDL/HDL and TC/ HDL decreased significantly. Amount of hemoglobin (Hgb) and glucose reduced significantly in the active-fasting group. The variation of the means between the groups in the Hgb index and LDL/HDL were statistically significant. Conclusion: Fasting during the month of Ramadan by regular physical activity caused positive alterations in Hematological-Biochemical Index. These changes may be due to the alterations in diet, biology response of the body to the starving and physical activity during this month. PMID:23997915

Attarzadeh Hosseini, Seyyed Reza; Hejazi, Keyvan



[Biochemical parameters of blood plasma of the harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777 (Pinnipedia, Procidae) of various ages].  


Results of study of several blood biochemical parameters of the harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777, from birth to the adult state are presented. The following age groups of the animals have been studied--newborns, 1.5-2 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and adults (older than 6 months). The content of total protein and its fractions, free amine nitrogen, urea, creatinine, glucose, total lipids, total calcium, and inorganic phosphorus was determined in the seal blood plasma. Differences of the degree of expression of levels of all studied parameters in the course of early postnatal ontogenesis of the animals have been established. The most significant metabolic changes in the harp seals were revealed at the period of end of weaning and transition to independent ingestion and then after the first year of life. PMID:17725029

Erokhina, I A


Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.



Influences of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil on the blood and organ biochemical parameters in rats.  


In this study, we administered various diets of stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) soybean oil to rats and examined the subsequent blood and organ biochemical parameters. Male Wistar rats (seven rats/group, six groups total) were fed diets supplemented with a test oil for 4 weeks. Diets containing test oils were: FFC diet (fish-oil-free control diet), C diet (control group, assuming a Japanese diet), SDA25 diet (25% 18:4n-3 soybean oil in the C diet), SDA50 (50% 18:4n-3 soybean oil in the C diet), ALA diet (34% flaxseed oil in the C diet), and EPA+DHA diet (34% fish oil in the C diet). The intake of 18:4n-3 showed increased relative efficiency of 20:5n-3 accretions in serum and liver triacylglycerol and significantly decreased the serum triacylglycerol level in rats. The results suggested that the consumption of 18:4n-3 soybean oil may modify the lipid and fatty acid profiles of body fats, even when EPA and DHA derived from fish is consumed. PMID:23219237

Kawabata, Terue; Shimoda, Kazumi; Horiguchi, Sayaka; Domon, Marina; Hagiwara, Chie; Takiyama, Miho; Kagawa, Yasuo



Selected Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Blood in Rats After Subchronic Administration of Vanadium and\\/or Magnesium in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of selected vanadium and magnesium doses on certain haematological\\u000a and biochemical blood parameters in rats. Outbred 2-month-old, albino male Wistar rats received for a period of 6 weeks, as\\u000a a sole drinking liquid, the following water solutions: group II, sodium metavanadate (SMV) at a concentration of 0.125 mg\\u000a V\\/mL; group

Agnieszka ?cibior; Halina Zaporowska; Jaros?aw Ostrowski



Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (, or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and (P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and on FCR (P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran



Haematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in inactive Behçet's disease. Its association with red blood cell distribution width.  


Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been shown to be associated with disease activity in several inflammatory disorders. However only one study to show this has been conducted in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of RDW with BD and its main complications; i.e.; thrombosis and posterior uveitis. A second aim was to analyse the possible correlation between RDW and both haematological and inflammatory parameters. Eighty-nine patients with BD (48 males/41 females) and 94 controls (49 males/45 females) were included in the study. Patients were in an inactive phase of the disease, showing only minimum activity. RDW was statistically higher in patients than in controls (14.02 ± 1.32 vs. 13.15 ± 0.75; p < 0.001) as were CRP, fibrinogen, leucocytes and neutrophils (p < 0.001). No differences in haematimetric indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC) were observed (p > 0.05). RDW correlated negatively with haemoglobin, MCH and MCHC (p < 0.05), and directly with homocysteine (p < 0.01). No correlation was found between RDW and the several inflammatory parameters analysed (p > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that haemoglobin and homocysteine were independent predictors of RDW (beta coefficient: -0.310; p = 0.003, beta coefficient: 0.379; p < 0.001, respectively). RDW >14 was associated with neither thrombosis nor uveitis (p = 0.935; p = 0.553, respectively). Our results indicate that BD patients show increased RDW when compared with controls. This increase seems to be related with haematimetric indices and with homocysteine levels. Lack of correlation with inflammatory markers may be due to the fact that patients were in an inactive phase of the disease. PMID:23719420

Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; Todolí, José; Hernandez, Jose Luis; Laiz, Begoña; Ricart, José M



The effect of feeding rations with different ratios of concentrate to alfalfa hay on blood hematological and biochemical parameters of farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus).  


A two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. A total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. In the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h of fasting. All rations resulted in no significant change in hematological parameters. However, with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio tended to be lower (P?=?0.089); whereas the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) tended to be higher (P values 0.069, 0.072 and 0.094, respectively). In terms of plasma biochemical parameters, increasing the ratio of concentrate to alfalfa hay in ostrich diets resulted in significant (P?

Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Kazemi-Bonchenari, Mehdi; Khaltabadi-Farahani, Amir Hossein; Khodaei Motlagh, Mahdi



Effects of Ibuprofen on hematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of blood in an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.  


In the present investigation, the most commonly used pharmaceutical drug Ibuprofen (IB) was exposed to an Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala under static bioassay method to estimate its toxicological effects for a period of 35 days. The median lethal concentration (LC 50) of IB to the fish C. mrigala for 24h was found to be 142 ppm. In sublethal treatment (1/10th of LC 50 24h value, 14.2 ppm), a significant decrease in erythrocyte (RBC), mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and plasma protein levels were observed throughout the study period when compare to that of their respective controls. In contrast, haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), leucocyte (WBC), plasma glucose and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were increased in this study period. On the other hand, a mixed trend was noticed in aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) enzyme activity. Alterations of these parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of IB toxicity in the aquatic organisms. However, more detailed studies on these specific biomarkers are needed to assess the impacts of human pharmaceutical drugs in the field of pharmacotoxicology and aquatic toxicology. PMID:22418069

Saravanan, M; Devi, K Usha; Malarvizhi, A; Ramesh, M



Biochemical Investigations on Blood Parasitism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is given of the results of an investigation of the nature of blood parasitism by utilizing the obligate intracellular malaria parasite as a model for understanding intracellular parasitism. Selected for study were the quality and quantity of ami...

I. W. Sherman



Biochemical effects of lead exposure on systolic & diastolic blood pressure, heme biosynthesis and hematological parameters in automobile workers of north karnataka (India).  


The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of lead exposure on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heme biosynthesis related and hematological parameters of automobile workers. For this study 30 automobile workers were selected and compared with 30 age matched healthy control subjects. Significantly increased blood lead (364%, P < 0.001) and urinary lead (176%, P < 0.001) levels were observed in automobile workers (study group) as compared to controls. Systolic blood pressure (5.32%, P < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (5.87%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the automobile workers as compared to controls. The significantly decreased non-activated erythrocyte ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALAD) (-18.51%, P < 0.01) and activated ?-ALAD (-13.29%, P < 0.05) levels were observed in automobile workers as compared to normal healthy control subjects. But the ratio of activated/non-activated ?-ALAD was significantly increased (43.83%, P < 0.001) in automobile workers as compared to controls. Excretions of ?-aminolevulinic acid (83.78%, P < 0.001) and porphobilinogen (37%, P < 0.001) in urine were significantly increased in the study group as compared to the controls. In automobile workers heamoglobin (-11.51%, P < 0.001), hematocrit (-4.06%, P < 0.05), mean corpuscle volume (-3.34%, P < 0.05), mean corpuscle hemoglobin (-5.66%, P < 0.01), mean corpuscle hemoglobin concentration (-7.67%, P < 0.001), red blood cell count (-14.6%, P < 0.001) were significantly decreased and total white blood cell count (11.44%, P < 0.05) increased as compared to the controls. The results of this study clearly indicate that the absorption of lead is more in automobile workers and it affects on blood pressure, heme biosynthesis and hematological parameters observed in this study group. PMID:23024478

Dongre, Nilima N; Suryakar, Adinath N; Patil, Arun J; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Rathi, Dileep B



Effects of propolis on blood biochemical and hematological parameters in nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats by N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.  


This study showed the effects of propolis on biochemical and hematological parameters in chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats by N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Rats are given L-NAME for 15 days and the propolis for the last 5 days with L-NAME together. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase in the L-NAME group compared to control group have increased (P<0.05). The levels of these parameters in L-NAME+propolis group compared to the L-NAME group have decreased (P<0.05). L-NAME caused increase (P<0.05) in levels of glucose, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol. Erythrocyte number, total leukocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, neutrophil and monocyte decreased (P<0.05), platelets and lymphocyte increased (P<0.05) in L-NAME+propolis group compared to the L-NAME group. The study concluded that homeostasis is modulated in L-NAME administrated rats by adding propolis which causes increasing generation of vascular nitric oxide. PMID:24035946

Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Gogebakan, Ayse; Orun, Ibrahim



[Effect of stress actions on some hematologic and biochemical parameters of rat blood and on energetic intermolecular interactions in lipid extract under effect of light radiation].  


Comparative study has been carried of effect of the three-day long starvation, running, and their combination on morphological parameters of rat blood, lipid metabolism, and activity of blood Na,K-ATPase. Different effect has been shown of these stress factors on the blood erythrocyte composition. Starvation is accompanied by the most pronounced release of stored erythrocyte into blood, which results in a significant decrease both of the total amount of reticulocytes and the complete absence of reticulocytes of the I stage of maturity (the youngest). The running on treadmill led to a significant increase of the total amount of blood reticulocytes and to multiple increase of immature reticulocytes (RC-I and RC-II), which can indicate some stress of the bone marrow erythroid stem line. The curve of acid resistance of blood reticulocytes has shown the animal to experience the greatest stress at a combination of starvation and running. Starvation and running produced different effects on blood lipid characteristics. The content of triacylglycerides (TAG) in blood rose by 40% at starvation and decreased by 30% at running, a similar tendency being found for index of atherogeneity. The fatty acid composition of blood phospholipids at running and its combination with starvation practically did not differ from control. A change of Na,K-ATPase, which is so characteristic of reaction to various kinds of stress, sharply fell at starvation (by 22%), but increased at running (by 13%) and decreased markedly at combination of these actions. Absorption spectra of lipid extracts of the whole blood of the rats submitted to various stress actions showed that extracted from blood (at different amount depending on the kind of action) is an organic substance with coupled bonds, which absorbs light in the diapason of 360-620 nm. The absorption of light in the diapason of 400-410 nm has been found to belong to the Soret band of ferroheme and ferriheme. The shift of the Soret band indicates electron transitions in the iron cation. By the change and disappearance of the Soret band, it is possible to judge about the processes occurring in the lipid extract. The disappearance of the Soret band in the lipid extract indicates formation in it of steady radicals as a result of the ferriheme disintegration due to accumulation of energy in porphyrin, which does not seem to occur in the blood cell membranes. The iron atom in the ferriheme molecule is known to accept electron and yields a part of energy probably to porphyrin. Then ferriheme yields electron and becomes ferriheme with excess of energy in porphyrin. Hence, at admission of the next electron to the iron atom the porphyrin molecule is to get rid of the energy obtained earlier to prevent its disintegration. The heme is possible to be an accumulator and distributor of energy in tissue. PMID:23401964

Zabelinski?, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Tavrovskaia, T V; Skverchinskaia, E A; Shukoliukova, E P; Maslov, M N; Krivchenko, A I


Zearalenone induces modifications of haematological and biochemical parameters in rats.  


Zearalenone produced by the fungus Fusarium roseum causes important perturbations in the gestation cycle of the rat with hormonal disorders and infertility. In order to find out other eventual toxic effects, female rats were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) (1.5, 3 and 5 mg/kg) zearalenone in sterile olive oil. Forty-eight hours later, some blood parameters changed (hematocrit, MCV, the number of platelets and WBC) as well as some biochemical markers such as aminotransferases (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum creatinine, bilirubin, indicating liver toxicity, and likely impairment of blood coagulation process. PMID:8783448

Maaroufi, K; Chekir, L; Creppy, E E; Ellouz, F; Bacha, H



[Correlation of some biochemical and coagulological parameters in carotid atherosclerosis].  


It has been established positive correlation of the degree of stenosis and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries with the following biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Apo-B, Lp(a), triglycerides, hs-C-reactive protein(CRP), interleukines (IL-1beta and IL-6), fibrinogen, D-dimers. Negative correlation was stated with respect to HDL cholesterol, Apo-A-1, protein C. Relation between the parameters of the blood lipid spectre, proteins and mediators of inflammation as well as those of hemostasis enables us to approach pathophysiological mechanisms of carotid atherosclerosis, define the processes of inflammation and atherosclerosis. PMID:19996505

Akhvlediani, M V; Vorob'eva, E O; Emukhvari, M G; Sharashidze, N A; Kupreishvili, S B



Dielectric, haematological and biochemical studies of detergent toxicity in fish blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood characteristics in dielectric, haematological and biochemical terms of the fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to a sublethal concentration of sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate were compared with those from untreated control fish; recovery from the test solution was also checked. Trends of change in the majority of chosen parameters of blood with time of fish exposure to anionic detergent were significantly

I. Bielinska



Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems  

PubMed Central

Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs). MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2): an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM) algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods. Conclusions This work provides a novel, accelerated version of a likelihood-based parameter estimation method that can be readily applied to stochastic biochemical systems. In addition, our results suggest opportunities for added efficiency improvements that will further enhance our ability to mechanistically simulate biological processes.



Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

Mikan, Vladimir; And Others



[Biochemical parameters of cardiovascular pathology risk in automobile drivers].  


Examination of 94 city bus drivers with long length of service revealed changes in lipid metabolism and C-reactive protein level, dependent on the examinees' age and length of service. Matching the biochemical parameters and clinical data proved that dyslipoproteinemia and serum C-reactive protein level could indicate cardiovascular risk in city bus drivers. PMID:22997754

Blinova, T V; Troshin, V V; Makarov, I A; Strakhova, L A; Morozova, P N



Parameter identifiability of power-law biochemical system models.  


Mathematical modeling has become an integral component in biotechnology, in which these models are frequently used to design and optimize bioprocesses. Canonical models, like power-laws within the Biochemical Systems Theory, offer numerous mathematical and numerical advantages, including built-in flexibility to simulate general nonlinear behavior. The construction of such models relies on the estimation of unknown case-specific model parameters by way of experimental data fitting, also known as inverse modeling. Despite the large number of publications on this topic, this task remains the bottleneck in canonical modeling of biochemical systems. The focus of this paper concerns with the question of identifiability of power-law models from dynamic data, that is, whether the parameter values can be uniquely and accurately identified from time-series data. Existing and newly developed parameter identifiability methods were applied to two power-law models of biochemical systems, and the results pointed to the lack of parametric identifiability as the root cause of the difficulty faced in the inverse modeling. Despite the focus on power-law models, the analyses and conclusions are extendable to other canonical models, and the issue of parameter identifiability is expected to be a common problem in biochemical system modeling. PMID:20197073

Srinath, Sridharan; Gunawan, Rudiyanto



Haematological and blood biochemical characteristics of Glyptosternum maculatum (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) in Xizang (Tibet).  


This study investigated the haematological and blood biochemical characteristics of Glyptosternum maculatum. The haematological and biochemical parameters were measured in 30 adult fish collected from Nyingchi Reach of Yarlung Zangbo River in Tibet. The red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (maxEof and minEof), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin content (MCH), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined. Compared with other Siluriformes fishes, G. maculatum showed similar mean values for Hct, Hb, MCH, and MCHC and had slightly lower RBC and higher MCV. The biochemical parameters were assayed including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride. The result showed that the value of AST in G. maculatum was obviously higher than that in Rhamdia quelen as well as in Silurus merdionalis. PMID:19757131

Zhang, Huijuan; Xie, Congxin; Li, Dapeng; Xiong, Dongmei; Liu, Haiping; Suolang, Sizhu; Shang, Peng



Influence of low-frequency vibration on changes of biochemical parameters of living rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the research was to investigate how some selected biochemical parameters of living rats depend on exposure of low-frequency vibrations. Experiments were run on 30 Wistar rats randomly segregated into three groups: (I) 20 days old (before puberty), (II) 70th day after; (III) control group. The exposure was repeated seven times, for 3 h, at the same time of day. Vibrations applied during the first tests of the experiment had acceleration 1.22 m/s2 and frequency 20 Hz. At the 135th day the rats' bones were a subject of morphometric/biochemical examination. The results of biochemical tests proved decrease in LDL and HDL cholesterol levels for exposed rats as well as the Ca contents in blood plasma. There was evident increasing of Ca in blood plasma in exposed rats for frequency of exposition.

Kasprzak, Cezary; Damijan, Zbigniew; Panuszka, Ryszard



Blood biochemical alterations during recovery from competitive marathon running  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The occurrence of possible prolonged alterations in plasma levels of cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, selected energy metabolites, and water and electrolyte balance was assessed in six highly trained male marathon runners by measuring blood biochemical constituents on the 10th day before and for the three days following the running of a marathon. Post-race changes in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and protein levels indicated

Michael B. Maron; Steven M. Horvath; James E. Wilkerson



Haematological and Biochemical Values or the Blood and Blood Serum of Captive Northern White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum cottoni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Va h a I a 1., F. K d e and O. A. R Y d e r: Haematological and Biochemical Values of the Blood and Blood Serum of Captive Northern White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum cottoni). Acta vet. Brno, 63,1994: 99-102. Haematological and biochemical blood and blood serum values obtained from 7 northern white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) kept in

J. Váhala; V. Kaše; O. A. Ryder



Is Ramadan fasting safe in type 2 diabetic patients in view of the lack of significant effect of fasting on clinical and biochemical parameters, blood pressure, and glycemic control?  


The study objective was to determine if Ramadan fasting was safe in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), based upon a determination of the effect of fasting on a broad range of physiological and clinical parameters, including markers of glycemic control and blood pressure. The study was carried out in Ramadan 1422 (December 2001-January 2002) at the Diabetology Services, Hopital Ibn Sina, Rabat, Morocco. One hundred and twenty T2D Moroccan patients (62 women, 58 men), aged 48-60 yrs with well-controlled diabetes through diet and/or oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHD), received dietary instructions and readjustment of the timing of the dose of OHD (gliclazide modified release) according to the fasting/eating periods. Anthropometric indices and physiological parameters (blood pressure, lipid, hematological, and serum electrolyte profiles, as well as markers of glycemic control, nutrition, renal and hepatic function) were measured on the day before Ramadan and then on the 15(th) and 29(th) day of fasting and thereafter 15 days later. Statistical analysis was done by standard methods. Ramadan fasting had no major effect on energy intake, body weight, body mass index, blood pressure, and liver enzymes. Fasting and post-prandial glucose levels decreased, while insulin levels increased. Diabetes was well controlled, as indicated by HbA1c, fructosamine, C-peptide, HOMA-IR, and IGF-1 values. There were fluctuations in some lipid and hematological parameters, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein, bilirubin, and electrolytes; however, all values stayed within the proper physiological range. In conclusion, diabetes was well-controlled in patients with dietary/medical management, without serious complications. With a regimen adjustment of OHD, diet control, and physical activity, most patients with T2D whose diabetes was well-controlled before Ramadan can safely observe Ramadan fasting. PMID:18633757

M'guil, M; Ragala, M A; El Guessabi, L; Fellat, S; Chraibi, A; Chabraoui, L; Chebraoui, L; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B



Egg quality determination in the gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, with biochemical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) obtained from natural spawning were collected from commercial broodstocks. In the viable, floating eggs selected biochemical parameters were measured and embryo survival to hatch was determined. Then biochemical parameter correlations with embryo survival to hatch were made to determine potential biochemical egg quality markers.From the investigated parameters (acid phosphatase, adenylate kinase, alanine

Franz Lahnsteiner; Pierpaolo Patarnello



Haematological and biochemical parameters during pregnancy and lactation in sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to describe changes in serum concentrations of some micronutrients, and haematological parameters during pregnancy and lactation of sows. Data presented here were obtained by using blood samples from healthy, conventionally managed sows from a breeding herd. The samples were taken at three different points in the physiological production process: I. from the 30th to

Vladimir Mrljak; Jelena Pompe Gotal


A study of blood coagulation parameters.  


The object of this study was to determine the presence or absence of abnormalities in a variety of blood coagulation parameters in women on contraceptive medication. A prospective double-blind study involving a control group with a total study enrollment of 211 women during a 29 month period was established. Although research has not proved that changes in coagulation parameters will cause abnormal clotting in normal patients, a pattern appears to be developing involving antithrombin III determinations. Corresponding patterns do not appear to be developing in the other blood coagulation parameters. PMID:775991

Newman, R L; Sirridge, M; Brinkman, M; Shannon, R



[Reference values of Russian cosmonauts blood biochemical indices].  


Within the period of 2000 to 2012 the values of 40 diagnostically significant biochemical indices in venous blood were being determined during the pre-flight clinical and physiological examination of 28 Russian cosmonauts aged 35 to 54, members of main and back-up crews of expeditions to the International Space Station. The above examination was conducted 45-30 days prior to the launch. Taking account of the fact that each of the most of the cosmonauts performed several flights over the mentioned period and they were repeatedly included in back-up crews over and over again, each of cosmonauts participated in pre-flight examinations 1 to 5 times. Reference values were calculated for each of the studied indices. It was found that reference interval boundaries for 15 indices were narrower as compared to the generally accepted ranges. The upper boundaries of activity reference ranges of a number of enzymes, as well as of concentration of some metabolites of energy and plasticity metabolism were raised relative to mean population values. Thus, it was found that Russian cosmonauts being a specific professional team featured inherent reference values which differed from mean population values in a number of blood biochemical indices. It is conditioned by peculiarities of selection, physical training and psychic and emotional status of crew members during a pre-flight period. PMID:23789387

Markin, A A; Zhuravleva, O A; Morukov, B V; Kuzichkin, D S; Zabolotskaia, I V; Vostrikova, L V


Correlation of biochemical parameters and neonatal outcome in patients with gestational hypertension.  


Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are one of the leading causes of maternal death in the world and one of the major causes of perinatal mortality. The incidence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is 8%-15%. Significant changes of biochemical parameters in cases of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are increased levels of blood glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid (hyperuricemia), transaminases, and LDH. The most increased is the level of proteinuria. Bad laboratory results and the intensification of clinical signs, with multiorgan dysfunction, are indications for termination of pregnancy. PMID:22616581

Kocijancic, Dusica Maksimilijan; Plesinac, Snezana; Plecas, Darko; Aksam, Slavica; Kocijancic, Aleksandar



Serial assessment of biochemical parameters of red cell preparations to evaluate safety for neonatal transfusions  

PubMed Central

Background & Objectives: Neonatologists often prefer fresh blood (<7 days) for neonatal transfusions. The main concerns for stored RBCs are ex vivo storage lesions that undermine red cell functions and may affect metabolic status of neonatal recipients. This study was designed to evaluate serial in vitro changes of biochemical parameters in different RBC preparations during storage to consider for neonatal transfusions even after storage beyond one week. Methods: Twenty five units each of whole blood (CPDA-1 RBC, SAGM RBC) were selected for serial biochemical parameter assessment after each fulfilled the quality criteria (volume and haematocrit). These units were tested serially for supernatant potassium, pH, lactate, haemoglobin, glucose and red cell 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) up to 21 days of storage. Results: Within each group of RBC, rise in mean concentration of potassium, lactate and plasma haemoglobin from day 1 to 21 of storage was significant in CPDA-1 RBC having the highest levels at day 21. From day 3 to 21, SAGM RBC had higher mean pH value than CPDA-1 RBC though this difference was not statistically significant. SAGM RBC had highest mean glucose concentration during storage than other two types of red cell preparations (P<0.005). Within each group, fall in mean 2,3 DPG concentration from day 1 to 7 was significant (P<0.05). A positive correlation existed between mean plasma potassium and haemoglobin in all three types of red cells (r=0.726, 0.419, 0.605 for CPDA-1 RBC, SAGM RBC and whole blood respectively, P<0.005). Interpretation & Conclusions: All the three red cell preparations tested revealed biochemical changes within acceptable limits of safety till 21 days of storage. CPDA-1 RBCs had the highest degree of these changes.

Mukherjee, Somnath; Marwaha, Neelam; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Thakral, Beenu



Influence of Fasciola hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver. Methods Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 34) and infected group (n = 29). For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used. Results Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P?0.05) of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST) between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected. Conclusion Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

Hodzic, A; Zuko, A; Avdic, R; Alic, A; Omeragic, J; Jazic, A



Assessment of Hematological and Biochemical parameters with extended D-Ribose ingestion  

PubMed Central

D-ribose, a naturally occurring pentose carbohydrate, has been shown to replenish high- energy phosphates following myocardial ischemia and high intensity, repetitive exercise. Human studies have mainly involved short-term assessment, including potential toxicity. Reports describing adverse effects of D-ribose with prolonged ingestion have been lacking. Therefore, this study assessed the toxicity of extended consumption of D-ribose in healthy adults. Nineteen subjects ingested 20 grams/Day (10 grams, twice a Day) of ribose with serial measurements of biochemical and hematological parameters at Days 0, 7, and 14. No significant toxic changes over the 14-day assessment period occurred in complete blood count, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alanine amiotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. However, D-ribose did produce an asymptomatic, mild hypoglycemia of short duration. Uric acid levels increased at Day 7, but decreased to baseline values by Day 14. D-ribose consumption for 14 days appears not to produce significant toxic changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy human volunteers.

Seifert, John; Frelich, Angela; Shecterle, Linda; St Cyr, John



Serum Biochemical and Hematological Parameters in Crossbred Swine from Birth Through Eight Weeks of Age  

PubMed Central

Nineteen serum biochemical and seven hematological parameters were determined for crossbred swine from birth through eight weeks of age. From birth (before nursing) to eight hours (after ingestion of colostrum) of age, there was an increase in concentrations of serum total protein, blood urea nitrogen and total bilirubin and increased activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase. There was a decrease in serum sodium, chloride and potassium concentrations, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume during the same period. There was an increase in both serum potassium concentration and erythrocyte count from five (weaning) to six weeks of age. At the same time, there was a decrease in serum sodium and chloride concentrations. The mean concentration of serum cholesterol did not change during the first 24 hours of neonatal life; however, it increased during the 24 to 72 hour period with a linear decrease to six weeks of age.

Tumbleson, M. E.; Kalish, P. R.



Haematological and blood biochemical studies in female domesticated Indian elephants (Elaphas maximus L.).  


1. Some haematological and biochemical blood parameters in female Indian elephants were investigated. 2. Haematological data were as follows: Ht = 39.2 +/- 2.36%, Hb = 10.1 +/- 0.54 g%, RBC = 2.66 +/- 0.32 x 10(6)/mm3, WBC = 5.43 +/- 0.48 x 10(3)/mm3. Lymphocytes, determined on blood smears were mainly leucocytes from (67.0 +/- 1.59%). Data for MCV, MCH and MCHC are also given. 3. Blood plasma was separated into 5 main fractions, total plasma protein concentration was 6.98 +/- 0.53 g%, A/G ratio was 0.69 +/- 0.1. 4. Plasma minerals concentration was as follows: Na, 3044 +/- 194 micrograms/ml; K, 529 +/- 38.5 micrograms/ml; Mg, 33.0 +/- 3.43 micrograms/ml; Ca, 181.0 +/- 17.8 micrograms/ml; InP, 44.6 +/- 6.1 micrograms/ml. Ca: P ratio was 3.25 +/- 0.34. 5. Some seasonal differences in investigated parameters were observed. Ht values, WBC and neutrophils number as well as Ca, and Mg concentrations were higher during winter, whereas RBC and Na and InP concentrations were lower in winter. PMID:2896562

Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J; Jakubów, K; Zalewska, B; Krzywicki, Z



Anaesthesia of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Biochemical Blood Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velí‰ek J., Z. Svobodová: Anaesthesia of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with 2- phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Biochemical Blood Profile.Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 379-384. The aim of the present study was to assess acute toxicity of 2-phenoxyethanol in rainbow trout, and to assess changes in their tissues using biochemical blood profile indices. Acute toxicity values of 2-phenoxyethanol for six-month old




Blood Storage Duration and Biochemical Recurrence of Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that perioperative transfusion of allogeneic and autologous red blood cells (RBCs) stored for a prolonged period speeds biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after prostatectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated biochemical prostate cancer recurrence in men who had undergone radical prostatectomy and perioperative blood transfusions from July 6, 1998, through December 27, 2007. Those who received allogeneic blood transfusions were assigned to nonoverlapping “younger,” “middle,” and “older” RBC storage duration groups. Those who received autologous RBC transfusions were analyzed using the maximum storage duration as the primary exposure. We evaluated the association between RBC storage duration and biochemical recurrence using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: A total of 405 patients received allogeneic transfusions. At 5 years, the biochemical recurrence–free survival rate was 74%, 71%, and 76% for patients who received younger, middle, and older RBCs, respectively; our Cox model indicated no significant differences in biochemical recurrence rates between the groups (P=.82; Wald test). Among patients who received autologous transfusions (n=350), maximum RBC age was not significantly associated with biochemical cancer recurrence (P=.95). At 5 years, the biochemical recurrence–free survival rate was 85% and 81% for patients who received younger and older than 21-day-old RBCs, respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing radical prostatectomy who require RBC transfusion, recurrence risk does not appear to be independently associated with blood storage duration.

Cata, Juan P.; Klein, Eric A.; Hoeltge, Gerald A.; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Mascha, Edward; O'Hara, Jerome; Russell, Amanda; Kurz, Andrea; Ben-Elihayhu, Shamgar; Sessler, Daniel I.



Genetic analysis of haematological and plasma biochemical parameters in the Spanish purebred horse exercised on a treadmill.  


The novel aim of this study was to describe the reference values of different haematological and biochemical parameters in the Spanish purebred horse (Andalusian, SPB) in each of the stages of a programmed exercise on a treadmill system, and to establish heritability and genetic correlations for these haematological and biochemical parameters. For this, 94 young SPB male horses (4.22 ± 2.27 years old) were used. An increasing intensity exercise test at 4, 5, 6 and 7 m/s was carried out on a treadmill (6% inclination). Total red blood cells, total white blood cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes counts; haematocrit, haemoglobin, lactate, uric acid, creatinine and total plasma proteins concentrations and aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine-quinase activities were determined. To conclude: (i) the reference values for each parameter were determined for each of the exercise test stages (ii) all the parameters analysed manifested a medium-high heritability and a high repeatability. These results will, in the near future, determine the measuring guidelines for improving the SPB horse's athletic ability on an objective treadmill system and for selecting these animals in response to those parameters. PMID:23702348

Escribano, B M; Molina, A; Valera, M; Tovar, P; Agüera, E I; Santisteban, R; Vivo, R; Agüera, S; Rubio, M D



Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).  


Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629

Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay



Report: The effects of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) supplementation on bone biochemical parameters in ovariectomized rats.  


Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja) contains high mineral content and possesses high antioxidant activity which may be beneficial in bone disorder such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. The effects of C. caudatus on bone metabolism biomarkers in ovariectomized rats were studied. 48 Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months were divided into 6 groups. One group of rats was sham-operated while the remaining rats were ovariectomized. The ovariectomized rats were further divided into 5 groups: the control, three groups force-fed with C. caudatus at the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg or 300mg/kg and another group supplemented with calcium 1% ad libitum. Treatments were given 6 days per week for a period of eight weeks. Blood samples were collected twice; before and after treatment. Parameters measured were bone resorbing cytokine; interleukin-1 and the bone biomarkers; osteocalcin and pyridinoline. Serum IL-1 and pyridinoline levels were significantly increased in ovariectomized rats. Supplementation of C. caudatus was able to prevent the increase of IL-1 and pyridinoline in ovariectomized rats. Besides that, C. caudatus showed the same effect as calcium 1% on biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. In conclusion, Cosmos caudatus was as effective as calcium in preventing the increase in bone resorption in ovariectomized rats. PMID:24035963

Mohamed, Norazlina; Yin, Chai Mei; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza; Babji, Abdul Salam; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana



Changes in biochemical parameters after anterior cruciate ligament injury  

PubMed Central

We studied the biochemical characteristics of human knees with deficient anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) and analysed their relationship to the time after ligamentous injury. Thirty-two patients with isolated ACL-injured knees and six healthy volunteers were enrolled. Synovial fluid samples were centrifuged after aspiration during arthroscopic examination, and aliquots of supernatant were frozen and stored at ?80°C. The samples were analysed for interleukin (IL)-1?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 using commercially available sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In fluid from ACL-injured knees, the average concentrations of IL-6, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 were highly elevated in comparison with normal controls. There was a statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of MMP-3 and IL-6. The IL-6 and TIMP-1 concentrations were interrelated. The concentration of MMP-3 remained high, independent of the duration since the injury, whereas the TIMP-1 and IL-6 levels decreased. The results suggest that the timing of the treatment of an ACL-injured knee might be of importance.

Shirakura, K.; Kimura, M.; Terauchi, M.; Shinozaki, T.; Watanabe, H.; Takagishi, K.



Effect of oestrogenic compounds on performance and biochemical parameters of chickens in Egypt.  


Comparative studies of the effects of Nordette and LutoFolone on 15-day-old chickens were performed to determine their effects on growth performance, biochemical parameters and on hormonal residues in the liver and muscle. Sixty chickens were equally divided into three groups, with 20 chickens per group. Group 1 served as the control group. Groups 2 and 3 were treated daily with Nordette (1 mg/kg body weight) mixed in the ration and LutoFolone (0.5 mg/kg body weight) administered orally through a bent stainless steel feeding tube, respectively, for 30 days (from the 15th to the 45th day of age). The treated groups were left for a further period of 15 days without treatment. Blood samples were collected at 45 and 60 days of age and used for biochemical studies, while liver and muscles were excised from each chicken and used to prepare tissue homogenates for an estimation of hormonal residues (oestrogen and progesterone). Both drugs caused a gain in body weight. They also significantly increased (p<0.01) several serum variables, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (410% and 300%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (277.69% and 261.90%), cholesterol (16.91% and 17.19%), creatine kinase (CK) (72.47% and 27.46%), creatinine (62.22% and 42.22%) and uric acid (85.43% and 70.86%), and reduced total proteins (54.38% and 51.28%), albumin (60.38% and 52.08%) and globulin levels (50.22% and 49.36%) for Groups 2 and 3 respectively at 30 days post administration, in comparison with the control birds. Moreover, this study exhibited a significant increase in the levels of oestrogen residues in the liver (26.17% and 70.99%) and muscle (17.50% and 43.41%) for Groups 2 and 3, respectively. This indicated that the oestrogen level was much higher in the liver than in muscle in comparison to that of the controls. However, some of these findings showed insignificant changes 15 days after ceasing the administration of hormones. Data on the biochemical parameters and residue levels obtained from these results clearly indicate that anabolic agents in chickens may carry a specific risk to public health. PMID:20391405

Badr, Mohamed O T; Hashem, Mohamed A; Gado, Nissreen N


Glycated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters in Sudanese diabetics.  


Fasting levels of glycated haemoglobin, cholesterol and triglycerides were studied in 44 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), 31 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 28 healthy Sudanese individuals. Results confirmed previous observations showing correlation of glycated haemoglobin with fasting blood glucose in NIDDM (r = 0.634; P less than 0.001), and with cholesterol in IDDM (r = 0.355; P less than 0.05). No correlation of glycated haemoglobin with triglycerides was observed in either group of diabetics. A negative correlation was demonstrated between glycated haemoglobin and the duration of diabetes (r = -0.552; P less than 0.01) in IDDM. It seemed that control improved in these patients as their diabetes progressed, probably through self-education. PMID:2764486

Atabani, G S; Saeed, B O; el Mahdi, E M; Adam, M E; Hassan, D A



Effects of Aluminum on the Biochemical Parameters of Fresh Water Fish, Tilapia zillii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of aluminum chloride were investigated on the biochemical parameters in adult Tilapia zillii . This study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of three levels of aluminum (25, 50, and 100 µg\\/L) for 24, 48 and 96 hours in acidic soft water (pH 6.0). Plasma biochemical changes showed significant increase in glucose, total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, cortisol,

A. A. Hadi; A. E. Shokr; S. F. Alwan


Toxicity Assessment of Two Soils from Jales Mine (Portugal) Using Plants: Growth and Biochemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminants in soils can enter food chains through primary producers. Bioavailable contaminants can induce growth, and reproductive\\u000a or biochemical changes in plants. To evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals in two soils from Jales mine surroundings,\\u000a bioassays with the plants Brassica rapa (RCBr) and Avena sativa were performed. Biochemical parameters (protein and malondialdehyde [MDA] content, and catalase and peroxidase activities)

Susana Loureiro; Conceição Santos; Glória Pinto; Armando Costa; Marta Monteiro; António J. A. Nogueira; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares



Influence of novel gallium complexes on the homeostasis of some biochemical and hematological parameters in rats.  


The aim of this study was to detect possible homeostasis changes in some biochemical and hematological parameters after the administration of gallium (Ga) complexes C (24) and C (85) on an experimental animal model (Wistar strain rats). In order to observe chronobiological aspects, a morning (m) and an evening (e) animal series were constituted. Further on, each series were divided into three groups: control (C), experimental I (EI), and experimental II (EII). Both Ga complexes were solubilized in a carrier solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, water, and ethanol. Animals of the C groups received the carrier solution by intraperitoneal injection, those from the EI groups received the solubilized C(24) gallium complex, and those of the EII groups received the solubilized C(85) gallium complex. At the end of the experiment, blood and tissue samples were taken and the following parameters were determined: serum concentration of the nonprotein nitrogenous compounds (uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen), hematological parameters (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leukocytes, and platelets), and the kidney tissue concentration of three essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, and Zn). With the exception of uric acid, the results revealed increased concentrations of the nonprotein nitrogenous compounds both in the morning and in the evening experimental groups. Hematological data showed increased levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and leukocytes and decreased platelet levels in the experimental group given the C(24) gallium complex in the morning (EI-m) group; increased levels of leukocytes and decreased levels of the other parameters in the experimental group given the C(24) gallium complex in the evening (EI-e) group; and increased levels of all hematological parameters in the experimental groups receiving the C(85) gallium complex in the morning (EII-m) group and in the evening (EII-e) group. Decreased kidney tissue concentrations of metals were found in all the experimental groups. Fe levels were significantly decreased in the EI-m receiving the C(24) gallium complex and EII-m which received the C(85) gallium complex and in the EII-e group which received the C(85) gallium complex. In the EI-e group which received the C(24) gallium complex, a significant decrease of Cu concentration was reported. PMID:23990509

Gârban, Gabriela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Ioni??, Hortensia; Gârban, Zeno; H?d?rug?, Nicoleta-Gabriela; Ghibu, George-Daniel; Balt?, Cornel; Simiz, Florin-Dan; Mitar, Carmen



Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The

Abdulrahman L Al-Malki; Ameen M Rezq; Mohamed H Al-Saedy



Porcine interleukin 2: parameters of production and biochemical characterization.  


Interleukin 2 (IL2) or T cell growth factor (TCGF) has been characterized in a number of species but not in porcines. Porcine IL2 was detected in supernates (SN) of cultures of pig lymphocytes by: 1) the stimulation of the IL2-sensitive murine T cell line, CT6; 2) a costimulator assay involving porcine thymocytes; and 3) by the in vitro maintenance of antigen or mitogen-induced porcine lymphoblastoid cells. Porcine IL2 production by pig lymphocytes was induced by the mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A) Phytohemagglutiniin (PHA), and Pokeweed mitogen (PWM), but not by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IL2 activity was demonstrated in the SN of mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte cultures as early as 24 hr after initiation of culture, reached peak levels at 48 hr, and decreased by 72 hr. Mitogens induced IL2 secretion by pig peripheral blood mononuclear cells, lymph node cells, and spleen cells, but not thymus cells. The cells responsible for IL2 production are presumptive T cells because: 1) they are nylon wool non-adherent; and 2) are non-surface-Ig bearing. In contrast, SN from cultures of surface Ig-positive cells had minimal IL2 activity. Porcine IL2 resembles rat and human IL2 in that it has an apparent molecular weight of approximately 15,000, and does not bind to DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) ion exchange columns equilibrated in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.6). PMID:6609481

Gasbarre, L C; Urban, J F; Romanowski, R D



Alterations in biochemical parameters during subacute toxicity of fluoride alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate in goats.  


Fluoride toxicity is a serious health problem in many parts of the globe. In present study, sodium fluoride at 20 mg/kg alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate at 150 mg/kg was administered orally daily for 30 days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the alterations in the various biochemical parameters during subacute toxicity of fluoride alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate. In Group 1, significant alterations in plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, magnesium, and sodium were observed on different days of exposure from their pre-exposure values. However, no significant changes were observed in plasma calcium, phosphorus, and potassium on different days of exposure of sodium fluoride. Similar type of biochemical alterations were noticed in the goats of Group 2 except BUN, total protein magnesium, and sodium. On the basis of results, it could be concluded that sodium fluoride alone and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate produced significant alterations in the various biochemical parameters of the body. PMID:19148585

Kant, Vinay; Srivastava, Anil Kumar; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder



Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.  


Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B



A novel cost function to estimate parameters of oscillatory biochemical systems  

PubMed Central

Oscillatory pathways are among the most important classes of biochemical systems with examples ranging from circadian rhythms and cell cycle maintenance. Mathematical modeling of these highly interconnected biochemical networks is needed to meet numerous objectives such as investigating, predicting and controlling the dynamics of these systems. Identifying the kinetic rate parameters is essential for fully modeling these and other biological processes. These kinetic parameters, however, are not usually available from measurements and most of them have to be estimated by parameter fitting techniques. One of the issues with estimating kinetic parameters in oscillatory systems is the irregularities in the least square (LS) cost function surface used to estimate these parameters, which is caused by the periodicity of the measurements. These irregularities result in numerous local minima, which limit the performance of even some of the most robust global optimization algorithms. We proposed a parameter estimation framework to address these issues that integrates temporal information with periodic information embedded in the measurements used to estimate these parameters. This periodic information is used to build a proposed cost function with better surface properties leading to fewer local minima and better performance of global optimization algorithms. We verified for three oscillatory biochemical systems that our proposed cost function results in an increased ability to estimate accurate kinetic parameters as compared to the traditional LS cost function. We combine this cost function with an improved noise removal approach that leverages periodic characteristics embedded in the measurements to effectively reduce noise. The results provide strong evidence on the efficacy of this noise removal approach over the previous commonly used wavelet hard-thresholding noise removal methods. This proposed optimization framework results in more accurate kinetic parameters that will eventually lead to biochemical models that are more precise, predictable, and controllable.



Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADEDAPO, A. A., M. O. ABATAN, O. O. OLORUNSOGO: Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats. Vet. arhiv 74, 53-62, 2004. ABSTRACT The toxic effects of 5 suspected poisonous plants of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton, E. heterophylla L., E. hirta L., E. hyssopifolia L., and E. lateriflora Schum and

Adeolu A. Adedapo; Matthew O. Abatan; Olufunso O. Olorunsogo



Smart-Optical Detector CMOS Array for Biochemical Parameters Analysis in Physiological Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of a smart-optical detector array for detection and concentration measurement of biochemical parameters in physiological fluids. Its application is in the low-cost microchip size analytical laboratories that use colorimetric detection, by optical absorption, as the analytical technique. The microlaboratory structure is composed of a microplate cuvette array containing the physiological fluids into analysis and an

A. V. Fernandes; V. F. Cardoso; J. G. Rocha; J. Cabral; GraÇa Minas



Serum Leptin Levels in Obese Indian Children: Relation to Clinical and Biochemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate serum leptin levels in obese Indian children and its correlation to anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Referral tertiary hospital. Methodology: Leptin levels were measured in 36 children (26 boys, age 1.5 to 15 years) and 37 adults (21 men, age 25 to 69 years) with obesity and 29 normal weight controls (15 children and

Sudhisha Dubey; Madhulika Kabra; Anurag Bajpai; R. M. Pandey; Mahmood Hasan; R. K. Gautam; P. S. N. Menon


Tracking the development of serum biochemical parameters in two laying hen strains - a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A follow-up, comparative study was designed for the description of differences between two divergent laying hen strains, a Leghorn type and a medium heavy body (MHB) genotype (Hy-Line Brown), in chemical body composition and serum biochemical parameters determined at 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 20, 25, 30, 52 and 72 weeks of age; each time 5 birds




Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical and Anthropometric Parameters in Physically Active Men  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on several biochemical and anthropometric parameters in physically active men by comparing fasters and nonfasters before, during, and after Ramadan. Methods Eighteen physically active men (10 fasters and 8 nonfasters) participated in this study. Subjects visited the laboratory for a total of four sessions on the following occasions: three days before Ramadan (Bef-R), the 15th day of Ramadan (Mid-R), the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R), and 21 days after Ramadan (Post-R). During each session, subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, completed a dietary questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample. Results Body weight and body fat percentage decreased in fasters by 1.9% (P<0.001) and 6.2% (P=0.003), respectively, but increased in nonfasters by 2.2% (P<0.001) and 10.2% (P=0.001), respectively, from Bef-R to End-R. Fasters’ hematocrit and hemoglobin increased by 5.3% (P<0.001) and 6.3% (P=0.01), respectively, from Bef-R to End-R, while neither of these parameters changed in nonfasters. Fasters experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urea (8.7%; P<0.001), creatinine (7.5%; P<0.001), uric acid (12.7%; P<0.001), serum sodium (1.9%; P<0.001), serum chloride (2.6%; P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.3%; P<0.001). Of these parameters, only creatinine increased (4.4%; P=0.01) in nonfasters. Conclusion We conclude that Ramadan fasting lowers body weight and body fat percentage and can elevate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in physically active men. However, practicing aerobic exercise during a hot and humid Ramadan month can induce a state of dehydration marked by an increase in some renal function markers and serum electrolytes.

Trabelsi, Khaled; el Abed, Kais; Trepanowski, John F.; Stannard, Stephen R.; Ghlissi, Zohra; Ghozzi, Hanene; Masmoudi, Liwa; Jammoussi, Kamel; Hakim, Ahmed



Assessment of gallstone predictor: comparative analysis of ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Gallstones represent a significant burden for health care systems worldwide and are one of the most common disorders presenting to emergency room. Ultrasonography, complete blood picture test and liver function tests are procedures of choice in suspected gallstones or biliary diseases. They are the most sensitive, specific, non-invasive and inexpensive tests for the detection of gallstones. Our main objective was to evaluate the relationship of ultrasonographic findings, hemolytic indices and liver function tests with gallstones. Methodology It was a prospective study carried out in Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS) and Liaquat National Hospital, two largest tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Duration of the study was from July 2011 to October 2012. The study was carried out on diagnosed, pre-operative and symptomatic patients of cholelithiases. Exclusion criteria were patients of gallbladder and pancreatic carcinoma, emergency operations, patients having age <12 years and non-cooperative patients, who refused to give written consent for participation in the study. Total two tests were performed on each patient after diagnosis by ultrasonography. These were complete blood count and liver function tests. All the demographic data, laboratory findings and ultrasonographic features were noted in a pre-structured Performa. Sample size was calculated by using open-epidemiological sample size calculator prevalence (p)?=?35%, d?=?5%, and confidence interval (CI) 95%?=?350. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result There were 454 diagnosed and pre-operative cases of gallstones present in the study. There were 120(26.4%) males and 334(73.6%) females, with a mean age of 42.80?±?12.26 years. Most of the suspects had multiple stones 384 (84.5%) while few had single stones 70(15.4%). Fatty liver was found to be present in 144(31.7%) patients and 92(20.2%) had hepatomegaly. Splenomegaly was present in 16(3.5%) patients. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 186(41.0%) patients while SGPT was found to be raised in 160(35.2%). Blood urea nitrogen was found to be elevated in 186(41%) patients and serum creatinine was elevated in 46(10.1%) patients. Conclusion In the light of findings it is recommend that all patients should go through the process of ultrasonography and all the biochemical parameters should be analyzed before surgery.



Design Parameters of Pulsed Wave Ultrasonic Doppler Blood Flowmeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse wave Doppler techniques promise the ability to make more effective measurements of dynamic cardiovascular functions. Quantitative measurement of blood flow can be achieved by using the pulse wave Doppler system. This paper discusses the design parameters of the pulse wave Doppler blood flowmeter (PW Doppler) with respect to the physiological system.

Inan Giiler; Yilmaz Sava?



Relationship of blood and semen lead level with semen parameter.  


Lead has for long been known to affect multiple organs and can affect reproduction in male and female as well as the offspring. The study was done to find out the level of lead in blood and semen of infertile men and to find its effect on the semen parameters, as well as the minimum level of lead in blood and semen that can have negative impacts on semen parameters. The study was cross sectional in design. Male partners of 57 infertile couples attending a tertiary infertility center in Dhaka, Bangladesh were recruited for the study. Blood lead was measured by the Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and semen analysis was done according to the WHO recommendation (1999). With increasing blood lead concentration there was corresponding increase in the mean semen lead concentration. Reduction of mean semen volume started at level of mean blood lead level of >40mugm/dl. Mean total count of sperm (x106/ml) started decreasing at blood lead level of >30mugm/dl with very significant reduction of the count at level >40mugm/dl. At mean blood lead level >35mugm/dl there was decrease in mean values for total motility and rapid linear motility of sperm. In 12.3 % of the patients mean blood lead level was above >35mugm/dl. Higher mean blood and semen lead level was associated with significant declining semen parameters. PMID:20639835

Fatima, P; Debnath, B C; Hossain, M M; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Begum, S A; Rahman, M W



Biochemical parameters to assess choroid plexus dysfunction in Kearns-Sayre syndrome patients.  


Our aim was to assess biochemical parameters to detect choroid plexus dysfunction in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) patients. We studied CSF from 7 patients with KSS including total proteins, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, homovanillic acid (HVA) and Selenium (Se) concentrations. High Se values, increased HVA and total protein concentrations and decreased 5-MTHF values were observed in all cases. This pattern seems very specific to KSS since it was only detected in 7 patients out of 1850 CSF samples analysed, and may represent a good biochemical model for evaluating choroid plexus dysfunction. The accumulated Se in CSF might have deleterious consequences such as toxicity effects. PMID:21745599

Tondo, Mireia; Málaga, Ignácio; O'Callaghan, Mar; Serrano, Mercedes; Emperador, Sonia; Ormazabal, Aida; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Montoya, Julio; Garcia-Silva, Maria T; Martin-Hernandez, Elena; Garcia-Cazorla, Angels; Pineda, Merce; Artuch, Rafael



Serum Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Captive White-tailed Fawns  

PubMed Central

Blood samples were collected, at one day of age and at weekly intervals from one through 25 weeks of age, from seven white-tailed fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) to determine the effect of age upon serum biochemical and hematological values. Serum total protein concentration increased continually during the six month period. The rate of anabolism of serum gamma-globulin exceeded the rate of catabolism at about seven weeks of age. Serum cholesterol concentration more than doubled from one day to eight weeks of age. Blood hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume increased markedly during the first eight weeks of life, but tended to remain constant from eight to 25 weeks of age. Blood erythrocyte count increased throughout the duration of the study; however, the relative increase was greater during the first eight weeks of age than thereafter.

Tumbleson, M. E.; Cuneio, J. D.; Murphy, D. A.



Parameter estimation in biochemical pathways: a comparison of global optimization methods.  


Here we address the problem of parameter estimation (inverse problem) of nonlinear dynamic biochemical pathways. This problem is stated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem subject to nonlinear differential-algebraic constraints. These problems are known to be frequently ill-conditioned and multimodal. Thus, traditional (gradient-based) local optimization methods fail to arrive at satisfactory solutions. To surmount this limitation, the use of several state-of-the-art deterministic and stochastic global optimization methods is explored. A case study considering the estimation of 36 parameters of a nonlinear biochemical dynamic model is taken as a benchmark. Only a certain type of stochastic algorithm, evolution strategies (ES), is able to solve this problem successfully. Although these stochastic methods cannot guarantee global optimality with certainty, their robustness, plus the fact that in inverse problems they have a known lower bound for the cost function, make them the best available candidates. PMID:14559783

Moles, Carmen G; Mendes, Pedro; Banga, Julio R



Parameter Estimation in Biochemical Pathways: A Comparison of Global Optimization Methods  

PubMed Central

Here we address the problem of parameter estimation (inverse problem)of nonlinear dynamic biochemical pathways. This problem is stated as a nonlinear programming (NLP)problem subject to nonlinear differential-algebraic constraints. These problems are known to be frequently ill-conditioned and multimodal. Thus, traditional (gradient-based)local optimization methods fail to arrive at satisfactory solutions. To surmount this limitation, the use of several state-of-the-art deterministic and stochastic global optimization methods is explored. A case study considering the estimation of 36 parameters of a nonlinear biochemical dynamic model is taken as a benchmark. Only a certain type of stochastic algorithm, evolution strategies (ES), is able to solve this problem successfully. Although these stochastic methods cannot guarantee global optimality with certainty, their robustness, plus the fact that in inverse problems they have a known lower bound for the cost function, make them the best available candidates.

Moles, Carmen G.; Mendes, Pedro; Banga, Julio R.



Physiological responses to starvation in the European eel ( Anguilla anguilla ): effects on haematological, biochemical, non-specific immune parameters and skin structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological effects of short-term starvation on some haematological, biochemical and non-specific immune response parameters\\u000a together with the histological structure of the skin, were investigated in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Blood haemoglobin and haematocrit, serum glucose and cortisol, hemolysins, haemagglutinins, and lysozyme in the plasma,\\u000a kidney and epidermal extract, were measured in fish after 31, 42 and 58 days of starvation,

G. Caruso; G. Maricchiolo; V. Micale; L. Genovese; R. Caruso; M. G. Denaro



Effects of drinking diesel-contaminated water on the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution of the environment by petroleum products is a common feature in oil producing nations, especially in the developing\\u000a countries where the incidence of pipe line leakage and valdalization is very common. This study investigated the effects of\\u000a exposure to water contaminated with very low concentration of diesel on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters\\u000a of mice. A total of

Samuel Chukwuneke Udem; Isaac A. M. Lekwuwa; Ngozi D. Udem



Effect of Chronic High Dose-Alcohol Consumption on the General Biochemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A chronic intake of high dose alcohol may cause oxidative stress, meta- bolic abnormalities and nutritional deficiencies in the body. The effect of long-term alcohol consumption on the biochemical parameters has not been explained well. Materials and Methods: Female and male rats were maintained for 90 days as follow: I. Control (n=7), II. Alcohol-treated (2.5 gr of 50% ethanol\\/kg

Ramazan Amanvermez; Seyit Ankarali; Özgür K. Tunçel; Leman Tomak; Muhlise Alvur



Effects of various concentrations of uranium tailings on certain growth and biochemical parameters in sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of uranium tailings conditioned with garden soil on growth and biochemical\\u000a parameters in sunflower were studied. The shoot and root length, fresh and dry mass as well as leaf area and chlorophyll contents\\u000a showed significant negative correlation with the applied uranium tailing concentrations. The influence on plant growth was\\u000a also measured

Bhagawati Lal Jagetiya; Pankaj Purohit



Effects of some plants of the spurge family on haematological and biochemical parameters in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AdEdApO, A. A., M. O. AbA t An, O. O. OlOrunsOgO: Effects of some plants of the spurge family on haematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Vet. arhiv 77, 29-38, 2007. AbstrAct The effects of five suspected poisonous plants of the spurge family ( euphorbiaceae ) i.e. alchornea cordifolia Schum and Thorn, Cnidoscolus acontifolius Mill, Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thorn,

Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Matthew Oluwole Abatan; Olufunso Olabode Olorunsogo


Alterations in Coagulation Profiles and Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Cattle with Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate alterations in coagulation, and in biochemical and haematological parameters in cattle\\u000a with traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP). In the study, 28 dairy cattle with TRP and 10 clinically healthy cattle (control)\\u000a of different ages and breeds were used. Cattle with TRP had prolonged prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and activated\\u000a partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Erythrocytopenia,

H. I. Gokce; G. Gokce; M. Cihan



Impact of industrial air pollutants on some biochemical parameters and yield in wheat and mustard plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to determine the impacts of SO2, NO\\u000a x\\u000a , SPM and RSPM, the most common air pollutants, generated mainly due to industries and vehicles, on some biochemical parameters\\u000a and yield in wheat and mustard plants during 2006. The concentration of SO2, NO\\u000a x\\u000a , SPM and RSPM was determined at the polluted sites across

Namita Joshi; Avnish Chauhan; P. C. Joshi



[The influence of chloroquine on some biochemical and hematological parameters in patients with critical limb ischemia].  


CLI represents a major medical and social problem. The incidence is increasing and currently it was estimated 500-1000 per 1 million inhabitants. We carried out a clinical study (2000-2004) concerning monitoring of some hematological and biochemical markers during reperfusion in patients with CLI. The subject of our interest included possibilities to influence PMNL elastase by medical means and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio which is considered a reliable and simple parameter to assess severity of clinical conditions. PMID:15736385

Mondek, P; Slysko, R; Sefránek, V; Pechán, I



Infectious stunting and leg weakness in broilers: i. Pathology and biochemical changes in blood plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syndrome of stunting and leg weakness could be reproduced experimentally by inoculation of 1?day?old broilers with homogenised intestines from affected birds. Inoculated birds kept in isolators showed highly impaired growth until 3 weeks p.i. Birds produced mucoid yellowish coloured droppings and at post mortem thin liquid intestinal contents were found. Biochemical examination of blood plasma showed low plasma carotenoid

M. Vertommen; J. H. H. Van Eck; B. Kouwenhoven; Nel Van Kol



Bayesian inference of biochemical kinetic parameters using the linear noise approximation  

PubMed Central

Background Fluorescent and luminescent gene reporters allow us to dynamically quantify changes in molecular species concentration over time on the single cell level. The mathematical modeling of their interaction through multivariate dynamical models requires the deveopment of effective statistical methods to calibrate such models against available data. Given the prevalence of stochasticity and noise in biochemical systems inference for stochastic models is of special interest. In this paper we present a simple and computationally efficient algorithm for the estimation of biochemical kinetic parameters from gene reporter data. Results We use the linear noise approximation to model biochemical reactions through a stochastic dynamic model which essentially approximates a diffusion model by an ordinary differential equation model with an appropriately defined noise process. An explicit formula for the likelihood function can be derived allowing for computationally efficient parameter estimation. The proposed algorithm is embedded in a Bayesian framework and inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Conclusion The major advantage of the method is that in contrast to the more established diffusion approximation based methods the computationally costly methods of data augmentation are not necessary. Our approach also allows for unobserved variables and measurement error. The application of the method to both simulated and experimental data shows that the proposed methodology provides a useful alternative to diffusion approximation based methods.

Komorowski, Michal; Finkenstadt, Barbel; Harper, Claire V; Rand, David A



Saline or plant-incorporated methylmercury effects on distribution, demethylation, and blood parameters in rats  

SciTech Connect

The influence of diet is recognized as a significant factor in the expression of toxicity. This applies particularly to toxins like methylmercury (MeHg) which are metabolically incorporated into growing food plants and biotransformed within the plant before ingestion. Methylmercury in this form may influence the early physiological and biochemical events which lead to development of toxicity. In a previous study, a single dose of plant-incorporated methylmercury (MeHg) had a different route of distribution and accumulation in rat organs after 48 h than an equivalent dose of saline MeHg with the greatest accumulation being in red blood cells. Creatine, an important storage form of high energy phosphate in muscles is a primary indicator of erythropoietic dynamics under hypoxia, a sensitive indicator of hemolytic disease, red blood cell aging and impaired marrow efficiency. Since changes in creatine levels occur sooner than changes in other blood parameters, itself being neither synthesized nor metabolized by red blood cells, it can be used as a sensitive indicator of toxicity. The present work investigates the difference in a longer term, multiple-dose regime of saline or bean-incorporated MeHg ingestion with special attention being given to various blood parameters.

Czuba, M.; Komsta-Szumska, E.; Mortimer, D.C.; Champagne, C.



Host Modulation in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with TNF Blockers Significantly Decreases Biochemical Parameters in Periodontitis.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of host modulation therapy on periodontal and biochemical parameters. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis patients newly scheduled for anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy were screened for 30 days. Periodontal parameters (clinical attachment level, probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index and gingival index) as well as salivary and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels of the patients were evaluated at baseline and on the 30th day of therapy. GCF volume, IL-1? and IL-8 levels (p?=?0.007, p?=?0.017 and p?=?0.009, respectively) of the periodontitis patients significantly decreased. Although there was a decrease in all these parameters in healthy patients, it was below statistical significance. Salivary IL-8 and MCP-1 levels significantly decreased in periodontitis patients (p?=?0.028 and p?=?0.013, respectively), but IL-1? levels remained unchanged. These results suggest that TNF blockers may significantly modify host response in terms of biochemical parameters of the periodontium and may mask significant associations such as those reported between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23649513

Ustün, Kemal; Erciyas, Kamile; K?sac?k, Bünyamin; Sezer, Ufuk; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Gündo?ar, Hasan; Onat, Ahmet Mesut



Effect of Yucca schidigera extract on blood pressure, antioxidant activity and some blood parameters in the L-name-induced hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) on blood pressure, antioxidant activity and some biochemical parameters in the L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The study was performed on eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 3 groups with 6 animals per group: 1) Control, fed standard chow ad libitum, 2) N-nitro-L-arginine methyl

Aziz BÜLBÜL; Abdullah ERYAVUZ; Gülcan AVCI; ?smail KÜÇÜKKURT; A. Fatih


Correlation of cytological and biochemical parameters with resistance and tolerance to Mycosphaerella graminicola in wheat.  


This study investigated the infection process of Mycosphaerella graminicola and enzyme activities related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) or oxylipin biosynthesis in four French wheat cultivars with variable resistance to M. graminicola infection. At field level, cultivars Caphorn, Maxyl and Gen11 were susceptible, whereas Capnor showed high levels of quantitative resistance. Moreover, Capnor and Gen11 were tolerant, i.e., their yield was less affected by infection compared to non-tolerant Maxyl and Caphorn. These four cultivars were inoculated under laboratory conditions with the M. graminicola IPO323 reference strain. Cytological and biochemical responses were studied on collected first plantlet leaves and several features discriminated between cultivars. However, resistance and tolerance had no impact on the fungal infection process. Levels of lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (PO) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were also compared with regard to cultivar resistance or tolerance to M. graminicola. LOX, PO and GST activities did not discriminate resistance and tolerance profiles, although a low level of PO in inoculated and non-inoculated plants could be associated with tolerance. In addition, cell necrosis correlated positively with LOX in non-tolerant cultivars, while mycelia surrounding stomata were positively correlated with PO in the resistant cultivar. GST activity presented correlations between cytological and biochemical parameters only for susceptible cultivars. Stomatal and direct penetration were positively correlated with GST activity in the susceptible non-tolerant cultivars, while these correlations were negative in the tolerant cultivar. When combining cytological and biochemical observations with resistance and tolerance profiles, for each cultivar and at each time point, cultivars could be classified in tight accordance with their previous field characterisation. Moreover, tolerance allowed us to distinguish susceptible cultivars when both biochemical and cytological parameters were considered together. PMID:21973183

El Chartouni, L; Randoux, B; Duyme, F; Renard-Merlier, D; Tisserant, B; Bourdon, N; Pillon, V; Sanssené, J; Durand, R; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P



Relation of biochemical, cytologic, and morphologic parameters to the result of gammagraphy with technetium 99m sestamibi in primary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the possible relation of biochemical, cytologic, and morphologic parameters to the results of parathyroid gammagraphy with Tc 99m sestamibi in primary hyperparathyroidism. We studied 46 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing surgery. All the patients were given a preoperative parathyroid gammagraphy with Tc 99m sestamibi and a complete preoperative biochemical

Antonio Piñero; José M. Rodriguez; Sergio Ortiz; Teresa Soria; Juan Bermejo; Maria A. Claver; Manuel Canteras; Pascual Parrilla



Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velí‰ek J., Z. Svobodová: Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 247-252. The aim of the present study was to assess acute toxicity of the 2-phenoxyethanol anaesthetic in carp, and assess changes in their tissues using the biochemical blood profiles. Acute toxicity values of 2-phenoxyethanol




Evaluation of serum fetuin-A relationships with biochemical parameters in patients on hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Complications associated with atherosclerosis in dialysis patients are attracting attention. Fetuin-A, a circulating calcium-regulatory\\u000a glycoprotein that inhibits vascular calcification, is associated with inflammation and outcome in dialysis patients. In this\\u000a study, the relation between serum fetuin-A concentration and biochemical parameters in patients on hemodialysis was investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty hemodialysis patients, 22 men and 18 women, aged 57 ± 12 years; and

Osamu Oikawa; Terumi Higuchi; Toshio Yamazaki; Chii Yamamoto; Noboru Fukuda; Koichi Matsumoto



2,4,5-trichlororophenol and its derivatives induce biochemical and morphological changes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.  


In this work, the investigation of the effects of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), 4,6-dichloroguaiacol (4,6-DCG), and 4,5-dichlorocatechol (4,5-DCC) on selected morphological and biochemical parameters in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied. All of the investigated compounds (at concentrations from 25-600 ppm) increased the size and granularity of the lymphocytes. 2,4,5-TCP induced the strongest and 4,5-DCC induced the weakest changes in these parameters. Moreover, 2,4,5-TCP induced the greatest loss of lymphocyte viability, which was statistically significant at concentrations of 125 and 600 ppm. DNA and protein damage was provoked by relatively low concentrations of the xenobiotics examined. Comet assay analysis showed that 4,6-DCG and 4,5-DCC at 5 ppm significantly increased the level of single- and/or double-strand breaks in the DNA of human lymphocytes. The increase in carbonyl group content (the marker of protein damage) was more strongly induced by 4,5-DCC and 2,4,5-TCP than by 4,6-DCG at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 5 ppm. DNA and protein damage was most probably caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) because it was observed that all of the compounds studied, as well as 4,5-DCC and 2,4,5-TCP in particular, were capable of oxidising fluorescent probe 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein at very low concentrations (0.01-1 ppm). In summary, 2,4,5-TCP induced the greatest morphological and cytotoxic changes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, whereas its metabolite 4,5-DCC caused the most severe biochemical alterations, such as protein and DNA damage as well as ROS formation, in the incubated cells,. PMID:20364251

Micha?owicz, Jaromir



Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf goats fed dried cassava leaves-based concentrate diets.  


The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of dried cassava leaves at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60%, respectively, using guinea grass as basal feed, on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. The study lasted for 116 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored in 40 male goats before and after, using a completely randomized design. At the start of the experiment, packed cell volume (PCV) ranged from 21.5% to 25.5% while haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and RBC significantly (P?blood cells reduced significantly (P??0.05). Lymphocyte reduced significantly (P??0.05) at the 0% to 40% levels and reduced at the 60% level of dried cassava leaves inclusion. At the start of the experiment, values for glucose significantly (P?biochemical parameters of WAD goats and could therefore be included in ruminant diets up to 60%. PMID:21744028

Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Anele, Uchenna Young; Oni, Oluwakemi Oluremilekun; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Onifade, Olufemi Sunday; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Dele, Peter Aniwe; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi



The effects of magnetic fluids on blood parameters in dogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this experiment, we investigated the blood parameters changes in dogs after intravenous injection of two types of magnetic fluid: cobalt-ferrite magnetic fluid (MF CoFe2O4/W (250)) with 250G saturation magnetization (CoFe2O4 in water) and butanol magnetic fluid (MF Fe3O4/But (400)) with 400G saturation magnetization (Fe3O4 in butanol). The most significant changes, but with different values for the same dose, of these two types of magnetic fluids were observed for ESR and WBC. Severe changes of blood parameters, even for small doses, were observed at the administration of butanol magnetic fluid (MF Fe3O4/But (400)), a phenomenon that indicates the low biocompatibility of magnetic fluids based on alcohols.

?incai, Mariana; Deleanu, Liliana; Argherie, Diana; Bica, Doina



Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women.  


Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964

Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; García-Valdés, L; Segura, M T; Martín-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Martí-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y



Effect of marathon running on hematologic and biochemical laboratory parameters, including cardiac markers.  


Participants in marathon races may require medical attention and the performance of laboratory assays. We report the changes in basic biochemical parameters, cardiac markers, CBC counts, and WBC differentials observed in participants in a marathon before, within 4 hours, and 24 hours after a race. The concentrations of glucose, total protein, albumin, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, myoglobin, and the anion gap were increased after the race, consistent with the effects of exertional rhabdomyolysis and hemolysis. The increase in WBC counts was due mainly to neutrophilia and monocytosis, with a relative decrease in circulating lymphocytes, consistent with an inflammatory reaction to tissue injury. A significant percentage of laboratory results were outside the standard reference ranges, indicating that modified reference ranges derivedfrom marathon runners might be more appropriatefor this population. We provide a table of modified reference ranges (or expected ranges) for basic biochemical, cardiac, and hematologic laboratory parameters for marathon runners. PMID:12472278

Kratz, Alexander; Lewandrowski, Kent B; Siegel, Arthur J; Chun, Kelly Y; Flood, James G; Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Lee-Lewandrowski, Elizabeth



Flaxseed bioactive compounds change milk, hormonal and biochemical parameters of dams and offspring during lactation.  


We evaluated maternal intake of SDG (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside), a compound from flaxseed, and flaxseed oil+SDG on biochemical and hormonal parameters of dams and male and female offspring during lactation. Dams were fed a standard diet (C); diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet (SDG) or diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet and 7% of flaxseed oil (OLSDG). SDG and OLSDG dams showed hyperprolactinemia. The OLSDG milk had lower lactose and protein, while the SDG milk had lower protein on the 14th day of lactation. At 14 days, OLSDG male and female pups showed lower body mass, SDG and OLSDG male pups had hypoprolactinemia and lower body fat mass, but higher visceral fat mass (VFM) and hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, male SDG and OLSDG presented hypotriglyceridemia. At 14 days, SDG and OLSDG female offspring showed higher serum 17-? estradiol (E2); OLSDG presented hypercholesterolemia and SDG presented hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, SDG and OLSDG female pups showed hypotriglyceridemia and OLSDG shower lower E2. Both maternal treatments changes maternal metabolism as well as hormonal and biochemical parameters of the offspring, which are gender-dependent. Maternal hyperprolactinemia may act as an imprint factor responsible for the hormonal and metabolic changes observed in the pups. PMID:22565278

Troina, A A; Figueiredo, M S; Passos, M C F; Reis, A M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G



The influence of administering "effective microorganisms" to pullets on chosen haematological and biochemical blood indexes.  


"Effective Microorganisms" (EM)--a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts and fungi are used mainly in agriculture and organic waste treatment. Recently, they have also been added to water and feed for animals, as well as to processing their excrements into compost and to eliminate the stench. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of a 14-day administration of an EM solution in drinking water to layer hens on chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. The research was carried out on 120 hens divided into two equal groups. The birds in the experimental group were given drinking water with dissolved EM (5% solution), and those in the control group--water without the preparation. On the 64th day of the aviculture, the hens were weighted and their blood was taken from the wing vein for haematological and biochemical examinations. Administering EM with water to hens did not influence significantly their body weight nor chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. A significant increase was found only in the number of platelets, the level of albumins, the content of total cholesterol and the LDH activity, however, a decrease in the ALT activity was observed. PMID:20169927

Sokó?, R; Michalczyk, M; Spodniewska, A; Barski, D



Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.  


The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract. PMID:21959815

Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John



Modification of mercury-induced biochemical alterations in blood of Swiss albino mice by Spirulina fusiformis.  


The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the role of Spirulina fusiformis in modifying the mercury-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into four groups: (i) control group - only vehicle (0.9% NaCl/olive oil) was given; (ii) HgCl(2) treated group - 5.0mg/kg b.w. HgCl(2) administered as i.p.; (iii) Spirulina treated group - 800mg/kg b.w. Spirulina extract was administered orally; (iv) combination group -S. fusiformis was administered 10 days before mercuric chloride administration and continued up to 30 days after mercuric chloride administration (5.0mg/kg b.w.). The animals were sacrificed on 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and the activity of serum alkaline and acid phosphatase, serum iron level, serum calcium level, blood lipid peroxidation content and blood glutathione (GSH) level were measured. In the present investigation, mercury intoxication causes significant increase (P<0.001) in calcium level, acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation content and significant decrease in iron level, alkaline phosphatase and glutathione level. Spirulina pre- and post-treatment with mercury prevented or reduces mercury-induced alterations in terms of calcium level, iron level, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in serum, and lipid peroxidation and GSH level in blood. Thus from the present investigation, it can be concluded that Spirulina pre- and post-treatment with HgCl(2) significantly modulate or modify mercury-induced biochemical alteration in blood of Swiss albino mice. PMID:21783603

Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Patni, Reena; Kumar, Madhu; Kumar, Ashok



The effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga on some physiological and biochemical parameters in mild hypertensive patients.  


An open label intervention study was undertaken on 26 mild hypertensives and 26 apparently healthy adults (30-60 y), for the effect of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga practice for two months as complementary therapy. In the hypertensives, there was a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), serum urea (P < 0.01) and plasma MDA (malondialdehyde adducts) as oxidative stress marker (P < 0.05). Other parameters; viz.; plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, did not change significantly (P > 0.1). The pattern of change in most of the study parameters was such that values above normal range were lowered but values within normal range were unaltered. The action of Yoga on diastolic blood pressure, malondialdehyde adducts and kidney function in hypertensives was of counteractive nature and felt to be distinctly different than the effect of drugs. PMID:22319901

Agte, Vaishali V; Jahagirdar, Madhavi U; Tarwadi, Kirtan V


Neuroactive effects of cotinine on the hippocampus: behavioral and biochemical parameters.  


The present work evaluated the effects of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), mecamylamine (MEC), methyllycaconitine (MLA) and dihydro-beta-eritroidine (DH?E) on memory extinction and the following biochemical parameters of the hippocampus: lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity (AC) and the phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2). Young male rats that were implanted bilaterally with cannulae were submitted to memory extinction tests sessions, and their hippocampi were dissected for biochemical assays. The extinction of fear memory was significantly improved by both nicotine and its metabolite. Cotinine significantly increased LPO, while nicotine significantly decreased it. Antioxidant capacity was increased by all treatments. Our results showed that cotinine, unlike nicotine, may increase oxidative stress in the hippocampus, but this increase depends upon the dose used and happens without causing corresponding impairments in cognitive function. Cotinine also increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in a similar fashion as nicotine. Considering these results, it is plausible to wonder to what extent nicotine-attributed effects are really due to the actions of this alkaloid and whether they could be due instead to cotinine or to cotinine-nicotine interactions within the brain. PMID:23602986

Aguiar, R B de; Parfitt, G M; Jaboinski, J; Barros, D M



Development of a biparametric bioanalyser for creatinine and urea. Validation of the determination of biochemical parameters associated with hemodialysis.  


The construction and evaluation of an automated urea and creatinine biparametric biosystem using flow injection analysis (FIA) are described. The biosystem uses enzyme reactions that hydrolyse urea and creatinine producing ammonium ions. The enzymes used were creatinine deiminase and urease, which are immobilized covalently in flow reactors. The reactor with creatinine deiminase has the enzyme immobilized on controlled-pore glass beads, whereas urease is immobilized on a nylon open tubular reactor. Detection is realised with a flow-through ammonium ion-selective electrode with an inner solid-state contact (graphite-epoxy composite). Ammonium ions are separated from alkali ion interferents through a gas-diffusion cell. The bioanalyser is fully automated using software and electronics developed ex profeso in our laboratories. The analyser was validated off-line by measuring urea and creatinine from discrete effluent samples from hemodialysis equipment. Results agreed with concurrent analyses realised using hospital laboratory methods. There were no significant differences between the two sets of results at the 95% confidence level. Finally, the biparametric bioanalyser was validated on-line by measuring creatinine and urea levels in artificial kidney effluents. These measurements were useful in the determination of key biochemical parameters of clinical interest such as the mass of urea and creatinine extracted from the patient as well as the initial concentration of creatinine and urea in blood plasma. When the results of the bioanalyser were compared with those yielded by the usual methods, they showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level when determining the mass of the analytes extracted by the hemodialyser or when determining the urea concentration in blood plasma. However, when measuring the creatinine concentration in blood plasma using the developed bioanalyser, significant differences appeared. PMID:9764511

Jurkiewicz, M; Alegret, S; Almirall, J; García, M; Fàbregas, E



The Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation on Biochemical Parameters in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin A has different functions in the body and after being converted to acid form; it can play many roles in immune system regulation. Therefore, this vitamin can be used as a supplement in the treatment of diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble compound and its long-term consumption in high doses can have some adverse effects. Objective The current study aimed to investigate the possible complications and find solutions to minimize the adverse effects. Patients and Methods This study was a double blind randomized clinical trial. In the main study, vitamin A (as retinyl palmitate) was given to 35 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in order to regulate their immune system with a dose of 25000 IU/day for a period of six months. To investigate the possible biochemical complications, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS), liver enzymes, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were tested. Results Vitamin A did not have a significant difference in lipid profiles, FBS and liver enzymes between the two groups receiving vitamin A and the placebo, but CRP increased in patients who were taking vitamin A, 1.65±0.43 (mg/L) and 2.88±0.67, (Mean±SEM), before and after the intervention respectively (P=0.029), and statistical analysis showed significant differences with the group receiving placebo (P=0.011) and CRP level in vitamin A group was 1.3 mg/L more than those of the placebo group after intervention (P=0.011). Conclusions Considering that no significant difference was found in the proven vitamin A side effects, due to the increase in CRP, frequent clinical and biochemical controls are required along with vitamin A supplementation.

Jafarirad, Sima; Siassi, Fereydoon; Harirchian, Mohammad-Hossein; Amani, Reza; Bitarafan, Sama; Saboor-Yaraghi, Aliakbar



Blood parameters changes in cord blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and normoblast count were higher in the newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group, and total leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and thrombocyte counts were lower. The number of neutropenic and thrombocytopenic subjects in newborns of hypertensive mothers was higher compared to the control group. On peripheral smears, dysplastic changes in neutrophils and erythrocytes were observed with a higher rate in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. HbF levels were found to be higher in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the number of infections in newborns of hypertensive mothers was found to be higher than the control group. Conclusion: Newborns of hypertensive mothers should be carefully evaluated and monitored in terms of hematologic abnormalities. Complete blood counts and peripheral blood smears can be used as significant parameters for early diagnosis of possible complications. PMID:23812509

Bolat, Ahmet; Gursel, Orhan; Kurekci, Emin; Atay, Avni; Ozcan, Okan



Effect of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney.  


The effect of administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis (2mg/kg body weight) on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney were investigated. Experimental animals were randomly divided into the control, those administered with the extract for 6 days and those administered with extract for 18 days, respectively. The prolonged administration of the extract resulted in significant reduction in the alkaline phosphatase activities of the kidney and its body weight ratio (P<0.05). In contrast, the same prolonged administration of the extract resulted in significant increase in the serum sodium ion concentration (P<0.05) while there was no significant difference in serum potassium ion concentration when compared to control (P>0.05). Administration of the extract for 6 days produced no significant difference from the control values in all the parameters investigated except in serum urea concentration which produced a significant increase (P<0.05). The available evidence in this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis exerted more deleterious effect on the kidney when administered continuously over a prolonged period than a short one and this will adversely affect the functioning of the kidney. PMID:12902053

Adebayo, Joseph O; Yakubu, Musa T; Egwim, Evans C; Owoyele, Victor B; Enaibe, Bernard U




Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the biochemical parameters of the external mucus of carp Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to 1 µM concentrations of heavy metal salts (CuSO45H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and ZnSO47H2O) were studied. The biochemical parameters of external mucus (specific weight, pH, total protein, hemoglobin, ketones) were measured during exposure at 1, 3, 6, 24 h and regularly during a 21-day post-exposure period.

Nina Lebedev; Milda Zita Vosylien; Tamara Golovkina


Effect of yoga therapy on reaction time, biochemical parameters and wellness score of peri and post-menopausal diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Yogic practices may aid in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and reduce cardiovascular complications in the population. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of yoga therapy on reaction time, biochemical parameters and wellness score of peri and post-menopausal diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: 15 peri and post-menopausal patients receiving standard medical treatment for type 2 DM were recruited and reaction time and biochemical investigations were done before and after a comprehensive yoga therapy program comprising of three times a week sessions for six weeks. A post-intervention, retrospective wellness questionnaire compiled by ACYTER was used to evaluate the comparative feelings of the patients after the therapy program. Results: Yoga training reduced auditory reaction time (ART) from right as well as left hand, the decrease being statistically significant (P<0.05) for ART from the right hand. There was a significant (P<0.01) decrease in fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels as well as low density lipoprotein. The decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and very low density lipoprotein and increase in high density lipoprotein was also statistically significant (P<0.05). All the lipid ratios showed desirable improvement with a decrease (P<0.01) of TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios and increase (P<0.05) in the HDL/LDL ratio. Discussion or Conclusion: Shortening of RT implies an improvement in the information processing and reflexes and is the first such report in diabetic patients. This has clinical significance and is worth further exploration with wider, well controlled, randomized studies in the diabetic population. Changes in blood glucose levels may be due to improved insulin sensitivity, decline in insulin resistance and increased sensitivity of the pancreatic b cells to glucose signals. Yoga improved the ‘heart friendly’ status of lipid profile in our subjects and as our participants were peri and post-menopausal, the decrease in cardiovascular risk profile is of greater significance. A comprehensive yoga therapy program has the potential to enhance the beneficial effects of standard medical management of diabetes mellitus and can be used as an effective complementary or integrative therapy program.

Madanmohan; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Dayanidy, G; Sanjay, Zeena; Basavaraddi, Ishwar V



The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs  

PubMed Central

Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG) and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test) observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the growth performance of grower pigs but had no deleterious effects on selected blood parameters. The possibility of beneficial effects of adding acids and tannin in diets on growth performance over a longer period, however, could not be excluded.



The clinical and biochemical parameters in relation to the serum neopterin levels in Indian children and adolescents.  


Introduction: An adverse pattern of blood lipids and cardiovascular abnormalities starts in obese children during childhood and neopterin serves as a marker for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, the data for children and adolescents, particularly, in the Indian population, are scarce. The present study aimed at evaluating the levels of serum neopterin in obese and overweight children and adolescents of the Indian population. Methods: The study groups included 296 school going children and adolescents. (96 obese and 97 overweight subjects were compared with 103 normal controls who were aged between 10-17 years). The anthropometric variables, the lipid profile, the fasting serum glucose which was analyzed by using an autoanalyzer and the serum neopterin levels were assayed by HPLC (Shimazdu) by using the method of Palfrey et al., 1993. The serum insulin levels were measured by using ELISA kits. Results: The serum neopterin levels (nmol/l) were elevated significantly in the obese (7.4±1.4) and overweight (6.4±0.8) (p<0.001) children and adolescents than in the controls (4.9±0.9). The serum neopterin levels showed a positive correlation with the BMI (r=0.79), WHR (r=0.5), systolic (r=0.44) and diastolic blood pressures (r= 0.25), insulin (r=0.57), HOMAIR (r=0.55), total cholesterol (r=0.35), triglycerides (r=0.20) and LDL-C (r=0.27) and they showed a negative correlation with HDL-C (r=-0.15) and fasting glucose (r= -0.3). Conclusion: This study revealed a good relationship between serum neopterin and the anthropometric and biochemical parameters. We, therefore, aim to conduct regular camps at schools to counsel and advise the identified overweight and obese children to go for physical exercise and a balanced diet. The implementation of preventive measures from early childhood will have far reaching benefits, as even the prevalence of other obesity related disorders could decline. PMID:23730631

Nageswara Rao G, Srinivasa; Gurumurthy, Prema; E, Sruti; Cherian, K M



Variability of serum oxidative stress biomarkers relative to biochemical data and clinical parameters of glaucoma patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose The importance of oxidative stress in both the formation and the course of glaucoma has been known. Among the antioxidants, vitamin E possesses the specific effects and regulatory mechanisms of a neurohormone. The serum oxidant/antioxidant profile is reportedly altered in ocular pathologies. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the clinical parameters of glaucoma and biochemical data on antioxidants and serum oxidative stress markers as oxidation degradation products. Methods In this multicenter case control study, control and patient groups consisted of 31 healthy individuals and 160 glaucoma patients with no known additional abnormalities, respectively. We analyzed the oxidation degradation products malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), antioxidants, vitamins E and A, Serine (Ser), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), transferrine (TF), and total antioxidant capacity (TADA). All of these parameters and their relationships with serum cholesterol, glucose, protein, albumin, triglyceride levels, age, gender, visual acuities, intraocular pressure (IOP), c/d ratio, gonioscopic findings, medications, presence of pseudoexfoliation (px), central visual field and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) data, pachymetry, and Laplace values, were evaluated individually. Statistical comparisons were performed among them, and with the control group as well. Results TADA, AOPP, SOD, and Gpx were found to be decreased, and MDA, Ser, TF, vitamins A and E increased in the patient group. All data, excluding AOPP, varied significantly. Vitamin E was the most consistent parameter. Conclusions In this study, the association between glaucoma and lipid oxidation was shown on a systematic basis, and the significance of vitamin E as a neuroprotective agent has been revealed once more.

Yemisci, Bulent; Yigit, Ulviye; Agachan, Ahmet; Coskun, Cihan



Analysis of the hematological and biochemical parameters related to lead intoxication.  


In parallel with industrial advancements, number of the occupational diseases secondary to chemical exposure is increasing. The chemical agents in the work places affect various organ and tissue systems, leading to chronic diseases. In this study, the cases diagnosed with occupational disease due to exposure to lead were studied and importance of the environmental forensic sciences on this issue was emphasized. A hundred and ninety patients diagnosed with occupational disease related to lead intoxication in Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital between 01/01/2009 and 31/12/2009 were included in the study. Twenty cases were used as the controls. Sociodemographic characteristics, serum chemical parameters and hematological parameters of the patients were retrospectively assessed. Mean age of the cases included in the study was 35.3±8.69. Hemoglobin (Hb) (p=0.018) and Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (p<0.001) values were found significantly lower in the patients with lead exposure than in the controls. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly lower in the patients with lead exposure than in the controls (p=0.002), whereas alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was found higher (p<0.001). In thyroid function test (TFTs) panel, free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were found significantly higher in the patients with lead exposure than in the control group (p=0.01), while Thyrotrophin-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower (p<0.001). No significant difference was found in terms of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values. In the correlation analysis; serum level of serum lead (Pb) was correlated positively with ALP values and negatively with Hb, MCV and TSH. Considering its effects on the biochemical and hematological parameters, a detailed investigation should be carried out in the cases with lead exposure, which occupies an important place among the occupational diseases. PMID:23084307

Y?lmaz, H?nç; Keten, Alper; Karacao?lu, Emre; Tutkun, Engin; Akçan, Ramazan



Long-term changes in microbial and biochemical parameters in the Central Indian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural kilometer-scale spatial variability and seasonal variability in deep-sea sediments at ˜5000 m depth was studied at two reference sites in the Central Indian Basin. Biochemical parameters such as the labile organic matter (LOM) (consisting of carbohydrates, protein and lipids) and total organic matter (TOM) and biological parameters such as total counts of bacteria and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were estimated after an interval of 54 months. These were compared with nine locations (12-17 km away) where an artificial sediment disturbance was created by a hydraulic benthic disturber. Besides the above-mentioned parameters, extracellular enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase and lipase were also monitored at these nine locations. Post-disturbance (PoD1) observations were carried out immediately after the benthic disturbance experiment and compared with the pre-disturbance (PreD) pattern. The restoration process in the test site was studied after a period of 44 months (PoD2). There was a drastic reduction in total counts of bacteria, ATP, carbohydrates and lipids accompanied by a two- to four-fold increase in protein content at the undisturbed reference sites after 54 months. A similar reduction in these parameters was observed in the PoD1 compared to the PreD stage at the test site. An initial increase in TOM content and in the activities of three extracellular enzymes in the PoD1 stage was followed by a reduction in TOM, ATP and organic P content and activities of the extracellular enzymes in the PoD2 phase (i.e. after 44 months). Reduction in ATP levels suggests a negative impact of resedimentation on living biomass in the sediments. Although LOM, protein concentrations and the protein/carbohydrate ratio increased in the PoD2 phase relative to the PoD1 phase, the bacterial numbers were below the concentrations in the PreD stage, indicating slow restoration of benthic conditions. Long-term analyses of the indicator parameters thus showed mixed effects of sediment disturbance. A similar pattern at the undisturbed reference location suggests that natural (seasonal) variability outweighed artificial variability caused by the benthic disturbance in the Central Indian Basin and the former is responsible for bringing about changes in deep-sea benthic ecosystem on long-time scales.

