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Sample records for biochemical blood parameters

  1. Laser correlation spectroscopy for determining biochemical parameters of whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Prigun, Natali P.

    1999-02-01

    Correlation spectroscopy methods are widely used to study dynamical, morphological and optical parameters of biological objects. This work makes an attempt to explore these methods (in particular, due to their expressively) for diagnosing whole blood under normal and pathological states (cardiovascular diseases). Not only morphological characteristics of blood elements are known to change under diseases, but also its biochemical composition does. However, the biochemical analysis of blood is rather time and labor consuming. The paper is directed to investigate the correlation between optical characteristics of light scattering by blood and its biochemical parameters. Samples of whole blood were in vitro investigated for ills with different diagnoses and extend of cardio-vascular diseases as well as for essentially healthy donors. Simultaneous with the above characteristics we have monitored volumetric concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocytes and hemoglobin. The analysis of obtained results has show that the width of spectrum is greater for samples from healthy persons then from ills. Comparison of measured data on frequency spectrum, diffuse reflectivity's, biochemical and morphological blood parameters of the studied samples has shown the high correlation between the spectrum halfwidth and concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocyte setting rate. Some poorer correlation with spectrum occurs for concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. Thus, these are revealed an opportunity to design on express non-invasive method for determining the possibility of atherosclerotic disease.

  2. Modulation of specific biochemical blood parameters by helminth infection in laboratory Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Szweda, M; Szarek, J; Babińska, I; Sokół, R; Raś-Noryńska, M; Kołodziejska-Sawerska, A; Mecik-Kronenberg, T

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent effect of helminths infection on biochemical blood parameters in Beagles intended for laboratory use which may contribute to a change of experimental results. As a result of research, the authors confirmed the negative effect of helminth invasion on the metabolism of the liver and kidney in laboratory dogs. Stool samples from thirty Beagle puppies were examined for parasites before the puppies were moved to the animal facility, and all were dewormed with Vetminth paste on the day they were moved. Stool examination was performed three more times and animals were given Drontal Plus flavor (Bayer) and Baycox 5% (Bayer). A fourth parasitological examination revealed no intestinal parasites in the feces. Three blood biochemical tests were performed. Experimental results clearly indicate the significant impact of intestinal parasites in dogs used in experiments. PMID:22844719

  3. The dynamics of blood biochemical parameters in cosmonauts during long-term space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markin, Andrei; Strogonova, Lubov; Balashov, Oleg; Polyakov, Valery; Tigner, Timoty

    Most of the previously obtained data on cosmonauts' metabolic state concerned certain stages of the postflight period. In this connection, all conclusions, as to metabolism peculiarities during the space flight, were to a large extent probabilistic. The purpose of this work was study of metabolism characteristics in cosmonauts directly during long-term space flights. In the capillary blood samples taken from a finger, by "Reflotron IV" biochemical analyzer, "Boehringer Mannheim" GmbH, Germany, adapted to weightlessness environments, the activity of GOT, GPT, CK, gamma-GT, total and pancreatic amylase, as well as concentration of hemoglobin, glucose, total bilirubin, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total, HDL- and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides had been determined. HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio also was computed. The crewmembers of 6 main missions to the "Mir" orbital station, a total of 17 cosmonauts, were examined. Biochemical tests were carryed out 30-60 days before lounch, and in the flights different stages between the 25-th and the 423-rd days of flights. In cosmonauts during space flight had been found tendency to increase, in compare with basal level, GOT, GPT, total amylase activity, glucose and total cholesterol concentration, and tendency to decrease of CK activity, hemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol concentration, and HDL/LDL — cholesterol ratio. Some definite trends in variations of other determined biochemical parameters had not been found. The same trends of mentioned biochemical parameters alterations observed in majority of tested cosmonauts, allows to suppose existence of connection between noted metabolic alterations with influence of space flight conditions upon cosmonaut's body. Variations of other studied blood biochemical parameters depends on, probably, pure individual causes.

  4. Toxicological correlation between changes in blood biochemical parameters and liver histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T

    1997-08-01

    The toxicological correlation between blood biochemical parameters and liver histopathological findings was summarized mainly in rats and dogs on the basis of our experiments and published papers. In rats and dogs with hepatocytic necrosis, GPT and GOT increased with a good correlation to necrotic severity. In dogs with cholestasis, ALP, gamma-GTP, T.BIL and BSP retention rates increased. In mixed types of hepatitis or cholestasis and hepatic necrosis, GPT, GOT and ALP increased in rats and dogs and additionally gamma-GTP and BSP retention rates increased in dogs. In hepatic steatosis, CHOL and TRIG decreased in rats and dogs. In hepatic injury due to accumulation of foreign materials or cell components and sinusoidal cell injury, no specific correlation with biochemical parameters was noted. PMID:9279820

  5. The effects of copper on blood and biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dethloff, G.M.; Schlenk, D.; Khan, S.; Bailey, H.C.

    1999-01-01

    Metals are released into aquatic systems from many sources, often at sublethal concentrations. The effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on fish are not entirely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical effects of a range of copper concentrations (6.4, 16.0, 26.9 ??g Cu/L) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) over a prolonged period of time. Trout were exposed to copper, and, at intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, and plasma cortisol levels were elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L at day 3 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Plasma protein and lactate levels were not significantly altered in trout from any copper treatment. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression were consistently elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L. Both of these parameters stabilized by day 3, with only hepatic copper concentration showing a further increase at day 21. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression appear to be robust indicators of copper exposure. Most blood-based parameters evaluated appear to be associated with a transitory, nonspecific stress response. The return of elevated hematological and biochemical parameters to control levels after 3 days and thestabilization of hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression and copper concentration over a similar time period suggested acclimation to dissolved copper at 26.9 ??g/L. Further analysis of the data on blood-based parameters indicated that certain parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) may be useful in field monitoring.

  6. [Biochemical parameters of blood plasma of the harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777 (Pinnipedia, Procidae) of various ages].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    2007-01-01

    Results of study of several blood biochemical parameters of the harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777, from birth to the adult state are presented. The following age groups of the animals have been studied--newborns, 1.5-2 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and adults (older than 6 months). The content of total protein and its fractions, free amine nitrogen, urea, creatinine, glucose, total lipids, total calcium, and inorganic phosphorus was determined in the seal blood plasma. Differences of the degree of expression of levels of all studied parameters in the course of early postnatal ontogenesis of the animals have been established. The most significant metabolic changes in the harp seals were revealed at the period of end of weaning and transition to independent ingestion and then after the first year of life. PMID:17725029

  7. The Effect of Occupational Noise Exposure on Blood and Biochemical Parameters: A Case Study of an Insulator Manufacturer in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hamzeh; Alimohammadi, Iraj; Roshani, Saman; Pakzad, Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad Bagher; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Occupational noise is among the most critical occupational hazards, which, in addition to hearing loss, can cause other adverse consequences on an individual’s physical and mental health. Long-term exposure to noise can affect blood and biochemical parameters and subsequently lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of occupational exposure to noise on blood and biochemical parameters of workers in an insulator manufacturing plant. Methods This case-control study was conducted on workers in the production section (49 people as a case group) and the administrative staff (10 people as a control group) in one insulator manufacturing plant from 2010 to 2014. To assess individual exposure of workers to noise, the noise dosimeter model TES-1355 was used. Noise dosimetry testing was done based on the exposure pattern of workers to noise in compliance with the Iranian national standard (the criterion level of 85 dBA and the exchange rate of Q = 3 dBA). Blood parameters such as blood glucose, cholesterol, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were studied in production workers (case) and administrative staff (control) over five consecutive years. The data were analyzed by software (SPSS-22) using the t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Fisher exact test, and Greenhouse-Geisser test. Results No significant difference was found among the demographic data of the two groups (p > 0.05). Average of glucose and cholesterol levels in the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05) and blood glucose levels in the case group significantly reduced over time and cholesterol increased (p < 0.001). Mean difference of RBC number, WBC number, and serum levels of Hb and Hct was statistically significant between the two groups (p < 0.05). In addition, these hematological parameters increased among workers during these years. Conclusion Occupational exposure to noise may have a

  8. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  9. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, J. W.; Wang, X. P.; Wang, C. Y.; Zhu, Y. L.; Li, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, nitrogen (N) metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.001). The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN) content linearly decreased (0.047), while digestible N (DN), retained N (RN), efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN) and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN) linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively). Serum phosphorus (P) ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036). The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG) (p = 0.002) and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) content (p = 0.016). The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE) in the plasma (p<0.001). In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits. PMID:25049763

  10. Treatment of cyathostominosis with ivermectin and its influence on selected blood biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Ras-Noryńska, M; Sokół, R

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by nematodes of the subfamily Cyathostominae affect nearly 100% of pastured horses. Despite of an absence of pronounced symptoms, cyathostominosis can have very serious health consequences. The aim of this study was to monitor changes in total protein levels and concentrations of selected microelements and macroelements in the blood of horses before and after ivermectin treatment. In healthy horses infected by the studied parasites, total blood protein levels were below the physiological norm, but iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were within normal limits. Ivermectin treatment reduced the number of excreted parasite eggs (FEC) by 100%, and dead parasites were observed in feces. Decreased iron (Fe) concentrations and an insignificant increase in total blood protein levels were reported. A progressive decline in iron levels was observed when parasite eggs reappeared in feces 60 days after treatment. Iron loss takes place as a result of bleeding from the large intestine when adult nematodes affected by the drug are removed from intestine and fourth-stage larvae leave parasitic nodules in the intestinal wall. A drop in iron levels could be an indirect indicator of the severity of cyathostominosis. PMID:24195282

  11. Changes in selected biochemical parameters in the kidney and blood of the fish, Tilapia mossambica (Peters), exposed to heptachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Radhaiah, V.; Girija, M.; Rao, K.J.

    1987-12-01

    Pesticides used in pest control programs seem to produce many physiological and biochemical changes in fresh water organisms by influencing the activities of several enzymes. Alterations in the chemical composition of the natural aquatic environment usually effect behavioral and physiological systems of the inhabitants, particularly of the fish. Although some data are available on the effects of different pesticides on the biochemical aspects of fish gill, data on heptachlor toxicity on T. mossambica kidney are lacking. Therefore, an attempt has been made to observe certain biochemical paramets of fish, T. mossambica under heptachlor intoxication. Investigation of this nature is useful in understanding the orientation of biochemical changes during sublethal toxicity to ascertain the degree of intensity of the toxicity of heptachlor on the kidney.

  12. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions. PMID:24096939

  13. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  14. [The dynamics of pulse rate and biochemical parameters in blood of healthy individuals in relation to Pc5-6 geomagnetic pulsations].

    PubMed

    Zenchenko, T A; Medvedeva, A A; Potolitsyna, N N; Parshukova, O I; Boiko, E R

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments on long-term monitoring of pulse rate and blood biochemical parameters in four healthy volunteers (women) were conducted. The duration of each experiment was 90 minutes, electrocardiography was performed continuously, taking blood sampling every two minutes. In venous blood the current concentrations of triiodothyronine, cortisol, glucose, stable metabolites of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were determined. Synchronicity in oscillations of cortisol and free triiodothyronine levels in the blood of all four volunteers was detected, as well as the presence of the periods of 7-8 min and 15-17 min in the spectra of these biochemical parameters was observed. The periods in the spectra of NO(x) are equal to 7 min, 13 min and 25-30 min. It is shown that the, dynamics of variations in the heart rate is determined mostly by the rhythms of fluctuations in the level of NO(x) in the blood, and the periods in wavelet spectra of these physiological parameters in all four volunteers are close to the periods of their spectra synchronous variations of a. geomagnetic field vector in the frequency range of 0.5-3 mHz. The results obtained in this study indicate that. the presence of nitric oxide and its metabolites in the blood is a biochemical factor, with high probability of its participation in the developmental process of the fine "tuning" of the body to the variations of the geomagnetic field providing synchronization of variations in heart rate and geomagnetic fluctuations in the geomagnetic quiet conditions. PMID:26016037

  15. [Effect of short- and long-time space flights on some biochemical and physical-chemical parameters of cosmonauts' blood].

    PubMed

    Grigorév, A I; Larina, I M; Noskov, V B; Menshtkin, V V; Natochkin, I V

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to look for original approaches to the analysis of physical-chemical (osmolality, sodium, potassium, and calcium concentrations) and hormonal (cortisol, aldosterone, vasopressin, parathormone, calcitonin) parameters of cosmonauts' serum. To this event, we investigated 35 cosmonauts who had made either short- (up to 8 days) or long-term (up to 366 days) space flights. The dispersion factor of these parameters was found to be a criterion for assessment of the reaction of human regulatory systems to extreme impacts. No evident correlative link between the preflight and postflight concentrations of inorganic serum components was established; however, there was a high correlation of parathormone and cortisol concentrations inferring the participation of these hormones in readaptation. Integral analysis of all the mineral and hormonal parameters of blood serum shapes them into something unique apt to change after flight. Our data alludes to the fact that the approaches used for evaluation of the data resulting from conventional techniques open up new possibilities for prediction of changes in and identification of the character of individual reaction of humans to the spaceflight factors. PMID:8963264

  16. The effect of mycotoxins found in some herbal plants on biochemical parameters in blood of female albino mice.

    PubMed

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2009-04-15

    In this study, twenty five samples ofwell-known herbs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were collected and analyzed for Total Fungi Count (TFC). Mycotoxins were extracted and screened using SMKY liquid medium. One hundred and thirty adult female albino mice were grouped into three wherein one group (n = 110) was fed with an aqueous extract from herbal plants. The second group (n = 15) was fed with an aqueous extract of the isolated fungal species. The third group comprised the control group which was given water only (n = 5). All mice were fed with mice breeding diet by Pillsbury, UK. After 5 weeks, mice were fasted and blood was withdrawn for biochemical analysis including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), serum creatinine and urea. Calligonum comosum with 2 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) fungus spore, grained mixed herbs (24 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) and Salvia officinalis (23 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) were the most contaminated samples. The genus Aspergillus was the most dominant genus recovered (142 isolates) followed by Penicillium (14 isolates) and these two genera were found in 85.0 and 11.0% of the samples analyzed. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus were the most dominant and frequently isolated (47.3, 46.5 and 18.1%, respectively), followed by Aspergillus citrinum (11.0%). Aspergillus ochraceus had 21.7 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 7.25 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A, whereas Aspergillus flavus had 7.45 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and Aspergillus fumigatus had 3.5 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 3.8 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A. Mean creatinine, urea, ALT, AST and GGT were higher in mice fed or treated with herbal and fungal extracts group than the control group. This study confirms previous studies demonstrating the predominance of Aspergillus species in herbal and medicinal plants and its capability in the production of aflatoxin with induction of nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in

  17. Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID

  18. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

  19. Blood pressure, renal biochemical parameters and histopathology in an original rat model of essential hypertension (SHRSP/Kpo strain).

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Nobuyuki; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive nephropathy, a consequence of chronic high blood pressure, is increasingly a cause of end-stage renal diseases and its correct management is very important for clinical outcome. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR/Kpo) and stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP/Kpo) strains represent models of human essential hypertension. However, the kidney injuries in SHR/Kpo and SHRSP/Kpo are not well defined. We therefore characterized the renal pathophysiology of SHR/Kpo and SHRSP/Kpo compared with normotensive control (WKY/Kpo) rats. The SHRSP/Kpo exhibited increased systolic blood pressure at 10 weeks of age, and proteinuria and increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels at 20 weeks. We simultaneously detected mononuclear cell infiltration, tubular injuries, accumulation of extracellular matrix and marked expression of α-SMA in the tubulointerstitium. Additionally, TGF-β1 and CTGF were up-regulated in the kidney of SHRSP/Kpo. We lastly focused on changes in glomerular cells of SHRSP/Kpo. Nestin, a podocyte marker, was detected but decreased slightly in 20-week-old SHRSP/Kpo. PECAM-1 expression was increased in SHRSP/Kpo glomeruli, indicating the thickening of glomerular endothelial cells. Moreover, we found that α-SMA, a myofibroblast marker, was also upregulated in the glomeruli of SHRSP/Kpo at 20 weeks. These findings suggest that SHRSP/Kpo could be a valuable animal model for human hypertensive nephropathy. PMID:26106046

  20. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  1. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  2. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Morphine on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters in an Inflammatory Condition in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chahkandi, Mohadeseh; Askari, Nayerreh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Opiates affect blood factors as well as pain and inflammation in a gender-dependent manner. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of morphine on serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea in gonadectomized and inflammation conditions. Methods Animals were divided as follows: control group, carrageenan and chronic morphine recipients, acute morphine recipients, chronic morphine recipients, carrageenan recipients, acute morphine and carrageenan recipients, gonadectomized group, gonadectomized recipients of carrageenan, gonadectomized recipients of morphine, gonadectomized recipients of chronic morphine, gonadectomized recipients of carrageenan and chronic morphine, gonadectomized recipients of acute morphine and carrageenan. Findings Our results have shown that acute and chronic morphine elevates blood glucose level in the acute and chronic morphine group. Cholesterol level has shown to be increasing in the morphine and carrageenan recipient group compared with a group which merely received morphine. Triglyceride has shown to be decreasing in acute and chronic morphine recipient group compared with control group. A significant increase in serum urea was observed in acute and chronic morphine recipients compared with the carrageenan recipient group. Conclusion Morphine alters the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and urea in the normal and inflammatory conditions differently, hence, this finding should be considered in the patients who use morphine as a relief of pain, especially in an inflammatory condition. PMID:26885349

  3. Effect of long term feeding of ammoniated wheat straw treated with or without HCl on blood biochemical parameters in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Usha Rani; Sahu, Dev Sharan; Naik, Prafulla Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    differ significantly, but serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) values (units x mL(-1) were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in groups II and III than in group I. The cumulative period mean values of T3 (ng x mL(-1)) did not differ significantly among the groups, but T4 values were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in group III (22.74) than in groups 1 (21.41) and II (20.89), respectively. Since the mean values of all the blood parameters were within the normal range, it may be concluded that feeding of ammoniated wheat straw treated with and without HCl to growing male buffalo calves for fourteen months has no adverse effect on the blood biochemical parameters. PMID:15952422

  4. [Influence of cattle cord blood fraction below 5 kD on biochemical parameters of blood in experimental chronic stomach ulcer in rats].

    PubMed

    Gulevskiĭ, A K; Abakumova, E S; Moiseeva, N N; Dolgikh, O L

    2008-01-01

    Influence of cattle cord blood fraction (below 5 kD) on lipid peroxidation product content and alkaline phosphatase activity-in peripheral blood was studied on the experimental subchronic stomach ulcer model in rats. It has been shown that the fraction administrations normalize thiobarbituric-active product content and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood, which testifies to decreasing inflammatory reaction in the mucous membrane of the stomach. The fraction administrations accelerate the processes of regeneration of the mucous membrane of the stomach up to complete healing of ulcer defects. Cord blood fraction below 5 kD from cattle possesses antiulcer activity which is analogous to the actovegin activity. It has been shown by gel-penetrating chromatography that the pattern of cord blood fraction low molecular substances is different from the actovegin pattern both qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:18819383

  5. The suitability of some blood gas and biochemical parameters as diagnostic tools or early indicators of ascites syndrome in broiler sire lines.

    PubMed

    Hasanpur, K; Nassiri, M R; Hosseini Salekdeh, G; Vaez Torshizi, R; Pakdel, A; Kermanshahi, H; Naghous, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent few years, there have been some attempts to find a reliable indicator trait as a selection criterion against susceptibility to ascites syndrome (AS). Blood parameters were of great interest as they could be measured in live animals without implementing an ascites-inducing challenge (AIC). In this work, the suitability of some blood parameters was evaluated for diagnosing AS-susceptible chicks in later steps of the disease in trial 1 as well as their early predictive ability in trial 2. In the first trial, one hundred 1-day-old chicks from two pure broiler lines namely S1 and S2 and, in the second trial, 226 1-day-old chicks from line S2 were subjected to AIC. Saline drinking water (1200 mg/l) and lower-than-standard ambient temperatures were the implemented AICs in trials 1 and 2 respectively. The blood parameters including pH, partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ), bicarbonate ion concentration (BIC), percentage of haematocrit (HCT) and saturated haemoglobin (SaO2 ) were measured twice per each bird at days 28 and 35 in trial 1 and once in trial 2 at day 21. The results of the first trial revealed that in line S2 some of the blood parameters differed significantly between the ascitic and non-ascitic groups following exposure to AIC. In this line, the incidence of AS was accompanied by a lower pO2 , SaO2 and BIC, while with higher pCO2 and HCT values. In the second trial, however, although almost all of the parameters showed meaningful differences between the ascitic and non-ascitic broilers, only mean difference of BIC parameter was statistically significant. The general conclusion of this study is that the blood parameters can somewhat have diagnostic ability in the condition in which the AIC is already present, whereas the results did not approve their usefulness as early predictors of AS. PMID:26608233

  6. Effects of iron-glycine chelate on growth, carcass characteristic, liver mineral concentrations and haematological and biochemical blood parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, M; Samolińska, W; Bujanowicz-Haraś, B

    2015-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of additive iron-glycine chelate on the production performance, slaughter yield, mineral deposition in the liver and the metabolic blood panel in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were allotted into five groups with five replicates of 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with the organic form iron (Fe-Gly at the rate of 25%, 50% or 100% of the total requirements of the elements) and inorganic Fe (FeSO4 at the rate of 50% or 100%). In the experiment, iron was added to the premix (containing no Fe) in an amount of 40 or 20 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups I and II, in the form of FeSO4 , and in an amount of 40, 20 or 10 mg per kg of basal diet, in groups III, IV and V, in the form of Fe-Gly. The study covering the period from the first to the 42nd day of breeding revealed that the production performance and slaughter yield were not dependent on the form and amount of added Fe. In the experimental groups with the addition of Fe-Gly of 20 or 10 mg/kg, there were no deaths of chickens during the whole fattening period. As a result, introducing an organic form of iron covering 50% and 25% of the birds' requirement increased the effectiveness of chicken fattening (European Efficiency Index) (p < 0.01). An organic Fe compound (40, 20 or 10 mg/kg) added to mixtures contributed to significant changes in the level of biochemical and haematological indicators in blood. The study demonstrated that an addition of Fe-Gly to mixtures for broilers can be fully effective in terms of production and health performance even if the suggested requirement for this element is 50% or 25% covered. PMID:25865671

  7. The effects of different levels of Chlorella microalgae on blood biochemical parameters and trace mineral concentrations of laying hens reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Moradi kor, Nasroallah; Akbari, Mohsen; Olfati, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different supplementation levels of Chlorella microalgae on serum metabolites and the plasma content of minerals in laying hens reared under heat stress condition (27.5-36.7 °C, variable). A total number of 378 (40 weeks of age, with mean body weight of 1390 ± 120 g) were randomly allocated to six treatments with seven replicates. The birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (C, T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) with 7 replicate cages of 9 birds. C. microalgae at the rates of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm with water were offered to groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, while group C served as a control. At 71 days of trial, blood samples (14 samples per treatment) were taken for measuring serum metabolites and at 72 days for plasma mineral analysis. The results of this experiment showed that the supplementation of 200-500 ppm C. microalgae decreased the serum content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (P < 0.05) whereas HDL content increased (P < 0.05) in the hens supplemented with C. microalgae (300 or 400 and 500 ppm). C. microalgae at rates of 300-500 ppm caused a marked (P < 0.05) increase in the plasma content of manganese or iodine and selenium but other minerals were not statistically different among treatments. Overall, from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that supplementation of C. microalgae at high rates was beneficial on blood parameters of laying hens reared under heat stress. PMID:26431701

  8. The effects of different levels of Chlorella microalgae on blood biochemical parameters and trace mineral concentrations of laying hens reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi kor, Nasroallah; Akbari, Mohsen; Olfati, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different supplementation levels of Chlorella microalgae on serum metabolites and the plasma content of minerals in laying hens reared under heat stress condition (27.5-36.7 °C, variable). A total number of 378 (40 weeks of age, with mean body weight of 1390 ± 120 g) were randomly allocated to six treatments with seven replicates. The birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (C, T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) with 7 replicate cages of 9 birds. C. microalgae at the rates of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm with water were offered to groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, while group C served as a control. At 71 days of trial, blood samples (14 samples per treatment) were taken for measuring serum metabolites and at 72 days for plasma mineral analysis. The results of this experiment showed that the supplementation of 200-500 ppm C. microalgae decreased the serum content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL ( P < 0.05) whereas HDL content increased ( P < 0.05) in the hens supplemented with C. microalgae (300 or 400 and 500 ppm). C. microalgae at rates of 300-500 ppm caused a marked ( P < 0.05) increase in the plasma content of manganese or iodine and selenium but other minerals were not statistically different among treatments. Overall, from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that supplementation of C. microalgae at high rates was beneficial on blood parameters of laying hens reared under heat stress.

  9. [Biochemical parameters of blood and morpho-functional state of the liver of experimental animals by the actions of lead sulfide nanoparticles in different time study].

    PubMed

    Omel'chuk, S T; Aleksiĭchuk, V D; Sokurenko, L M

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical studies revealed that alanine aminotransferase levels changing first during short action (30 injections) of lead sulfide nanoparticles of size 10 and 30 nm, and the ionic form of a 400 nm lead while the growth of both enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) activity during long-term exposure (60 injections) is the same intensity. It it confirmed by the value of de Ritis coefficient, which is statistically the same as control. Morphological studies also confirm these data--degenerative changes of hepatocytes, reactive changes of the stroma and vascular responses were detected. It is shown that the severity of metabolic and morphological damages in the liver increased with prolonging the duration of lead nanoparticles intake. PMID:25286610

  10. [Concentrations of carnitine and further biochemical parameters in the blood serum of healthy dairy cows and cows with abomasal displacement (dislocatio abomasi) and puerperal disorders].

    PubMed

    Citil, Mehmet; Harmeyer, Johein; Fürll, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to compare the concentrations of total (TC) and free L-carnitine (FC) in blood serum of different groups of lactating cows. The animals were allotted into three groups, a) control animals (N = 11), b) cows with abomasal displacement (AD) (N = 5) and c) cows with puerperal disorders (PD) (N = 5). TC and FC were measured with an radioenzymatic assay. Blood samples were collected from 5 to 0 d before parturition (a. p.) and from 0 to 28 d after parturition (p. p.). It was of interest to examine whether L-carnitine might be limiting under certain conditions of metabolic stress which are typical for high yielding lactating cows. Concentrations of TC and FC (mumol/l) in control cows before and after parturition were 10.0* and 8.6* and 6.0-8.9 and 3.7-4.9, respectively. The corresponding TC and FC values for cows with AD were 19.6* and 8.9* and 10.5-20.7 and 4.8-6.9, respectively. Cows with PD showed TC and FC concentrations a. p. and p. p. of 15.7* and 9.2* and 10.3-13.0 and 4.8-6.3, h other puerperal disorders PD respectively (* only one value). TC and FC concentrations in serum of normal cows were higher before than after parturition. Cows, which developed post partal puerperal disorders had a higher prepartum concentrations of TC and CE, on the other hand, serum concentrations of FC was lower. Post partum cows with metabolic disorders showed higher CE levels than control animals. Cows which developed DA had significantly higher concentrations of TC and CE in serum only on d 7 p.p. than animals with other PD. It appeared that increased fat mobilization was regularly associated with responsive increases of CE concentrations in blood serum. PMID:12894688

  11. The influence of low-molecular fraction from cord blood (below 5 kDa) on functional and biochemical parameters of cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Moisieieva, N N; Gorina, O L; Akhatova, J S; Lavrik, A A; Trifonova, A V

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa) from the cattle cord blood (CBF) on functional activity of phagocytes, human embryonic fibroblasts, mesenchymal stromal cells and BHK-21 clone 13/04 and PK-15 cells was studied. The low-molecular fraction added to culture medium increases the growth rate of cell cultures. The incubation of leukoconcentrate in the CBF-containing medium results in an increase in phagocytic indices ofneutrophils in the presence of a phagocytosis inhibitor--sodium iodoacetate, leading to a significant increase in intracellular glucose content and alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to the control and the reference drug Actovegin®. PMID:25816617

  12. Bioimpedance spectroscopy as technique of hematological and biochemical analysis of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Melnikov, A. A.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy may become a useful method for the express analysis and monitoring of blood parameters. The aim of this study was to identify biochemical and hematological parameters of blood that can be accurately predicted by means of bioimpedance technique. Hematological (red blood cell and white blood cell parameters) and biochemical (total proteins, albumins, fibrinogen, sodium, potassium, chloride ion concentrations in plasma) parameters were measured with a hematological analyzer and routine methods. Bioimpedance spectroscopy of the whole blood (1.5 ml) in frequency range 5-500 kHz (31 frequencies) was performed using BIA analyzer ABC-01 "Medass". Frequency relationships of resistance and reactance of the whole blood and the parameters of the Cole model were investigated. Close simple and multiple correlations of bioimpedance indices were observed only with erythrocyte parameters (Ht, Hb, RBC). Thus bioimpedance analysis of the whole blood can accurately predict red cell parameters but it is less effective for estimation of plasma biochemical and white cell parameters.

  13. [INVESTIGATION OF BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL INDICES DURING BICYCLE ERGOMETRY].

    PubMed

    Davydov, B V; Stepanova, G P; Krivitsyna, Z A; Vorontsov, A L; Voronkov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    Our investigations showed that physical work (bicycle ergometry) alters the biochemical status of male volunteers. On the 5th minute of bicycle endometry capillary blood looses significantly glucose and increases magnesium, phosphorus and particularly lactic acid. Creatine phosphokinase activity and trygliceride levels did not deviate much from baseline values. All the changes had a similar trend equally in the supine and sitting position. Therefore, biochemical investigations may complement essentially the physiological and neurophysiological tests of human adaptability to physical loads. The investigation utilized the dry chemistry technology of rapid biochemical diagnostics. PMID:26738302

  14. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  15. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p < 0.05). Haematological variables including globular volume and erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) at all time points after collection and increased (p < 0.01) at all time points after reinfusion. There was a significant increase in total protein and calcium at all time points after reinfusion (p < 0.05). Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection. PMID:22607611

  16. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

  17. Influence of low-frequency vibration on changes of biochemical parameters of living rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, Cezary; Damijan, Zbigniew; Panuszka, Ryszard

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate how some selected biochemical parameters of living rats depend on exposure of low-frequency vibrations. Experiments were run on 30 Wistar rats randomly segregated into three groups: (I) 20 days old (before puberty), (II) 70th day after; (III) control group. The exposure was repeated seven times, for 3 h, at the same time of day. Vibrations applied during the first tests of the experiment had acceleration 1.22 m/s2 and frequency 20 Hz. At the 135th day the rats' bones were a subject of morphometric/biochemical examination. The results of biochemical tests proved decrease in LDL and HDL cholesterol levels for exposed rats as well as the Ca contents in blood plasma. There was evident increasing of Ca in blood plasma in exposed rats for frequency of exposition.

  18. Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

    2007-01-01

    In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

  19. The equation for prediction of blood viscosity from biochemical laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, B.; Yigitarslan, S.

    2015-03-01

    In most cases, the viscosity of blood is measured after adulteration with heparin or EDTA. The aim of the present research was to derive an equation that can be used for determination of viscosity from biochemical data. Blood samples taken from seven healthy people were analyzed in biochemical laboratory and their viscosities were measured by adding EDTA as anticoagulant. Ten parameters of biochemical laboratory including blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes) and their functional products that directly affect the blood viscosity were chosen. Several equations relating viscosity to those parameters were derived by using a computer program. According to the regression analysis of the functions derived, the viscosity equation was obtained. This equation can be used for determination of blood viscosity from classical laboratory analysis. The advantages of using the derived equation are elimination of anticoagulant addition and elimination of Fahraeus_Lindquist effect. After proving that the equation is acceptable for numerous people, apparent viscosity changes can be followed during any disease and successfulness of anticoagulant drugs can be investigated.

  20. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  1. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents

    PubMed Central

    OCHIAI, Yuichiro; IWANO, Hidetomo; SAKAMOTO, Takako; HIRABAYASHI, Manabu; KANEKO, Eiji; WATANABE, Toshihiko; YAMASHITA, Kazuto; YOKOTA, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents −medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  2. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Yuichiro; Iwano, Hidetomo; Sakamoto, Takako; Hirabayashi, Manabu; Kaneko, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents -medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  3. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  4. [Pre-analytical stability before centrifugation of 7 biochemical analytes in whole blood].

    PubMed

    Perrier-Cornet, Andreas; Moineau, Marie-Pierre; Narbonne, Valérie; Plee-Gautier, Emmanuelle; Le Saos, Fabienne; Carre, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The pre-analytical stability of 7 biochemical parameters (parathyroid hormone -PTH-, vitamins A, C E and D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin) at +4 °C, was studied on whole blood samples before centrifugation. The impact of freezing at -20°C was also analyzed/performed for PTH and vitamin D. The differences in the results of assays for whole blood samples, being kept for different times between sampling time and analysis, from 9 healthy adults, were compaired by using a Student t test. The 7 analytes investigated remained stable up to 4 hours at +4°C in whole blood. This study showed that it is possible to accept uncentrifuged whole blood specimens kept at +4°C before analysis. PTH is affected by freezing whereas vitamin D is not. PMID:26411912

  5. Chemical investigation and effects of the tea of Passiflora alata on biochemical parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Doyama, J T; Rodrigues, H G; Novelli, E L B; Cereda, E; Vilegas, W

    2005-01-15

    Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae) is a native plant from the South-America tropical forest that provides a much appreciated fruit known as "maracujá-doce". Although tea of the leaves of Passiflora alata is used in folk medicine as a sedative and tranquilizer, there are no investigations about its effects on biochemical parameters in blood or from its major chemical composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the tea of the leaves of Passiflora alata on biochemical parameters (antioxidant system, glucose and cholesterol levels) and to perform a phytochemical investigation of the tea. We isolated and identified two saponins and five C-glycosylflavones derived from apigenin, luteolin and chrysoeriol. Three of them are new in this species. Passiflora alata extract was administrated orally in rats at dose of 1000 mg/kg and it was observed an increase in high-density lipoprotein level (HDL-cholesterol). PMID:15619554

  6. Effect of taking dietary supplement on hematological and biochemical parameters in male bodybuilders an equation model

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Maracy, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Yeroshalmi, Shemouil; Zamani-Moghaddam, Ali; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: The improved physical action following administration of supplements to bodybuilders was supported by changes in laboratory parameters. Despite the fact that these supplements are sometimes associated both advantage and side effects, this study were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the possible effects of some commonly used supplements in bodybuilders on the hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 40 male bodybuilders as cases and 40 controls in the age group of 20-40 years. They used different kinds of supplements for 1 year. In general, all the supplements used were classified into two groups: hormonal and non-hormonal. Laboratory tests were requested for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: In an equation model, we found that weight (P = 0.024), duration of bodybuilding (P < 0.001), and duration of hormone supplement consumption (P < 0.001) were loaded significantly on the latent variables, demographic and dietary supplement, respectively. The relationship between dietary supplement and biochemical and hematological parameters was significant (P = 0.01) and some of these parameters including creatinine (P = 0.023), blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P < 0.001), and red blood cell distribution (RDW) (P = 0.046) had a significant role than others. In a multivariate regression model, we found that WBC (P < 0.001), platelets (P < 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P < 0.001), creatinine (P < 0.001), AST (P = 0.005), and ALT (P = 0.001) were higher in athletes than in controls. Conclusions: It is strongly advised that there should be some concerns about possible supplement-induced changes in the laboratory exams for bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in

  7. Selected biochemical blood compounds in cows with abomasum displacement.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, H; Gehrke, M; Malinowski, E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare some blood biochemical indicators in cows with displacement of abomasum (DA) which recovered or died after treatment. Examinations were performed on 60 multiparous cows with left (L) or right (R) displacement and on 15 healthy herdmates. Diagnosis was made by experienced practitioners on the basis of clinical examination. Surgical treatment was undertaken during the first 24 hours after diagnosis. Almost all animals (55 = 91.5%) became sick in the post parturient period (21 days p.p. on average) with the exception of 5 (8.3%) that became sick later. Blood samples were taken from each cow immediately before surgical procedure. Serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose (Glu), cholesterol (Chol), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Bil) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Sick animals were characterized by low mean values of Chol (< or = 2 mmol/l) and normal level of BUN (12-15 mg/dl), higher levels of NEFA (> 600 micromol/l) and Bil (> 22 micromol/l), higher activity of AST (> 100 U/l). Seven cows (11.67%) died after surgical correction and all others recovered. No significant differences in NEFA, Chol, AST, Bil and BUN levels were observed as dependent on the efficacy of treatment (survival, deaths). It was found that cows which died after surgical treatment were characterized by significant higher levels of glucose (5.05 mmol/l) compared to surviving cows (2.93 mmol/l). PMID:20169926

  8. [Hemolysis influence on twenty-two biochemical parameters measurement].

    PubMed

    Ali, Damien; Sacchetto, Emilie; Dumontet, Erwan; Le Carrer, Didier; Orsonneau, Jean-Luc; Delaroche, Odile; Bigot-Corbel, Edith

    2014-01-01

    The study of the influence of hemolysis was determined experimentally for twenty two biochemical parameters on the analyzer Cobas 6000 ce (Roche Diagnostics). The addition method of hemolysate was used to create an increasing concentration of hemoglobin ranging from 0 to 2000 μmol/L. The limit of 10% variation was chosen to define the influence of hemolysis on the measurement. The parameters studied were classified into several categories: the parameters for which hemolysis does not influence the measurement: albumin, uric acid, calcium, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, NT -pro BNP, S100 protein, and urea; parameters impacted positively leading to an overestimation of the result: aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, magnesium, magnesium, total protein, triglycerides; and negatively impacted settings so causing an underestimation of the result: alanine amino- transferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, troponin T hypersensitive. Certain parameters influence of hemolysis varies depending on the magnitude of the measured parameter this interference being observed for normal values but disappearing for pathological values: creatinine, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, or the inverse interference is greater than for conventional pathological values: lipase, alanine amino-transferase. Knowledge of this variability interference allows the biologist to adapt its methods of reporting in the case of haemolysed samples. PMID:24876141

  9. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. PMID:25837382

  10. Blood mixtures: impact of puncture site on blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, X; El Hassani, M S; Lecq, S; Michel, C L; El Mouden, E H; Michaud, B; Slimani, T

    2016-08-01

    Various puncture routes, veins, arteries, heart, are used to take blood in animals. For anatomical reasons, differences in blood composition are expected among puncture sites. However, this issue has been rarely assessed and contrasted results have been reported: strong effects of puncture site versus a lack of effect. We captured free-ranging freshwater turtles from different locations to compare the mean concentrations of 12 blood parameters (metabolites, hormone, ions, and enzyme) among three puncture sites: (1) a lateral branch of the jugular vein, (2) a dorsal subcarapacial cervical plexus (sometimes incorrectly referred as the 'cervical sinus' in the literature), and (3) a caudal plexus site (sometimes incorrectly referred as the 'caudal sinus'). Because we used very small syringes (27-30G), we were able to separate lymph, blood, or blood-lymph mixtures. Our results show very strong effects of puncture site and of mixture level (mean maximal difference between sites was 250 %). We also found strong sex and geographical effects. Typically, there were differences in concentrations of blood solutes sampled from the lateral jugular vein and subcarapacial plexus, mainly due to sampling a mixture of blood and lymph from the 'blood' at the subcarapacial site and pure blood from the lateral jugular site, and likewise, samples from the caudal site were highly variable due to often sampling a mixture of blood and lymph. These results have technical and fundamental implications, especially when performing comparative analyses. Further, by selecting precise puncture sites, physiological differences between lymph and blood compartments could be investigated. PMID:27146147

  11. Effects of chronic low-dose cadmium exposure on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovásová, Eva; Rácz, Oliver; Cimboláková, Iveta; Nováková, Jaroslava; Dombrovský, Peter; Ništiar, František

    2013-01-01

    The effects of long-term (1 yr) exposure to low doses of cadmium (Cd) dissolved in drinking water on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters were studied in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: male control group (C-m), female control group (C-f), male Cd-exposed group (Cd-m), and female Cd-exposed group (Cd-f). Cd groups were exposed to Cd dissolved in drinking water (cadmium dichloride 4.8 mg CdCl2/L, i.e., 2.5 mg Cd/L, 500-fold of maximal allowable concentration for potable water). The experiment was terminated on d 370. In all groups, biochemical parameters (total protein [TP], albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, urea, and creatinine) and antioxidant parameters (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity) were measured in the blood. Total protein and albumin concentrations were decreased significantly in the Cd-m group. Other biochemical parameters did not change in Cd groups compared to control groups. Superoxide dismutase fell significantly in both male and female Cd-exposed groups. Activity of glutathione peroxidase was markedly lower in Cd-exposed groups. Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly in Cd-f group. These results suggest that chronic low-dose oral Cd exposure induces oxidative stress. PMID:24168039

  12. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  13. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition. PMID:26471188

  14. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  15. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  16. Correlation of biochemical parameters and neonatal outcome in patients with gestational hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kocijancic, Dusica Maksimilijan; Plesinac, Snezana; Plecas, Darko; Aksam, Slavica; Kocijancic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are one of the leading causes of maternal death in the world and one of the major causes of perinatal mortality. The incidence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is 8%-15%. Significant changes of biochemical parameters in cases of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are increased levels of blood glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid (hyperuricemia), transaminases, and LDH. The most increased is the level of proteinuria. Bad laboratory results and the intensification of clinical signs, with multiorgan dysfunction, are indications for termination of pregnancy. PMID:22616581

  17. Evaluation of Nutritional Biochemical Parameters in Haemodialysis Patients over a Ten-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, AIQ; Castillo, RF; Jimenez, FJ Gomez; Negrillo, AM Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Protein-energy malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common in patients with chronic kidney failure who require renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis). Such malnutrition is a factor that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients by assessing biochemical and anthropometric parameters in order to determine whether these patients suffered disorders reflecting nutritional deterioration directly related to time on haemodialysis. Subjects and Method: This research comprised 90 patients of both genders with chronic kidney failure, who regularly received haemodialysis at our unit over a period of ten years. The patients' blood was tested quarterly for plasma albumin, total cholesterol and total proteins, and tested monthly for transferrin. The patients' weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were monitored. Body mass index was calculated using the formula: weight (kg)/height (m2) and classified in one of the following categories defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Body Mass Index: (i) underweight [BMI < 18.50], (ii) normal [BMI 18.50 – 24.99], (iii) overweight [BMI 25 – 29.99], (iv) obese [BMI ≥ 30]. Results: In the ten-year period of the study, the patients experienced a substantial decline in their biochemical parameters. Nevertheless, their BMI did not show any significant changes despite the patients' state of malnutrition. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in haemodialysis patients was evident. Nevertheless, the BMI of the subjects did not correspond to the biochemical parameters measured. Consequently, the results showed that the nutritional deterioration of these patients was mainly reflected in their biochemical parameters rather than in their anthropometric measurements. PMID:26426172

  18. Raman spectroscopy of stored red blood cells: evaluating clinically-relevant biochemical markers in donated blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Chad G.; Buckley, Kevin; Chen, Deborah; Schulze, H. G.; Devine, Dana V.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F. B.