Raghukumar, Chandralata; Nagender Nath, B.; Sharma, R.; Loka Bharathi, P. A.; Dalal, S. G.



Effect of Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Various Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Male Albino Mice following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Background. Present study was designed to report the effect of 2% creatine monohydrate supplementation for 8, 12 and 15 weeks on hematology and serum biochemical profile of male albino mouse following hypoxic ischemic insult on postnatal day 10. Methods. 66 Blood samples (2% creatine monohydrate supplemented (N = 34) and unsupplemented (N = 32)) were analyzed for various hematological (blood glucose, packed cell volume, total WBC count, total RBC count) and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, total protein, triglycerides). Results. ALT had higher concentrations in mice feeding on normal diet for 8 (P > 0.01) and 12 weeks (P > 0.01) following asphyxia and in 12 weeks treatment without asphyxia (P = 0.006) when compared with the creatine supplemented mice. LDL (P = 0.011) and cholesterol (P > 0.01) had higher concentrations in mice on normal diet for 12 weeks following hypoxia ischemia. Cholesterol (P > 0.01) in 12 and glucose (P = 0.006) in 15 week treatment group had significantly lower concentrations in creatine supplemented male albino mice when compared with untreated group following hxpoic-ischemic insult. Conclusion. We concluded that creatine supplementation following hypoxic ischemic insult helps in maintain the normal blood chemistry.

Nazir, Nabia; Gillani, Quratulane; Akbar, Atif



Assessment of the impact of pesticide residues on microbiological and biochemical parameters of tea garden soils in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of pesticidal residues on soil microbial and biochemical parameters of the tea garden soils. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal (BSR) and substrate induced respirations (SIR), ? -glucosidase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity (FDHA) of six tea garden soils, along with two adjacent forest soils (control) in West

A. Bishnu; T. Saha; D. Mazumdar; K. Chakrabarti; A. Chakraborty




EPA Science Inventory



Effects of Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) on some biochemical parameters in rats.  


The antimalarial activity of the crude water extract of Khaya grandifoliola (Welw) CDC (Meliaceae) stem bark in mice has been reported. The biochemical effects of the crude water extract at doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/day were examine in plasma, liver, and heart after 7 and 21 days of administration and after a recovery period of 21 days. The extract had a significant hypoglycaemic, hypoproteinaemic and hypocholesterolaemic effect at p < 0.05 when compared to the control rats. Liver protein content and glutathione (GSH) were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in groups treated with the extract. The concentration of free fatty acids in the plasma was not significantly reduced in groups treated with the extract. A non-significant increase in liver malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the extract-administered groups. After the recovery period, the values returned to levels that were not significantly different from those of the control at (p < 0.05) for all the parameters examined. PMID:16233966

Bumah, V V; Essien, E U; Agbedahunsi, J M; Ekah, O U



Effect of cytisine on some brain and hepatic biochemical parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for variety of cardio-vascular diseases, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke and many others. It is of great importance for hypertensive patients to stop smoking. One of the medicines widely used for smoking cessation in Bulgaria is the original Bulgarian product Tabex®, which is developed on the basis of natural plant alkaloid cytisine. The aim of the following study was to ivestigate the effects of cytisine on some brain and hepatic biochemical parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an widely used rodent model for human essential hypertension, and to compare the obtained results with their age-matched normotensive controls Wistar Kyoto (WKY). Multiple cytisine administration did not affect the activity of ethylmorphine-N-demethylase (EMND) and anylinehydroxylase (AH), as well as the quantity of cytochrome P 450, nor in WKY neither in SHR In the liver cytisine increased the MDA quantity both in SHR and in WKY, by 25% (p<0.05) and by 29% (p<0.05) respectively, while the GSH level was not significantly changed by the compound in both strains. In contrast, on the brain level, cytisine administration to SHR caused more prominent toxicity, resulted in GSH depletion and increased MDA quantity, while in WKY strain did not exert any toxicity. Cytisine did not significantly affect ALAT and ASAT activity in both strains. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest higher brain toxicity of cytisine in spontaneously hypertensive rats, that might be due to their pathophysiological characteristics.

Simeonova, Rumyana; Vitcheva, Vessela; Mitcheva, Mitka



Evidence for placebo effects on physical but not on biochemical outcome parameters: a review of clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Recent reviews on placebo effects in clinical trials suggest that objective changes following placebo treatments may not exist or, at least, have been considerably overestimated. However, the possibility that yet unidentified subsets of parameters are responsive to placebo treatments has not been taken into account. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the effects of placebo treatments on objectively measured outcome parameters by specifically focusing on peripheral disease processes. Methods An initial dataset was collected from a MEDLINE search for placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials. Trials with stable disease conditions were identified, and the effects of placebo treatments on peripheral outcome parameters were estimated by the changes from baseline in the placebo groups. An explorative data analysis was conducted in order to identify parameter classes with differential responsiveness to placebo treatments. A subgroup meta-analysis of a second dataset was performed to test whether the preliminary classification would also apply to placebo effects derived from the comparison of placebo groups with untreated control groups. Results The explorative analysis of outcome parameters and strength of placebo effects yielded a classification into responsive "physical" versus non-responsive "biochemical" parameters. In total, 50% of trials measuring physical parameters showed significant placebo effects, compared with 6% of trials measuring biochemical parameters. A subgroup meta-analysis substantiated the differential response (physical parameters: n = 14, Hedges' pooled effect size g = 0.34, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.46; biochemical parameters: n = 15, g = 0.03, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.10). The subanalysis of the second dataset supported the classification and revealed a significant improvement for physical parameters (n = 20, g = 0.22, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.36) and a deterioration for biochemical parameters (n = 6, g = -0.17, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.02). Conclusion The results suggest that placebo interventions can improve physical disease processes of peripheral organs more easily and effectively than biochemical processes. This differential response offers a good starting point for theoretical considerations on possible mediating mechanisms, and for future investigations in this field.

Meissner, Karin; Distel, Hans; Mitzdorf, Ulla



Effect of vitamin e supplementation on biochemical parameters in pesticides sprayers of grape gardens of Western maharashtra (India).  


The aim of this study was to see the biochemical effects of pesticides on sprayers of grape gardens before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementations in Western Maharashtra (India), who were occupationally exposed to various pesticides over a long period of time (about 5 to 15 years). Blood samples were collected from all study group subjects for biochemical parameters assays before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens were given 400 mg of vitamin E tablet/day for 15 days. After 15 days of vitamin E supplementation to sprayers of grape gardens, we observed significantly decreased aspartate transaminase (10.88 %, P < 0.05, r = 0.88), alanine transaminase (25.92 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.46) and total proteins (3.32 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.33), whereas, no statistically significant change was found in serum acetyl cholinesterase, C-reactive proteins, albumin (ALB), globulins and ALB/globulin ratio as compared to before vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens, who received vitamin E supplementation, showed significantly decreased serum lipid peroxide (LP) (18.75 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.63) and significantly increased RBC-superoxide dismutase (SOD) (12.88 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.85), RBC-Catalase (CAT) (24.49 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.70), plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) (4.6 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.80), serum zinc (4.57 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.83) and serum copper (4.37 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.79) as compared to values before vitamin E supplementation. These results showed that vitamin E supplementation has ameliorating effects on these transaminase enzymes, suggesting that it may have a protective effect on liver, from pesticides induced damage. In this study vitamin E supplementation might have decreased LP levels by breaking chain reaction of lipid peroxidation. Present results indicate that vitamin E plays a crucial role in restoring the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and CP, in population exposed to pesticides. This helps to enhance its antioxidant ability. Therefore, it is suggested that farmers, pesticide applicators, workers in the pesticide industry and other pesticide users, who come in regular contact with pesticides, may be benefited by supplementation with vitamin E. PMID:23543683

Patil, Jyotsna A; Patil, Arun J; Sontakke, Ajit V; Govindwar, Sanjay P



Status Report on Red Blood Cell Freezing: Biochemical Modification and Freeze-Preservation in the Original Polyvinyl Chloride Plastic Collection Bag.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently the Naval Blood Research Laboratory has been freezing red blood cells in a collection system which uses either a triple or a quadruple bag setup. Blood collection and red blood cell biochemical modification and freeze-preservation can be accompli...

C. R. Valeri D. A. Valeri J. Anastasi C. G. Zaroulis J. J. Vecchione



Effect of Withania somnifera Extracts on Some Selective Biochemical, Hematological, and Immunological Parameters in Guinea Pigs Experimental Infected with E. coli.  


Fifty 1-2-month-old Guinea pigs were divided into 5 equal groups, 10 each. Control (Gp1) did receive neither viable bacteria nor treatment. Each animal from the other groups (Gp2-5) was challenged with (1-2 × 10(8)) viable E. coli in 200? ? L normal saline (0.9%) through IP route. GP2 infected group was treated with 200? ? L saline IP and kept as positive control group. Gp3-4 are infected and treated with Withania somnifera (ethanol root extract) with doses 50 and 100?mg/kg. BW, respectively. Gp5 infected treated group was treated with cefoperazone antibiotic at dose 35?mg/Kg BW. The treatment by drug or the extracted medicinal plant was started 72?h after infection for 7 successive days. Serum and whole blood sample were collected from all groups 14 days after treatment to evaluate some hematological and biochemical changes as well as immunomodulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ? ). Oral treatment of the plant extract caused significant benefit results in infected Guinea pig appeared in the correction of some hematological and biochemical parameters also try to suppressed inflammatory cytokine response represent in TNF- ? . It could be concluded that W. somnifera extract has potent antibacterial activity, and this appears in the correction with hematological, biochemical, and immunological results. PMID:23738137

El-Boshy, Mohamed El-Sayed; Abdalla, Osama Mohamed; Risha, Angy; Moustafa, Fatma



Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results 27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions : This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output.

Zulfiqar, Samreen; Shahnawaz, Sadia; Ali, Muhammad; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Iqbal, Shahid; Hayat, Sikandar; Qadir, Shazia; Latif, Muhammad; Kiran, Nazia; Saeed, Ali; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan



Dietary Quality Indices and Biochemical Parameters Among Patients With Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary intake might have important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Although, there are some reports on dietary intake and anthropometrics measurements, few studies have focused on the markers of assessing whole diet like dietary quality indices. Objectives Therefore, our aim was to determine the diet quality indices and biochemical parameters among patients with NAFLD and healthy individuals. Patients and Methods This case-control study was performed on 100 patients with NAFLD and 100 healthy subjects who were attending to Gastrointestinal Research Center, Baqiyatallah University, Tehran, Iran during the recent years. Usual dietary intake was assessed by three dietary records (one weekend and two week days). Healthy eating index (HEI), dietary diversity score (DDS), dietary energy density (DED), mean adequacy ratio of nutrients (MAR) were assessed according to the standard methods. Results Patients with NAFLD had higher body mass index, weight and waist circumference compared to the healthy group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of liver enzymes, triglyceride, LDL, BUN, and uric acid were higher in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Although patients with NAFLD had higher energy, carbohydrate and fat intake, their values for antioxidant vitamins, calcium and vitamin D were lower than healthy subjects (P < 0.05). HEI and MAR were higher among healthy group, and DED was lower among them. Nutrient adequacy ratio for calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant micronutrients were lower in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions It seems that dietary quality indices may be associated with NAFLD. Calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant micronutrients intake might be lower among patients with NAFLD based on this case-control study. Further prospective studies should be conducted in this regard.

Hashemi kani, Ali; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila



Evaluation of biochemical, hematological and oxidative parameters in mice exposed to the herbicide glyphosate-Roundup(®).  


We evaluated the toxicity of hepatic, hematological, and oxidative effects of glyphosate-Roundup(®) on male and female albino Swiss mice. The animals were treated orally with either 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight of the herbicide, on a daily basis for a period of 15 days. Distilled water was used as control treatment. Samples of blood and hepatic tissue were collected at the end of the treatment. Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum enzymes ALT, AST, and ?-GT and renal toxicity by urea and creatinine. We also investigated liver tissues histopathologically. Alterations of hematological parameters were monitored by RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and NPSH (non-protein thiols) were analyzed in the liver to assess oxidative damage. Significant increases in the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, and ?-GT) were observed for both herbicide treatments, but no considerable differences were found by histological analysis. The hematological parameters showed significant alterations (500 mg/kg body weight) with reductions of RBC, hematocrit, and hemoglobin, together with a significant increase of MCV, in both sexes of mice. In males, there was an important increase in lipid peroxidation at both dosage levels, together with an NPSH decrease in the hepatic tissue, whereas in females significant changes in these parameters were observed only at the higher dose rate. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate-Roundup(®) can promote hematological and hepatic alterations, even at subacute exposure, which could be related to the induction of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23554553

Jasper, Raquel; Locatelli, Gabriel Olivo; Pilati, Celso; Locatelli, Claudriana



Evaluation of biochemical, hematological and oxidative parameters in mice exposed to the herbicide glyphosate-Roundup®  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the toxicity of hepatic, hematological, and oxidative effects of glyphosate-Roundup® on male and female albino Swiss mice. The animals were treated orally with either 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight of the herbicide, on a daily basis for a period of 15 days. Distilled water was used as control treatment. Samples of blood and hepatic tissue were collected at the end of the treatment. Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum enzymes ALT, AST, and ?-GT and renal toxicity by urea and creatinine. We also investigated liver tissues histopathologically. Alterations of hematological parameters were monitored by RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and NPSH (non-protein thiols) were analyzed in the liver to assess oxidative damage. Significant increases in the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, and ?-GT) were observed for both herbicide treatments, but no considerable differences were found by histological analysis. The hematological parameters showed significant alterations (500 mg/kg body weight) with reductions of RBC, hematocrit, and hemoglobin, together with a significant increase of MCV, in both sexes of mice. In males, there was an important increase in lipid peroxidation at both dosage levels, together with an NPSH decrease in the hepatic tissue, whereas in females significant changes in these parameters were observed only at the higher dose rate. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate-Roundup® can promote hematological and hepatic alterations, even at subacute exposure, which could be related to the induction of reactive oxygen species.

Jasper, Raquel; Locatelli, Gabriel Olivo; Pilati, Celso



Quercetin ameliorates gamma radiation-induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.  


We investigated the radioprotective efficacy of quercetin (QN), a naturally occurring flavonoid against gamma radiation-induced damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and plasmid DNA. In plasmid study, QN at different concentrations (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 microM) were pre-incubated with plasmid DNA for 1h followed by exposure of 6 Gy radiation. Among all concentrations of QN used, 24 microM showed optimum radioprotective potential. To establish the most effective protective concentration of QN in lymphocytes, the cells were pre-incubated with 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 microM of QN for 30 min and then exposed to 4 Gy gamma-radiation. The concentration-dependent effects of QN were evaluated by scoring micronuclei (MN) frequencies. The results showed that QN decreased the MN frequencies dose dependently, but the effect was more pronounced at 24 microM. Thus, 24 microM of QN was selected as the optimum concentration and was further used to evaluate its radioprotective effect in lymphocytes. For that a separate experiment was carried out, in which lymphocytes were incubated with QN (24 microM) for 30 min and exposed to different doses of radiation (1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy). Genetic damage (MN, dicentric aberration and comet attributes) and biochemical changes were measured to evaluate the effect of QN on gamma-radiations (1-4 Gy). Radiation exposed showed significant increases in the genetic damage and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) accompanied by a significant decrease in the antioxidant status. QN pretreatment significantly decreased the genetic damage and TBARS and improved antioxidant status through its antioxidant potential. Altogether, our findings encourage further mechanistic and in vivo studies to investigate radioprotective efficacy of QN. PMID:18436471

Devipriya, Nagarajan; Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Menon, Venugopal P



BBB on chip: microfluidic platform to mechanically and biochemically modulate blood-brain barrier function.  


The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a unique feature of the human body, preserving brain homeostasis and preventing toxic substances to enter the brain. However, in various neurodegenerative diseases, the function of the BBB is disturbed. Mechanisms of the breakdown of the BBB are incompletely understood and therefore a realistic model of the BBB is essential. We present here the smallest model of the BBB yet, using a microfluidic chip, and the immortalized human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Barrier function is modulated both mechanically, by exposure to fluid shear stress, and biochemically, by stimulation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), in one single device. The device has integrated electrodes to analyze barrier tightness by measuring the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). We demonstrate that hCMEC/D3 cells could be cultured in the microfluidic device up to 7 days, and that these cultures showed comparable TEER values with the well-established Transwell assay, with an average (± SEM) of 36.9 ?.cm(2) (± 0.9 ?.cm(2)) and 28.2 ?.cm(2) (± 1.3 ?.cm(2)) respectively. Moreover, hCMEC/D3 cells on chip expressed the tight junction protein Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) at day 4. Furthermore, shear stress positively influenced barrier tightness and increased TEER values with a factor 3, up to 120 ?.cm(2). Subsequent addition of TNF-? decreased the TEER with a factor of 10, down to 12 ?.cm(2). This realistic microfluidic platform of the BBB is very well suited to study barrier function in detail and evaluate drug passage to finally gain more insight into the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22955726

Griep, L M; Wolbers, F; de Wagenaar, B; ter Braak, P M; Weksler, B B; Romero, I A; Couraud, P O; Vermes, I; van der Meer, A D; van den Berg, A



Environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury in brown hares and their relation to blood metabolic parameters.  


The purpose of this study was to examine concentrations of selected heavy metals in the liver and kidney of brown hares (Lepus europaeus). In addition, correlations between heavy metals and biochemical parameters in blood plasma were determined. The average concentrations of heavy metals (mmol/L) +/- SD were as follows: liver: Pb 0.221 +/- 0.189, Cd 0.160 +/- 0.140, Hg 0.021 +/- 0.030, kidney: Pb 0.115 +/- 0.125, Cd 1.570 +/- 1.103, Hg 0.030 +/- 0.053. The average concentrations of biochemical parameters in the blood plasma were as follows: Ca 3.16 mmol/L, P 2.19 mmol/L, Mg 1.40 mmol/L, Na 148.71 mmol/L, K 8.12 mmol/L, glucose 6.56 mmol/L, total proteins 56.49 g/L, urea 5.00 mmol/L, total lipids 1.40 g/L, bilirubin 3.97 micro mol/L, cholesterol 1.53 mmol/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 6.06 micro kat/L and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 1.94 micro kat/L. Average levels of hormones (ng/mL) were as follows: testosterone 2.94, androstendiol 0.13, estradiol 501.59, progesterone 6.63, oxytocin 328.60. Tissue analysis showed an accumulation of lead, cadmium and mercury in the liver and kidney of brown hares. There were no significant correlations between levels of heavy metals in liver, kidney, and biochemical parameters. PMID:18393073

Kolesarova, Adriana; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Jurcik, Rastislav; Tataruch, Frieda; Lukac, Norbert; Kovacik, Jaroslav; Capcarova, Marcela; Valent, Miroslav; Massanyi, Peter



Alterations in Biochemical Parameters During Subacute Toxicity of Fluoride Alone and in Conjunction with Aluminum Sulfate in Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride toxicity is a serious health problem in many parts of the globe. In present study, sodium fluoride at 20 mg\\/kg alone\\u000a and in conjunction with aluminum sulfate at 150 mg\\/kg was administered orally daily for 30 days in healthy goats of group\\u000a 1 and 2, respectively, to access the alterations in the various biochemical parameters during subacute toxicity of fluoride\\u000a alone and

Vinay Kant; Anil Kumar Srivastava; Pawan Kumar Verma; Rajinder Raina



[Effects of xenon and krypton-containing breathing mixtures on clinical and biochemical blood indices in animals].  


Effects of 24-hr breathing air mixtures containing xenon (XBM) and krypton (KBM) were compared in terms of hormonal status, and blood biochemical indices and morphology in laboratory animals. Some changes observed in blood and hormone indices could be a nonspecific adaptive response. Hence, we should elicit whether these effects are quickly reversible or long. For several indices krypton was a more favorable factor than xenon. However, some of its effects invite to delve into effects of different krypton concentrations on organism. PMID:17682508

Kussmaul', A R; Bogacheva, M A; Shkurat, T P; Pavlov, B N


Goldfish can recover after short-term exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate: use of blood parameters as vital biomarkers.  


This study investigated the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a widely used herbicide, on the metabolism of goldfish, Carassius auratus, using only vital (non-lethal) approaches. After 96 h exposure to 1, 10 or 100 mg/L of 2,4-D selected hematological (total hemoglobin and hematocrit) and biochemical (glucose content, aspartate transaminase and acetylcholinesterase activities) parameters were unchanged in blood of exposed fish. At 100 mg/L of 2,4-D lymphocyte numbers decreased by 8%, whereas promyelocyte and metamyelocyte numbers increased by 7- and 2-fold, respectively. Exposure to 100 mg/L of 2,4-D also elevated carbonyl protein levels (by 2-fold), triglyceride content (by 43%) and alanine transaminase activity (by 46%) in goldfish plasma. All of these hematological and biochemical parameters reverted to control values after a 96 h recovery period. These data indicate that 2,4-D has toxicological effects on goldfish that can be monitored with multiple diagnostic tests using non-lethal blood testing. PMID:23291397

Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I



Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows.  


A study was conducted to evaluate the potential association between Ca status at calving and postpartum energy balance, liver lipid infiltration, disease occurrence, milk yield and quality parameters, and fertility in Holstein cows. One hundred cows were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on whole-blood ionized Ca concentration ([iCa]) on the day of calving [d 0; hypocalcemic [iCa] <1.0mmol/L (n=51); normocalcemic [iCa] ?1.0mmol/L (n=49)]. Cows were blocked based on calving date and parity. Blood samples were collected approximately 14d from expected calving date (d -14), the day of calving (d 0), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of plasma nonesterified fatty acid, iCa, total Ca, glucose, and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities. Liver biopsies were obtained from a subset of cows on d 0, 7, and 35 for quantification of lipid content. Milk samples were collected on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of somatic cell count and percentages of protein, fat, and solids-not-fat. Data for peak test-day milk yield, services per conception, and days open were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement Association herd records. Disease occurrence was determined based on herd treatment records. Hypocalcemic cows had significantly higher nonesterified fatty acids on d 0. Hypocalcemic cows also had significantly more lipid in hepatocytes on d 7 and 35 postpartum. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities or total and direct bilirubin concentrations. Milk protein percentage was lower in hypocalcemic cows on d 21 and 35. However other milk quality variables (somatic cell count, milk fat percentage, and solids-not-fat) and milk yield variables (peak test-day milk yield and 305-d mature-equivalent 4% fat-corrected milk yield) did not differ between groups. No differences were observed between groups in the occurrence of clinical mastitis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, or fertility measures (percentage cycling at 50-60d postpartum, services per conception, or days open). These data suggest that early lactation fatty acid metabolism differs between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and their normocalcemic counterparts. PMID:24054301

Chamberlin, W G; Middleton, J R; Spain, J N; Johnson, G C; Ellersieck, M R; Pithua, P



Quantification of extraprostatic extension in prostate cancer: different parameters correlated to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: Different methods to substage extraprostatic extension (EPE) were correlated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and results: A total of 157 consecutive RP specimens with EPE were completely embedded. Twenty-three patients with adjuvant therapy or detectable postoperative PSA levels were excluded, leaving 134 patients for BCR analysis. Data were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression

B. A. van Veggel; I. M. van Oort; J. A. Witjes; L. A. L. M. Kiemeney; C. A. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa



Chios mastic gum modulates serum biochemical parameters in a human population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Current research suggests that Chios mastic (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) possesses beneficial (antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective) properties. This study aims to assess its effects on cardiologic and hepatic biochemical indices of human subjects. Materials and methods: Subjects (n=133, aged over 50) were randomly assigned to two groups, the first (high-dose group) ingesting daily 5g of mastic powder and the second

Angeliki Triantafyllou; Nikolaos Chaviaras; Theodoros N. Sergentanis; Evaggelia Protopapa; John Tsaknis



Effect of storage on biochemical and microbiological parameters of edible truffle species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different storage treatments on the most common edible truffle species, such as Tuber magnatum and Tuber borchii (white truffles), Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum (black truffles), were analysed. Biochemical and microbiological profiles were monitored, in order to evaluate possible alterations during truffle preservation. After harvesting, some fresh samples were kept at 4°C for 30days, other samples were

Roberta Saltarelli; Paola Ceccaroli; Paola Cesari; Elena Barbieri; Vilberto Stocchi



Development of a pattern in biochemical parameters in the core and penumbra during infarct evolution after transient MCAO in rats.  


The period from stroke initiation to the cessation of penumbra damage spread represents a therapeutic window when expansion can be alleviated. In the present work, we studied some biochemical parameters helpful for the estimation of infarct progression and thus for the application of interventions. We designed four groups: the control group and three groups of animals after middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion periods of 2h, 1day or 3days. In the ischaemic core and penumbra, fluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for investigating total MnSOD and MAO-A/B activity as well as level of the glutamate were used. Protein synthesis was assessed by in vitro measurements of (14)C-leucine incorporation. Noticeable differences between core and penumbra biochemical parameters were shown. In the core, protein synthesis was transiently inhibited two hours and three days after ischaemia (36%). Glutamate and total SOD activity peaked on the first day, but on the third day after MCAO, rapidly decreased by about 44% and 33.6%, respectively. In the penumbra, ischaemia led to higher protein synthesis (78%), elevations in glutamate and rapid activation of MnSOD (by about 884%) one day after insult. On the third day, protein synthesis and MnSOD were still significantly elevated (36% and 388%, respectively), while glutamate levels returned to baseline. In addition, the impact of ischaemia on MAO-A/B activity in the penumbra was confirmed. In conclusion, biochemical parameter screening could be helpful to assess cell damage progress and the possibility of rescue. These regions reflect different biochemical patterns that seem to be clearly established on the first day after transient MCAO. Moreover, the first day of post-ischaemic reperfusion in the present model of stroke seems to be the breakpoint, i.e. the time at which expanding cell death from the infarct core to the penumbra can be at least partially eliminated. PMID:23142152

Bonova, Petra; Burda, Jozef; Danielisova, Viera; Nemethova, Miroslava; Gottlieb, Miroslav



The Effects of Copper Sulfate on Liver Histology and Biochemical Parameters of Term Ross Broiler Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an essential trace element that is extremely toxic to organisms and organs at high doses. We have investigated the\\u000a histological and biochemical effects of a toxic dose of copper sulfate on the liver of term Ross broiler chicks. Fertilized\\u000a eggs were divided into three groups: experimental, injected with 50 mcg\\/0.1 ml copper sulfate in the air chambers on day 1;

Emin Oguzhan Oguz; Hayati Yuksel; Yasar Enli; A. Cevik Tufan; Gunfer Turgut



Influence of the short-term road transport stress on blood parameters in cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of short-term road transport stress on blood parameters in cows Summary Blood parameter changes have been investigated after short-term road transport stress in 18 crossbred dairy cows in northwest of Iran. Cows were transported in 4 groups of four cows and one group of two cows in five different days. Each group was transported by truck up to a




Biochemical changes of hemoglobin and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in high fat diet rabbits.  


The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hyperlipidemia on auto-oxidation rate of hemoglobin (Hb; absorbance at 630 nm versus time), Hb derivatives and osmotic fragility of Red Blood Cells (RBCs). These parameters were measured in twenty five 12-week-old male New Zealand white rabbits fed on a High Fat Diet (HFD) for a feeding period of 10 weeks. We found that Hb concentration and RBC count were significantly decreased while white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly increased in HFD rabbits compared with control rabbits. The Total Cholesterol (TC) was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in HFD rabbits compared with control rabbits with percentage normalized change of 1198% and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLC) significantly increased (p < 0.01) in HFD rabbits compared with control rabbits with percentage normalized change of 1591%. In HFD rabbits, oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) percentage was significantly decreased while met-hemoglobin (Met-Hb) percentage was significantly increased compared with control rabbits. The auto-oxidation rate was significantly higher in HFD rabbits compared with controls. Hyperlipidemia induced an increase in the osmotic fragility of RBCs and a decrease in their membrane elasticity compared with controls. This study suggests that hyperlipidemia may produce reactive oxygen species and other free radicals which increase the auto-oxidation rate of Hb and promote the conversion of HbO2 and the fractions of unstable Hb molecules to Met-Hb and carboxyhemoglobin. Increased platelet activation in hyperlipidemic rabbits may be of pathophysiological importance for the progression of atherosclerosis and thromboembolic complications. The increase in osmotic fragility of RBCs may be attributed to the disturbance of ionic motion through the membrane and the change in molecular properties of the membrane macromolecules. PMID:20415140

Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Moussa, Sherif Abdelmottaleb



Biochemical properties of acid soils under climax vegetation (Atlantic oakwood) in an area of the European temperate–humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain): general parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainable development suggests that soil quality should be measured on the basis of the most environmentally sensitive properties of native soils under climax vegetation. The most relevant properties are biochemical. We describe the general biochemical parameters of the O and Ah horizons of 40 native Umbrisols under climax Atlantic oakwood in Galicia (NW Spain). The properties studied

M. C Leirós; C Trasar-Cepeda; S Seoane; F Gil-Sotres



Changes in quality and biochemical parameters in 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life and 1-MCP treatment.  


In this study, changes in quality and various biochemical parameters of 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life period after ultra-low oxygen (ULO) storage were investigated. Additionally, the impact of the postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on different parameters was evaluated. After the harvest, apples were stored in the ULO storage for 6 months and then exposed to room temperature. Fruit firmness, peel color, and changes in sugars, organic acids and phenolics were monitored during the 3 weeks of shelf life. Malic acid, sugars and firmness decreased at room temperature. However, the color of the apples remained unchanged. The level of citric and ascorbic acid remained constant. Levels of phenolics in the peel increased significantly, whereas remained constant in the pulp of apples. 1-MCP treatment resulted in higher amounts of fructose and glucose, malic acid and greater firmness of apples. However, 1-MCP did not influence the phenolic content, ascorbic acid or color. The results obtained indicate that the content of different health-promoting compounds of apples does not change dramatically at room temperature. At the same time these results suggest that 1-MCP could be useful for maintaining certain quality and biochemical parameters and might extend the shelf life of apples. PMID:23175783

Bizjak, Jan; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert



Impact of iron overload on interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in patients with sickle cell anemia  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of iron overload on the profile of interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in sickle cell anemia patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed of 30 patients with molecular diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Patients were stratified into two groups, according to the presence of iron overload: Iron overload (n = 15) and Non-iron overload (n = 15). Biochemical analyses were performed utilizing the Wiener CM 200 automatic analyzer. The interleukin-10 level was measured by capture ELISA using the BD OptEIAT commercial kit. Oxidative stress parameters were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software (version 5.0) and statistical significance was established for p-values < 0.05 in all analyses. Results Biochemical analysis revealed significant elevations in the levels of uric acid, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea and creatinine in the Iron overload Group compared to the Non-iron overload Group and significant decreases in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Ferritin levels correlated positively with uric acid concentrations (p-value < 0.05). The Iron overload Group showed lower interleukin-10 levels and catalase activity and higher nitrite and malondialdehyde levels compared with the Non-iron overload Group. Conclusion The results of this study are important to develop further consistent studies that evaluate the effect of iron overload on the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress of patients with sickle cell anemia.

Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; dos Santos, Talyta Ellen Jesus; de Souza, Geane Felix; de Assis, Livia Coelho; Freitas, Max Victor Carioca; Goncalves, Romelia Pinheiro



Dynamics of microbial communities related to biochemical parameters during vermicomposting and maturation of agroindustrial lignocellulose wastes.  


Scarce information is available on the changes in abundance of microbial taxa during vermicomposting. Quantitative PCR and DGGE analysis were used to monitor variations in the microbial structure, relative abundance of four bacterial classes and fungi over the vermicomposting and maturation period of wet olive cake (O) and vine shoots (W). Multivariate correlation analysis between microbial structure and abundance, earthworm biomass and enzyme activities revealed similar and divergent interactions in both processes. Although Eisenia fetida development was different, significant correlations were found with ?-glucosidase activity and with bacterial and fungal structure. In the vermicomposting period of O and W, a decline was found in bacteria (94% and 77%), fungi (93% and 94%), and Gammaproteobacteria (56% and 71%) but an increase in Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria (62-79%). Alphaproteobacteria increased only in O (26%). Despite the different initial lignocellulose wastes, the mature vermicomposts were similar in microbial and biochemical properties. PMID:23948272

Castillo, Jean Manuel; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio



Effect of mercuric chloride on some biochemical and physiological parameters of the freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus, was exposed to a sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (3\\/liter) for 120 days and the following effects were examined: changes in the levels of glucose and lactic acid in blood and of glycogen and lactic acid in liver and muscles; rate of absorption of glucose from the intestine; and changes in the activities of

K. V. Sastry; D. R. Rao



Association of Serum Leptin with Various Biochemical Parameters of Bone Turnover in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is a small peptide hormone that is mainly but not exclusively, produced in adipose tissue. leptin is cleared principally by the kidney. Serum leptin concentrations and bone mass are directly related. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Serum calcium, phosphorus, predialysis serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and also



Biochemical and physiological parameters and estimated work output in draught horses pulling loads for long periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken in five draught horses of 648±33 kg body weight to find the effects of continuously pulling loads on their cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses. A cart equipped with an odometer, for measuring distance, and a hydraulic dynamometer, for measuring draught force, was used. Heart and respiration rates and rectal temperatures were recorded. Blood samples for measuring

R. Perez; S. E. Recabarren; P. Valdes; E. Hetz



Weighted next reaction method and parameter selection for efficient simulation of rare events in biochemical reaction systems  

PubMed Central

The weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (wSSA) recently developed by Kuwahara and Mura and the refined wSSA proposed by Gillespie et al. based on the importance sampling technique open the door for efficient estimation of the probability of rare events in biochemical reaction systems. In this paper, we first apply the importance sampling technique to the next reaction method (NRM) of the stochastic simulation algorithm and develop a weighted NRM (wNRM). We then develop a systematic method for selecting the values of importance sampling parameters, which can be applied to both the wSSA and the wNRM. Numerical results demonstrate that our parameter selection method can substantially improve the performance of the wSSA and the wNRM in terms of simulation efficiency and accuracy.



[Effect of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae toxins on some blood physiological parameters in mice].  


In order to study the toxic effect of STX on mouse's blood with time lapse, STX from Aphanizomenon flosaquae was collected and the effect of toxins on physiological parameters of blood was measured by analyzing changes in cells and components in blood. Results showed that the blood parameters in mice changed after 0.5, 6, 12 and 24 hours respectively when mice were exposed to 0.5 Mu/ml Saxitoxin (STX). The numbers of red blood cell, Hemoglobin and platelet had little changed, while the number of white cells showed evident change, especially within 30 minutes. The more time extended, the less change of white cells had, namely, the effect of STX on some blood physiological parameters in mice became weaker with time spent. After 24 hours, almost all the blood physiological parameters in mice recovered to the normal level. Therefore, it can be concluded that both of STX and acid had toxic effects on blood of mice. When STX (0.5 Mu/ml, at pH5.3) were injected into blood, STX had the toxic effect within 12 hours, and after that, acid had. PMID:12914277

Chen, Yong; Liu, Jiesheng; Yang, Weidong



Morphological, cytochemical, and biochemical observations on the blood of the tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological features of the circulating blood cells of an adult female tuatara are described and illustrated. Mitosis in circulating erythrocytes and the occurrence of an intraerythrocytic haemogregarine parasite are noted. The packed cell volume (haematocrit) was 35%. There were about 310 000 erythrocytes and 7200 leucocytes per mm of blood. The lymphocyte was the predominant leucocyte, followed by the eosinophil,

Sherwin S. Desser



Occupational Lead Poisoning in the United States: Clinical and Biochemical Findings Related to Blood Lead Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of 160 lead (7439921) exposed workers at a secondary lead smelter, a small scrap smelter, and a lead chemicals facility to investigate dose response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects. The levels of blood lead range...

E. L. Baker P. J. Landrigan A. G. Barbour D. H. Cox D. S. Folland



Assessment of biochemical and hematological parameters in rats injected with Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.  


The aim of this work was to evaluate the hematological changes induced by Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV). Blood of Wistar rats was collected 0.5, 2, 6 and 24 h after i.p. injection of TsV (0.5 mg/kg) or saline (controls). Two additional groups were injected with 0.67 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg of TsV and the blood was collected after 0.5 and 2 h, respectively. The results showed an increase on hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), albumin and total protein, mainly 2-6 h after envenoming. Increase in serum activities of amylase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase were also observed, indicating tecidual damages. Hyperglycemia was observed at all times analyzed, as a consequence of catecholamine release. No significant changes were detected in the urea, [Na(+)] and [Ca(2+)], but an increase of [Mg(2+)], [K(+)] and conductivity was observed. TsV induced a reduction of erythrocytes osmotic fragility as consequence of dehydration and increase in plasma electrolytes concentration, as evidenced by its higher conductivity. This study demonstrated that TsV is able to induce severe hematological changes, that appear within the first hours after envenoming, justifying the seeking of medical attention as soon as possible to avoid worsening of clinical symptoms. PMID:20837041

Cusinato, D A C; Souza, A M; Vasconcelos, F; Guimarães, L F L; Leite, F P; Gregório, Z M O; Giglio, J R; Arantes, E C



Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves  

SciTech Connect

The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and structurally overparameterized for interpreting the response of leaf net assimilation (A) to intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration (Ci). The use of conventional fitting methods may lead not only to incorrect parameters but also several previously unrecognized consequences. For example, the relationships between key parameters may be fixed computationally and certain fits may be produced in which the estimated parameters result in contradictory identification of the limitation states of the data. Here we describe a new approach that is better suited to the FvCB model characteristics. It consists of four main steps: (1) enumeration of all possible distributions of limitation states; (2) fitting the FvCB model to each limitation state distribution by minimizing a distribution-wise cost function that has desirable properties for parameter estimation; (3) identification and correction of inadmissible fits; and (4) selection of the best fit from all possible limitation state distributions. The new approach implemented theoretical parameter resolvability with numerical procedures that maximally use the information content of the data. It was tested with model simulations, sampled A/Ci curves, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of different tree species. The new approach is accessible through the automated website

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Tu, Kevin [University of California, Berkeley; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University



Blood pressure levels and variance assessed by ambulatory monitoring: Optimal parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained multiple ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) records over five years from two trained, normotensive subjects\\u000a experienced in wearing the apparatus. The resulting time series data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure\\u000a (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were used to suggest optimal parameters for monitoring by two instruments (Colin Medical Instruments\\u000a ABPM-630 and Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer)

F. E. Yates; Laurel A. Benton



[Association of blood serum biochemical markers with neurologic syndromes in the exacerbation of dorsolumbar osteochondrosis].  


The content of C-reactive albumin (CRA) and endothelin-1 in patients with neurologic syndromes of dorsolumbar osteochondrosis (lumbodynia, lumboischialgia, lumbosacral radiculopathy) during exacerbation was investigated. CRA concentration in blood serum was determined by a highly sensitive quantitative method (in the interval from 0.1 g/l), based on the reaction of immunoprecipitation. Endothelin-1 content in the blood serum was determined by means of immunoenzymometric analysis method. The statistically significant (p<0,05) increase in concentrations of C-reactive albumin and endothelin-1 in the peripheral blood serum was found in 43 patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy compared to the control group and groups of patients with syndromes of lumbodynia and lumboischialgia. The direct correlation (r=0,71; p<0,01) between the content of CRA and endothelin-1 in the peripheral blood serum in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy was established. PMID:22677757

Shumakher, G I; Goriacheva, M V; Sencheva, N A; Travnikova, T Iu; Kuznetsova, M P



Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose-response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects have been evaluated in 160 lead workers in two smelters and a chemicals plant. Blood lead levels ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 mumol\\/litre (16-280 microgram\\/dl). Clinical evidence of toxic exposure was found in 70 workers (44%), including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anaemia (Hgb less

E L Baker; P J Landrigan; A G Barbour; D H Cox; D S Folland; R N Ligo; J Throckmorton



Behavioral, biochemical, and blood pressure responses to alprazolam in healthy subjects: Interactions with Yohimbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of single doses of alprazolam (1.5 mg) and yohimbine (30 mg) and alprazolam and yohimbine given together on plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), cortisol, blood pressure, and subjective behavioral ratings was studied in eight healthy subjects. In comparison to placebo, alprazolam significantly reduced plasma MHPG and cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and increased subjective ratings of drowsiness and

Dennis S. Charney; Alan Breier; Peter I. Jatlow; George R. Heninger



A novel procedure for daily measurements of hemodynamical, hematological, and biochemical parameters in conscious unrestrained rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and chronic measurements of various parameters in conscious animals are fundamental for depicting pathological chronic conditions and their etiology in many experimental models, but they are often difficult to achieve. The aim of the present work was to develop and describe step-by-step a reproducible surgical procedure and daily manipulations for continuous, chronic use of conscious rats as models towards

André Blouin; Stéphanie Molez; Dung Pham; Bilal Ayach; Patrick Dussault; Emmanuel Escher; Arco Y Jeng; Bruno Battistini



Effect of the PACE Concept on Improvement in Nutrition Related Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the improvement in or stability of nutritional status parameters of frail elderly from entry (Tl) into the Bienvivir PACE program in El Paso, Texas until nine to twelve months (T2) of participation. The accessible population was all of the persons (n = 107) participating at the two sites operated by Bienvivir PACE

Yu Chun Hsu; Margaret Ann Bock; Lisa McKee; Merrilyn Cummings; Dawn Vanleeuwen; Laura Lujan-Duran; S. Yusoof




Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphate containing insecticides, especially those widely used in the agricultural field, have harmful effects on human. In this study, our aim was to study the relation among clinical and laboratory findings and the parameters such as amount of organophosphate, serum paraoxanase (PON) and pseudocholinesterase (CHS) concentration and the phenotype of PON, in patients with pesticide intoxication. Forty two patients with

Mehmet Tanrisev; Ömer Toprak



Propagation of Blood Function Errors to the Estimates of Kinetic Parameters with Dynamic PET  

PubMed Central

Dynamic PET, in contrast to static PET, can identify temporal variations in the radiotracer concentration. Mathematical modeling of the tissue of interest in dynamic PET can be simplified using compartment models as a linear system where the time activity curve of a specific tissue is the convolution of the tracer concentration in the plasma and the impulse response of the tissue containing kinetic parameters. Since the arterial sampling of blood to acquire the value of tracer concentration is invasive, blind methods to estimate both blood input function and kinetic parameters have recently drawn attention. Several methods have been developed, but the effect of accuracy of the estimated blood function on the estimation of the kinetic parameters is not studied. In this paper, we present a method to compute the error in the kinetic parameter estimates caused by the error in the blood input function. Computer simulations show that analytical expressions we derive are sufficiently close to results obtained from numerical methods. Our findings are important to observe the effect of the blood function on kinetic parameter estimation, but also useful to evaluate various blind methods and observe the dependence of kinetic parameter estimates to certain parts of the blood function.

Cheng, Yafang; Yetik, Imam Samil



Prediction of outcome in isolated methylmalonic acidurias: combined use of clinical and biochemical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objectives Isolated methylmalonic acidurias (MMAurias) are caused by deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase or by defects in the synthesis\\u000a of its cofactor 5?-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. The aim of this study was to evaluate which parameters best predicted the long-term\\u000a outcome. Methods Standardized questionnaires were sent to 20 European metabolic centres asking for age at diagnosis, birth decade, diagnostic\\u000a work-up, cobalamin responsiveness, enzymatic

F. Hörster; S. F. Garbade; T. Zwickler; H. I. Aydin; O. A. Bodamer; A. B. Burlina; A. M. Das; J. B. C. De Klerk; C. Dionisi-Vici; S. Geb; G. Gökcay; N. Guffon; E. M. Maier; E. Morava; J. H. Walter; B. Schwahn; F. A. Wijburg; M. Lindner; S. Grünewald; M. R. Baumgartner; S. Kölker



Relationship between depression, clinical and biochemical parameters in patients undergoing haemodialysis.  


In this paper, we investigated the incidence of depression and its relation to clinical, laboratory parameters and sleep disorders in 45 haemodialysis (HD) patients. They were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 29) had no depression, whereas Group B (n = 16) had clinically assessed depression. Subjects were compared in terms of socioeconomic, clinical, laboratory parameters and presence of sleep disorders. Groups were matched for age, sex, family status, education, self-esteem, coffee and alcohol consumption, psychiatric history, time on HD and laboratory (serum urea, creatinine, electrolytes, iron, albumin and lipids) parameters. Group B demonstrated significantly lower haemoglobin levels (11.13 ± 1.69 and 12.23 ± 1.31 g/dl, respectively; p < 0.01) and higher C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels (1.82 ± 1.73 and 0.83 ± 0.6 mg/dl, respectively; p < 0.005) compared to Group A. Additionally, strong correlation was observed when Hamilton Depression Scale scores were related to haemoglobin (r =-0.30, p < 0.05), CRP (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and AIS scores (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, depression seems to be related to high CRP, low haemoglobin levels and sleep disorders. PMID:22429274

Bornivelli, Christina; Aperis, Georgios; Giannikouris, Ioannis; Paliouras, Christos; Alivanis, Polichronis



Some Blood Biochemistry Parameters during the Cholinergic Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholinesterase (ACE) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) parameters were measured in the blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) during treatment with amiridine and gliatiline. Treatment was accompanied by inhibition of ACE. There was a statistically significant relationship between clinical efficacy and changes in ACE activity. AD was characterized by significant changes in LPO parameters, with a three-fold increase in

F. I. Braginskaya; O. M. Zorina; N. P. Pal'mina; V. D. Gaintseva; E. B. Burlakova; N. D. Selezneva; I. V. Kolykhalov; S. I. Gavrilova



Serum Zinc, Plasma Ghrelin, Leptin Levels, Selected Biochemical Parameters and Nutritional Status in Malnourished Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the serum zinc (Zn), plasma ghrelin, leptin levels and nutritional status, and to\\u000a evaluate the potential association between malnutrition and these investigated parameters in malnourished hemodialysis (HD)\\u000a patients. Fifteen malnourished HD patients, aged 42.9?±?2.11 years, who underwent the HD for 46.44?±?7.1 months and 15 healthy\\u000a volunteers, aged 41.0?±?2.17 years, were included in this study. The nutritional status

H. ?ahin; F. Uyanik; N. ?nanç; O. Erdem



Assessment of the impact of pesticide residues on microbiological and biochemical parameters of tea garden soils in India.  


The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of pesticidal residues on soil microbial and biochemical parameters of the tea garden soils. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal (BSR) and substrate induced respirations (SIR), beta-glucosidase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity (FDHA) of six tea garden soils, along with two adjacent forest soils (control) in West Bengal, India were measured. The biomass and its activities and biochemical parameters were generally lower in the tea garden soils than the control soils. The MBC of the soils ranged from 295.5 to 767.5 micro g g(- 1). The BSR and SIR ranged from 1.65 to 3.08 mu g CO2-C g(- 1) soil h(- 1) and 3.08 to 10.76 micro g CO2-C g(- 1)h(- 1) respectively. The beta-glucosidase and FDHA of the soils varied from 33.3 and 76.3 micro g para-nitrophenol g(- 1) soil h(- 1) and 60.5 to 173.5 micro g fluorescein g(- 1)h(- 1)respectively. The tea garden soils contained variable residues of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, which negatively affected the MBC, BSR, SIR, FDHA and beta -glucosidase activity. Ethion and chlorpyriphos pesticide residues in all the tea garden soils varied from 5.00 to 527.8 ppb and 17.6 to 478.1 ppb respectively. The alpha endosulfan, beta endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate pesticide residues in the tea garden soils ranged from 7.40 to 81.40 ppb, 8.50 to 256.1 ppb and 55 to 95.9 ppb respectively. Canonical correlation analysis shows that 93% of the total variation was associated with the negative impact of chlorpyriphos, beta and alpha endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate on MBC, BSR and FDHA. At the same time ethion had negative impact on SIR and beta-glucosidase. Data demonstrated that the pesticide residues had a strong impact on the microbial and biochemical components of soil quality. PMID:18941998

Bishnu, A; Saha, T; Mazumdar, D; Chakrabarti, K; Chakraborty, A



Age dependency on some physiological and biochemical parameters of male Wistar rats in controlled environment.  


The aim of the study was to assess the age dependence on some physiological and serum chemistry parameters of male Wistar rats for the estimation of reference values in controlled environment. We are presenting values obtained from a large number of animals such as survival, average life span, body mass, food and water intake, serum chemistry parameters as total protein, albumin, transferrin and ferritin in serum. One part of this work compares the relationship between rat and human age. The maximal life span of our rats was determined to be about 4.4 years. The average life span was 3.75 years. The body weight quickly rose to the 85th week of life and then remained in the range of about 640-660 g up to the 163rd week when it began to decline. Food intake rose from the beginning to the maximum of about 39 g in the 33rd week and then decreased to about 20 g in the 163rd week. The water intake had a similar dynamics (about 43 mL in the 33rd week and 33 mL in the 163rd week). Levels of total protein in serum increased with age, in contrast, albumin levels decreased. Transferrin and ferritin decreased to approximately the 160th week of life and then increased. PMID:22540644

Nistiar, Frantisek; Racz, Oliver; Lukacinova, Agnesa; Hubkova, Beata; Novakova, Jaroslava; Lovasova, Eva; Sedlakova, Eva



Biochemical and histological changes in blood, erythrocytes and tissue of rats on feeding Dryopteris juxtaposita fern.  


Biochemical and histological alterations in erythrocytes, liver, kidney and brain of rats fed 30% level of D. juxtaposita fern powder were studied. Significant increase in GSH and decrease in lipid peroxidation, acetyl choline estrase and catalase of RBCs was observed. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation, ATPases and decrease in GST on 80 days post feeding in liver, kidneys and brain and acetyl choline estrase in brain was observed as compared to control. Histopathological studies indicated mild vascular changes in lungs, degenerative changes in testes, focal necrosis in liver and villous atrophy or hyperplasia of lining epithelial cells and hypersecretory activity in intestinal glands. Toxic effect of Dryopteris on rats was due to membrane alterations and oxidative stress and degenerative and vascular microscopic pathological changes. PMID:9717467

Kataria, M; Somvanshi, R; Dash, S



Effects of modified detonation nanodiamonds on the biochemical composition of human blood.  


In vitro experiments showed that protein and non-protein components of human blood serum could be absorbed on the surface of modified nanodiamonds obtained by detonation synthesis. The prospects of using nanodiamond as a new absorbent for hemodialysis, plasmapheresis, and laboratory diagnostics are discussed. PMID:23658923

Baron, A V; Puzyr, A P; Baron, I I; Bondar, V S



Blood, urine and vitreous isopropyl alcohol as biochemical markers in forensic investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is widely used as an industrial solvent and cleaning fluid. After ingestion or absorption, IPA is converted into acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase. However, in ketosis, acetone can be reduced to IPA. The aim of this study was to investigate blood IPA and acetone concentrations in a series of 400 medico-legal autopsies, including cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, hypothermia

Cristian Palmiere; Frank Sporkert; Dominique Werner; Daniel Bardy; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin


Basic biochemical data on blood from antarctic Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli): ions, lipids, enzymes, serum proteins and thyroid hormones.  


1. Standard laboratory values of blood samples taken from Weddell seals in Antarctica were determined. 2. Numerous blood parameters are similar to those observed in man. 3. Comparatively high cholesterol levels but normal triglyceride levels were observed when compared with humans. 4. In comparison to laboratory findings in humans, T4 levels were decreased although T3 levels were normal. 5. The levels of alkaline phosphatase are considerably higher than those in humans. 6. The data obtained indicate different lipid and thyroid hormone metabolism in Weddell seals when compared with humans. PMID:1359937

Schumacher, U; Rauh, G; Plötz, J; Welsch, U



Spaceflight effects on structural and some biochemical parameters of Brassica rapa photosynthetic apparatus.  


Chloroplasts play a crucial role in sustaining life on Earth by their dual property in performing the primary fixation of carbon and also in releasing oxygen for use in respiration. Collection of light and its transformation into chemical energy occurs in a thylakoid membrane which is one of the most remarkable transducing systems in the biological world. In order for the light-dependent reactions could take place, a high degree of molecular organization of its constituents is needed. Some results obtained in the framework of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment mission (STS-87) which was performed on board of the space shuttle "Columbia" are presented in the given paper. A goal of the study was to obtain data on some parameters of photosynthetic apparatus, namely the chloroplast structure, pigment content and lipid composition of Brassica rapa plants grown in microgravity. PMID:11543044

Adamchuk, N I; Mikhaylenko, N F; Zolotareva, E K; Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A



Implementation of a multi -parameter Point -of Care -blood test analyzer reduces central laboratory testing and need for blood transfusions in very low birth weight infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood sampling for laboratory testing is a major cause of iatrogenic blood loss and anemia in neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] patients. The objective of the study was to assess whether the implementation of a multi-parameter Point of Care Test [POCT] (Roche, Cobas b221) analyzer affected blood loss for central laboratory testing and need for red blood cell transfusion in

Ludo Mahieu; Annick Marien; Jozef De Dooy; Margo Mahieu; Hanne Mahieu; Viviane Van Hoof


The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical and Performance Parameters in Collegiate Wrestlers  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic power, strength, plasma lipids profile and serum glucose among collegiate wrestlers. Materials and Methods Fourteen male collegiate wrestlers (age, 20.12±2.5 yrs) volunteered as subjects for the study. Subjects were tested one week before the beginning of Ramadan, the last two days of Ramadan and the last two days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan. The paired sample t-test was used to assess the differences in pre and post-performance tests and repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test to determine differences between three blood samplings. Results The results showed that except for anaerobic power and strength, body weight, body fat percentage and aerobic power at 4th week of Ramadan were significantly lower than pre-Ramadan values (P=0.05). Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels decreased after Ramadan compared to pre-Ramadan (P= 0.011, P=0.001), however, a month after Ramadan, it reached to higher levels compared to pre-Ramadan period, which were not statistically significant. Similarly, significant decrease and increase were consequently observed in glucose and high density lipoprotein (P=0.001, P=0.045). Triacylglycerol and VLDL increased at the end of Ramadan compared to the period of time before Ramadan, and after Ramadan, it reached the lower levels compared to concentrations before Ramadan (P=0.133, P=0.133). Conclusion This study also indicated that Ramadan fasting appears to have significant effect on body composition, aerobic power and lipid profile.

Mirzaei, Bahman; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Moghadam, Mahdi Ghahremani; Ziyaolhagh, Seyed Javad; Rezaei, Abolfazl



Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers.  


Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO(2)), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO(2)), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO(2), 0.03 for pvO(2), and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 +/- 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 +/- 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO(2), the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (-0.62 +/- 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO(2). For pvCO(2), the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (-0.04 +/- 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study do not support the suggestion that blood gas parameters measured during wk 3 or 4 are useful traits to select against the susceptibility for ascites. PMID:19211516

Closter, A M; van As, P; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H



Quercetin ameliorates gamma radiation-induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the radioprotective efficacy of quercetin (QN), a naturally occurring flavonoid against gamma radiation-induced damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and plasmid DNA. In plasmid study, QN at different concentrations (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48?M) were pre-incubated with plasmid DNA for 1h followed by exposure of 6Gy radiation. Among all concentrations of QN used, 24?M showed optimum radioprotective

Nagarajan Devipriya; Adluri Ram Sudheer; Marimuthu Srinivasan; Venugopal P. Menon



Chronic constriction model of rat sciatic nerve: nerve blood flow, morphologic and biochemical alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the nerve blood flow (NBF), light and electron microscopy, and adrenergic innervation of rat sciatic nerve at\\u000a 2–45 days after the application of four loose ligatures. Ischemia developed at the lesion edge, creating an endoneurial dam.\\u000a Calcitonin gene-related peptide, norepinephrine and NBF were increased within the lesion. Morphologic alterations consisted\\u000a of early endoneurial edema, followed by myelinated fiber

Hideyuki Sasaki; Mikihiro Kihara; Paula J. Zollman; Kim K. Nickander; Inge L. Smithson; James D. Schmelzer; Catherine L. Willner; Eduardo E. Benarroch; Phillip A. Low



[Comparative biochemical analysis of blood serum lipoproteins from human and various animal species].  


Lipid composition of blood serum and total lipids of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) were studied in human (donors, patients with ischemic heart disease, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive bronchitis, as well as with a combined pathology), in mammals predisposed to atherosclerosis (pig, rabbit) and resistant to atherosclerosis (rat, mink, Arctic fox), in birds (hen, pigeon), in teleost fish (white fish, pikeperch, pike, bream, burbot) and cartilaginous fish (sturgeon, housen). It has been established that the most enriched in lipids is the blood serum of animals, particularly of cartilaginous fish. Twice lower is the lipid content in blood serum of donors than of animals. However, in the vascular, bronchial-pulmonary, and combined human pathologies the lipid level rises statistically significantly. In human and in animals predisposed to atherosclerosis the main mass of lipid is located in LDL, whereas in animals resistant to this disease--in HDL. The ratio of the human lipid content in LDL/HDL increases from 1.4 (in donors) to 2.7 in pathological states--in ischemic heart disease and its combination with chronic obstructive disease. In animals, a decrease of this ratio is noted from 1.0 to 0.2 in cartilaginous fish. By the example of one taxon (fish) there is established a regularity that indicates that evolution of lipoproteins occurred with an increase of the lipid amount in the "younger" LDL and with a decrease of concentration of the "colder" HDL. PMID:18959212

Lizenko, M V; Regerand, T I; Bakhirev, A M; Lizenko, E I


[Blood biochemical changes in maternally deprived children and their emotional status].  


Environmental rearing conditions during the neonatal period are critical for the establishment of neurobiological factors controlling behavior and stress responsiveness. Early maternal deprivation in animals consisting of a single 24-h maternal deprivation episode during early neonatal life has been proposed as an animal model for certain psychopathologies including anxiety, depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. The aim of the present research was to show the mechanisms how the early maternal deprivation in humans influences the emotional status of children. To understand the effects of early deprivation on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of children following social interactions, we examined the blood neurotransmitters levels (Norepinefrin NA; Dofamin DF; Serotonin SE) in a group of healthy institutionalized children at age from 6 to 36 months from Tbilisi Infant's House. A group of healthy children of the same age from Mother & child shelters formed the control group. Emotional status was assessed by Leusher's Color Test in a group of healthy institutionalized children at age from 3 to 6 years from Tskneti Orphanage. Institutionalized children showed elevations in blood NE and decreased SE and DF concentrations in comparison with non deprived children's blood. The higher was percentage of children with high level of anxiety in the group of children from orphanage than in the children with family care. The results suggest that early maternal deprivation may contribute to long-term regulatory problems of the stress-responsive system that may be resulted in altered emotionality and behavior in deprived children. PMID:21873754

Gogberashvili, K Ia; Gagoshidze, M V; Pagava, K I


Prematurity and Related Biochemical Outcomes: Study of Bone Mineralization and Renal Function Parameters in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Preterm is defined as a baby with a gestation of less than 37 completed weeks. In this study, serum calcium, phosphorus, ALP, creatinine, and electrolytes were measured in preterm babies. The present study comprised of 75 preterm babies of which 25 were of 28–30 weeks, 25 were of 30–32 weeks, and remaining 25 were of 34–36 weeks (controls) of gestational age. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were found to be significantly decreased, and serum ALP, creatinine, and electrolytes were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.001) at 28–30 weeks as compared to controls, but serum calcium and phosphorous levels were found to be insignificantly decreased, whereas serum ALP activities were found to be insignificantly increased at 28–30 weeks as compared to 30–32 weeks of gestational age in preterm babies. It can be concluded that high serum ALP activity and low serum calcium and phosphorus levels are associated with preterm babies. A significant difference in the mean values of these renal function parameters was also obtained, except for serum sodium and potassium.

Chauhan, Sarika Singh; Sarkar, Purnima Dey; Bhimte, Bhawna



Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats.  


Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

Devaki, K; Beulah, U; Akila, G; Gopalakrishnan, V K



Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).  


The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:22458193

Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio



Appropriateness of blood culture testing parameters in routine practice. Results from a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to assess the appropriateness of routine blood culture testing parameters and antimicrobial therapy for patients\\u000a with suspected bloodstream infection. We conducted a cross-sectional study of blood cultures registered in the microbiological\\u000a laboratory at a university-affiliated hospital from 4 to 15 June 2007. Using a structured implicit chart review, two infectious\\u000a disease specialists assessed the appropriateness of the testing

V. Vitrat-Hincky; P. François; J. Labarère; C. Recule; J. P. Stahl; P. Pavese



Normal values for thrombelastography (ROTEM®) and selected coagulation parameters in porcine blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pig is a suitable animal model for researching blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The present study therefore aimed to investigate in porcine blood the applicability of commercially available tests of coagulation and thrombelastography (ROTEM®) and above all to determine normal values for coagulation parameters (e.g. prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), fibrinogen, antithrombin III (AT

Corinna Velik-Salchner; Christian Schnürer; Dietmar Fries; Peter R. Müssigang; Patrizia L. Moser; Werner Streif; Christian Kolbitsch; Ingo H. Lorenz



Normal limits of gated blood pool SPECT count-based regional cardiac function parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Computations of left and right ventricular (LV and RV) gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) ejection fraction (EF) have been well\\u000a validated against other imaging modalities. As GBPS images depict the entire extent of both blood pools, it is possible to\\u000a compute not only global but also regional biventricular function parameters, which have the prospect of being clinically useful\\u000a for

Kenneth J. Nichols; Andrew Van Tosh; Pieter De Bondt; Steven R. Bergmann; Christopher J. Palestro; Nathaniel Reichek



The measurement of blood flow parameters with deuterium stable isotope MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods  Because there are no radioactive hydrogen isotopes which can be used for clinical examinations, deuterium as a non-radioactive,\\u000a freely diffusible tracer has some advantages compared with the radioactive tracers in the measurement of blood flow parameters.\\u000a A non-invasive technique to estimate the mean tissue blood flow parameterin vivo was developed by using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging in rat.

Yoshimi Furuya; Hiroo Ikehira; Takayuki Obata; Masahisa Koga; Katsuya Yoshida



Training-level induced changes in blood parameters response to on-water rowing races  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated blood markers allowing discriminating physiological responses to on-water rowing races, notably re- garding training volume of athletes and race duration. College (COL) and national (NAT) rowers performed a 1000- or 2000-m race. Capillary blood samples obtained before and post-race allowed an analysis of a wide range of serum parameters. COL rowers had a lower rowing experience and

François Denis Desgorces; Marc Testa; Cyril Petibois


Preoperative and postoperative administration of hyperbaric oxygen improves biochemical and mechanical parameters on ischemic and normal colonic anastomoses.  


Colonic anastomotic leaks are a major postoperative complication, causing increased mortality and morbidity. Tissue ischemia is one of the most important factors that disrupt anastomotic healing. It is possible to reverse inadequate tissue oxygenation by using increased atmospheric pressure and hyperoxia, which are obtained from hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO). Our aim was to investigate the effects of preoperative and postoperative HBO treatment on normal and ischemic colonic anastomoses in rats. Eighty male Wistar Albino rats, weighing between 180 and 240 g, were divided into 8 equal groups. A 1-cm segment of left colon was resected 3 cm proximal to the peritoneal reflection in all groups and colonic anastomosis was performed. In groups 2, 4, 6 and 8, colonic ischemia was established by ligating 2 cm of mesocolon on either side of the anastomosis. Control groups (1 and 2) received no HBO. HBO treatment was given preoperatively in groups 3 and 4, postoperatively in groups 5 and 6, and both preoperatively and postoperatively in groups 7 and 8. HBO treatment was applied for 2 days in the preoperative period and 4 days in the postoperative period. Relaparotomy was performed on postoperative day 5 and a perianastomotic colon segment 2 cm in length was excised for detection of biochemical and mechanical parameters of anastomotic healing and histopathological evaluation. HBO treatment increased tissue hydroxyproline levels in all groups, and this difference was significant in normal anastomosis groups receiving preoperative HBO compared to controls (p = .013 for group 1 vs. group 3; p = .023 for group 1 vs. group 5). This improvement was more evident in ischemic and normal groups treated by administration of combined pre- and postoperative HBO (p = .021 and p = .013). HBO treatment also increased the mean bursting pressure values in all groups, and again, a statistically significant increase was noted in the ischemic groups compared to controls (p = .002 for group 2 vs. group 6; p = .001 for group 2 vs. group 8). Histopathological evaluation of anastomotic line fibrosis was not found to show significant differences between the groups. Adequate tissue oxygenation is the main factor in wound and anastomosis healing. HBO treatment has a positive effect on biochemical and mechanical parameters of ischemic and normal colon anastomoses in rats. It is possible to see this effect more clearly with combined HBO treatment applied before and after ischemic anastomosis. PMID:16835138

Yagci, Gokhan; Ozturk, Erkan; Ozgurtas, Taner; Gorgulu, Semih; Kutlu, Onur Cagri; Topal, Turgut; Cetiner, Sadettin; Tufan, Turgut


Clinical utility of the new Beckman-Coulter parameter red blood cell size factor in the study of erithropoiesis.  


CHr has been used as a diagnostic tool, together with biochemical markers, to distinguish IDA from ACD, and is incorporated to NKF-K/DOQI guidelines for the monitoring of rHuEPO therapy. The measurement of CHr has been restricted to the analysers of a single manufacturer, Siemens. Red blood cell size factor (RSf) is a new parameter provided by Beckman-Coulter which joins together the volume of erythrocytes and the volume of reticulocytes Rsf = square root (MCV x MRV). The aims of the study were to establish the values of RSf in normal population and in different types of anemia to investigate its clinical usefulness in the study of erythropoiesis and its correlation with CHr. Samples from 449 patients (learning group) were run sequentially on both LH 750 (Beckman-Coulter) and Advia 2120 (Siemens) analysers. Good correlation between CHr and RSf was observed, r(2) = 0.85. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for RSf and the diagnosis of restricted erythropoiesis. [table: see text] The diagnostic usefulness of RSf was evaluated on a validation group which included 220 consecutive patients with anemia. This study shows a very good level of agreement between RSf and CHr. Both are suitable parameters for the study of erythropoiesis. PMID:18771498

Urrechaga, E



Analysis of parameters affecting engraftment in children undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-three pediatric patients underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants at a single institution and were included in a study evaluating the correlations between five engraftment parameters and the time to both neutrophil and platelet recovery. The parameters included: the number of nucleated cells per kg (TNC\\/kg), the absolute CD34+ cell content per kg (CD34+\\/kg), the number of mononuclear cells

E Figuerres; PR Haut; M Olzewski; M Kletzel



Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. \\u000aA simple flow cytometer was built equipped with a 5-mW helium neon laser that measures simultaneously four light scattering parameters. Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were identified by

L. W. M. M. Terstappen; Grooth de B. G; K. Visscher; F. A. Kouterik; J. Greve



Effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical and haematological parameters in Tunisian youth soccer players undertaking their usual training and competition schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive Muslim athletes often have to train and compete during the holy month of Ramadan when they abstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical and haematological parameters in 78 Tunisian junior male soccer players aged 16–19 years who continued their usual schedule of daily training

Ronald J. Maughan; John B. Leiper; Zakia Bartagi; Rym Zrifi; Yacine Zerguini; Jiri Dvorak




EPA Science Inventory

The biochemical response to controlled exposures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 19 human subjects exposed to 0.2 ppm NO2 for 2 hr and compared to 15 control subjects exposed to filtered air for 2 hr. Seven biochemical blood parameters, including glutathione, red blood c...


Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and ?-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh



Quality evaluation of the edible blue-green alga Nostoc flagelliforme using a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter and several biochemical markers.  


Nostoc flagelliforme is an edible blue-green alga with herbal and dietary values. Due to the diminishing supply of natural N. flagelliforme and the large investment on the development of its cultivation technology, it is anticipated that artificially cultured N. flagelliforme will soon sustain the market supply. Once this change occurs, the storage-associated quality problem will become the focus of attention for future trade. In this paper, we used a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm), and several biomarkers to evaluate the quality of several N. flagelliforme samples. It was found that longer storage times resulted in darker coloured solutions (released pigments) and decreased amounts of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and water-soluble sugars (WSS). Additionally, a higher Fv/Fm value suggests better physiological recovery and quality. In actual application, determination of Fv/Fm would be the first step for evaluating the quality of N. flagelliforme, and the biochemical indexes would serve as good secondary markers. PMID:24054244

Gao, Xiang; Yang, Yiwen; Ai, Yufeng; Luo, Hongyi; Qiu, Baosheng



Correlation between cord blood, perinatal BNP values and echocardiographic parameters in healthy Italian newborns.  


We evaluated the correlation between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in umbilical cord blood after normal pregnancy, in blood samples of twenty-nine Italian healthy newborns and paired echocardiographic parameters. Plasma BNP was evaluated in UCB (T0) and in blood on day 3 (T1), 30 (T2) of life. Echocardiographic parameters were recorded at T1 and T2. Median of BNP concentrations in cord blood was 8.6 pg/ml. Median BNP concentrations on T1 was 59.2 pg/ml, on T2 was 8.7 pg/ml. Significantly higher BNP concentrations were reported on T1 than T0 and T2 (p<0.0001), while no significant difference resulted between T0 and T2. Plasma BNP at T2 was significantly correlated with mVTI (p=0.006), E wave (p=0.004), LA (p=0.047), LVPW (p=0.004), M (p=0.025). No correlation was found with SF% and E/A. Our results confirm that in healthy and term neonates the cord blood BNP concentrations are low. On T1 BNP values are high with wide ranges because of physiological adjustment to postnatal circulation. When echocardiographic parameters are in normal ranges, BNP concentrations return to low levels on day 30. In healthy newborns left ventricular filling, LA size and M seem to influence BNP levels rather than left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. PMID:18585874

Mannarino, Savina; Ciardelli, Laura; Garofoli, Francesca; Perotti, Gianfranco; Mongini, Elisa; Damiano, Simona; Tinelli, Carmine; Cerbo, Rosa Maria; Rondini, Giorgio; Stronati, Mauro



Responses of morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters in Euglena gracilis to 7-days exposure to two commonly used fertilizers DAP and urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea are commonly used fertilizers throughout the world. The effects of these fertilizers on\\u000a the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis was studied after 7 days of growth using morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters as end points. NOEC and\\u000a EC50 values for various parameters like cell density, motility, velocity, cell shape, gravitaxis, chlorophyll a, b and total carotenoids were

Azizullah Azizullah; Peter Richter; Donat-Peter Häder


Survey of Selected Pathogens and Blood Parameters of Northern Yellowstone Elk: Wolf Sanitation Effect Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration or conservation of predators could reduce seroprevalences of certain diseases in prey if predation selectively removes animals exhibiting clinical signs. We assessed disease seroprevalences and blood parameters of 115 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) wintering on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2000- 2005 and compared them to data collected prior to wolf (Canis lupus)




Effect of dietary sources of roasted oilseeds on blood parameters and milk fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of supplementing the basal diet with oilseeds on blood parameters and composition of milk fatty acids, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Forty-eight lactating Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a randomized block design. The cows in each group were fed the control basal diet (the control diet) or

Z. L. Liu; D. P. Yang; P. Chen; S. B. Lin; X. Y. Jiang; W. S. Zhao; J. M. Li; W. X. Dong



Prognostic value of clinical signs and blood parameters in equids suffering from hepatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this retrospective study was to further identify in the equine species the clinical signs and blood parameters that could be useful to identify a hepatic disease and act as predictors of the outcome in animals suffering from an acute hepatic insufficiency.The study included 31 equids that were hospitalized at the University of Liege and that suffered from

Hélène Amory; Marie-France Perron; Charlotte Sandersen; Catherine Delguste; Siegrid Grulke; Dominique Cassart; Jean-Marie Godeau; Johanne Detilleux



In vivo effects of phenolic compounds on blood parameters of a marine fish ( Dicentrarchus labrax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were injected intraperitoneally once (single dose) or three times (fractionated dose) with phenol or OH-phenols (hydroquinone, resorcinol, and pyrocatechol). On the basis of the lethal doses, OH-phenols were more toxic than phenol, and pyrocatechol was the most powerful compound. Hematological, metabolic and antioxidant blood parameters were measured 3 days after the end of the treatment. Metabolic

Hélène Roche; Gérard Bogé



Changes in Some Red Blood Cell and Clinical Laboratory Parameters in Young and Old Beagle Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine laboratory and lipid peroxidase parameters in the blood of Beagle dogs under 1 year of age (7 males, 7 females) and over 9 years of age (7 males, 7 females) were compared. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and haemoglobin (Hb) values, plasma total protein (TP) and globulin concentrations in the older dogs were significantly higher than in the younger

P. Vajdovich; T. Gaál; A. Szilágyi; A. Harnos




EPA Science Inventory

Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine plan to evaluate the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators expect to measure platelet number, bl...


Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray



Significant Biochemical, Biophysical and Metabolic Diversity in Circulating Human Cord Blood Reticulocytes  

PubMed Central

Background The transition from enucleated reticulocytes to mature normocytes is marked by substantial remodeling of the erythrocytic cytoplasm and membrane. Despite conspicuous changes, most studies describe the maturing reticulocyte as a homogenous erythropoietic cell type. While reticulocyte staging based on fluorescent RNA stains such as thiazole orange have been useful in a clinical setting; these ‘sub-vital’ stains may confound delicate studies on reticulocyte biology and may preclude their use in heamoparasite invasion studies. Design and Methods Here we use highly purified populations of reticulocytes isolated from cord blood, sorted by flow cytometry into four sequential subpopulations based on transferrin receptor (CD71) expression: CD71high, CD71medium, CD71low and CD71negative. Each of these subgroups was phenotyped in terms of their, morphology, membrane antigens, biomechanical properties and metabolomic profile. Results Superficially CD71high and CD71medium reticulocytes share a similar gross morphology (large and multilobular) when compared to the smaller, smooth and increasingly concave reticulocytes as seen in the in the CD71low and CD71negativesamples. However, between each of the four sample sets we observe significant decreases in shear modulus, cytoadhesive capacity, erythroid receptor expression (CD44, CD55, CD147, CD235R, and CD242) and metabolite concentrations. Interestingly increasing amounts of boric acid was found in the mature reticulocytes. Conclusions Reticulocyte maturation is a dynamic and continuous process, confounding efforts to rigidly classify them. Certainly this study does not offer an alternative classification strategy; instead we used a nondestructive sampling method to examine key phenotypic changes of in reticulocytes. Our study emphasizes a need to focus greater attention on reticulocyte biology.

Malleret, Benoit; Xu, Fenggao; Mohandas, Narla; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Chu, Cindy; Leite, Juliana A.; Low, Kayen; Turner, Claudia; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Zhang, Rou; Bertrand, Olivier; Colin, Yves; Costa, Fabio T. M.; Ong, Choon Nam; Ng, Mah Lee; Lim, Chwee Teck; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce



Association of Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody with various demographic and biochemical parameters in kidney transplant recipients.  


Few reports are available regarding the promoting factors that affect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in renal transplant (RTx) patients. We report a cross-sectional study that was conducted on a group of stable RTx patients to investigate the relationship of various demographic and biochemical parameters of these patients with serum H. pylori IgG antibody titer as a sign of H. pylori infection. A total of 72 patients who were referred to the clinic for continuing their treatment were enrolled in this study. These patients included 47 males and 25 females. The mean age of the study patients was 44 (±12) years. The mean length of time after they received a transplanted kidney was 67.5 (±42) months (median: 62 months). The mean value of serum H. pylori-specific IgG antibody titer among these patients was 3 (±4.6) U/mL (median: 1 U/mL), and that of intact parathormone (iPTH) was 18.4 (±8.2) pg/mL (median: 16.5 pg/mL). The mean serum magnesium (Mg) was 1.9 (±0.20) mg/dL (median: 1.9 mg/dL) and the mean creatinine clearance was 53 (±11) mL/min (median: 56 mL/min). In this study population, there was no significant difference in the H. pylori IgG antibody titers, serum iPTH, Mg, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and albumin levels as well as body mass index (BMI) between males and females or diabetics and non-diabetics. There was no significant relationship between serum H. pylori IgG antibody titers and the age of the patients, BMI, serum Alb, phosphorus, Ca, serum leptin and serum ALP. Significant negative correlation between serum H. pylori IgG antibody titers and serum Mg (r = -0.30, P = 0.01) and serum iPTH (r = -0.25, P = 0.03) was seen. A significant positive correlation was found between serum H. pylori IgG antibody titer and creatinine clearance (r = 0.26, P = 0.02), and a near-significant positive correlation was found with the duration of RTx (r = 0.20, P = 0.08). Our study shows that the correlation of H. pylori IgG antibody titer with some demographic and biochemical indices in RTx recipients may be different from what has been reported in hemodialysis patients. Larger clinical studies are needed to assess the clinical implications of our findings. PMID:22089767

Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Hamid



The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.  


Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome. PMID:20634524

van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M



The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men.  


Trepanowski, JF, Farney, TM, McCarthy, CG, Schilling, BK, Craig, SA, and Bloomer, RJ. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3461-3471, 2011-We examined the effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance and associated parameters in resistance trained men. Men were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner using a crossover design to consume betaine (2.5 g of betaine mixed in 500 ml of Gatorade®) or a placebo (500 ml of Gatorade®) for 14 days, with a 21-day washout period. Before and after each treatment period, tests of lower- and upper-body muscular power and isometric force were conducted, including a test of upper-body muscular endurance (10 sets of bench press exercise to failure). Muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) during the bench press protocol was measured via near infrared spectroscopy. Blood samples were collected before and after the exercise test protocol for analysis of lactate, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). When analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance, no significant differences were noted between conditions for exercise performance variables (p > 0.05). However, an increase in total repetitions (p = 0.01) and total volume load (p = 0.02) in the 10-set bench press protocol was noted with betaine supplementation (paired t-tests), with values increasing approximately 6.5% from preintervention to postintervention. Although not of statistical significance (p = 0.14), postexercise blood lactate increased to a lesser extent with betaine supplementation (210%) compared with placebo administration (270%). NOx was lower postintervention as compared with preintervention (p = 0.06), and MDA was relatively unchanged. The decrease in StO2 during the bench press protocol was greater with betaine vs. placebo (p = 0.01), possibly suggesting enhanced muscle oxygen consumption. These findings indicate that betaine supplementation results in a moderate increase in total repetitions and volume load in the bench press exercise, without favorably impacting other performance measures. PMID:22080324

Trepanowski, John F; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Schilling, Brian K; Craig, Stuart A; Bloomer, Richard J



Effects of negatively charged aerosol on blood and cerebrospinal fluid parameters in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adult male rats were exposed for 90 to 140 minutes to negatively charged tapwater aerosol. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected to determine effects of the exposure on selected hematologic and serum chemistry parameters, and ionized calcium and pH in cerebrospinal fluid. Of the 27 variables assayed, 24 yielded sufficient data for statistical analysis. Two parameters, serum alkaline phosphatase and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, were significantly different (p<0.05) from control values, probably representing chance occurrences. It appears that whatever biological effects may be exerted by electro-aerosols, they are not mediated by the parameters investigated in this study.

Wehner, A. P.; Ragan, H. A.; Jaffe, R. A.; Weigel, R. J.; Lundstrom, D. L.



A Cross-Sectional Study on Biochemical Parameters of Bone Turnover and Vitamin D Metabolites in Healthy Dutch Children and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To provide reference data of biochemical markers of bone turnover and vitamin D metabolites for children and young adults. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 176 healthy Dutch children and young adults (age range 7.6–25.3 years) to assess serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphate, osteocalcin, collagen type I cross-linked N-telopeptide, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen , 25-hydroxyvitamin D3,

Inge M. van der Sluis; Wim C. Hop; Huib A. P. Pols; Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama



Improvement of electrical blood hematocrit measurements under various plasma conditions using a novel hematocrit estimation parameter.  


This paper presents an electrical method for measurement of Hematocrit (HCT) using a novel HCT estimation parameter. Particularly in the case of electrical HCT measurements, the measurement error generally increases with changes in the electrical conditions of the plasma such as conductivity and osmolality. This is because the electrical properties of blood are a function not only of HCT, but also of the electrical conditions in the plasma. In an attempt to reduce the measurement errors, we herein propose a novel HCT estimation parameter reflecting the characteristics of both the changes in volume of red blood cells (RBCs) and electrical conditions of plasma, simultaneously. In order to characterize the proposed methods under various electrical conditions of plasma, we prepared twelve blood samples such as four kinds of plasma conditions (hypotonic, isotonic, two kinds of hypertonic conditions) at three different HCT levels. Using linear regression analysis, we confirmed that the proposed parameter was highly correlated with reference HCT (HCT(ref.)) values measured by microcentrifugation. Thus, the HCT measurement error was less than 4%, despite considerable variations in the conductivity and osmolality of the plasma at conditions of the HCT(ref.) of 20%. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the proposed HCT estimation parameter also yielded a lower measurement error (1%) than the other parameter previously used for the same purpose. Thus, these preliminary results suggest that proposed method could be used for accurate, fast, easy, and reproducible HCT measurements in medical procedures. PMID:22405844

Kim, Myounggon; Kim, Ayoung; Kim, Sohee; Yang, Sung



Effects of physiological parameters on the electrical properties of blood bank stored erythrocyte suspensions.  


In this study, the physiological parameters such as extracellular (SAGM+CPD+residual plasma) Na+, K+, Cl-, pH, 2,3-DPG and ATP together with the Cole-Cole parameters were measured using erythrocyte suspensions from 51 male donors (31 donors form the training set and 20 donors are used for testing), on the 0th, 10th, 21st, 35th and 42nd days of storage. Accordingly, electrical parameters were all correlated with Na+, K+, Cl-, pH and ATP, at varying levels. By applying the multi-regression analysis, it is concluded that Ri, Re and Cm are appropriate for modeling Na+, K+, Cl-, pH and ATP during blood bank storage and predicting blood quality. PMID:17946681

Sezdi, Mana; Ulgen, Yekta



Use of the CDI blood parameter monitoring system 500 for continuous blood gas measurement during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation simulation.  


The Oximetrix III Opticath (Abbott Critical Care Systems) is used for continuous measurement of venous saturation in a variety of applications, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), despite clinical reports that have presented data showing poor accuracy of these devices. The CDI Blood Parameter Monitoring System 500 (Terumo) is an inline blood gas monitoring tool commonly used during cardiopulmonary bypass procedures to continuously assess oxygen saturation, blood gases, potassium, and bicarbonate. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the Opticath and the CDI 500 in trending venous blood saturation during a simulation of ECMO. An ECMO simulation circuit consisting of a silicone rubber membrane oxygenator and a stainless steel heat exchanger was constructed, and a standard venous reservoir bag was used to represent the patient. The CDI and the Opticath were incorporated side by side into a shunt that originated just before the oxygenator and returned flow to the venous line. The circuit was primed with fresh porcine blood and conditioned with the addition of CO2 to simulate typical venous blood under ECMO conditions. After an initial calibration procedure, samples were drawn and analyzed by an AVL Opti CCA (Roche/Osmetech) every 4-8 hours for a period of 7 days, with calibration of each device at sample intervals. The data were plotted, and a least squares regression line was calculated. The average error for venous saturation of the CDI and Opticath after 72 hours was 3.86 and 9.51 respectively. At 168 hours, error for the CDI was 8.37, and the Opticath had an error of 14.78. A correlation analysis of the CDI and AVL CCA analyzer yielded a correlation coefficient of r = .88 at 72 hours and r = .84 at 168 hours. Correlation between the Opticath and the AVL CCA yielded a correlation coefficient of r = .77 at 72 hours and r = .55 at 168 hours. Based on these findings, the CDI 500 is an effective tool for monitoring venous blood saturation under simulated conditions of ECMO. Keywords: CDI 500, Opticath, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, venous saturation. PMID:16524156

Schreur, Aaron; Niles, Scott; Ploessl, James



Effects of glycerol and creatine hyperhydration on doping-relevant blood parameters.  


Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a "masking agent" remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a hyperhydrating supplement containing Gly on doping-relevant blood parameters. Nine trained males ingested a hyperhydrating mixture twice per day for 7 days containing 1.0 g·kg(-1) body mass (BM) of Gly, 10.0 g of creatine and 75.0 g of glucose. Blood samples were collected and total hemoglobin (Hb) mass determined using the optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method pre- and post-supplementation. BM and total body water (TBW) increased significantly following supplementation by 1.1 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2 L (BM, P < 0.01; TBW, P <0.01), respectively. This hyperhydration did not significantly alter plasma volume or any of the doping-relevant blood parameters (e.g., hematocrit, Hb, reticulocytes and total Hb-mass) even when Gly was clearly detectable in urine samples. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementation with hyperhydrating solution containing Gly for 7 days does not significantly alter doping-relevant blood parameters. PMID:23112907

Polyviou, Thelma P; Easton, Chris; Beis, Lukas; Malkova, Dalia; Takas, Pantazis; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Koehler, Karsten; Pitsiladis, Yannis P



In vivo photoacoustic and photothermal cytometry for monitoring multiple blood rheology parameters.  


Alterations of blood rheology (hemorheology) are important for the early diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of many diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, sickle cell anemia, thromboembolism, trauma, inflammation, and malignancy. However, real-time in vivo assessment of multiple hemorheological parameters over long periods of time has not been reported. Here, we review the capabilities of label-free photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) flow cytometry for dynamic monitoring of hemorhelogical parameters in vivo which we refer to as photoacoustic and photothermal blood rheology. Using phenomenological models, we analyze correlations between both PT and PA signal characteristics in the dynamic modes and following determinants of blood rheology: red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, deformability, shape (e.g., as in sickle cells), intracellular hemoglobin distribution, individual cell velocity, hematocrit, and likely shear rate. We present ex vivo and in vivo experimental verifications involving high-speed PT imaging of RBCs, identification of sickle cells in a mouse model of human sickle cell disease and in vivo monitoring of complex hemorheological changes (e.g., RBC deformability, hematocrit and RBC aggregation). The multi-parameter platform that integrates PT, PA, and conventional optical techniques has potential for translation to clinical applications using safe, portable, laser-based medical devices for point-of-care screening of disease progression and therapy efficiency. PMID:21948731

Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Zharov, Vladimir P



Effects of Salinity on Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Biochemical Parameters of Nitrogen Fixing Soybean Plants (Glycine max L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of physiology and hyperspectral leaf reflectance were used to detect salinity stress in nitrogen fixing soybean plants. Seedlings were inoculated with suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 273. Salinity was performed at the stage of 2nd-4th trifoliate expanded leaves by adding of NaCl in the nutrient solution of Helrigel in concentrations 40 mM and 80 mM. A comparative analysis was performed between the changes in the biochemical parameters - stress markers (phenols, proline, malondialdehyde, thiol groups), chlorophyll a and b, hydrogen peroxide, and leaf spectral reflectance in the spectral range 450-850 nm. The spectral measurements were carried out by an USB2000 spectrometer. The reflectance data of the control and treated plants in the red, green, red-edge and the near infrared ranges of the spectrum were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically significant differences were found through the Student's t-criterion at the two NaCl concentrations in all of the ranges examined with the exception of the near infrared range at 40 mM NaCl concentration. Similar results were obtained through linear discriminant analysis. The tents of the phenols, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll a and b were found to decrease at both salinity treatments. In the spectral data this effect is manifested by decrease of the reflectance values in the green and red ranges. The contents of proline, hydrogen peroxide and thiol groups rose with the NaCl concentration increase. At 80 mM NaCl concentration the values of these markers showed a considerable increase giving evidence that the soybean plants were stressed in comparison with the control. This finding is in agreement with the results from the spectral reflectance analysis.