    2015-07-01

    Modern transfusion medicine relies on the safe, secure, and cost-effective delivery of donated red blood cells (RBCs). Once isolated, RBCs are suspended in a defined additive solution and stored in plastic blood bags in which, over time, they undergo chemical, physiological, and morphological changes that may have a deleterious impact on some patients. Regulations limit the storage period to 42 days and the cells do not routinely undergo analytical testing before use. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy to interrogate stored RBCs and we identify metabolic and cell-breakdown products, such as haemoglobin and membrane fragments, that build-up in the blood bags as the cells age. Our work points the way to the development of an instrument which could quickly and easily assess the biochemical nature of stored RBC units before they are transfused.

  19. Some Biochemical and Hematological Parameters among Petrol Station Attendants: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A.; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Bazeed, Fagr B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe selected biochemical and hematological parameters (blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions) in petrol station attendants in Mansoura city. Methods. This is a comparative cross-sectional study. The exposed group included 102 petrol station attendants. They were compared to a matched group of healthy 102 male service and office workers at the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University. The results of blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions were compared between both groups. Results. Mean Red Blood Cells (RBCs) count, hemoglobin level, and Hematocrit (HCT) level were significantly lower in petrol station attendants than the comparison group. All other blood picture parameters showed nonsignificant difference between both groups. Liver enzymes, renal functions, serum albumin, and total protein showed statistically nonsignificant difference between both groups except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) which was significantly higher in petrol station attendants. Conclusions. Some laboratory parameters among petrol station attendants showed changes that could be attributed to workplace exposure and should be given attention at preemployment and periodic medical examination. PMID:26634207

  20. Dynamics of blood plasma by spectropolarimetry and biochemical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuka, Tetjana; Prydij, Olexander; Gruia, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  1. Prevalence and assessment of biochemical parameters of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Chowdhury Mohammad Monirul; Islam, Mohammad Monirul; Mahib, Muhammad Mamunur Rashid; Arju, Mahmud Ahmed Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate some new biochemical parameters that help ensuring the early and precise diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in blood plasma. Design and Settings: A prospective study conducted with patients scheduled for some new biochemical parameters that help ensuring the early and precise diagnosis of ADHD in blood plasma in a Child Development Center of the Chittagong, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at two levels. The first level was questionnaire on personal data and disease history while the second was on biochemical examination of the plasma ammonia and lactate status. A total of 100 children (age range 2 years 4 months to 12 years 6 months, mean age 7 years 5 months) were investigated in this study among 75 were male and 25 were female. This study was conducted in Chittagong Maa-O-Shishu General Hospital, Bangladesh. Results: We observed that the level of plasma ammonia and lactate were higher in ADHD children (36-60 μmol/L; P < 0.05 and 22-30 μmol/L; P < 0.05, respectively) compare to a reference value. The prevalence of ADHD is higher in male (75%) than in female (25%) with a ratio of 3:1. Consanguinity increases the risk of having ADHD in the next generation. Conclusion: This study concludes that there might be a correlation between ADHD and increased level of plasma ammonia and lactate level, and those might be an important parameter in the diagnosis of ADHD patients. PMID:27330258

  2. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Mayengbam, P.; Tolenkhomba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05) and lower MCH concentration (MCHC) during summer season (p<0.05). Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05). Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na) and lower potassium (K) in rainy season (p<0.05). Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05). Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets. PMID:27065639

  3. Effect of road transportation on the serum biochemical parameters of cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    OCHI, Takehiro; YAMADA, Azusa; NAGANUMA, Yuki; NISHINA, Noriko; KOYAMA, Hironari

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of long-distance (approximately 600 km) road transportation on the blood biochemistry of laboratory animals, we investigated the changes in serum biochemical parameters in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs transported by truck from Osaka to Tsukuba, Japan. The concentrations of serum cortisol, total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase in monkeys increased during transportation. Serum cortisol and total bilirubin levels in dogs also increased during transportation, but serum triglyceride decreased. Serum parameter values in truck-transported monkeys and dogs returned to baseline levels within two weeks following arrival. Taken together, these results suggest that a two-week acclimation period is the minimum duration required for adaptation following road transportation. PMID:26833142

  4. Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in small ruminants naturally infected with Babesia ovis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Babesia ovis plays an important role in causing anemia and kidney dysfunction in affected animals. There are few extensive studies about hematological and biochemical findings of small ruminants' babesiosis caused by B. ovis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on some hematological and biochemical parameters in infected small ruminants with B. ovis. A total of 280 sheep and 122 goats from 40 herds were randomly examined for the presence of B. ovis in blood samples. Of 402 samples, 67 animals (16.7%) were positive for B. ovis of which 52 (18.5%) were sheep and 15 (12.2%) goats, respectively. The infected animals were divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1%, 2%, and 3%). As a control group, 67 uninfected animals were also selected from the same farms. With increase in parasitemia rates, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBCs), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while, total leukocyte count, number of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil showed a significant increase (P < 0.05). Infected animals presented a significant elevation (P < 0.05) of total proteins and significantly lower level (P < 0.05) of albumin compared to non-infected animals. Significant elevation (P < 0.05) of BUN, creatinine, cholestrol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL level were found with parasitemia progression. PMID:25653743

  5. Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in small ruminants naturally infected with Babesia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Babesia ovis plays an important role in causing anemia and kidney dysfunction in affected animals. There are few extensive studies about hematological and biochemical findings of small ruminants' babesiosis caused by B. ovis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on some hematological and biochemical parameters in infected small ruminants with B. ovis. A total of 280 sheep and 122 goats from 40 herds were randomly examined for the presence of B. ovis in blood samples. Of 402 samples, 67 animals (16.7%) were positive for B. ovis of which 52 (18.5%) were sheep and 15 (12.2%) goats, respectively. The infected animals were divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1%, 2%, and 3%). As a control group, 67 uninfected animals were also selected from the same farms. With increase in parasitemia rates, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBCs), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while, total leukocyte count, number of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil showed a significant increase (P < 0.05). Infected animals presented a significant elevation (P < 0.05) of total proteins and significantly lower level (P < 0.05) of albumin compared to non-infected animals. Significant elevation (P < 0.05) of BUN, creatinine, cholestrol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL level were found with parasitemia progression. PMID:25653743

  6. Hematologic and serum biochemical parameters of apparently healthy rescued formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla).

    PubMed

    Chin, Shih-chien; Lien, Chen-yah; Chan, Yating; Chen, Chun-lin; Yang, Yi- ching; Yeh, Lih-seng

    2015-03-01

    Natural habitats of pangolins are rapidly deteriorating because of extensive farming, logging, and human construction activities. In addition, the illegal trading of pangolins substantially accelerated the decline of the pangolins' population in southeastern Asia. The maintenance of confiscated pangolins in rescue centers is currently a daunting task for veterinarians and conservation biologists. There is limited information in the literature about the reference values regarding the physiology of pangolins. The purpose of this study is to establish reliable hematologic and serum biochemical reference values for the Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla). Blood samples were collected from 51 apparently healthy pangolins from a population of 117 rescued pangolins at the Taipei Zoo. Sex-related differences were observed in platelet count, alanine aminotransferase level, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total protein level. Age-related differences were also noted; juveniles have significantly higher platelet counts and alkaline phosphatase levels than their adult counter parts. The hematologic and serum biochemical reference values for the Formosan pangolin presented in this study can be applied in the medical care of this important species during rescue attempts. It is the first systematic report of blood parameters of apparently healthy pangolins and provides a basis for future investigation of this species. The reference values reported in this study may also be applicable to other pangolin species in the genus Manis. PMID:25831578

  7. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  8. Changes in biochemical, hemodynamic, and dialysis adherence parameters in hemodialysis patients during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Alshamsi, Shaikha; Binsaleh, Fatima; Hejaili, Fayez; Karkar, Ayman; Moussa, Dujana; Raza, Hamad; Parbat, Parkash; Al Suwida, Abdulkareem; Alobaili, Saad; AlSehli, R; Al Sayyari, Abdulla

    2016-04-01

    This paper aimed to study the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical and clinical parameters and compliance for dialysis. A prospective multicenter observational cross-sectional study comparing fasting with a non-fasting stable adult hemodialysis patients for demographic and biochemical parameters, compliance with dialysis, inter-dialytic weight gain, pre- and post-blood pressure, and frequency of intradialytic hypotensive episodes was carried out. Six hundred thirty-five patients, of whom 64.1% fasted, were studied. The fasters were younger (53.3 ± 16.2 vs. 58.4 ± 16.1 years; P = 0.001) but had similar duration on dialysis (P = 0.35). More fasters worked (22.0% vs. 14.6%; P = 0.001) and missed dialysis sessions during Ramadan. No differences were noted between groups in sex, diabetic status, or dialysis shift or day. There were no differences in the pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure; serum potassium, albumin or weight gain; diabetic status; sex; and dialysis shift time or days. However, serum phosphorous was significantly higher in the fasting group (2.78 ± 1.8 vs. 2.45 ± 1.6 mmol/L; P = 0.045). There were no intragroup differences in any of the parameters studied when comparing the findings during Ramadan with those in the month before Ramadan. Fasters were significantly younger and more likely to be working, to miss dialysis sessions, and to have higher serum phosphorous levels. No other differences were observed. PMID:26420510

  9. Dietary effects of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Sakineh; Teimouri, Mahdi; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (n=180; 101±8 g) were randomly divided into fifteen 300 L fiberglass tanks in triplicates for a period of ten weeks. The RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, total protein and albumin levels increased significantly in the groups supplemented with S. platensis. Dietary inclusion of S. platensis had no significant effects on hematocrit, cholesterol, triglyceride and lactate of the blood. HDL-cholesterol was larger in rainbow trout fed 10% S. platensis in comparison with the other diets, whereas LDL-cholesterol significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. Cortisol and glucose significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. The present results demonstrate that inclusion of 10% S. platensis can be introduced as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout diets. PMID:26267095

  10. Impact of Delayed Analysis in Avian Blood Biochemical Values Measured With the Abaxis VetScan VS2.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Sharman M; Boyd, Janice D; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2015-09-01

    For biochemical analysis with a point-of-care biochemical analyzer, standard procedure is to analyze the sample as rapidly as possible (<1 hour) after venipuncture to minimize any changes in analyte concentrations that might occur over time. However, under some circumstances, such as when collecting blood at remote field sites, a longer delay may be unavoidable. This study evaluates the effect of delayed analysis time under unrefrigerated conditions on avian (psittacine) biochemical analyte concentrations obtained with the VetScan VS2 using Avian/Reptilian Profile Plus rotors. Venipuncture was performed on a group of 36 psittacine birds as part of routine health checks in a research aviary (Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine, College Station, TX, USA). Whole blood was kept at room temperature and analyzed at 4 time intervals: <1, 3, 6, and 24 hours after venipuncture. At 3 hours or less after collection, most biochemical parameters changed by <2%, with the exception of phosphorus (decrease of about -9%). Major increases by 24 hours after collection were observed in phosphorus (+67%) and potassium (+103%) concentrations, whereas aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid, glucose, and sodium concentrations also showed statistically significant changes. Our results suggest that accurate information from analyses using the VetScan VS2 may be obtained for up to 3 hours after venipuncture without refrigeration, but researchers and clinicians do need to exercise care when interpreting blood chemistry analyte concentrations obtained after multihour delays between venipuncture and sample analysis. PMID:26378666

  11. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S.; Lara, Marcus V. S.; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2014-01-01

    Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

  12. Intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus alters plasma and brain biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S; Lara, Marcus V S; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2014-11-01

    Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

  13. Effect of feeding cottonseed meal on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalaisamy, G.; Purushothaman, M. R.; Kumar, P. Vasantha; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the effect of feeding cottonseed meal (CSM) on performance of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: A 6-week biological trial was carried out with 432-day-old Cobb 400 broiler chicks distributed to nine experimental diets with six replicates, each containing eight chicks. The experimental diets were formulated based on total amino acids (BTAA) or based on digestible amino acids (BDAA) with or without iron supplementation with two levels of CSM (2% and 4%) and control diet based on maize – soybean. The whole blood was subjected to hematological studies. The serum samples were analyzed for protein fractions and lipid profiles. Results: The packed cell volume (PCV) value, red blood cell (RBC) numbers, and hemoglobin (Hb) were lower in iron unsupplemented CSM BTAA or BDAA diets than the control (33.86-35.54 vs. 36.41%, 2.78-2.87 vs. 2.98 × 106/μl, and 10.30-10.70 vs. 10.88%). Supplementation of iron in CSM diets improved the PCV, RBC numbers, and Hb, and the values were comparable to the control. White blood cell numbers, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration values were comparable to the control. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was poor in birds fed diets containing up to 4% CSM BTAA or CSM BDAA without iron supplementation (32.02-32.57 vs. 28.77%). Supplementation of iron improved the EOF. The serum cholesterol level did not change with or without iron supplementation. Conclusion: This study suggested that feeding of CSM BTAA or BDAA up to 4% level voiding iron supplementation lowers the hematological parameters, whereas supplementation of iron did not alter serum protein fractions and cholesterol profile; however, it had lowered some hematological parameters, which was rectified by iron supplementation. PMID:27536033

  14. Effects of Khaya senegalensis leaves on performance, carcass traits, hemtological and biochemical parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Wareth, A. A. A.; Hammad, Seddik; Ahmed, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group). Group I (control) received standard rabbit diet. Rabbits in group II and group III were fed standard rabbit diet supplemented with 35 % and 65 % KS leaves, respectively. All rabbits were fed daily for 25 days. The performance parameters and carcass criteria, including daily body weight gain, final body weight, and the percentage of dressing, were increased in rabbits fed 35 % KS when compared to the control group. Kidney and liver weight ratios increased significantly in group II but dropped in group III. Furthermore, liver enzymes - alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and kidney function parameters - urea, and creatinine - increased in both group II (significant P<0.05) and in group III (significant P<0.01) when compared to the control group. Moreover, KS leaves induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total white blood cell count, the percentage of granulocytes and the platelet count; whereas, the percentage of lymphocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not statistically significantly changed. This study demonstrates that the performance parameters and carcass traits are improved by the replacement of rabbit's diet with KS leaves. However, KS leaves may adversely affect liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the maximum tolerable and toxic, as well as lethal doses, and to isolate the pharmacologically active components from KS leaves. PMID

  15. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ramanand, Sunita J.; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B.; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.; Patwardhan, Milind H.; Patwardhan, Varsha M.; Ghanghas, Ravi; Halasawadekar, Nimish R.; Patil, Praveenkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria) Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results: The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45). Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL) was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027). Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56). It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN) as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038). Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57). A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH), LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN) of insulin resistance. PMID:24741521

  16. Global parameter estimation methods for stochastic biochemical systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of stochasticity in cellular processes having low number of molecules has resulted in the development of stochastic models such as chemical master equation. As in other modelling frameworks, the accompanying rate constants are important for the end-applications like analyzing system properties (e.g. robustness) or predicting the effects of genetic perturbations. Prior knowledge of kinetic constants is usually limited and the model identification routine typically includes parameter estimation from experimental data. Although the subject of parameter estimation is well-established for deterministic models, it is not yet routine for the chemical master equation. In addition, recent advances in measurement technology have made the quantification of genetic substrates possible to single molecular levels. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop practical and effective methods for estimating kinetic model parameters in the chemical master equation and other stochastic models from single cell and cell population experimental data. Results Three parameter estimation methods are proposed based on the maximum likelihood and density function distance, including probability and cumulative density functions. Since stochastic models such as chemical master equations are typically solved using a Monte Carlo approach in which only a finite number of Monte Carlo realizations are computationally practical, specific considerations are given to account for the effect of finite sampling in the histogram binning of the state density functions. Applications to three practical case studies showed that while maximum likelihood method can effectively handle low replicate measurements, the density function distance methods, particularly the cumulative density function distance estimation, are more robust in estimating the parameters with consistently higher accuracy, even for systems showing multimodality. Conclusions The parameter estimation methodologies

  17. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

    PubMed

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell. PMID:26984406

  18. [Homocysteine--a routine biochemical parameter in cardiovascular diseases?].

    PubMed

    Gábor, D; Hrnciar, J; Hricová, I; Zacharová, M

    1999-01-01

    An elevated level of total homocysteine (tHcy) in blood-hyperhomocysteinemia, is prevalent and strong risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease in the coronary, cerebral and peripheral vessels and for thromboembolism (arterial and venous). Elevated total homocysteine confers a graded risk with no threshold, is independent of but may enhance the effect of conventional risk factors. Hyperhomocysteinemia seems to be a particularly strong predictor of cardiovaskular mortality. Supplementation with B-vitamins, in particular with folic acid, is an efficient, safe and inexpensive means to reduce an elevated total homocysteine level. PMID:10422525

  19. Effect of oestrogenic compounds on performance and biochemical parameters of chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Badr, Mohamed O T; Hashem, Mohamed A; Gado, Nissreen N

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of the effects of Nordette and LutoFolone on 15-day-old chickens were performed to determine their effects on growth performance, biochemical parameters and on hormonal residues in the liver and muscle. Sixty chickens were equally divided into three groups, with 20 chickens per group. Group 1 served as the control group. Groups 2 and 3 were treated daily with Nordette (1 mg/kg body weight) mixed in the ration and LutoFolone (0.5 mg/kg body weight) administered orally through a bent stainless steel feeding tube, respectively, for 30 days (from the 15th to the 45th day of age). The treated groups were left for a further period of 15 days without treatment. Blood samples were collected at 45 and 60 days of age and used for biochemical studies, while liver and muscles were excised from each chicken and used to prepare tissue homogenates for an estimation of hormonal residues (oestrogen and progesterone). Both drugs caused a gain in body weight. They also significantly increased (p<0.01) several serum variables, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (410% and 300%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (277.69% and 261.90%), cholesterol (16.91% and 17.19%), creatine kinase (CK) (72.47% and 27.46%), creatinine (62.22% and 42.22%) and uric acid (85.43% and 70.86%), and reduced total proteins (54.38% and 51.28%), albumin (60.38% and 52.08%) and globulin levels (50.22% and 49.36%) for Groups 2 and 3 respectively at 30 days post administration, in comparison with the control birds. Moreover, this study exhibited a significant increase in the levels of oestrogen residues in the liver (26.17% and 70.99%) and muscle (17.50% and 43.41%) for Groups 2 and 3, respectively. This indicated that the oestrogen level was much higher in the liver than in muscle in comparison to that of the controls. However, some of these findings showed insignificant changes 15 days after ceasing the administration of hormones. Data on the biochemical parameters and residue levels

  20. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepesh Bharat; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Vinod; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Muneendra; Kushwaha, Raju; Vaswani, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1) served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental

  1. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  2. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Yuming; Ning, Dong; Peng, Yunzhi; Cai, Hong; Tan, Jianzhuang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  3. Human plasma kallikrein-kinin system: Physiological and biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, J.W.; Shariat-Madar, z

    2016-01-01

    The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) plays a critical role in human physiology. The KKS encompasses coagulation factor XII (FXII), the complex of prekallikrein (PK) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK). The conversion of plasma to kallikrein by the activated FXII and in response to numerous different stimuli leads to the generation of bradykinin (BK) and activated HK (HKa, an antiangiogenic peptide). BK is a proinflammatory peptide, a pain mediator and potent vasodilator, leading to robust accumulation of fluid in the interstitium. Systemic production of BK, HKa with the interplay between BK bound-BK receptors and the soluble form of HKa are key to angiogenesis and hemodynamics. KKS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypertension, endotoxemia, and coagulopathy. In all these cases increased BK levels is the hallmark. In some cases, the persistent production of BK due to the deficiency of the blood protein C1-inhibitor, which controls FXII, is detrimental to the survival of the patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE). In others, the inability of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to degrade BK leads to elevated BK levels and edema in patients on ACE inhibitors. Thus, the mechanisms that interfere with BK liberation or degradation would lead to blood pressure dysfunction. In contrast, anti-kallikrein treatment could have adverse effects in hemodynamic changes induced by vasoconstrictor agents. Genetic models of kallikrein deficiency are needed to evaluate the quantitative role of kallikrein and to validate whether strategies designed to activate or inhibit kallikrein may be important for regulating whole-body BK sensitivity. PMID:19689262

  4. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on emotional behavior and biochemical parameters in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Khemissi, Wahid; Mrad, Imen; Rihane, Naima; Ben Slama, Imen; Mir, Lassaad E; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Ben Rhouma, Khemais; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology is becoming a potential source for human exposure to nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been widely produced in industrial processes for several years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on plasmatic biochemical parameters and the emotional behavior in adult Wistar rats. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 nanoparticles (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg. For toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles sample, body weight, organ coefficient, blood biochemistry panel assay (AST, ALT, LDH, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose content) and emotional behavior parameters were determined. Sub-acute TiO2 nanoparticles treatment decreased the body weight, but increased the relative brain weight. Biochemical assessment in plasma samples showed that TiO2 nanoparticles injection increased uric acid concentration and AST activity in rats. However, the same treatment decreased the creatinine level, but had no effect on glucose concentration, ALT and LDH activity. The emotional behavior of control and treated rats was tested in elevated plus-maze. Interestingly, our results showed that TiO2-treated rats spent more time in the secured closed arms and entered the anxiogenic open arms less frequently than control. Our results suggest that TiO2 nanoparticles intoxication could altered biochemical parameters related to changes in organ function and leads to emotional behavior impairment of rats. PMID:23682022

  5. Does Oral Coenzyme Q10 Plus NADH Supplementation Improve Fatigue and Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Mario D.; Segundo, María José; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Román-Malo, Lourdes; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic and extremely debilitating illness characterized by prolonged fatigue and multiple symptoms with unknown cause, diagnostic test, or universally effective treatment. Inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and CoQ10 deficiency have been well documented in CFS. We conducted an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the benefits of oral CoQ10 (200 mg/day) plus NADH (20 mg/day) supplementation on fatigue and biochemical parameters in 73 Spanish CFS patients. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02063126). A significant improvement of fatigue showing a reduction in fatigue impact scale total score (p<0.05) was reported in treated group versus placebo. In addition, a recovery of the biochemical parameters was also reported. NAD+/NADH (p<0.001), CoQ10 (p<0.05), ATP (p<0.05), and citrate synthase (p<0.05) were significantly higher, and lipoperoxides (p<0.05) were significantly lower in blood mononuclear cells of the treated group. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the oral CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation could confer potential therapeutic benefits on fatigue and biochemical parameters in CFS. Larger sample trials are warranted to confirm these findings. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 679–685. PMID:25386668

  6. The Effects of Ethanol on the Morphological and Biochemical Properties of Individual Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Yun; Park, Hyun Joo; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yong Keun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of ethanol exposure on human red blood cells (RBCs) using quantitative phase imaging techniques at the level of individual cells. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of RBCs were measured using common-path diffraction optical tomography, from which morphological (volume, surface area, and sphericity); biochemical (hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Hb content); and biomechanical (membrane fluctuation) parameters were retrieved at various concentrations of ethanol. RBCs exposed to the ethanol concentration of 0.1 and 0.3% v/v exhibited cell sphericities higher than those of normal cells. However, mean surface area and sphericity of RBCs in a lethal alcoholic condition (0.5% v/v) are not statistically different with those of healthy RBCs. Meanwhile, significant decreases of Hb content and concentration in RBC cytoplasm at the lethal condition were observed. Furthermore, dynamic fluctuation of RBC membranes increased significantly upon ethanol treatments, indicating ethanol-induced membrane fluidization. PMID:26690915

  7. Biochemical and immunological parameters as indicators of osteoarthritis subjects: role of OH-collagen in auto-antibodies generation

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Jalaluddin M.; Haque, Quazi S.; Tabrez, Shams; Choi, Inho; Ahmad, Saheem

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by inflammation of the knee joint, which is caused by accumulation of cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the extracellular matrix as an early immune response to infection. The articular cartilage destruction is discernible by elevated tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In this study, blood samples of knee osteoarthritis patients were analyzed for biochemical and physiological parameters based on the lipid profile, uric acid, total leukocyte count (TLC), hemoglobin percentage (Hb%) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Furthermore, immunological parameters including TNF-α , interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CRP were analyzed. The presence of antibodies against hydroxyl radical modified collagen-II (•OH-collagen-II) was also investigated in arthritis patients using direct binding ELISA. The uric acid and lipid profiles changed extensively. Specifically, increased uric acid levels were associated with OA in both genders, as were enhanced immunological parameters. The TNF-α level also increased in both genders suffering from OA. Finally, auto-antibodies against OH-collagen II antigen were found in the sera of arthritis patients. These results indicated that immunological parameters are better predictors or indexes for diagnosis of OA than biochemical parameters. PMID:26933405

  8. Biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters influencing thyroid nodules elasticity.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Woliński, Kosma; Stangierski, Adam; Gurgul, Edyta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Elastography is a method of tissue stiffness assessment. It has already been demonstrated that thyroid cancers are less elastic than benign lesions. However, little is known about other factors, which might influence the stiffness of thyroid nodules and disrupt the prediction of malignancy using this technique. The aim of this study was to conduct the first systematic assessment of factors potentially affecting the elasticity of thyroid lesions. One hundred and twenty-two patients with thyroid nodular disease admitted for thyroidectomy underwent preoperative ultrasonography and sonoelastography. The definite diagnosis of thyroid lesions was based on histological examination. What was evaluated in the study was the influence of composition, size, localization, nodularity, and selected laboratory parameters on thyroid nodule elasticity. Firstly, association between the above-mentioned factors and elasticity was assessed in benign lesions. Secondly, all nodules (benign and malignant) were divided into subgroups according to the presence or absence of particular features, which turned out to be an important disturbing factor increasing the stiffness of the lesion in the first step of analysis. There were 22 malignant and 371 benign lesions. The analysis of benign lesions revealed that the presence calcifications (p < 0.0001) significantly increased nodule stiffness. Partially, cystic nodules were significantly less elastic than solid ones (p = 0.03). There was also positive correlation between nodule size and stiffness (p < 0.0001). Lesions localized in the isthmus were significantly less elastic than nodules in other localizations. (p = 0.0001). Solitary nodules were less elastic than lesions in multinodular goiter (p = 0.006). Correlation between Tg concentration and stiffness was significant (p < 0.0001, r = 0.24). The concentration of anti-thyroid autoantibodies was associated with stiffness at the border of significance. However, there was no significant

  9. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  10. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  11. Serum biochemical changes and chemiluminescent responses of whole blood in Holstein cattle with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Tanaka, S; Oba, M; Minami, S; Noda, H

    1994-08-01

    Serum biochemical profile and whole blood chemiluminescent (CL) responses in 8 Holstein cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) were evaluated. Concentrations of sodium, chloride and calcium in serum from cattle affected with LAD were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased as compared with controls. The characteristic changes in serum proteins were hypoalbuminemia and hyperglobulinemia, and the concentrations of albumin and gammaglobulin in serum from normal cattle and cattle affected with LAD were significantly (p < 0.01) different. Significantly (p < 0.01) diminished CL indices and prolonged peak time of CL responses in whole blood were detected in cattle affected with LAD. These findings indicate that the CL response associated with iC3b receptor mediated phagocytic activity is impaired in cattle affected with LAD. The whole blood CL assay appeared to be practical and useful for routine evaluation of blood samples from cattle affected with LAD. PMID:7999886

  12. Correlation between yield and biochemical parameters in the mulberry silkworm,Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Rao, C G; Chatterjee, G K; Ashwath, S K; Patnaik, A K

    1993-11-01

    A detailed study was carried out on six biochemical parameters and four yield attributes using multiple regression analysis to investigate their relationship in the mulberry silkworm,Bombyx mori. The study generated new information on the importance of digestive amylase activity for the survival of the silkworm and revealed the inability of other enzymes to affect this relationship. Data also substantiate the observations made earlier on the genetic variability of amylase in the mulberry silkworm. Analyses extend the positive role of alkaline phosphatase and invertase in the expression of the other yield traits studied and indicate the definite possibility of using biochemical markers for silkworm breeding. PMID:24190267

  13. Hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population: defining reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Shrilekha; Domalapalli, Suhasini; Muthu, Sundaram; Swaminathan, Jayanthi; Ramesh, Vivek A; Sekhar, Lalitha; Pandeya, Palak; Balasubramaniam, Udhaya

    2014-07-01

    Clinical reference intervals among Indian population are poorly defined. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish local clinical laboratory reference intervals for healthy Indian population. The present study aimed to identify the 95 % reference interval for hematological and biochemical parameters in apparently healthy Indian population. We undertook a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted at Apollo Hospitals Educational and Research Foundation across India. Of which 10,665 reference individuals identified as healthy by physicians. The 95 % of the reference distribution was estimated using 2.5th and 97.5th percentile reference limits. The 95 % reference intervals for hemoglobin (Males: 12.3-17 g/dL; Females: 9.9-14.3 g/dL), platelet count (Males: 1.3-3.8; Females: 1.3-4.2 Lakhs/µL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Males: 2-22; Females: 4-55 mm/h), serum uric acid in males: 3.5-8.2 mg/dL, gamma glutamyl transferase (Males: 13-61 U/L), fasting blood glucose (Males: 78-110 mg/dL), total cholesterol (Males: 115-254 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (Males: 60-176 mg/dL) and triglycerides (Males: 55-267 mg/dL, Females: 52-207 mg/dL) were different from currently used reference values. Additionally need for gender based partitioning were observed for triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase. The observed findings are of clinical significance and it needs to be validated with additional community based studies. PMID:24966476

  14. Effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on anemia of hemodialysis patients and relevant biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Xu, X F; Hu, J P; Cheng, X; Yu, G J; Luo, F; Zhang, G S; Yang, N; Shen, P

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on the anemia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, as well as the relevant biochemical parameters. We selected 72 patients who had received regular MHD treatment two or three times a week for more than 3 months in the Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Zhengzhou City of Henan Province from March 2014 to March 2016. They were equally divided into a treatment group and a control group. Haemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) of the treatment group increased significantly after treatment (p < 0.01), but less in the control group (p < 0.05); Also serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TAST) of the treatment group increased significantly after treatment (p < 0.01); SF of the control group also increased significantly (p < 0.01) and TAST of the control group increased (p < 0.05) but less than in the treatment group. No obvious changes of serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), C-reactive protein (CRP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found in either groups after treatment (p>0.05). Albumin (ALB) dosage of the treatment group increased after treatment (p < 0.05) while hemopoietin (EPO) decreased significantly (p < 0.01). ALB and EPO of the control group had no obvious changes after treatment (p>0.05). ALB level of the treatment group increased more significantly than in the control group (p < 0.05), while EPO dosage decreased more significantly than in the control group (p <0.05). Therefore, the combination of conventional western medicine and sodium ferrous chlorophyll can effectively improve anemia conditions of MHD patients and their quality of life. PMID:27049084

  15. Effects of water-current speed on hematological, biochemical and immune parameters in juvenile tinfoil barb, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Bleeker, 1854)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiming; Song, Bolan; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of water-current speed on hematological, biochemical and immune parameters in juvenile tinfoil barb ( Barbonymus schwanenfeldii). Blood samples were taken on days 1, 23 and 45 from control fish and from two training groups maintained at current speeds of 0.06 bl/s (body length per second), 0.66 bl/s, and 1.92 bl/s, respectively. Significantly increased red-blood-cell counts and hematocrit were observed in the post-training groups on days 23 and 45. Significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations were also observed in the 1.92 bl/s group on days 23 and 45. In contrast, values of mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the 1.92 bl/s group than in the other groups on day 45. Nitroblue-tetrazolium-positive cells and lysozyme and superoxidase dismutase activities in the plasma increased significantly with increasing training intensity on days 23 and 45. Antibacterial activities were significantly increased in the trained groups compared with the control group on day 23; significantly elevated alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in the 1.92 bl/s groups on day 45. Therefore, training intensities of 0.66 and 1.92 bl/s enhanced the blood oxygen-carrying capability and plasma immune parameters of juvenile tinfoil barbs.

  16. Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Budinčević, Mirko; Balaž, Igor; Mihailović, Anja

    Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

  17. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Hmoud F.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC 50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  18. Contaminant concentrations, biochemical and hematological biomarkers in blood of West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anzolin, D G; Sarkis, J E S; Diaz, E; Soares, D G; Serrano, I L; Borges, J C G; Souto, A S; Taniguchi, S; Montone, R C; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2012-07-01

    The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is threatened with extinction in Brazil, and this study focused on nondestructive blood samples analyzed for metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as biochemical and hematological biomarkers. Studied manatees were kept at Projeto Peixe-Boi headquarters in Pernambuco State, and at two natural areas in estuaries where they are released to the wild. Manatees kept at the natural estuary in Paraiba State have blood concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Sn that are 11, 7, 8 and 23 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations found in blood of animals from the same species in Florida, USA. An inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in manatees kept at the two reintroduction sites in Alagoas and Paraiba States indicated possible exposure of the animals to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides. PCBs and OCPs were not detected. Results from this study will help delineate conservation efforts in the region. PMID:22626623

  19. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during a decompression procedure involving eight hours of oxygen prebreathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 8 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate space-flight extravehicular activity (EVA) for 6 h. Several statistically significant changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure: increases in calcium, magnesium, osmolality, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, monocytes, and prothrombin time, and decreases in chloride, creatine phosphokinase and eosinophils. The changes, however, were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression profile used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during EVA.

  20. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Rida; Yrjälä, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 μgmL−1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology. PMID:25242944

  1. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  2. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  3. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    PubMed

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration. PMID:25001662

  4. Age-Related Alterations in Blood Biochemical Characterization of Hepatorenal Function in the PCK Rat: A Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yuichi; Brock, William J; Ito, Yuko; Morishita, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    PCK rats develop age-related polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and liver disease and have been used to investigate pharmacotherapies to ameliorate hepatorenal lesions for patients with PKD. The PCK rat may be useful to understand the possible susceptibility to hepatotoxicity observed in the patient with PKD having hepatic polycystic lesions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the background blood biochemical changes that reflect the hepatorenal function of PCK rats as well as the terminal histopathology in order to determine whether this model would be suitable for extrapolating the susceptibility of hepatotoxicity in patients. The blood biochemical parameters of hepatorenal function and histopathology were investigated in PCK rats at ages 5 to 19 weeks and compared to those outcomes in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat. There were notable blood biochemical changes possibly due to biliary dysgenesis in the PCK rat as early as 5 weeks of age. High levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bile acids persisted throughout the study compared to the SD rat. Increased aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and hyperlipidemia and a decrease in albumin were also evident at 10 to 19 weeks of age possibly due to progression of cholestatic liver dysfunction secondary to age-related liver cystic progression. Increased liver weights generally correlated with the severity of biliary and hepatic histopathological changes. In male PCK rats, age-related increases in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine at 10 to 19 weeks of age were observed, and the cystic progression was more severe than that in females. These data indicate that the PCK rat showed notable blood biochemical changes reflecting alteration of the liver function compared to the SD rat. Also, there was a large individual variation in these parameters possibly due to variable progression rate of biliary dysgenesis and subsequent liver damages in PCK

  5. Toxicity assessment of two soils from Jales mine (Portugal) using plants: growth and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Santos, Conceição; Pinto, Glória; Costa, Armando; Monteiro, Marta; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2006-02-01

    Contaminants in soils can enter food chains through primary producers. Bioavailable contaminants can induce growth, and reproductive or biochemical changes in plants. To evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals in two soils from Jales mine surroundings, bioassays with the plants Brassica rapa (RCBr) and Avena sativa were performed. Biochemical parameters (protein and malondialdehyde [MDA] content, and catalase and peroxidase activities) were also measured. The soils had different heavy metal contents: JNC soil contained low heavy metal concentrations, whereas JC soil had high heavy metal contents. Results stressed the difference between species sensitivity, with A. sativa showing no toxicity effects when exposed to both soils. On the other hand, B. rapa presented a decrease in growth parameters when exposed to JNC soil and no changes when exposed to JC soil. A Life Cycle Bioassay confirmed this trend for B. rapa exposed to JNC soil, but also evidenced that JC soil was affecting B. rapa in terms of flower and seed pod production. Biochemical assays showed that plants affected by heavy metals also displayed oxidative stress, with an increase in MDA production, reduction of protein content, and reduction of catalase and peroxidase activities. All bioassays revealed that JNC soil, although with a lower heavy metal content, had a higher bioavailable fraction when compared to JC soil, which consequently increased its toxicity to plants. PMID:16307215

  6. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an indirect ELISA method. The results showed deviations from normal parameters of blood glucose, CPK, LDH, AST and ALT when compared with reported levels in uninfected reptiles. Contrary to studies involving mammals, hypoglycaemia was not observed in the infected groups in this study. Peak values of blood glucose were reached on post-infection (PI) Day 49, Day 42 and Day 35 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of LDH and AST were observed on PI Day 56, Day 49 and Day 42 in the high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups, respectively. Peak values of CPK were observed on Day 35 PI in all three groups. Peak ALT values were reached on Day 56 in the high-infection group and on Day 28 PI in both the medium-infection and low-infection groups. No correlations between the biochemical parameters and infection intensity were observed. Peak antibody titres were reached on Day 49 PI in the medium-infection group, and on Day 42 PI in both the high-infection and low-infection groups. Infection intensity could not be correlated with the magnitude of the humoral immune response or time to sero-conversion. Results from this study were in agreement with results reported in mammals infected with other Trichinella species and showed that antibody titres could not be detected indefinitely. PMID:25686027

  7. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Adams, F.; Bellairs, G.; Bird, A. R.; Oguntibeju, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion. PMID:25710038

  8. The Association between Nutritional Markers and Biochemical Parameters and Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ting; Chen, Zhenyan; Zuo, Xuezhi; Du, Xiang; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Chunxiu; Hu, Xiangrong; Li, Junhua; Wang, Le; Ma, Zufu; Yao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Residual renal function (RRF) is an important prognostic factor for peritoneal dialysis patients as it influences the quality of life and mortality. This study was conducted to explore the potential factors correlated with RRF. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 155 patients with residual GFR more than 1mL/min per 1.73m2 at the initiation of peritoneal dialysis. We collected the demographic characteristics, nutritional markers and biochemical parameters of all participants, and analyzed the correlation between these variables and residual GFR as well. The odds ratio of RRF loss associated with each of the nutritional markers and biochemical parameters were estimated by logistic regression model. The residual GFR was negatively correlated with serum phosphate (ORQ3 = 2.67, 95%CI: 1.03–6.92; ORQ4 = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.35–9.04), magnesium (ORQ4 = 3.77, 95%CI: 1.48–3.63), and creatinine (ORQ3 = 2.93, 95%CI: 1.09–7.88; ORQ4 = 8.64 95%CI: 2.79–26.78), while positively associated with normalized protein catabolic rate (ORQ3 = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.09–0.65; ORQ4 = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.03–0.35), 24 hours urine volume(ORQ1 = 22.87, 95%CI: 2.76–189.24; ORQ3 = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.02–0.28) and serum chlorine concentrations (ORQ1 = 5.34, 95%CI: 1.94–14.68; ORQ4 = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.09–0.85), respectively. Our study suggested that the nutritional markers and biochemical parameters, though not all, but at least in part were closely correlated with RRF in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:27258403

  9. A Model Incorporating Some of the Mechanical and Biochemical Factors Underlying Clot Formation and Dissolution in Flowing Blood

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple interacting mechanisms control the formation and dissolution of clots to maintain blood in a state of delicate balance. In addition to a myriad of biochemical reactions, rheological factors also play a crucial role in modulating the response of blood to external stimuli. To date, a comprehensive model for clot formation and dissolution, that takes into account the biochemical, medical and rheological factors, has not been put into place, the existing models emphasizing either one or the other of the factors. In this paper, after discussing the various biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors at some length, we develop a modelmore » for clot formation and dissolution that incorporates many of the relevant crucial factors that have a bearing on the problem. The model, though just a first step towards understanding a complex phenomenon, goes further than previous models in integrating the biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors that come into play.« less

  10. Short-term omeprazole treatment does not influence biochemical parameters of bone turnover in children.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, I; Arató, A; Bodánszky, H; Szönyi, L; Szabó, A; Tulassay, T; Vásárhelyi, B

    2002-08-01

    Gastric proton pump inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of dyspeptic problems and for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Data are not available on whether omeprazole, a representative of proton pump inhibitors, influences the function of osteoclastic H+-pump in children. We studied the impact of short-term omeprazole administration on the biochemical parameters of bone turnover in pediatric patients. Urinary calcium excretion, serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen type 1 crosslinked C-telopeptide, and osteocalcin levels were determined in 34 children [20 girls (9 prepubertal) and 14 boys (6 prepubertal)] before and after 2 weeks of omeprazole treatment at a dose of 20 mg/day. The measured parameters were within the healthy reference range in each patient. None of them altered during the study in any age or in any gender. We conclude that omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/day, does not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters of osteoclast and osteoblast function in pediatric patients. PMID:12200646

  11. Spent Mushroom Substrate Influences Elk (Cervus Elaphus Canadensis) Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Sang Woo; Do, Yoon Jung; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Yeoung Gyu; Yang, Boh Suk; Shin, Daekeun; Cho, Young Moo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived from Pleurotus eryngii on the hematological and biochemical blood properties of elk. A total of 18, two and three-year-old elk were fed three different levels of SMS (0, 15 and 20%) in a corn-wheat bran diet for 80 days. The results indicated significantly high levels of blood monocytes, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (HCT) in elk fed 15% or 20% SMS (p<0.05) compared to control animals. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose concentrations were also significantly elevated in elk fed both 15% and 20% SMS. The inclusion of SMS in the elk diet did not affect serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, or low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations; however, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in SMS-fed groups. In addition, 20% SMS in the diet increased serum iron and testosterone concentrations in elk. These results indicate that adding SMS to the diet of elk can increase their Hgb, serum BUN, glucose, and HDL-cholesterol concentration; therefore, diets containing SMS may enhance the physiologic condition of elk during growth. PMID:25049569

  12. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  13. Changes in blood biochemical markers before, during, and after a 2-day ultramarathon

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Kazuyuki; Hosono, Akihiro; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Ghadimi, Reza; Fuku, Mizuho; Goto, Chiho; Imaeda, Nahomi; Tokudome, Yuko; Hoshino, Hideki; Marumoto, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2016-01-01

    We studied changes in blood markers of 18 nonprofessional, middle-aged runners of a 2-day, 130 km ultramarathon. Blood was sampled at baseline, after the goals on the first and second day, and at three time points (1, 3, and 5/6 days) after the race. Blood indices showed three patterns. First pattern indices showed essentially no changes after the two goals and after the race, including red blood cell indices, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Second pattern markers, including the majority of indices, were elevated during the race (and also after the race for some parameters) and then returned to baseline afterward, including hemolysis/red blood cell destruction markers (indirect bilirubin) and an iron reservoir index (ferritin), muscle damage parameters (uric acid, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase), renal function markers (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), liver injury index (alanine aminotransferase), lipid metabolism indices (free fatty acid), reactive oxygen species and inflammation parameters (white blood cells, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein), and energy production and catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine). Third pattern index of a lipid metabolism marker – triglyceride – decreased during the race periods and started returning to baseline from then onward. Some hormonal markers such as insulin, leptin, and adiponectin showed unique patterns. These findings appeared informative for nonprofessional athletes to know about an optimal physical activity level, duration, and total exercise for elevating physical performance and monitoring physical/mental conditioning as well as for prevention of overtraining and physical injuries. PMID:27186145

  14. Changes in blood biochemical markers before, during, and after a 2-day ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kazuyuki; Hosono, Akihiro; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Ghadimi, Reza; Fuku, Mizuho; Goto, Chiho; Imaeda, Nahomi; Tokudome, Yuko; Hoshino, Hideki; Marumoto, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2016-01-01

    We studied changes in blood markers of 18 nonprofessional, middle-aged runners of a 2-day, 130 km ultramarathon. Blood was sampled at baseline, after the goals on the first and second day, and at three time points (1, 3, and 5/6 days) after the race. Blood indices showed three patterns. First pattern indices showed essentially no changes after the two goals and after the race, including red blood cell indices, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Second pattern markers, including the majority of indices, were elevated during the race (and also after the race for some parameters) and then returned to baseline afterward, including hemolysis/red blood cell destruction markers (indirect bilirubin) and an iron reservoir index (ferritin), muscle damage parameters (uric acid, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase), renal function markers (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), liver injury index (alanine aminotransferase), lipid metabolism indices (free fatty acid), reactive oxygen species and inflammation parameters (white blood cells, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein), and energy production and catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine). Third pattern index of a lipid metabolism marker - triglyceride - decreased during the race periods and started returning to baseline from then onward. Some hormonal markers such as insulin, leptin, and adiponectin showed unique patterns. These findings appeared informative for nonprofessional athletes to know about an optimal physical activity level, duration, and total exercise for elevating physical performance and monitoring physical/mental conditioning as well as for prevention of overtraining and physical injuries. PMID:27186145

  15. [Blood biochemical indices of female red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Zhong-Wu; Zou, Hong-Fei; Jin, Guang-Yao

    2009-10-01

    From November 2004 to October 2005, twenty blood biochemical indices, i. e., total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, blood glucose, serum urea nitrogen, serum creatine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatine kinase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, serum calcium ion, inorganic phosphate, and magnesium ion, of 10 female Grus japonensis adults in their wintering, reproduction, and migration periods in Zhalong Nature Reserve were analyzed by automatic biochemical analyzer. Significant differences (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) were observed in the test indices except serum total protein, serum globulin, and blood glucose among the three life periods, which suggested that the serum total protein, serum globulin, and blood glucose could be used as the reliable references of blood biochemical indices of female G. japonensis, while the year-round dynamics of the other 17 indices reflected the physiological characteristics and ecological adaptability of female G. japonensis in its different periods in one year. When using these 17 indices as the references of the blood biochemical indices of female G. japonensis, the physiological period should be considered. PMID:20077721

  16. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  17. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf goats fed dried cassava leaves-based concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Anele, Uchenna Young; Oni, Oluwakemi Oluremilekun; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Onifade, Olufemi Sunday; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Dele, Peter Aniwe; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of dried cassava leaves at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60%, respectively, using guinea grass as basal feed, on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. The study lasted for 116 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored in 40 male goats before and after, using a completely randomized design. At the start of the experiment, packed cell volume (PCV) ranged from 21.5% to 25.5% while haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and RBC significantly (P < 0.01) ranged from 7.3 to 8.6 g/dl and 10.4 to 13.2 × 10(12)/l, respectively. White blood cells reduced significantly (P < 0.05)) from 16.4 to 11.7 × 10(9)/l) as dried cassava leaves increased in the diets. At the end of the trial, there was a slight increase in the values of PCV and Hb in the diets (P > 0.05). Lymphocyte reduced significantly (P < 0.05) from 50.0% to 63.5% in the diets. Neutrophils, however, increased (P > 0.05) at the 0% to 40% levels and reduced at the 60% level of dried cassava leaves inclusion. At the start of the experiment, values for glucose significantly (P < 0.05) ranged from 40.1 to 56.0 mg/dl. Total protein and albumin values ranged significantly (P < 0.05) from 56.0 to 68.5 g/dl and 30.6 to 38.4 g/dl, respectively. At the end of the experiment, serum creatinine increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of dried cassava leaves increased from 0% to 60% in the diets. The study revealed that inclusion of dried cassava leaves in the diets of West African Dwarf goats had no deleterious effects on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of WAD goats and could therefore be included in ruminant diets up to 60%. PMID:21744028

  18. Flux module decomposition for parameter estimation in a multiple-feedback loop model of biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiro; Minamida, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Computer simulation is an important technique to capture the dynamics of biochemical networks. Since few quantitative values are measured in vivo, the values for unmeasured parameters should be estimated so that the simulation agrees with the experimental data. Considering the sparsity and error rates of experimentally measured data, the first thing is not to find a numerically exact and global solution but to explore a variety of the plausible parameter solutions. To find many plausible parameter solutions without any biases, we developed the two-phase search (TPS) method. However, calculation complexity makes it hard for TPS to optimize a large-scale dynamic model. In this study divide-and-conquer methods are used to solve this problem. The flux module decomposition (FMD) is first proposed that separates a complex, large-scale dynamic model into multiple flux modules without deteriorating its basic control architectures. FMD is combined with TPS, named FMD-TPS, to find many plausible parameter solutions for a dynamic model. To demonstrate the feasibility of FMD-TPS, it is applied to the E. coli ammonia assimilation system that consists of multiple-feedback loops. The variability of the solutions is verified by measuring the space distribution of the parameter solution vectors and by defining the binary vectors checking the consistency with biological behaviors. Compared with non-decomposition methods, FMD-TPS efficiently explored a variety of plausible parameter solutions that reproduce the dynamic behaviors in vivo. PMID:22820677

  19. Does Vitamin D3 Have an Impact on Clinical and Biochemical Parameters Related to Third Molar Surgery.

    PubMed

    Oteri, Giacomo; Cicciù, Marco; Peditto, Matteo; Catalano, Antonino; Loddo, Saverio; Pisano, Michele; Lasco, Antonino

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect on the biochemical inflammatory markers of a single oral high dose of cholecalciferol in vitamin D-deficient patients undergoing the surgical removal of lower third molars.A randomized, split-mouth, single-blind study was conducted on 25 vitamin D-deficient patients ranging between 18 and 40 years of age requiring lower third molars extraction and referred at the Oral Surgery Unit of the School of Dentistry of the University of Messina.All patients, with vitamin D3 blood levels ≦30 ng/mL, underwent bilateral surgical removal. The first extraction (control group) being conducted with the administration of a placebo, the second one (test group) being conducted with the preliminary administration of 300,000 IU of cholecalciferol 4 days before the procedure.At each surgery, clinical indexes, such as pain, edema and any functional limitation have been recorded. Clinical and biochemical parameters were registered 4 days before, immediately after, 3 and 7 days after the surgical procedure. The data obtained were processed using paired t-test. The clinical outcome parameters showed a slight to moderate improvement between the control and the vitamin-D treatment group, with statistical significance being obtained regarding the edema at defined time points. Interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values were significantly lower (P < 0.01) for the test group after the surgery. The increase of vitamin D serum levels showed an impact on the outcome of the third molar surgery, eliciting a reduced inflammatory response and leading to a more favorable clinical course. PMID:26845098

  20. Correlation between ABO Blood Group, and Conventional Hematological and Metabolic Parameters in Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Terenziani, Isabella; Bonfanti, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Background Although several studies have investigated and confirmed the existence of an association between ABO blood type and several human disorders, especially with cardiovascular disease, little is known on the physiological influence or association of ABO blood groups on basal levels of some conventional hematological and metabolic parameters. Study Design and Methods A total number of 7,723 consecutive healthy blood donors underwent laboratory testing at the time of their first blood donation, which apart from ABO typing included assessment of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides, creatinine, iron, ferritin, uric acid, glucose, hemoglobin, and platelet count. Results The most relevant finding was the identification of significantly higher values of total cholesterol and HDL-c in subjects with blood group A compared with those with O blood type, with the highest levels being observed in A1 subtype. Conclusions The positive association between A blood type and plasma lipid levels supports its potential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the clinical observations of increased vulnerability to cardiovascular disease of individuals with non-O blood groups. PMID:26595152

  1. A new trend to determine biochemical parameters by quantitative FRET assays

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jia-yu; Song, Yang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been widely used in biological and biomedical research because it can determine molecule or particle interactions within a range of 1–10 nm. The sensitivity and efficiency of FRET strongly depend on the distance between the FRET donor and acceptor. Historically, FRET assays have been used to quantitatively deduce molecular distances. However, another major potential application of the FRET assay has not been fully exploited, that is, the use of FRET signals to quantitatively describe molecular interactive events. In this review, we discuss the use of quantitative FRET assays for the determination of biochemical parameters, such as the protein interaction dissociation constant (Kd), enzymatic velocity (kcat) and Km. We also describe fluorescent microscopy-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction affinity determination in cells as well as fluorimeter-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction and enzymatic parameter determination in solution. PMID:26567729

  2. Effects of Malaria Parasite Density on Blood Cell Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kotepui, Manas; Piwkham, Duangjai; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit

    2015-01-01

    Changes in blood cell parameters are already a well-known feature of malarial infections. To add to this information, the objective of this study was to investigate the varying effects that different levels of parasite density have on blood cell parameters. Patients diagnosed with malaria at Phobphra Hospital, Tak Province, Thailand between January 1st 2009 and January 1st 2012 were recruited as subjects for data collection. Blood cell parameters of 2,024 malaria-infected patients were evaluated and statistically analyzed. Neutrophil and platelet counts were significantly higher, however, RBC count was significantly lower in patients with P. falciparum infection compared to those with P. vivax infection (p<0.0001). Leukocyte counts were also significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia. In terms of differential leukocyte count, neutrophil count was significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia (p<0.0001). On the other hand, both lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly lower in patients with high parasitemia (p<0.0001). RBC count and Hb concentration, as well as platelet count were also significantly reduced (p<0.05) and (p<0.0001), respectively. To summarize, patients infected with different malaria parasites exhibited important distinctive hematological parameters, with neutrophil and eosinophil counts being the two hematological parameters most affected. In addition, patients infected with different malarial densities also exhibited important changes in leukocyte count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during the infection. These findings offer the opportunity to recognize and diagnose malaria related anemia, help support the treatment thereof, as well as relieve symptoms of severe malaria in endemic regions. PMID:25807235

  3. Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise: effect of a probiotic in horses during training.

    PubMed

    Art, T; Votion, D; McEntee, K; Amory, H; Linden, A; Close, R; Lekeux, P

    1994-01-01

    Two randomly distributed groups of thoroughbred horses were compared during a 12-week period for their cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustment to strenuous exercise, training and detraining. The horses were trained following the same standardized schedule and were regularly investigated using standardized treadmill exercise tests (SET) of increasing speed. After the first SET and during the whole experimental period, a group of 6 horses received a probiotic (Bioracing) once a day while a group of 5 horses received a placebo. All other conditions were similar for both groups. During each SET, the oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, tidal volume (inspired volume), respiratory rate and expired minute volume were obtained using 2 ultrasonic pneumotachographs and a mass spectrometer. All the parameters were the mean of the values calculated during the last 20 s of the SET. Heart rate was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. In both groups, training induced significant modification in most of the cardio-respiratory parameters, ie peak oxygen uptake, peak carbon dioxide output, respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation/min to oxygen-uptake ratio and oxygen-uptake to heart-rate ratio. After the 3-week detraining period, most of the values were again similar to the pre-training values in both groups. However, the training-induced modifications of most of the cardio-respiratory parameters occurred earlier and were proportionally greater in the probiotic-treated group than in the control. The respiratory coefficient decreased in the control but not in the treated group. All other parameters changed similarly in both groups. This suggests that Bioracing could modify the physiological effects of training by improving some aerobic metabolic capacities for carbohydrate utilization, but that this effect occurs only during training and not during periods of physical

  4. Method for Retrieving Leaf Biochemical Parameters from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2002-05-01

    Retrieving biophysical and biochemical parameters is one of the most important and promising applications of hyperspectral remote sensing and will contribute greatly to the understanding of terrestrial ecosystems. We developed a mathematical inversion method for deriving leaf chlorophyll and water contents, which are potentially very useful as inputs to photosynthesis and carbon cycle models. From hyperspectral data cubes, global absorption coefficients for these parameters have been derived from two leaf spectral models named LIBERTY and PROSPECT. Taking into account the various factors affecting the coefficients such as the cellular structure of leaves and concentrations of other substances (lignin, protein, etc.), we have successfully retrieved chlorophyll and water concentrations of leaves. The inversion model is tested by comparing these parameters used in the forward calculations of leaf spectra and the same parameters retrieved from these forward-calculated spectra. Excellent agreement is found between the inverse and forward results, the difference being generally less than 1%. Atmospherically corrected airborne hyperspectral CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) images over a boreal forest are chosen for further model test. Through the model inversion, the data cube with 72 spectral bands and 405x2852 pixels is used to produce maps of the chlorophyll and water concentrations for the forest. The influence of canopy architecture on the inversion results is yet to be investigated using a geometrical optical model.

  5. Interactions between Flow Oscillations and Biochemical Parameters in the Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Puy, Vincent; Zmudka-Attier, Jadwiga; Capel, Cyrille; Bouzerar, Roger; Serot, Jean-Marie; Bourgeois, Anne-Marie; Ausseil, Jérome; Balédent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium between the ventricular and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments may be disturbed (in terms of flow and biochemistry) in patients with chronic hydrocephalus (CH). Using flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CSF assays, we sought to determine whether changes in CSF were associated with biochemical alterations. Nine elderly patients with CH underwent phase-contrast MRI. An index of CSF dynamics (Idyn) was defined as the product of the lumbar and ventricular CSF flows. During surgery, samples of CSF were collected from the lumbar and ventricular compartments and assayed for chloride, glucose and total protein. The lumbar/ventricular (L/V) ratio was calculated for each analyte. The ratio between measured and expected levels (Ibioch) was calculated for each analyte and compared with Idyn. Idyn varied from 0 to 100.10(3)μl(2).s(2). In contrast to the L/V ratios for chloride and glucose, the L/V ratio for total protein varied markedly from one patient to another (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 2.63 ± 1.24). The Ibioch for total protein was strongly correlated with the corresponding Idyn (Spearman's R: 0.98; p < 5 × 10(-5)).We observed correlated alterations in CSF flow and biochemical parameters in patients with CH. Our findings also highlight the value of dynamic flow analysis in the interpretation of data on CSF biochemistry. PMID:27445797

  6. Variation in biochemical parameters in different parts of potato tubers for processing purposes.

    PubMed

    Bandana; Sharma, Vineet; Kaushik, S K; Singh, Brajesh; Raigond, Pinky

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the variation in bio-chemical parameters among eight different parts viz. bud end cortex, bud end medulla, central cortex, central medulla, pith, stem end cortex, stem end medulla and peel of potato tuber of processing varieties. Concentration of dry matter, reducing sugar, sucrose and starch content were higher in cortical region than in medullar region of stem end, bud end and central portion. Variety Kufri Chipsona-1 had maximum dry matter content in stem end cortex (SEC 30.34 %), followed by Kufri Frysona (SEC 27.71 %). Mean reducing sugar values were comparatively more in bud end cortex (BEC 111.3 mg/100 g Fresh Weight) and lowest in stem end medulla (SEM 44.05 mg/100 g FW). Bio-chemical contents varied considerably within different parts of tuber as well as in different genotypes. The information generated in this study can help processors for effective utilization of potato for various types of processing products viz., chips and French fries. PMID:27413232

  7. Interactions between Flow Oscillations and Biochemical Parameters in the Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Puy, Vincent; Zmudka-Attier, Jadwiga; Capel, Cyrille; Bouzerar, Roger; Serot, Jean-Marie; Bourgeois, Anne-Marie; Ausseil, Jérome; Balédent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium between the ventricular and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments may be disturbed (in terms of flow and biochemistry) in patients with chronic hydrocephalus (CH). Using flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CSF assays, we sought to determine whether changes in CSF were associated with biochemical alterations. Nine elderly patients with CH underwent phase-contrast MRI. An index of CSF dynamics (Idyn) was defined as the product of the lumbar and ventricular CSF flows. During surgery, samples of CSF were collected from the lumbar and ventricular compartments and assayed for chloride, glucose and total protein. The lumbar/ventricular (L/V) ratio was calculated for each analyte. The ratio between measured and expected levels (Ibioch) was calculated for each analyte and compared with Idyn. Idyn varied from 0 to 100.103μl2.s2. In contrast to the L/V ratios for chloride and glucose, the L/V ratio for total protein varied markedly from one patient to another (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 2.63 ± 1.24). The Ibioch for total protein was strongly correlated with the corresponding Idyn (Spearman’s R: 0.98; p < 5 × 10−5).We observed correlated alterations in CSF flow and biochemical parameters in patients with CH. Our findings also highlight the value of dynamic flow analysis in the interpretation of data on CSF biochemistry. PMID:27445797

  8. ANF-RGC gene motif 669WTAPELL675 is vital for blood pressure regulation: Biochemical mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2013-01-01

    ANF-RGC is the prototype membrane guanylate cyclase, both the receptor and the signal transducer of the hormones ANF and BNP. After binding them at the extracellular domain it, at its intracellular domain, signals activation of the C-terminal catalytic module and accelerates production of the second messenger, cyclic GMP. This, in turn, controls the physiological processes of blood pressure, cardiovascular function, and fluid secretion, and others: metabolic syndrome, obesity and apoptosis. What is the biochemical mechanism by which this single molecule controls these diverse processes, explicitly of the blood pressure regulation is the subject of the present study. In line with the concept that the structural modules of ANF-RGC are designed to respond to more than one, yet distinctive signals, the study demonstrates the construction of a novel ANF-RGC-In-gene-669WTAPELL675 mouse model. Through this model, the study establishes that 669WTAPELL675 is a vital ANF signal transducer motif of the guanylate cyclase. Its striking physiological features linked with their biochemistry are that (1) it controls the hormonally-dependent cyclic GMP production in the kidney and the adrenal gland; (3) its deletion causes hypertension, and (3) cardiac hypertrophy; and (4) these mice show higher levels of the plasma aldosterone. For the first time, a mere 7-amino acid encoded motif of the mouse gene has been directly linked with the physiological control of the blood pressure regulation, a detailed biochemistry of this linkage has been established and a model for this linkage has been offered. PMID:23464624

  9. Parameter identification and modeling of the biochemical methane potential of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Appels, Lise; Lauwers, Joost; Gins, Geert; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is widely used in waste activated sludge treatment. In this paper, partial least-squares (PLS) is employed to identify the parameters that are determining the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste activated sludge. Moreover, a model is developed for the prediction of the BMP. A strong positive correlation is observed between the BMP and volatile fatty acids and carbohydrate concentrations in the sludge. A somewhat weaker correlation with COD is also present. Soluble organics (sCOD, soluble carbohydrates and soluble proteins) were shown not to influence the BMP in the observed region. This finding could be most-valuable in the context of application of sludge pretreatment methods. The obtained model was able to satisfactory predict the BMP. PMID:21476497

  10. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  11. Evaluation of bone metabolism in newborn twins using quantitative ultrasound and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Kara, Semra; Güzoğlu, Nilüfer; Göçer, Emine; Arıkan, Fatma Inci; Dilmen, Uğur; Dallar Bilge, Yıldız

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is one of the important complications of prematurity. Early and adequate nutritional interventions may reduce the incidence and potential complications of MBD. The present study aimed to evaluate bone metabolism in twins via biochemical parameters and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and to compare the results between twin pairs. Moreover, twin infants were evaluated in terms of potential risk factors likely to have impact on MBD. Forty-three pairs of twins were included in the study. Serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were assessed and bone mineral density was measured using QUS (speed of sound, SOS) at postnatal 30 d. Co-twin with the higher birth weight was assigned to Group 1 (n = 36) and the other twin was assigned to Group 2 (n = 36). Birth weight and head circumference were significantly higher in the infants of Group 1 compared with Group 2. No significant difference was found among the groups in terms of gender, history of resuscitation, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) or in the incubator, duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), type of nutrition, vitamin D use, biochemical parameters, and the SOS value. The factors likely to affect SOS, including type of pregnancy, maternal drug use, gender of infant, birth weight, head circumference at birth, gestational week, length of stay at the ICU, duration of TPN, type of nutrition, resuscitation, vitamin D use, and levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase were entered into the model. The phosphorus level and the maternal drug use were found to be the factors that significantly reduced SOS, whereas pregnancy after assisted reproductive techniques was found to be a significant enhancing factor. PMID:25777793

  12. Hemato - Immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity, and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following the diet supplemented with Mentha piperita against Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Ghiasi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the potential effects of Mentha piperita on the hemato - immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3% of Mentha piperita (MP) plant extract for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin contents), as well as in respiratory burst activity, total protein, albumin, and neutrophil levels in fish fed supplemented diets compared to the control fish. Furthermore, dietary MP plant extract supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum of rainbow trout. After 8 weeks the cessation of feeding with MP plant extract, survival rates of 54.4%, 63.6% and 75.2% were recorded in groups which received 1, 2 and 3% of MP plant extract of feed, respectively, compared to 34.6% survivals in the control. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of MP plant extract to farmed fish. PMID:27245867

  13. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality. PMID:25522520

  14. Biochemical and Cellular Changes in Leukocyte-Depleted Red Blood Cells Stored for Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Diana; Rocha, Susana; Abreu, Estela; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate biochemical and cellular changes associated with the storage of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells (RBCs). Methods We investigated 10 leukocyte-depleted RBC units, randomly chosen from volunteer donors. Every week an aliquot was collected for laboratorial evaluation, which included complete cell blood count, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, extracellular sodium, potassium and pH, membrane-bound hemoglobin (MBH), band 3 profile, and quantification of RBC membrane proteins composition. Results We observed an increase in mean cell volume (from 91.86 ± 4.65 fl to 98.10 ± 5.80 fl, day 0 vs. day 21; p < 0.05), red cell distribution width, percentage of macrocytic RBCs, reticulocyte hemoglobin content and a decreased percentage of microcytic RBCs, mean cell volume concentration and G6PD activity. The extracellular concentration of sodium decreased, and that of potassium increased significantly over time. RBC membrane composition revealed an increase in spectrin/ankyrin ratio after 21 days (from 4.84 ± 0.99 to 5.27 ± 0.94, day 0 vs. day 21; p < 0.05). At day 35, a decrease in ankyrin (from 6.44 ± 1.70% to 5.49 ± 1.96%, day 0 vs. day 35; p < 0.05), in protein 4.1/band 3, protein 4.2/band 3, and ankyrin/band 3 ratios and in band 5 was observed. Conclusions Our data show that leukocyte-depleted RBCs present changes in the RBC morphology, membrane protein composition, enzymatic activity, and extracellular electrolyte concentration and pH. PMID:25960715

  15. Correlation between ovarian morphology and biochemical and hormonal parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Inan, Cihan; Karadag, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the biochemical and hormonal differences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with and without polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology and to evaluate the outcomes resulting from those differences. Methods: The study included a total of 83 patients with PCOS; 43 of them had PCO morphology (Group-I) and 40 did not (Group-II). Serum LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), total testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17b-estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), glucose and insulin levels were determined. Homoeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. Results: The two groups were similar with respect to BMI. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of Group-I were significantly lower (p<0.01). Serum mean level of LH (p=0.026) and the mean LH/FSH (p=0.001) level of Group-I were significantly higher than Group-II. The total cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Group-I were significantly lower (p<0.05, p<0.01). The mean HOMA-IR level of Group-I was significantly lower than Group-II (p=0.004). Conclusions: The group without PCO morphology had a higher risk than the other group in terms of increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases due to effects of hyperandrogenism. PMID:27375725

  16. Effects of Lichenic Extracts (Hypogymnia physodes, Ramalina polymorpha and Usnea florida) on Human Blood Cells: Cytogenetic and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Türkez, Hasan; Aydın, Elanur; Aslan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Several lichen species have been used for medicinal purposes throughout the ages, and they were reported to be effective in the treatment of different disorders including tuberculosis, hemorrhoids, ulcer, dysentery and cancer. It is revealed that they may be easily accessible sources of natural drugs that could be used as a possible food supplement or in pharmaceutical industry after their safety evaluations. However, so far, the nature and/or biological roles of plenty of lichenes have not been elucidated exactly. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and oxidative effects of water extracts of three different lichen species; Hypogymnia physodes, Ramalina polymorpha and Usnea florida in cultured human blood cells (n = 5) for the first time. All lichen species were collected from the Erzurum and Artvin provinces (in Turkey) during August 2010. The lichen extracts were added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0 to 2000 mg/L). Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests were used for genotoxic influences estimation. In addition, biochemical parameters (total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS)) were examined to determine oxidative effects. In our in-vitro test systems, it was observed that all tested lichen extracts had no mutagenic effects on human lymphocytes. Furthermore, these extracts exhibited antioxidant properties due to the type of lichen species added to the cultures. In conclusion, these lichens can be a new resource of therapeutics as recognized in this study with their non-mutagenic and antioxidant features. PMID:24250516

  17. Early Therapeutic Intervention for Crush Syndrome: Characterization of Intramuscular Administration of Dexamethasone by Pharmacokinetic and Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    PubMed

    Murata, Isamu; Goto, Mai; Komiya, Masahiro; Motohashi, Risa; Hirata, Momoko; Inoue, Yutaka; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Crush syndrome (CS) is the systemic manifestation of muscle cell damage resulting from pressure and crushing. It is associated with a high mortality rate, even when patients are treated with conventional therapy. We demonstrated the utility of intramuscular administration of dexamethasone (DEX) in disaster medical care by using a model of CS to characterize the pharmacokinetics and biochemical parameters. We compared intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) injection. The IM sites were the right anterior limb (AL), bilateral hind limbs (bHL), and unilateral hind limb (uHL). DEX (5.0 mg/kg) was administered in sham-operated (sham, S-IV, S-AL, S-bHL, S-uHL groups) and CS rats (control, C-IV, C-AL, C-bHL, C-uHL groups). The survival rate in the IM groups was lower than that in the C-IV group. Survival was highest in the C-AL group, followed by the C-uHL and C-bHL groups. The blood DEX concentration of the C-AL group was similar to that in the C-IV group. The C-bHL and C-uHL groups had decreased blood DEX concentrations. Moreover, inhibition of inflammation was related to these changes. Administration of DEX to non-injured muscle, as well as IV administration, increased the survival rate by modulating shock and inflammatory mediators, consequently suppressing myeloperoxidase activity and subsequent systemic inflammation, resulting in a complete recovery of rats from lethal CS. These results demonstrate that injection DEX into the non-injured muscle is a potentially effective early therapeutic intervention for CS that could easily be used in transport to the hospital. PMID:27582323

  18. Blood flow quantification using 1D CFD parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosig, Richard; Kowarschik, Markus; Maday, Peter; Katouzian, Amin; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    Patient-specific measurements of cerebral blood flow provide valuable diagnostic information concerning cerebrovascular diseases rather than visually driven qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a quantitative method to estimate blood flow parameters with high temporal resolution from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences. Using a 3D DSA dataset and a 2D+t DSA sequence, the proposed algorithm employs a 1D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for estimation of time-dependent flow values along a cerebral vessel, combined with an additional Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) for contrast agent propagation. The CFD system, followed by the ADE, is solved with a finite volume approximation, which ensures the conservation of mass. Instead of defining a new imaging protocol to obtain relevant data, our cost function optimizes the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the contrast agent in 2D+t DSA sequences. The visual determination of BAT is common clinical practice and can be easily derived from and be compared to values, generated by a 1D-CFD simulation. Using this strategy, we ensure that our proposed method fits best to clinical practice and does not require any changes to the medical work flow. Synthetic experiments show that the recovered flow estimates match the ground truth values with less than 12% error in the mean flow rates.

  19. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    effects on biochemical parameters but in line with OECD regulation. Gelam honey may have potential in controlling weight gain and triglyceride levels in female rats compared to Acacia honey. SD rats have some effect on biochemical parameters, an exploration of which would make for intriguing analysis. PMID:24885010

  20. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  1. Field-effect-based multifunctional hybrid sensor module for the determination of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans

    2002-02-01

    Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-situ electrochemical generation of chemical tracers is presented. Due to the fast response of the ISFET (usually in the millisecond range), an ISFET-based flow sensor is suitable for the measurement of the flow velocity in a wide range. With regard to practical applications, pH measurements with this ISFET were performed in rain droplets.

  2. Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Zulfiqar, Samreen; Shahnawaz, Sadia; Ali, Muhammad; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Iqbal, Shahid; Hayat, Sikandar; Qadir, Shazia; Latif, Muhammad; Kiran, Nazia; Saeed, Ali; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results 27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions : This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output. PMID:23569878

  3. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens. PMID:19096064

  4. Manual versus automated blood sampling: impact of repeated blood sampling on stress parameters and behavior in male NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling by automated blood sampling and from the tail vein is less stressful than cheek blood sampling. The choice between automated blood sampling and tail blood sampling should be based on the study requirements, the resources of the laboratory and skills of the staff. PMID:24958546

  5. Effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Ayobami Oladele; Aderoju, Hameed Adeola; Alagbonsi, Isiaka Abdullateef

    2013-01-01

    While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress related diseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shown to cause oxidative stress. However, study is scanty on the likely role of Moringa oleifera in reducing cryptorchidism-induced oxidative stress in rats has not been studied. The present study looked into the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MEMO) on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats. Twenty male albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 each). Groups A and B were sham-operated and treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively, while groups C and D were rendered cryptorchid and also treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively. Cryptorchid rats had lower testicular weight, sperm count, germ cell count, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, testicular total protein and higher testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to sham-operated rats. MEMO had no significant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while it significantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and total protein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO ameliorates cryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress. PMID:24311830

  6. Fast and neat--determination of biochemical quality parameters in cocoa using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Krähmer, Andrea; Engel, Annika; Kadow, Daniel; Ali, Naailah; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Kroh, Lothar W; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-08-15

    The qualitative heterogeneity and increasing consumption of cocoa products require fast and efficient methods for quality assessment of fermented cocoa with regard to fermentation quality and flavor potential. To date, quality control is achieved by visual inspection (e.g., "cut test") and sensory testing. Chromatographic methods for quantification of flavor relevant substances are limited in their applicability in standard quality control due to laborious isolation and purification steps. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) method for routine analytical prediction of biochemical quality parameters. Different compound classes like phenolic substances (R(2)=0.93) or organic acids (R(2)=0.88) as well as individual substances like epicatechin (R(2)=0.93) or lactic acid (R(2)=0.87) could be precisely determined just as fermentation time (R(2)=0.92) and pH value (R(2)=0.94) presenting NIRS as fast and reliable alternative in routine quality assessment. PMID:25794734

  7. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  8. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN OLD SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1. 1US E...

  9. Effect ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) and vitamin E on biochemical parameters and retinopathy in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Halim, Eshrat M; Mukhopadhyay, A K

    2006-09-01

    This study was carried out to see the effect of the aqueous extract ofOcitum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with Vitamin E on biochemical parameters and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino male rats. Adult albino male rats weighing 150-200 gm were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in the dose 60 mg/kg in citrate buffer (pH 6.3). The diabetic animals were left for one month to develop retinopathy. Biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1c), were measured along with lipid profile, and enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in normal, untreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated withOcimum sanctum L extracts and vitamin E. Fluorescein angiography test was done for assessing retinopathy. Results on biochemical parameters were analyzed statistically by using ANOVA followed by Dunnet's 't'-test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Evaluation of biochemical profile in treated groups showed statistically significant reduction in plasma levels of glucose, HbA(1c), lipid profile and LPO, and elevation of GPX, SOD, CAT and GST. Treatment of the diabetic animals withOcimum sanctum and Vitamin E, alone and in combination for 16 weeks showed reversal of most of the parameters studied including plasma glucose levels. Angiography showed improvement in retinal changes following combined antidiabetic treatment. PMID:23105641

  10. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, J Stanek3, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, PA Evansky1, ER Lappi1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1...

  11. [The effect of pharmacopuncture on the blood biochemical indices of patients with tunnel syndromes of the hands].

    PubMed

    Belitskaia, R A; Vasilenko, G F; Krasnova, L B; Popkova, E V; Chuzavkova, E A; Agasarov, L G

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of serotonin, beta-endorphine, myoglobin, basic myelin protein were measured in blood of patients with tunnel hand syndromes treated by actovegin or physiological solution pharmacopuncture and acupuncture to the same acupuncture points (AP). The above biochemical indices showed similar changes in pharmacopuncture with actovegin and the solution. These changes were different in acupuncture. This indicates specificity of AP stimulation by introduction of fluid, but not specificity of drug effects. PMID:10598522

  12. Recent Developments in Parameter Estimation and Structure Identification of Biochemical and Genomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chou, I-Chun; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2009-01-01

    The organization, regulation and dynamical responses of biological systems are in many cases too complex to allow intuitive predictions and require the support of mathematical modeling for quantitative assessments and a reliable understanding of system functioning. All steps of constructing mathematical models for biological systems are challenging, but arguably the most difficult task among them is the estimation of model parameters and the identification of the structure and regulation of the underlying biological networks. Recent advancements in modern high-throughput techniques have been allowing the generation of time series data that characterize the dynamics of genomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological responses and enable us, at least in principle, to tackle estimation and identification tasks using “top-down” or “inverse” approaches. While the rewards of a successful inverse estimation or identification are great, the process of extracting structural and regulatory information is technically difficult. The challenges can generally be categorized into four areas, namely, issues related to the data, the model, the mathematical structure of the system, and the optimization and support algorithms. Many recent articles have addressed inverse problems within the modeling framework of Biochemical Systems Theory (BST). BST was chosen for these tasks because of its unique structural flexibility and the fact that the structure and regulation of a biological system are mapped essentially one-to-one onto the parameters of the describing model. The proposed methods mainly focused on various optimization algorithms, but also on support techniques, including methods for circumventing the time consuming numerical integration of systems of differential equations, smoothing overly noisy data, estimating slopes of time series, reducing the complexity of the inference task, and constraining the parameter search space. Other methods targeted issues of data

  13. Effects of long-term valproic acid treatment on hematological and biochemical parameters in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: a retrospective naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Maya; Sachs, Ephi; Zivony, Amir; Remez, Roei; Ben Baruch, Reut; Amit, Ben H; Kronenberg, Sefi; Apter, Alan; Shoval, Gal; Weizman, Abraham; Zalsman, Gil

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term hematological and biochemical side effects of valproic acid (VPA) in psychiatric adolescent inpatients. A retrospective naturalistic study design was used. Participants were psychiatric inpatients treated with VPA, alone or in combination with other medications. Electronic medical files were reviewed for changes in hematological and biochemical parameters following a course of VPA treatment. One hundred and four adolescents aged 12-18 (mean 15.76±1.58) years fulfilled the study criteria. The mean blood level and duration of VPA treatment were 65.81±22.18 mcg/ml and 98.57±135.94 days, respectively. The mean levels of thyroid-stimulating hormones and triglyceride levels increased significantly from the first to the last measurement. Platelet count decreased significantly following VPA treatment. No correlation was observed between these parameters and age, duration of treatment, or VPA levels. No serious adverse events were reported. Long-term VPA treatment in adolescents with psychiatric disorders is associated with significant increases in triglyceride levels. Moreover, VPA-treated adolescent psychiatric inpatients may be at risk of developing pituitary-thyroid axis dysregulation and decreased platelet count. Therefore, baseline measurement of thyroid functions and metabolic and hematological parameters and monitoring throughout the treatment are recommended. PMID:26020713

  14. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters of aquarium-maintained cownose rays.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Claudia M; Field, Cara L; Tuttle, Allison D

    2010-06-01

    There is generally a dearth of information involving reference ranges of health variables for numerous elasmobranch species commonly housed in zoos and aquaria; thus, extrapolation from a few existing elasmobranch studies is commonly used to assess health parameters in these species. The primary objective of this study was to establish baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry reference ranges for captive individuals of the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus, an elasmobranch that is widely displayed in zoos and aquaria worldwide. This study was conducted using 18 adult cownose rays currently housed at the Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration in Connecticut. Median blood and plasma values were 550 cells/microL for total white blood cell count; 511,250 cells/microL for total red blood cell count; 31% for packed cell volume; 5.8 g/L for total solids; 2.85 g/dL for total protein; 33 units (U)/L for aspartate aminotransferase; 34 U/L for alkaline phosphatase; 0.2 mg/dL for total bilirubin; 1,155 mg/dL for urea nitrogen; 0.1 mg/dL for creatinine; 0.6 g/dL for albumin; 2.15 g/dL for globulins; 144 mg/dL for cholesterol; 157 mg/dL for triglycerides; 45 mg/dL for glucose; 16.9 mg/dL for calcium; 5.8 mg/dL for phosphorus; 294 mmol/L for sodium; 1.55 mmol/L for potassium; and 270 mmol/L for chloride. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, amylase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were below the detectable limits for several samples. In nine samples, alanine aminotransferase levels were below the instrument range (< 4 U/L). No significant differences between sexes were detected. The reference ranges reported in this study should provide a useful guide for routine health monitoring of captive cownose rays. PMID:20848887

  15. PREDICTING RODENT CARCINOGENICITY OF HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON BY IN VIVO BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty halogenated hydrocarbons of known rodent carcinogenicity (24 carcinogens, 16 noncarcinogens), including many promoters of carcinogenesis, nongenotoxic carcinogens and hepatocarcinogens were selected for study. he effects of these 40 chemicals on four biochemical assays (hep...