Krezhova, Dora D.; Kirova, Elisaveta B.; Yanev, Tony K.; Iliev, Ilko Ts.



Effects of Chamomile Extract on Biochemical and Clinical Parameters in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction. Presently, little is known about the primary factors that initiate PCOS. Chamomile flowers are used in alternative medicine for its anti-spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory effects. Antispasmodic properties of chamomile ease menstrual cramps and lessen the possibility of premature labor. This medicinal herb also stimulates menstruation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Chamomile alcoholic-extract on the biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of PCOS. Materials and Methods Estrous cyclicity of 30 virgin adult cycling rats was monitored by vaginal smears obtained between 0800 and 1200 hours. After about 4 days, each rat received an i.m. injection of Estradiol Valerate (Aburaihan Co., Iran), 2 mg in 0.2 ml of corn oil, to induce PCO. Corn oil was injected to the rats in the control group. All the rats in the experimental group were evaluated for follicular cysts 60 days after the injection. Rats with PCOS were treated by multiple doses (25, 50, 75 mg/kg) of intraperitoneal injections of Chamomile alcoholic-extract for ten days. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05 by ANOVA, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls post hoc test. Results The histological and hormonal results showed that Chamomile can decrease the signs of PCOS in the ovarian tissue and help LH secretion in rats (p<0.05). Conclusion The alcoholic-extract of dried Matricaria chamomilla L. flowers can not only induce recovery from a PCO induced state in rats, but also increase dominant follicles. Additionally better endometrial tissue arrangements can be regarded as another therapeutic effect of Chamomile.

Zafari Zangeneh, Farideh; Minaee, Bagher; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Ahangarpour, Akram; Mousavizadeh, Kazem



Serum biochemical characteristics of Beluga, Huso huso (L.), in response to blood sampling after clove powder solution exposure.  


In order to investigate the effect of anesthesia on serum parameters, Beluga, Huso huso (L.) were blood-sampled immediately without anesthesia (control) or subjected to following anesthesia procedure: 40, 120, and 240 s exposure to 3,000, 700, and 500 mg l?¹ clove solution, respectively. Blood samples were collected after these periods, when fish were immobile and reached stage 4 anesthesia. Results showed that cortisol and glucose levels were significantly high in 700 and 500 but not 3,000 mg l?¹ group compared to control. Serum lactate levels were significantly high in 500 mg l?¹ group compared to control group. Lactate levels were not significantly differed between control, 3,000, and 700 mg l?¹ groups. There were no significant differences in serum levels of cholesterol, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, Na?, Cl?, K?, and Ca²?. Results suggest that rapid anesthesia with higher dose is better than slow anesthesia with lower dose for blood sampling in Beluga. PMID:21170734

Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Nodeh, Ali Jafar



Digital blocks with and without adrenalin: a randomised-controlled study of capillary blood parameters.  


This study compared fingertip capillary blood gas parameters before and after digital anaesthesia using lidocaine with and without Adrenalin. Twenty patients who underwent surgery on their fingers under digital ring block anaesthesia were randomly anaesthetised with 2% lidocaine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 Adrenalin. Capillary blood parameters were measured prior to the digital blocks and 15 minutes after the injections. In the plain lidocaine group, PO2 and SaO2 increased significantly after injection (P = 0.025 and 0.017, respectively). In the lidocaine with Adrenalin group, PO2 and SaO2 decreased after the injections. However, this decrease was not statistically significant. Patients in the plain lidocaine group had return of sensation to the finger tip 4.8 (+/-0.6) hours after the operation. This period was 8.1 (+/-0.8) hours for the lidocaine with Adrenalin group. PMID:18687842

Sönmez, Ahmet; Yaman, Meral; Ersoy, Burak; Numanodlu, Ayhan



Relationship between selected hormonal and metabolic parameters at birth and blood pressure during pre-adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between selected hormonal parameters (at birth and at age 8 years) and blood pressure levels at pre-adolescence in a cohort of intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) and normal birth weight infants (NBW). Methods: A cohort study from early pregnancy to childhood was performed. Seventy-six fetuses\\/children were evaluated between 1995




Analysis of Human Blood Plasma by MALDI?TOF MS—Evaluation of Critical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix?assisted laser desorption and ionization time?of?flight (MALDI?TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to evaluate the lipid composition of human blood plasma. The focus was on parameters affecting the spectral quality: The laser intensity had the highest impact and must be set as low as possible. Additionally, salt removal by lipid extraction led to an enhanced reproducibility. Surprisingly, the influence of

Olaf Zschörnig; Volker Richter; Fausi Rassoul; Rosmarie Süß; Klaus Arnold; Jürgen Schiller



Laser-based blood cell measurements for the biological reconstruction of ionizing radiation doses using a novel technique for cytometry/biochemical reaction analysis  

SciTech Connect

A novel biodosimetry method based on the red blood cells analysis by means of laser flow cytometry and a specially designed monoclonal antibodies is used for reconstructing ionizing radiation doses for Chernobyl Accident victims. In addition to analysis of the patient`s blood samples, we are evaluating both spectroscopy procedures and laser-based flow techniques. It was shown that resonance energy transfer processes can take place among the two different dyes links to the spherical cell surface. This can affect the accuracy of rare mutant cell scoring. Also a new technique is described to provide conventional flow cytometric analysis and kinetic measurements of the elementary stages of biochemical reactions are described.

Pleshanov, P.G. [Institute of Biologially Active Substance, Moscow (Russia Federation); Langlois, R.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Azarov, L.A.; Budayev, D.A.; Ossipenkov, A.L.; Shamayev, D.M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Photoacoustic and photothermal cytometry for monitoring multiple blood rheology parameters in vivo  

PubMed Central

Alterations of blood rheology (hemorheology) are important for the early diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of many diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, sickle cell anemia, thromboembolism, trauma, inflammation, and malignancy. However, real-time in vivo monitoring of hemorheological status using multiple parameters over long periods of time has not been reported. Here we describe the capability of label-free photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) flow cytometry in detection and imaging modes for dynamic monitoring of rheological parameters in circulating blood. We show that this integrated platform can simultaneously measure the main rheological parameters and may improve their diagnostic value. Using phenomenological approaches, we analyze correlations of PT and PA signal characteristics in the dynamic modes with red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, deformability, shape (e.g., as in sickle cells), intracellular hemoglobin distribution, individual cell velocity, flux of RBCs, and likely shear rate. Proof of concept is demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo tests, including high-speed PT imaging of RBC shape in pathological conditions and identification of sickle cells in a mouse model of human sickle cell disease. These studies revealed the potential of this new platform integrating PT, PA, and conventional optical techniques for translation to use in humans using safe, portable, laser-based medical devices for point-of-care screening of disease progression and therapy efficiency.

Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.



The Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Young Among White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two adult female white-tailed deer were assigned to four complete pelleted diets (±45ppm vitamin E; ±0.2ppm selenium). Selenium and vitamin E concentration in the unsupplemented diet was 0.04 and 5.5 ppm, respectively. Biochemical parameters of the erythrocyte ( RBC ) glutathione peroxidase system and survival of off-spring to wean ing were followed for 2 years. At the end of the



Cellular and biochemical parameters in the crab Carcinus aestuarii after experimentally-induced stress: Effects of bacterial injection, leg ablation and bacterial injection\\/leg ablation combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bacterial injection, leg ablation and bacterial injection\\/leg ablation combination on cellular and biochemical parameters of the crab Carcinus aestuarii were evaluated. Total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte volume, haemocyte proliferation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity in both haemocyte lysate (HL) and cell-free haemolymph (CFH) and CFH glucose levels were used as biomarkers of stress in crabs. After 24h following bacterial

Valerio Matozzo; Chiara Gallo; Marta Monari; Maria Gabriella Marin



Investigation of MTHFR C677T Gene Polymorphism, Biochemical and Clinical Parameters in Turkish Migraine Patients: Association with Allodynia and Fatigue.  


We investigated whether there is any relationship between biochemical and clinical parameters of migraine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism, associated with the migraine subtypes, symptoms, and gender. A total of 150 migraine patients with and without aura (MA and MO) and 107 non-sufferers were included in the study. Biochemical and clinical parameters were measured and genetic analysis was performed. The MTFHR C677T genotype was significantly higher in the migraine group (p = 0.000). The CT genotype frequency of individuals with a family history of migraine was significantly higher (p = 0.025). This genotype frequency was higher in patients who suffer from compression, allodynia, fatigue, and sleeplessness (p = 0.027, 0.023, 0.006, and 0.05, respectively). Homocysteine and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the migraine group than the control group (p = 0.007 and 0.010, respectively). However, the other biochemical and clinical parameters did not differ from each other (p > 0.05), with only attack frequency being significantly higher in the MO group (p = 0.005). While the folate and HDL levels were significantly higher in females (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), the homocysteine and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in males (p = 0.000 for each one). BMIs were significantly lower in the control than the migraine group (p = 0.021); however, an association between the C677T variant and BMI was not found (p = 0.787) in the migraine group. An association between the MTHFR C667T polymorphism and migraine susceptibility was found. Additional studies including genetic, clinic, and biochemical parameters should be conducted to better understand the disease. PMID:23975093

Bahadir, Anzel; Eroz, Recep; Dikici, Suber



Changes in biochemical and hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas fed T- Iso supplemented with lipid emulsions rich in eicosapentaenoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) on hemocyte parameters such as hemocyte concentration, phagocytosis, and non-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, as well on proximate biochemical and fatty acid compositions. One-year-old oysters (C. gigas) were fed T-Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-Iso), which is low in 20:5n-3, either

Maryse Delaporte; Fu-Lin Chu; Chris Langdon; Jeanne Moal; Christophe Lambert; Jean-François Samain; Philippe Soudant



Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.  


This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed. PMID:19069902

Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J



Hematology and some blood chemical parameters as a function of tick-borne disease (TBD) signs in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two statements provide the context within which this investigation was carried out: (i) Apulia is an enzootic region for tick-borne diseases (TBD); (ii) the principles of enzootic stability and the study of resilient\\/resistant breeds are among the tools for future pest control strategies. Thus, a trial protocol was established to check the amount of variation in hematologic and biochemical parameters

G. Rubino; A. M. Cito; R. Lacinio; G. Bramante; A. Caroli; E. Pieragostini; F. Petazzi




EPA Science Inventory

The spatial distribution of communities was examined in estuarine mud flat sediments by the biochemical analysis of the lipids and lipid components extracted from the sediments. Total phospholipid was used as a measure of total biomass, and fatty acids were used as indicators of ...



EPA Science Inventory

A technique is presented for finding the least squares estimates for the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and rate coefficient for the BOD reaction without resorting to complicated computer algorithms or subjective graphical methods. This may be used in stream water quali...


Effects of amylose and wheat bran on the levels of blood serum urea nitrogen (BUN), other blood parameters, growth and fecal characteristics in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basal diet (containing 20% soybean protein isolate) was supplemented with limiting amino acids (AA, methionine, threonine and tryptophan); wheat bran (WB, 24.3%); amylose (AM, 10%) or a combination of AA and WB or AM to investigate their effects on the levels of blood serum urea nitrogen (BUN), other blood parameters, growth and fecal characteristics in young rats. After 3

R. Mongeau; G. Sarwar; R. Brassard; H. G. Botting



Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba



Gill tissue recovery after copper exposure and blood parameter responses in the tropical fish Prochilodus scrofa.  


Changes in Prochilodus scrofa gill tissue and in blood responses were investigated after 96-h copper exposure and transference to clean water. Gill damage was characterized by epithelial lifting, cell swelling, pavement, chloride and mucous cell proliferation, and blood vessel anomalies. Restoration of gill structure was slow, with no tissue improvements in the first 2 days in clean water. From the 7th to the 15th day, the recovery of gill tissue began to become evident, with complete recovery occurring on the 45th day in clean water. Hematocrit, red blood cells, and hemoglobin concentration showed a significant increase after copper exposure, remaining high until the 7th day after transference to clean water. Plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration decreased significantly and K(+) increased significantly after copper exposure and, on the 7th day in clean water, plasma ions showed no significant difference from those in control fish. Gill tissue restoration took longer than the recovery of blood parameters, possibly implying extra energy needs, which may be critical, depending on the fish's life cycle. PMID:12061823

Cerqueira, Carla C C; Fernandes, Marisa N



Characterization of surrogate parameters for blood pressure regulation in neurally-mediated syncope.  


Neurally Mediated Syncope (NMS) is often cited as the most common cause of syncope. It can lead to severe consequences such as injuries, high rates of hospitalization and reduced quality of life, especially in elderly populations. Therefore, information about the syncope triggers and reflex mechanisms would be of a great value in the development of a cost-effective p-health system for the prediction of syncope episodes, by enhancing patients' quality of life and reducing the incidence of syncope related disorders/conditions. In the present paper we study the characterization of syncope reflex mechanisms and blood pressure changes from the analysis of several non-invasive modalities (ECG, ICG and PPG). Several parameters were extracted in order to characterize the chronotropic, inotropic and vascular tone changes. Thus, we evaluate the ability of parameters such as Heart Rate (HR), Pre-Ejection Period (PEP) and Left Ventricular Ejection Time (LVET) to characterize the physiological mechanisms behind the development of reflex syncope and their potential syncope prediction capability. The significant parameter changes (e.g. HR from 12.9% to -12.4%, PEP from 14.9% to -3.8% and LVET from -14.4% to 12.3%) found in the present work suggest the feasibility of these surrogates to characterize the blood pressure regulation mechanisms during impending syncope. PMID:24110952

Couceiro, Ricardo; Carvalho, Paulo; Paiva, R P; Muehlsteff, Jens; Henriques, Jorge; Schulze, Volker; Ritz, Anita; Kelm, Malte; Meyer, Christian



Correlation between Blood Activin Levels and Clinical Parameters of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims. Activins A and B, and their binding protein, follistatin, regulate glucose metabolism and inflammation. Consequently, their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) was examined. Methods. Blood was taken from fasted participants (34 males; 58 females; 50–75 years) with diabetes or during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Clinical parameters were assessed, and blood assayed for activins, follistatin, and C-reactive protein. Results. Serum levels of activin A (93.3 ± 27.0?pg/mL, mean ± SD), B (81.8 ± 30.8?pg/mL), or follistatin (6.52 ± 3.15?ng/mL) were not different (P > 0.05) between subjects with normal OGTT (n = 39), impaired glucose tolerance and/or fasting glucose (n = 17), or T2D (n = 36). However, activin A and/or activin B were positively correlated with parameters of insulin resistance and T2D, including fasting glucose (P < 0.001), fasting insulin (P = 0.02), glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.003), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; P < 0.001). Follistatin was positively correlated with HOMA-IR alone (P = 0.01). Conclusions. These data indicate that serum measurements of activin A, B, or follistatin cannot discriminate risk for T2D in individual patients, but the activins display a positive relationship with clinical parameters of the disease.

Wu, Hui; Wu, Michael; Chen, Yi; Allan, Carolyn A.; Phillips, David J.; Hedger, Mark P.



Laser reflectance oximetry and Doppler flowmetry in assessment of complex physiological parameters of cutaneous blood microcirculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of multiple optical techniques within a single diagnostic device is used to address the difficulties in standardising measurement of cutaneous blood micro-dynamics caused by high variability. We demonstrate the benefits of simultaneous assessment of blood relative volume (Vb), microcirculation index (Im) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), during long-term examination of healthy volunteers. Consequently, five rhythmic components: endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic, breath and heart pulses were established showing high variability up to 30 - 50% as well as in initial parameters around 16%. All rhythmic components were synchronous with some latency between Im and StO2 in the myogenic component supports the hypothesis of strong correlation between peripheral hemodynamics and oxygen utilisation in tissues.

Dunaev, Andrey V.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Stewart, Neil A.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.



The relationship between the iron isotopic composition of human whole blood and iron status parameters.  


As the iron status of an individual cannot be adequately assessed on the basis of the (total) Fe concentration in whole blood or serum, in medicine a number of parameters, such as the serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin and soluble transferrin receptor and the transferrin saturation, are routinely determined instead. As previous research has shown that also the isotopic composition of Fe in blood and tissues is dependent on the metabolism, the present study assessed whether Fe isotopic composition in whole blood provides information as to an individual's iron status. Fe isotopic analysis of whole blood samples from a reference population (healthy volunteers) was carried out using multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (after chromatographic target element isolation) and the results obtained were investigated by statistical means as to their potential relation with the iron status parameters conventionally used in medicine. A low ?(56)Fe value was demonstrated to coincide with high iron status and a high ?(56)Fe value with low iron status, thus reflecting the response of the body to this iron status in terms of iron uptake, distribution between blood and stores and mobilization of storage iron. In a second phase, the iron isotopic composition in blood from patients treated for hemochromatosis type I and from patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD) was determined. The results for hemochromatosis patients plotted with the values of low iron status, while those for ACD patients plotted with the values of high iron status. By taking a closer look at the aberrant iron metabolism that comes with these diseases, it can be seen that the patient samples confirm the conclusions drawn for the reference population. Patients with hemochromatosis type I have a strongly upregulated iron uptake, like healthy individuals with low iron status. The metabolism of patients suffering from ACD tries to remove iron from the circulation by downregulating the iron uptake, moving more absorbed iron to the stores and by not using any iron from these storage sites, which is in agreement with the responses of the human body to high iron status. This suggests that the conclusions made for healthy individuals are extendable to patients with aberrant iron metabolism. PMID:23903806

Van Heghe, Lana; Delanghe, Joris; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Vanhaecke, Frank



A comprehensive study of clinical, biochemical, radiological, vascular, cardiac, and sleep parameters in an unselected cohort of patients with acromegaly undergoing presurgical somatostatin receptor ligand therapy.  


Context: Attainment of safe GH and IGF-1 levels is a central goal of acromegaly management. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which reductions in GH and IGF-1 concentrations correlate with amelioration of radiological, metabolic, vascular, cardiac, and respiratory sequelae in a single unselected patient cohort. Study Design: This was a prospective, within-subject comparison in 30 patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly (15 women and 15 men: mean age, 54.3 years; range, 23-78 years) before and after 24 weeks of lanreotide Autogel (ATG) therapy. Results: Reductions in GH and IGF-1 concentrations and tumor volume were observed in all but 2 patients (median changes [?]: GH, -6.88 ?g/L [interquartile range -16.78 to -3.32, P = .000001]; IGF-1, -1.95 × upper limit of normal [-3.06 to -1.12, P = .000002]; and pituitary tumor volume, -256 mm(3) [-558 to -72.5, P = .0002]). However, apnea/hypopnea index scores showed highly variable responses (P = .11), which were independent of ?GH or ?IGF-1, but moderately correlated with ?weight (R(2) = 0.42, P = .0001). Although systolic (P = .33) and diastolic (P = .76) blood pressure were unchanged, improvements in arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, -0.4 m/s [-1.2 to +0.2, P = .046]) and endothelial function (flow mediated dilatation, +1.73% [-0.32 to +6.19, P = .0013]) were observed. Left ventricular mass index regressed in men (-11.8 g/cm(2) [-26.6 to -1.75], P = .019) but not in women (P = .98). Vascular and cardiac changes were independent of ?GH or ?IGF-1 and also showed considerable interindividual variation. Metabolic parameters were largely unchanged. Conclusions: Presurgical ATG therapy lowers GH and IGF-1 concentrations, induces tumor shrinkage, and ameliorates/reverses cardiac, vascular, and sleep complications in many patients with acromegaly. However, responses vary considerably between individuals, and attainment of biochemical control cannot be assumed to equate to universal complication control. PMID:23393175

Annamalai, Anand K; Webb, Alison; Kandasamy, Narayanan; Elkhawad, Maysoon; Moir, Samantha; Khan, Fakhar; Maki-Petaja, Kaisa; Gayton, Emma L; Strey, Christopher H; O'Toole, Samuel; Ariyaratnam, Shaumya; Halsall, David J; Chaudhry, Afzal N; Berman, Laurence; Scoffings, Daniel J; Antoun, Nagui M; Dutka, David P; Wilkinson, Ian B; Shneerson, John M; Pickard, John D; Simpson, Helen L; Gurnell, Mark



Roach ( Rutilus rutilus ) reproductive cycle: a study of biochemical and histological parameters in a low contaminated site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish reproduction is subjected to worrying trends in many aquatic environments. In this study, we report the absence of histological\\u000a and biochemical alterations in fish sampled in a low contaminated site (characterised by the absence of detectable oestrogenic\\u000a activity and mutagenicity in sediment extracts). A total of 474 roach (Rutilus rutilus) were monthly sampled during 18 months, and no intersex fish

Perrine Geraudie; Marie Gerbron; Elisabeth Hill; Christophe Minier



Hemorheological changes and characteristic parameters derived from whole blood viscometry in chronic heroin addicts.  


A group of 15 chronic opioid addicts (DA) with mean age 26.5+/-7.3 years was studied by means of a rotational Contraves Low Shear 30 viscometer and the results have been compared with a control group of 19 healthy subjects. It was found that the mean whole blood viscosity values of the investigated group of heroin abusers (n=15) were elevated compared to that of healthy persons (n=19) over the whole shear rate range and fell by more than ten orders of magnitude (Savov et al., 2006). The present investigation uses the coefficients of the models of Ostwald-de-Walle (power law) and Herschel-Bulkley law, which describe whole blood flow curves (tau-gamma) within the shear rates range from 10(-2) to 10(2) s(-1) and itself incorporate whole blood viscosity data in the entire shear rate range. A significant difference in the mean yield shear stress tau(0) values of the drug abusers' group compared to the controls was found. A strong positive linear correlation was determined between the parameters of RBC aggregation in the group of heroin addicts confirming our previous results (Ivanov and Antonova, 2005; Savov, Zvetkova et al., 2007; Savov, Antonova et al., 2007) for intensive RBC and platelet aggregation and morphological changes in DA group. PMID:18503110

Antonova, N; Zvetkova, E; Ivanov, I; Savov, Y



Application of the laser Doppler flowmeter for measurement of blood pressure and functional parameters of microcirculation.  


The laser Doppler flowmeter has become an effective tool for the clinical study of microcirculation with non-invasive measurements and excellent velocity resolution. Microcirculation flow measurements cannot be used as reference criteria for circulation function. Thus, the relative change in fingertip microcirculation was measured through inflation and deflation of an automatic sphygmomanometer wrapped around the arm, and the blood pressure and functional parameters of circulation, such as biological zero (BZ), peak flow (PF) and time to peak flow (tp), were determined. For 50 healthy participants, the correlation coefficients for the laser Doppler flowmeter and oscillometric results were 0.950 and 0.838 for systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively. The mean and standard errors for both methods fell within the range specified in the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards. The BZ of an edema patient was about 5 times higher than normal. For patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), the PF could not be determined, and the tp was about twice the normal value. The accuracy of blood pressure measurements using the laser Doppler flowmeter was comparable to that of the commonly used oscillometric sphygmomanometer, and the physiological circulation functional parameters were useful in identifying signs of edema and PAOD. PMID:23114464

Hu, Chang-Lin; Lin, Zhan-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Yu; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang; Lai, Mei-Feng; Li, Meng-Lin



Role of Differences in Microcirculatory Blood Flow Velocity in Optimizing Parameters of the Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in extracapillary oxygen transport to tissue due to variation in microcirculatory blood flow velocities have an impact on parameters of the nutritive vessel bed normalizing the muscle oxygen regimen of skeletal muscle under changes in its functional activity.

Lyabakh, Katherine G.; Mankovskaya, Irina N.


Short communication: reference values for blood parameters in Holstein dairy cows: effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season of production.  


Confidence intervals for blood parameters used for nutritional and metabolic profile testing in cattle were calculated for clinically normal lactating Holstein cows, taking into account the effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season. Blood samples were collected from 740 cows in 33 Italian dairy herds according to a predefined protocol. Herds were visited during summer and the following winter, sampling 12 lactating cows at each visit (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous). Six cows were selected from the early-lactation group (days in milk: 10 to 89) and the other 6 were selected from the mid-lactation group (days in milk: 90 to 215). Cow selection criteria excluded animals clinically exposed to periparturient diseases as well as animals not considered in good health by a veterinary clinical examination. For each blood variable, outliers were identified and discarded. Data were then analyzed for their Gaussian distribution and variables with not normal distribution were log-transformed to adjust for lack of normality. Herd mean values were calculated for each blood parameter according to 3 main classification factors: parity (primiparous vs. multiparous), stage of lactation (early vs. mid) and season of production (summer vs. winter). The resulting data set was statistically analyzed using a mixed model with the fixed effects of these factors, their interactions, and the random effect of herd. General 95% confidence intervals were calculated for blood variables that showed a relevant herd variance component such as albumin, triglycerides, aspartate, urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct and total bilirubin, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. For the remaining parameters, specific confidence intervals were calculated for each level of the significant main factors. Parity affected blood concentration of total protein, globulin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine kinase, and phosphorus. Blood nonesterified fatty acids, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine kinase and cholesterol were influenced by stage of lactation. The season of production had a significant effect on total protein, globulin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, sodium, and chlorine. The outcomes of this work will improve the accuracy of the biochemical profile as a tool for dairy practitioners to assess the metabolic status of lactating Holstein cows. PMID:21787926

Cozzi, G; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Moro, L; Brscic, M; Dalvit, P



Biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function do not affect hematological parameters in young infants: results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial.  


Background:Whereas iron deficiency is considered the leading cause of anemia in infants, cobalamin deficiency is foremost characterized by developmental delay, and the typical macrocytic anemia is confined to severe and longstanding cobalamin deficiency in this age group. Hematological parameters were investigated in 4-mo-old infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function who participated in a randomized controlled cobalamin intervention study at 6?wk.Methods:One hundred and seven infants were randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection with 400 ?g cobalamin or no intervention at 6?wk. Hematological parameters, and cobalamin and folate status were determined at inclusion and 4 mo.Results:Cobalamin supplementation improved all markers of impaired cobalamin function but had no effect on hematological cell counts at 4 mo (P > 0.18). Signs indicative of an iron-restricted erythropoiesis were observed at 6?wk and 4 mo. At 4 mo, the strongest predictors of low iron status were male gender and a high percentage weight increase from birth.Conclusion:In infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function, supplementation does not improve hematological cell counts. Variations in erythrocyte parameters seem to be foremost associated with iron status in this age group. PMID:23770919

Jenssen, Håvard Bjørke; Torsvik, Ingrid; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Oivind; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise



Implementation of a multi-parameter Point-of-Care-blood test analyzer reduces central laboratory testing and need for blood transfusions in very low birth weight infants.  


Blood sampling for laboratory testing is a major cause of iatrogenic blood loss and anemia in neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] patients. The objective of the study was to assess whether the implementation of a multi-parameter Point of Care Test [POCT] (Roche, Cobas b221) analyzer affected blood loss for central laboratory testing and need for red blood cell transfusion in our NICU. This was a retrospective observational cohort study in a NICU with comparison of two serial cohorts of 2 years each. Implementation of a multi-parameter POCT decreased central laboratory performed testing for bilirubin (-32% per patient) and electrolytes (-36% per patient). On average, the net blood volume taken per admitted patient for electrolyte testing decreased with 23.7% and 22.2% for bilirubin testing in the second cohort. After implementation of POCT, fewer very low birth weight infants [VLBWI] required blood transfusion (38.9% vs. 50%, p<.05) as the number of transfusion/infants decreased by 48% (1.57 vs. 2.53, p<0.01). The implementation of POCT was cost-efficient for the Belgian national health insurance, cost reduction -8.3% per neonate. We conclude that implementation of a bedside multi-parameter POCT analyzer decreases transfusions among VLBWI by reducing iatrogenic blood loss for central laboratory testing. PMID:22056692

Mahieu, Ludo; Marien, Annick; De Dooy, Jozef; Mahieu, Margo; Mahieu, Hanne; Van Hoof, Viviane



The impact of calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper in blood and seminal plasma on semen parameters in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the impact of calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper in blood and seminal plasma on semen parameters, 107 fertile and 103 subfertile males provided a standardized blood and semen specimen. Total calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined with colorimetric end point assay procedures. Zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Semen analysis was performed according

Wai Yee Wong; Gert Flik; Pascal M. W. Groenen; Dorine W. Swinkels; Chris M. G. Thomas; Jenny H. J. Copius-Peereboom; Hans M. W. M. Merkus; Régine P. M. Steegers-Theunissen



Effect of decimeter waves on functional state of cardiovascular system, some biochemical and immunological parameters of patients recovering from myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Optimum localization of decimeter wave (DMW) treatment and its intensity was determined to investigate the effect of DMW on functional state of the cardiovascular system, and clinical biochemical parameters of patients with myocardial infarction in the early posthospitalization period. It is assumed that the effect of DMW via the segmented autonomic system leads to marked changes in the systems. With delivery of treatment to the DI-DV region, the effect on the heart occurs first through the autonomic nervous system which is shown by its vagotropic effect.

Sorokina, Y.I.; Poshkus, N.B.; Tupitsina, Y.Y.; Volkova, L.P.; Shubina, A.V.; Krasnikov, V.Y.



Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.  


Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid. PMID:19566728

Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh



Biochemical markers of fatal hypothermia.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of postmortem biochemical investigations in the diagnosis of fatal hypothermia. 10 cases of fatal hypothermia and 30 control cases were selected. A series of biochemical parameters, such as glucose, acetone, 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, isopropyl alcohol, free fatty acids, adrenaline, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, cortisol, calcium, magnesium, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin as well as markers of renal and cardiac functions were measured in blood, postmortem serum from femoral blood, urine, vitreous and pericardial fluid. The results suggested that deaths due to hypothermia, especially in free-ethanol cases, are characterized by increased ketone levels in blood and other biological fluids, increased adrenaline concentrations in urine, increased cortisol levels in postmortem serum from femoral blood and increased free cortisol values in urine. Increased or decreased levels of other biological parameters are either the result of terminal metabolic changes or the expression of preexisting diseases and may provide information to elucidate the death process on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23313602

Palmiere, Cristian; Bardy, Daniel; Letovanec, Igor; Mangin, Patrice; Augsburger, Marc; Ventura, Francesco; Iglesias, Katia; Werner, Dominique





... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


Design and parameter estimation of hybrid magnetic bearings for blood pump applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design and parameter estimation of the dynamics characteristics of a high-speed hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet (PM) brushless and sensorless DC motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five-degree-of-freedom with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers; among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. Test results show that the rotor can be stably supported to speeds of 14,000 rpm. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMBs system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air—in both the radial and axial directions. The radial stiffness of the HMBs is compared to the Ansoft's Maxwell 2D/3D finite element magnetostatic results. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamics characteristics of the HMBs system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamics properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

Lim, Tau Meng; Zhang, Dongsheng; Yang, Juanjuan; Cheng, Shanbao; Low, Sze Hsien; Chua, Leok Poh; Wu, Xiaowei




Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wireless telecommunication devices is increasing rapidly. It has led to public concern about the possible adverse health effects of microwave radiation exposure on the biological systems of humans and animals. The changes in protein fractions, liver enzymes activities, transferrin and iron status were detected in blood of two groups of young and old male rats, the animals

Nahed Mohamed El-Abiad; Ebtisam Abd; El-Mageed Marzook


Comparison of hemodynamic, biochemical and hematological parameters of healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy and the active labor phase  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is accompanied by several hemodynamic, biochemical and hematological changes which revert to normal values after labor. The mean values of these parameters have been reported for developed countries, but not for Mexican women. Furthermore, labor constitutes a stress situation, in which these factors may be altered. It is known that serologic increase of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is associated with abnormal pregnancies, presenting very low level in normal pregnant women. Nevertheless, there are no studies where these measurements are compared in healthy pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy (3TP) and the active labor phase (ActLP). Methods Seventy five healthy Mexican pregnant women were included. Hemodynamic, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained in all cases, and serum Hsp70 levels were measured in a sample of 15 women at 3TP and at ActLP. Results Significant differences were found in most analysis performed and in Hsp70 concentration at 3TP as compared to ActLP, however all were within normal range in both conditions, supporting that only in pathological pregnancies Hsp70 is drastically increased. Conclusion Results obtained indicate that 3TP and ActLP have clinical similarities in normal pregnancies, therefore if abnormalities are found during 3TP, precautions should be taken before ActLP.



Sodium tungstate on some biochemical parameters of the parotid salivary gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a short-term study.  


Several studies have shown the antidiabetic properties of sodium tungstate. In this study, we evaluated some biochemical parameters of the parotid salivary gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with sodium tungstate solution (2 mg/ml). The studied groups were: untreated control (UC), treated control (TC), untreated diabetic (UD), and treated diabetic (TD). After 2 and 6 weeks of treatment, parotid gland was removed and total protein and sialic acid (free and total) concentration and amylase and peroxidase activities were determined. Data were compared by variance analysis and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The sodium tungstate treatment modestly decreased the glycemia of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. At week 2 of the study, parotid gland of diabetic rats presented a reduction of total protein concentration (55%) and an increase of amylase (120%) and peroxidase (160%) activities, free (150%) and total (170%) sialic acid concentration. No alteration in the evaluated parameters at week 6 of the study was observed. Sodium tungstate presented no significant effect in parotid gland. Our results suggest that diabetes causes initial modification in biochemical composition of parotid. However, this gland showed a recovery capacity after 6 week of the experimental time. Sodium tungstate has no effect in peripheral tissues, such as salivary glands. PMID:18810331

Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Nicolau, José



Artifact of blood pressure recording using heparin-filled catheter: Effects on blood pressure and coagulation parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A usual complication of catheterization procedures of arteries for blood pressure recording is the clogging of catheters due to activation of coagulation. This is usually avoided by filling the catheters with a heparinized saline solution. We have studied rats implanted with four catheters, one of which was used to monitor blood pressure for 6 h. Catheters were filled with 100

Viviane Martin; Marie-Louise Wiesel; Alain Beretz



Maternal body mass index does not affect neonatal umbilical artery blood gas parameters.  


This study was undertaken to assess the impact of obesity on fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women. Medical charts of all patients admitted to the labor and delivery department at our institution between January, 2011 and July, 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension were excluded. A total of 100 women, 50 lean and 50 obese, were included. Umbilical artery blood gas parameters (BGPs) were compared in lean (<25 kg/m(2)) and obese (? 30 kg/m(2)) women. Obese and lean women were comparable with respect to all baseline characteristics. There was no difference in any of the BGP or Apgar scores between obese and lean patients. Pearson's correlation coefficient found no significant correlation between BMI and BGP/Apgar scores. Maternal obesity does not seem to affect BGP and fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women. PMID:23533761

Chalouhi, Salam E; Salafia, Caroline; Mikhail, Magdy; Hecht, Robert



Maternal Body Mass Index Does Not Affect Neonatal Umbilical Artery Blood Gas Parameters  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to assess the impact of obesity on fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women. Medical charts of all patients admitted to the labor and delivery department at our institution between January, 2011 and July, 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension were excluded. A total of 100 women, 50 lean and 50 obese, were included. Umbilical artery blood gas parameters (BGPs) were compared in lean (<25?kg/m2) and obese (?30?kg/m2) women. Obese and lean women were comparable with respect to all baseline characteristics. There was no difference in any of the BGP or Apgar scores between obese and lean patients. Pearson's correlation coefficient found no significant correlation between BMI and BGP/Apgar scores. Maternal obesity does not seem to affect BGP and fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women.

Chalouhi, Salam E.; Salafia, Caroline; Mikhail, Magdy



Calculation of physiological acid-base parameters in multicompartment systems with application to human blood.  


A general formalism for calculating parameters describing physiological acid-base balance in single compartments is extended to multicompartment systems and demonstrated for the multicompartment example of human whole blood. Expressions for total titratable base, strong ion difference, change in total titratable base, change in strong ion difference, and change in Van Slyke standard bicarbonate are derived, giving calculated values in agreement with experimental data. The equations for multicompartment systems are found to have the same mathematical interrelationships as those for single compartments, and the relationship of the present formalism to the traditional form of the Van Slyke equation is also demonstrated. The multicompartment model brings the strong ion difference theory to the same quantitative level as the base excess method. PMID:12923118

Wooten, E Wrenn



Effects of a single bout of walking exercise on blood coagulation parameters in obese women.  


Obesity is associated with increased prevalence of thromboembolic events. We aimed to investigate whether obese women might benefit from vigorous aerobic exercise. Forty-two overweight and obese women performed a 30-min walking exercise test (treadmill ergometer) at an intensity of 70% of individual peak oxygen uptake. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise. Thrombelastometry and platelet function measurements were performed on whole blood. Standard coagulation times, thrombin generation curves, markers of thrombin generation, fibrinolytic parameters, plasma levels of pro- and anticoagulatory factors, and microparticle procoagulant activity were determined in platelet-poor plasma samples. Thrombelastometry revealed a significant prolongation of clot formation time (P = 0.037) and a significant deceleration of fibrin build up (alpha angle, P = 0.034) after exercise. Calibrated automated thrombography revealed a significant exercise-induced decrease in endogenous thrombin potential (P = 0.039). Moreover, thrombin formation stopped earlier postexercise, reflected in shortened StartTail (P = 0.046). Significantly elevated tissue-plasminogen activator levels (P = 0.001) indicate an exercise-induced activation of the fibrinolytic system. White blood cell count increased significantly from pre- to postexercise (P = 0.045), indicating a mild exercise-induced leukocytosis. The results of this study demonstrate that vigorous aerobic exercise might be a suitable tool to protect obese women from thrombotic events. We show that a single bout of vigorous aerobic exercise is clearly associated with an activation of the fibrinolytic system and a decreased readiness of the postexercise samples to form a clot and to generate thrombin, the pivotal enzyme of hemostasis. PMID:23620490

Lamprecht, Manfred; Moussalli, Herve; Ledinski, Gerhard; Leschnik, Bettina; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Koestenberger, Martin; Polt, Guenter; Cvirn, Gerhard



Blood pressure levels and variance assessed by ambulatory monitoring: optimal parameters.  


We obtained multiple ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) records over five years from two trained, normotensive subjects experienced in wearing the apparatus. The resulting time series data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were used to suggest optimal parameters for monitoring by two instruments (Colin Medical Instruments ABPM-630 and Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer) and to compare two indirect methods (auscultatory and oscillometric). A 10-min sampling interval day and night provided sufficient density of data to support spectral analysis for ultradian rhythms in the frequency range of one cycle per hour to one cycle per 9 h on a 24-h record. Rhythms with major periods of approximately 3, 6, and 9 h were variously found in 94 normotensive subjects, aged 20 to 95 years, including the two trained subjects. When the monitoring period was extended to 72 h, the circadian (approximately 24 h) rhythm could be more sharply defined, as well as a 12-h harmonic. In some studies the two trained subjects wore two monitors, one on each arm, set to read simultaneously. From the simultaneous measurements on both arms, it was shown that averaging across three points (30 min of record) reduced the coefficient of variation between the two simultaneous records to 6% or less. Auscultatory and oscillometric methods were equally reliable. Echocardiographic data were obtained in five normotensive subjects and compared to their ABPM data. The ABPM records provided additional information about cardiovascular function not merely duplicating that obtained by acute stress tests, such as exercise or cold pressor responses, or echocardiography. Standards for ABPM are suggested. PMID:2221507

Yates, F E; Benton, L A



Effects of asphyxia on arterial blood pressure, formation of nitric oxide in medulla and blood parameters in the cat.  


The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays an important role in the integration of cardiovascular functions. We examined the effect of asphyxia on cardiovascular responses, on sympathetic vertebral nerve activity (VNA) and nitric oxide (NO) formation in the RVLM, on hemodynamics, and on plasma concentrations of catecholamines, blood gas partial pressures and carbohydrate metabolites. Using 16 anesthetized cats we found that the systemic arterial pressure (SAP), VNA, NO formation and the release of plasma catecholamine components of norepinephrine and epinephrine were increased during asphyxia. The onset of NO production was significantly earlier than that of SAP and VNA. The venous partial pressure of O2 decreased, while the partial pressure of CO2 increased. Furthermore, metabolism of glucose and lactate increased, as did the blood concentrations of white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets. Thus, asphyxia increased SAP, VNA and NO formation. It increased the plasma catecholamines, blood gases, carbohydrate metabolites and blood cells. PMID:15973967

Wu, Wun-Chin; Ueng, Jinn-Pyng; Chai, Chok-Yung



[Dynamics of blood hematological parameters of white rats in postnatal ontogenesis].  


In experiments on Wistar rats, dynamics of blood hematological and rheological parameters has been studied from birth to the 3-month age. Results of the study indicate an intensive activity of the red bone marrow anlagen during the first 3 weeks of postnatal ontogenesis. This is manifested in an increase of the number of cells in the erythron system, a change of erythrocyte acidic resistance, and a shift in the leukocytic formula. The boundary between the 2nd and 3rd postnatal weeks is critical: there occur a sharp deceleration of erythropoiesis and a change of the age-related erythrocyte composition and the blood leukocyte ratio towards those characteristic of adult rats. The rise in the number of leukocytes and erythrocytes does not cease after having passed this period. Until the 4-week age, the deformability index increases, which is accompanied by an increase of hemoglobin hydration and by improvement of the erythrocyte toroid form. Subsequently, inversion of these processes occurs. PMID:19198162

Novozhilov, A V; Katiukhin, L N


Biodynamic parameters of micellar diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and blood plasma.  


In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%. PMID:22122895

Staroverov, Sergey A; Sidorkin, Vladimir A; Fomin, Alexander S; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu; Dykman, Lev A



Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Effects of commercial probiotic (Bactocell®) on growth performance and blood parameters were evaluated. A total of 800 one day-old Ross broiler chicks were raised over 42 days. Chicks were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into four equally major groups each having two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that did not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the control starter and finisher diets supplemented with 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg feed, respectively. Weekly body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion were measured. Blood parameters at 1, 4 and 6 weeks of age including packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total protein, albumin, total lipid and cholesterol were determined. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results of the current study revealed that there was no significant change for Hb and PCV concentrations among different groups at all studied times. Also, total protein, lipids and albumin concentrations were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Chicken fed a diet containing various levels of probiotic showed a significant decrease (p ? 0.05) in cholesterol concentration compared to control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the body weight and daily weight gain of broiler chicks at late ages (3–6 weeks). Also, the birds fed on probiotic levels 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet exhibited higher body weight among chicken groups at 6 weeks of age. Improved feed conversion was noticed in birds fed a diet supplemented with probiotic. There was no significant difference in mortality rate among groups. We concluded that use of selected commercial probiotic resulted in improved performance parameters and reduced serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. Moreover, supplementation of the probiotic to broilers in the levels of 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet was found to be better than control and 1.6 g/kg level indicating that increasing dietary probiotic level does not has the best performance.

Alkhalf, A.; Alhaj, M.; Al-homidan, I.



Toxic impact of two organophosphate insecticides on biochemical parameters of a food fish and assessment of recovery response.  