  16. Effects of ectoine on behavioural, physiological and biochemical parameters of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Adam; Stępniewska, Zofia; Skowroński, Tadeusz

    2015-02-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is a compatible solute produced by soil, marine and freshwater bacteria in response to stressful factors. The purpose of our study was to determine the possible toxic influence of ECT on Daphnia magna. We determined the following endpoints: survival rate during exposure and recovery, swimming performance, heart rate, thoracic limb movement determined by image analysis, haemoglobin level by ELISA assay, catalase and nitric oxide species (NOx) by spectrophotometric methods. The results showed 80% survival of daphnids exposed to 50mg/L of ECT after 24h and 10% after 90h, however lower concentrations of ECT were well tolerated. A concentration-dependent reduction of swimming velocity was noted at 24 and 48h of the exposure. ECT (at 2.5 and 4mg/L) induced an increase of heart rate and thoracic limb movement (at 2.5, 4 and 20mg/L) after 24h. After 10h of the exposure to ECT daphnids showed a concentration-dependent increase of haemoglobin level synthesized and accumulated in the epipodite epithelia. After 24h we noted a concentration-dependent decrease of haemoglobin level and its lowest value was found after 48h of the exposure. ECT at a concentration of 20 and 25mg/L slightly stimulated catalase activity after 24h. NOx level was also increased after 10h of the exposure to 20 and 25mg/L of ECT reaching maximal activity after 24h. Our results suggest that ECT possesses some modulatory potential on the behaviour, physiology and biochemical parameters in daphnids. PMID:25460046

  17. [A path-length correction method on biochemical parameter nondestructive measuring of folium].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Xuan; Zhang, Guang-Jun; Li, Qing-Bo

    2010-05-01

    Vis/NIR spectroscopy technology is capable of analyzing the content of biochemical parameter in folium rapidly and nondestructively. In the process of spectrum analysis, the variations in path-length between different samples exist, with the random light scattering and leaf thickness perturbations, which influence the precision of quantitative analysis model. In order to resolve this problem, an improved path-length correction method based on Extended Multiplicative Scattering Correction is presented. In this paper, firstly the theory of EMSC algorithm is deduced. EMSC method incorporates both chemical terms and wavelength functions to help realize the efficient separation of path-length and interest concentration. Secondly two experiments were implemented to demonstrate the validity of the method. In Experiment 1, sixteen samples of different thickness but almost the same chlorophyll content were selected, and how the path-length affects the spectrum was compared, after EMSC preprocessing, the variable coefficient of spectrum could approach the repeatability error of spectrometer. In Experiment 2, thirty-two samples of different thickness and chlorophyll content were selected. PLS model established using cross validation was employed to evaluate the efficiency of the presented algorithm. Before the preprocessing, the root mean squared error of prediction is 3.9 SPAD with 5 principal components. After preprocessing, the predicted root mean squared error is 2.2 SPAD with 12 principal components. The results indicate that the improved EMSC preprocessing method could exactly eliminate the spectrum difference caused by the path-length variations between different foliums, enhance the sensitivity of concentration and spectral data, and increase the precision of calibrated model. PMID:20672624

  18. Preparation for high altitude expedition and changes in cardiopulmonary and biochemical laboratory parameters with ascent to high altitude in transplant patients and live donors.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Taehoon; Yi, Nam-Joon; Hong, Geun

    2015-11-01

    High-altitude climbing has many risks, and transplant recipients should discuss the associated risks and means of preparation with their physicians. This study aimed to help prepare athletic transplant donors and recipients for mountain climbing and was designed to evaluate physical performance and changes in cardiopulmonary and biochemical laboratory parameters of transplant recipients and donors in extreme conditions of high altitude. Ten subjects-six liver transplant recipients, two liver donors, and one kidney transplant recipient and his donor-were selected for this expedition to Island Peak, Himalayas, Nepal. Six healthy subjects joined the group for comparison. Blood samplings, vital signs, and oxygen saturation were evaluated, as was the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness score. All transplant subjects and donors reached the base camp (5150 m), and two liver transplant recipients and a liver donor reached the summit (6189 m). The blood levels of immunosuppressants were well maintained. The serum erythropoietin level was significantly higher in transplant recipients taking tacrolimus. With proper preparation, certain liver transplant patients and donors can tolerate strenuous physical activity and can tolerate high altitude similarly to normal healthy control subjects without significant biochemical laboratory changes in liver and renal function. PMID:26331794

  19. Hematological, Biochemical, and Serological Findings in Healthy Canine Blood Donors after the Administration of CaniLeish® Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Starita, Chiara; Gavazza, Alessandra; Lubas, George

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate hematological, biochemical, and serological findings in healthy canine blood donors after the administration of CaniLeish® vaccine. Twenty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study and arranged into 3 groups according to the vaccination stage. Complete blood count (CBC) with blood smear examination, serum biochemical profile (SBP), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), and serological tests for L. infantum were performed at different times. Additionally, in a subgroup of dogs IgA, IgM, and IgG were quantified. No statistical significance for CBC and SBP was found. In 10.7% of cases slight hyperproteinemia occurred. In SPE absolute values β-1-globulins (Group 2 and Group 2-3) and β-2-globulins (Group 3) were found modified (P < 0.05). IgG values were statistically different (P < 0.05) 6–8 months after the third immunisation (Group 2) and IgM and IgG values were statistically different after 2 months (Group 3). IFAT positive samples were 20.8% (Group 1), 15.0% (Group 2), and 52.8% (Group 3). Speed Leish K™ tests were always negative. The modifications found were probably attributed to the development of immune or inflammatory response due to the vaccine. Administration of CaniLeish vaccine in canine blood donors could be a safe practice and did not affect their health status. PMID:27313949

  20. The Clinical and Biochemical Parameters in Relation to the Serum Neopterin Levels in Indian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nageswara Rao G., Srinivasa; Gurumurthy, Prema; E., Sruti; Cherian, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An adverse pattern of blood lipids and cardiovascular abnormalities starts in obese children during childhood and neopterin serves as a marker for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, the data for children and adolescents, particularly, in the Indian population, are scarce. The present study aimed at evaluating the levels of serum neopterin in obese and overweight children and adolescents of the Indian population. Methods: The study groups included 296 school going children and adolescents. (96 obese and 97 overweight subjects were compared with 103 normal controls who were aged between 10-17 years). The anthropometric variables, the lipid profile, the fasting serum glucose which was analyzed by using an autoanalyzer and the serum neopterin levels were assayed by HPLC (Shimazdu) by using the method of Palfrey et al., 1993. The serum insulin levels were measured by using ELISA kits. Results: The serum neopterin levels (nmol/l) were elevated significantly in the obese (7.4±1.4) and overweight (6.4±0.8) (p<0.001) children and adolescents than in the controls (4.9±0.9). The serum neopterin levels showed a positive correlation with the BMI (r=0.79), WHR (r=0.5), systolic (r=0.44) and diastolic blood pressures (r= 0.25), insulin (r=0.57), HOMAIR (r=0.55), total cholesterol (r=0.35), triglycerides (r=0.20) and LDL-C (r=0.27) and they showed a negative correlation with HDL-C (r=-0.15) and fasting glucose (r= -0.3). Conclusion: This study revealed a good relationship between serum neopterin and the anthropometric and biochemical parameters. We, therefore, aim to conduct regular camps at schools to counsel and advise the identified overweight and obese children to go for physical exercise and a balanced diet. The implementation of preventive measures from early childhood will have far reaching benefits, as even the prevalence of other obesity related disorders could decline. PMID:23730631

  1. Hierarchical clustering of 54 races and strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L: Significance of biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Datta, R K

    1992-12-01

    A detailed analysis was undertaken to test the efficacy of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (UPGMA method) in grouping the races and strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx moti L., and to ascertain the importance of biochemical parameters in the clustering process. The analysis was based on data from two rearing seasons with 54 selected races/strains of different geographic origin and varying yield potentials. The results indicate that seven clusters can be realised with yield parameters alone, whereas the inclusion of biochemical parameters in clustering resulted into two broad groups: one having all the breeds with high cocoon weight and shell weight, the other having all the low-yielding silkworm strains both from India and from other countries. Further sub-grouping under these two groups highlights genetical differences associated with the differentiation of various groups of races in temperate and tropical areas as well as their significance for silkworm breeding. Estimates of all ten variables were further subjected to 'quick clustering' and the results showed that cluster 5, constituted by 38 lowyielding strains of India, China and Europe, had the highest values of the final cluster centre for amylase and the effective rate of rearing (ERR), while clusters 1 and 4 had the highest values for invertase and alkaline phosphatase. The evolutionary aspect of the genetic channelisation of silkworm races from various countries is discussed against the background of differences in the biochemical parameters and yield variables. PMID:24197452

  2. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus): impact of gender and season

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus). Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years), middle-aged (4–5 years) and old (6–10 years). Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction), the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur. PMID:23131178

  3. Supplementation with L-Glutamine and L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters and Jejunum Morphophysiology in Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Carlos Vinicius D.; Azevedo, Silvia C. S. F.; Bazotte, Roberto B.; Peralta, Rosane M.; Buttow, Nilza C.; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat D.; de Godoi, Vilma A. F.; Natali, Maria Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the supplementation with L-glutamine and glutamine dipeptide (GDP) on biochemical and morphophysiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. For this purpose, thirty animals were distributed into six groups treated orally (gavage) during thirty days: non diabetic rats (Control) + saline, diabetic + saline; Control + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Diabetic + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Control + GDP (400 mg/kg), Diabetic + GDP (400 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and confirmed by fasting glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. Physiological parameters, i.e., body mass, food intake, blood glucose, water intake, urine and faeces were evaluated during supplementation. After the period of supplementation, the animals were euthanized. The blood was collected for biochemical assays (fructosamine, transaminases, lipid profile, total protein, urea, ammonia). Moreover, the jejunum was excised and stored for morphophysiological assays (intestinal enzyme activity, intestinal wall morphology, crypt proliferative index, number of serotoninergic cells from the mucosa, and vipergic neurons from the submucosal tunica). The physiological parameters, protein metabolism and intestinal enzyme activity did not change with the supplementation with L-glutamine or GDP. In diabetic animals, transaminases and fructosamine improved with L-glutamine and GDP supplementations, while the lipid profile improved with L-glutamine. Furthermore, both forms of supplementation promoted changes in jejunal tunicas and wall morphometry of control and diabetic groups, but only L-glutamine promoted maintenance of serotoninergic cells and vipergic neurons populations. On the other hand, control animals showed changes that may indicate negative effects of L-glutamine. Thus, the supplementation with L-glutamine was more efficient for maintaining intestinal morphophysiology and the supplementation with GDP was more efficient to the organism as a

  4. Effects of a joint supplement whose main components are resveratrol and hyaluronic acid on some biochemical parameters in aged lame horses.

    PubMed

    Ememe, Mary U; Abdullahi, Usman S; Sackey, Anthony K B; Ayo, Joseph O; Mshelia, Wayuta P; Edeh, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a supplement that contains resveratrol and hyaluronic acid (RH supplement) in aged lame horses. A total of 16 horses of both sexes, aged between 15 and 22 years, weighing between 350-450 kg and showing lameness due to arthritis of the knee, hock, stifle, and fetlock joints and stiffness owing to ageing were used for the study. They comprised eight horses that were administered the RH supplement for three weeks and eight others that served as controls and were given only a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain used as carrier in the supplement. Blood samples were collected from each horse before supplementation (week 0) and at weekly intervals for the three weeks of the experiment. Biochemical parameters including creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium were measured by standard methods. There was a significant (P˂0.05) reduction in values of creatine kinase and glucose in the horses administered the RH supplement. It was concluded that the RH supplement may reduce the level of these biochemical parameters and their deleterious effects especially during ageing in horses. PMID:27073333

  5. Effects of a joint supplement whose main components are resveratrol and hyaluronic acid on some biochemical parameters in aged lame horses

    PubMed Central

    EMEME, Mary U.; ABDULLAHI, Usman S.; SACKEY, Anthony K. B.; AYO, Joseph O.; MSHELIA, Wayuta P.; EDEH, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a supplement that contains resveratrol and hyaluronic acid (RH supplement) in aged lame horses. A total of 16 horses of both sexes, aged between 15 and 22 years, weighing between 350–450 kg and showing lameness due to arthritis of the knee, hock, stifle, and fetlock joints and stiffness owing to ageing were used for the study. They comprised eight horses that were administered the RH supplement for three weeks and eight others that served as controls and were given only a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain used as carrier in the supplement. Blood samples were collected from each horse before supplementation (week 0) and at weekly intervals for the three weeks of the experiment. Biochemical parameters including creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium were measured by standard methods. There was a significant (P˂0.05) reduction in values of creatine kinase and glucose in the horses administered the RH supplement. It was concluded that the RH supplement may reduce the level of these biochemical parameters and their deleterious effects especially during ageing in horses. PMID:27073333

  6. Analysis of oxidative status and biochemical parameters in adult patients with sickle cell anemia treated with hydroxyurea, Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira Neto, Paulo Florentino; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro; Elias, Darcielle Bruna Dias; de Araújo, Cleiton Pinheiro; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is a hemoglobinopathy caused by a mutation that results in the production of an abnormal hemoglobin molecule, hemoglobin S (Hb S). This is responsible for profound physiological changes, such as the sickling of red blood cells. Several studies have shown that hydroxyurea protects against vaso-occlusive crises. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with biochemical parameters in patients with sickle cell anemia treated with hydroxyurea. Methods The study was conducted with 20 male and 25 female patients at the Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio. The patients were divided into two groups: a study group (n = 12), patients with sickle cell anemia who were receiving hydroxyurea and a control group (n = 33) of sickle cell anemia patients not submitted to hydroxyurea treatment. The biochemical parameters analyzed were ferritin, transferrin, and serum iron. Glutathione was measured in its reduced form to analyze the oxidative state. Results The results showed insignificant increases in the levels of serum iron, transferrin and ferritin in patients treated with hydroxyurea when compared with those who did not take the medication. However, the glutathione levels were significantly higher in patients taking hydroxyurea than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that hydroxyurea possibly acts as an antioxidant by increasing glutathione levels. PMID:23049297

  7. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very

  8. Could selenium administration alleviate the disturbances of blood parameters caused by lithium administration in rats?

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Lewandowska, Anna; Żelazowska, Renata; Musik, Irena

    2014-06-01

    Lithium is widely used in medicine, but its administration can cause numerous side effects. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the possible application of selenium, an essential and antioxidant element, as a protective agent against lithium toxicity. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control)-treated with saline, II (Li)-treated with lithium (Li2CO3), III (Se)-treated with selenium (Na2SeO3) and IV (Li + Se)-treated with lithium and selenium (Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3) in the form of water solutions by stomach tube for 6 weeks. The following biochemical parameters were measured: concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, total protein and albumin and activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Morphological parameters such as red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, white blood cells, neutrophils as well as lymphocytes were determined. Lithium significantly increased serum calcium and glucose (2.65 ± 0.17 vs. 2.43 ± 0.11; 162 ± 31 vs. 121 ± 14, respectively), whereas magnesium and albumin were decreased (1.05 ± 0.08 vs. 1.21 ± 0.15; 3.85. ± 0.12 vs. 4.02 ± 0.08, respectively). Selenium given with lithium restored these parameters to values similar to those observed in the control (Ca-2.49 ± 0.08, glucose-113 ± 26, Mg-1.28 ± 0.09, albumin-4.07 ± 0.11). Se alone or co-administered with Li significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione peroxidase. The obtained outcomes let us suggest that the continuation of research on the application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy seems warranted. PMID:24676629

  9. PREDICTING RODENT CARCINOGENICITY OF AMES TEST "FALSE POSITIVES" BY IN VIVO BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-eight chemicals known to be mutagenic in the Ames test but not carcinogenic in rodent bioassays were selected for study. The effects of these chemicals on four biochemical assays (hepatic DNA damage by alkaline elution (DD), hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC), ...

  10. Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, W G; Middleton, J R; Spain, J N; Johnson, G C; Ellersieck, M R; Pithua, P

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential association between Ca status at calving and postpartum energy balance, liver lipid infiltration, disease occurrence, milk yield and quality parameters, and fertility in Holstein cows. One hundred cows were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on whole-blood ionized Ca concentration ([iCa]) on the day of calving [d 0; hypocalcemic [iCa] <1.0 mmol/L (n=51); normocalcemic [iCa] ≥ 1.0 mmol/L (n=49)]. Cows were blocked based on calving date and parity. Blood samples were collected approximately 14 d from expected calving date (d -14), the day of calving (d 0), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of plasma nonesterified fatty acid, iCa, total Ca, glucose, and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities. Liver biopsies were obtained from a subset of cows on d 0, 7, and 35 for quantification of lipid content. Milk samples were collected on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of somatic cell count and percentages of protein, fat, and solids-not-fat. Data for peak test-day milk yield, services per conception, and days open were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement Association herd records. Disease occurrence was determined based on herd treatment records. Hypocalcemic cows had significantly higher nonesterified fatty acids on d 0. Hypocalcemic cows also had significantly more lipid in hepatocytes on d 7 and 35 postpartum. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities or total and direct bilirubin concentrations. Milk protein percentage was lower in hypocalcemic cows on d 21 and 35. However other milk quality variables (somatic cell count, milk fat percentage, and solids-not-fat) and milk yield variables (peak test-day milk yield and 305-d mature-equivalent 4% fat-corrected milk yield) did not differ between

  11. The Activity of Neutral α-Glucosidase and Selected Biochemical Parameters in the Annual Cycle of Breeding Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kotońska-Feiga, Julia; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Nowacki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate seasonal changes in the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral α-glucosidase, the level of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein in the annual breeding cycle of the carp. The study was conducted on fish from a fish farm in Lower Silesia (Poland). Blood serum was collected from the heart in: June, September and December of two consecutive years. The results of the study show that the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral α-glucosidase, as well as the results of basic biochemical parameters are highest in summer, when the fish seek and intake food intensively. The lowest values were observed in spring, when carp have the lowest metabolism after the wintering period. PMID:26559406

  12. The influence of altitude and landforms on some biochemical and hematological parameters in Ouled Djellal ewes from arid area of South East Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Titaouine, Mohammed; Meziane, Toufik

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted on Ouled Djellal ewes in arid area of south-east Algeria in order to reveal the influence of altitude and landforms on some hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 ewes having 3-5 years of age, multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating and reared in arid areas of South East Algeria were included. Blood samples were divided according to factors of altitude and landform (plain region at 150 m above sea level, tableland region at 600 m above sea level and mountain region at 1000 m above sea level). The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, and plasma samples for biochemical analysis. Results: The study found lowest glucose concentrations were detected in tableland region at 600 m. In plain region at 150 m, ewes had a higher (p<0.01) concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride. Furthermore, a higher concentration of total proteins (p<0.01) and urea (p<0.05) were detected in plain region at 150 m. The average blood creatinine concentration in mountain ewes at 1000 m and tableland ewes at 600 m were higher (p<0.05) that in plain ewes at 150 m. The highest calcium concentration was found at the altitude of 150 m and the lowest at the altitude of 1000 m (1.12±0.35 mmol/L vs. 0.52±0.03 mmol/L). Phosphorus levels were higher at altitudes of 150 m than at the altitude of 600 m and 1000 m (0.93±0.42 mmol/L vs. 0.68±0.54 mmol/L, 0.23±0.01 mmol/L). The highest hemoglobin concentration and value of hematocrit were detected in mountain ewes at the altitude of 1000 m (120.61 g/L, 40%) and the lowest at the altitude of 150 m (73.2 g/L, 31%) (p<0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that hematological and biochemical parameters in Ouled Djellel ewes reared in arid area may be affected by altitude and landforms. PMID:27047010

  13. Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Élida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as “malnourished”) and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool. Conclusions In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken

  14. Study of a number of biochemical indices of the blood and tissue of dogs after prolonged gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Praslichka, T.; Mishurova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Malatova, Z.; Akhunov, A. A.; Markelov, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    The glucose content in blood and the lipid content in serum and tissues of dogs exposed to chronic radiation for 3 and 5 years were studied. In tissues of these animals, the concentration of soluble DNA and DNA contained in DNP was studied in the spleen, lymph node (deep cervical node) and bone marrow of thigh bones. Results indicate that chronic gamma irradiation significantly changes concentrations of glucose in the blood, and that of several lipids in serum and tissues. A reduction in the concentration of DNP in tested organs reflects changes in the relative number of cells with various nuclear cytoplasmic ratios; most pronounced changes in biochemical indices occur in dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation in doses of 125 rad per year.

  15. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  16. [Effect of starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake on weight gain and blood biochemical values in rats].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Baba, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We observed the effect of starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake during 67 days, on rats, in terms of the activity of enzymes related to liver function and biochemical values related to weight gain, lipid metabolism and safety. 1. Starfish (Asterias amurensis) did not induce a significant difference of body weight change. 2. Starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake did not affect organ weight. 3. Starfish (Asterias amurensis) intake did not affect lipid metabolism, liver function, or protein nutrition in this experiment. PMID:24190291

  17. Studies of the biochemical regulation of blood cell formation. Final report, January 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwasser, E.

    1980-09-01

    This final report summarizes our most recent experimentation on the mechanism by which the erythropoietin interaction with cell surface receptors initiates nuclear RNA synthesis. It also describes the biological and biochemical effects of endotoxin-free erythropoietin, the finding that maximal hemoglobin synthesis in semi-solid medium probably requires cell-cell interactions and the initial clinical testing of erythropoietin in patients with anemia due to chronic renal disease.

  18. Action of Brazilian propolis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cínthia R B; Putarov, Thaila C; Fruhvald, Erika; Destro, Flavia C; Marques Filho, Wolff C; Thomazini, Camila M; Barbosa, Tatiana S; Orsi, Ricardo O; Siqueira, Edson R

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of propolis use on hematological and serum biochemical parameters in Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva). For this, 12 adult birds were distributed randomly into individual cages, divided into treatments with different propolis levels (A = 0.0%; B = 0.5%; and C = 1.0%), in 3 distinct phases (I, II, and III), with 15-d duration for phases I and III and 30 d for phase II, totaling 60 d. In phases I and III, all birds received treatment A ration, and in phase II received A, B, or C (4 birds per treatment). At the end of each phase, blood was collected for biochemical and hematological evaluations. The variables were analyzed by ANOVA (P < 0.05). Results suggest that 0.5% propolis reduced lactate dehydrogenase levels, whereas treatment B augmented hemoglobin concentrations and eosinophil count. It is concluded that 0.5% propolis improves levels of lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, and eosinophils. PMID:24864289

  19. Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, M Saeed; Khosravian-Hemamai, Mozhdeh; Nematollahi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 μg/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

  20. Impact of eight weeks endurance training on biochemical parameters and obesity-induced oxidative stress in high fat diet-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Reza; Jafari, Mahvash; Haghshenas, Rouhollah; Ravasi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] High-fat diets (HFD) feeding is an important risk factor for obesity that is accompanied with metabolic syndrome. Appropriate exercise is recommended for obesity prevention. The molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways activated in response to HFD and exercise are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks endurance training on some plasma biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in HFD induced obese rats. [Methods] Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the standard diet (SD) group, endurance training group with a standard diet (ESD), HFD group, and endurance training group with high-fat diet (EHFD). After 8 weeks, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture and plasma were used for determination of biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. [Results] HFD significantly increased malondialdehyde level and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase and the content of glutathione in the plasma. HFD also increased activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, as well as levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, endurance training showed protective effect on changes in these parameters. [Conclusion] These findings suggested that HFD alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance, as evidenced by reduction in the antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Endurance training can be beneficial for the suppression of obesity-induced oxidative stress in HFD rats through modulating antioxidant defense system and reduces the risk of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:27298810

  1. Effects of supplementation of threshed sorghum top with selected browse plant foliage on haematology and serum biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Oyekunle, Mufutau Atanda; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Makinde, Olayinka John

    2016-06-01

    The haematological and biochemical parameters of 24 growing Red Sokoto bucks (9.00 ± 0.25 kg body weight) fed threshed sorghum top (TST) with or without five different browse plant foliage Afzelia africana (AA), Daniellia oliveri (DO), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Pterocarpus erinaceus (PE) and Annona senegalensis (AS) supplements were studied using a completely randomized design. All haematological parameters were (P < 0.05) lower in TST-fed goats compared with TST-supplemented goats, except for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes and monocytes which did not follow a particular pattern. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin and monocytes were higher for AA-supplemented goats while MCHC was reduced relative to other supplements (P < 0.05). White blood cell counts were increased in DO lambs compared to other supplements (P < 0.05). Serum proteins, creatinine, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate were reduced in TST compared with the supplements (P < 0.05). Cholesterol was higher for PT and AA than other diets (P < 0.05). Aspartate transaminase was reduced in TST goats relative to the supplements (P < 0.05). Except for potassium which was reduced in AS (P < 0.05), all serum major minerals were similar among diets. Results indicate that the entire browse fodder are good supplements to low-quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better supplementary effect on haematological and biochemical parameters of the goats. PMID:27010715

  2. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p < 0.05) weight gain, absolute growth rate and specific growth rate. Feed intake significantly increased in fish fed with A. vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p < 0.05). Several haemato-biochemical indices were examined before and after fish were challenged with S. iniae pathogen containing 7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells mL(-1). A. vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in red blood cells, hematocrits (Hb), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, serum total protein, glucose and cortisol after challenge when compared to unsupplemented ones. Meanwhile, 4% A. vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p < 0.05) in RBC, Hb, Ht, WBC, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) after challenge compared to unsupplemented ones and other supplemented ones. In addition, lower mean corpuscular volume values (MCV) (p < 0.05) were observed in fish fed with A. vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) than those fed unsupplemented diet and 4% A. vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) within experimental groups after challenge; N/L ratio in A. vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera

  3. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  4. Intestinal Alterations, Basal Hematology, and Biochemical Parameters in Adolescent Rats Fed Different Sources of Dietary Copper.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is required for basically all biochemical and physiological processes in the body. The aim was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary copper on jejunal epithelium histomorphometry in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 5 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control group was fed with standard diet providing the required Cu level (5 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day) in an inorganic form (sulfate) covered 100 % of daily demand, and the other three groups were supplemented with Cu-glycine complex covered 50, 75, and 100 % daily demand. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses as well as histomorphometric examinations of the jejunal epithelium and liver were performed. Cu given in the organic form in 100 % of daily demand depressed the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth (P < 0.05) without an influence of the innervation of the jejunum. In turn, organic Cu given in 75 % of daily demand did not influence the intestinal morphology in adult rats. Dietary organic Cu given to rats covering the daily demand in 50 or 75 % appears to be less harmful with regard to the intestinal epithelium than when administered in 100 % of daily demand. PMID:26432448

  5. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Eliana N. C.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S. P.; Ledoux, David R.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Oliveira, Carlos A. F.

    2010-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB1 (0, 50 and 200 μg AFB1/kg), and three levels of FB1 (0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB1 only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB1 and FB1 which had higher plasma TP than control birds, plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB1 and FB1 had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB1 singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  6. Effects of aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1) on blood biochemical parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Eliana N C; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S P; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2010-04-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B(1 )(AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB(1 )(0, 50 and 200 μg AFB(1)/kg), and three levels of FB(1 )(0, 50 and 200 mg FB(1)/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB(1 )only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB(1)/kg alone or in combination with FB(1). At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB(1 )and FB(1 )which had higher plasma TP than control birds(, )plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB(1) and FB(1) had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB(1) singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  7. Biochemical parameters in the blood of Holstein calves given immunoglobulin Y-supplemented colostrums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In any calf rearing system it is desirable to obtain healthy animals, and reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Bovine syndesmochorial placentation prevents the direct transfer of bovine immunoglobulins to the fetus, and calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic. These calves therefore require colostrum immediately after birth. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (Ig) and its consumption results in the transfer of passive immunity to calves. The Ig absorption occurs within the first 12 h after birth. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY), derived from chicken egg yolk, has been used in the prevention and control of diseases affecting calves because it is very similar in structure and function to immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the current study, we sought to establish whether administration routes of colostrum supplemented with avian IgY affected passive immunity in calves. Results No significant differences were observed with respect to route of administration for colostrum. However, we did observe some differences in certain interactions between the various treatments. Calves fed colostrum containing egg yolk had higher levels of TP, ALB, and IgG, along with increased GGT activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that supplementing colostrum with egg yolk has a beneficial effect when given to calves, regardless of administration route. PMID:25022282

  8. High-Throughput Immunoassay for the Biochemical Diagnosis of Friedreich Ataxia in Dried Blood Spots and Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Oglesbee, Devin; Kroll, Charles; Gakh, Oleksandr; Deutsch, Eric C.; Lynch, David R.; Gavrilova, Ralitza; Tortorelli, Silvia; Raymond, Kimiyo; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Isaya, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is caused by reduced frataxin (FXN) concentrations. A clinical diagnosis is typically confirmed by DNA-based assays for GAA-repeat expansions or mutations in the FXN (frataxin) gene; however, these assays are not applicable to therapeutic monitoring and population screening. To facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of FRDA patients, we developed an immunoassay for measuring FXN. METHODS Antibody pairs were used to capture FXN and an internal control protein, ceruloplasmin (CP), in 15 μL of whole blood (WB) or one 3-mm punch of a dried blood spot (DBS). Samples were assayed on a Luminex LX200 analyzer and validated according to standard criteria. RESULTS The mean recovery of FXN from WB and DBS samples was 99%. Intraassay and interassay imprecision (CV) values were 4.9%–13% and 9.8%–16%, respectively. The FXN limit of detection was 0.07 ng/mL, and the reportable range of concentrations was 2–200 ng/mL. Reference adult and pediatric FXN concentrations ranged from 15 to 82 ng/mL (median, 33 ng/mL) for DBS and WB. The FXN concentration range was 12–22 ng/mL (median, 15 ng/mL) for FRDA carriers and 1–26 ng/mL (median 5 ng/mL) for FRDA patients. Measurement of the FXN/CP ratio increased the ability to distinguish between patients, carriers, and the reference population. CONCLUSIONS This assay is applicable to the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of FRDA. This assay can measure FXN and the control protein CP in both WB and DBS specimens with minimal sample requirements, creating the potential for high-throughput population screening of FRDA. PMID:23838345

  9. Copper bioavailability, blood parameters, and nutrient balance in mink.

    PubMed

    Wu, X Z; Zhang, T T; Guo, J G; Liu, Z; Yang, F H; Gao, X H

    2015-01-01

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of copper on plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, relative copper bioavailability, and retention of some minerals in male mink. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet, which mainly consisted of corn, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and soybean oil, with no copper supplementation. Mink in the other 9 treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Cu from reagent-grade copper sulfate (CuSO4), tribasic copper chloride (TBCC), or copper methionine (CuMet). Copper concentrations of the experimental diets were 50, 100, and 150 mg Cu/kg DM. Blood samples were collected via the toe clip at the end of study (d 42) to determine blood hematology and blood metabolites. A metabolism trial of 4 d was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. There was a linear (P < 0.01) effect of dose of Cu on plasma Cu concentrations, ceruloplasmin concentration, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity. A linear response to Cu dose was noted for fat (P < 0.05) digestibility. Supplemental dose of Cu linearly increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu and decreased (P < 0.05) liver Zn level but did not alter liver Fe. The concentration of liver Cu of the mink fed with TBCC and CuMet diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that fed CuSO4. Compared with CuSO4 (100%), relative bioavailability values of TBCC were 104 and 104%, based on serum ceruloplasmin and liver copper, respectively, and relative bioavailability values of CuMet were 130 and 111%. CuMet and TBCC are more bioavailable than CuSO4. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of CuMet obtained in this study was greater than that of CuSO4 and TBCC. Dose of Cu had an important effect on the regulating ceruloplasmin concentration, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity, and the digestion of dietary fat in mink. PMID:25568366

  10. Effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical and haematological parameters in Tunisian youth soccer players undertaking their usual training and competition schedule.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Leiper, John B; Bartagi, Zakia; Zrifi, Rym; Zerguini, Yacine; Dvorak, Jiri

    2008-12-01

    Competitive Muslim athletes often have to train and compete during the holy month of Ramadan when they abstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical and haematological parameters in 78 Tunisian junior male soccer players aged 16-19 years who continued their usual schedule of daily training and weekly competition. The study population was divided into four groups based on the time of day of sampling (am or pm) and on whether they were fasting (48 players: 28 am and 20 pm) or non-fasting (30 players: 14 am and 16 pm). Resting venous blood samples were collected approximately 3 weeks before Ramadan, after 2 and 4 weeks of Ramadan, and 3 weeks after the end of Ramadan. Some small, but statistically significant, modifications were observed in circulating concentrations of haemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, creatinine and cortisol, but the mean values for all variables were always within the reference ranges. The minor changes observed during Ramadan may be explained by changes in patterns of food consumption, activity patterns and by hypohydration. The results suggest that the combination of the changes in eating time and frequency during Ramadan fasting, together with the continuation of normal training load, has no marked effect on the blood profiles of these adolescent athletes. PMID:19085451

  11. Impact of iron overload on interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in patients with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; dos Santos, Talyta Ellen Jesus; de Souza, Geane Félix; de Assis, Lívia Coêlho; Freitas, Max Victor Carioca; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of iron overload on the profile of interleukin-10 levels, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in sickle cell anemia patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed of 30 patients with molecular diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Patients were stratified into two groups, according to the presence of iron overload: Iron overload (n = 15) and Non-iron overload (n = 15). Biochemical analyses were performed utilizing the Wiener CM 200 automatic analyzer. The interleukin-10 level was measured by capture ELISA using the BD OptEIAT commercial kit. Oxidative stress parameters were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software (version 5.0) and statistical significance was established for p-values < 0.05 in all analyses. Results Biochemical analysis revealed significant elevations in the levels of uric acid, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea and creatinine in the Iron overload Group compared to the Non-iron overload Group and significant decreases in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Ferritin levels correlated positively with uric acid concentrations (p-value < 0.05). The Iron overload Group showed lower interleukin-10 levels and catalase activity and higher nitrite and malondialdehyde levels compared with the Non-iron overload Group. Conclusion The results of this study are important to develop further consistent studies that evaluate the effect of iron overload on the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress of patients with sickle cell anemia. PMID:23580881

  12. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured at day 7 of the estrous cycle to start the SOV protocol, as well as on the day of embryo recovery (DER). The SOV group produced 7.5 ± 6.7 oocytes/embryos, of which 3.4 ± 4.7 were TE. Serum urea and E2 and uterine Glu, CK, LDH, TP, P4 and PGFM in the control group and serum P4 and PGFM and uterine LDH and PGFM in the SOV group were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at DER than day 7. At DER, uterine urea, LDH, PGFM and TP and serum urea, LDH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations were higher (p < 0.01) in the SOV group than the control. There was no significant variation in uterine bacteriology or cytology. Overall, these results infer that SOV affects both serum profile and uterine secretions, and that these changes may influence the number of TE. PMID:24675828

  13. Weighted next reaction method and parameter selection for efficient simulation of rare events in biochemical reaction systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (wSSA) recently developed by Kuwahara and Mura and the refined wSSA proposed by Gillespie et al. based on the importance sampling technique open the door for efficient estimation of the probability of rare events in biochemical reaction systems. In this paper, we first apply the importance sampling technique to the next reaction method (NRM) of the stochastic simulation algorithm and develop a weighted NRM (wNRM). We then develop a systematic method for selecting the values of importance sampling parameters, which can be applied to both the wSSA and the wNRM. Numerical results demonstrate that our parameter selection method can substantially improve the performance of the wSSA and the wNRM in terms of simulation efficiency and accuracy. PMID:21910924

  14. Relationships between blood lactate parameters and endurance performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Charilaos

    The purpose of this study was to determine if one lactate threshold definition, as determined from an incremental maximal exercise test, correlates the best with the average speed of running during two different distances (10 km and 21.1 km). Thirteen well-trained runners (age: 30.9 +/- 2.2 yrs; height: 179.9 +/- 1.2 cm; weight: 70.5 +/- 1.8 kg; body fat: 8.5 +/- 1.0%; V˙O2max: 65.3 +/- 1.0 ml·kg -1·min-1) completed an incremental maximal exercise test to determine their individual lactate profile, one 10 km and one half marathon time trial (TT) on a treadmill. During these trials, oxygen consumption, heart rate, and blood responses were measured. Blood samples were collected through a venous catheter placed in an antecubital vein to determine lactate responses. Correlation coefficients between the running velocity at the different LT definitions and the average running speed during each time trial were calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A dependent t-test was used to determine statistical difference for the mean lactate response between the two running distances and a two-way ANOVA was used to determine the difference between trials over time. All the lactate threshold definitions were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.59; p < 0.05) with both distances. The LTlog was the definition with the highest correlation for both 10 km time trial (r = 0.926) and the half marathon (r = 0.906). The mean lactate concentration during the 10 km time trial (3.52 +/- 0.4 mmol/L) was significantly higher than the mean lactate concentration during the half marathon (1.86 +/- 0.3 mmol/L). These results indicate that any point on the lactate profile curve correlates with running performance with LTlog providing the highest correlation. However, the LT log was not the best indicator for each individual for each distance, indicating that there is a need to consider individual differences.

  15. [Blood biochemical changes in maternally deprived children and their emotional status].

    PubMed

    Gogberashvili, K Ia; Gagoshidze, M V; Pagava, K I

    2011-01-01

    Environmental rearing conditions during the neonatal period are critical for the establishment of neurobiological factors controlling behavior and stress responsiveness. Early maternal deprivation in animals consisting of a single 24-h maternal deprivation episode during early neonatal life has been proposed as an animal model for certain psychopathologies including anxiety, depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. The aim of the present research was to show the mechanisms how the early maternal deprivation in humans influences the emotional status of children. To understand the effects of early deprivation on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of children following social interactions, we examined the blood neurotransmitters levels (Norepinefrin NA; Dofamin DF; Serotonin SE) in a group of healthy institutionalized children at age from 6 to 36 months from Tbilisi Infant's House. A group of healthy children of the same age from Mother & child shelters formed the control group. Emotional status was assessed by Leusher's Color Test in a group of healthy institutionalized children at age from 3 to 6 years from Tskneti Orphanage. Institutionalized children showed elevations in blood NE and decreased SE and DF concentrations in comparison with non deprived children's blood. The higher was percentage of children with high level of anxiety in the group of children from orphanage than in the children with family care. The results suggest that early maternal deprivation may contribute to long-term regulatory problems of the stress-responsive system that may be resulted in altered emotionality and behavior in deprived children. PMID:21873754

  16. Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mahsa; Mansouri, Hakimeh

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. and investigation of effects of polyploidy induction on some primary and secondary metabolites. Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine (0, 0.1, 0.2 % w/v) for 24 or 48 h. The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids (43.33 %) and mixoploids (13.33 %) was obtained from the 24-h treatment in 0.2 and 0.1 % w/v, respectively. Colchicine with 0.2 % concentration and 48 h duration was more destructive than 24 h. The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants. Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids. Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable. PMID:25492688

  17. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  18. Changes in blood parameters in New Zealand White rabbits during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Yasumoto; Matsuoka, Tetsuya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyasu; Endoh, Takako; Kamata, Ryo; Fukuda, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Asano, Yuzo

    2010-01-01

    Changes in clinical pathology parameters, particularly those related to blood coagulation, were examined throughout the gestation period in New Zealand White rabbits. As compared with the non-pregnant group, the following major changes were observed in the pregnant group. For blood coagulation-related parameters, platelets increased progressively and fibrinogen increased slightly from organogenesis, prothrombin time was significantly prolonged during organogenesis and shortened in the late fetal growth stage, activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly prolonged during the fetal growth stage, and antithrombin III increased during and after late organogenesis. Such changes in blood coagulation-related parameters during the later stages of gestation seem to be physiological responses in preparation for protecting against excessive haemorrhage or haemostasis at parturition. For the other haematological and blood chemical parameters as well as progesterone, red blood cell counts, haemoglobin and haematocrit began to decrease during organogenesis and continued to decrease thereafter. Reticulocyte counts significantly increased during organogenesis and decreased thereafter. White blood cell parameters, except for neutrophils, showed significant decreases during the fetal growth stage. Serum progesterone concentration reached its highest level early in organogenesis and decreased thereafter. Total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, calcium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine decreased significantly during the middle and/or late periods of gestation. In conclusion, the data obtained from the present study can be used as background data for effective evaluation of reproductive toxicology in rabbits, and pregnant rabbits may serve as models of pregnant women in research pertaining to clinical pathology and gestation. PMID:19854754

  19. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Tu, Kevin; Law, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and structurally overparameterized for interpreting the response of leaf net assimilation (A) to intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration (Ci). The use of conventional fitting methods may lead not only to incorrect parameters but also several previously unrecognized consequences. For example, the relationships between key parameters may be fixed computationally and certain fits may be produced in which the estimated parameters result in contradictory identification of the limitation states of the data. Here we describe a new approach that is better suited to the FvCB model characteristics. It consists of four main steps: (1) enumeration of all possible distributions of limitation states; (2) fitting the FvCB model to each limitation state distribution by minimizing a distribution-wise cost function that has desirable properties for parameter estimation; (3) identification and correction of inadmissible fits; and (4) selection of the best fit from all possible limitation state distributions. The new approach implemented theoretical parameter resolvability with numerical procedures that maximally use the information content of the data. It was tested with model simulations, sampled A/Ci curves, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of different tree species. The new approach is accessible through the automated website leafweb.ornl.gov.

  20. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds. PMID:17305967

  1. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages. PMID:26119914

  2. Stochastic analyses of field-scale pesticide leaching risk as influenced by spatial variability in physical and biochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loll, Per; Moldrup, Per

    2000-04-01

    Field-scale pesticide leaching risk assessments were performed by incorporating a numerical, one-dimensional, water and pesticide transport and fate model into the two-step stochastic modeling approach by Loll and Moldrup [1998]. The numerical model included first-order pesticide degradation, linear equilibrium adsorption, and plant uptake of water and pesticide. Simazine was used as a model pesticide, and leaching risk was expressed as the cumulative mass fraction of applied pesticide leached below 100 cm after 1 year. Spatial variability in soil physical and biochemical data, as well as measured meteorological data from an average and a relatively wet year, was considered for two Danish field sites: (1) a coarse sandy soil, with relatively small variability in hydraulic properties, and (2) a sandy loam, with large variability in hydraulic properties. The two-step stochastic modeling approach was used to investigate the relative impact of spatial variability in saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks, soil-water retention through the Campbell [974] soil-water retention parameter b, and pesticide sorption through the organic carbon content (OC). For the coarse sandy soil, field-scale spatial variability in OC was the single most important parameter influencing leaching risk, whereas for the sandy loam, Ks was found more important than OC. The relative impact of field-scale spatial variability in these parameters was found independent of the meteorological conditions, whereas the absolute level of leaching risk was highly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Assuming a linear dependency between pesticide half-life and OC, a unified approach to modeling simultaneous field-scale variability in biodegradation and adsorption was proposed. Leaching risk assessments based on this approach showed that the parts of the field with both low biological activity and low adsorption capacity contributed with a dramatic increase in leaching risk, and suggested that field

  3. Symbolic-numeric estimation of parameters in biochemical models by quantifier elimination.

    PubMed

    Anai, Hirokazu; Orii, Shigeo; Horimoto, Katsuhisa

    2006-10-01

    The sequencing of complete genomes allows analyses of the interactions between various biological molecules on a genomic scale, which prompted us to simulate the global behaviors of biological phenomena on the molecular level. One of the basic mathematical problems in the simulation is the parameter optimization in the kinetic model for complex dynamics, and many estimation methods have been designed. We introduce a new approach to estimate the parameters in biological kinetic models by quantifier elimination (QE), in combination with numerical simulation methods. The estimation method was applied to a model for the inhibition kinetics of HIV proteinase with ten parameters and nine variables, and attained the goodness of fit to 300 points of observed data with the same magnitude as that obtained by the previous estimation methods, remarkably by using only one or two points of data. Furthermore, the utilization of QE demonstrated the feasibility of the present method for elucidating the behavior of the parameters and the variables in the analyzed model. Therefore, the present symbolic-numeric method is a powerful approach to reveal the fundamental mechanisms of kinetic models, in addition to being a computational engine. PMID:17099943

  4. Interaction of lipophorin with Rhodnius prolixus oocytes: biochemical properties and the importance of blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Entringer, Petter Franco; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Machado, Ednildo Alcântara; Gondim, Katia Calp

    2013-11-01

    Lipophorin (Lp) is the main haemolymphatic lipoprotein in insects and transports lipids between different organs. In adult females, lipophorin delivers lipids to growing oocytes. In this study, the interaction of this lipoprotein with the ovaries of Rhodnius prolixus was characterised using an oocyte membrane preparation and purified radiolabelled Lp (125I-Lp). Lp-specific binding to the oocyte membrane reached equilibrium after 40-60 min and when 125I-Lp was incubated with increasing amounts of membrane protein, corresponding increases in Lp binding were observed. The specific binding of Lp to the membrane preparation was a saturable process, with a K(d) of 7.1 ± 0.9 x 10-8M and a maximal binding capacity of 430 ± 40 ng 125I-Lp/µg of membrane protein. The binding was calcium independent and pH sensitive, reaching its maximum at pH 5.2-5.7. Suramin inhibited the binding interaction between Lp and the oocyte membranes, which was completely abolished at 0.5 mM suramin. The oocyte membrane preparation from R. prolixus also showed binding to Lp from Manduca sexta. When Lp was fluorescently labelled and injected into vitellogenic females, the level of Lp-oocyte binding was much higher in females that were fed whole blood than in those fed blood plasma. PMID:24037104

  5. Interaction of lipophorin with Rhodnius prolixus oocytes: biochemical properties and the importance of blood feeding

    PubMed Central

    Entringer, Petter Franco; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Machado, Ednildo Alcântara; Gondim, Katia Calp

    2013-01-01

    Lipophorin (Lp) is the main haemolymphatic lipoprotein in insects and transports lipids between different organs. In adult females, lipophorin delivers lipids to growing oocytes. In this study, the interaction of this lipoprotein with the ovaries of Rhodnius prolixus was characterised using an oocyte membrane preparation and purified radiolabelled Lp (125I-Lp). Lp-specific binding to the oocyte membrane reached equilibrium after 40-60 min and when 125I-Lp was incubated with increasing amounts of membrane protein, corresponding increases in Lp binding were observed. The specific binding of Lp to the membrane preparation was a saturable process, with a Kdof 7.1 ± 0.9 x 10-8M and a maximal binding capacity of 430 ± 40 ng 125I-Lp/µg of membrane protein. The binding was calcium independent and pH sensitive, reaching its maximum at pH 5.2-5.7. Suramin inhibited the binding interaction between Lp and the oocyte membranes, which was completely abolished at 0.5 mM suramin. The oocyte membrane preparation from R. prolixus also showed binding to Lp from Manduca sexta. When Lp was fluorescently labelled and injected into vitellogenic females, the level of Lp-oocyte binding was much higher in females that were fed whole blood than in those fed blood plasma. PMID:24037104

  6. Estimation of kinetic parameters related to biochemical interactions between hydrogen peroxide and signal transduction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Paula M.; Antunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The lack of kinetic data concerning the biological effects of reactive oxygen species is slowing down the development of the field of redox signaling. Herein, we deduced and applied equations to estimate kinetic parameters from typical redox signaling experiments. H2O2-sensing mediated by the oxidation of a protein target and the switch-off of this sensor, by being converted back to its reduced form, are the two processes for which kinetic parameters are determined. The experimental data required to apply the equations deduced is the fraction of the H2O2 sensor protein in the reduced or in the oxidized state measured in intact cells or living tissues after exposure to either endogenous or added H2O2. Either non-linear fittings that do not need transformation of the experimental data or linearized plots in which deviations from the equations are easily observed can be used. The equations were shown to be valid by fitting to them virtual time courses simulated with a kinetic model. The good agreement between the kinetic parameters estimated in these fittings and those used to simulate the virtual time courses supported the accuracy of the kinetic equations deduced. Finally, equations were successfully tested with real data taken from published experiments that describe redox signaling mediated by the oxidation of two protein tyrosine phosphatases, PTP1B and SHP-2, which are two of the few H2O2-sensing proteins with known kinetic parameters. Whereas for PTP1B estimated kinetic parameters fitted in general the present knowledge, for SHP-2 results obtained suggest that reactivity toward H2O2 as well as the rate of SHP-2 regeneration back to its reduced form are higher than previously thought. In conclusion, valuable quantitative kinetic data can be estimated from typical redox signaling experiments, thus improving our understanding about the complex processes that underlie the interplay between oxidative stress and redox signaling responses. PMID:25325054

  7. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  8. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  9. Effect of wood ash application on the morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Murad, Waheed; Khan, Imran; Mian, Ishaq Ahmad; Rehman, Hazir; Adnan, Muhammad; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of wood ash application on different parameters of Brassica napus L. including seed germination, seedling growth, fresh and dry biomass, water content in seedlings, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total protein and cell viability. In addition, the effect of wood ash on soil microflora and accumulation of trace elements in seedlings were determined. The seeds of B. napus were grown at different doses of wood ash (0, 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 g (wood ash)/kg (soil)) and the effect on various parameters was determined. Wood ash significantly inhibited seed germination at doses above 25 g/kg and there was no germination at 100 g/kg of wood ash. At lower concentrations of wood ash, most of the growth parameters of seedlings were stimulated, but at higher concentrations of wood ash most of the studied parameters were adversely affected. Wood ash was found to be very detrimental to B. napus when applied above 25 g/kg. Wood ash application resulted in an increased bioaccumulation of trace elements in seedlings of B. napus. Almost all trace elements were significantly higher in seedlings grown in wood ash above 10 g/kg as compared to the control. An increase in total microbial count was observed with wood ash treatment which was statistically significant at 1 and 10 g/kg of wood ash. It is concluded that at very high concentration, wood ash can be detrimental to plants; however, its application at lower application rate can be recommended. PMID:26163419

  10. Red Blood Cell Homeostasis: Pharmacological Interventions to Explore Biochemical, Morphological and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Cluitmans, Judith C A; Gevi, Federica; Siciliano, Angela; Matte, Alessandro; Leal, Joames K F; De Franceschi, Lucia; Zolla, Lello; Brock, Roland; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J W; Bosman, Giel J G C M

    2016-01-01

    During their passage through the circulation, red blood cells (RBCs) encounter severe physiological conditions consisting of mechanical stress, oxidative damage and fast changes in ionic and osmotic conditions. In order to survive for 120 days, RBCs adapt to their surroundings by subtle regulation of membrane organization and metabolism. RBC homeostasis depends on interactions between the integral membrane protein band 3 with other membrane and cytoskeletal proteins, and with key enzymes of various metabolic pathways. These interactions are regulated by the binding of deoxyhemoglobin to band 3, and by a signaling network revolving around Lyn kinase and Src family kinase-mediated phosphorylation of band 3. Here we show that manipulation of the interaction between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton, using various pharmacological agents that interfere with protein-protein interactions and membrane lipid organization, has various effects on: (1) morphology, as shown by high resolution microscopy and quantitative image analysis; (2) organization of membrane proteins, as indicated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of vesicle generation; (3) membrane lipid organization, as indicated by flow cytometric analysis of phosphatidylserine exposure; (4) deformability, as assessed in capillary-mimicking circumstances using a microfluidics system; (5) deformability as determined using a spleen-mimicking device; (6) metabolic activity as indicated by metabolomics. Our data show that there is a complex relationship between red cell morphology, membrane organization and deformability. Also, our data show that red blood cells have a relatively high resistance to disturbance of membrane organization in vitro, which may reflect their capacity to withstand mechanical, oxidative and osmotic stress in vivo. PMID:27066490

  11. Red Blood Cell Homeostasis: Pharmacological Interventions to Explore Biochemical, Morphological and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cluitmans, Judith C. A.; Gevi, Federica; Siciliano, Angela; Matte, Alessandro; Leal, Joames K. F.; De Franceschi, Lucia; Zolla, Lello; Brock, Roland; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J. W.; Bosman, Giel J. G. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    During their passage through the circulation, red blood cells (RBCs) encounter severe physiological conditions consisting of mechanical stress, oxidative damage and fast changes in ionic and osmotic conditions. In order to survive for 120 days, RBCs adapt to their surroundings by subtle regulation of membrane organization and metabolism. RBC homeostasis depends on interactions between the integral membrane protein band 3 with other membrane and cytoskeletal proteins, and with key enzymes of various metabolic pathways. These interactions are regulated by the binding of deoxyhemoglobin to band 3, and by a signaling network revolving around Lyn kinase and Src family kinase-mediated phosphorylation of band 3. Here we show that manipulation of the interaction between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton, using various pharmacological agents that interfere with protein-protein interactions and membrane lipid organization, has various effects on: (1) morphology, as shown by high resolution microscopy and quantitative image analysis; (2) organization of membrane proteins, as indicated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of vesicle generation; (3) membrane lipid organization, as indicated by flow cytometric analysis of phosphatidylserine exposure; (4) deformability, as assessed in capillary-mimicking circumstances using a microfluidics system; (5) deformability as determined using a spleen-mimicking device; (6) metabolic activity as indicated by metabolomics. Our data show that there is a complex relationship between red cell morphology, membrane organization and deformability. Also, our data show that red blood cells have a relatively high resistance to disturbance of membrane organization in vitro, which may reflect their capacity to withstand mechanical, oxidative and osmotic stress in vivo. PMID:27066490

  12. Liver function in Huntington's disease assessed by blood biochemical analyses in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Nørremølle, Anne; Hasholt, Lis; Hjermind, Lena E; Josefsen, Knud

    2016-03-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat elongation in the huntingtin gene. In addition to motor-, psychiatric- and cognitive dysfunction, peripheral disease manifestations in the form of metabolic changes and cellular dysfunction are seen. Blood levels of a wide range of hormones, metabolites and proteins have been analyzed in HD patients, identifying several changes associated with the disease. However, a comprehensive panel of liver function tests (LFT) has not been performed. We investigated a cohort of manifest and premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and controls, using a clinically applied panel of LFTs. Here, we demonstrate that the level of alkaline phosphatase is increased in manifest HD gene-expansion carriers compared to premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and correlate with increased disease severity indicated by the Unified Huntington's disease rating scale-Total Functional Capacity Score (UHDRS-TFC). For gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated levels were more frequent in the manifest groups than in both the HD gene-expansion negative controls and premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers. Finally, the manifest HD gene-expansion carriers displayed moderate increases in total cholesterol and blood glucose relative to the premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers, as well as increased C-reactive protein relative to HD gene-expansion negative controls. Our results show that LFT values are elevated more frequently in manifest compared to premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers and controls. The majority of the manifest HD gene-expansion carriers receive medication, and it is possible that this can influence the liver function tests performed in this study. PMID:26944172

  13. Neonatal blood rheological parameters at delivery in healthy neonates and in those with morbidities.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amr A; Csorba, Roland; Tsikouras, Pagnaioti; Wieg, Christian; Harnack, Harald; von Tempelhoff, Georg-Friedrich

    2013-03-26

    Rheological blood parameters of neonates are different form those of adults. Many authors have studied changes in blood rheology in neonates in different clinical disorders. To-date, no one set the normal values for blood rheological parameters in healthy neonates. The aim of this study is to set the norm for rheological blood parameters in healthy newborns and to describe the changes in those parameters in common clinical disorders that affect the newborns. We recruited all the neonates born to mothers experiencing un eventful pregnancies, blood was taken from the umbilical cord right after the delivery. In this time period we recruited 4985 neonate. From this huge database we were able to set the standards for blood rheology in neonates, namely plasma viscosity of 1.06 ± 0.072 mPa, erythrocyte aggregation at stasis of 2.41 ± 2.74 s-1 and erythrocyte aggregation under low shear forces of 8.51 ± 6.38 s-1. These values changed significantly in some diseased neonates. This is the largest study investigating normal rheological parameters and deviations from the norm in common clinical disorders occurring in this early stage of life. PMID:23532177

  14. [Research on the Method of Blood Pressure Monitoring Based on Multiple Parameters of Pulse Wave].

    PubMed

    Miao, Changyun; Mu, Dianwei; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chunjiao; Li, Hongqiang

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of blood pressure measurement in wearable devices, this paper presents a method for detecting blood pressure based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. Based on regression analysis between blood pressure and the characteristic parameters of pulse wave, such as the pulse wave transit time (PWTT), cardiac output, coefficient of pulse wave, the average slope of the ascending branch, heart rate, etc. we established a model to calculate blood pressure. For overcoming the application deficiencies caused by measuring ECG in wearable device, such as replacing electrodes and ECG lead sets which are not convenient, we calculated the PWTT with heart sound as reference (PWTT(PCG)). We experimentally verified the detection of blood pressure based on PWTT(PCG) and based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. The experiment results showed that it was feasible to calculate the PWTT from PWTT(PCG). The mean measurement error of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure calculated by the model based on multiple parameters of pulse wave is 1.62 mm Hg and 1.12 mm Hg, increased by 57% and 53% compared to those of the model based on simple parameter. This method has more measurement accuracy. PMID:26964321

  15. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. W.; Ning, D.; Peng, Y. Z.; Guo, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI) and ascites heart index (AHI) on d 21, lung index (LUI) on d 35 and liver index (LI) on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration and hematocrit (HCT) on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU) on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP) and globulin (GLO) content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and Na+-K+-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD) level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06). L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA) content on d 28, 35 and 42

  16. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y W; Ning, D; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI) and ascites heart index (AHI) on d 21, lung index (LUI) on d 35 and liver index (LI) on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) concentration and hematocrit (HCT) on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG) content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU) on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP) and globulin (GLO) content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH), malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD) level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06). L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA) content on d 28, 35 and 42

  17. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies. PMID:25842337

  18. Effect of mercuric chloride on some biochemical and physiological parameters of the freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.; Rao, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus, was exposed to a sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (3 ..mu..g/liter) for 120 days and the following effects were examined: changes in the levels of glucose and lactic acid in blood and of glycogen and lactic acid in liver and muscles; rate of absorption of glucose from the intestine; and changes in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), L-amino acid oxidase (AO), and xanthine oxidase (XO) in brain, gills, intestine, kidney, liver, and muscles. Mercury-treated fish were hypoglycemic and hypolactemic. The glycogen content of liver and muscles remained unaltered but the muscle lactic acid level decreased significantly. The rate of intestinal absorption of glucose was reduced significantly by exposure to mercury. G-6-Pase activity was decreased in all the tissues. Hexokinase activity also decreased in mercury-exposed fish but it was significant only in intestine, kidney, and liver. The activities of LDH, PDH, SDH, and MDH also were decreased significantly except LDH in brain and MDH in kidney where an insignificant decrease and an insignificant increase, respectively, were recorded. GDH and AO activities were elevated in most of the tissues except GDH in gills, and AO in gills and muscles where a decrease was observed. XO activity in brain, gills, and kidneys was significantly elevated, but no marked alteration was noted in other tissues.

  19. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Rifampin in Patients with Tuberculosis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Association with Biochemical and Immunological Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Medellín-Garibay, S. E.; Cortez-Espinosa, N.; Milán-Segovia, R. C.; Magaña-Aquino, M.; Vargas-Morales, J. M.; González-Amaro, R.; Portales-Pérez, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health issue due to the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which exacerbates the clinical course of TB and increases the risk of poor long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of rifampin (RIF) and its relationship with biochemical and immunological parameters in patients with TB and T2DM. The biochemical and immunological parameters were assessed on the same day that the pharmacokinetic evaluation of RIF was performed. Factors related to the metabolic syndrome that is characteristic of T2DM patients were not detected in the TB-T2DM group (where predominant malnutrition was present) or in the TB group. Percentages of CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells were diminished in the TB and TB-T2DM patients, who had high tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and low interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels compared to healthy volunteers. Delayed RIF absorption was observed in the TB and TB-T2DM patients; absorption was poor and slower in the latter group due to poor glycemic control. RIF clearance was also slower in the diabetic patients, thereby prolonging the mean residence time of RIF. There was a significant association between glycemic control, increased TNF-α serum concentrations, and RIF pharmacokinetics in the TB-T2DM patients. These altered metabolic and immune conditions may be factors to be considered in anti-TB therapy management when TB and T2DM are concurrently present. PMID:26438503

  20. Effect of atrazine, glyphosate and quinclorac on biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and survival in bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus).

    PubMed

    Dornelles, Michele Flores; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2014-04-01

    Increased use of pesticides worldwide has led to damage not only to natural ecosystems but also to nontarget species. This study assessed the effects of different concentrations of the herbicides atrazine, glyphosate, and quinclorac on biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, and survival in tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus (bullfrog). Two hundred eighty-eight tadpoles were acquired from a frog farm in the south of Brazil. All animals were kept in aquariums under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days and exposed to commercial formulations of atrazine (5, 10, and 20 μg/L), glyphosate (36, 72, and 144 μg/L), and quinclorac (0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 μg/L) for 7 days thereafter. The concentrations used in this study are similar to the levels of these herbicides found in natural water bodies. After exposure, gill, liver, and muscle samples were removed from each animal for quantitation of glycogen, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins, and lipid peroxidation. Atrazine, glyphosate, and quinclorac exposure induced a significant decrease in levels of glycogen and total lipids in gill, liver, and muscle. Triglycerides levels in the gill increased after exposure to glyphosate, and decreased after exposure to atrazine and quinclorac; their levels in liver and muscle decreased on exposure to all herbicides. Cholesterol and total protein levels decreased in liver and muscle for all three herbicides. All tissues exhibited increased lipid peroxidation after exposure to all herbicides. In conclusion, exposure to the herbicides tested in this study induced significant changes in biochemical parameters and increased lipid peroxidation levels in tadpoles of L. catesbeianus. PMID:24276472

  1. Zinc-induced modulation of some biochemical parameters in a high- and a low-zinc-accumulating genotype of Cicer arietinum L. grown under Zn-deficient condition.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shadab Naseer; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comparative account of biochemical responses evoked by a high-zinc-accumulating (HZnG) and a low-zinc-accumulating (LZnG) genotype of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under conditions of zinc deficiency (0 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil) and on exogenous zinc supply (2.5, 5, and 10 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil), at different growth stages (pre-flowering, flowering, and post-flowering) of the crop. Both the genotypes exhibited significant variation in contents of chlorophyll, protein, nitrate, and leghemoglobin, and in the activity of enzymes (nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase, and carbonic anhydrase), under zinc-limiting condition. The HZnG maintained a significantly higher level of biochemical parameters at deficient zinc levels, while LZnG was more affected by Zn deficiency (with reduced biochemical attributes), compared to HZnG. However, application of soil zinc alleviated the Zn-induced disturbance and improved the biochemical parameters in both genotypes. The differential biochemical response of plants to Zn deficiency indicated existence of genotypic variation in efficient utilization of the available Zn. The HZnG was more effective in overcoming Zn deficiency than the LZnG. This study suggests that metal-dependent biochemical parameters can be used as reliable indices for selection of genotypes with a better Zn utilization capacity, i.e., the Zn-efficient genotypes. PMID:25673554

  2. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers.

    PubMed

    Closter, A M; van As, P; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2009-03-01

    Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO(2)), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO(2)), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO(2), 0.03 for pvO(2), and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 +/- 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 +/- 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO(2), the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (-0.62 +/- 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO(2). For pvCO(2), the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (-0.04 +/- 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study

  3. Prognostic Judgment at Post-Surgery by Biochemical Parameters in Beef Cattle with Left Displaced Abomasum

    PubMed Central

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; TAGUCHI, Kiyoshi; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery. PMID:24998331

  4. Aluminium-induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2004-06-01

    For a long time, aluminium (Al) has been considered an indifferent element from a toxicological point of view. In recent years, however, Al has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders, such as dialysis dementia, the fulminant neurological disorder that can develop in patients on renal dialysis. Therefore, the present experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on certain hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 0mg AA and 0mg AlCl3/kg body weight (BW) (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3/kg BW (1/25 LD50); 34 mg AlCl3 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 16 weeks. Evaluations were made for lipid peroxidation, enzyme activities and hemato-biochemical parameters. Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (P<0.05) induced free radicals and decreased the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the levels of sulfhydryl groups (SH groups) in rabbit plasma, liver, brain, testes and kidney. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP), and phosphorylase activities were significantly decreased in liver and testes due to AlCl3 administration. While, plasma, liver, testes and brain lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly increased. Contrariwise, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly decreased in brain and plasma. Aluminium treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total lipids (TL), blood haemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), and increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and the concentrations of glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin and cholesterol. Ascorbic acid alone significantly decreased the

  5. Appropriate biochemical parameters in first-trimester screening for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuckle, H S; van Lith, J M

    1999-06-01

    Meta-analysis was used to calculate maternal serum marker distribution parameters for Down syndrome risk estimation in the first trimester. Data from 44 series were combined: relating to pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A in 18, free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in 17, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in 26 and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in 9. All levels were expressed in multiples of the normal median (MOM) for gestational age. Individual PAPP-A levels were available for 439 first and second-trimester Down syndrome pregnancies. The median MOM value increased with gestation: 0.35 at 6-8 weeks (31 cases), 0.40 at 9-11 weeks (197), 0.62 at 12-14 weeks (113) and 0.94 thereafter (98). A cubic regression equation was fitted so it could be estimated for each week of gestation. For the other markers the median value in Down syndrome was estimated from the weighted mean across all first-trimester series: 1.98 MOM for free beta-hCG in 579 cases; 0.79 MOM for AFP in 243 and 0.74 MOM for uE3 in 226. Variance-covariance matrices were calculated directly in unaffected pregnancies and from the difference between affected and unaffected pregnancies in Down syndrome. Based on these parameters we estimate that screening at 9-11 weeks with PAPP-A and free beta-hCG will yield a 64.6 per cent detection rate for a 5 per cent false-positive rate. Adding a third marker will increase detection to 66.6 per cent for AFP and 68.6 per cent for uE3; using all four markers it increases to 70.1 per cent. Routine ultrasound nuchal translucency measurement in addition to serum testing will increase the rates to 86.4 per cent, 87.2 per cent, 87.9 per cent and 88.3 per cent, respectively. PMID:10416963

  6. Robust linear parameter-varying control of blood pressure using vasoactive drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luspay, Tamas; Grigoriadis, Karolos

    2015-10-01

    Resuscitation of emergency care patients requires fast restoration of blood pressure to a target value to achieve hemodynamic stability and vital organ perfusion. A robust control design methodology is presented in this paper for regulating the blood pressure of hypotensive patients by means of the closed-loop administration of vasoactive drugs. To this end, a dynamic first-order delay model is utilised to describe the vasoactive drug response with varying parameters that represent intra-patient and inter-patient variability. The proposed framework consists of two components: first, an online model parameter estimation is carried out using a multiple-model extended Kalman-filter. Second, the estimated model parameters are used for continuously scheduling a robust linear parameter-varying (LPV) controller. The closed-loop behaviour is characterised by parameter-varying dynamic weights designed to regulate the mean arterial pressure to a target value. Experimental data of blood pressure response of anesthetised pigs to phenylephrine injection are used for validating the LPV blood pressure models. Simulation studies are provided to validate the online model estimation and the LPV blood pressure control using phenylephrine drug injection models representing patients showing sensitive, nominal and insensitive response to the drug.

  7. Exposition to tannery wastewater did not alter behavioral and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-04-22

    There are scarce data on the neurotoxicity in mammalian induced by tannery wastewaters. Previously, the anxiogenic effect of tannery wastewater was demonstrated in mice, while wastewater submitted to photoelectrooxidation (PEO) process treatment did not affect the anxiety state. Considering that species may response differently to xenobiotics, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of exposure to tannery wastewaters (non-PEO or PEO-treated) on behavioral and neurochemical markers in another species of laboratory animals, specifically Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were given free access to water bottles containing non-PEO or PEO-treated tannery wastewaters (0.1, 1 and 5% in drinking water). During the exposure, behavioral tests of anxiety (elevated plus-maze, neophobia, open field and light-dark box), depression (forced swimming) and memory (inhibitory avoidance, novel object and discriminative avoidance) were performed. On the 30th day, brain structures were dissected out to evaluate cellular oxidative state (hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum) and acetylcholinesterase activity (hippocampus and striatum). Exposure to tannery effluent with or without photoelectrochemical treatment did not alter any behavioral and neurochemical parameters evaluated. Our data indicate that Wistar rats may not be an adequate species for ecotoxicological studies involving tannery effluents and that POE treatment did not generate other toxic compounds. PMID:24548682

  8. Effects of neonatal undernutrition and cold stress on behavior and biochemical brain parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Villescas, R; Ostwald, R; Morimoto, H; Bennett, E L

    1981-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the separate and combined effects of neonatal undernutrition (U) and cold stress (S) on the behavioral and cerebral development of postweaning rats. A severe U was imposed by feeding dams a low protein diet. Postweaning all pups were fed a control diet. S consisted of daily exposure to 5 degrees for 3 minutes from day 2 to 11. Behavioral data show that U animals, stressed (S) + nonstressed (NS), exhibited a significant deficit in reversal learning of T-maze at 21 days, an enhanced passive avoidance response, but no difference in active-avoidance at 35 days when compared to controls of the same age. S had no effect on behavior development. At death (110 days), the brains were dissected into five sections and assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholinesterase (ChE) activities. Brain weights of U animals (NS + S) were significantly lower in all sections except dorsal cortex (DC). AChE and ChE activities were significantly higher in all sections (except DC) of U animals relative to controls. S resulted in lower cerebellar weight and ChE:AChE ratios in some sections. Our results suggest a delayed behavioral maturation in U animals and an association between early postweaning behavior and brain parameters in adult rehabilitated animals. PMID:7241231

  9. Perioperative Blood Transfusion as a Significant Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence and Survival after Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Kwon; Kim, Hyung Suk; Park, Juhyun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyun Hoe; Kwak, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been conflicting reports regarding the association of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) with oncologic outcomes including recurrence rates and survival outcomes in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate whether perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) affects biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) following radical prostatectomy (RP) for patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 2,713 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed a comparative analysis based on receipt of transfusion (PBT group vs. no-PBT group) and transfusion type (autologous PBT vs. allogeneic PBT). Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to evaluate variables associated with BRFS, CSS, and OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival estimates for BRFS, CSS, and OS, and log-rank test was used to conduct comparisons between the groups. Results The number of patients who received PBT was 440 (16.5%). Among these patients, 350 (79.5%) received allogeneic transfusion and the other 90 (20.5%) received autologous transfusion. In a multivariate analysis, allogeneic PBT was found to be statistically significant predictors of BRFS, CSS, and OS; conversely, autologous PBT was not. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year BRFS (79.2% vs. 70.1%, log-rank, p = 0.001), CSS (98.5% vs. 96.7%, log-rank, p = 0.012), and OS (95.5% vs. 90.6%, log-rank, p < 0.001) in the allogeneic PBT group compared to the no-allogeneic PBT group. In the autologous PBT group, however, none of these were statistically significant compared to the no-autologous PBT group. Conclusions We found that allogeneic PBT was significantly associated with decreased BRFS, CSS, and OS. This provides further support for the immunomodulation hypothesis for allogeneic

  10. Magnetic field effect on flow parameters of blood along with magnetic particles in a cylindrical tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shashi; Singh, Uaday; Katiyar, V. K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of external uniform magnetic field on flow parameters of both blood and magnetic particles is reported through a mathematical model using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approach. The fluid is acted upon by a varying pressure gradient and an external uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the cylindrical tube. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations were solved numerically and found that flow parameters are affected by the influence of magnetic field. Further, artificial blood (75% water+25% Glycerol) along with iron oxide magnetic particles were prepared and transported into a glass tube with help of a peristaltic pump. The velocity of artificial blood along with magnetic particles was experimentally measured at different magnetic fields ranging from 100 to 600 mT. The model results show that the velocity of blood and magnetic particles is appreciably reduced under the influence of magnetic field, which is supported by our experimental results.

  11. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Latha, V

    2016-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) act as essential nutrients; however, they can be toxic at higher concentrations. In this study, earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was studied for its sensitivity to sublethal doses of Cr (8 ppm) and Zn (350 ppm) in terms of alterations occurred in oxidative stress indices and reproductive parameters in the testis. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the rate of food intake was observed on 7, 14 and 21 days of Cr toxicity; while increased rate was evident upon 7 days of Zn exposure. Changes evident in the rate of cocoon production (-39.54 and +38.63 %), hatchability (-77.85 and +30.0 %) highlight higher toxic potential of Cr than Zn, respectively. Moderate to severe vacuolization in spermatic follicles and higher incidence of tailless (+52.6 % in Cr and 20.8 % in Zn), and head bent (+18.8 % in Cr and 0 % in Zn) sperms were evident in Cr(VI) exposed worms emphasizing the higher vulnerability of E. eugeniae to Cr toxicity. A significant (p < 0.05) increase observed in catalase activity (+13.29 % in Zn and +20.88 % in Cr) and glutathione (+52.09 % in Zn and -7.70 % in Cr) suggests a higher compensatory antioxidant response in Zn-exposed worms than Cr. Variations observed in the activities of superoxide dismutase (-9.40 % in Zn and +24.0 % in Cr) and glutathione-s-transferase (-39.39 % in Zn and +1.29 % in Cr) emphasize the metal specific antioxidant responses in testis. Therefore, it can be implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate. PMID:26922588

  12. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

  13. Relationships among bulk soil physicochemical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters in an organic alfalfa-rice rotation system.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana R; Bello, Diana; Prieto-Fernández, Ángeles; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2015-08-01

    The microbial communities of bulk soil of rice paddy fields under an ancient organic agriculture regimen, consisting on an alfalfa-rice rotation system, were characterized. The drained soil of two adjacent paddies at different stages of the rotation was compared before rice seeding and after harvesting. The relationships among the soil microbial, physicochemical, and biochemical parameters were investigated using multivariate analyses. In the first year of rice cropping, aerobic cultivable heterotrophic populations correlated with lineages of presumably aerobic bacteria (e.g., Sphingobacteriales, Sphingomonadales). In the second year of rice cropping, the total C content correlated with presumable anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineae). Independently of the year of rice cropping, before rice seeding, proteolytic activity correlated positively with the cultivable aerobic heterotrophic and ammonifier populations, the soil catabolic profile and with presumable aerobes (e.g., Sphingobacteriales, Rhizobiales) and anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroidales, Anaerolineae). After harvesting, strongest correlations were observed between cultivable diazotrophic populations and bacterial groups described as comprising N2 fixing members (e.g., Chloroflexi-Ellin6529, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria). It was demonstrated that chemical parameters and microbial functions were correlated with variations on the total bacterial community composition and structure occurring during rice cropping. A better understanding of these correlations and of their implications on soil productivity may be valid contributors for sustainable agriculture practices, based on ancient processes. PMID:25850741

  14. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  15. [Evaluation of the radiological, biochemical and serological parameters of patients prediagnosed as cystic echinococcosis in Çorum, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Güreser, A Semra; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özünel, Leyla; Boyacıoğlu, Zehra İlkay; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül

    2015-04-01

    , without liver infection. Although 50% (16/32) of patients resided in Çorum urban area, most of them were dealing with agriculture and animal breeding. Among the biochemical parameters, GGT were detected with highest level (28%), followed by ALT (16%), AST (16%) and ALP (13%), while the other parameters were normal. Elevated RDW level was the most frequently observed result (29%) among hemogram parameters, while decreased levels of hematocrit, hemoglobin and MCV were detected in 23%, 19% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Eosinophilia was detected in 19% of the patients. In conclusion, for the diagnosis of CE, which is still an important public health problem in our region, a comprehensive evaluation of clinical, radiological, serological and biochemical findings is needed, to avoid a confusion of other diseases with similar clinical symptoms. PMID:26167823

  16. Hemato-immunological and biochemical parameters of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    PubMed

    Tancredo, Karen R; Gonçalves, Eduardo L T; Brum, Aline; Acchile, Monyele; Hashimoto, Gabriela S O; Pereira, Scheila A; Martins, Maurício L

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the immunization by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) (assay I) and immersion bath (assay II) with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifillis in Rhamdia quelen and its influence on the hemato-immunological and biochemical parameters. Fish were divided in control (non immunized no challenged); non immunized and challenged with 12,000 theronts/fish; non immunized and challenged with 22,000 theronts/fish; immunized and challenged with 12,000 theronts/fish; immunized and challenged with 22,000 theronts/fish. Six days after challenge, either in the assay I or in the assay II the prevalence of I. multifillis in the gills was higher in non immunized fish (33.33% and 27.77%, respectively). In the assay I showed higher numbers of thrombocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes 20 days after injection and lower numbers after challenge. The immunoglobulin values were higher in fish non immunized. Fish immunized by immersion bath (assay II) showed greater values of catalase (CAT) in the liver (1245.49 U/mgprt) when compared to i.p. (198.79 U/mgprt). The levels of CAT in the liver of fish from the assay II were greater (1738.47 U/mgprt) 14 days after immunization than that observed 21 days after (1114.26 U/mgprt). The vaccination by i.p method showed influence on the hematological parameters. On the other hand, the immersion bath vaccination showed greater influence on the catalase activity in the liver. The results showed that new parameters like total protein, immunoglobulin and antioxidant enzymes could be considered in evaluating the host response to infection. PMID:26027759

  17. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The group fed 1% onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Haemoglobin, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil had no significant change (P > 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P < 0.05), while ALT and ALP levels were not influenced (P > 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that dietary onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile. PMID:26067169

  18. Clinical, morphological, biochemical, imaging and outcome parameters in 21 individuals with mitochondrial maintenance defect related to FBXL4 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Martina; Karall, Daniela; Schossig, Anna; Abdenur, Jose E.; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Biagosch, Caroline; Distelmaier, Felix; Freisinger, Peter; Graham, Brett H.; Haack, Tobias B.; Hauser, Natalie; Hertecant, Jozef; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Leydiker, Karen; Lourenco, Charles M.; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Wolf, Nicole I.; Wortmann, Saskia B.; Taylor, Robert W.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Bonnen, Penelope E.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Prokisch, Holger; McFarland, Robert

    2016-01-01

    FBXL4 deficiency is a recently described disorder of mitochondrial maintenance associated with a loss of mitochondrial DNA in cells. To date, the genetic diagnosis of FBXL4 deficiency has been established in 28 individuals. This paper retrospectively reviews proxy-reported clinical and biochemical findings and evaluates brain imaging, morphological and genetic data in 21 of those patients. Neonatal/early-onset severe lactic acidosis, muscular hypotonia, feeding problems and failure to thrive is the characteristic pattern at first presentation. Facial dysmorphic features are present in 67 % of cases. Seven children died (mean age 37 months); 11 children were alive (mean age at follow-up 46 months), three children were lost to follow-up. All survivors developed severe psychomotor retardation. Brain imaging was non-specific in neonates but a later-onset, rapidly progressive brain atrophy was noted. Elevated blood lactate and metabolic acidosis were observed in all individuals; creatine kinase was elevated in 45 % of measurements. Diagnostic workup in patient tissues and cells revealed a severe combined respiratory chain defect with a general decrease of enzymes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism and a relative depletion of mitochondrial DNA content. Mutations were detected throughout the FBXL4 gene albeit with no clear delineation of a genotype- phenotype correlation. Treatment with Bmitochondrial medicationsˆ did not prove effective. In conclusion, a clinical pattern of early-onset encephalopathy, persistent lactic acidosis, profound muscular hypotonia and typical facial dysmorphism should prompt initiation of molecular genetic analysis of FBXL4. Establishment of the diagnosis permits genetic counselling, prevents patients undergoing unhelpful diagnostic procedures and allows for accurate prognosis. PMID:25868664

  19. Clinical, morphological, biochemical, imaging and outcome parameters in 21 individuals with mitochondrial maintenance defect related to FBXL4 mutations.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Martina; Karall, Daniela; Schossig, Anna; Abdenur, Jose E; Al Jasmi, Fatma; Biagosch, Caroline; Distelmaier, Felix; Freisinger, Peter; Graham, Brett H; Haack, Tobias B; Hauser, Natalie; Hertecant, Jozef; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Leydiker, Karen; Lourenco, Charles M; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Wolf, Nicole I; Wortmann, Saskia B; Taylor, Robert W; Mayr, Johannes A; Bonnen, Penelope E; Sperl, Wolfgang; Prokisch, Holger; McFarland, Robert

    2015-09-01

    FBXL4 deficiency is a recently described disorder of mitochondrial maintenance associated with a loss of mitochondrial DNA in cells. To date, the genetic diagnosis of FBXL4 deficiency has been established in 28 individuals. This paper retrospectively reviews proxy-reported clinical and biochemical findings and evaluates brain imaging, morphological and genetic data in 21 of those patients. Neonatal/early-onset severe lactic acidosis, muscular hypotonia, feeding problems and failure to thrive is the characteristic pattern at first presentation. Facial dysmorphic features are present in 67% of cases. Seven children died (mean age 37 months); 11 children were alive (mean age at follow-up 46 months), three children were lost to follow-up. All survivors developed severe psychomotor retardation. Brain imaging was non-specific in neonates but a later-onset, rapidly progressive brain atrophy was noted. Elevated blood lactate and metabolic acidosis were observed in all individuals; creatine kinase was elevated in 45% of measurements. Diagnostic workup in patient tissues and cells revealed a severe combined respiratory chain defect with a general decrease of enzymes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism and a relative depletion of mitochondrial DNA content. Mutations were detected throughout the FBXL4 gene albeit with no clear delineation of a genotype-phenotype correlation. Treatment with "mitochondrial medications" did not prove effective. In conclusion, a clinical pattern of early-onset encephalopathy, persistent lactic acidosis, profound muscular hypotonia and typical facial dysmorphism should prompt initiation of molecular genetic analysis of FBXL4. Establishment of the diagnosis permits genetic counselling, prevents patients undergoing unhelpful diagnostic procedures and allows for accurate prognosis. PMID:25868664

  20. Effects of depletion sampling by standard three-pass pulsed DC electrofishing on blood chemistry parameters of fishes from Appalachian streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Christine L.; Panek, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects on fishes captured by electrofishing techniques have long been recognized, although the extent of associated physical injury and behavioral alterations are highly variable and dependent on a number of factors. We examined the effects of three-pass pulsed DC (PDC) electrofishing on two salmonid species (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and five other genera (Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus) common to Appalachian streams. We examined the corresponding effects of PDC electroshock on the following physiological indicators of stress and trauma: blood glucose and serum lactate, as well as on other blood chemistry, namely, enzymes, electrolytes, minerals, and proteins. All species demonstrated physiological responses to PDC electroshock, indicated by the biochemical differences in blood parameters in unshocked and shocked groups of fish with or without gross evidence of hemorrhagic trauma. Serum lactate was the most consistent indicator of these effects. Significant differences in whole blood glucose levels were also noted in treatment groups in all species except Green Sunfish, although the patterns observed were not as consistent as for serum lactate. Elevations in the serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, in the electroshocked fish occurred only in the two salmonid species. In many instances, although blood parameters were elevated in electroshocked fish compared with the unshocked controls for a given species, there were no differences in those levels in electroshocked fish based on the presence of gross hemorrhagic trauma to axial musculature. While some of the blood parameters examined correlated with both the occurrence of electroshock and the resultant tissue injury, there was no apparent link between the altered blood chemistry and

  1. The effects of dietary boron compounds in supplemented diet on hormonal activity and some biochemical parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Ismail; Akbel, Erten; Karabag, Funda; Ince, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of dietary boric acid or borax, as a boron (B) source, on hormonal status (leptin, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine) and some biochemical parameter levels as glucose, carnitine, nonesterified fatty acids, and betahydroxybutyric acid in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds especially borax decreased leptin, insulin, and glucose levels, whereas increased T3 and carnitine levels in plasma. In addition, body weight of rats was found to be low in the boric acid group at the end of 4 weeks. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases body weight, leptin, and insulin, whereas increases T3 levels in plasma, so enhances the metabolic activity of rats. Between the B compounds used in this study, it was found that borax had a greater effect on hormonal status than boric acid. PMID:23293135

  2. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  3. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  4. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN(-) in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD. PMID:26729113

  5. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  6. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN− in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD. PMID:26729113

  7. Growth Parameters, Photosynthetic Performance, and Biochemical Characterization of Newly Isolated Green Microalgae in Response to Culture Condition Variations.

    PubMed

    Jazzar, Souhir; Berrejeb, Nadia; Messaoud, Chokri; Marzouki, Mohamed Néjib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to characterize two native microalgal strains newly isolated from South Mediterranean areas and identified as Chlorella sorokiniana ES3 and Neochloris sp. AM2. The growth properties and biochemical composition of these microalgae were evaluated in different culture media (Algal, BG-11, f/2, and Conway). Among the tested media, nitrate- and phosphate-rich Algal medium provided the maximum biomass productivities (85.5 and 111.5 mg l(-1) day(-1) for C. sorokiniana and Neochloris sp., respectively), while the nitrate- and phosphate-deficient f/2 medium resulted in the highest lipid productivities (24.1 and 35.8 mg l(-1) day(-1) for C. sorokiniana and Neochloris sp., respectively). The physiological state of both microalgae was investigated under different light and temperature levels using the pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry. The better photosynthetic efficiency of C. sorokiniana was obtained at 23 °C with a light saturation of 156 μE m(-2) s(-1), while that of Neochloris sp. was achieved at 15 °C with a light saturation of 151 μE m(-2) s(-1). The analysis of fatty acid profile and biodiesel parameters revealed that C. sorokiniana, cultivated in Algal and f/2 media, can be considered as a suitable candidate for high-quality biodiesel production. PMID:27052210

  8. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks. PMID:24773606

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of commercial food waste and dairy manure: Characterizing biochemical parameters and synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Lodge, Jeffrey S; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion of commercial food waste is a promising alternative to landfilling commercial food waste. This study characterized 11 types of commercial food wastes and 12 co-digestion blends. Bio-methane potential, biodegradable fraction, and apparent first-order hydrolysis rate coefficients were reported based upon biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Food waste bio-methane potentials ranged from 165 to 496 mL CH4/g VS. Substrates high in lipids or readily degradable carbohydrates showed the highest methane production. Average bio-methane potential observed for co-digested substrates was -5% to +20% that of the bio-methane potential of the individual substrates weighted by VS content. Apparent hydrolysis rate coefficients ranged from 0.19d(-1) to 0.65d(-1). Co-digested substrates showed an accelerated apparent hydrolysis rate relative to the weighted average of individual substrate rates. These results provide a database of key bio-digestion parameters to advance modeling and utilization of commercial food waste in anaerobic digestion. PMID:27090232

  10. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  11. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15 days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  12. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  13. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  14. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER ON BLOOD COAGULATION PARAMETERS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine plan to evaluate the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators expect to measure platelet number, bl...