Sublethal effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and monocrotophos (MCP) on fish biochemical constituents were investigated along with the assessment of recovery response after cessation of intoxication. The fish, Clarias batrachus were exposed to 1.656 mg(-l) and 2.114 mg(-l) of CPF and MCP for 28 days. After 28 days, they were released in freshwater and allowed to recover for 21 days. The CPF exposure resulted in the decrease of carbohydrate and glycogen content, whereas MCP intoxication caused mixed response. Pyruvate and lactate contents were altered under the stress of CPF and MCP. Recovery of these alterations was observed after the cessation of toxicity. Exposure of C. batrachus to CPF and MCP resulted in decreased activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the kidney, liver and muscle but its activity increased in the gills. The CPF caused inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme in all tissues. Induction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase was caused by both insecticides. Glycogen phosphorylase a was induced in all tissues, whereas glycogen phosphorylase ab showed both induction and inhibition. Of the two insecticides, CPF was more toxic and the recovery response was less. These results are important in the assessment of the risk caused by organophosphate insecticides on nontarget organisms, especially the food fish. PMID:21983276

Narra, Madhusudan Reddy; Begum, Ghousia; Rajender, Kodimyala; Rao, J Venkateswara



Roach (Rutilus rutilus) reproductive cycle: a study of biochemical and histological parameters in a low contaminated site.  


Fish reproduction is subjected to worrying trends in many aquatic environments. In this study, we report the absence of histological and biochemical alterations in fish sampled in a low contaminated site (characterised by the absence of detectable oestrogenic activity and mutagenicity in sediment extracts). A total of 474 roach (Rutilus rutilus) were monthly sampled during 18 months, and no intersex fish were recorded after careful histological examination, thus indicating that the incidence of this phenomenon may be very low under natural conditions. Furthermore, mean male plasma vitellogenin concentration was 24 ng ml(-1) and was only slightly elevated during the spawning period (up to 120 ng ml(-1)) indicating that these low values may be characteristic of a low contaminated site. Of the male roach, 45.3% were sampled, a sex-ratio that did not significantly deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio between male and female. Results also showed that natural conditions can greatly affect the reproductive cycle of roach. Gametogenesis showed a biphasic pattern with first gonad maturation between September and December and a final maturation occurring at the end of winter/early spring. Under decreasing temperatures, particularly below 6 degrees C, gametogenesis was stopped or even regressed with secondary oocytes becoming rare under histological observation. Conversely, elevated temperatures during the winter lead to an earlier gonad maturation. PMID:19680761

Geraudie, Perrine; Gerbron, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth; Minier, Christophe



The effect of arterial blood sampling sites on blood gases and acid-base balance parameters in calves.  


In 21 healthy calves, 1-6 months old, the interrelationship and comparability of acid-base balance variables (pH, HCO3-, BE) and blood gases (pCO2, pO2, and sat-O2) were evaluated in arterial blood collected from a larger, centrally localised (the a. axillaris) and a smaller peripheral artery (the a. auricularis caudalis). Sampling was done by direct puncture of the vessels without local anaesthesia. Except for blood pH, significant differences were observed in the average values of pCO2, pO2, HCO3-, sat-O2 (P < 0.001), and BE (P < 0.05). Analyses of blood from the a. axillaris showed higher pH, pO2, and sat-O2 values, and lower pCO2, HCO3-, and BE values compared with that from the a. auricularis caudalis. Despite statistically significant differences between some variables, in all indices high and significant correlation relationships were recorded (R = 0.928-0.961; P < 0.001). Therefore, from the biological and clinical point of view, these differences are unimportant and the presented method of peripheral arterial blood sampling can be considered suitable for evaluating blood gases and acid-base status. PMID:11702345

Nagy, O; Kovác, G; Seidel, H; Weissová, T



An experimental soft-release of oil-spill rehabilitated American coots (Fulica americana): II. Effects on health and blood parameters.  


The Unocal-Metrolink oil spill of 21 February 1995 resulted in approximately 7800 barrels of San Joaquin crude oil being deposited into the San Gabriel River in Huntington Beach, CA, USA. In order to determine long-term pathological effects of oil exposure and rehabilitation, hematological and serum biochemical parameters for both rehabilitated (RHB) American coots (Fulica americana) and reference (REF) coots were examined every 3-4 weeks (56, 81, 108 and 140 days post oil exposure) after birds were cleaned, rehabilitated and soft-released. Most significant differences in monthly comparisons between RHB and REF birds occurred 56 days following oil exposure. Total white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio and calcium concentration were higher in RHB birds compared to REF birds 56 days post oil exposure. In addition, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities, and creatinine, total protein (TP) and globulin concentrations were lower in RHB birds. Blood results from 56 days post oil exposure for RHB coots which subsequently died were compared to blood results from days 108 and 140 for REF coots which survived. Oiled and rehabilitated birds which died had significantly higher WBCs, packed cell volume, TP and globulin concentrations, and lower A:G ratio, MCH, MCHC, glucose and sodium concentrations compared to REF birds which survived. Blood result differences detected at 3-4-week intervals between RHB and REF survivors, and differences detected between RHB coots which died and REF coots which survived, suggested that RHB coots developed an inflammatory response (infectious or non-septic) and, concurrently, may have experienced decreased immune responsiveness. Additionally, RHB coots experienced either an iron (Fe) utilization or Fe metabolism problem. These pathophysiological mechanisms were consistent with increased hemosiderin (stored Fe) present in the liver, spleen and kidney of necropsied RHB birds, and may have contributed to RHB coot mortality. When blood parameter differences were examined for their impact on survival time, it was determined that RHB coots had shorter survival times if they had very high cholesterol (> or =449 mg/dl) or chloride (> or =110 MEQ/l) concentrations on day 56 post oil exposure. Interestingly, the lack of differences between RHB and REF coots from day 81 through day 140 suggested that, from a hematologic and clinical chemistry perspective, coots which were oiled, rehabilitated, released and survived at least 3.5 months could not be differentiated from wild (REF) coots. From these findings it appears that blood analysis, coupled with post-release survival data, may help discern reasons for increased mortality of oiled and rehabilitated birds, compared to non-oiled reference birds. PMID:15092975

Newman, S H; Anderson, D W; Ziccardi, M H; Trupkiewicz, J G; Tseng, F S; Christopher, M M; Zinkl, J G



Overweight, insulin resistance and blood pressure (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in uric acid urolithiasis.  


Overweight, arterial hypertension and disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism are important parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MS). The most important factor regarding renal pathophysiology is insulin resistance resulting in alterations of urine acidification and low urine pH. Since low urine pH is the main risk factor for uric acid urolithiasis (UAU), UAU may be regarded as a renal manifestation of the MS. So far, there are only few data on the prevalence of parameters of the MS in UAU patients especially with regard to the severity of the disease and recurrence rate, respectively. The objective of this study was to know more about the prevalence of different parameters of the MS and their importance for the natural history of this type of renal stone disease using a total number of 167 consecutive patients with pure UA stones. Stone analysis was performed by polarization microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The following parameters were measured: age, sex, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure (RRs and RRd), number of stone episodes, diabetes mellitus (DM); serum: creatinine, calcium, sodium, potassium, uric acid, glucose; urine: pH-profiles, citrate, calcium, uric acid, ammonia, urea, and creatinine. The following results were obtained (means ± standard deviations): age 61 ± 13 years, BMI 30 ± 6 kg/m(2), BP 147/84 ± 22/13 mmHg, number of stone episodes 1.8 ± 1.2, DM 32%; serum: creatinine 1.3 ± 0.6 mg/dl, glucose 136 ± 52 mg/dl, UA 6.3 ± 1.8 mg/dl, calcium 2.4 ± 1.3 mmol/l, sodium 134 ± 18 mmol/l, potassium 4.1 ± 0.4 mmol/l; urine: pH 5.87 ± 0.27, volume 2.4 ± 1.1 l/d, calcium 3.5 ± 2.5 mmol/d, UA 3.9 ± 2.4 mmol/d, citrate 1.3 ± 1.1 mmol/d, ammonia 41 ± 26 mmol/d, urea 390 ± 176 mmol/d. A significant positive correlation could be found for BMI and urea excretion, BMI correlated negatively with RRs and RRd. There was no significant correlation between BMI, urine pH, citrate, ammonia and UA in serum and urine. Undue acidity and hyperuricosuria were found in two-thirds of the UAU patients, increased urea excretion and decreased excretion of ammonia in less than 25%, Hyperuricemia in 37%. There was no significant correlation between the number of stone episodes and any other parameter studied. Overweight, arterial hypertension and DM as parameters of the MS are frequent in many patients with UAU. However, these parameters do explain the pathogenesis in two-thirds of the patients. The severity of the disease and the recurrence are not influenced by the presence of these metabolic parameters. Therefore, MS is no prognostic factor in UAU. PMID:21866382

Strohmaier, Walter Ludwig; Wrobel, Beate Maria; Schubert, Gernot



Leaf biochemical parameters in Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh as potential biomarkers of heavy metal stress in estuarine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment loadings and leaf accumulation of the heavy metals copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) with accompanying changes in leaf chlorophylls' (a+b), carotenoids and the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase were examined in the grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh, in order to determine the applicability of these parameters as biomarkers of heavy metal stress under field conditions. Copper was found

G. R MacFarlane



The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.  


Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G



Defining blood processing parameters for optimal detection of cryopreserved antigen-specific responses for HIV vaccine trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon-gamma (IFN-?) ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays are routinely employed in clinical HIV vaccine trials to identify antigen-specific T cells in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Several parameters involved in blood collection, processing and shipping may influence immunological function of the resulting cells, including anticoagulant type, time from venipuncture to PBMC isolation\\/cryopreservation, method of PBMC isolation and

Marta Bull; Deborah Lee; Jason Stucky; Ya-Lin Chiu; Abbe Rubin; Helen Horton; M. Juliana McElrath



Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats.  


Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses. PMID:20678534

Amin, K A; Abdel Hameid, H; Abd Elsttar, A H



Effect of dietary rare earth elements on growth performance and blood parameters of rats.  


Rare earth elements (REE) have been shown to influence growth performance in animal production, especially in pigs. In the present study, the effect of oral administration of rare earth elements on growing rats was investigated. Pure LaCl3 or an REE mixture containing 38% of LaCl3, 52% of CeCl3, 3% of PrCl3 and 7% of chlorides of other REE were used at two different concentrations as supplements to the diets. Fifty male Wistar rats at 4 weeks of age were allotted to five experimental groups: a control group; a La-low group and a La-high group with 75 and 150 mg/kg LaCl3.6H2O, respectively; a REE-low and an REE-high group with 75 and 150 mg/kg REE mixture, respectively. The animals were housed in individual pens. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. After 18 days the oral supplementation of LaCl3.6H2O or of the REE mixture improved daily body weight gain (BWG) by up to 5 or 9% (p > 0.05), respectively. LaCl3.6H2O as well as the REE mixture had positive effects (p < 0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR) with a decreased ratio by up to 8 and 11%, respectively. Supplementation of REE also had clear effects on blood serum parameters. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) increased significantly (p < 0.05). At the same time, blood glucose level decreased and blood creatine level increased significantly (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in cholesterol, total protein, albumin and urea nitrogen among the groups. There was no significant difference in triglyceride level between the control and those REE groups, however, a significantly lower (p < 0.01) triglyceride level was found in the 150 mg/kg REE mixture group compared with that in 75 mg/kg REE mixture group and the 150 mg/kg LaCl3.6H2O group. The results suggest that oral supplementation of REE improves growth performance in rats as in pigs. In this respect, concentration and type of REE supplemented to the diets are two important factors herein. PMID:12752829

He, M L; Wang, Y Z; Xu, Z R; Chen, M L; Rambeck, W A



[Estimation of tissue's blood oxygen parameters from visible absorption spectrum of tissues by artificial neural network].  


Total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) are essential parameters to doctors who wonder patients' hematogenous conditions and oxygen supplies and consumptions. Instruments presently used for measuring these parameters have big size of detecting probes that limit their applications to inner bodies. An optical probe involving two fibers with source-detector separations of one hundred micrometers was developed in the present study for purpose of minimally invasive inner detecting, which uses steady-state, broadband (300-1 000 nm) light source. The source light is delivered to targets through one fiber and the reflected light from the targets is collected and transferred to a spectrometer through the other fiber. Reflectance spectrum is obtained from the spectrometer. The method of reading THC and SO2 from the reflectance spectrum was developed using liquid-tissue phantoms containing intralipid and blood. Firstly, reflex spectrum of intralipid was recorded before mixtures of intralipid and blood with different THC were made as tissue phantoms. Then the fiber optical spectrometer was used to obtain reflex spectra as the phantoms' SO2 changed; simultaneously their corresponding THC and SO2 were recorded as the scale values by an oximeter. Differences of reflex spectra in 520-590 nm between intralipid and tissue models were proved reliably. Secondly, after data collections of absorption spectra and scale values were finished, two artificial neural networks (ANN) were build to model the relationship between scale values and absorption spectra. After being trained, the ANNs could output THC and SO2 correctly when an absorption spectrum was input. The ANNs produced errors of less than 4 micromol x L(-1) for THC and 5% for SO2. In vivo and minimally invasive measurements of THC and SO2 of brain tissues in different depth were finished on 30 rats by this specific system with the ANNs. The probe was inserted stereotactically to a depth of 6 mm with measurements obtained every 0.2 mm. SO2 of gray mater and white mater of rats was respectively obtained as 0.60-0.70 and 0.45-0.55. The highest THC, 110 micromol x L(-1) was measured around rat cortex. THC of brain tissue in other depth is 70-90 micromol x L(-1). These values agree well with reported data. This simple, inexpensive method deserves further study to establish its efficacy for THC and SO2 measurements of inner body. PMID:18844141

Dai, Li-Juan; Wang, Hui-Nan; Qian, Zhi-Yu; Yu, Guo-Qiang



Effects of 16 weeks of training prior to a major competition on hormonal and biochemical parameters in young elite gymnasts.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the response to 16 weeks of training on selected hormonal and biological parameters in seven international competition level female artistic gymnasts (14.5 +/- 1.2 years). Data were collected at the beginning of the first training week (W1) and in the 16th week (W16). Assessments also included anthropometric measurements, dietary intake for 7 days and Tanner staging. No gymnast had reached menarche and the puberty stages corresponded to Tanner's pubertal stage 2. The gymnasts were smaller than average for their age group, with a height:weight ratio above the 50th percentile. Energy intake was about 31% lower than recommendations. Significant decreases in IGF-I, IGFBP3, IGF-I:C ratio and triglyceride values and increases in uric acid and creatinine levels were noted. Cortisol values were high regardless of the period. This training provided evidence for alterations in resting somatotropic and adrenocorticotropic parameters. PMID:12880124

Filaire, E; Jouanel, P; Colombier, M; Bégue, R J; Lac, G



A comprehensive review of CT-based dosimetry parameters and biochemical control in patients treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The American Brachytherapy Society recommends that postprostate implant dosimetry be performed on all patients undergoing transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) utilizing CT scan clinical target volume reconstructions. This study was undertaken to assess the recommended dosimetry parameters from a large cohort of patients undergoing TIPPB that would predict for PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS).Methods and Materials: Seven hundred nineteen

Louis Potters; Yijian Cao; Emel Calugaru; Taryn Torre; Paul Fearn; Xiao-Hong Wang



Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings.  


Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid:creatinine ratios and liver enzymes ALKP and ALAT were positively correlated to PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFCs and/or PBDEs. Total bilirubin and glucose were negatively correlated to PCBs while magnesium and potassium were negatively correlated to HCB and p,p'-DDE. In addition, protein:creatinine and ALAT were also negatively correlated to PCBs and PFCs, respectively. The most significant relationships were found for the highly contaminated northern goshawks and white-tailed eagles. The statistical relationships between OHCs and BCCPs indicate that biochemical pathways could be influenced while it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles. PMID:22445502

Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Eulaers, Igor; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ballesteros, Manuel; Eens, Marcel; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Johnsen, Trond V; Rigét, Frank F; Jensen, Asger L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads



[Lipid and pro-oxidative and antioxidative parameters in the blood of vegetarians].  


The authors subdued 183 vegetarians to examination, the aim of which was to judge the state of health and nutrition of the vegetarian population. The examined group was composed of people with their age ranging from 19-60 years, out of which 102 were of younger (19-39 years) and 81 were of older age. Their average period of vegetarian food consumption was 4.2 years. One third of men and a half of women were lacto-vegetarians, the rest were lacto-ovo-vegetarians. The results were compared with 160 nonvegetarians (64 of younger and 96 of older age). The detected values of lipid parameters were evaluated as favourable for vegetarians (low values of cholesterol, triacylglycerols, atherogenic index, LDL-cholesterol, the share of HDL-cholesterol was 28-33% (vs 24-26% in nonvegetarians) with values converging to 1.4 mmol.l-1--i.e. reduced risk). Additional favourable factors in prevention of atherosclerosis include the absence of obesity in vegetarians and values of antisclerotic active substances in blood (high values of vitamin C, in comparison with nonvegetarians a significantly higher molar ratio of vitamin E/cholesterol and vitamin E/triacylglycerols--more effective protection against peroxidation of lipids). Vegetarian mode of food consumption may be favourably evaluated regarding prooxidative-antioxidative parameters which play an important role in the process of atherogenesis, and carcinogenesis. Significantly lower values of conjugated dienes in plasma of vegetarians and vice versa high values of antioxidant substances (vitamin C, vitamin E/lipid components, catalase activity) were detected. A more pronounced system of detoxication in vegetarians is important due to a possible risk of an increased intake of xenogenous substances. (Tab. 3, Ref. 27.) PMID:7812836

Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Babinská, K; Ondreicka, R



[Effect of dietotherapy with food-stuffs for enteral nutrition on the dynamic of clinical and biochemic parameters in biliary tract diseases].  


It was investigated the influence of dietary therapy with enteral formula "Nutricomp AND Braum fiber" on clinical and biochemic parameters in biliary tract diseases. Also it was carried out the comparative estimation of the gallbladder motility in this contingent of patients in process of the standard food loading and the loading with the tested enteral formula (25 g carbohydrates). It was indicated that the including of enteral formula "Nutricomp AND Braum fiber" (209 g/day) in traditional hypocaloric diet promotes the decrease of cholesterol level and activity of alkaline phosphatase. The gallbladder motility was some smaller after the consuming of enteral formula "Nutricomp AND Braum Diabetes" compared with the standard food loading (25 g carbohydrates). PMID:16313133

Plotnikova, O A; Meshcheriakova, V A; Sharfetdinov, Kh Kh; Petrovskaia, O B; Mokhova, E O



Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels.  


The effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters was studied using nine male dromedary camels of Bikaneri breeds (637.5 kg average body weight; 8-9 years of age). Groundnut haulms (GNH) and cluster bean straw (CBS) were fed in one of three ratios, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 in treatments T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively. In all treatments, concentrate mixture was fed as per requirement of the camels. The groundnut haulms were more nutritive as compared to the cluster bean straw. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre and acid detergent fibre was better in T(1) than T(2) and T(3). Likewise, the CP, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient contents were significantly higher in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). There was non-significant affect on average daily gain of camels. However, dry matter intake, digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrients were better in T(1) as compared to T(2) and T(3). The total water intake per kilogram of dry matter intake (litres) was 2.98, 2.89 and 2.68, respectively, in T(1), T(2) and T(3). The camels in all the treatments were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance. The treatments had a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase and creatinine. The results may conclude that feeding of higher proportion of groundnut haulms as compared to cluster bean straw has pronounced improvement in nutritional utilisation by the camels. PMID:22476733

Gupta, Lokesh; Kumar, Roy Ashwani; Ghanshyam, Tiwari; Rajesh, Dhuria; Garg, Rajeev



Isolation and some molecular parameters of elastase-like normal proteinases from horse blood leucocytes.  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic granules were isolated from horse blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes by the heparin method and extracted with 0.9% NaCl by repeated freezing. Soluble proteins were separated on a column of Sephadex G-75 followed by chromatography on a column of CM-Sephadex with a NaCl gradient. Gel filtration, density-gradient centrifugation, isoelectric focusing and 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 7.0 and at pH 4.5 were used to determine molecular parameters of proteinases. Three enzymes hydrolysing both casein and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-alanine nitrophenyl ester were found in the granule extract: proteinase 1, mol.wt. 38000, pI5.3; proteinase 2A, mol.wt. 24500, pI8.8; and proteinase 2B, mol.wt. 20500, pI above 10. The latter two elastase-like proteinases were purified to apparent homogeneity. Images PLATE 1

Dubin, A; Koj, A; Chudzik, J



Blood antioxidant parameters in sickle cell anemia patients in steady state.  


Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hereditary disorder with higher potential for oxidative damage due to chronic redox imbalance in red cells. We measured antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). We also determined oxidative damage of proteins in hemolysate of red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma (carbonyl assay). We characterized the membrane damage in terms of lipid peroxidation by accumulation of malonaldehyde (MDA) by HPLC in 30 healthy controls and 20 SCA patients in steady-state condition. Twenty (9 males/11 females) adult SCA patients and 30 healthy controls were studied. All patients and control subjects had antioxidant (CAT, GPx, SOD, carbonyl and MDA) and hematological parameters done. Our data show that SCA patients had significant higher GPx and SOD activities than healthy controls. Carbonyl assay was noted in plasma but not in hemolysate. An enhanced production of MDA was observed in the serum of SCA patients. Our data support the growing evidence that patients with SCA are subjected to chronic oxidative stress and are able to oxidative damage in biological macromolecules such as proteins and lipids. PMID:18717139

Manfredini, Vanusa; Lazzaretti, Luísa Lauermann; Griebeler, Isabel Heinzmann; Santin, Ana Paula; Brandão, Vanessa Duarte Martins; Wagner, Sandrine; Castro, Simone Martins; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Benfato, Mara Silveira



Physiological control of blood pumps using intrinsic pump parameters: a computer simulation study.  


Implantable flow and pressure sensors, used to control rotary blood pumps, are unreliable in the long term. It is, therefore, desirable to develop a physiological control system that depends only on readily available measurements of the intrinsic pump parameters, such as measurements of the pump current, voltage, and speed (in revolutions per minute). A previously proposed DeltaP control method of ventricular assist devices (VADs) requires the implantation of two pressure sensors to measure the pressure difference between the left ventricle and aorta. In this article, we propose a model-based method for estimating DeltaP, which eliminates the need for implantable pressure sensors. The developed estimator consists of the extended Kalman filter in conjunction with the Golay-Savitzky filter. The performance of the combined estimator-VAD controller system was evaluated in computer simulations for a broad range of physical activities and varying cardiac conditions. The results show that there was no appreciable performance degradation of the estimator-controller system compared to the case when DeltaP is measured directly. The proposed approach effectively utilizes a VAD as both a pump and a differential pressure sensor, thus eliminating the need for dedicated implantable pressure and flow sensors. The simulation results show that different pump designs may not be equally effective at playing a dual role of a flow actuator and DeltaP sensor. PMID:16643388

Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Skliar, Mikhail



Adaptive physiological speed/flow control of rotary blood pumps in permanent implantation using intrinsic pump parameters.  


An adaptive speed/flow controller was developed based on previous work using the intrinsic pump parameters. Those intrinsic parameters were measured by long-term reliable sensors. The adaptive controller was designed to track the varying total peripheral resistance and update the controller parameters correspondingly. The controller was studied in computer simulation on two different types of pumps, whose hydrodynamic characteristics are described by static and dynamic equation, respectively. The pump pressure rise of both pumps is accessible. With the designed adaptive controller, the abnormal hemodynamic values indicating congestive heart failure, including total blood flow, mean aortic pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, are all successfully restored to normal ranges. This good performance is consistent for both pumps in the variation of activities and left ventricular failure levels. The results show that the designed controller can be applicable for rotary blood pumps whose pump pressure rise can be measured or derived from pump intrinsic parameters. PMID:19506462

Wu, Yi


Erythrocyte-mediated delivery of pravastatin: in vitro study of effect of hypotonic lysis on biochemical parameters and loading efficiency.  


Exposure of erythrocytes to hypotonic lysis creates pores in the cell membrane, through which pravastatin can enter and become trapped, after resealing them with a suitable buffer. We investigated the effects of tonicity, incubation time and drug concentration on drug loading into erythrocytes. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of pravastatin on erythrocyte oxidative stress markers and osmotic fragility behavior. Encapsulation was achieved using buffer solutions of different tonicities (0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% NaCl) and different drug concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 10 mg/mL) for a range of incubation times (15, 30, 60 and 120 min). The results demonstrated that controlled hypotonic lysis could entrap pravastatin in human erythrocytes, with acceptable loading parameters. The highest loading (34%) was achieved at 0.6% NaCl and 10 mg/mL pravastatin for 60 min incubation. At this pravastatin concentration, oxidative stress markers were similar to those seen in controls, and fragility and hematological parameters were unaffected in drug-loaded erythrocytes. These results indicate that the loading process and pravastatin concentration had no deleterious effects on the structure of pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes, suggesting that they may therefore have a similar life span to normal cells. Pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes may thus provide an effective extended-release-delivery system for pravastatin. PMID:22941486

Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Ibrahim, Mohamed F; Alanazi, Fars K



Changes in biochemical and microbiological parameters during the period of rapid composting of dairy manure with rice chaff.  


Various parameters were measured during the period of composting of dairy manure and rice chaff in different ratios (dairy manure/rice chaff=V/V, pile 1: 75/25; pile 2: 80/20; pile 3: 85/15) to evaluate their suitability as indicators for the composting process. The temperature in pile 1 increased rapidly and remained above 60 °C for 30 days, while the temperature in pile 3 increased slowly relative to the other two piles. Furthermore, the degradation of organic substrates, as indicated by the reduction of C/N ratio, was rapid in pile 1 (below 20% 28 days after beginning of the composting). The major fluctuations of various water-soluble fractions in all piles were observed during the first 3 weeks, and the results in general showed that the highest microbial populations and enzymatic activities also appeared in this phase. Various parameters indicated that the rapid composting method was a feasible one for treating agricultural wastes. PMID:21835612

Liu, Dongyang; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Hongsheng; Xu, Dabing; Tang, Zhu; Yu, Guanghui; Xu, Zhihui; Shen, Qirong



Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?  


Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C(3) leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO(2) at the stomatal cavity (A(n)-C(i)), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (A(n)-I(inc)). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from A(n)-C(i) or from A(n)-I(inc) data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored A(n)-I(inc) data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model. PMID:22021569

Archontoulis, S V; Yin, X; Vos, J; Danalatos, N G; Struik, P C



Some Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Responses to a Long Term Consumption of Telfairia occidentalis-Supplemented Diet in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Some biochemical, haematological and histological responses were studied in rats undergoing a long term feeding with a Telfairia occidentalis-supplemented diet. Biochemical and hematological parameters investigated included serum protein, total cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, haemoglobin, white blood cells, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Glutathione-s- transferase and Superoxide dismutase. Histological changes associated with Telfairia occidentalis- supplemented diet on the liver,

Onyechi Obidoa



Forssman expression on human erythrocytes: biochemical and genetic evidence of a new histo-blood group system.  


In analogy with histo-blood group A antigen, Forssman (Fs) antigen terminates with ?3-N-acetylgalactosamine and can be used by pathogens as a host receptor in many mammals. However, primates including humans lack Fs synthase activity and have naturally occurring Fs antibodies in plasma. We investigated individuals with the enigmatic ABO subgroup A(pae) and found them to be homozygous for common O alleles. Their erythrocytes had no A antigens but instead expressed Fs glycolipids. The unexpected Fs antigen was confirmed in structural, serologic, and flow-cytometric studies. The Fs synthase gene, GBGT1, in A(pae) individuals encoded an arginine to glutamine change at residue 296. Gln296 is present in lower mammals, whereas Arg296 was found in 6 other primates, > 250 blood donors and A(pae) family relatives without the A(pae) phenotype. Transfection experiments and molecular modeling showed that Agr296Gln reactivates the human Fs synthase. Uropathogenic E coli containing prsG-adhesin-encoding plasmids agglutinated A(pae) but not group O cells, suggesting biologic implications. Predictive tests for intravascular hemolysis with crossmatch-incompatible sera indicated complement-mediated destruction of Fs-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, we provide the first conclusive description of Fs expression in normal human hematopoietic tissue and the basis of a new histo-blood group system in man, FORS. PMID:23255552

Svensson, Lola; Hult, Annika K; Stamps, Robert; Ångström, Jonas; Teneberg, Susann; Storry, Jill R; Jørgensen, René; Rydberg, Lennart; Henry, Stephen M; Olsson, Martin L



Saline or plant-incorporated methylmercury effects on distribution, demethylation, and blood parameters in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of diet is recognized as a significant factor in the expression of toxicity. This applies particularly to toxins like methylmercury (MeHg) which are metabolically incorporated into growing food plants and biotransformed within the plant before ingestion. Methylmercury in this form may influence the early physiological and biochemical events which lead to development of toxicity. In a previous study,

M. Czuba; E. Komsta-Szumska; D. C. Mortimer; C. Champagne



Influence of repeated subcutaneous G-CSF injections on selected blood parameters relevant for monitoring programmes in sports drug testing.  


The use of growth factors in sports is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC). While the beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on erythropoiesis and therefore its performance-enhancing properties have been well documented and established for decades, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relevance of the cytokine G-CSF in a doping control context, particularly concerning its influence on selected blood parameters representing central aspects of the Athlete Biological Passport. For that purpose, the effect of repeated subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) injections in therapeutic dosages (10 µg/kg/d) on white blood cells, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and percent reticulocytes was analyzed by using commonly employed fluorescence flow cytometry-based approaches. A total of 20 people were tested (14 male, 6 female) and both white blood cell count and reticulocyte percentages were found to significantly increase following a 5-day treatment with G-CSF. Simultaneously, all other volume-dependent parameters (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) slightly but significantly decreased. Due to the relevance of these measurands for the validity of blood tests for doping controls and the anecdotal evidence of G-CSF being potentially misused by elite athletes, G-CSF analyses might be indicated in case of unusually altered blood profiles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23047806

Walpurgis, Katja; Slijepcevic, Mirjana; Wenzel, Folker; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Franz, Stefan; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario



Correlating Blood Immune Parameters and a CCT7 Genetic Variant with the Shedding of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the current study, 40 crossbred pigs were intranasally inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and monitored for Salmonella fecal shedding and blood immune parameters at 2, 7, 14 and 20 days post-inoculation (dpi). Using a multivariate permutation test, a positive correlation was...


Biochemical Parameters for Longitudinal Monitoring of Liver Function in Rat Models of Partial Hepatectomy Following Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Background While evaluation of liver function in preclinical animal studies is commonly performed at selected time-points by invasive determination of the liver/body weight ratio and histological analyses, the validation of longitudinal measurement tools for monitoring liver function are of major interest. Aims To longitudinally evaluate serum cholinesterase (CHE) and total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels as non-invasive markers to determine injury- and partial hepatectomy (PHx)-induced alterations of liver function in rats. Methods Male and female Lewis rats were subjected to either methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet or treatment with FOLFOX chemotherapy prior to PHx. Body weight and CHE/TSB levels are determined weekly. Following PHx and at the study end, histological analyses of liver tissue are performed. Results Following MCD diet, but not after FOLFOX chemotherapy treatment, results indicate gender-specific alterations in serum CHE levels and gender-independent alterations in TSB levels. Likewise, histological analyses of resected liver parts indicate significant liver injury following MCD-diet, but not following FOLFOX treatment. While TSB levels rapidly recover following MCD diet/FOLFOX treatment combined with a PHx, serum CHE levels are subject to significant model- and gender-specific differences, despite full histopathological recovery of liver tissue. Conclusions Longitudinal measurements of serum CHE levels and TSB levels in rats are highly complementary as non-invasive parameters for evaluation of liver injury and/or recovery.

Boeykens, Nele; Ponsaerts, Peter; Ysebaert, Dirk; De Greef, Kathleen



The Predictive Value of Cystatin C in Monitoring of B Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: Relation to Biochemical and Clinical Parameters  

PubMed Central

The predictive value of cystatin C as a marker of course of the disease has been evaluated. Fifty-two pairs of serum samples of patients with B non-Hodgkin lymphoma have been collected at the time of diagnosis and before fourth cycle of chemotherapy. The levels of cystatin C, CRP, ?2M, LDH, and IL-6 in samples have been measured, and clinical parameters of course of the disease (B symptoms, clinical stage, patients' age, and IPI) have been noted. In total patient's group cystatin C levels correlated with ?2M and IPI. In aggressive lymphomas, the inhibitor levels correlated with clinical stage of disease and were significantly higher in patients with elevated LDH activity. In aggressive nodal lymphomas its levels correlated with ?2M, IPI, and clinical stage of disease. The cystatin C level was significantly increased in total group of patients over 60 years old, while in particular types of lymphoma, no statistical significance has been obtained. Our results indicate that cystatin C should be taken into consideration in disease monitoring. However, we expect that the disease-free and overall survival analysis will give the definitive answer about the reliability of cystatin C as an indicator of course of aggressive lymphomas.

Softic, A.; Begic, L.; Halilbasic, A.; Vizin, T.; Kos, J.



Effect of the telephone-delivered nutrition education on dietary intake and biochemical parameters in subjects with metabolic syndrome.  


As prevalence of metabolic syndrome has rapidly increased over the past decade, lifestyle changes including dietary habits are considered as a therapeutic cornerstone for metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular complications and type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered nutrition education to improve metabolic parameters compared with a single-visit with a dietitian in subjects with metabolic syndrome. A total of seventy-one adults who met diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to either the single-visit group or the in-depth nutrition education group during a 3-month intervention study period. The in-depth telephone-delivered nutrition education group had an initial visit with a dietitian and additional two telephone counseling during the first 4 weeks of the study periods. Sixty-six subjects completed a 3-month intervention study. The trial examined participant's anthropometric changes and dietary intakes as well as changes in the metabolic syndrome factors. At the end of the trial, the in-depth nutrition education group showed significantly higher reduction in weight, body fat and abdominal circumference compared with the other group (p < 0.05). In the in-depth nutrition groups, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was decreased to 45.5%, while 69.7% of the subjects were metabolic syndrome patients in the single-visit group (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the telephone-intervention counseling is a feasible mean to deliver dietary intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:23908978

Kim, Juyoung; Bea, Wookyung; Lee, Kiheon; Han, Jongsoo; Kim, Sohye; Kim, Misung; Na, Woori; Sohn, Cheongmin



The predictive value of cystatin C in monitoring of B non-hodgkin lymphomas: relation to biochemical and clinical parameters.  


The predictive value of cystatin C as a marker of course of the disease has been evaluated. Fifty-two pairs of serum samples of patients with B non-Hodgkin lymphoma have been collected at the time of diagnosis and before fourth cycle of chemotherapy. The levels of cystatin C, CRP, ? 2M, LDH, and IL-6 in samples have been measured, and clinical parameters of course of the disease (B symptoms, clinical stage, patients' age, and IPI) have been noted. In total patient's group cystatin C levels correlated with ? 2M and IPI. In aggressive lymphomas, the inhibitor levels correlated with clinical stage of disease and were significantly higher in patients with elevated LDH activity. In aggressive nodal lymphomas its levels correlated with ? 2M, IPI, and clinical stage of disease. The cystatin C level was significantly increased in total group of patients over 60 years old, while in particular types of lymphoma, no statistical significance has been obtained. Our results indicate that cystatin C should be taken into consideration in disease monitoring. However, we expect that the disease-free and overall survival analysis will give the definitive answer about the reliability of cystatin C as an indicator of course of aggressive lymphomas. PMID:24167744

Softi?, A; Begi?, L; Halilbaši?, A; Vižin, T; Kos, J



[Measurement and analysis of hematology and blood chemistry parameters in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)].  


The pig-tailed macaque is an important non-human primate experimental animal model that has been widely used in the research of AIDS and other diseases. Pig-tailed macaques include Mentawai macaques (Macaca pagensis), Sunda pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) and northern pig-tailed macaques (M. leonina). Northern pig-tailed macaques inhabit China and surrounding Southeast Asia countries. To our knowledge, no reports have been published regarding the hematology and blood chemistry parameters of northern pig-tailed macaques, which are important for the objective evaluation of experimental results. We measured and analyzed 18 hematology parameters and 13 blood chemistry parameters in juvenile (aged 2-4 years) and adult (aged 5-10 years) northern pig-tailed macaques. We found that red blood cells, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase values were lower in female macaques than male macaques in both juvenile and adult groups. White blood cells, lymphocyte, monocytes, platelet distribution width, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase values were higher in juvenile macaques than adult macaques, while creatinine and triglycerides values were lower in juvenile macaques. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and creatinine values were positively correlated with weight in juvenile groups. In adult groups, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, percentage of granulocyte, hemoglobin and creatinine were also positively correlated with weight, and lymphocyte, percentage of lymphocyte, red cell distribution width, aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol values were negatively correlated with weight. The results suggest that age, gender and weight of northern pig-tailed macaques affected their hematology and blood chemistry parameters. This hematological and blood chemistry study has great significance in biomedical research and animal models using northern pig-tailed macaque as an experimental animal. PMID:23572357

Pang, Wei; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Yun; Li, Gui; Huang, Dong-Ti; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zheng, Yong-Tang



Blood Flow Parameters of the Central Retinal and Internal Carotid Arteries in Asymmetric Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the correlation between diabetic retinopathy severity and blood flow parameters in the central retinal artery (CRA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods This comparative study included 40 eyes of 20 patients with asymmetric diabetic retinopathy. Twelve subjects had asymmetric diabetic macular edema while eight patients had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in one eye and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in the fellow eye. Bilateral color Doppler imaging (CDI) of the CRA and ICA was performed to determine resistance index (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV). RI and PSV values were compared between eyes with higher grades of macular edema (> 2 grades of difference with the fellow eye) and fellow eyes with less severe macular edema, as well as between eyes with PDR and fellow eyes with NPDR. Results Mean RI of the CRA in eyes with higher grades of macular edema was 0.78±0.11 as compared to 0.69±0.08 in fellow eyes with less severe macular edema (P=0.012), while PSV of the CRA was 58.83±18.93 cm/s in eyes with higher grades of macular edema versus 59.75±11.83 cm/s in fellow eyes with less severe macular edema (P=1.00). Mean PSV of the ICA was 55±23.94 cm/s in eyes with PDR and 69.25±34.30 cm/s in eyes with NPDR (P=0.008) while mean RI of the ICA was 0.81±0.13 in eyes with PDR and 0.76±0.12 in eyes with NPDR (P=1.00). Conclusion Evaluation of RI in the CRA and PSV in the ICA by CDI in diabetic patients may identify eyes at risk of more severe macular edema and PDR.

Mehdizadeh, Morteza; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Ghoddusi Johari, Hamed; Ghassemifar, Vahid; Afarid, Mehrdad



Combined effects of age and diet-induced obesity on biochemical parameters and cardiac energy metabolism in rats.  


Obesity is often associated with decreased fat oxidation and aging is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated calorimetric and morphometric parameters, as well as the glucose levels, lipid profile and cardiac energy metabolism in young and old, controls and obese rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Group I (GI): young rats fed normal diet for 75 days; Group II (GII): young rats fed hypercaloric diet (HD) for 75 days; Group III (GIII): old rats fed normal diet for 510 days; and Group IV (G IV): old rats fed HD for 510 days. The following analyses were performed: calorimetric, glucose and lipid concentrations, atherogenic index (AI), total antioxidant substances (TAS), fat depots, cardiac lipid hydroperoxide (LH) and cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities. Older animals were heavier than young and the hypercaloric animals were heavier than controls. Animals from GIV had lower fat oxidation than GIII, which in turn, had higher fat oxidation than GI. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and all fat depots were higher in the GII, as compared to GI. The GIV rats had higher VLDL, retroperitoneal fat, serum lipids and cardiac glycogen levels than GII. Furthermore, GIV rats had higher fat depots, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and VLDL than GIII. Animals from GII and -IV showed higher LH and AI than age-matched controls. Older hypercaloric rats also had higher TAS than older control rats, which also had lower LH and TAS than younger control rats. Aged animals had increased CS and LDH and decreased PFK and PDH activities. Additionally, GIV rats exhibited an increase in PDH activity, compared to GIII. We conclude that the consumption of HD coupled with aging leads to impaired basal and cardiac metabolism. PMID:23617073

Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida; Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira



A placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial using testosterone undecanoate with injectable norethisterone enanthate: effect on anthropometric, metabolic and biochemical parameters.  


Testosterone administered alone or in combination with progestogens in male contraception induces reversible oligo-azoospermia, but its effects on body composition and metabolism are less known. We analysed anthropometric and metabolic parameters in five groups of 10 males: four receiving testosterone undecanoate (TU: 1000 mg) plus norethisterone enanthate (NETE: 200 mg) at different intervals (every 8 weeks: NETE-8; every 12 weeks: NETE-12; every 6 weeks for 12 weeks and then every 12 weeks: NETE-6/12; every 6 weeks for 12 weeks and then TU plus placebo every 12 weeks: NETE-6/12/0) and one placebo (NETE-0/0) for a total of 48 weeks. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference did not change in any groups except for the NETE-8 in which BMI increased significantly (p = 0.02) at the end of the treatment period. Lean body mass (MAMC or AMA) increased significantly in the highest hormonal dose groups (p = 0.04, NETE-6/12; p = 0.004, NETE-8). No differences were observed in glucose levels, insulin sensitivity index and lipid profile as well as in biochemical and cell count parameters in any groups. In conclusion, NETE and TU for 48 weeks were not accompanied by any metabolic changes and any adverse effects. The weight gain of the highest NETE plus TU dosage was mainly because of gain in muscle mass. PMID:21087288

Pelusi, C; Costantino, A; Cerpolini, S; Pelusi, G; Meriggiola, M C; Pasquali, R



Comparative observations of fever and associated clinical hematological and blood biochemical changes after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and F (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) in goats.  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was undertaken to examine the characteristics of purified toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (staphylococcal enterotoxin F) given intravenously to dwarf goats (dose, 0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1). Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and hematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (dose, 0.02 to 0.5 micrograms kg-1). Similar changes such as fever, tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed. In contrast to the effects of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced colic, watery diarrhea with pseudomembranes, hemoconcentration, and a more pronounced increase in blood urea nitrogen. The results obtained demonstrate that (i) in the goat staphylococcal enterotoxin B is much more potent than toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and (ii) the goat is a useful model to study the gastro-intestinal effects caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The present finding that no clear relationship could be found between the temperature response and the alterations in zinc and iron levels in plasma support the theory that the febrile reactions and the changes in plasma trace metals are mediated by different polypeptides released by activated macrophages.

Van Miert, A S; Van Duin, C T; Schotman, A J



Effect of different iron loads on serum and tissue biochemical parameters and liver hepcidin mRNA abundance of neonatal piglets.  


Iron (Fe) is an essential and important trace element for animals. In order to study its metabolism and relationship with hepcidin, piglet models of Fe-deficiency and Fe-overload were established by intramuscular injection with different doses of Fe-dextran (150 mg Fe/ml) within 1 week of age. Twelve piglets were divided into three groups of four animals: deficiency, regular and overload group, receiving 0 ml, 1 ml and 6 ml Fe-dextran, respectively. The piglets were euthanised at the age of 7 days for analysis. The results showed that the Fe-concentrations in liver, spleen and serum of piglets in the overload group were higher than in the regular and deficiency groups (p < 0.05). In the overload group, several serum biochemical parameters, e.g. globulin, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase and xanthine oxidase were higher, while alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and triglycerides were lower, compared with the regular group (p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of AKP, total bilirubin and peroxidase in the deficiency group were lower, while HDL and GPx were higher, compared with the regular group (p < 0.05). Hepcidin mRNA abundance was 131 times lower in the liver of piglets with Fe-deficiency, and 7 times higher in the overloaded group than that in the regular group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Fe-overload and deficiency would influence Fe-metabolism, serum biochemical indexes, oxidation state and hepcidin mRNA abundance in piglet liver. PMID:22256677

Lia, Mengyun; Yin, Qingqiang; Dang, Xiaowei; Chang, Juan; Zuo, Ruiyu; Zheng, Qiuhong



Comparative analysis of the response of microcirculation parameters and blood pressure to geomagnetic activity in healthy people.  