  15. [Phenotype characteristics of humoral immunity parameters in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis with different blood groups].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Gil'miiarov, E M; Zubova, I A; Ryskina, E A; Epifanova, A A

    2011-01-01

    Interrelationships between parameters of humoral immunity with AB0 blood groups have been investigated. The highest content of IgA to transglutaminase was found in A(II) patients, while the lowest content was found in AB(IV) patients. The blood content on anti-gliadin IgA was higher in healthy donors. The oral liquid of periodontic patients contained anti-gliadin IgA and IgB lacking in healthy donors. It have been found that 47% of healthy people and 52.7% of patients are infcted with Helicobacter pylori. In the group of periodontic patients A(II) individually predominated; they were characterized by the presence of antibodies to H. pylori in the oral liquid, these antibodies were absent in healthy donors. The pepsinogen level was higher in blood of periodontic patients than in healthy donors. B(III) patients had the lowest level of blood pepsinogen. PMID:22359921

  16. The effect of pulsed IR-light on the rheological parameters of blood in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka-Bogusz, Honorata; Marcinkowska-Gapińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study we attempted to assess the effect of light of 855 nm wavelength (IR-light) on the rheological parameters of blood in vitro. As an anticoagulant, heparin was used. The source of IR-light was an applicator connected to the special generator--Viofor JPS®. The blood samples were irradiated for 30 min. During the irradiation the energy density was growing at twelve-second intervals starting from 1.06 J/cm2 to 8.46 J/cm2, then the energy density dropped to the initial value; the process was repeated cyclically. The study of blood viscosity was carried out with a Contraves LS40 oscillatory-rotational rheometer, with a decreasing shearing rate from 100 to 0.01 s⁻¹ over 5 min (flow curve) and applying constant frequency oscillations f=0.5 Hz with decreasing shear amplitude ˙γ0 (viscoelasticity measurements). The analysis of the results of rotational measurements was based on the assessment of hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at four selected shear rates and on the basis of the numerical values of parameters from Quemada's rheological model: k0 (indicating red cell aggregability), k∞ (indicating red cell rigidity) and ˙γc (the value of the shear rate for which the rouleaux formation begins). In oscillatory experiments we estimated viscous and elastic components of the complex blood viscosity in the same groups of patients. We observed a decrease of the viscous component of complex viscosity (η') at ˙γ0=0.2 s⁻¹, while other rheological parameters, k0, k∞, and relative blood viscosity at selected shear rates showed only a weak tendency towards smaller values after irradiation. The IR-light effect on the rheological properties of blood in vitro turned out to be rather neutral in the studied group of patients. PMID:24898338

  17. Biochemical measurements on single erythroid progenitor cells shed light on the combinatorial regulation of red blood cell production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijia; Akbarian, Vahe; Audet, Julie

    2013-02-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM) erythrocyte colony-forming units (CFU-Es) are important cellular targets for the treatment of anemia and also for the manufacture of red blood cells (RBCs) ex vivo. We obtained quantitative biochemical measurements from single and small numbers of CFU-Es by isolating and analyzing c-Kit(+)CD71(high)Ter119(-) cells from adult mouse BM and this allowed us to identify two mechanisms that can be manipulated to increase RBC production. As expected, maximum RBC output was obtained when CFU-Es were stimulated with a combination of Stem Cell Factor (SCF) and Erythropoietin (EPO) mainly because SCF supports a transient CFU-E expansion and EPO promotes the survival and terminal differentiation of erythroid progenitors. However, we found that one of the main factors limiting the output in RBCs was that EPO induces a downregulation of c-Kit expression which limits the transient expansion of CFU-Es. In the presence of SCF, the EPO-mediated downregulation of c-Kit on CFU-Es is delayed but still significant. Moreover, treatment of CFU-Es with 1-Naphthyl PP1 could partially inhibit the downregulation of c-Kit induced by EPO, suggesting that this process is dependent on a Src family kinase, v-Src and/or c-Fyn. We also found that CFU-E survival and proliferation was dependent on the level of time-integrated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in these cells, all of which could be significantly increased when SCF and EPO were combined with mouse fetal liver-derived factors. Taken together, these results suggest two novel molecular strategies to increase RBC production and regeneration. PMID:23168618

  18. Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive performance and blood biochemical profile in lactating Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahoo, Biswanath; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Srivastava, Susant; Singh, Suresh Pratap; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of bypass fat on productive performance and blood biochemical profile of lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Fifteen multiparous buffaloes (2-4 lactation) of early to mid lactation were divided in three homogenous groups T(1) (control), T(2), and T(3) of five each. The animals in T(1) were fed with a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture, green sorghum, and wheat straw as per requirements, while the animals in group T(2) and T(3) were fed with same ration supplemented with 0.7 % (100 g/day) and 1.4 % (200 g/day) bypass fat (on dry matter intake (DMI) basis), respectively. The feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not influenced by supplemental bypass fat. However, fat-corrected milk (6.5 %) yield was higher (P < 0.05) in T(3) (14.21) than that of T(1) (9.83) and similar with T(2) (11.05). Feed efficiency (milk yield/kg DMI) was higher (P < 0.05) in group T(3) (0.51) than that of T(1) (0.38) and T(2) (0.41) indicating that buffaloes fed with bypass fat which is 1.4 % (200 g/day) of the diet were economically more efficient. The serum cholesterol level was higher (P < 0.01) in bypass fat-supplemented group (T(2) and T(3)) of animals. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol) level was more (P < 0.05) than LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) level with higher dose of bypass fat in T(3) than T(2). It was concluded that bypass fat supplementation with 1.4 % of the diet (200 g/day) increased the fat-corrected milk production and feed efficiency along with serum HDL cholesterol level in lactating Murrah buffaloes. PMID:22373930

  19. The Potential Utility of Blood-Derived Biochemical Markers as Indicators of Early Clinical Trends Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    DeFazio, Michael; Rammo, Richard; Robles, Jaime R.; Bramlett, Helen M.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bullock, M. Ross

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a dynamic neuropathologic process in which a substantial proportion of patients die within the first 48-hours. The assessment of injury severity and prognosis are of primary concern in the initial management of severe TBI. Supplemental testing that aids in the stratification of patients at high risk for deterioration may significantly improve posttraumatic management in the acute setting. METHODS This retrospective study assessed the utility of both single-marker and multimarker models as predictive indicators of acute clinical status after severe TBI. Forty-four patients who sustained severe TBI (admission Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) were divided into two cohorts according to a dichotomized clinical outcome at 72 hours after admission: Poor status (death or GCS score ≤8) and improved status (GCS score improved to >8). Threshold values for clinical status prediction were calculated for serum S-100B, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and plasma D-dimer, upon admission and at 24 hours after TBI by the use of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Performance characteristics of these single-marker predictors were compared with those derived from a multimarker logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Biomarkers with the greatest predictive value for poor status at 72 hours included serum S-100B on admission, as well as plasma D-dimer and serum S-100B at 24 hours, for which, associations were strongly significant. Multimarker analysis indicated no substantial improvement in prediction accuracy over the best single predictors during this time frame. CONCLUSION In conjunction with other clinical, physical, and radiologic evidence, blood-derived biochemical markers may serve to enhance prediction of early clinical trends after severe TBI. PMID:23313262

  20. Methods of mesophyll conductance estimation: its impact on key biochemical parameters and photosynthetic limitations in phosphorus-stressed soybean across CO2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photosynthetic potential in C3 plants is largely limited by CO2 diffusion through stomata (Ls) and mesophyll (Lm) and photo-biochemical (Lb) processes. Accurate estimation of mesophyll conductance (gm) using gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) parameters of the photosynthetic proces...

  1. EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND MONOCROTALINE-TREATED SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, DW Winsett2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, DL Costa2, and WP ...

  2. Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Thai Orchid Farmers—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Aroonvilairat, Soraya; Kespichayawattana, Wannapa; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chaisuriya, Papada; Siwadune, Taweeratana; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that many Thai orchid farmers used excessive amounts of pesticides without proper protective gear, but no toxicological study has been made. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the immunological, hematological and biochemical statuses of these farmers. Sixty four orchid farmers and 60 controls were studied. Plasma cholinesterase activity, the percentage and absolute number of B lymphocytes (CD19+) were significantly lower in the farmers group (3966.32 ± 1165.48 U/L, 11.61 ± 4.09% and 312.26 ± 164.83 cells/mm3, respectively) as compared to those of controls (5048.85 ± 1139.40 U/L, 14.32 ± 4.23%, 420.34 ± 195.18 cells/mm3, respectively). There was a statistically significant higher level of serum IgE among the orchid farmers (0.031 ± 0.011 mg/dL vs. 0.018 ± 0.007 mg/dL) but not IgG, IgA and IgM, levels. Serum lysozyme level, lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, hematological parameters and kidney function test, were not significantly different between the two groups. The liver function profiles showed significantly lower levels of albumin and serum protein in the farmer group. Thus frequent pesticide exposure resulted in subtle changes of some biological parameters. These changes, though may not be clinically significant, strongly indicated that caution in handing pesticides by these farmers is warranted. PMID:26024358

  3. Changes in Biochemical, Strength, Flexibility, and Aerobic Capacity Parameters after a 1700 km Ultraendurance Cycling Race

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to study the organic response after ultraendurance cycling race. Selected biochemical, leg strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity parameters were analyzed in 6 subjects 5 days before and 5 days after completing a 1700 km ultraendurance cycling race. After the race, participants presented a significant decrease in Hb (167.8 ± 9.5 versus 141.6 ± 15.7 mg/dL), strength (29.4 ± 2.7 versus 25.5 ± 3.7 cm in a countermovement jump), and oxygen uptake and heart rate at ventilatory threshold (1957.0 ± 458.4 versus 1755.2 ± 281.5 mL/kg/min and 140.0 ± 9.7 versus 130.8 ± 8.3 bpm, resp.). Testosterone presented a decrease tendency (4.2 ± 2.5 versus 3.9 ± 2.6 ng/L) in opposition to the increase tendency of cortisol and ammonium parameters. Transferrin and iron levels presented high values related to an overstimulation of the liver, a normal renal function, a tendency to decrease flexibility, and an increase in aerobic capacity, finding a tendency to increase the absolute maximal oxygen uptake (37.2 ±2.4 versus 38.7 ± 1.8 mL/min) in contrast to previous studies conducted with subjects with similar age. These results can be used to program training interventions, recovery times between probes, and nutritional and/or ergonomic strategies in ultraendurance events. PMID:25180188

  4. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Jing; Hu, Shi-Fu; Lei, Hui; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group) received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below), motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively), the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively), total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively), and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively). The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031). We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress. PMID:25652627

  5. [Studying the influence of some reactive oxygen species on physical and chemical parameters of blood].

    PubMed

    Martusevich, A K; Martusevich, A A; Solov'eva, A G; Peretyagin, S P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the dynamics of blood physical and chemical parameters when blood specimens were processed by singlet oxygen in vitro. Our experiments were executed with whole blood specimens of healthy people (n=10). Each specimen was divided into five separate portions of 5 ml. The first portion was a control (without any exposures). The second one was processed by an oxygen-ozone mixture (at ozone concentration of 500 mcg/l, the third portion--by oxygen, and the fourth and fifth ones were processed by a gas mixture with singlet oxygen (50 and 100% of generator power). In blood samples after processing we studied the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase, erythrocyte and plasma levels of glucose and lactate, acid-base balance and the partial pressure of gases in blood. It was found out, that blood processing by singlet oxygen leads to optimization of energy, detoxication and antioxidant enzymes functioning with changes in plasma and erythrocyte level of glucose and lactate, normalization of blood gases level and acid-base balance. Our results show, that the effect of singlet oxygen on enzyme activity is more pronounced than exposure to an oxygen-ozone gas mixture. PMID:25702489

  6. The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.

    PubMed

    van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M

    2010-08-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome. PMID:20634524

  7. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Schilling, Brian K; Craig, Stuart A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Trepanowski, JF, Farney, TM, McCarthy, CG, Schilling, BK, Craig, SA, and Bloomer, RJ. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3461-3471, 2011-We examined the effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance and associated parameters in resistance trained men. Men were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner using a crossover design to consume betaine (2.5 g of betaine mixed in 500 ml of Gatorade®) or a placebo (500 ml of Gatorade®) for 14 days, with a 21-day washout period. Before and after each treatment period, tests of lower- and upper-body muscular power and isometric force were conducted, including a test of upper-body muscular endurance (10 sets of bench press exercise to failure). Muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) during the bench press protocol was measured via near infrared spectroscopy. Blood samples were collected before and after the exercise test protocol for analysis of lactate, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). When analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance, no significant differences were noted between conditions for exercise performance variables (p > 0.05). However, an increase in total repetitions (p = 0.01) and total volume load (p = 0.02) in the 10-set bench press protocol was noted with betaine supplementation (paired t-tests), with values increasing approximately 6.5% from preintervention to postintervention. Although not of statistical significance (p = 0.14), postexercise blood lactate increased to a lesser extent with betaine supplementation (210%) compared with placebo administration (270%). NOx was lower postintervention as compared with preintervention (p = 0.06), and MDA was relatively unchanged. The decrease in StO2 during the bench press protocol was greater with betaine vs. placebo (p = 0.01), possibly suggesting

  8. Reduction of the interferences of biochemicals and hematocrit ratio on the determination of whole blood glucose using multiple screen-printed carbon electrode test strips.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueh-Hui; Shen, Thomas Y; Chang, C Allen

    2007-11-01

    A practical approach to reduce the interferences of biochemicals and hematocrit ratio (Hct%) in the determination of whole blood glucose using multiple screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) test strips is described. SPCE test strips with and without glucose oxidase [i.e., GOD(+)-SPCEs and GOD(-)-SPCEs] were used and the chronoamperometric currents of test glucose solutions with various spiked uric acid concentrations and Hct% were measured. By establishing the interference relationships between glucose concentrations and uric acid concentrations as well as Hct% values and with appropriate corrections, the whole blood glucose determinations could be made to be more accurate and comparable to those determined by the reference YSI method. Specifically, the use of the DeltaI value, i.e., the current difference between GOD(+)-SPCE and GOD(-)-SPCE measurements, would reduce most of the uric acid/biochemical interferences. An interpolation method was also established to correct for the glucose determinations with Hct% interferences. The Hct% corrections using the interpolation method are especially important and necessary for those blood samples with glucose concentrations higher than 110 mg dL(-1) and Hct% values lower than 35%. This approach should also be applicable to other biochemical determinations using similar electrochemical techniques. PMID:17912503

  9. Relationship of Blood Mercury Levels to Health Parameters in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Rusty D.; Segars, Al L.; Arendt, Michael D.; Lee, A. Michelle; Peden-Adams, Margie M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Mercury is a pervasive environmental pollutant whose toxic effects have not been studied in sea turtles in spite of their threatened status and evidence of immunosuppression in diseased populations. Objectives In the present study we investigate mercury toxicity in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) by examining trends between blood mercury concentrations and various health parameters. Methods Blood was collected from free-ranging turtles, and correlations between blood mercury concentrations and plasma chemistries, complete blood counts, lysozyme, and lymphocyte proliferation were examined. Lymphocytes were also harvested from free-ranging turtles and exposed in vitro to methylmercury to assess proliferative responses. Results Blood mercury concentrations were positively correlated with hematocrit and creatine phosphokinase activity, and negatively correlated with lymphocyte cell counts and aspartate amino-transferase. Ex vivo negative correlations between blood mercury concentrations and B-cell proliferation were observed in 2001 and 2003 under optimal assay conditions. In vitro exposure of peripheral blood leukocytes to methylmercury resulted in suppression of proliferative responses for B cells (0.1 μg/g and 0.35 μg/g) and T cells (0.7 μg/g). Conclusions The positive correlation between blood mercury concentration and hematocrit reflects the higher affinity of mercury species for erythrocytes than plasma, and demonstrates the importance of measuring hematocrit when analyzing whole blood for mercury. In vitro immunosuppression occurred at methylmercury concentrations that correspond to approximately 5% of the individuals captured in the wild. This observation and the negative correlation found ex vivo between mercury and lymphocyte numbers and mercury and B-cell proliferative responses suggests that subtle negative impacts of mercury on sea turtle immune function are possible at concentrations observed in the wild. PMID:17938730

  10. Correlation of Brain Neuropeptide (Nesfatin-1 and Orexin-A) Concentrations with Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Ustabaş Kahraman, Feyza; Vehapoğlu, Aysel; Özgen, İlker Tolga; Terzioğlu, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition continues to be a leading cause of stunted growth in many countries. This study aimed to investigate serum nesfatin-1 and orexin-A levels in underweight children and the potential correlations of these levels with anthropometric and nutritional parameters. Methods: The study enrolled 44 prepubertal children (between 2 and 12 years of age) with thinness grades of 1-3 and 41 healthy age- and gender-matched children. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters including nesfatin-1 and orexin-A concentrations were compared between the two groups. The correlations of nesfatin-1 and orexin-A with biochemical and anthropometric parameters were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were also performed for evaluating nesfatin-1 and orexin-A in distinguishing children with malnutrition from healthy controls. Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, vitamin B12 and insulin levels were significantly lower in the study group than controls (p=0.001, p=0.049 and p=0.033, respectively). Mean nesfatin-1 levels in the malnourished group was also significantly lower compared to the healthy controls (3871.2±1608.8 vs. 5515.0±3816.4 pg/mL, p=0.012). No significant difference was observed in the orexin-A levels between the two groups (malnourished vs. control groups: 1135.7±306.0 vs. 1025.7±361.6 pg/mL, p=0.141). Correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and a negative correlation of orexin-A with body mass index (BMI) z-score. ROC analysis demonstrated that nesfatin-1 and orexin-A cannot be used to distinguish children with malnutrition from healthy controls (AUC: 0.620, p=0.061 for nesfatin-1 and AUC: 0.584, p=0.190 for orexin-A). Conclusion: The positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and the negative correlation of orexin-A with BMI suggest that these neuropeptides may be a part of a protective mechanism in the maintenance of nutritional status and that they may have a role in regulating food intake in

  11. Effects of Glycerol and Creatine Hyperhydration on Doping-Relevant Blood Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Polyviou, Thelma P.; Easton, Chris; Beis, Lukas; Malkova, Dalia; Takas, Pantazis; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R.; Koehler, Karsten; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a “masking agent” remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a hyperhydrating supplement containing Gly on doping-relevant blood parameters. Nine trained males ingested a hyperhydrating mixture twice per day for 7 days containing 1.0 g·kg−1 body mass (BM) of Gly, 10.0 g of creatine and 75.0 g of glucose. Blood samples were collected and total hemoglobin (Hb) mass determined using the optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method pre- and post-supplementation. BM and total body water (TBW) increased significantly following supplementation by 1.1 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2 L (BM, P < 0.01; TBW, P <0.01), respectively. This hyperhydration did not significantly alter plasma volume or any of the doping-relevant blood parameters (e.g., hematocrit, Hb, reticulocytes and total Hb-mass) even when Gly was clearly detectable in urine samples. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementation with hyperhydrating solution containing Gly for 7 days does not significantly alter doping-relevant blood parameters. PMID:23112907

  12. Effects of glycerol and creatine hyperhydration on doping-relevant blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Polyviou, Thelma P; Easton, Chris; Beis, Lukas; Malkova, Dalia; Takas, Pantazis; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Koehler, Karsten; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2012-09-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a "masking agent" remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a hyperhydrating supplement containing Gly on doping-relevant blood parameters. Nine trained males ingested a hyperhydrating mixture twice per day for 7 days containing 1.0 g·kg(-1) body mass (BM) of Gly, 10.0 g of creatine and 75.0 g of glucose. Blood samples were collected and total hemoglobin (Hb) mass determined using the optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method pre- and post-supplementation. BM and total body water (TBW) increased significantly following supplementation by 1.1 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2 L (BM, P < 0.01; TBW, P <0.01), respectively. This hyperhydration did not significantly alter plasma volume or any of the doping-relevant blood parameters (e.g., hematocrit, Hb, reticulocytes and total Hb-mass) even when Gly was clearly detectable in urine samples. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementation with hyperhydrating solution containing Gly for 7 days does not significantly alter doping-relevant blood parameters. PMID:23112907

  13. Life History Traits and Demographic Parameters of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Fed on Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Balsalobre, Agustin; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Marti, Gerardo A; Menu, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, feeds primarily on humans, but ethical reasons preclude carrying out demographical studies using people. Thus, most laboratory studies of T. infestans are conducted using bird or mammal live hosts that may result in different demographic parameters from those obtained on human blood. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the use of an artificial feeder with human blood would be operational to rear triatomines and estimate population growth rates. We estimated life history traits and demographic parameters using an artificial feeder with human blood and compared them with those obtained on live hens. Both groups of T. infestans were kept under constant conditions [28 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% relative humidity, a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h] and fed weekly. On the basis of age-specific survival and age-specific fecundity, we calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), the finite rate of population growth (λ), the net reproductive rate (Ro), and the mean generation time (Tg). Our results show differences in life history traits between blood sources, resulting in smaller population growth rates on human blood than on live hens. Although demographic growth rate was smaller on human blood than on hens, it still remains positive, so the benefit/cost ratio of this feeding method seems relatively attractive. We discuss possibility of using the artificial feeder with human blood for both ecological and behavioral studies. PMID:26373893

  14. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, G.H.; Litzow, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Effects of crocin and zinc chloride on blood levels of zinc and metabolic and oxidative parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Ghasemsoltani-Momtaz, Behnaz; Erfanparast, Amir; Gholamalipour, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Crocin is one of constituents of saffron and has antioxidant property. Zinc chloride is one of the common compounds of zinc with antioxidant activity. The present study was aimed to investigate separate and combined treatment effects of crocin and zinc chloride on blood levels of zinc and metabolic and oxidative parameters in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) and was confirmed by blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dL. After confirmation of diabetes, injections (i.p.) of crocin and zinc chloride were performed for six weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, malodialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. ‎ Results: Crocin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and zinc chloride (5 mg/kg) significantly recovered the decreased levels of zinc, insulin, and TAC and improved the increased levels of glucose and MDA in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In a combination treatment performed with an ineffective dose of crocin (12.5 mg/kg) and a low dose of zinc chloride (1.25 mg/kg), improving effects were observed on the above-mentioned biochemical parameters.‎ Conclusion: The results indicated that separate and combined treatments with crocin and zinc chloride produced improving effects on the blood levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, MDA and TAC in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:26468459

  16. Effects of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on some liver biochemical and histopathological parameters in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Al-Awthan, Yahya S; Hezabr, Samira M; Al-Zubairi, Aisha M; Al-Hemiri, Faten A

    2014-04-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides constitute one of the most widely used classes of pesticides being employed for both agricultural and landscape pest control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dimethoate (DM), an organophosphorus insecticide, on some biochemical and histopathological parameters in liver of adult male guinea pigs as well as the possible role of Withania somnifera extract in attenuation of DM-induced hepatotoxicity. The animals were divided randomly into 5 groups and kept at 5 animals per group in an environmentally controlled condition with free access to food and water ad libitum. The first group was served as a control group and administered with olive oil orally; the group II received aqueous extract of W. somnifera (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) orally, group III, IV and V was administered with DM (14 mg kg(-1); 1/25LD50) for 21 days orally. Group IV and V received 100 mg kg(-1) of W. somnifera extract and silymarin, respectively half hour before DM administration for 21 days. DM caused a statistically significant increase in the serum level of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP) when compared to control animals, whereas, W. somnifera and silymarin pre-treatment to the DM-intoxicated animals resulted in a significant normalization of the enzymes activities. On the other hand W. somnifera extract reduced the incidence of histopathological changes such as cytoplasmic vacuolization and degeneration in nuclei, rupture of epithelia lining the central vein, widened sinusoidal space and lymphocyte infiltration induced by DM treatment in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that W. somnifera aqueous extract could protect the liver against DM-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25911837

  17. Quantization and diagnosis of Shanghuo (Heatiness) in Chinese medicine using a diagnostic scoring scheme and salivary biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to establish a diagnostic scoring scheme for Shanghuo (Heatiness) and to evaluate whether Shanghuo is associated with biochemical parameters of salivary lysozyme (LYZ), salivary secreted immunoglobulin (S-IgA), salivary amylase (AMS), and saliva flow rate (SFR). Methods We collected 121 Shanghuo patients at the Affiliated Hospitals of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Guangdong Province, 60 cases as a Shanghuo recovered group, and 60 healthy cases as a healthy control group. The diagnostic scoring scheme was established by probability theory and maximum likelihood discriminatory analysis on the basis of epidemiology with the design of self-controlled clinical trial. Subsequently, we used the same methods to collect 120 Shanghuo patients, 60 Shanghuo recovered cases, and 60 healthy cases in both Hunan Province and Henan Province. The levels of LYZ, S-IgA, AMS, and SFR were tested when the patients suffered from Shanghuo or recovered, respectively. Results The diagnostic score table for Shanghuo syndrome was established first. In the retrospective tests, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive likelihood ratio of the diagnostic score table were 98.9%, 93.5%, 97.5%, and 14.34%, respectively. In the prospective tests, the corresponding values were 94.9%, 85.7%, 91.7%, and 6.64%, respectively. Shanghuo was classified into three degrees based on the diagnostic scores, common Shanghuo: 63–120; serious Shanghuo: 121–150; very serious Shanghuo: >150. A negative correlation was found between Shanghuo and S-IgA (R = -0.428; P = 0.000). The level of S-IgA was also affected by seasonal and regional factors. No significant correlations were found between Shanghuo and the levels of LYZ, AMS, and SFR. Conclusions In this study, Shanghuo could be diagnosed by the combination of the diagnostic score table and S-lgA level. PMID:24386887

  18. Effects of Salinity on Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Biochemical Parameters of Nitrogen Fixing Soybean Plants (Glycine max L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora D.; Kirova, Elisaveta B.; Yanev, Tony K.; Iliev, Ilko Ts.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of physiology and hyperspectral leaf reflectance were used to detect salinity stress in nitrogen fixing soybean plants. Seedlings were inoculated with suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 273. Salinity was performed at the stage of 2nd-4th trifoliate expanded leaves by adding of NaCl in the nutrient solution of Helrigel in concentrations 40 mM and 80 mM. A comparative analysis was performed between the changes in the biochemical parameters - stress markers (phenols, proline, malondialdehyde, thiol groups), chlorophyll a and b, hydrogen peroxide, and leaf spectral reflectance in the spectral range 450-850 nm. The spectral measurements were carried out by an USB2000 spectrometer. The reflectance data of the control and treated plants in the red, green, red-edge and the near infrared ranges of the spectrum were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically significant differences were found through the Student's t-criterion at the two NaCl concentrations in all of the ranges examined with the exception of the near infrared range at 40 mM NaCl concentration. Similar results were obtained through linear discriminant analysis. The tents of the phenols, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll a and b were found to decrease at both salinity treatments. In the spectral data this effect is manifested by decrease of the reflectance values in the green and red ranges. The contents of proline, hydrogen peroxide and thiol groups rose with the NaCl concentration increase. At 80 mM NaCl concentration the values of these markers showed a considerable increase giving evidence that the soybean plants were stressed in comparison with the control. This finding is in agreement with the results from the spectral reflectance analysis.

  19. Influence of capture method, habitat quality and individual traits on blood parameters of free-ranging lace monitors (Varanus varius).

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Tf; Jessop, Ts

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine baseline reference intervals for haematological and serum biochemical parameters in lace monitors, and to examine whether such values were influenced by capture method, expected differences in habitat food resource availability and a lizard's body size and body condition. METHODS Thirty-three wild Victorian lace monitors (Varanus varius) of unknown age and sex were captured by noose pole or aluminium box trap from Cape Conran in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. RESULTS No statistical differences between the two capture methods were noted for haematology. There was a significant difference in the serum glucose concentrations between the two methods of capture (higher concentration in box-trapped animals) because of a physiological response to capture stress. Habitat food quality did not appear to influence haematology or serum biochemistry. The packed cell volume (PCV) for the lace monitors was 0.29-0.43 L/L. Lymphocytes were identified as the most common leucocyte. The haemoprotozoan parasite, Haemogregarina varanicola, was found in all 33 blood samples. No correlation could be made between parasite burden and PCV, serum globulins or serum proteins, but animals in poor body condition were more likely to harbour large numbers of parasites. CONCLUSION The results of this study may be used as a basis for evaluating health in lace monitors. PMID:21864309

  20. Influence of inflammatory and lipidic parameters on red blood cell distribution width in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Sarnago, Ana; Fuster, Oscar; Alis, Rafael; Romagnoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a routine red blood cell count parameter which has been shown to be associated with inflammatory parameters. Recently, some authors proposed that RDW seems to be a marker of an adverse lipidic profile. In order to clarify whether RDW is related to inflammation, plasma lipids, or both, we determined anthropometric, hematimetric, inflammatory and lipidic parameters in 1111 healthy subjects. RDW correlated directly with age, body mass index (BMI), inflammatory parameters (plasma viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, leukocyte and neutrophil count), and inversely with iron and hematimetric parameters (P <  0.05). When subjects were divided according to gender, RDW correlated inversely with triglycerides only in women (P <  0.05). When subjects were classified into RDW-quartiles, increased RDW values were accompanied by decreased serum iron levels and hematimetric indices (P <  0.01), whereas age and inflammatory markers increased according to RDW-quartiles (P <  0.001 and P <  0.05, respectively). However, plasma lipids did not change with increasing RDW-quartiles (P >  0.05). In the linear regression analysis, age, hemoglobin, MCV (beta coefficient: 0.202, -0.234, -0.316, P <  0.001) and fibrinogen (beta coefficient: 0.059, P = 0.048) were the only independent predictors of RDW. The present study indicates that RDW is associated with inflammatory markers and hematimetric indices, but not with plasma lipid levels in a healthy population. PMID:25159489

  1. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free β-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  2. Lumped-parameter tissue temperature-blood perfusion model of a cold-stressed fingertip.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, A; Stroschein, L A; Gonzalez, R R; Pandolf, K B

    1996-05-01

    A lumped-parameter model of a fingertip is presented. The semispherical model includes the effects of heat storage, heat exchange with the environment, and heat transport by blood perfusion. The thermal insulation on the surface of the fingertip is represented by the overall heat transfer coefficient that is calculated by common engineering formulas. The model is solved analytically for the simple case of constant blood perfusion rate. The general case of variable blood perfusion rates is solved by an Euler finite difference technique. At this stage, the model does not include active control mechanisms of blood perfusion. Thus the effects of cold-induced vasodilatation have to be superimposed and are modeled by symmetrical triangular waveforms because these were found to best depict the behavior of fingers exposed to cold environments. Results of this model were compared with experimental data obtained in two separate studies. One included 60-min infrared thermograms of the dorsal surface of bare hands of sedentary subjects horizontally suspended on a fish net in a 0 degree C environment. Another study, on gloved finger temperatures, involved 0 and -6.7 degrees C environments. Fingertip (nail bed) temperatures of both these studies were compared with model predictions. Blood perfusion rates were assumed and adjusted within physiologically reasonable limits. Comparison of measured and computed temperature records showed very good conformity in both cases studied. PMID:8727573

  3. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Pholpramool, C

    2008-10-01

    Krachaidum (KD, Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker), a native plant of Southeast Asia, is traditionally used to enhance male sexual function. However, only few scientific data in support of this anecdote have been reported. The present study investigated the effects of feeding three different extracts of KD (alcohol, hexane, and water extracts) for 3-5 weeks on the reproductive organs, the aphrodisiac activity, fertility, sperm motility, and blood flow to the testis of male rats. Sexual performances (mount latency, mount frequency, ejaculatory latency, post-ejaculatory latency) and sperm motility were assessed by a video camera and computer-assisted sperm analysis respectively, while blood flow to the testis was measured by a directional pulsed Doppler flowmeter. The results showed that all extracts of KD had virtually no effect on the reproductive organ weights even after 5 weeks. However, administration of the alcohol extract at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 4 weeks significantly decreased mount and ejaculatory latencies when compared with the control. By contrast, hexane and water extracts had no influence on any sexual behavior parameters. All types of extracts of KD had no effect on fertility or sperm motility. On the other hand, alcohol extract produced a significant increase in blood flow to the testis without affecting the heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. In a separate study, an acute effect of alcohol extract of KD on blood flow to the testis was investigated. Intravenous injection of KD at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg BW caused dose-dependent increases in blood flow to the testis. The results indicate that alcohol extract of KD had an aphrodisiac activity probably via a marked increase in blood flow to the testis. PMID:18614624

  4. Photoacoustic and photothermal cytometry for monitoring multiple blood rheology parameters in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations of blood rheology (hemorheology) are important for the early diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of many diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, sickle cell anemia, thromboembolism, trauma, inflammation, and malignancy. However, real-time in vivo monitoring of hemorheological status using multiple parameters over long periods of time has not been reported. Here we describe the capability of label-free photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) flow cytometry in detection and imaging modes for dynamic monitoring of rheological parameters in circulating blood. We show that this integrated platform can simultaneously measure the main rheological parameters and may improve their diagnostic value. Using phenomenological approaches, we analyze correlations of PT and PA signal characteristics in the dynamic modes with red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, deformability, shape (e.g., as in sickle cells), intracellular hemoglobin distribution, individual cell velocity, flux of RBCs, and likely shear rate. Proof of concept is demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo tests, including high-speed PT imaging of RBC shape in pathological conditions and identification of sickle cells in a mouse model of human sickle cell disease. These studies revealed the potential of this new platform integrating PT, PA, and conventional optical techniques for translation to use in humans using safe, portable, laser-based medical devices for point-of-care screening of disease progression and therapy efficiency. PMID:21948731

  5. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; < 15lux) was applied constantly during dark period (EI; for experimental illumination groups) or only for handling and assessments (SI; for standard illumination groups). EI led to worse haematological and biochemical conditions, demonstrating that EI alone can influence physiological parameters and jeopardise result interpretation. SI promotes normal physiological conditions and greater aerobic tolerance than EI, showing the importance of a correct illumination pattern for all researchers that employ nocturnal rats for health/disease or sports performance experiments. PMID:27030633

  6. Interacting effects of diet and environmental temperature on biochemical parameters in the liver ofLeuciscus idus melanotus (Cyprinidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Rafael, J; Braunbeck, T

    1988-03-01

    One year old golden ide (Leuciscus idus melanotus) were starved for 2 weeks at 20°C (time zero) and then they were fed either freeze-dried mosquito larvae (natural diet) or a commercial fish chow (artificial diet) at an ambient temperature of 14°C and 20°C, respectively. Growth parameters and biochemical data in the liver were measured at time zero and after 3 and 7 weeks of specific regimen. If compared to natural food, the artificial diet caused transient increase in anabolic activity of the liver, but prevented long-lasting hepatocyte proliferation (increase of total liver DNA). After 3 weeks on artificial diet, the body weight was significantly higher and the liver mass doubled compared to ide kept on the natural regimen; tissue DNA content indicated that the hepatocyte volume increased mainly by increased protein content and corresponding uptake of water; lipid and glycogen contents were increased by a factor of 3-6, and the RNA∶DNA ratio was increased accordingly. The growth of the ide, as reflected by the condition factor and hepatosomatic index (HSI), was virtually stopped when the artificial regimen was maintained for 7 weeks, whereas on natural food the condition factor was increased and liver weight and DNA were doubled. Growth of the fish maintained at 14°C was significantly lower than that of fish maintained at 20°C, though the total liver DNA was still increased on the natural regimen during the experiment. Less lipid was stored by fish maintained at 14°C, whereas protein and glycogen deposits were enlarged, if compared to fish maintained at 20°C. The specific activity of cytochrome oxidase in liver mitochondria and of NADPH cytochrome c reductase in the microsomal fraction were found independent of diet and ambient temperature. Oxidative capacity of hepatocytes (mitochondrial protein/mg DNA) remained unchanged, and microsomal protein/cell appeared reduced in response to the artificial food. However, reduction of cell number on this diet

  7. Impact of feeding on growth performance, blood biochemical and mineral profiles of pre-pubescent camels under pastoral management in arid western Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Saini, Nirmala; Kiradoo, Baldev Dass; Bohra, Dau Lal

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was undertaken on 20 pre-pubescent dromedary camels of 300 ± 7.0 kg average bodyweight (BW) and 1.5-2 years of age to determine change in body weight, blood biochemical and mineral profiles and morphometric parameters on rangeland grazing (GR) and supplementary stall feeding (GS) at arid northwestern part of Rajasthan over a period of 80 days. GR camels were maintained only on grazing, while GS camels were fed semi-intensively ad-lib groundnut haulms along with formulated concentrate and mineral mixture to meet maintenance requirement. Intake of young camels was determined using chromium(III) oxide as internal marker. The biomass yield of rangeland estimated was 0.54 t DM/ha. Dry matter intake (kg/day) by GR camels on rangeland grazing was lower than that by GS camels fed on supplementary feeding. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter and organic matter (P < 0.05) and crude protein was higher in GS camels than that in GR camels. Likewise, intake of digestible crude protein (P < 0.05) and metabolizable energy were higher in stall-fed young camels. Pre-pubescent camels fed on grazing had significantly (P < 0.01) low glucose and higher urea concentration compared to stall-fed camels. Final body weight of camels differed significantly (P < 0.05) between groups. The camels fed on supplementary stall feeding had significantly (P < 0.01) higher total gain (kg) and average daily gain (ADG) compared to camels on grazing. Among morphometric parameters, body length and body height showed more significant increase in GS compared to GR camels. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP) by GR group was 43% low compared to the requirement for growing camel of 300 kg body weight. Despite this, GR camels were able to maintain body weight due to better recycling of urea which was significantly higher in comparison to GS camels. The findings of significantly (P < 0.01) low serum glucose and higher urea concentration and lower body weight

  8. Comparison of hematologic, biochemical, and coagulation parameters in α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs, wild-type pigs, and 4 primate species

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Bianchi, John; Ball, Suyapa; Iwase, Hayato; Walters, Anneke; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Veroux, Massimiliano; Gridelli, Bruno; Wagner, Robert; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of genetically-engineered pigs is steadily improving the results of pig organ and cell transplantation in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Current techniques offer knock-out of pig genes and/or knock-in of human genes. Knowledge of normal values of hematologic, biochemical, coagulation, and other parameters in healthy genetically-engineered pigs and NHPs is important, particularly following pig organ transplantation in NHPs. Furthermore, information on parameters in various NHP species may prove important in selecting the optimal NHP model for specific studies. Methods We have collected hematologic, biochemical, and coagulation data on 71 α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pigs, 18 GTKO pigs additionally transgenic for human CD46 (GTKO.hCD46), 4 GTKO.hCD46 pigs additionally transgenic for human CD55 (GTKO.hCD46.hCD55), and 2 GTKO.hCD46 pigs additionally transgenic for human thrombomodulin (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM). Results We report these data and compare them with similar data from wild-type pigs, and the 3 major NHP species commonly used in biomedical research (baboons, cynomolgus, and rhesus monkeys) and humans, largely from previously published reports. Conclusions Genetic modification of the pig (e.g., deletion of the Gal antigen and/or the addition of a human transgene) (i) does not result in abnormalities in hematologic, biochemical, or coagulation parameters that might impact animal welfare, (ii) seems not to alter metabolic function of vital organs, though this needs to be confirmed after their xenotransplantation, and (iii) possibly (though by no means certainly) modifies the hematologic, biochemical, and coagulation parameters closer to human values. The present study may provide a good reference for those working with genetically-engineered pigs in xenotransplantation research and eventually in clinical xenotransplantation. PMID:23145497

  9. Dosimetric parameters as predictive factors for biochemical control in patients with higher risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Orio, Peter; Wallner, Kent . E-mail: kent.Wallner@med.va.gov; Merrick, Gregory; Herstein, Andrew; Mitsuyama, Paul; Thornton, Ken; Butler, Wayne; Sutlief, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the role of dosimetric quality parameters in maximizing cancer eradication in higher risk prostate cancer patients treated with palladium (Pd)-103 and supplemental beam radiation. Methods: One-hundred-seventy-nine patients treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation, with minimum 2 years follow-up prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values and posttreatment computed tomography scans were analyzed. Dosimetric parameters included the V100 (percent of the postimplant volume covered by the prescription dose), the D90 (the minimum dose that covered 90% of the post implant volume), and the treatment margins (the radial distance between the prostatic edge and the prescription isodose). Treatment margins (TMs) were calculated using premarket software. Results: Freedom from biochemical failure was 79% at 3 years, with 92 of the 179 patients (51%) followed beyond 3 years. In comparing patients who did or did not achieve biochemical control, the most striking differences were in biologic factors of pretreatment PSA and Gleason score. The V100, D90, and average TM all showed nonsignificant trends to higher values in patients with biochemical control. In multivariate analysis of each of the three dosimetric parameters against PSA and Gleason score, TM showed the strongest correlation with biochemical control (p = 0.19). Conclusions: For patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 brachytherapy and external beam radiation, biologic factors (PSA and Gleason score) were the most important determinants of cancer eradication. However, there is a trend to better outcomes among patients with higher quality implant parameters, suggesting that attention to implant quality will maximize the likelihood of cure.

  10. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  11. A novel blood pressure-independent arterial wall stiffness parameter; cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI).