We analyze the results of daily laser Doppler flowmetry monitoring of blood microcirculation parameters in 9 healthy volunteers performed in 2006-2009. Dependence of microcirculation and BP parameters on geomagnetic activity was analyzed separately in each volunteer (the influence of ambient temperature was previously excluded). Significantly increased parameters of microcirculation in response to higher geomagnetic activity were found in 4 volunteers (44%) and elevated BP in 1 volunteer; in other cases, no reaction was detected. It was shown that individual sensitivity to geomagnetic activity is proportional to its mean level during the period of measurement. Since blood perfusion volume in tissues directly depends on peripheral vascular resistance, we can conclude that under conditions of high geomagnetic activity microvascular tone varies to a greater extent than the tone of major vessels. PMID:22803096

Zenchenko, T A; Rekhtina, A G; Poskotinova, L V; Zaslavskaya, R M; Goncharov, L F



Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes  

PubMed Central

This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55?kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50?g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60?mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50?g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season.

El-Nour, Hayat H. M.; Nasr, Soad M.; Hassan, Walid R.



Effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on the hematological and biochemical parameters and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).  


The effect of dietary intake of Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharides (CVP) on the hematological and biochemical indices of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) was investigated. Fish were fed CVP supplemented diets (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CVP kg(-1)) for 56 days. The RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin content, ESR in blood and TP, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, CHO, TG, and BUN in serum were measured on day 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. After feeding of 56 days, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results indicated that feeding crucian carp with suitable dose of CVP enhanced the RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin and TP content, ALP activity, and decreased the ESR, ALT, AST, GLU, CHO, TG and BUN. There was no effect in fish at low dose (0.25 g kg(-1)). Unexpectedly, the higher CVP dose used here (2.0 and 4.0 g kg(-1)) has a negative effect in fish. The results of challenge experiment indicated that a moderate level of CVP in the diet (1.0 g kg(-1)) was the most effective to enhance the survival of fish after infected with A. hydrophila. In summary, the use of CVP, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defense of crucian carp providing resistance to pathogens. PMID:22791194

Wu, Zhi-xin; Pang, Su-feng; Chen, Xiao-xuan; Yu, Yan-mei; Zhou, Jin-min; Chen, Xi; Pang, Li-jiao



High-throughput multi-parameter flow-cytometric analysis from micro-quantities of plasmodium-infected blood.  


Despite significant technological and conceptual advances over the last century, evaluation of the efficacy of anti-malarial vaccines or drugs continues to rely principally on direct microscopic visualisation of parasites on thick and/or thin Giemsa-stained blood smears. This requires technical expertise of the microscopist, is highly subjective and error-prone, and does not account for aberrations such as anaemia. Many published methods have shown that flow cytometric analysis of blood is a highly versatile method that can readily detect nucleic acid-stained parasitised red blood cells within cultured cell populations and in ex-vivo samples. However several impediments, including the difficulty in distinguishing reticulocytes from infected red blood cells and the fickle nature of red blood cells, have precluded the development and universal adoption of flow-cytometric based assays for ex-vivo sample analysis. We have developed a novel high-throughput assay for the flow cytometric assessment of blood that overcomes these impediments by utilising the unique properties of the nucleic acid stain DAPI to differentially stain RNA and DNA, combined with novel fixation and analysis protocols. The assay allows the rapid and reliable analysis of multiple parameters from micro-volumes of blood, including: parasitaemia, platelet count, reticulocyte count, normocyte count, white blood cell count and delineation of subsets and phenotypic markers including, but not limited to, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and the expression of phenotypic markers such as PD-L1 or intracellular cytokines. The assay requires less than one drop of blood and is therefore suitable for short interval time-course experiments and allows the progression of infection and immune responses to be closely monitored in the laboratory or cytometer-equipped field locations. Herein, we describe the technique and demonstrate its application in vaccinology and with a range of rodent and human parasite species including Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:21907206

Apte, Simon H; Groves, Penny L; Roddick, Joanne S; P da Hora, Vanusa; Doolan, Denise L



Concerning the importance of changes in hemorheological parameters caused by acid-base and blood gas alterations in experimental surgical models.  


Acid-base equilibrium and pH of blood have important clinical consequences in numerous diseases and pathophysiological conditions. The micro-rheological parameters of blood, such as red blood cell deformability and red blood cell aggregation are influenced by several metabolic factors, and provide information regarding inflammatory, septic and tissue or organ ischemia-reperfusion processes. Despite the anticipated logical relation of the blood acid-base condition, blood gas parameters and pH to red blood cell deformability and aggregation, controversial data can be found in the literature. Furthermore, related to ischemia-reperfusion hemorheological studies little is known about this issue. In this paper we aimed to thought-provokingly overview some aspect of acid-base changes, blood pH and hemorheological parameters, discussing certain results from ischemia-reperfusion experimental surgical models (local versus systemic changes), laboratory technical and experimental design protocols related to in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:22240369

Nemeth, Norbert; Miko, Iren; Furka, Andrea; Kiss, Ferenc; Furka, Istvan; Koller, Akos; Szilasi, Maria



Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.  


A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6?°C for ??14?days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. PMID:23692154

Aak, A; Rukke, B A



[Influence of high environmental temperature on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy subjects and in thrombosis risk patients].  


The effects of environmental hyperthermia (exposure to a hot, dry microclimate) on the human body were investigated with particular reference to certain clotting parameters in healthy subjects and patients at risk of thrombosis. The study covered 70 volunteers, 10 of them clinically healthy (6 males and 4 females) aged 37.7 +/- 9.7 and 60 patients at risk of thrombosis aged 18-60 and divided according to pathology as follows: 26 with ischaemic cardiopathy, 22 with metabolic disorders (12 diabetics, 8 with dyslipidaemia, 2 with hyperuricaemia) and 12 with obliterating arteriopathies of the lower extremities (Fontaine stage 2 and 3). The following standardised protocol was adopted: 2 hours exposure in a controlled climate chamber (40 degrees C, 40-50% humidity, standard air speed 4 m/min, barometric pressure 760 mmHg) for a total of 8 exposures (2 per week for 1 month). This approach was adopted in order to assess not only the effect of each single exposure but also the role of any adaptation to heat. Three blood samples were taken from each subject for each session: the first in basal conditions in a comfortable environment, the second at the end of the 2 hour exposure; the third 30 minutes after the end of the session. Simultaneously samples of arterial blood were taken for pH assays and a spleen echography was performed in basal conditions and at the end of the session for each subject. Each blood sample was tested for several parameters essentially attributable to blood concentration for a broader view of the biological effects of exposure to heart (Ht, blood protein, Nat, K+). The clotting factors under specific study were also assessed (platelet count and volume, beta-thromboglobulin, PF4, von Willebrand Factor VIII, thromboxane B2, fibronectin). Body weight, blood pressure and oral temperature were also measured in all subjects before and after each session. In all subjects both healthy and at risk of thrombosis oral temperature increased (1 +/- 0.4 degrees); on average blood pressure was already higher in basal conditions in the patient group; body weight fell by 900 +/- 120 G in both groups. Ht and blood protein increased significantly in both groups while electrolyte changes were insignificant and blood pH showed a tendency towards acidosis. Clotting parameters revealed a tendency towards thrombophilia in all subjects: platelet count and volume were already higher in the patient group in basal conditions and increased after exposure to hyperthermia. Beta-thromboglobulin, FP4, Factor VIII, thromboxane B2 and fibronectin all increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3696444

Di Blasi, S; Pintacuda, S; Ferotti, N; Tranchina, G; Lo Coco, L; Di Fazio, L; Di Blasi, U; Morici, G; Tralongo, A; Fradà, G



Effects of Hemorrhagic Stress on Several Blood Parameters in Adult Rainbow Trout ('Salmo gairdneri').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blood was removed from ten adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on a sequential (7 days) weekly (4 weeks) and monthly (1 month) schedule and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein, acid phosphatase (AP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphoki...

M. A. Cairns A. R. Christian



Mathematical Modelling in Blood Coagulation; Simulation and Parameter Estimation. Modelling, Analysis and Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the mathematical modelling of a part of the blood coagulation mechanism. The model includes the activation of factor X by a purified enzyme from Russel's Viper Venom (RVV), factor V and prothrombin, and also comprises the inactivation...

W. J. H. Stortelder P. W. Hemker H. C. Hemker



The haematological, biochemical and immunological profile of athletes suffering from the overtraining syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help clarify the overtraining syndrome (OTS), a combination of parameters were measured in ten athletes who were suffering from OTS. Blood samples were obtained at rest and a range of haematological, biochemical and immunological tests were carried out on the samples. For each parameter, the mean value for the group was compared to an established normal range amongst age-matched

David G. Rowbottom; David Keast; Carmel Goodman; Alan R. Morton



Triose phosphate isomerase from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni: Biochemical characterisation of a potential drug and vaccine target.  


The glycolytic enzyme triose phosphate isomerase from Schistosoma mansoni is a potential target for drugs and vaccines. Molecular modelling of the enzyme predicted that a Ser-Ala-Asp motif which is believed to be a helminth-specific epitope is exposed. The enzyme is dimeric (as judged by gel filtration and cross-linking), resistant to proteolysis and highly stable to thermal denaturation (melting temperature of 82.0°C). The steady-state kinetic parameters are high (Km for dihydroxyacetone phosphate is 0.51mM; Km for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is 1.1mM; kcat for dihydroxyacetone phosphate is 7800s(-1) and kcat for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is 6.9s(-1)). PMID:24070897

Zinsser, Veronika L; Farnell, Edward; Dunne, David W; Timson, David J



Cuffless blood pressure estimation using only photoplethysmography based on cardiovascular parameters.  


This study provides cuffless blood pressure estimation. In general, blood pressure changes when the subject's condition changes, and it is important to estimate it continuously and noninvasively. In many previous studies, they used PTT (Pulse Transmission Time) for estimating. However, PTT needs both electrocardiogram and photoplethysmography to be measured. Our method needs only a finger type photoplethysmographic sensor for estimating. We use the features obtained only from photoplethysmography for estimating, instead of PTT obtained from electrocardiogram. The features used are accelerated plethysmography's waveform, Heart Rate Variability and the rate of photoplethysmography's drift. Blood pressure is modeled as the product of CO (Cardiac Output) and TPR (Total Peripheral Resistance) in general. Then, we estimated blood pressure as the product of eCO and eTPR estimated by proposed photoplethysmography's features with Stepwise multiple regression analysis. Therefore, our proposed method provides not only blood pressure, but also CO and TPR. As of result, we estimated blood pressure based on eCO and eTPR, and we obtained r = 0.71. Therefore, we could obtain the result closer to Finometer in accuracy. PMID:24110142

Fukushima, Hayato; Kawanaka, Haruki; Bhuiyan, Md Shoaib; Oguri, Koji



Influence of the quality and quantity of blood ingested on reproductive parameters and life-span in Triatoma infestans (Klug).  


In Triatominae, female fecundity and fertility may be affected by age, adult nutritional status (i.e., blood meal source and amount of blood ingested) and number of matings. Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas disease in southern South America and considering that reproductive success is intimately associated with the potential for colonizing or re-colonizing new ecotopes in endemic areas, we studied whether the blood meal source and the amount of blood ingested have influence on reproductive parameters. We constitute two groups: couples feeding regularly on guinea pigs and couples feeding regularly on pigeons. We registered quantity of blood ingested, fecundity, fertility, number of matings, days between the first feeding and mating, copula initiation, oviposition initiation and adult life-span. Results showed that females that fed on guinea pigs exhibited high fecundity and fertility, higher number of matings and they needed a lower amount of blood to form an egg. The number of matings and fecundity increased linearly and significantly with the quantity of blood ingested for both meal sources. Results from lineal regression between life-span and fecundity showed a positive and significant relation for both meal sources. The number of matings showed a positive relation with fecundity for both meal sources but significant only for guinea pigs. In T. infestans, the quantity of blood ingested could be a determinant of their reproductive efficiency. This species is mainly adapted to human dwelling and peridomestic structures where there is low host diversity. Considering that this species is in contact with mammals over other food sources, a greater reproductive success may result from an adaptation to this environment. PMID:21672510

Nattero, Julieta; Leonhard, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Claudia S; Crocco, Liliana



Effects of Supplemental Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Culture on Rumen Development, Growth Characteristics, and Blood Parameters in Neonatal Dairy Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture was added to a texturized calf starter at 0 (control), 1, or 2% of dry matter todetermine effects on intake,growth, blood parameters,and rumendevelopment. Seventy-fiveHol- stein calves (38 male; 37 female) were started on the experiment at 2 ± 1 d of age and were studied for 42 d. Starter intake was measured, and fecal scoring was

K. E. Lesmeister; A. J. Heinrichs; M. T. Gabler



Comparative analysis of blood plasma epidermal growth factor concentrations, hormonal profiles and semen parameters of fertile and infertile males.  


The relationship between male reproductive function and the blood plasma level of epidermal growth factor (EGF) is of interest in the light of the role that circulating EGF appears to play in regulating mouse spermatogenesis. We measured the concentrations of EGF in the blood plasma of 39 fertile men (sperm count > 20 x 10(6)/ml) and compared them with those of 31 infertile men (sperm < 20 x 10(6)/ml). Blood plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luiteinising hormone (LH), prolactin and testosterone were also determined. The infertile patients had mean blood plasma EGF concentrations of 0.75 +/- 0.10 ug/L. The value was significantly lower than that of the fertile group (1.28 +/- 0.14 ug/L; P < 0.005). There were statistically significant differences between the fertile and infertile groups in sperm count, sperm viability, mean forward progression, testosterone, LH and FSH (P values between 0.0001 and 0.023). There was no significant difference in the prolactin concentrations between the two groups. Although overall average blood plasma EGF concentrations are significantly lower in the infertile males, regression analysis failed to reveal any direct relationships among the various parameters studied. PMID:11379442

Adekunle, A O; Falase, E A; Ausmanus, M; Kopf, G S; Van-Arsdalen, K N; Teuscher, C



Zinc and copper-related blood parameters in male trauma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiologic stress depresses plasma zinc and elevates plasma copper, but effects on other zinc and copper related parameters are largely unknown. Therefore, several such parameters were investigated in 19 young, adult male trauma patients. Patients were studied 1 and 7 days after admission and compared to 21 aged matched male controls. At day 1, plasma zinc and zinc R-values (low

Hyojee Joung; Robert A. DiSilvestro; Jean C. Burge; Patricia S. Choban; Louis Flancbaum



Organohalogen contaminants and Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in three colonies of North Atlantic Great skua (Stercorarius skua).  


The present study compares blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) in birds from three geographically distinct North Atlantic Great skua (Stercorarius skua) colonies. Birds from these sites bioaccumulate different POP (persistent organic pollutant) concentrations and that enabled us to compare Great skua BCCPs in different exposure scenarios. Persistent organic pollutants (organochlorines: PCB, DDT, chlordanes, HCB, HCH, mirex and brominated flame retardants: PBDEs) and nineteen BCCPs were analysed in 114 adult Great skuas sampled during summer 2009 in North Atlantic colonies at Bjørnøya (n=42), Iceland (n=57) and Shetland (n=15). Specimens from Bjørnøya had the highest blood plasma concentrations of all contaminant groups followed by Iceland and Shetland birds, respectively (ANOVA: p<0.05). Most of the 19 BCCP parameters followed the pattern of colony differences found for contaminants, with Bjørnøya having the highest concentrations. However seven BCCPs, the three liver enzymes ALKP, ALAT and GGT as well as bile acids, cholesterol, sodium and potassium, did not differ between colonies (ANOVA: p>0.05). Therefore correlation analyses of these seven BCCPs vs. POPs were done on the combined colony data while the analyses of the remaining 12 BCCPs were carried out for each colony separately. The analyses of combined colony data showed that the blood plasma concentration of liver enzymes ALAT and GGT increased with increasing concentrations of ?PBDE and ?HCH, HCB and ?CHL, respectively (all Pearson's p<0.05). In Great skuas from Shetland, the important osmotic transport protein albumin increased with increasing concentrations of ?PCB and ?DDT, while total blood plasma protein increased with ?PCB, ?DDT, ?HCH and HCB concentrations (all Pearson's p<0.05). In both Bjørnøya and Iceland skuas, blood plasma pancreatic enzyme amylase decreased with increasing ?HCH concentrations while the erythrocyte waste product total bilirubin in blood plasma increased with increasing ?HCH and ?PBDE concentrations in Iceland Great skuas (all Pearson's p<0.05). In Bjørnøya birds, blood plasma urea from protein metabolism (reflects kidney function) increased with increasing ?PBDE concentrations (Pearson's p<0.05). Furthermore, a redundancy analysis showed that 10.6% of the variations in BCCPs could be explained by the variations in POP concentrations. Based on these results we suggest that liver and renal functions could be negatively affected by different POP compounds. It is, however, uncertain if the colony BCCP differences and their relationship to POP concentrations reflect health effects that could have an overall impact on the populations via reduced survival and reproduction parameters. PMID:23537726

Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Leat, Eliza H K; Bourgeon, Sophie; Borgå, Katrine; Strøm, Hallvard; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Petersen, Aevar; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Magnusdottir, Ellen; Bustnes, Jan O; Furness, Robert W; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads




EPA Science Inventory

Blood was removed from ten adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on a sequential (7 days) weekly (4 weeks) and monthly (1 month) schedule and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein, acid phosphatase (AP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Of the parame...


Time Courses of Endurance Performance Parameters Following 500 ml Blood Withdrawal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Before and after a 500 ml reduction in blood volume 14 healthy subjects (7 male, 7 female, 20 to 30 years) took part in a series of bicycle ergometer tests in upright body position. Tests were performed 1 week before, 2 hours after volume reduction (no fl...

K. Baum U. Hoffmann D. Essfeld J. P. Stegemann



Hemodynamic Parameters in Blood Vessels in Choroidal Melanoma Xenografts and Rat Choroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary ocular cancer among the adult population. To avoid enucle- ation, there has been a concerted effort to develop therapies that spare the affected eye and the patient's vision. Blood flow helps shape the tumor's microenvironment, plays a key role in the tumor's response to many different types of therapy, and is necessary

Rod D. Braun; Asad Abbas; S. Omar Bukhari; Willie Wilson



In vitro parameters of cryopreserved leucodepleted and non-leucodepleted red blood cells collected by apheresis or from whole blood and stored in AS-3 for 21 days after thawing.  


BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro quality of cryopreserved red blood cells obtained from different sources with or without leucodepletion and stored at 4±2 °C in AS-3 for up to 21 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Red blood cells were collected by four methods: double erythrocytapheresis, whole blood collection with buffy coat removal, double erythrocytapheresis with in-line leucofiltration, or whole blood collection with in-line leucofiltration. All four types of red blood cells were frozen in 40% glycerol after collection and stored at a temperature below -65 °C for at least 30 days, thawed, deglycerolised and subsequently reconstituted in AS-3. The in vitro haematological and biochemical properties of the thawed red blood cells were tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 after deglycerolisation and reconstitution. RESULTS: Overall, 72 units were processed. Leucodepletion of cryopreserved red blood cells units reduced haemolysis, lowered ammonia concentration, preserved pH and osmolality and led to sustained higher concentrations of ATP. In contrast, the source of red blood cells (apheresis or whole blood) did not affect their quality. DISCUSSION: The quality of all investigated red blood cells units was the same as or even better than that of erythrocytes obtained from double erythrocytapheresis with a 24-hour survival of at least 86% after up to 3 weeks of storage in AS-3. PMID:23399365

Bohon?k, Miloš; Petráš, Marek; Turek, Ivo; Urbanová, Jaroslava; Hrádek, Tomáš; Staropražská, V?ra; Koští?ová, Jitka; Hor?i?ková, Dana; Duchková, Simona



Role of sudarshan kriya and pranayam on lipid profile and blood cell parameters during exam stress: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Yoga is a science practiced in India over thousands of years. It produces constituent physiological changes and has sound scientific basis. Aim: Since exam stress modifies lipid profile and hematological parameters, we conducted an investigation on the effect of sudarshan kriya (SK and P) program on these parameters. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 43 engineering students were collected at four intervals namely baseline (BL), exam stress (ES), three and six weeks practice of SK and P during exam stress. Lipid profile and hematological parameters were measured at all four intervals. Results: ES elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Hematological parameters affected by ES included neutrophil, lymphocytes, platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV) and mean cell volume (MCV). Three and six weeks practice of SK and P reduced the elevated lipid profile, hematological parameters and improved lymphocyte levels. Conclusion: Our study indicates that SK and P practice has the potential to overcome ES by improving lipid profile and hematological parameters.

Subramanian, Swapna; Elango, Tamilselvi; Malligarjunan, Hemamalini; Kochupillai, Vinod; Dayalan, Haripriya



Response of animals to dietary gramine. I. Performance and selected hematological, biochemical and histological parameters in growing chicken, rats and pigs.  


The effects of feeding varied levels of low- and high-gramine yellow lupin seeds (LG and HG, respectively), and of synthetic gramine added to the diets in amounts ranging from 0.15 to 1.2 g per kg were investigated in one experiment on growing chicken and in two experiments on growing rats. The comparison of LG and HG lupin and the effect of 0.5 g gramine per kg of LG diet were determined in a growth-balance experiment with pigs. Organ weights and histology, blood parameters and activity of liver enzymes were determined. The response to HG lupin and gramine concentration varied among the species, the rats being more affected than chicken; no adverse effects of HG lupin or gramine were found in growing pigs. The common reaction of rats and chicken to the high levels of gramine (native or synthetic) was the decrease of feed intake and body gain. The increase of the relative weight of liver or kidney, changes in hematological parameters and liver enzymes were found only in rats. The estimated NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) of gramine was about 0.3 g/kg diet for rats, 0.65 g for chicken and at least 0.5 g for growing pigs. PMID:11901976

Pastuszewska, B; Smulikowska, S; Wasilewko, J; Buraczewska, L; Ochtabi?ska, A; Mieczkowska, A; Lechowski, R; Bielecki, W



Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway.  


Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled data showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), glucose and creatinine were significantly negatively correlated to various OHCs (all: p<0.05; r: -0.43 to -0.55; n=23), while alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), total protein, cholesterol, uric acid, total bilirubin, ratios protein:creatinine and uric acid:creatinine were significantly positively correlated to various OHCs (all: p<0.05; r: 0.43-0.96). Based on these relationships, we suggest that the OHC concentrations found in certain raptor chicks of Northern Scandinavia may impact blood plasma biochemistry in a way that indicates impacts on liver, kidney, bone, endocrinology and metabolism. In order to elaborate further on these relationships and mechanisms, we recommend that a larger study should take place in the near future. PMID:19800686

Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Eulaers, Igor; Eens, Marcel; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Einar Erikstad, Kjell; Johnsen, Trond; Schnug, Lisbeth; Rigét, Frank F; Jensen, Asger L



Effect of Endothelin and BQ123 on Ocular Blood Flow Parameters in Healthy Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To characterize the role of the endothelin system in the blood flow control of the optic nerve head and of the choroid in humans. METHODS. Two studies were performed in healthy subjects. Study 1 was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, balanced, two-way crossover design and study 2 a three way- way crossover design. In study 1 twelve healthy male subjects

Kaija Polak; Vanessa Petternel; Alexandra Luksch; Joachim Krohn; Oliver Findl; Elzbieta Polska; Leopold Schmetterer


[The effects of nifedipine and captopril on blood pressure, clinical chemical parameters and general health].  


The anti-hypertensive effects of slowly absorbable nifedipin in doses of 20-40 mg twice daily and 25-50 mg captopril twice daily were investigated in a randomized cross-over trial on 19 patients with slight to moderate hypertension. Both of these preparations caused significant reduction in the diastolic blood pressure (BT) measured two and 12 hours after the last dose. Nifedipin caused 5% reduction of the diastolic blood pressure measured 12 hours after the last dose more frequently than did captopril. Where both preparations were concerned, the blood pressure measured two hours after the last intake of medicine was significantly lower than after 12 hours. Neither of the two anti-hypertensive preparations resulted in changes in the clinical-chemical variables measured here. No changes in weight of over 5% were observed. Treatment with nifedipin frequently resulted in headache and flushing during the first days of treatment. Three of the patients did not wish to continue nifedipin treatment and one did not wish to continue captopril treatment after the period of observation. Six patients experienced considerably improved general health during captopril treatment and three during nifedipin as compared with their condition prior to treatment. PMID:2405556

Birkebaek, N H; Vejby-Christensen, H



Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns.  


Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19-25, 26-30 and 31-38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 ?g/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 ?g/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 ?g/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. PMID:23938449

Kozikowska, Iwona; Binkowski, Lukasz J; Szczepa?ska, Katarzyna; S?awska, Helena; Miszczuk, Katarzyna; Sliwi?ska, Magdalena; Laciak, Tomasz; Stawarz, Robert



Evaluation of Blood Pressure Control using a New Arterial Stiffness Parameter, Cardio-ankle Vascular Index (CAVI)  

PubMed Central

Arterial stiffness has been known to be a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also of vascular function. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) had been the most popular index and was known to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. But, it depends on blood pressure at measuring time. To overcome this problem, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed. CAVI is derived from stiffness parameter ? by Hayashi, and the equation of Bramwell-Hill, and is independent from blood pressure at a measuring time. Then, CAVI might reflect the proper change of arterial wall by antihypertensive agents. CAVI shows high value with aging and in many arteriosclerotic diseases and is also high in persons with main coronary risk factors. Furthermore, CAVI is decreased by an administration of ?1 blocker, doxazosin for 2-4 hours, Those results suggested that CAVI reflected the arterial stiffness composed of organic components and of smooth muscle cell contracture. Angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan decreased CAVI much more than that of calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, even though the rates of decreased blood pressure were almost same. CAVI might differentiate the blood pressure-lowering agents from the point of the effects on proper arterial stiffness. This paper reviewed the principle and rationale of CAVI, and the possibilities of clinical applications, especially in the studies of hypertension.

Shirai, Kohji; Utino, Junji; Saiki, Atsuhito; Endo, Kei; Ohira, Masahiro; Nagayama, Daiji; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mao; Takahara, Akira



The possible effect of diets containing Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris on blood parameters and some organs structure in rabbit.  


Because of the increasing cost of animal feed ingredients as well as the high demand, especially for the protein supplements, several efforts were carried out to use untraditional feed protein ingredients to participate in facing feed shortage problem and at the same time to decrease feeding costs. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Thymus vulgaris are the most famous medical plants that have attracted the attention of many investigators for long time. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of a partial replacement of soybean meal in control diet by Nigella sativa and/or Thymus vulgaris on the possible harmful changes in histological structure of some organs and blood parameters in growing New Zealand White rabbits. Blood constituents showed that the percentages of hemoglobin, hematocrate, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and white blood cells (WBCs) count were significantly increased with the presence of black cumin seeds in the diets while WBCs count and the mean corpuscular volume in rabbit blood tends to decrease in Thymus vulgaris diets. Feeding diet supplemented with Nigella sativa increased the plasma total proteins, albumin, globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides. The use of Nigella sativa alone or either mixture with Thymus vulgaris are good supplements for growing rabbits without any adverse effect on histological structure of liver, kidney and testis in rabbits. PMID:20823051

Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; El-Atrsh, Efaf



Immunological Parameters of the Blood and Monoamine Content in the Brain of Rats during Long-Term Overcrowding.  


Blood immunological parameters (cytokine profile and interferon status) and the level of monoamines and their metabolites in various brain structures (amygdala, hippocampus, septum, and hypothalamus) were studied in rats kept under standard conditions or in overpopulated cages. Long-term overcrowding was associated with reduced expression of IL-4 gene, increased transcription of IL-17, and decreased production of IFN-?, which attested to impaired humoral and cell-mediated immunity and disturbances in IFN-? synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. Under these conditions, the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine decreased in the septum, but increased in the hypothalamus. The amount of dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid decreased in both these structures, and the index of dopamine metabolism (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio, DOPAC/dopamine) decreased only in the hypothalamus. Overcrowding was not followed by changes in the parameters of noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems in the amygdala and hippocampus and serotoninergic system in all study structures. PMID:24143371

Loseva, E V; Loginova, N A; Mezentseva, M V; Klodt, P M; Kudrin, V S



Effects of sleep and sleep deprivation on blood cell count and hemostasis parameters in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on hematologic parameters. Methods Ten healthy subjects (5 Men, 5 Women, 19–23 years old) were studied from 07:00 on day 1 until 07:00 on day 3 and allowed\\u000a to have normal sleep during night 1 (providing control data) followed by staying awake from 07:00 h on day

Hui Liu; Gege Wang; Guihong Luan; Qigui Liu



Changes in Blood Parameters and the Expression of Coagulation-Related Genes in Lactating Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

This study measured blood parameters, particularly those related to coagulation, and alterations in the expression levels of blood-coagulation–related genes in lactating Sprague–Dawley rats. The day of delivery was designated as lactation day 0 (LD 0). On the day after delivery (LD 1), prothrombin time and overall activity of vitamin-K–dependent coagulation factors were decreased, whereas fibrinogen contents, platelet counts and antithrombin III concentrations were increased as compared with those in nonpregnant rats. In addition, hepatic expression of blood-coagulation–related genes in the liver was increased at LD 0 as compared with that in nonpregnant rats. These changes may be physiologic responses to prevent prolonged bleeding at delivery. Except for fibrinogen content, which remained elevated, the described changes returned to baseline on and after LD 7. Activities of AST, ALT, and ALP were increased on LD 7, 14, and 21 as compared with nonpregnant rats. In contrast, total protein, albumin, Cl, and Ca were consistently lower on LD 7, 14, or 21 as compared with levels in nonpregnant rats. These results provide background data for evaluation of nursing rats.

Urasoko, Yoshinaka; He, Xi Jun; Masao, Takano; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Edamoto, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Asano, Yuzo; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Mochizuki, Masahiro



Effects of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture on rumen development, growth characteristics, and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves.  


Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture was added to a texturized calf starter at 0 (control), 1, or 2% of dry matter to determine effects on intake, growth, blood parameters, and rumen development. Seventy-five Holstein calves (38 male; 37 female) were started on the experiment at 2 +/- 1 d of age and were studied for 42 d. Starter intake was measured, and fecal scoring was conducted daily. Growth and blood parameter measurements were recorded at weekly intervals. A subset of 6 male calves (2 per treatment) was euthanized at 5 wk of age, and rumen tissue was sampled for rumen epithelial growth measurements. An additional 6 male calves were euthanized at 6 wk of age for rumen epithelial growth measurements. Inclusion of yeast culture at 2% of the starter ration significantly increased starter and total dry matter intake, average daily gain, and daily hip width change when compared with the control treatment. Average daily gain was improved by 15.6% for the 2% yeast treatment. Daily change in hip height was also significantly greater for calves receiving 2% supplemental yeast culture than for calves receiving 1%. No significant treatment differences were observed for any other variables. These data suggest that the addition of yeast culture in a dairy calf starter at 2% enhances dry matter intake and growth and slightly improves rumen development in dairy calves. PMID:15453499

Lesmeister, K E; Heinrichs, A J; Gabler, M T



[Biochemical characteristics of skeletal tumors].  


Tissues of 38 varieties of human skeletal tumors were studied by a complex of biochemical assays. It was found that such biochemical parameter as concentration of connective tissue components points to the degree of malignancy. The peculiarities of biochemical characteristics of skeletal tumors are of importance in differential diagnosis and may be used in the examination of tissue specimens obtained by biopsy or during surgery. PMID:7064409

Slutski?, L I; Sosaar, V B; Amelin, A Z; Vantsevich, L M



The influence of surgical treatment and red blood cell transfusion on changes in antioxidative and immune system parameters in colorectal cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Objective. To determine the effect of surgical treatment and red blood cell transfusion on the parameters of antioxidative and immune systems in patients with early and advanced stage colorectal cancer. Material and methods. A total of 65 patients with colorectal cancer were included in the study. Three blood serum samples of each patient were tested comparing presurgical and postsurgical

Eugenijus Stratilatovas



Milk composition of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): nutritional effects and correlation to corresponding blood parameters.  


This study has been conducted in order to study the possible correlations between the nutritional value of plants selected by camels during the dry and green season and the corresponding blood and milk composition of the dromedary camels. The study has been conducted on 50 indigenous Arabian camels of different age and kept under natural range in Southern Darfur. The dromedary camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher crude protein content during the dry season and kept the serum albumin concentration and milk protein content at the same levels as those observed during the green season. However, the significantly (p<0.05) higher lipogenic content (ether extract + crude fiber) of the plant selected during the dry season resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher serum triacylglycerides concentration and significantly (p<0.05) higher milk fat content compared to that of the green season. Although, the camels selected plants with significantly (p<0.05) higher nitrogen free extract content during the dry season, the plasma glucose level and the milk lactose content were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared to that of the green season. The significantly (p<0.05) lower ach content of the plants selected during the dry season resulted in significantly lower serum calcium + phosphorus concentration, but did not reflect on the ash content of the milk. The results indicate that despite camels selectivity and unique adaptation to arid conditions, the milk lactose-and fat content were affected by the nutritional scarcity during the dry season. Therefore, it could be beneficial to provide energy-rich feed supplemented with calcium and phosphorus to camels kept under dry tropical conditions. PMID:19070090

Abdoun, Khalid A; Amin, Alia S A; Abdelatif, Abdalla M



Alterations in arterial blood parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.  


In cirrhotic patients, in addition to hepatocytes and Kuppfer cells dysfunction circulatory anatomic shunt and ventilation/perfusion (V(A)/ Q) ratio abnormalities can induce decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO(2)), in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO(2)) as well as various acid-base disturbances. We studied 49 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) with ascites compared to 50 normal controls. Causes were: posthepatic 37 (75.51%), alcoholic 7 (14.24%), cardiac 2 (4.08%), and cryptogenic 3 (6.12%). Complications were: upper gastrointestinal bleeding 24 (48.97), hepatic encephalopathy 20 (40.81%), gastritis 28 (57.14%), hepatoma 5 (10.2%), renal hepatic syndrome 2 (4.01%), HbsAg (+) 24 (48.97%), and hepatic pleural effusions 7 (14.28%). Average PaO(2) and SaO(2) were 75.2 mmHg and 94.5 mmHg, respectively, compared to 94.2 mmHg and 97.1 mmHg of the control group, respectively (p value in both PaO(2) and SaO(2 )was p<0.01). Respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis were acid-base disturbances observed. In conclusion, portopulmonary shunt, intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt and V(A)/Q inequality can induce a decrease in PaO(2) and SaO(2) as well as various acid-base disturbances. As a result, pulmonary resistance is impaired and patients more likely succumb to infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:17396160

Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschos, Dimitrios; Zoganas, Leonidas; Bablekos, George; Golias, Christos; Charalabopoulos, Alexander; Stagikas, Dimitrios; Karakosta, Angi; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Karachalios, George; Batistatou, Anna



Alterations in Arterial Blood Parameters in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Ascites  

PubMed Central

In cirrhotic patients, in addition to hepatocytes and Kuppfer cells dysfunction circulatory anatomic shunt and ventilation/perfusion (VA/ Q) ratio abnormalities can induce decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) as well as various acid-base disturbances. We studied 49 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) with ascites compared to 50 normal controls. Causes were: posthepatic 37 (75.51%), alcoholic 7 (14.24%), cardiac 2 (4.08%), and cryptogenic 3 (6.12%). Complications were: upper gastrointestinal bleeding 24 (48.97), hepatic encephalopathy 20 (40.81%), gastritis 28 (57.14%), hepatoma 5 (10.2%), renal hepatic syndrome 2 (4.01%), HbsAg (+) 24 (48.97%), and hepatic pleural effusions 7 (14.28%). Average PaO2 and SaO2 were 75.2 mmHg and 94.5 mmHg, respectively, compared to 94.2 mmHg and 97.1 mmHg of the control group, respectively (p value in both PaO2 and SaO2 was p<0.01). Respiratory alkalosis, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis were acid-base disturbances observed. In conclusion, portopulmonary shunt, intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt and VA/Q inequality can induce a decrease in PaO2 and SaO2 as well as various acid-base disturbances. As a result, pulmonary resistance is impaired and patients more likely succumb to infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschos, Dimitrios; Zoganas, Leonidas; Bablekos, George; Golias, Christos; Charalabopoulos, Alexander; Stagikas, Dimitrios; Karakosta, Angi; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Karachalios, George; Batistatou, Anna



Feeding heat-treated colostrum to neonatal dairy heifers: effects on growth characteristics and blood parameters.  


Newborn Holstein heifer calves were studied to compare absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG(1) and IgG(2)), total serum protein concentration, lymphocyte counts, health scores, growth, and starter intake after receiving unheated or heat-treated colostrum. First-milking colostrum was collected from Holstein cows and frozen at -20 degrees C to accumulate a large batch. After thawing and mixing, half of the colostrum was transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers and frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. The remaining half was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, transferred into 1.89-L plastic containers, and then frozen at -20 degrees C until needed for feeding. Forty heifer calves weighing > or =32 kg at birth were enrolled into 1 of 2 treatment groups before suckling occurred. For the first feeding, 3.8 L of colostrum was bottle fed by 1.5 to 2 h of age. For the second and third feedings, pasteurized whole milk at 5% of birth body weight (BW) was fed. Subsequently, calves received milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 10% of birth BW/d until wk 5. Milk replacer was reduced to 1 feeding of 5% birth BW until weaning at 6 wk of age. Blood samples and growth data were collected through wk 8. Batch heat-treatment of colostrum at 60 degrees C for 30 min lowered colostrum bacteria concentration while maintaining colostral IgG concentration and viscosity. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum had significantly greater IgG concentrations at 24 h and greater apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (IgG = 23.4 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 33.2%) compared with calves fed unheated colostrum (IgG = 19.6 g/L; apparent efficiency of absorption = 27.7%). There was no difference between treatment groups in growth measurements, calf starter intake, lymphocyte counts, or health scores. PMID:19528603

Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Heinrichs, A J



Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure parameters of hypertensive patients with and without chronic kidney disease.  


There is strong association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increased prevalence of hypertension, risk of end-organ damage, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Non-dipping, as determined by ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM), is frequent in CKD and has also been consistently associated with increased CVD risk. The reported prevalence of non-dipping in CKD is highly variable, probably due to relatively small sample sizes, reliance only on a single, low-reproducibility, 24-h ABPM evaluation per participant, and definition of daytime and nighttime periods by arbitrary fixed clock-hour spans. Accordingly, we assessed the circadian BP pattern of patients with and without CKD by 48-h ABPM to increase reproducibility of the results. This cross-sectional study involved 10 271 hypertensive patients (5506 men/4765 women), 58.0?±?14.2 (mean?±?SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project. Among the participants, 3227 (1925 men/1302 women) had CKD. At the time of recruitment, 568/2234 patients with/without CKD were untreated for hypertension. Patients with than without CKD were more likely to be men and of older age, have diagnoses of obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and/or obesity, plus have higher glucose, creatinine, uric acid, and triglyceride, but lower cholesterol, concentrations. In patients with CKD, ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) was significantly elevated (p??awake SBP mean (17.6% vs. 7.1% in patients with and without CKD, respectively; p?

Mojón, Artemio; Ayala, Diana E; Piñeiro, Luis; Otero, Alfonso; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Bóveda, Julia; de Lis, Jesús Pérez; Fernández, José R; Hermida, Ramón C




EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluated the effect of sulfuric acid aerosol exposure for 2 consecutive days on seven human biochemical blood parameters. A total of 20 human subjects were exposed to 100 micrograms per cu. m. sulfuric acid aerosol for 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. A total of 17 hum...



EPA Science Inventory

A total of 18 human subjects were exposed to ambient air for four hours on the first day of exposure and to four hours of 100 micrograms/cu. m. (0.033 micromole) sulfuric acid aerosol exposed to four hours of ambient air on both exposure days. Six biochemical blood parameters wer...


Preliminary studies on Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Berg.) and Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. aqueous extract: weight control and biochemical parameters.  


An infusion of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves (Guabiroba) and the herb Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. (Lythraceae) (Sete-sangrias) is traditionally used in the South of Brazil to treat high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effects of the aqueous extracts of these herbs were investigated in rats fed on a high calorie diet. Chronic treatment with the Guabiroba aqueous extract induced a significant reduction in weight gain in the rats, compared to the control group. Also, biochemical analysis showed that this treatment reduced the glycemia, while no effects on lipidic levels were observed. The biochemical analysis of the animals treated with Sete-sangrias aqueous extract showed no effect on glucose and triglyceride levels, while chronic treatment with the Sete-sangrias aqueous extract induced a significant reduction in plasma cholesterol in rats. PMID:15234782

Biavatti, M W; Farias, C; Curtius, F; Brasil, L M; Hort, S; Schuster, L; Leite, S N; Prado, S R T



Integrated assessment of water quality of the Costa da Morte (Galicia, NW Spain) by means of mussel chemical, biochemical and physiological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess environmental quality at some of the sites most severely affected by the Prestige oil spill off 2 years after the spillage (April and November 2004). For this purpose analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons\\u000a (PAH) and several biochemical (antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase\\u000a and DT-diaphorase and lipid peroxidation) and physiological

Beatriz Fernández; Marina Albentosa; Lucía Viñas; Angeles Franco; Juan J. González; Juan A. Campillo



The effect of NeOpuntia on blood lipid parameters--risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (syndrome X).  


Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X) causes millions of cardiovascular complications and premature deaths every year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NeOpuntia, patented, dehydrated, Opuntia ficus-indica leaves, on blood lipid parameters and metabolic syndrome. Opuntia ficus-indica leaves are traditionally consumed as a vegetable. Participants in this monocentric, randomized, placebocontrolled, double-blind, 6-wk study were 68 women, ages 20 to 55 y, with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index between 25 and 40. Fifty-nine subjects completed the study according to the study plan. All volunteers followed wellbalanced diets with controlled lipid input. NeOpuntia or placebo capsules were taken at a dosage of 1.6 g per meal. All 5 syndrome X criteria were measured on days 0, 14, and 42, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels. For the 42 females above 45 y of age, we show a significant increase in HDL-C levels with NeOpuntia and a tendency toward decreased triglyceride levels. At the same time, there was a decrease in HDL-C levels with placebo. Overall, for the entire study population, similar but less pronounced tendencies were demonstrated. Forty-two females taking NeOpuntia with no additional hypolipemic treatment, had a pronounced reduction in LDL cholesterol, especially after day 14. At the study end, 39% of the NeOpuntia group, but only 8% of the placebo group, were no longer diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Our results indicate an advantage of using NeOpuntia in dietary supplements and functional foods because of improvement of blood lipid parameters associated with cardiovascular risks. PMID:18029338

Linarès, Elodie; Thimonier, Catherine; Degre, Michel


Association between Central Obesity and Circadian Parameters of Blood Pressure from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry: Kor-ABP Registry  

PubMed Central

Central obesity has been reported as a risk for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. The influence of central obesity on diurnal blood pressure (BP) has not been established. In this study, we investigated the influence of central obesity on the circadian parameters of BP by 24 hr ambulatory BP monitoring. Total 1,290 subjects were enrolled from the Korean Ambulatory BP registry. Central obesity was defined as having a waist circumference?90 cm in males and ?85 cm in females. The central-obese group had higher daytime systolic BP (SBP), nighttime SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) than the non-obese group (all, P<0.001). There were no differences in nocturnal dipping (ND) patterns between the groups. Female participants showed a higher BP mean difference (MD) than male participants with concerns of central obesity (daytime SBP MD 5.28 vs 4.27, nighttime SBP MD 6.48 vs 2.72) and wider pulse pressure (PP). Central obesity within the elderly (?65 yr) also showed a higher BP MD than within the younger group (daytime SBP MD 8.23 vs 3.87, daytime DBP 4.10 vs 1.59). In conclusion, central obesity has no influence on nocturnal dipping patterns. However, higher SBP and wider PP are associated with central obesity, which is accentuated in women.

Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja



Normal hematologic and serum biochemical values of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).  


We obtained whole-blood hematologic and serum biochemical values from 38 captive-bred cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Data were analyzed to determine the effect of sex on blood parameters. Significant differences between either the means or medians of male and female tamarins were found for creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC count, and PCV. These results establish baseline hematologic and serum biochemical values and provide a useful resource not previously available in the peer-reviewed literature for the clinical care of cotton-top tamarins, a critically endangered New World primate, in a captive setting. PMID:22776113

Shukan, Evan T; Boe, Carla Y; Hasenfus, Aimee V; Pieper, Bridget A; Snowdon, Charles T



Normal Hematologic and Serum Biochemical Values of Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)  

PubMed Central

We obtained whole-blood hematologic and serum biochemical values from 38 captive-bred cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Data were analyzed to determine the effect of sex on blood parameters. Significant differences between either the means or medians of male and female tamarins were found for creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC count, and PCV. These results establish baseline hematologic and serum biochemical values and provide a useful resource not previously available in the peer-reviewed literature for the clinical care of cotton-top tamarins, a critically endangered New World primate, in a captive setting.

Shukan, Evan T; Boe, Carla Y; Hasenfus, Aimee V; Pieper, Bridget A; Snowdon, Charles T



In silico prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation using the calculated molecular cross-sectional area as main parameter.  


The cross-sectional area, AD, of a compound oriented in an amphiphilic gradient such as the air-water or lipid-water interface has previously been shown to be crucial for membrane partitioning and permeation, respectively. Here, we developed an algorithm that determines the molecular axis of amphiphilicity and the cross-sectional area, ADcalc, perpendicular to this axis. Starting from the conformational ensemble of each molecule, the three-dimensional conformation selected as the membrane-binding conformation was the one with the smallest cross-sectional area, ADcalcM, and the strongest amphiphilicity. The calculated, ADcalcM, and the measured, AD, cross-sectional areas correlated linearly (n=55, slope, m=1.04, determination coefficient, r2=0.95). The calculated cross-sectional areas, ADcalcM, were then used together with the calculated octanol-water distribution coefficients, log D7.4, of the 55 compounds (with a known ability to permeate the blood-brain barrier) to establish a calibration diagram for the prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation. It yielded a limiting cross-sectional area (ADcalcM=70 A2) and an optimal range of octanol-water distribution coefficients (-1.4blood-brain barrier, yielding a prediction accuracy of 86%. The incorrectly predicted compounds exhibited log D7.4 values comprised between -0.6 and -1.4, suggesting that the limitation for log D7.4 is less rigorous than the limitation for AD. An accuracy of 83% has been obtained for a second validation set of 42 compounds which were previously shown to be difficult to predict. The calculated parameters, ADcalcM and log D7.4, thus allow for a fast and accurate prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation. Analogous calibration diagrams can be established for other membrane barriers. PMID:17125204

Gerebtzoff, Grégori; Seelig, Anna


Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: part I. Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organs development.  


Daidzein, an estrogen-like product, becomes increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals seeking a safe natural alternative to play a role of estrogen. However, there is little available safety data of it for raisers and consumers. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if the high-dose daidzein could affect the safety of hens selves, including laying performance, clinical blood parameters and organs development. Seven hundred and sixty-eight 56-week-old Hyline Brown were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 replicates of 24 birds each and 3weeks later fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg of daidzein/kg for 12weeks. The mortality was significantly decreased (P<0.05). No treatment related adverse clinical signs were observed. Mean egg production, egg mass and feed conversion of whole experiment period was significantly influenced by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05), showing significant quadratic response to increasing dietary daidzein supplement (P=0.029, P=0.003 and P=0.019, respectively). There was no statistically significant changes in haematology (P>0.05). In clinical chemistry parameters, total protein, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus were significantly affected by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be 50mg/kg. PMID:23391597

Shi, S R; Gu, H; Chang, L L; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M



Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats.  


Effects of electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones (MPs) on heart is one of the research interests. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from third-generation (3G) MP on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and ECG parameters and also to investigate whether exogenous melatonin can exert any protective effect on these parameters. In this study 36 rats were randomized and evenly categorized into 4 groups: group 1 (3G-EMR exposed); group 2 (3G-EMR exposed + melatonin); group 3 (control) and group 4 (control + melatonin). The rats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 3G-specific MP's EMR for 20 days (40 min/day; 20 min active (speech position) and 20 min passive (listening position)). Group 2 was also administered with melatonin for 20 days (5 mg/kg daily during the experimental period). ECG signals were recorded from cannulated carotid artery both before and after the experiment, and BP and HR were calculated on 1st, 3rd and 5th min of recordings. ECG signals were processed and statistically evaluated. In our experience, the obtained results did not show significant differences in the BP, HR and ECG parameters among the groups both before and after the experiment. Melatonin, also, did not exhibit any additional effects, neither beneficial nor hazardous, on the heart hemodynamics of rats. Therefore, the strategy (noncontact) of using a 3G MP could be the reason for ineffectiveness; and use of 3G MP, in this perspective, seems to be safer compared to the ones used in close contact with the head. However, further study is needed for standardization of such an assumption. PMID:21996712

Colak, Cengiz; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermis, Necip; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Colak, Cemil; Sarihan, Ediz; Dilek, Omer Faruk; Turan, Bahadir; Bakir, Sevtap; Acet, Ahmet



Comparison between human and porcine thromboelastograph parameters in response to ex-vivo changes to platelets, plasma, and red blood cells.  


In the acute care setting, both the tracings and numeric outputs (R time, angle, and MA) of thrombelastography (TEG) may be used to inform treatment decisions. The objective was to determine the sensitivity of TEG to isolated changes in platelet count, hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration in human blood. As pigs have a similar coagulation system, we also compared the responses of the pig blood. Eight volunteers (>18?years of age, no anticoagulation or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy, not pregnant) were enrolled into this study. Four female anesthetized donor pigs were instrumented percutaneously with a catheter for blood collection. All blood was collected into sodium citrate. The concentration of each component (platelets, fibrinogen, and red blood cells) was changed while keeping the other components constant by use of centrifugation or preparation of each individual's plasma into platelet poor plasma, platelet rich plasma, cryoprecipitate, purified washed platelets, and packed red blood cells as appropriate. TEG (Haemoscope) analysis was performed and compared with the patients' whole blood diluted with lactated Ringer's solution. We demonstrated that the major factor affecting the MA and angle was the platelet count. In fact, reducing platelets alone resulted in TEG profiles and parameters that were similar to lactated Ringer's dilution profiles. Swine blood responses were parallel to that of human blood, although there were offsets especially of TEG-R and angle that confirmed that the swine are hypercoagulable compared with humans. Superficially similar TEG tracing patterns can be produced by divergent mechanisms associated with altered concentrations of blood components. PMID:24047887

Sondeen, Jill L; de Guzman, Rodolfo; Amy Polykratis, Irene; Dale Prince, Malcolm; Hernandez, Orlando; Cap, Andrew P; Dubick, Michael A



Expression of candidate genes related to metabolism, immunity and cellular stress during massive mortality in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica larvae in relation to biochemical and physiological parameters.  


Quantification of mRNA of genes related to metabolism, immunity and cellular stress was examined in relation to a massive mortality event during the culture of American oyster larvae, Crassostrea virginica which was probably, in regard to previous microbiological analysis, induced by Vibrio infection. To document molecular changes associated with the mortality event, mRNA levels were compared to biochemical and physiological data, previously described in a companion paper. Among the 18 genes studied, comparatively to the antibiotic control, 10 showed a lower relative gene expression when the massive mortality occurred. Six of them are presumed to be related to metabolism, corroborating the metabolic depression associated with the mortality event suggested by biochemical and physiological analyses. Relationships between the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, and the mRNA abundance of genes linked to oxidative stress, cytoprotection, and immune response are also discussed. Finally, we observed an increase in the transcript abundance of two genes involved in apoptosis and cell regulation simultaneously with mortality, suggesting that these processes might be linked. PMID:22417898

Genard, Bertrand; Moraga, Dario; Pernet, Fabrice; David, Elise; Boudry, Pierre; Tremblay, Réjean



Effects of emodin and vitamin C on growth performance, biochemical parameters and two HSP70s mRNA expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) under high temperature stress.  


In order to study the effects of dietary emodin, high-dose vitamin C (Vc) and their combination on growth of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Y.) and its resistance to high temperature stress, 1200 healthy Wuchang bream with initial body weight of 133.44 ± 2.11 g were randomly divided into four groups: a control group fed with basal diet (containing 50.3 mg/kg Vc) and three treated groups fed with basal diets supplemented with 60 mg/kg emodin, 700 mg/kg Vc, and the combination of 60 mg/kg emodin + 700 mg/kg Vc, respectively. After feeding for 60 days, the growth performance of Wuchang bream was measured. Then 25 fish per tank were exposed to heat stress of 34 °C. The biochemical parameters of blood and liver, and expression levels of liver two HSP70s mRNA before and after heat stress were determined and the cumulative mortality of each group under heat stress was counted. The results showed that before stress, compared with the control, the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), serum total protein (TP), lysozyme (LSZ), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and expression level of HSP70 mRNA significantly increased in emodin and Vc groups while feed conversion rate (FCR), serum cortisol (COR), triglyceride (TG) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) contents decreased (P < 0.05); liver catalase (CAT) activity also significantly increased in emodin group (P < 0.05). Although serum TP, LSZ, and liver HSP70 mRNA levels significantly increased and liver MDA level decreased in combination group (P < 0.05), no synergism was observed. After heat stress, compared with the control, the serum TP, LSZ, ALP levels, liver SOD, CAT activities, and expression levels of HSC70 and HSP70 mRNAs increased in emodin and Vc groups in varying degrees and serum COR, glucose, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), TG and liver MDA levels decreased to some extent. Although these parameters had similar changing trend as above ones in combination group, it did not show any synergism either. Statistics showed that under heat stress, the cumulative mortalities of emodin and Vc groups, except at 6 h in emodin group, were significantly lower than that of the control (P < 0.05) while the difference between the combination and control groups was not significant (P > 0.05). Thus, the basal diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg emodin or 700 mg/kg Vc could promote the growth of Wuchang bream, reduce FCR, increase non-specific immunity of fish, antioxidant capacity, and two HSP70s mRNA expression levels, and enhance resistance to heat stress in fish. However, the combination of emodin and high-dose Vc showed no better effect. PMID:22281609

Ming, Jianhua; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao; Ge, Xianping; Liu, Wenbin; Ye, Jinyun



[Effect of excretion-secretion products of some fouling species on the biochemical parameters of blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the White Sea].  


The effect of excretion-secretion products (ESP) of five abundant fouling invertebrate species (bivalve mollusks Hiatella arctica and Mytilus edulis, solitary ascidia Styela rustica, sponge Halichondria panicea, and sea starAsterias rubens, inhabiting the White Sea) on the biochemical status of blue mussel M. edulis was assessed by the dynamics of lysosomal enzymes activity (nucleases, glycoside hydrolases, and cathepsins). ESP of conspecific species had no effect on the metabolism of the mollusks of this species. ESP of A. rubens, S. rustica, and H. panicea activated the same enzymes. First, acid RNase and glycoside hydrolases activity increased, but in different ways. The metabolites of H. arctica affected the activity of proteometabolism enzymes. PMID:22292287

Skidchenko, V S; Vysotskaia, R U; Krupnova, M Iu; Khalaman, V V


The Influence of Acute Psychic Stress Situations on Biochemical and Vegetative Parameters of Essential Hypertensives at the Early Stage of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal persons and hypertensives at the early stage of the disease (corresponding to ‘mild hypertension’ as classified by the WHO) of male sex between 15 and 25 years were examined during a psychic stress situation (repeated mental arithmetic under time-pressure). The stress situation effected: rise of the pulse rate, of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both groups; a prolonged

R. Baumann; Helgard Ziprian; W. Gödicke; W. Hartrodt; Erna Naumann; J. Läuter



Effects of red blood cell transfusion on hemodynamic parameters: a prospective study in intensive care unit patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on hemodynamic parameters including transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD)-derived variables. Methods We compared hemodynamic parameters obtained before and after RBC transfusion (2 RBC units) in 34 intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Results Directly after RBC transfusion, we observed a significant increase in hematocrit (28?±?3 vs. 22?±?2%, p?parameters reflecting cardiac preload (GEDVI), pulmonary edema (EVLWI), and pulmonary vascular permeability (PVPI) are observed following RBC transfusion.



Morphological features and blood parameters of Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) mothers and pups during the breeding season.  


We investigated the blood status of 9 Weddell seal mothers and 9 pups during the breeding season in a field study conducted from November to December 2004 at a breeding colony in Antarctica. The blood glucose and total cholesterol concentrations were higher in the pups than in the mothers. On the other hand, the blood urea nitrogen concentration was lower in the pups than in the mothers. Growth-associated depletion of blood triglyceride was observed in the pups and may have been due to the post-weaning fast. The results characterize the blood status of Weddell seals in relation to physiological adaptations for breeding. PMID:19346704

Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Sato, Katsufumi; Naito, Yasuhiko; Habara, Yoshiaki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi



Artificial blood  

PubMed Central

Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

Sarkar, Suman



Focused-Ultrasound Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Closely-Timed Short Pulses: Influence of Sonication Parameters and Injection Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) shows promise for drug delivery in the brain; however, optimal parameters for disruption have yet to be firmly established. Previous work has shown that BBBD can be achieved using bursts comprised of microsecond-length pulses at 50% duty cycle to eliminate standing waves and variability. The capabilities and limitations of this sort of pulse sequence comprising short

Meaghan A. O’Reilly; Adam C. Waspe; Milan Ganguly; Kullervo Hynynen



Effects of Adding Extra Molasses to a Texturized Calf Starter on Rumen Development, Growth Characteristics, and Blood Parameters in Neonatal Dairy Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A texturized calf starter containing 5 (control) or 12% molasses (on a dry matter (DM) basis) was fed to dairy calves to determine effects on intake, growth, blood parameters, and rumen development. Forty-six Hol- stein calves (26 male and 20 female) were started at 2 ± 1 d of age and studied for 42 d. Starter DM intake was measured

K. E. Lesmeister; A. J. Heinrichs



Can blood gas and acid-base parameters at maximal 200 meters front crawl swimming be different between former competitive and recreational swimmers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether maximal 200 m front crawl swimming strategies and breathing patterns influenced blood gas and acid-base parameters in a manner which gives advantage to former competitive swimmers in comparison with their recreational colleagues. Twelve former competitive male swimmers (the CS group) and nine recrea- tional male swimmers (the RS group) performed

Jernej Kapus; Venceslav Kapus


Effects of Sibutramine Use on Weight, Body Mass Index, Waist \\/ Hip Ratio, and Blood Lipid Parameters, Compared to Placebo, in Obese Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide obesity is a chronic condition that is characterized by accumulation of extra fat in the body and that results in increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of sibutramine, an anorectic medication, on body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist\\/hip ratio and blood lipid parameters in obese individuals. The study enrolled

Yusuf Özkan; Taner Akdere; Emir Dönder


[Effects of the addition of iso-acids to feed on ruminal fermentation, in sacco degradation of dry matter and the concentration of several blood parameters in cows].  


Three rumen-fistulated cows fed maize silage and concentrates were supplemented with either soybean oil meal or urea, associated or not with isoacids. The isoacids increased the volatile fatty acid concentration, lowered the ruminal ammonia concentration and in sacco dry matter disappearance and did not influence blood parameters. PMID:2206319

Andries, J I; Cottyn, B G; De Keersmaecker, S; Buysse, F X



[Different CO2-stunning procedures and post mortem obtained lung lesions in response to the corneal reflex and parameters in blood of slaughtered pigs].  


The effect of different CO2-stunning on the corneal reflex response and blood parameters in (arterio-venous) killing blood was investigated in n = 614 slaughter pigs (carcass weight = 92-94 kg) at two different abattoirs. CO2-anaesthesia lead to remarkable decrease of PO2 (hypoxaemia), increase of PCO2 (hypercapnia), decrease of pH (respiratory acidosis) and increase of [strong ion difference = SID3] (basic reaction caused by electrolytes). Pigs with subclinical post mortem obtained lung lesions showed no significant modified value of the reflex answer or changes in parameters of killing blood compared to the animals with healthy lungs. The CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and 120 s exposure time resulted in notably less undesired positive reflex responses (6% of slaughter pigs) than the CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and only 90 s exposure time (15% of slaughter pigs). The occurence of the positive reflex response, which means an inadequate depth of anaesthesia, in slaughter pigs can be safely eliminated by use of qualified cut off values of killing blood parameters. These parameters can be measured rapidly and validly with ion-sensitive electrodes, making a beneficial monitoring of the used CO2-stunning possible. PMID:19863003

Hartmann, Helmut; Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Wolf, Katharina; Rindermann, Georg; Fries, Reinhard


Glycerol administration before endurance exercise: metabolism, urinary glycerol excretion and effects on doping-relevant blood parameters.  


Glycerol is prohibited as a masking agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency and a urinary threshold has recently been recommended. However, little is known about urinary glycerol excretion after exercise, when (1) exogenous glycerol is metabolized increasingly and (2) endogenous glycerol levels are elevated. The purpose of the placebo-controlled cross-over study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise glycerol administration on glycerol metabolism, urinary excretion, and selected blood parameters. After administration of glycerol (G; 1.0?g/kg body weight (BW)?+?25?ml fluid/kg BW) or placebo (P; 25?ml fluid/kg), 14 cyclists exercised 90?min at 60% VO(2max) . Samples were taken at 0?h (before administration), 2.5?h (before exercise), 4?h (after exercise) and 6.5?h and additional urine samples were collected until 24?h. Exercise increased endogenous plasma glycerol (0.51?±?0.21?mmol/l) but peak concentrations were much higher in G (2.5?h: 15.6?±?7.8?mmol/l). Urinary glycerol increased rapidly (58,428?±?71,084?µg/ml after 2.5?h) and was significantly higher than in P until 13.6?±?0.9?h (p?

Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; de Marees, Markus; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm



Reduced levels of prostaglandin precursors in the blood of atopic patients: defective delta-6-desaturase function as a biochemical basis for atopy.  


In the plasma phospholipids of a group of 50 young adults with atopic eczema, there was an elevation of cis-linoleic acid associated with a deficit of gamma-linolenic acid and of the prostaglandin precursors, dihomogammalinolenic acid and arachidonic acid. This suggests that atopics have a deficit in the function of the delta-6-desaturase enzyme which converts linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid. Carriers of cystic fibrosis tend to be phenotypically atopic, supporting previous suggestions that in homozygote cystic fibrosis patients the key defect may be in the delta-6-desaturase enzyme. Atopic patients may be exceptionally sensitive to side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. They fail to flush in response to application of niacin compounds to the skin, a reaction mediated by prostaglandins. A deficit of prostaglandin precursors would explain both of these observations. That the observed biochemical deficit plays a causative role in the manifestations of atopy was indicated by the fact that in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, gamma-linolenic acid in the form of evening primrose oil (Efamol), partially corrected both the biochemical abnormalities and the clinical state. PMID:6961468

Manku, M S; Horrobin, D F; Morse, N; Kyte, V; Jenkins, K; Wright, S; Burton, J L



Differences in normal values for murine white blood cell counts and other hematological parameters based on sampling site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design: The effect of blood sampling site on the hemogram and neutrophil adhesion molecules was examined in BALB\\/c mice.¶Materials and methods: Blood samples were drawn from the tail, eye, and heart during anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine. Cell numbers were quantified with an automated counter and flow cytometry was used to quantify CD11b and CD18.¶Results: Total white blood

J. A. Nemzek; G. L. Bolgos; B. A. Williams; D. G. Remick



Toxic studies on biochemical parameters carried out in rats with Serankottai nei, a siddha drug–milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicological study was carried out in rats with a Siddha preparation, milk extracts of Semecarpus anacardium nuts. The effect of acute (72 h) and subacute (30 days) treatment of the drug with different dosage on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters were studied. The acute toxicity studies with this drug did not produce mortality at any dose level

T. Vijayalakshmi; V. Muthulakshmi; P. Sachdanandam



Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops

S. V. Archontoulis; X. Yin; J. Vos; N. G. Danalatos; P. C. Struik



Evaluation of cinnamon and garlic as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on performance, immune responses, serum biochemical and haematological parameters in broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with cinnamon and garlic powder as growth promoter agents on performance, carcase traits, immune responses, serum biochemistry, haematological parameters and thigh meat sensory evaluation in broilers. A total of 288, day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replicates. The dietary treatments consisted of

Mehdi Toghyani; Majid Toghyani; Abbasali Gheisari; Gholamreza Ghalamkari; Shahin Eghbalsaied



Sensitivity of compliance-based continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring to changes in viscoelastic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent arterial compliance observed from non- invasive measurements of arterial blood pressure and cross- sectional area does not directly correspond to the static compliance curve or dynamic pressure-area loop. The accuracy of continuous, non-invasive blood pressure estimates based on calibrated arterial compliance models to convert area to pressure is affected by both changes in the viscoelastic properties of the

A. M. Dentinger; C. Jia



Effects of phytohormones on some biochemical parameters during dark induced leaf senescence of Sechium edule on Darjeeling Hill of the Eastern Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the concentrations (25-150 mgl-1) of the phytohormones kinetin, IAA (indol-3-ylacetic acid) and GA3 (gibberellic acid) increased the activity of DCPIP (2,6 dichlorophenolindophenol)-Hill reaction, chlorophyll and protein\\u000a contents over the control data in leaves ofSechium edule Sw. on Darjeeling hill of the Eastern Himalayas; while ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) treatments decreased these parameters\\u000a in the hilly species. The most effective concentrations

T. K. Dolui; S. Jana



Investigation of Biochemical Variation in Operational Aircrew.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Principal-components analyses of biochemical values obtained on a sample of operational aircrew revealed two factors that appear to reflect stress levels: Factor 1--positive loadings for Red Blood Cell sedimentation rate, serum uric acid, triglycerides, a...

R. B. Williams J. C. Barefoot T. L. Haney



Responses to submaximal treadmill exercise and training in the horse: changes in haematology, arterial blood gas and acid base measurements, plasma biochemical values and heart rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four standardbred horses with subcutaneously relocated carotid arteries were given a seven week training programme of treadmill exercise at a gradient of 19 per cent in order to assess if there were any effects of exercise and training on haematology, arterial blood gas and acid base measurements, plasma biochemistry and heart rate. The exercise consisted of one minute walking at

RJ Rose; JR Allen; JH Stewart; W Chan



Effect of intensive fattening of bulls based on a high-grain diet on growth intensity and biochemical and acid-base parameters of blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the use of high-grain diets with a low proportion of fodder for fattened cattle, and with the evaluation of their effect on the growth intensity and metabolic profile of the animals. Thirty Holstein × Czech Pied bulls were given diets containing from 86.69 to 88.54% concentrates based on crushed cereals in the period from 216th



Assessment of the influence of the inflammatory process on the activation of blood platelets and morphological parameters in patients with ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa).  


Ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa) is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The symptoms which are observed in the course of ulcerative colitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes and blood platelets, an increase in the concentration of IL-6 and anemia. Blood platelets are the key element, linking the processes of hemostasis, inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues. Activation of blood platelets is connected with changes in their shape and the occurrence of the reaction of release. P-selectin appears on the surfaces of activated blood platelets and the concentration level of soluble P-selectin increases in the blood plasma. The aim of this study was to define whether the increased number of blood platelets in patients with ulcerative colitis accompanies changes in their activation and morphology. A total of 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis and 32 healthy subjects were studied. Mean platelet count, morphological parameters of platelets and MPC were measured using an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. Concentrations of sP-selectin and IL-6 in serum were marked by immunoassay (ELISA). MPC, concentration of sP-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in subjects with ulcerative colitis compared to those in the healthy group. There was a decrease of MPV in patients with ulcerative colitis, which is statistically significant. Chronic inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis causes an increase in the number of blood platelets, a change in their morphology and activation. Decreased MPV value reflects activation and the role blood platelets play in the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the colon. A high concentration of sP-selectin, which is a marker of blood platelet activation, demonstrates their part in the inflammatory process. The increase in the concentration of sP-selectin correlated positively with the increase in concentration of IL-6. This is why it may be a useful marker of the activity of colitis ulcerosa. PMID:21526498

Poli?ska, Beata; Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina



Effects of different fibrinogen concentrations on blood loss and coagulation parameters in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction The early application of fibrinogen could potentially reverse haemodilution-induced coagulopathy, although the impact of varying concentrations of fibrinogen to reverse dilutional coagulopathy has not been studied in vivo. We postulated that fibrinogen concentration is correlated with blood loss in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Methods Coagulopathy was induced in 18 anaesthetized pigs (32 ± 1.6 kg body weight) by replacing 80% of blood volume with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 and Ringer's lactated solution, and re-transfusion of erythrocytes. Animals were randomly assigned to receive either 70 mg kg-1 (F-70) or 200 mg kg-1 (F-200) fibrinogen or placebo before inducing blunt liver injury using a force of 225 ± 26 Newton. Haemodynamics, coagulation parameters and blood loss were monitored for 2 hours. After death, histological examination of internal organs was performed to assess the presence of emboli and the equality of liver injury. Results Plasma dilution caused severe coagulopathy. Measured by thromboelastography fibrinogen restored coagulation dose-dependently. Total blood loss was significantly lower and survival better in both fibrinogen groups as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Between the F-70 (1317 ± 113 ml) and the F-200 group (1155 ± 232 ml) no significant difference in total blood loss could be observed, despite improved coagulation parameters in the F-200 group (P < 0.05). Microscopy revealed even injury pattern and no (micro) thrombi for either group. Conclusions Restoring fibrinogen with 70 or 200 mg kg-1 after severe dilutional coagulopathy safely improved coagulation and attenuated blood loss after experimental blunt liver trauma. The higher dosage of fibrinogen was not associated with a further reduction in blood loss.



Influence of carbicron (O-[(2-butenoic acid)-N,N-dimethylamide-3-yl] O,O-dimethylphosphate) on some biochemical and biophysical parameters of rat liver membranes.  


1. Treatment of rats with carbicron induced a reduction of the phospholipids in both microsomal and plasma membranes. 2. A decrease of the structural order parameter (SDPH) and an increase of the pyrene excimer-to-monomer fluorescence ratio (IE/IM) was also observed, indicating membrane fluidization. 3. The specific activity of membrane-bound phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C were decreased in both types of membranes, whereas acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase activity was augmented due to carbicron treatment. PMID:8444321

Markovska, T; Koshlukova, S; Momchilova, A; Pankov, R; Yanev, E



Biochemical studies of the renal radiopharmaceutical compound dimercaptosuccinate. IV. Interaction of 99m Tc-DMS and 99 Tc-DMS complexes with blood serum proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a crucial step towards understanding the mechanism of localisation of radiopharmaceuticals in specific target organs, the interaction of the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-DMS and 99Tc-DMS with blood serum proteins was studied. The interaction of 99mTc-DMS radiopharmaceutical was examined from two aspects: total protein binding as well as specificity of binding to certain classes of proteins.

Nada Vanli?-Razumeni?; Jelena Petrovic; Daroslava Gorkic



Latent biochemical relationships in the blood-milk metabolic axis of dairy cows revealed by statistical integration of 1H NMR spectroscopic data.  


A detailed understanding of the relationships between the distinct metabolic compartments of blood and milk would be of potential benefit to our understanding of the physiology of lactation, and potentially for development of biomarkers for health and commercially relevant traits in dairy cattle. NMR methods were used to measure metabolic profiles from blood and milk samples from Holstein cows. Data were analyzed using PLS regression to identify quantitative relationships between metabolic profiles and important traits. Statistical Heterospectroscopy (SHY), a powerful approach to recovering latent biological information in NMR spectroscopic data sets from multiple complementary samples, was employed to explore the metabolic relationships between blood and milk from these animals. The study confirms milk is a distinct metabolic compartment with a metabolite composition largely not influenced by plasma composition under normal circumstances. However, several significant relationships were identified, including a high correlation for trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylsulfone (DMSO(2)) across plasma and milk compartments, and evidence plasma valine levels are linked to differences in amino acid catabolism in the mammary gland. The findings provide insights into the physiological mechanisms underlying lactation and identification of links between key metabolites and milk traits such as the protein and fat content of milk. The approach has the potential to enable measurement of health, metabolic status and other important phenotypes with milk sampling. PMID:23394630

Maher, Anthony D; Hayes, Benjamin; Cocks, Benjamin; Marett, Leah; Wales, William J; Rochfort, Simone J



Rapid Analysis of Hemoglobins in Whole Blood by a Light Scattering Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method for fast determination of blood morphological and biochemical parameters (concentration of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and sulfhemoglobin; the hematocrit; average concentration of total hemoglobin in erythrocytes; the erythrocyte parameter associated with their volume and shape) from the diffuse transmittance spectrum of light for a thin cuvet containing whole blood (thickness 200 ?m), illuminated by collimated light. The method is based on an analytical dependence of the spectral diffuse transmission coefficient of blood on the parameters of interest, taking into account multiple scattering of light by erythrocytes and possible variations in their shape. We have analyzed the uncertainties of the method when the analyte parameters are all variable.

Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.



Effect of corneal parameters on measurements using the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph and Goldmann applanation tonometer  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the effect of central corneal thickness and corneal curvature on intraocular pressure measurements using the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph and the Goldmann applanation tonometer, and to assess the agreement between the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph and the Goldmann applanation tonometer in intraocular pressure measurement. Methods: 479 subjects underwent intraocular pressure measurements with the Goldmann applanation tonometer and the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph. Of these, 334 patients underwent additional measurement of central corneal thickness with an ultrasonic pachymeter and corneal curvature measurement with a keratometer. Results: The intraocular pressure measurements obtained with both the Goldmann applanation tonometer and the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph varied with central corneal thickness and mean keratometric reading. Intraocular pressure measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer increased by 0.027 mm Hg per µm increase in central corneal thickness. Intraocular pressure measured using the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph increased by 0.048 mm Hg per ?m increase in central corneal thickness. For an increase of 1 mm of mean corneal curvature there was rise in intraocular pressure of 1.14 mm Hg measured by the Goldmann applanation tonometer and of 2.6 mm Hg measured by the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph. When compared to the Goldmann applanation tonometer, the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph underestimated at low intraocular pressure and overestimated at higher intraocular pressure. Conclusion: Central corneal thickness and corneal curvature affected measurements obtained with the pulsatile ocular blood flow tonograph more than they affected measurements obtained with the Goldmann applanation tonometer.

Gunvant, P; Baskaran, M; Vijaya, L; Joseph, I S; Watkins, R J; Nallapothula, M; Broadway, D C; O'Leary, D J



The effects of Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria on DNA damage, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and some biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  


The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Yucca schidigera, Quillaja saponaria, and a mixture of both plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were allocated into five groups with 10 rats each. The control (C) and diabetic control group (D) were fed with standard rat feed (SRF). The other diabetic groups, the Y. schidigera group (DY), the Q. saponaria group (DQ), and the mix group (DQY), were fed ad libitum using SRF+100 ppm Y. schidigera powder (Sarsaponin 30), SRF+100 ppm Q. saponaria powder (Nutrafito), and SRF+100 ppm Y. schidigera-Q. saponaria powder (Nutrafito Plus), respectively, for 3 weeks. The blood glucose level was found to be significantly lower in the DY and DQ groups than in the D and DQY groups (P<.001). The insulin levels increased in the DY and DQY groups (P<.05). Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the DY, DQ, and DQY groups significantly decreased compared to those of the D group (P<.01, P<.001, respectively). HDL in the diabetic groups significantly increased in the DQ and DQY groups (P<.05), while LDL did not show any significant change. Mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage, plasma malondialdehyde, and plasma protein carbonyl levels were found to be significantly lower (P<.001, P<.001, P<.05, respectively) in the DY, DQ, and DQY groups according to the D group. The low level of nitric oxide in diabetic rats increased in the DQ group (P<.01). Total antioxidant capacity between groups did not differ. Our results thus suggested that Q. saponaria and Y. schidigera powders could help in the treatment of the disease owing to their hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and antioxidant effects. PMID:18413208

Fidan, A Fatih; Dündar, Yilmaz



Effect of ?-aminolevulinic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters and the immune response of weanling pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of dietary ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters and whether ALA improved the immune response of weanling pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eighty pigs (body weight=7.21±0.51 kg) were allotted to four dietary treatments, with four pens per treatment and five pigs per pen. Basal diets were supplemented with 0, 5,

Y. J. Chen; I. H. Kim; J. H. Cho; B. J. Min; J. S. Yoo; Q. Wang



Effects of Life Away from Home and Physical Exercise on Nutrient Intake and Blood\\/Serum Parameters among Girl Students in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHIMBO, S., ZHANG, Z.-W., MATSUDA-INOGUCHI, N., HIGASHIKAWA, K., NAKATSUKA, H., WATANABE, T. and IKEDA, M. Effects of Life Away from Home and Physical Exercise on Nutrient Intake and Blood\\/Serum Parameters among Girl Students in Japan. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2004, 203 (4), 275-286 ?? This study was initiated to examine if the life away from home and participation in sport

Shinichiro Shimbo; Zuo-Wen Zhang; Naoko Matsuda-Inoguchi; Kae Higashikawa; Haruo Nakatsuka; Takao Watanabe; Masayuki Ikeda



The Effect of Different Levels of Organic and Inorganic Chromium Supplementation on Production Performance, Carcass Traits and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chicken Under Heat Stress Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 250 broilers in a completely randomized design selected to evaluate the effect of different levels of chromium\\u000a (Cr) supplementation on performance, carcass traits and some blood parameters of heat-stressed broiler chicks. All birds were\\u000a kept under heat stress temperature (33?±?3°C) and divided into five treatments groups. Each treatment consisted of five pens\\u000a with 10 birds in each

Mohammad Mehdi Moeini; Akram Bahrami; Shahab Ghazi; Mohammad Reza Targhibi


Effects of L-carnitine administration on growth performance, carcass traits, blood serum parameters and abdominal fatty acid composition of ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of L-carnitine administration via drinking water on growth performance, carcass traits, blood serum parameters and abdominal fatty acid composition of ducks was examined. One hundred day-old Turkish native duck chicks were divided into two groups, each with five replicates and given the same diets with 0 and 200 mg\\/l carnitine chlorhydrate via drinking water. The study lasted 8 weeks,

C. Arslan; M. Çitil; M Saatci



The effects of xylanase supplementation on performance, characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, blood parameters and gut microflora in broilers fed on wheat-based diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of xylanase supplementation on performance, characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, blood parameters and gut microflora in broilers fed on wheat-based diets. The experimental diets consisted of a wheat-based diet supplemented with 0 or 1g\\/kg enzyme preparation (xylanase activity was 1218U\\/g). The diets were fed between 7 and 49 days of

F. Gao; Y. Jiang; G. H. Zhou; Z. K. Han



Effect of different levels of dried citrus pulp on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in early phase of production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of agricultural wastes in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried citrus pulp (DCP) is a potential\\u000a source of some valuable nutrients for animal and poultry. In an experiment with completely randomized design, the effect of\\u000a different levels (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16%) of DCP was evaluated on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying

Ahmad Nazok; Mansour Rezaei; Hadi Sayyahzadeh



Effects of adding extra molasses to a texturized calf starter on rumen development, growth characteristics, and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves.  


A texturized calf starter containing 5 (control) or 12% molasses [on a dry matter (DM) basis] was fed to dairy calves to determine effects on intake, growth, blood parameters, and rumen development. Forty-six Holstein calves (26 male and 20 female) were started at 2 +/- 1 d of age and studied for 42 d. Starter DM intake was measured and fecal scoring was conducted daily. Growth and blood parameter measurements were conducted weekly. A subset of 6 male calves (3 per treatment) was euthanized at 4 wk of age, and rumen tissue sampled for rumen epithelial growth measurements. Starter sugar content was significantly increased in the starter containing extra molasses. Postweaning and overall starter DM intake, overall total DM intake, daily heart girth change, and final heart girth were significantly decreased, whereas overall average daily gain tended to decrease when calves received starter containing 12% molasses. However, blood volatile fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased when calves received a starter containing 12% molasses. No significant differences were observed between calves receiving starters containing 5 or 12% molasses for all other variables. The data indicates that adding extra molasses to a texturized calf starter decreases intake and structural growth, possibly causing decreased weight gain, but increases blood volatile fatty acid concentrations and slightly increases ruminal development. However, feed handling and physical prehension problems in addition to the negative influences on calf growth and intake do not support increasing starter molasses content to 12% of the supplement. PMID:15591407

Lesmeister, K E; Heinrichs, A J



Changes in metabolism and blood flow in peripheral tissue (skeletal muscle) during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: the biochemical microdialysis study.  


The aim of this study was to monitor the metabolism and blood flow in the interstitium of the skeletal muscle during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and in the early postoperative period by means of microdialysis and to compare metabolic changes during CPB at normothermia (NT) and hypothermia (HT). Surgical revascularization using CPB was performed in 50 patients, 25 patients (group HT) were operated using hypothermic CPB, 25 (group NT) using normothermic CPB. Interstitial microdialysis was performed by two CMA 60 probes (CMA Microdialysis AB, Solna, Sweden) inserted into the patient's deltoid muscle. Constituents analysed in the obtained dialysates, collected at intervals, were glucose, urea, glycerol and lactate. Tissue blood flow was monitored by dynamic microdialysis with gentamicin as a marker. In both groups, NT versus HT, similar dynamics of concentrations were found. Low initial concentrations were followed by gradual increases during CPB and in the following phase of the operation. Concentrations were higher in the NT group. Immediately after the operation, the decrease in values continued, with a gradual increase in the succeeding postoperative period in both groups. Similar dynamic changes in the lactate concentration were found in both groups. The gentamicin concentrations were lower in the NT group (versus the HT group). The results showed dynamic changes in the interstitial concentrations of glucose, urea, glycerol and lactate, which depend on the phase of the surgery in the CPB and early postoperative phase in the both groups of patients. Higher tissue perfusion of the skeletal muscle was noted in those patients operated on in normothermia. The dynamics of the concentration changes of these substances in the interstitium of the skeletal muscle has been proven to be caused by both the metabolic activity of the tissue and by the blood flow through the interstitium of the muscle. PMID:15072256

Mand'ák, J; Zivný, P; Lonský, V; Palicka, V; Kakrdová, D; Marsíková, M; Kunes, P; Kubícek, J



The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.



Undernutrition in Santal children: a biochemical and hematological study.  


The nutritional status of the children can be measured by biochemical and hematological parameters and dietary assessment. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the causes of the undernutrition in the surveyed Santal children, where high degree of undernutrition exists, by measuring selected hematological and biochemical parameters and dietary intake. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age Z-score. Total count of red blood cells (RBC count), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were measured. Biochemical parameters such as serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation (TS) and serum albumin were also measured. Serum iron, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, hemoglobin level and serum albumin of stunted children were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those in children of normal stature. Total iron binding capacity and serum transferrin of stunted children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the values in children of normal stature. More than 29% of surveyed children were suffering from iron deficiency. Hemoglobin concentration was found to be strongly associated (p<0.001) with the nutritional status. Dietary intake of almost all nutrients in all age groups was found to be lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in both sexes. A mild iron deficiency was found in stunted Santal children. The stunting may be associated with the deficiency of specific nutrients such as iron and protein in surveyed Santal children. PMID:23587130

Chowdhury, Sutanu Dutta; Ghosh, Tusharkanti



A new multiple scattering scheme for the FLAIR forest radiative transfer model: Application to biochemical and biophysical parameter retrieval using hyperspectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigated the development and assessment of a simple parameterization of the multiple scattering within canopies assuming the single scattering field is known and the background beneath the canopy is completely absorbing. The parameterization is based on the concept of spectral invariants related to recollision and escape probabilities from vegetation canopies. The simplified approach is evaluated against detailed 3-D ray tracing model, PARCINOPY, as well as reference datasets from the Radiation Modelling Intercomparison Experiment On-Line Checker. Comparison with homogenous canopies simulated with PARCINOPY showed that the model's performance is best in both the solar principal and perpendicular planes at low and mid LAI levels for all solar zenith angles. The comparison to the On-line Checker datasets shows also that the model is a suitable approach to describe the multiple scattering components of physically based models. This simple parameterization is then incorporated into the Four Scale Linear Model for Anisotropie Reflectance (FLAIR) canopy radiative transfer model to enhance the description of the spectrally dependant multiple scattered radiation field of a forest canopy. The contribution of the multiply scattered radiation between the canopy and the background is also added to the parameterization of the multiple scattering component. The validation of the new version of the FLAIR model was performed using the multi-angular data sets obtained by the airborne sensor POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER) during the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) campaign of 1994. The results indicate that this approach is well suited to the FLAIR model. It is also demonstrated that the multiple scattering problem can be parameterized by a limited number of architectural parameters and the leaf scattering coefficient. Finally, the combined canopy-leaf PROFLAIR (PROSPECT + FLAIR) model is used to investigate the potential of simulating broadleaf forest canopy spectral reflectance. The comparison between simulated data and Hyperion reflectance data showed the ability of the PROFLAIR model to realistically simulate canopy spectral reflectance. The model was then inverted with hyperspectral Hyperion data using a look-up-table (LUT) approach to retrieve canopy leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content (Ca+b) and canopy integrated chlorophyll content (LAI x Ca+b). The LUT was populated by simulating the mode] in forward mode using a space of realization generated based on the specific distribution of the input parameters and based on a priori information from the field. The estimated variables were then compared to ground measurements collected in the field. The results showed a reasonable performance of the PROFLAIR model to the order of performances of other well-known models. When compared to ground measurements, the model showed its ability to retrieve canopy LAI from closed forest canopy with an RMSE of 0.47 and leaf chlorophyll content with an RMSE of 4.461mug/cm2.

Omari, Khalid


Changes of circadian blood pressure patterns and cardiovascular parameters indicate lateralization of sympathetic activation following hemispheric brain infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of left- and right-sided hemispheric brain infarction on variability in circadian blood pressure and cardiovascular measures were investigated in 35 patients to test for asymmetry of the sympathetic consequences of stroke. No significant differences regarding age, size of infarction or extent and frequency of damage to the insular cortex could be detected between the two groups. Patients with

Dirk Sander; Jürgen Klingelhöfer



Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...


QTLs for murine red blood cell parameters in LG/J and SM/J F2 and advanced intercross lines  

PubMed Central

Red blood cells are essential for oxygen transport and other physiologic processes. Red cell characteristics are typically determined by complete blood counts which measure parameters such as hemoglobin levels and mean corpuscular volumes; these parameters reflect the quality and quantity of red cells in the circulation at any particular moment. To identify the genetic determinants of red cell parameters, we performed genome-wide association analysis on LG/J × SM/J F2 and F34 advanced intercross lines using single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and a novel algorithm for mapping in the combined populations. We identified significant quantitative trait loci for red cell parameters on chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 17; our use of advanced intercross lines reduced the quantitative trait loci interval width from 1.6- to 9.4-fold. Using genomic sequences of LG/J and SM/J mice, we identified non-synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes residing within quantitative trait loci and performed sequence alignments and molecular modeling to gauge the potential impact of amino acid substitutions. These results should aid in the identification of genes critical for red cell physiology and metabolism and demonstrate the utility of advanced intercross lines in uncovering genetic determinants of inherited traits.

Bartnikas, Thomas B.; Parker, Clarissa C.; Cheng, Riyan; Campagna, Dean R.; Lim, Jackie E.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Fleming, Mark D.



A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level  

PubMed Central

Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2) has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, the safety information needs to be confirmed. For the feasibility of H2 treatment in these patients, delivery of H2 by inhalation method needs to be checked for consistency. Methods Hydrogen concentration (HC) in the arterial and venous blood was measured by gas chromatography on 3 patients, before, during and after 4% (case 1) and 3% (case2,3) H2 gas inhalation with simultaneous monitoring of physiological para