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kohji; Utino, Junji; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Takata, Masanobu

    2006-04-01

    To measure the stiffness of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery noninvasively, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) which is independent of blood pressure was developed. The formula for measuring this index is; CAVI=a{(2rho/DeltaP) x ln(Ps/Pd)PWV(2)} + b where, Ps and Pd are systolic and diastolic blood pressures respectively, PWV is pulse wave velocity between the heart and ankle, DeltaP is Ps - Pd, rho is blood density, and a and b are constants. This equation was derived from Bramwell-Hill's equation(1)), and stiffness parameter(2)). To elucidate the clinical utility of CAVI, the reproducibility and dependence on blood pressure were studied using VaSera (Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd.). Furthermore, CAVI in hemodialysis patients with or without atherosclerotic diseases was measured. The average coefficient of variation for five measurements among 22 persons was 3.8%. In hemodialysis patients (n = 482), CAVI was correlated weakly with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (R = 0.175, 0.006), while brachial-ankle PWV was correlated strongly with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (R = 0.463, 0.335). CAVI in hemodialysis patients without signs of atherosclerotic diseases (NA) was 8.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SD). That in patients receiving percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was 8.8 +/- 0.3 (p < 0.05 vs. NA). CAVI in patients with ischemic change in their electrocardiogram (ECG) was 8.5 +/- 0.3 (p < 0.05 vs. NA). That in patients with diabetes mellitus was 8.5 +/- 0.3 (p < 0.002 vs. NA). CAVI in the patients with all three complications was 8.9 +/- 0.35 (p < 0.001 vs. NA). These results suggested that CAVI could reflect arteriosclerosis of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery quantitatively. PMID:16733298

  12. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:24124763

  13. Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase in pregnant women: Relationship to blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Prats-Puig, Anna; Puig, Teresa; Vázquez-Ruíz, Montserrat; Bruel, Monserrat; Mendoza, Ericka; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bassols, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme FASN (fatty acid synthase) is potentially related with hypertension and metabolic dysfunction. FASN is highly expressed in the human placenta. We aimed to investigate the relationship circulating FASN has with blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters in healthy pregnant women. Circulating FASN was assessed in 115 asymptomatic pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation along with C-peptide, fasting glucose and insulin, post-load glucose lipids, HMW-adiponectin and blood pressure (the latter was assessed in each trimester of gestation). At birth, newborns and placentas were weighed. FASN expression was also able to be assessed in 80 placentas. Higher circulating FASN was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a more favourable metabolic phenotype (lower fasting glucose and insulin, post load glucose, HbAc1, HOMA-IR and C-peptide), and with lower placental and birth weight (all p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Placental FASN expression related positively to circulating FASN (p < 0.005) and negatively to placental weight (p < 0.05). Our observations suggest a physiological role of placental FASN in human pregnancy. Future studies will clarify whether circulating FASN of placental origin does actually regulate placental and fetal growth, and (thereby) has a favourable influence on the pregnant mother’s insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. PMID:27090298

  14. The effect of anticoagulant, storage temperature and dilution on cord blood hematology parameters over time

    PubMed Central

    FREISE, K. J.; SCHMIDT, R. L.; GINGERICH, E. L.; VENG-PEDERSEN, P.; WIDNESS, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of the study was to determine whether selected hematologic parameters measured on umbilical cord blood samples using an automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex XE-2100) were affected by (i) anticoagulant (the specimens were collected in EDTA vs. sodium heparin), (ii) temperature (the specimens were maintained at 4° C vs. room temperature for up to 72 h) and (iii) 1 : 5 dilution vs. undiluted using the manufacturer's diluting solution. Use of heparin, instead of EDTA, had little effect on the hematologic results (n = 8) except for lower platelet and progenitor cell counts. Results were remarkably stable for 72 h at either room temperature or 4° C except for modest red blood cell swelling at 24 h. Specimens of blood diluted at 1 : 5 had an immediate small, but significant change on white cell count (+13.3%), reticulocyte count (−11.2%) and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (−19.6%). Diluted samples did not change further over 4 h at room temperature. With a 1 : 5 dilution, analysis of 40 μl of cord blood stored for 3 days at room temperature may provide useful hematologic information with little phlebotomy loss. PMID:18422712

  15. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  16. Biochemical responses of filamentous algae in different aquatic ecosystems in South East Turkey and associated water quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Soysal, Çiğdem; Gültekin, Emine; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, any study about biochemical response of filamentous algae in the complex freshwater ecosystems has not been found in the literature. This study was designed to explore biochemical response of filamentous algae in different water bodies from May 2013 to October 2014, using multivariate approach in the South East of Turkey. Environmental variables were measured in situ: water temperature, oxygen concentration, saturation, conductivity, salinity, pH, redox potential, and total dissolved solid. Chemical variables of aqueous samples and biochemical compounds of filamentous algae were also measured. It was found that geographic position and anthropogenic activities had strong effect on physico-chemical variables of water bodies. Variation in environmental conditions caused change in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species, also indicated by FTIR analysis. Biochemical responses not only changed from species to species, but also varied for the same species at different sampling time and sampling stations. Multivariate analyses showed that heavy metals, nutrients, and water hardness were found as the important variables governing the temporal and spatial succession and biochemical compounds. Nutrients, especially nitrate, could stimulate pigment and total protein production, whereas high metal content had adverse effects. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, total thiol groups, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and metal bioaccumulation by filamentous algae could be closely related with heavy metals in the ecosystems. Significant increase in MDA, H2O2, total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, and proline productions by filamentous algae and chlorosis phenomenon seemed to be an important strategy for alleviating environmental factors-induced oxidative stress as biomarkers. PMID:27508982

  17. Effect of blood flow parameters on flow patterns at arterial bifurcations--studies in models.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W

    1990-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are found primarily at arterial bends and bifurcations. Flow disturbances at these anatomic sites play a major role in atherogenesis. How hemodynamic factors such as vessel geometry, the pulsatile nature of blood flow, vessel wall elasticity and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of blood influence the flow field at these sites must be clarified. We have performed fundamental studies using a birefringent solution in a simplified rigid 90 degree T-bifurcation and pulsatile flow. The velocity distribution was measured with a laser Doppler anemometer. Flow in an elastic abdominal aorta model has been visualized using magnetic resonance imaging. In both flow studies, zones with negative velocity were found. These model measurements demonstrate that no flow parameter can be neglected. Further detailed studies are necessary to examine the interaction between fluid dynamic and cellular surface properties. PMID:2404201

  18. Effects of shear rate, confinement, and particle parameters on margination in blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Marmar; Ku, David N; Aidun, Cyrus K

    2016-02-01

    The effects of flow and particle properties on margination of particles in red blood cell (RBC) suspensions is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of cellar blood flow. We focus on margination of particles in the flow of moderately dense suspensions of RBCs. We hypothesize that margination rate in nondilute suspensions is mainly driven by the RBC-enhanced diffusion of marginating particles in the RBC-filled region. We derive a scaling law for margination length in a straight channel. Margination length increases cubically with channel height and is independent of shear rate. We verify this scaling law for margination length by DNS of flowing RBCs and marginating particles. We also show that rigidity and size both lead to particle margination with rigidity having a more significant effect compared to size within the range of parameters in this study. PMID:26986415

  19. Effects of shear rate, confinement, and particle parameters on margination in blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabadi, Marmar; Ku, David N.; Aidun, Cyrus K.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of flow and particle properties on margination of particles in red blood cell (RBC) suspensions is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of cellar blood flow. We focus on margination of particles in the flow of moderately dense suspensions of RBCs. We hypothesize that margination rate in nondilute suspensions is mainly driven by the RBC-enhanced diffusion of marginating particles in the RBC-filled region. We derive a scaling law for margination length in a straight channel. Margination length increases cubically with channel height and is independent of shear rate. We verify this scaling law for margination length by DNS of flowing RBCs and marginating particles. We also show that rigidity and size both lead to particle margination with rigidity having a more significant effect compared to size within the range of parameters in this study.

  20. Partially developed speckle-fields dynamics for blood microcirculation and biovibration parameters measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper diffraction of focused laser beams in thin blood vessels is discussed. A theoretical description of this process is given, a number of model experiments are carried out. Relations establishing the dependence of the scattered field parameters on the characteristics of blood flow in vessels, the diameter of which is about erythrocytes size, are obtained. The relations between the optical signal characteristics and the position of the observation point of speckle- field is discussed. The investigations of the dependence of the space-time projection structure of the speckle-interferometer output signal on heart disease seriousness have been carried out. The novel technique of heart disease diagnostic is suggested. The results of experimental investigations of pulse waves, using the differential speckle-interferometer, are present. The traditional speckle-interferometer Michelson type and differential speckle-interferometer for cardiovibration measurements are compared. Difficulties, appearing from use of the suggested diagnostic method, are analyzed and ways of their elimination are found.

  1. Laser reflectance oximetry and Doppler flowmetry in assessment of complex physiological parameters of cutaneous blood microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaev, Andrey V.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Stewart, Neil A.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2013-03-01

    The integration of multiple optical techniques within a single diagnostic device is used to address the difficulties in standardising measurement of cutaneous blood micro-dynamics caused by high variability. We demonstrate the benefits of simultaneous assessment of blood relative volume (Vb), microcirculation index (Im) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), during long-term examination of healthy volunteers. Consequently, five rhythmic components: endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic, breath and heart pulses were established showing high variability up to 30 - 50% as well as in initial parameters around 16%. All rhythmic components were synchronous with some latency between Im and StO2 in the myogenic component supports the hypothesis of strong correlation between peripheral hemodynamics and oxygen utilisation in tissues.

  2. Changes in the blood parameters of an air-breathing fish during different respiratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Singh, B R; Thakur, R N; Yadav, A N

    1976-01-01

    Some of the blood parameters recorded in an air-breathing eel, Amphipnous cuchia under normal respiratory condition during non-breeding period (September-April) are haemoglobin (Hb) concentration 19.26%, haematocrit value 56.16%, RBC number 1.71 million/mm3, RBC size 18.86 X 9.70 mum, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) 113.4 ng, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 34.2%, blood sugar 77 mg% and ascorbic acid 0.435 mg%. The higher concentration of haemoglobin (19.26%) appears to be related to its obligatory air breathing habit and habitat in a water of low oxygen content. Though a definite trend of increase in the haemoglobin and haematocrit concentration with an increase in the body weight of the fish was lacking, variations were clearly marked related to intrinsic activity of the fish connected with different respiratory conditions. Asphyxiation in a submerged but continuous flow of water (liter/h) for 5 1/2 h resulted in an increase in the above-mentioned parameters to an appreciable extent. These increases were 0.23 million/mm3 in the number of erythrocytes, 6.16% in haemoglobin concentration, 10% in haematocrit value, 20% in blood sugar and 35% in ascorbic acid content. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin showed a decline of 6.2%. Exclusive aerial breathing for 5 1/2 h also caused 7.4% increase in haemoglobin concentration, 9.4% in haematocrit value, 0.14 million/mm3 in RBC number, 20% in blood sugar level, 9% in ascorbic acid content but almost no change in mean corpuscular haemoglobin. The average surface area for diffusion of gases appeared to have reduced by 6.8 mum2 per RBC. PMID:61915

  3. Feeding practice and influence on selected blood parameters in show jumping horses competing in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brunner, J; Liesegang, A; Weiss, S; Wichert, B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional management of show jumping horses in practice with recommendations from the literature. Additionally, the effects of these feeding practices on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise were studied. Blood samples were collected in the field from 27 different horses at 71 trials on the level M1 to S2 show jumping competitions in Switzerland and questionnaires on feeding practice of the studied horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training and on tournament days horses received on average 3.1 kg of concentrate per day (min. 2.0 kg, max. 6.6 kg) divided into two to three meals. The horses were fed on average 6.9 kg of roughage per day (min. 4.0 kg, max. 13.0 kg). Additionally, it was observed that the horses received the last meal on average 6 h 10 min (min. 1 h 50 min, max. 12 h 30 min) before the start of the first show jumping turn, respectively, 7 h 30 min (min 1 h 50 min, max. 13 h 0 min) before the second turn. Seven horses (35%) had access to hay waiting in the trailer between two turns. The statistical analysis revealed no significant influence of the concentrate feeding time point on lactate, triglyceride and insulin levels, but a significant influence on free fatty acids (FFA) and blood glucose concentrations. Roughage feeding of the show jumping horses 2-4 h prior to exercise revealed the most remarkable changes in blood parameters during the show jumping course. These results received under field conditions should be approved in future under standardized conditions. PMID:25354150

  4. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. PMID:21982532

  5. The relationship between the iron isotopic composition of human whole blood and iron status parameters.

    PubMed

    Van Heghe, Lana; Delanghe, Joris; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2013-11-01

    As the iron status of an individual cannot be adequately assessed on the basis of the (total) Fe concentration in whole blood or serum, in medicine a number of parameters, such as the serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin and soluble transferrin receptor and the transferrin saturation, are routinely determined instead. As previous research has shown that also the isotopic composition of Fe in blood and tissues is dependent on the metabolism, the present study assessed whether Fe isotopic composition in whole blood provides information as to an individual's iron status. Fe isotopic analysis of whole blood samples from a reference population (healthy volunteers) was carried out using multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (after chromatographic target element isolation) and the results obtained were investigated by statistical means as to their potential relation with the iron status parameters conventionally used in medicine. A low δ(56)Fe value was demonstrated to coincide with high iron status and a high δ(56)Fe value with low iron status, thus reflecting the response of the body to this iron status in terms of iron uptake, distribution between blood and stores and mobilization of storage iron. In a second phase, the iron isotopic composition in blood from patients treated for hemochromatosis type I and from patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD) was determined. The results for hemochromatosis patients plotted with the values of low iron status, while those for ACD patients plotted with the values of high iron status. By taking a closer look at the aberrant iron metabolism that comes with these diseases, it can be seen that the patient samples confirm the conclusions drawn for the reference population. Patients with hemochromatosis type I have a strongly upregulated iron uptake, like healthy individuals with low iron status. The metabolism of patients suffering from ACD tries to remove iron from the circulation by downregulating the iron uptake

  6. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus): antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin) on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus); in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l) and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA) and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the liver, kidney and gills while catalase activity was significantly decreased in the same tissues. This accompanied by significant increase in serum ALT, AST activity, urea and creatinine and a marked decrease in serum albumin and total proteins. Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l). Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so

  7. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females. PMID:26141747

  8. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  9. Rapid regulation of blood parameters under acute hypoxia in the Amazonian fish Prochilodus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Val, Adalberto Luis; Gomes, Katia Regina Maruyama; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Prochilodus nigricans, locally known as curimatã, is an Amazonian commercial fish that endures adverse environmental conditions, in particular low dissolved oxygen, during its migration. Poorer environmental conditions are expected in the near future. Prochilodus nigricans overcomes current seasonal and diurnal changes in dissolved oxygen by adjusting erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP, modulators of Hb-O2 affinity. Will this fish species be endangered under more extreme environmental conditions as hypoxia and acidification tend to occur in a shorter period of time? As P. nigricans does not exhibit any apparent morphological alterations to exploit the air-water interface, it must rely on fast adjustments of blood properties. To investigate this aspect, basic hematology indices, pHe, pHi, plasma lactate, erythrocytic levels of ATP and GTP and functional properties of the hemolysate of P. nigricans were analyzed over a period of 6h in hypoxia and subsequent recovery in normoxia. The levels of erythrocytic GTP were four times higher than ATP and were reduced to ¼ of the original level after 3h under hypoxia. Erythrocytic levels of ATP were unaffected over the experimental period. All other analyzed blood parameters exhibited a time-course change in animals under hypoxia and returned to normoxic levels. Considering the hemolysate functional properties and the ability to regulate the above mentioned blood characteristics, P. nigricans is able to endure short-term changes in dissolved oxygen. PMID:25737030

  10. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Chapman, Robert W; Somerville, Stephen E; Guillette, Matthew P; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  11. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  12. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Allam, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  13. Effect of parameter variations on the hemodynamic response under rotary blood pump assistance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Einly; Dokos, Socrates; Salamonsen, Robert F; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L; Ayre, Peter J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-05-01

    Numerical models, able to simulate the response of the human cardiovascular system (CVS) in the presence of an implantable rotary blood pump (IRBP), have been widely used as a predictive tool to investigate the interaction between the CVS and the IRBP under various operating conditions. The present study investigates the effect of alterations in the model parameter values, that is, cardiac contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and total blood volume on the efficiency of rotary pump assistance, using an optimized dynamic heart-pump interaction model previously developed in our laboratory based on animal experimental measurements obtained from five canines. The effect of mean pump speed and the circulatory perturbations on left and right ventricular pressure volume loops, mean aortic pressure, mean cardiac output, pump assistance ratio, and pump flow pulsatility from both the greyhound experiments and model simulations are demonstrated. Furthermore, the applicability of some of the previously proposed control parameters, that is, pulsatility index (PI), gradient of PI with respect to pump speed, pump differential pressure, and aortic pressure are discussed based on our observations from experimental and simulation results. It was found that previously proposed control strategies were not able to perform well under highly varying circulatory conditions. Among these, control algorithms which rely on the left ventricular filling pressure appear to be the most robust as they emulate the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. PMID:22489771

  14. Short communication: reference values for blood parameters in Holstein dairy cows: effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season of production.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, G; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Moro, L; Brscic, M; Dalvit, P

    2011-08-01

    Confidence intervals for blood parameters used for nutritional and metabolic profile testing in cattle were calculated for clinically normal lactating Holstein cows, taking into account the effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season. Blood samples were collected from 740 cows in 33 Italian dairy herds according to a predefined protocol. Herds were visited during summer and the following winter, sampling 12 lactating cows at each visit (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous). Six cows were selected from the early-lactation group (days in milk: 10 to 89) and the other 6 were selected from the mid-lactation group (days in milk: 90 to 215). Cow selection criteria excluded animals clinically exposed to periparturient diseases as well as animals not considered in good health by a veterinary clinical examination. For each blood variable, outliers were identified and discarded. Data were then analyzed for their Gaussian distribution and variables with not normal distribution were log-transformed to adjust for lack of normality. Herd mean values were calculated for each blood parameter according to 3 main classification factors: parity (primiparous vs. multiparous), stage of lactation (early vs. mid) and season of production (summer vs. winter). The resulting data set was statistically analyzed using a mixed model with the fixed effects of these factors, their interactions, and the random effect of herd. General 95% confidence intervals were calculated for blood variables that showed a relevant herd variance component such as albumin, triglycerides, aspartate, urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct and total bilirubin, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. For the remaining parameters, specific confidence intervals were calculated for each level of the significant main factors. Parity affected blood concentration of total protein, globulin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine kinase, and phosphorus. Blood

  15. Effect of inflow cannula tip design on potential parameters of blood compatibility and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai Chun; Büsen, Martin; Benzinger, Carrie; Gäng, René; Bezema, Mirko; Greatrex, Nicholas; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    During ventricular assist device support, a cannula acts as a bridge between the native cardiovascular system and a foreign mechanical device. Cannula tip design strongly affects the function of the cannula and its potential for blood trauma. In this study, the flow fields of five different tip geometries within the ventricle were evaluated using stereo particle image velocimetry. Inflow cannulae with conventional tip geometries (blunt, blunt with four side ports, beveled with three side ports, and cage) and a custom-designed crown tip were interposed between a mixed-flow rotary blood pump and a compressible, translucent silicone left ventricle. The contractile function of the failing ventricle and hemodynamics were reproduced in a mock circulation loop. The rotary blood pump was interfaced with the ventricle and aorta and used to fully support the failing ventricle. Among these five tip geometries, high-shear volume ( γ ˙ ≥ 2778 / s , potential parameter of platelet activation) was found to be the greatest in the blunt tip. The cage tip was observed to have the highest low-shear volume and recirculation volume ( γ ˙ ≤ 100 / s and Vz  > 0, respectively; potential parameters of thrombus formation). The crown tip, together with conventional tip geometries with side ports (blunt with four side ports and beveled with three side ports) showed no significant difference in either high-shear volume or low-shear volume. However, recirculation volume was reduced significantly in the crown tip. Despite limited generalizability to clinical situations, these transient-state measurements supported the potential mitigation of complications by changing the design of conventional cannula tip geometries. PMID:25234762

  16. Effects of Postprandial Blood Pressure on Gait Parameters in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shailaja; Visvanathan, Renuka; Piscitelli, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH), a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 2 h of a meal, may detrimentally affect gait parameters and increase the falls risk in older people. We aimed to determine the effects of postprandial SBP on heart rate (HR), gait speed, and stride length, double-support time and swing time variability in older subjects with and without PPH. Twenty-nine subjects were studied on three days: glucose (“G”), water and walk (“WW”), glucose and walk (“GW”). Subjects consumed a glucose drink on “G” and “GW” and water on “WW”. The “G” day determined which subjects had PPH. On “WW” and “GW” gait was analyzed. Sixteen subjects demonstrated PPH. In this group, there were significant changes in gait speed (p = 0.040) on “WW” and double-support time variability (p = 0.027) on “GW”. The area under the curve for the change in gait parameters from baseline was not significant on any study day. Among subjects without PPH, SBP increased on “WW” (p < 0.005) and all gait parameters remained unchanged on all study days. These findings suggest that by changing gait parameters, PPH may contribute to an increased falls risk in the older person with PPH. PMID:27089361

  17. Effects of Single and Multiple Energy Shots on Blood Pressure and Electrocardiographic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachin A; Dargush, Anthony E; Potts, Vicki; Lee, Michael; Millard-Hasting, Brittany M; Williams, Bradley; Lacey, Carolyn S

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the effects of single and multiple caffeinated energy shots on hemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study in otherwise healthy volunteers (n = 26) where a caffeinated energy shot or matching placebo was ingested. The study drink was consumed twice daily for 7 days during each phase, with a 7-day washout period in between. The primary end points of interest were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, and QT and QTc intervals. All parameters were evaluated at baseline, 1, 3, and 5 hours on the first and seventh day of each phase. Systolic BP after a single energy shot consumption was significantly higher than placebo at 3 and 5 hours (p = 0.050 and p = 0.038, respectively). Similarly, diastolic BP after a single energy shot consumption was significantly higher at 1 and 5 hours (p = 0.019 and p = 0.043, respectively). The systolic and diastolic BP elevations were not significant after consistent consumption (all p values ≥ 0.079). None of the ECG parameters were significantly affected (all p values ≥ 0.108) compared with placebo. In conclusion, a single shot of a caffeinated energy drink significantly raised systolic and diastolic BPs. However, these elevations were not sustained with chronic consumption. ECG parameters were not altered. PMID:26708636

  18. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment on blood pressure and some haematological parameters in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Ekblom, B

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with subcutaneous injections of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo), 20-40 IU kg-1 body weight, 3 times a week, on resting blood pressure, blood pressure response during submaximal exercise, some haematological parameters, and subjective side-effects in 15 healthy male subjects. RhEpo increased both haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) significantly, the values for Hb being 152 +/- 4.2 g l-1 before treatment and 169 +/- 9.3 g l-1 (mean values +/- SD) after 6 weeks of rhEpo treatment (P less than 0.001). The corresponding values for Hct were 44.5 +/- 1.5% and 49.7 +/- 1.9% (P less than 0.001), respectively. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values at rest were unchanged after rhEpo treatment. A marked increase in systolic blood pressure was observed during submaximal exercise at 200 W, the initial and final values being 177 +/- 14.2 mmHg and 191 +/- 19.5 mmHg (P less than 0.01), respectively. Heart rate during exercise at 200 W was significantly lower after rhEpo treatment than before it: 144 +/- 15 beats min-1 compared to 136 +/- 8 beats min-1 (P less than 0.001). The leucocyte count remained unchanged after rhEpo treatment, but there was a significant decrease (P less than 0.05) in the number of lymphocytes. Reticulocyte and platelet counts were unchanged. Serum (S) ferritin decreased from 87.3 +/- 41.8 mmol l-1 to 59.3 +/- 27.8 mmol l-1 after rhEpo treatment (P less than 0.001). Serum-Na, S-K, S-Ca, S-creatinine, S-bilirubin, S-aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), S-alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), and S-lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were unchanged after rhEpo treatment. No subjective side-effects were reported. In conclusion, low doses of rhEpo increased Hb levels and Hct by more than 10% after 6 weeks. Blood pressure at rest was unchanged, but rhEpo induced a markedly accentuated blood pressure reaction during exercise. A minor decrease in the lymphocyte count was observed

  19. Validation of the i-STAT system for the analysis of blood parameters in fish

    PubMed Central

    Harter, T. S.; Shartau, R. B.; Brauner, C. J.; Farrell, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Portable clinical analysers, such as the i-STAT system, are increasingly being used for blood analysis in animal ecology and physiology because of their portability and easy operation. Although originally conceived for clinical application and to replace robust but lengthy techniques, researchers have extended the use of the i-STAT system outside of humans and even to poikilothermic fish, with only limited validation. The present study analysed a range of blood parameters [pH, haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), HCO3−, partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), partial pressure of O2 (PO2), Hb saturation (sO2) and Na+ concentration] in a model teleost fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the i-STAT system (CG8+ cartridges) and established laboratory techniques. This methodological comparison was performed at two temperatures (10 and 20°C), two haematocrits (low and high) and three PCO2 levels (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Our results indicate that pH was measured accurately with the i-STAT system over a physiological pH range and using the i-STAT temperature correction. Haematocrit was consistently underestimated by the i-STAT, while the measurements of Na+, PCO2, HCO3− and PO2 were variably inaccurate over the range of values typically found in fish. The algorithm that the i-STAT uses to calculate sO2 did not yield meaningful results on rainbow trout blood. Application of conversion factors to correct i-STAT measurements is not recommended, due to significant effects of temperature, Hct and PCO2 on the measurement errors and complex interactions may exist. In conclusion, the i-STAT system can easily generate fast results from rainbow trout whole blood, but many are inaccurate values. PMID:27293658

  20. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective. PMID:25416221

  1. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26714700

  2. Effects of isosaline extracts of tetrapleura tetrapetra and olax subscorpioides on certain biochemical parameters of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, J A; Oyedapo, O O; Onasanya, B A; Osoba, O O; Adebanjo, O O; Eweje, O; Shodeinde, A B

    2000-01-01

    The effects of isosaline extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapetra and Olax subscorpioides were investigated in albino rats. The treatment of rats with these extracts resulted in an increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The extract of Tetrapleura tetrapetra caused a significant increase in blood glucose and liver glycogen levels while the extract of Olax subscorpioides caused a slight reduction but not statistically significant in the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen. Both extracts exhibited a significant reduction of protein in the livers of treated rats. PMID:21214460

  3. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Respiratory Function Tests and Blood Parameters in Radiology Staff

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, M; Yasar, S; Kayan, M; Balci, UG; Öngel, K

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate pulmonary function tests and blood parameters and their relationship with sociodemographic data for radiology staff continuously exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and Method: Thirty-eight personnel from Suleyman Demirel University Training and Research Hospital, Radiology Unit, were included in this study. Sociodemographic data were evaluated by a questionnare that was developed by the researchers. Height and weight measurements were performed with a standard scale and meter. Routine blood parameters and spirometric lung function measurements of the cases were recorded. Statistical significances were determined by independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), bivariate correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPSS 18.0. Results: The mean age was 32.42 ± 5.5 years; 19 patients (50%) were male and 19 patients (50%) were female. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as 25.68 ± 0.47 for men and 24.58 ± 1.13 for women. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and maximum mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75) showed statistically significant differences between gender (p < 0.01). In addition, FEV1 and FEF25-75 also demonstrated statistically negatively significant difference with the type of task (p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative difference was found between FEF25-75 value and time to start smoking (p < 0.05). Among FVC, FEV1, PEF and FEF25-75 values and alcohol usage, statistically significant positive difference was detected (p < 0.05). Statistically significant positive difference was found among FVC, PEF and FEF25-75 values and sports activity (p < 0.05). According to BMI groups, statistically significant positive difference with FVC, FEV1 and PEF values were found (p < 0.05). Statistically significant correlations were found among FVC value and haemoglobin level (Hgb), haematocrit level (Hct) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), among FEV1 value and Hgb, MCV, among

  4. Effects of noise and mental task performance upon changes in cerebral blood flow parameters

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna; Brodowski, Mirosław; Szydło, Mariusz; Podemski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to determine whether traffic noise influences the parameters of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) during the performance of mental tasks, and to see whether impact of noise on CBF changes with age. The study comprised 36 healthy volunteers, 22 women and 14 men, aged 25-49 years. The fTCD was performed using a fixed 2-MHz probe, aiming for an evaluation of mean velocity (MFV) and the pulsatility index (PI) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on both sides. Subsequently, fTCD was monitored: At rest; during performance of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT); during exposure to traffic noise; and during concomitant exposure to noise and PASAT performance. MFV and PI were compared for particular conditions and correlated with age. During exposure to noise, flow parameters did not change significantly. PASAT performance in silence increased MFV and decreased PI in MCA on both sides. During PASAT performance, on exposure to noise, MCV and PI changed significantly only in the left MCA. However, values of MFV were significantly lower during noise than in silence. Correlations with age were noted for velocities in the right MCA during PASAT performance in silence and for PI on both sides during PASAT performed in noise conditions. Noise impairs the CBF during mental tasks. A comparison of changes in CBF parameters correlated with age suggests that the involvement of the nondominant hemisphere in managing with noise effects increases with age. PMID:26572702

  5. Design and parameter estimation of hybrid magnetic bearings for blood pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tau Meng; Zhang, Dongsheng; Yang, Juanjuan; Cheng, Shanbao; Low, Sze Hsien; Chua, Leok Poh; Wu, Xiaowei

    2009-10-01

    This paper discusses the design and parameter estimation of the dynamics characteristics of a high-speed hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet (PM) brushless and sensorless DC motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five-degree-of-freedom with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers; among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. Test results show that the rotor can be stably supported to speeds of 14,000 rpm. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMBs system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air—in both the radial and axial directions. The radial stiffness of the HMBs is compared to the Ansoft's Maxwell 2D/3D finite element magnetostatic results. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamics characteristics of the HMBs system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamics properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  6. Effects of noise and mental task performance upon changes in cerebral blood flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna; Brodowski, Mirosław; Szydło, Mariusz; Podemski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to determine whether traffic noise influences the parameters of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) during the performance of mental tasks, and to see whether impact of noise on CBF changes with age. The study comprised 36 healthy volunteers, 22 women and 14 men, aged 25-49 years. The fTCD was performed using a fixed 2-MHz probe, aiming for an evaluation of mean velocity (MFV) and the pulsatility index (PI) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on both sides. Subsequently, fTCD was monitored: At rest; during performance of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT); during exposure to traffic noise; and during concomitant exposure to noise and PASAT performance. MFV and PI were compared for particular conditions and correlated with age. During exposure to noise, flow parameters did not change significantly. PASAT performance in silence increased MFV and decreased PI in MCA on both sides. During PASAT performance, on exposure to noise, MCV and PI changed significantly only in the left MCA. However, values of MFV were significantly lower during noise than in silence. Correlations with age were noted for velocities in the right MCA during PASAT performance in silence and for PI on both sides during PASAT performed in noise conditions. Noise impairs the CBF during mental tasks. A comparison of changes in CBF parameters correlated with age suggests that the involvement of the nondominant hemisphere in managing with noise effects increases with age. PMID:26572702

  7. Comparison of biochemical parameters of benzamide riboside, a new inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase, with tiazofurin and selenazofurin.

    PubMed

    Gharehbaghi, K; Sreenath, A; Hao, Z; Paull, K D; Szekeres, T; Cooney, D A; Krohn, K; Jayaram, H N

    1994-10-01

    The biochemical and cytotoxic activities of the IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitors benzamide riboside, tiazofurin, and selenazofurin were compared. These three C-nucleosides exert their cytotoxicity by forming an analogue of NAD, wherein nicotinamide is replaced by the C-nucleoside base. The antiproliferative activities of these three agents were compared in a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. To examine the relationship of benzamide riboside and selenazofurin to tiazofurin, COMPARE computer analysis was performed, and correlation coefficients of 0.761 and 0.815 were obtained for benzamide riboside and selenazofurin, respectively. The biochemical activities of these agents were examined in human myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. Incubation of K562 cells for 4 hr with 10 microM each of benzamide riboside, selenazofurin and tiazofurin resulted in a 49, 71, and 26% decrease in IMPDH activity with a concurrent increase in intracellular IMP pools. As a consequence of IMPDH inhibition, GTP and dGTP concentrations were curtailed. These studies demonstrated that selenazofurin was the most potent of the three agents. To compare the cellular synthesis of NAD analogues of these agents, K562 cells were incubated with 10 microM each of benzamide riboside, tiazofurin and selenazofurin after prelabeling the cells with [2,8-3H]adenosine. The results demonstrated that benzamide riboside produced 2- and 3-fold more of NAD analogue (BAD) than tiazofurin and selenazofurin did. To elucidate the effects of the three compounds on other NAD-utilizing enzymes, the inhibitory activities of purified benzamide adenine dinucleotide (BAD), thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (TAD) and selenazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (SAD) were studied in commercially available purified preparations of lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase. TAD and SAD did not inhibit these three dehydrogenases. Although BAD did not influence lactate and glutamate

  8. The effects of naturally deoxynivalenol-contaminated oats on the clinical condition, blood parameters, performance and carcass composition of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergsjø, B; Langseth, W; Nafstad, I; Jansen, J H; Larsen, H J

    1993-01-01

    A feeding trial with naturally deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated oats included in feed mixtures at graded levels was conducted in growing pigs. The DON concentrations were 0, 0.7, 1.7, and 3.5 mg/kg of complete feed mixture given ad libitum to different groups. The data recorded were feed consumption, body weight gain, slaughter weight, biochemical and haematological data including serum immunoglobulin A, clinical condition and post-mortem pathology including histopathology. Significantly decreasing body weight gain throughout the experimental period, decreased slaughter weight and reduced feed utilization efficiency were observed for the group fed a diet containing 3.5 mg/kg of DON. At the same DON concentration, there were increased liver weights and decreased concentrations of serum protein and albumin, and a temporary fall in packed blood cell volume, serum calcium and serum phosphorus. For the groups fed diets containing 1.7 and 3.5 mg/kg of DON, a statistically significant, dose-related decrease in daily feed consumption was observed. No other effects on haematological, biochemical or immunological parameters were recorded. The carcass quality was not affected in any group. It was concluded that significant effects in growing pigs may be observed at a dietary DON concentration of 1.7 mg/kg, originating from naturally contaminated oats included in a diet that was otherwise adequate and contained only minor traces of other mycotoxins. PMID:8146954

  9. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  10. Blood pressure levels and variance assessed by ambulatory monitoring: optimal parameters.

    PubMed

    Yates, F E; Benton, L A

    1990-01-01

    We obtained multiple ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) records over five years from two trained, normotensive subjects experienced in wearing the apparatus. The resulting time series data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were used to suggest optimal parameters for monitoring by two instruments (Colin Medical Instruments ABPM-630 and Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer) and to compare two indirect methods (auscultatory and oscillometric). A 10-min sampling interval day and night provided sufficient density of data to support spectral analysis for ultradian rhythms in the frequency range of one cycle per hour to one cycle per 9 h on a 24-h record. Rhythms with major periods of approximately 3, 6, and 9 h were variously found in 94 normotensive subjects, aged 20 to 95 years, including the two trained subjects. When the monitoring period was extended to 72 h, the circadian (approximately 24 h) rhythm could be more sharply defined, as well as a 12-h harmonic. In some studies the two trained subjects wore two monitors, one on each arm, set to read simultaneously. From the simultaneous measurements on both arms, it was shown that averaging across three points (30 min of record) reduced the coefficient of variation between the two simultaneous records to 6% or less. Auscultatory and oscillometric methods were equally reliable. Echocardiographic data were obtained in five normotensive subjects and compared to their ABPM data. The ABPM records provided additional information about cardiovascular function not merely duplicating that obtained by acute stress tests, such as exercise or cold pressor responses, or echocardiography. Standards for ABPM are suggested. PMID:2221507

  11. Blood parameters and electroencephalographic responses of goats to slaughter without stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, A B; Goh, Y M; Zulkifli, I; Sazili, A Q; Kaka, U; Kadi, M Z A Ab; Ebrahimi, M; Nakyinsige, K; Adeyemi, K D

    2016-11-01

    The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats. PMID:27317849

  12. Interactive effects of photoperiod and light intensity on blood physiological and biochemical reactions of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomize...

  13. Blood Parameters and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate Oral Supplementation in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Braz, ShélidaVasconcelos; Marçola, Tatiana Guerrero; McManus, Concepta; Caldeira, Denise Ferreira; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Paim, Tiago Prado; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Louvandini, Helder

    2015-11-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on various blood parameters and their possible toxicity on the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and testis were investigated. Twenty-four Santa Inês (SI) lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic (six animals/treatment): placebo, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of hay Panicum maximum cv Massai and concentrate. Blood and serum were collected fortnightly for analysis. On day 84, the animals were euthanized, and histopathological analysis in the liver, kidney, heart, lung, and testis was made. The liver and kidney were also submitted to electronic microscopy analysis. Differences between treatments (P < 0.05) were observed for packed cell volume (day 84), hemoglobin (day 84), total plasm protein (day 56 and day 84), and triglycerides (day 70). There was no statistically significant relationship between Cr supplementation and histopathology findings, although some animals treated with supplementary Cr showed morphological changes in the liver, kidney, and testis. Thus, the effectiveness of supplementation with Cr remains in doubt as to its physiological action and toxicity in sheep. PMID:25926085

  14. Comparison of the predictive value of plateletcrit with various other blood parameters in gestational diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Sahbaz, Ahmet; Cicekler, Humeyra; Aynioglu, Oner; Isik, Hatice; Ozmen, Ulku

    2016-07-01

    Gestational diabetes is the most encountered metabolic disease in pregnancy and affects both the mother and fetus adversely. Low-grade subchronic inflammation is associated with gestational diabetes development. Platelets (PLT) play role in blood coagulation and inflammatory process. We aimed to compare the various platelet indices in patients with GDM and healthy pregnant controls and to determine whether PLT indices are useful in Gestational diabetes diagnosis. The present study was performed at the Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Statistically significant relationships with plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width and patients with GDM were found (p < 0.001). Plateletcrit had higher sensitivity and specificity than other platelet indices. Although plateletcrit is a largely unknown or an underestimated parameter in complete blood count, it gives more precise information than platelet count and mean platelet volume. Platelet-related indices and their determination are inexpensive and routinely ordered markers, the significance of which is often ignored. They may be useful in screening for gestational diabetes as an adjunct to oral glucose tolerance test. PMID:26758049

  15. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  16. Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Walford, Roy L; Mock, Dennis; Verdery, Roy; MacCallum, Taber

    2002-06-01

    Four female and four male crew members, including two of the present authors (R. Walford and T. MacCallum)--seven of the crew being ages 27 to 42 years, and one aged 67 years--were sealed inside Biosphere 2 for two years. During seven eighths of that period they consumed a low-calorie (1750-2100 kcal/d) nutrient-dense diet of vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains, and legumes, with small amounts of dairy, eggs, and meat (approximately 12% calories from protein, approximately 11% from fat, and approximately 77% from complex carbohydrates). They experienced a marked and sustained weight loss of 17 +/- 5%, mostly in the first 8 months. Blood was drawn before entry into Biosphere 2, at many time-points inside it, and four times during the 30 months following exit from it and return to an ad libitum diet. Longitudinal studies of 50 variables on each crew member compared outside and inside values by means of a Bayesian statistical analysis. The data show that physiologic (e.g., body mass index, with a decrease of 19% for men and 13% for women; blood pressure, with a systolic decrease of 25% and a diastolic decrease of 22%), hematologic (e.g., white blood cell count, decreased 31%), hormonal (e.g., insulin, decreased 42%; T3, decreased 19%), biochemical (e.g., blood sugar, decreased 21%; cholesterol, decreased 30%), and a number of additional changes, including values for rT3, cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, plus others, resembled those of rodents or monkeys maintained on a calorie-restricted regime. Significant variations in several substances not hitherto studied in calorie-restricted animals are also reported (e.g., androstenedione, thyroid binding globulin, renin, and transferrin). We conclude that healthy nonobese humans on a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet show physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical changes resembling those of rodents and monkeys on such diets. With regard to the health of humans on such a diet, we observed that despite the selective

  17. Acute effects of hexavalent chromium on survival, oxygen consumption, hematological parameters and some biochemical profiles of the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, S S

    2005-12-01

    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to determine the acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its toxicological effects on survival, physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters of the widely consumed Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Short-term acute toxicity tests were performed adopting renewal bioassay technique (USEPA, 1975) over a period of 96 h, using different concentrations of potassium dichromate to the fish and the 96 h LC[50] value was found to be 111.45 mg/l (Cr(+6) as 39.40 mg/l). ANOVA results showed that the normal respiratory activity of the fish was significantly affected and there is a depression in the metabolic rate at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure. The metal also induced significant decrease (p<0.001) in the hematological parameters of the fish like total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percent and absolute value Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) both at the end of 24h and 96 h exposure indicating anemia. Appreciable decline in the biochemical profiles such as total glycogen, total lipids and total protein contents of the fish was also observed. However, the decrease in protein content was significant only at the end of 96 h. This study reflects the extent of the toxic effects of hexavalent chromium and the metal induced cumulative deleterious effects at various functional levels in the widely consumed freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. PMID:16819101

  18. Biochemical and physiological parameters on the skin surface of healthy test persons: a contribution towards the interpretation of the results obtained by a screening program.

    PubMed

    Gloor, M; Kionke, M; Friederich, H C

    1975-07-18

    Biochemical and physiological examinations were carried out on the skin surface of a total of 115 healthy persons ranging from the age of 7-79 years. In these investigations the following striking findings were made: 1. There is a significant correlation between the results obtained by the ferricyanide, the phenol sulfuric acid and the ninhydrin methods in the so called water solubles. 2. The relationship between the fraction of wax and cholesterol esters and the squalene fraction in the skin surface lipids influences the release of free fatty acids by bacterial lipases. 3. With regards to most parameters tested there are great differences between the 8-12 year age group and the older age groups. 4. There are significant differences in the 8-12 year age group between the male and female test persons. 5. With regards to the parameters tested there are also significant differences between the various test areas. PMID:1164042

  19. Analyzing the some biochemical parameters of diabetes mellitus and obese patients who applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine polyclinic and their prevalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageçili, Hasan; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Aydin, Ruken Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems throughout the World. Obese individuals body mass index (BMI) is >30 kg/m2. Obesity is characterized by increased waist circumference, total body fat and hyperglycemia. The increased triglyceride and cholesterol level is also shown in obese individuals. The development of obesity is largely due to the consumption of high energy food and sedentary lifestyle. This study was held with the participation of patients applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine policlinic for treatment. Our aim is to try to determine the biochemical relation and border line of obese and obese+diabetes mellitus patients. Patients and control group lipid profiles were studied in the hospital biochemisty laboratory. Laboratory results of diabetes+obese, obese and control groups were evaluated. Patients and control samples blood serum levels were compared according to their lipid profiles. In 2015, 735 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients applied to Endocrine polyclinic. Some of these patient's serum levels were evaluated. Difference between diabetes+obese and diabetes groups were near critical level for LDL and trigliserid. There were not observed statistically significant difference between groups in terms of HDL and cholesterol. There were found significant difference between groups for blood glucose p<0.003, age p<0.001. According to gender between women and men serum levels, ALT and AST levels; p<0.006 and cholesterol; p<0.04 were detected. According to participants education level blood biochemistry levels were observed statisticaly different p<0.001 with non-literacy group. In conclusion, obese and obese+diabetes patients blood serum values nearly close to each other. Obese subjects were been diabetic obese with age. In women obesity and diabetes mellitus prevalence were seen too much.

  20. Bisphenol A and its analogs induce morphological and biochemical alterations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Mokra, Katarzyna; Bąk, Agata

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have addressed the cellular effects of bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on cells, and no study has been conducted to analyze the mechanism of action of bisphenols in blood cells. In this study, the effect of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), BPS and BPAF on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed. It was shown that BPA, BPF and BPAF in particular, decreased cell viability, which was associated with depletion of intracellular ATP level and alterations in PBMCs size and granulation. Bisphenols enhanced ROS (including OH˙) formation, which led to damage to lipids and proteins in PBMCs. The most significant alterations in ROS level were induced by BPF, and particularly BPAF. Moreover, it was shown that BPAF most strongly provoked lipid peroxidation, while BPA and BPS caused the greatest damage to proteins. It may be concluded that BPA and its analogs were capable of inducing oxidative stress and damage in PBMCs in the concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 μM (0.02-0.1 μg/ml), which may be present in human blood as a result of environmental exposure. Although, most of bisphenols studied decreased cell viability, size and ATP level at higher concentrations, BPAF exhibited its cytotoxic potential at low concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3 μM (0.1-1.0 μg/ml) that may correspond to concentrations in humans following occupational exposure. PMID:26028149

  1. Biochemical studies on red blood cells from a patient with the Inab phenotype (decay-accelerating factor deficiency).

    PubMed

    Reid, M E; Mallinson, G; Sim, R B; Poole, J; Pausch, V; Merry, A H; Liew, Y W; Tanner, M J

    1991-12-15

    A 38-year-old Russian woman (KZ) has been identified as the fourth proposita with the Inab blood group phenotype. Like the first two propositi, she has a chronic intestinal disorder and, as shown for the third proposita, her Inab phenotype is demonstrably inherited. KZ's serum contained anti-IFC, which reacted with a red blood cell (RBC) membrane component with an Mr of 70,000, which is decay accelerating factor (DAF). Her RBCs lacked all Cromer-related blood group antigens and DAF. Her RBCs were no more susceptible than normal control RBCs to lysis in acid lysis or in rabbit or human antibody-initiated complement lysis tests. Northern blots of total RNA isolated from KZ's Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts showed a marked reduction of DAF mRNA when compared with normal. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of cDNA confirmed this reduced level of DAF mRNA. Sequencing of the PCR product showed a 44-nucleotide deletion in the mRNA close to the short consensus repeats IIIa/IIIb intron/exon boundary. This deletion results in a change in the reading frame that places a termination codon six amino acids after the deletion. The putative translation product would lack a glycosyl phosphatidyl-inositol linkage site and, therefore, would not be membrane-bound in the RBC. PMID:1720702

  2. Influence of wall shear rate on parameters of blood compatibility of intravascular catheters.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, N P; Kumary, T V; Williams, D F

    1996-10-01

    Three polymeric materials (silicone, PVC and nylon) were compared in an in vitro perfusion model, whereby 5 ml whole blood were perfused along 1 m lengths of polymeric tubing of 1 mm internal diameter at wall shear rates of up to 1000 s-1. Perfusion took place at 37 degrees C for 30 min. The polymers were investigated for platelet activation, granulocyte secretion, complement activation and contact phase activation. These parameters were also analysed in static contact for comparison. All the parameters measured displayed a dependence on wall shear rate. In all the materials studied, platelet adhesion and platelet activation increased with increasing flow rate. Granulocyte elastase release increased slightly with increasing flow rate up to 300 s-1. Complement activation was greatest for PVC at 1000 s-1, greatest for nylon at 100 s-1, but there was no measurable difference at either rate for silicone. All samples caused an increase in clotting time with increasing wall shear rate. PVC was the most platelet compatible material, nylon the worst. Silicone caused least contact phase activation, PVC and nylon the most. PMID:8894094

  3. Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Andrey V; Dremin, Victor V; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A; Rafailov, Ilya E; Litvinova, Karina S; Palmer, Scott G; Stewart, Neil A; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik U

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has recently become more common in clinical medicine. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to the methodology and implementation of instruments with this technology. In this study, we aimed to assess individual variability of fluorescence parameters of endogenous markers (NADH, FAD, etc.) measured by fluorescent spectroscopy (FS) in situ and to analyse the factors that lead to a significant scatter of results. Most studied fluorophores have an acceptable scatter of values (mostly up to 30%) for diagnostic purposes. Here we provide evidence that the level of blood volume in tissue impacts FS data with a significant inverse correlation. The distribution function of the fluorescence intensity and the fluorescent contrast coefficient values are a function of the normal distribution for most of the studied fluorophores and the redox ratio. The effects of various physiological (different content of skin melanin) and technical (characteristics of optical filters) factors on the measurement results were additionally studied. The data on the variability of the measurement results in FS should be considered when interpreting the diagnostic parameters, as well as when developing new algorithms for data processing and FS devices. PMID:25922293

  4. Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalf, A.; Alhaj, M.; Al-homidan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of commercial probiotic (Bactocell®) on growth performance and blood parameters were evaluated. A total of 800 one day-old Ross broiler chicks were raised over 42 days. Chicks were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into four equally major groups each having two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that did not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the control starter and finisher diets supplemented with 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg feed, respectively. Weekly body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion were measured. Blood parameters at 1, 4 and 6 weeks of age including packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total protein, albumin, total lipid and cholesterol were determined. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results of the current study revealed that there was no significant change for Hb and PCV concentrations among different groups at all studied times. Also, total protein, lipids and albumin concentrations were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Chicken fed a diet containing various levels of probiotic showed a significant decrease (p ⩽ 0.05) in cholesterol concentration compared to control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the body weight and daily weight gain of broiler chicks at late ages (3–6 weeks). Also, the birds fed on probiotic levels 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet exhibited higher body weight among chicken groups at 6 weeks of age. Improved feed conversion was noticed in birds fed a diet supplemented with probiotic. There was no significant difference in mortality rate among groups. We concluded that use of selected commercial probiotic resulted in improved performance parameters and reduced serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. Moreover, supplementation of the probiotic to broilers in the levels of 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet was found

  5. Effect of dystocia on some hormonal and biochemical parameters in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M; Al-Eknah, M M; Al-Raja'a, A

    2016-08-01

    The present study compared some of the hormonal and biochemical constituents of serum from eutocic and dystocic one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). Sera were harvested from eutocic (n = 9) and dystocic (n = 20) camels within the first 15 minutes after delivery. Although there were no differences in the concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) between the eutocic and the dystocic animals, the level of progesterone (P4) and cortisol was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in animals that experienced dystocia than those that had a normal birth. There were no differences between the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, or magnesium (Mg) in eutocic and dystocic animals. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the serum from animals with dystocia than those that had normal births. By contrast, the serum concentrations of glucose, phosphorus (P), and triglycerides were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in eutocic camels compared with dystocic camels. As the delayed decline of P4 is reported to be the major hormonal difference between eutocic and dystocic camels, we propose that the insensitivity of corpus luteum to luteolytic action may be a cause of dystocia. Moreover, stress and hormonal changes may affect the metabolic traits in dystocia camels. PMID:27068358

  6. Roach (Rutilus rutilus) reproductive cycle: a study of biochemical and histological parameters in a low contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Geraudie, Perrine; Gerbron, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth; Minier, Christophe

    2010-09-01

    Fish reproduction is subjected to worrying trends in many aquatic environments. In this study, we report the absence of histological and biochemical alterations in fish sampled in a low contaminated site (characterised by the absence of detectable oestrogenic activity and mutagenicity in sediment extracts). A total of 474 roach (Rutilus rutilus) were monthly sampled during 18 months, and no intersex fish were recorded after careful histological examination, thus indicating that the incidence of this phenomenon may be very low under natural conditions. Furthermore, mean male plasma vitellogenin concentration was 24 ng ml(-1) and was only slightly elevated during the spawning period (up to 120 ng ml(-1)) indicating that these low values may be characteristic of a low contaminated site. Of the male roach, 45.3% were sampled, a sex-ratio that did not significantly deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio between male and female. Results also showed that natural conditions can greatly affect the reproductive cycle of roach. Gametogenesis showed a biphasic pattern with first gonad maturation between September and December and a final maturation occurring at the end of winter/early spring. Under decreasing temperatures, particularly below 6 degrees C, gametogenesis was stopped or even regressed with secondary oocytes becoming rare under histological observation. Conversely, elevated temperatures during the winter lead to an earlier gonad maturation. PMID:19680761

  7. Combined analysis of whole human blood parameters by Raman spectroscopy and spectral-domain low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyba, M.; Wróbel, M. S.; Karpienko, K.; Milewska, D.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this article the simultaneous investigation of blood parameters by complementary optical methods, Raman spectroscopy and spectral-domain low-coherence interferometry, is presented. Thus, the mutual relationship between chemical and physical properties may be investigated, because low-coherence interferometry measures optical properties of the investigated object, while Raman spectroscopy gives information about its molecular composition. A series of in-vitro measurements were carried out to assess sufficient accuracy for monitoring of blood parameters. A vast number of blood samples with various hematological parameters, collected from different donors, were measured in order to achieve a statistical significance of results and validation of the methods. Preliminary results indicate the benefits in combination of presented complementary methods and form the basis for development of a multimodal system for rapid and accurate optical determination of selected parameters in whole human blood. Future development of optical systems and multivariate calibration models are planned to extend the number of detected blood parameters and provide a robust quantitative multi-component analysis.

  8. [On Individualization of Therapeutic Doses of Optical Radiation according to Changes in Parameters of Blood Oxygenation].

    PubMed

    Zalesskaya, G A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of in vivo laser irradiation by optical radiation on blood from different patients is studied. The objects of research were three series of blood samples from patients whose treatment course included extracorporeal UV blood irradiation, intravenous laser blood irradiation and supra-venous blood laser irradiation. Before and after irradiation the results on optic oximetry and gas content of venous blood were compared. The results of positive and negative influence of blood irradiation on characteristics of an oxygen exchange in separate patients and on the maintenance of some products of metabolism are represented. It is shown that at the same power dose, their changes depend on individual, initial values of hemoglobin oxygen saturation of venous blood and its photoinduced changes which objectively reflect individual sensitivity of patients to the action of optical radiation on blood and can be used for assessment of the efficiency of phototherapy. PMID:26349218

  9. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  10. Effects of sodium fluoride exposure on some biochemical parameters in mice: evaluation of the ameliorative effect of royal jelly applications on these parameters.

    PubMed

    Kanbur, Murat; Eraslan, Gökhan; Silici, Sibel; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2009-06-01

    Forty eight male Balb/c mice, each weighing 30-35 g, were used in the present study. The animals were divided into four equal groups. The first group served as the control group, and the second group was administered royal jelly at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw by gavage for a period of 7 days. The third group received 200 ppm fluoride, as sodium fluoride, for a period of 7 days, in drinking water. Lastly, the fourth group was given 200 ppm fluoride in drinking water, in association with royal jelly at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw by gavage, for a period of 7 days. At the end of the seventh day, blood samples were collected from all groups into heparinised and dry tubes, and liver samples were taken concurrently. Erythrocyte and liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were evaluated in the blood and tissue samples obtained. Furthermore, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein and albumin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alcaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were evaluated. In conclusion, fluoride was determined to cause adverse effects in mice, and the administration of royal jelly to these animals alleviated the adverse effects of fluoride. PMID:19425189

  11. Wounding alters blood chemistry parameters and skin mineralocorticoid receptors in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Lattin, Christine R; DuRant, Sarah E; Romero, L Michael

    2015-06-01

    Because skin is an important physical barrier against pathogens, the ability to quickly and effectively heal wounds directly impacts an animal's health. The hormone corticosterone (CORT) has many complex effects on immune function and can slow wound healing. It has been suggested that CORT's role during wound healing may be to act as a "brake" on inflammation and cell proliferation. This project aimed to clarify the role of CORT in the healing process by quantifying concentrations of its two intracellular receptors, glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), in the skin of wounded (n = 9) or unwounded (n = 8) house sparrows (Passer domesticus) using radioligand binding assays. We also quantified GR and MR in liver, spleen and pectoralis muscle, as well as several blood chemistry parameters, hypothesizing that wounding would alter whole-body energy use. One day post-wounding, wounded birds had higher blood glucose and lower aspartate aminotransferase (a marker indicating muscle damage or catabolism) compared to controls, which may be related to animals' changing metabolic needs in response to lymphocyte and macrophage recruitment at the wound site. Birds had significantly decreased MR, but not GR, in the skin of wounded legs compared to the skin of unwounded legs. There was also a trend towards lower MR in wounded skin compared to unwounded birds. Receptors in the three other tissues did not differ between groups. This study suggests that decreasing the skin's sensitivity to CORT immediately after wounding may be a necessary part of the normal healing process in wild birds. PMID:25802121

  12. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  13. Comparative observations of fever and associated clinical hematological and blood biochemical changes after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and F (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Van Miert, A S; Van Duin, C T; Schotman, A J

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to examine the characteristics of purified toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (staphylococcal enterotoxin F) given intravenously to dwarf goats (dose, 0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1). Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and hematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (dose, 0.02 to 0.5 micrograms kg-1). Similar changes such as fever, tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed. In contrast to the effects of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced colic, watery diarrhea with pseudomembranes, hemoconcentration, and a more pronounced increase in blood urea nitrogen. The results obtained demonstrate that (i) in the goat staphylococcal enterotoxin B is much more potent than toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and (ii) the goat is a useful model to study the gastro-intestinal effects caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The present finding that no clear relationship could be found between the temperature response and the alterations in zinc and iron levels in plasma support the theory that the febrile reactions and the changes in plasma trace metals are mediated by different polypeptides released by activated macrophages. PMID:6500695

  14. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Eulaers, Igor; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ballesteros, Manuel; Eens, Marcel; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Johnsen, Trond V; Rigét, Frank F; Jensen, Asger L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2012-06-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid:creatinine ratios and liver enzymes ALKP and ALAT were positively correlated to PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFCs and/or PBDEs. Total bilirubin and glucose were negatively correlated to PCBs while magnesium and potassium were negatively correlated to HCB and p,p'-DDE. In addition, protein:creatinine and ALAT were also negatively correlated to PCBs and PFCs, respectively. The most significant relationships were found for the highly contaminated northern goshawks and white-tailed eagles. The statistical relationships between OHCs and BCCPs indicate that biochemical pathways could be influenced while it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles. PMID:22445502

  15. Survey of selected pathogens and blood parameters of northern yellowstone elk: Wolf sanitation effect implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; White, P.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The restoration or conservation of predators could reduce seroprevalences of certain diseases in prey if predation selectively removes animals exhibiting clinical signs. We assessed disease seroprevalences and blood parameters of 115 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) wintering on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park [YNP] during 2000-2005 and compared them to data collected prior to wolf (Canis lupus) restoration (WR) in 1995 and to two other herds in Montana to assess this prediction. Blood parameters were generally within two standard deviations of the means observed in other Montana herds (Gravelly-Snowcrest [GS] and Garnet Mountain [GM]), but Yellowstone elk had higher seroprevalences of parainfluenza-3 virus (95% CI YNP = 61.1-78.6, GS = 30.3-46.5) and bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type 1 (95% CI YNP = 15.9-31.9, GM = 0). In comparisons between pre-wolf restoration [pre-WR] (i.e., prior to 1995) seroprevalences with those post-wolf restoration [post-WR] in Yellowstone, we found lower seroprevalences for some disease-causing agents post-wolf restoration (e.g., bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type-1 [95% CI pre-WR = 73.1-86.3, post-WR = 15.9-31.9] and bovine-respiratory syncytial virus [95% CI pre-WR = 70.0-83.8, post-WR = 0]), but similar (e.g., Brucella abortus [95% CI pre-WR = 0-4.45, post-WR = 0-4.74] and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 0]) or higher for others (e.g., Anaplasma marginale [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 18.5-38.7] and Leptospira spp. [95% CI pre-WR = 0.5-6.5, post-WR = 9.5-23.5]). Though we did not detect an overall strong predation effect through reduced disease seroprevalence using retrospective comparisons with sparse data, our reference values will facilitate future assessments of this issue.

  16. Effects of sodium selenite on some biochemical and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) exposed to Pb2+ and Cu2+.

    PubMed

    Ates, Burhan; Orun, Ibrahim; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Durmaz, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2008-03-01

    This study was carried out to understand the preventive effect of selenium (Se4+) on heavy metal stress induced by lead and copper in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Variation in glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver, spleen, heart, and brain tissues of rainbow trout after 72 h of exposure to Pb2+ and Cu2+ were investigated in the presence and absence of Se4+. In the presence of Se4+, Se-GSH-Px activity and SOD activity were found to be higher and MDA levels were lower compared with in its absence. Hematological parameters were also determined and it has been observed that total leukocyte count (WBC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were increased and erythrocyte number (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit value (Hct; P < 0.05) were decreased in fish exposed to heavy metals in the absence of selenium. Selenium presence recovered hematological parameters to normal levels. In the light of our findings, it could be stated that Pb2+ and Cu2+ lead to dramatic changes in biochemical and hematological parameters and selenium caused these parameters to converge to control levels when it was administered concurrently with these heavy metals. PMID:18649023

  17. Influence of dietary copper proteinate on performance, selected biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, liver, and egg copper content in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Beyaz, Latife; Uyanik, Fatma; Eren, Meryem; Atasever, Ayhan

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of copper proteinate on performance, blood chemistry, lipid peroxidation status, and organs as well as copper deposition in the liver and eggs of laying hens. Seventy-two 30-week-old Bovans laying hens were distributed into four groups with three replicates. Animals were fed basal diet containing at least 17% crude protein and 2,800 kcal/kg metabolizable energy supplemented with either 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/kg copper as copper proteinate. Supplementation of 150 and 300 mg/kg copper increased egg production, whereas 450 mg/kg copper decreased (p < 0.001). Liver copper levels were elevated in 300 and 450 mg/kg copper-supplemented groups (p < 0.001). Egg copper contents increased in all treatment groups (p < 0.01). An increase in glucose (p < 0.001) and decreases in albumin (p < 0.01) and total cholesterol (p < 0.05) levels were determined with 300 and 450 mg/kg copper. Supplementation of 450 mg/kg copper increased alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities (p < 0.05), malondialdehyde, and high-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.01) but decreased alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities (p < 0.01). No gross and microscopic changes were observed in the liver and kidneys. These results indicated that 150 and 300 mg/kg copper increased egg production without having marked adverse effects, but 450 mg/kg copper altered some blood chemistry variables and reduced egg production in laying hens. PMID:18536874

  18. Corrective effects of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake on biochemical and genotoxical parameters in mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; da Silva, Juliana; Daumann, Francine; Dajori, Ana Luiza Formentin; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; de Lira, Fabio; Campos, Fernanda; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Côrrea, Dione Silva; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Acerola contains high levels of vitamin C and rutin and shows the corresponding antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress on the other hand is an important factor in the development of obesity. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and antigenotoxic effects of acerola juice in different stages of maturity (unripe, ripe and industrial) and its main pharmacologically active components vitamin C and rutin, when given as food supplements to obese mice. Initial HPLC analyses confirmed that all types of acerola juice contained high levels of vitamin C and rutin. DPPH tests quantified the antioxidant properties of these juices and revealed higher antioxidant potentials compared to pure vitamin C and rutin. In an animal test series, groups of male mice were fed on a standard (STA) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The latter consisted of a variety of supermarket products, rich in sugar and fat. This CAF diet increased the feed efficiency, but also induced glucose intolerance and DNA damage, which was established by comet assays and micronucleus tests. Subsequently, CAF mice were given additional diet supplements (acerola juice, vitamin C or rutin) for one month and the effects on bone marrow, peripheral blood, liver, kidney, and brain were examined. The results indicated that food supplementation with ripe or industrial acerola juice led to a partial reversal of the diet-induced DNA damage in the blood, kidney, liver and bone marrow. For unripe acerola juice food supplementation, beneficial effects were observed in blood, kidney and bone marrow. Food supplementation with vitamin C led to decreased DNA damage in kidney and liver, whereas rutin supplementation led to decreased DNA damage in all tissue samples observed. These results suggest that acerola juice helps to reduce oxidative stress and may decrease genotoxicity under obesogenic conditions. PMID:24296107

  19. [Physical, biochemical and bacterioscopic parameters of mouth lavage in patients with periodontium diseases and working on ethanol production enterprises].

    PubMed

    Bandrivskaia, N N; Mrochko, O I; Bandrivskiĭ, Iu L

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of oral bacterioscopy and homeostasis were studied in patients with periodontal diseases. The shift of pH towards the acid values, increased content of total protein were determined. Analysis of oral fluid showed increase in level of ionized calcium, nitrate anion, and decreased content of magnesium and ammonium cations. The increased overall number of bacteria in patients with periodontal diseases was seen, especially due to gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25335425

  20. Changes in full blood count parameters in leptospirosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis presents diagnostic challenges to clinicians, in settings where other acute febrile illness are prevalent. The patterns of serial changes in haematological parameters in leptospirosis has not been evaluated previously. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with leptospirosis in two hospitals in Sri Lanka. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on WHO clinical criteria with confirmation using Microscopic Agglutination Test titre > 400 or 4 fold rise between acute and convalescent samples. Full blood count parameters were analysed up to the 14th day of illness. Results Data from 201 patients with leptospirosis were available. Leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophil counts showed a decline over the first 5 days of illness, then rose until the end of the second week. On day 3 of fever, the majority (75%) had normal leukocyte counts, and by day 5, leukocytosis was seen only in 38.1%; leucopenia was an uncommon finding. Lymphopenia was seen in over half on day 5, declining to just under a quarter of patients by day 10. Platelets declined over the first 6 days and then gradually rose. Thrombocytopenia was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients by day 5. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels declined over the course of illness. Total white cell and neutrophil counts were higher, and haemoglobin and haematorcrit were significantly lower, in patients with severe disease. Conclusions Neither leukocytosis nor lymphopenia were prominent features, while thrombocytopenia was seen during the 3rd to 5th day of illness, with dropping haemoglobin levels. Neutrophilia and low haemoglobin levels appear to predict severe disease. These findings may be of use to clinicians in differentiating leptospirosis from other acute infections like dengue, and could help in predicting severe leptospirosis. PMID:25018781

  1. [Lipid and pro-oxidative and antioxidative parameters in the blood of vegetarians].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Babinská, K; Ondreicka, R

    1994-08-01

    The authors subdued 183 vegetarians to examination, the aim of which was to judge the state of health and nutrition of the vegetarian population. The examined group was composed of people with their age ranging from 19-60 years, out of which 102 were of younger (19-39 years) and 81 were of older age. Their average period of vegetarian food consumption was 4.2 years. One third of men and a half of women were lacto-vegetarians, the rest were lacto-ovo-vegetarians. The results were compared with 160 nonvegetarians (64 of younger and 96 of older age). The detected values of lipid parameters were evaluated as favourable for vegetarians (low values of cholesterol, triacylglycerols, atherogenic index, LDL-cholesterol, the share of HDL-cholesterol was 28-33% (vs 24-26% in nonvegetarians) with values converging to 1.4 mmol.l-1--i.e. reduced risk). Additional favourable factors in prevention of atherosclerosis include the absence of obesity in vegetarians and values of antisclerotic active substances in blood (high values of vitamin C, in comparison with nonvegetarians a significantly higher molar ratio of vitamin E/cholesterol and vitamin E/triacylglycerols--more effective protection against peroxidation of lipids). Vegetarian mode of food consumption may be favourably evaluated regarding prooxidative-antioxidative parameters which play an important role in the process of atherogenesis, and carcinogenesis. Significantly lower values of conjugated dienes in plasma of vegetarians and vice versa high values of antioxidant substances (vitamin C, vitamin E/lipid components, catalase activity) were detected. A more pronounced system of detoxication in vegetarians is important due to a possible risk of an increased intake of xenogenous substances. (Tab. 3, Ref. 27.) PMID:7812836

  2. Prediction of outcome in breast cancer patients using test parameters from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PINGPING; ZONG, YULONG; LIU, MOHAN; TAI, YANHONG; CAO, YUAN; HU, CHENGIIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of test parameters from pretreatment complete blood count (CBC) for predicting outcome in breast cancer patients. A total of 162 patients with breast cancer and a long follow-up were enrolled in this study. Red cell indices (RCIs) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) from CBC prior to treatment, as well as related clinical data, were retrospectively collected. We evaluated the association of RCI and NLR with tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. We further performed survival analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by RCI and NLR median values, to evaluate their prognostic effects. In the disease-free survival (DFS) analysis, patients in the higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and NLR groups exhibited shorter DFS times compared with those in the lower MCH and NLR groups (P=0.017 for MCH and P=0.039 for NLR). The univariate analysis revealed that both MCH and NLR were significantly associated with DFS. The Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that only MCH was an independent predictor associated with disease relapse (hazard ratio = 1.975, 95% confidence interval: 1.118–3.487, P=0.019), whereas no index was associated with overall survival. Our results suggest that MCH prior to treatment may be a predictive marker associated with DFS in breast cancer. PMID:27284423

  3. [Interpopulation differeces biochemical adaptation at population of Gorny Altai].

    PubMed

    Chanchaeva, E A; Aĭzman, R I

    2014-01-01

    The factual nutrition of aborigines Russian, altay and kazah nationalities of Gorny Altai were studied. As a result, interpopulating differences of population's nutrition witch quantitative consumption macronutrients have been influence and dependence on the nationality has been determined. Biochemical parameters of blood with quantitative composition of ration's macronutrients are correlated. PMID:25272709

  4. [Effect of dietotherapy with food-stuffs for enteral nutrition on the dynamic of clinical and biochemic parameters in biliary tract diseases].

    PubMed

    Plotnikova, O A; Meshcheriakova, V A; Sharfetdinov, Kh Kh; Petrovskaia, O B; Mokhova, E O

    2005-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of dietary therapy with enteral formula "Nutricomp AND Braum fiber" on clinical and biochemic parameters in biliary tract diseases. Also it was carried out the comparative estimation of the gallbladder motility in this contingent of patients in process of the standard food loading and the loading with the tested enteral formula (25 g carbohydrates). It was indicated that the including of enteral formula "Nutricomp AND Braum fiber" (209 g/day) in traditional hypocaloric diet promotes the decrease of cholesterol level and activity of alkaline phosphatase. The gallbladder motility was some smaller after the consuming of enteral formula "Nutricomp AND Braum Diabetes" compared with the standard food loading (25 g carbohydrates). PMID:16313133

  5. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese

  6. Differences in various biochemical and clinical parameters with respect to family history of Non Communicable Diseases in fourth year MBBS students of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Khalid Abdul; Fawwad, Asher; Munir, Muhammad Asadullah; Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahmed; Siddiqui, Sidra; Basit, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the differences of various biochemical and clinical parameters with respect to Family History (FH) of Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) in fourth year Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology from December 2013 to January 2014. Total 50 medical students from Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) participated in the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13 was used to analyze the data. For cross tabulation and mean comparison z-test and t test were applied. Results: Out of 50 subjects, there were 26 (52%) females. Mean age of the study population was 21.56 ± 0.90 years. Mean serum cholesterol levels with positive FH of NCDs was significantly higher than negative FH of NCDs (p=0.005). Mean value of low density lipoprotein (LDL) of positive family history of NCDs was found higher than those with negative FH (p=0.006) being statistically significant. The insulin levels in subjects with positive FH of NCDs were higher than subjects with negative FH of NCDs (p=0.685). However, serum leptin and plasma renin showed no significant difference with the negative FH of NCDs being higher compared to positive FH of NCDs (p=0.068) and (p=0.884) respectively. However, Waist circumference, Body mass index and central obesity in subjects with positive FH of NCDs shows increasing trend but no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed. Conclusion: In our study of various biochemical and clinical parameters with respect to FH of NCDs, Serum Cholesterol and LDL levels were observed higher and statistically significant. PMID:26430439

  7. Comparison of the effects of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shixin; Wei, Chen; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to compare the effects of supplementing rare earth elements (REE) lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and praseodymium (Pr) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, methane (CH4) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged 12 months, with initial average liveweight of 333 ± 9 kg and fitted with rumen cannulas, were fed with a basal ration composed of concentrate mixture and maize silage. Animals received a basal ration without adding REE (Control) or three treatments, i.e. supplementing LaCl3, CeCl3 or PrCl3 at 204 mg/kg DM to the basal ration, respectively, which were allocated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 d, consisting of 12 d for pre-treatment and three subsequent days for sampling. Results showed that all tested levels of REE tended to increase neutral detergent fibre digestibility (p = 0.064) and tended to decrease rumen CH4 production (p = 0.056). Supplementing LaCl3 and CeCl3 decreased total N excretion and urinary N excretion, increased N retention (p < 0.05), tended to increase total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p = 0.053) and microbial N flow (p = 0.095), whereas supplementing PrCl3 did not affect N retention, urinary PD and microbial N flow. No differences were found in the effects of nutrient digestibility, CH4 production and plasma biochemical parameters among LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3. Further trials using graded levels of LaCl3, CeCl3 and PrCl3 in a wide range are needed to obtain more pronounced results for comparing effects of La, Ce and Pr on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. PMID:25575216

  8. Methods of mesophyll conductance estimation: its impact on key biochemical parameters and photosynthetic limitations in phosphorus-stressed soybean across CO2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shardendu K; Reddy, Vangimalla R

    2016-06-01

    Despite the development of various methods, the rapid estimation of mesophyll conductance (gm ) for a large number of samples is still a daunting challenge. Although the accurate estimation of gm is critical to partition photosynthetic limitations by stomatal (Ls ) and mesophyll (Lm ) conductance and by photo-biochemical (Lb ) processes, the impact of various gm estimation methods on this is ambiguous. As phosphorus (P) starvation and elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) strongly affect photosynthetic processes, their combined effect on the proportional changes in these limitations are not well understood. To investigate this, while also evaluating distinct recent methods of gm estimation sharing few common theories and assumptions, soybean was grown under a range of P nutrition at ambient and eCO2 . Methods significantly affected gm and carboxylation efficiency (VCmax ) but not other photosynthetic parameters. In all the methods, all photosynthetic parameters responded similarly to treatments. However, the percentage difference between VCmax assuming finite and infinite gm was highly inconsistent among methods. The primary mechanism responsible for P limitation to soybean photosynthesis was not CO2 diffusion limitations but Lb comprised of reduced chlorophyll, photochemistry and biochemical processes. The eCO2 decreased Lb but increased Lm without affecting Ls across leaf P concentration. Although each method explored advances of our understanding about gm variability, they all require assumptions of varying degrees, which lead to the discrepancy in the gm values. Among the methods, the oxygen sensitivity-based gm estimation appeared to be suitable for the quick assessment of a large number of samples or genotypes. Digital tools are provided for the easy estimation of gm for some methods. PMID:26806194

  9. Erythrocyte-mediated delivery of pravastatin: in vitro study of effect of hypotonic lysis on biochemical parameters and loading efficiency.

    PubMed

    Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Ibrahim, Mohamed F; Alanazi, Fars K

    2012-08-01

    Exposure of erythrocytes to hypotonic lysis creates pores in the cell membrane, through which pravastatin can enter and become trapped, after resealing them with a suitable buffer. We investigated the effects of tonicity, incubation time and drug concentration on drug loading into erythrocytes. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of pravastatin on erythrocyte oxidative stress markers and osmotic fragility behavior. Encapsulation was achieved using buffer solutions of different tonicities (0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% NaCl) and different drug concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 10 mg/mL) for a range of incubation times (15, 30, 60 and 120 min). The results demonstrated that controlled hypotonic lysis could entrap pravastatin in human erythrocytes, with acceptable loading parameters. The highest loading (34%) was achieved at 0.6% NaCl and 10 mg/mL pravastatin for 60 min incubation. At this pravastatin concentration, oxidative stress markers were similar to those seen in controls, and fragility and hematological parameters were unaffected in drug-loaded erythrocytes. These results indicate that the loading process and pravastatin concentration had no deleterious effects on the structure of pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes, suggesting that they may therefore have a similar life span to normal cells. Pravastatin-loaded erythrocytes may thus provide an effective extended-release-delivery system for pravastatin. PMID:22941486

  10. Comparative toxicity of physiological and biochemical parameters in Euglena gracilis to short-term exposure to potassium sorbate.

    PubMed

    Engel, Fernanda; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Heyder, Carmen Diamantina Teixeira; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei

    2015-01-01

    Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis; however, it has moderate toxicity to various species including rat, fish, bacteria and human health. The effects of potassium sorbate on the movement and photosynthetic parameters of Euglena gracilis were studied during short-term exposure. Potassium sorbate showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate E. gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), upward movement and alignment, with mean EC50 values of 2867.2 mg L(-1). The concentrations above 625 mg L(-1) of potassium sorbate induce an inhibition of the photosynthetic efficiency and electron transport rate and, in concentrations more than 2500.0 mg L(-1), the Euglena cells undergo a complete inhibition of photosynthesis even at low light irradiation. PMID:25314908

  11. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hager Tarek H.; Mahboub, Heba Hassan H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP). In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates). Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone), respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 µg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Results: Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping exposure to it

  12. The use biochemical and hepatic parameters to predict treatment outcome of dairy cows suffering from displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, R; Ahmed, M M I; Baumgartner, W; Gelfert, C C

    2007-06-01

    In this prospective study the impact of fatty liver and an impaired liver function on the treatment outcome of displacement of the abomasum (DA) was investigated. In a yearlong period, all cows suffering from DA submitted to the clinic were included in this study. All cows were clinically examined before surgery and a serum sample was taken to measure the following parameters: ASAT, bilirubin, urea. Liver biopsy was performed in all cows. Liver fat content was measured gravimetrically and concentrations of triglycerides were measured using a commercial test kit. Reposition of DA was done using the method by Dirksen. A total of 365 cows with DA entered the study, 326 (89.3%) suffered from LDA and 39 (10.7%) from RDA. RDA-cows had significantly (p = 0.002) more days in milk than LDA-cows. RDA-cows had significantly (p < 0.001) higher urea concentrations than LDA-cows. Bilirubin concentrations (p = 0.008) and liver fat content, triglyceride concentrations and the ratio of triglycerides to fat (TRI/FAT) (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in LDA-cows. The majority of LDA-cows showed at least a mild fatty liver. Comparing the cows with successful and failed treatment showed that ASAT-activity (p = 0.021), bilirubin concentration (p = 0.001), triglyceride concentration in liver and TRI/FAT (all p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the unsuccessfully treated cows. In RDA cows, significant differences between successfully and unsuccessfully treated cows were only seen in urea concentration (p = 0.004). ROC-analysis was performed to determine whether any parameter is suitable for a prediction of treatment outcome. In RDA-cows no threshold value was traceable for urea concentration. In LDA cows, TRI/FAT showed the best curve progression. The threshold value of 53.5 % had a sensitivity of 0.720 and a specificity of 0.700. LDA-cows exceeding this threshold had a 2.4 higher risk of an unsuccessful treatment. Due to the good overall treatment success (92.3 %) the positive

  13. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p < 0.01) with effect size of difference (r > 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p < 0.01, r > 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p < 0.01) with large effect size of difference (r > 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  14. Association of Renal Biochemical Parameters with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in a Community-Based Elderly Population in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Hanying; Tang, Bixiao; Fu, Michael; Herlitz, Hans; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Hongmin; Sun, Aijun; Hu, Kai; Ge, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationship of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) with parameters that could provide more information than hemodynamic renal indexes has not been clarified. We aimed to explore the association of comprehensive renal parameters with LVDD in a community-based elderly population. Methods 1,166 community residents (aged ≥ 65 years, 694 females) participating in the Shanghai Heart Health Study with complete data of renal parameters were investigated. Echocardiography was used to evaluate diastolic function with conventional and tissue Doppler imaging techniques. Serum urea, creatinine, urea-to-creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were analyzed on their associations with LVDD. Results The prevalence of LVDD increased in proportion to increasing serum urea, urea-to-creatinine ratio and UACR. These three renal parameters were found negatively correlated to peak early (E) to late (A) diastolic velocities ratio (E/A), and positively to left atrial volume index; UACR also positively correlated with E to peak early (E’) diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio (E/E’). Serum urea, urea-to-creatinine ratio and UACR correlated with LVDD in logistic univariate regression analysis, and urea-to-creatinine ratio remained independently correlated to LVDD [Odds ratio (OR) 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–5.95] after adjustment. Serum urea (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.03–1.34), creatinine (OR 6.53, 95%CI 1.70­–25.02), eGFR (OR 0.22, 95%CI 0.07–0.65) and UACR (OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.42–3.24) were revealed independent correlates of advanced (moderate and severe) LVDD. Conclusions Biochemical parameters of renal function were closely linked with LVDD. This finding described new cardio-renal relationship in the elderly population. PMID:24533126

  15. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  16. Correlating Blood Immune Parameters and a CCT7 Genetic Variant with the Shedding of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the current study, 40 crossbred pigs were intranasally inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and monitored for Salmonella fecal shedding and blood immune parameters at 2, 7, 14 and 20 days post-inoculation (dpi). Using a multivariate permutation test, a positive correlation was...

  17. Influence of different periods of the year and age on the parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in the blood serum of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-06-01

    The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years). Blood samples for biochemical analyses were collected from jugular vein in cold (CP) and warm periods (WP) of the year. Reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) serum concentration were determined, as well as activities of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT). Serum values of SeGSH-Px, MnSOD, UA and TP in OB were significantly higher compared to those in YB during CP of the year. Significantly higher PCC concentration in serum of YB and OB were established in CP of the year than in WP. TBARS serum concentration in YB was significantly higher in comparison to that in OB during CP of the year. It can be concluded that both OB and YB show a great sensitivity to climate condition alterations during CP in comparison to WP of the year and that YB show even greater sensitivity. PMID:27288340

  18. Tomographic gated blood pool studies: The parameters for collection and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, P.W.; King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Because of the acquisition time and data processing load problems associated with the collection and analysis of multiple gated views required to obtain cine tomographic sections, the authors attempted to document the minimum data requirement for a high quality study. An idealized study (64 views over 360/sup 0/, 32 frames per R-R interval) with an ultra high resolution collimator, and a 20% asymmetric energy window was obtained and analyzed using multiple combinations of views, frames per view, and total count. Optimal image quality was maintained while using 16 views over 180/sup 0/ (RAO 45/sup 0/ to LPO 33.75/sup 0/), 16 frames per view, and an acquisition time of 2 minutes per view which with a 25 mCi dose of Tc-99m provided approximately 10/sup 6/ counts per view. These were the parameters utilized in subsequent patient studies. Using several different types of pre and post reconstruction filtering, optimum image quality was obtained with Metz spatial and low-pass temporal domain prefiltering and a ramp reconstruction filter. As an alternative to cine display, functional images of the transverse sections based on pixel by pixel time activity curves were generated. These included ejection fraction, phase, and maximum positive and negative first derivative image sets. The overall processing time for such studies is 20 minutes with the aid of an array processor, with a patient through-put time of 45 minutes. The authors conclude that good quality gated blood pool studies can be acquired in a clinically acceptable time frame. However, there persists a significant problem with data storage, handling and image interpretation.

  19. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  20. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

    PubMed Central

    AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  1. Zearalenone-induced changes in biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac tissue: Protective role of crocin.

    PubMed

    Salem, I Ben; Boussabbeh, M; Neffati, F; Najjar, M F; Abid-Essefi, S; Bacha, H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin from Fusarium species commonly found in food commodities and is known to cause reproductive disorders. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is haematotoxic and hepatotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Meantime, the available information on the cardiotoxic effects of ZEN is very much limited. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of ZEN in heart tissues of Balb/c mice. We demonstrated that ZEN (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.)) increased creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and induced oxidative stress as monitored by measuring the malondialdehyde level, the generation of protein carbonyls, the catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp 70). We also demonstrated that acute administration of ZEN triggers apoptosis in cardiac tissue. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of crocin (CRO), a natural carotenoid, to prevent ZEN-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. In fact, combined treatment of ZEN with different doses of CRO (50, 100, and 250 mg kg(-1) b.w.) showed a significant reduction of ZEN-induced toxicity for all tested markers in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that CRO was effective in the protection against ZEN-induced toxicity in cardiac tissue. PMID:26231423

  2. Body Composition, Hemodynamic and Biochemical Parameters in Young Female Normal-Weight Oligo-amenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibha; de Lourdes Eguiguren, Maria; Eysenbach, Lindsey; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Eddy, Kamryn; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Aims Low-weight hypogonadal conditions such as anorexia nervosa are associated with marked changes in body composition, hemodynamic and hematological parameters, and liver enzymes. The impact of athletic activity in normal-weight adolescents with/without amenorrhea on these parameters has not been assessed. Our aim was to examine these parameters in normal-weight athletes and non-athletes and determine any associations of body composition, oligo-amenorrhea and exercise intensity. Methods We assessed vital signs, complete blood counts, liver enzymes, and regional body composition in 43 oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OAA), 24 eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and 23 non-athletes 14-21 years of age. Results BMI was lower in OAA than EA. Systolic and pulse pressure, and temperature were lowest in OAA. Blood counts did not differ among groups. AST was higher in both groups of athletes, while ALT was higher in OAA than EA and non-athletes. Total and regional fat was lower in OAA than other groups, positively associated with heart rate and inversely with liver enzymes. Conclusions Athletic activity is associated with higher AST, whereas menstrual dysfunction is associated with lower total and regional fat and higher ALT. Higher liver enzymes are associated with reductions in total and regional fat. PMID:25376841

  3. Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes

    PubMed Central

    El-Nour, Hayat H. M.; Nasr, Soad M.; Hassan, Walid R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season. PMID:22629155

  4. EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE. BLOOD LIPIDS AND COAGULATION PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in 50 and 100 ppm doses on response to treadmill exercise, blood coagulation and blood lipids in normal men. Twenty-three men were exposed to CO or to air in a double-blind protocol. After exposure, each underwent a graded ex...

  5. Variations of biochemical parameters along a transect in the Southern Ocean, with special emphasis on volatile halogenated organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, K.; Bertilsson, S.; Chierici, M.; Fransson, A.; Froneman, P. W.; Lorén, A.; Pakhomov, E. A.

    2004-11-01

    A number of parameters of biogeochemical interest were monitored along a north-southerly transect (S 43-S 63°) in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean from the 8th to the 20th of December 1997. Changes in total dissolved inorganic carbon ( CT) and total alkalinity ( AT) were mostly dependent on temperature and salinity until the ice edge was reached. After this point only a weak correlation was seen between these. Highest mean values of CT and AT were observed in the Winter Ice Edge (WIE) (2195 and 2319 μmol kg -1, respectively). Lowest mean AT (2277 μmol kg -1) was observed in the Sub-Antarctic Front (SAF), whereas lowest mean CT concentration (2068 μmol kg -1) was associated with the Sub-Tropical Front (STF). The pH in situ varied between 8.060 and 8.156 where the highest values were observed in the southern part of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) and in the Summer Ice Edge (SIE) Region . These peaks were associated with areas of high chlorophyll a (chl a) and tribromomethane values. In the other areas the pH in situ was mainly dependent on hydrography. Bacterial abundance decreased more than one order of magnitude when going from north to south. The decrease appeared to be strongly related to water temperature and there were no elevated abundances at frontal zones. Microphytoplankton dominated in the SAF and APF, whereas the nano- and picoplankton dominated outside these regions. Volatile halogenated compounds were found to vary both with regions, and with daylight. For the iodinated compounds, the highest concentrations were found north of the STF. Brominated hydrocarbons had high concentrations in the STF, but elevated concentrations were also found in the APF and SIE regions. No obvious correlation could be found between the occurrence of individual halocarbons and chl a. On some occasions trichloroethene and tribromomethane related to the presence of nano- and microplankton, respectively.

  6. Integrated assessment of water quality of the Costa da Morte (Galicia, NW Spain) by means of mussel chemical, biochemical and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz; Albentosa, Marina; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; González, Juan J; Campillo, Juan A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental quality at some of the sites most severely affected by the Prestige oil spill off 2 years after the spillage (April and November 2004). For this purpose analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and several biochemical (antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and DT-diaphorase and lipid peroxidation) and physiological [scope for growth (SFG)] biomarkers were determined on wild mussel populations (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at four points along the Costa da Morte and compared with those of a reference site not affected by the oil spill. Results showed that PAH contents had markedly decreased 17 months after the accident, although they were higher in April than in November, when they showed values similar to background levels reported for this area. Nevertheless, the predominance of chrysene on PAH profiles, similarly to findings obtained immediately after the spill, indicated the Prestige as their main source. In spite of the low PAH levels recorded, antioxidant activity levels (explained through the integrated antioxidant response-IAR) were higher in the Costa da Morte than at the reference site either in April and November. In April IAR seems to be related to PAH levels found 3 months after the accident (February 2003), suggesting the persistence in the environment of oxidative stress-producing components from the spill. However, evidence of oxidative stress was not reflected at physiological level by scope for growth, with only very slight differences being observed between values from the reference site and those from Costa da Morte sites. In conclusion, although 2 years after the spill PAHs bioaccumulated by mussels from the Costa da Morte had decreased to background levels, biochemical parameters showed signals of oxidative stress in mussels from this area. However, SFG reflected a good health status for the mussel populations studied

  7. Alteration of Blood Parameters and Histoarchitecture of Liver and Kidney of Silver Barb after Chronic Exposure to Quinalphos

    PubMed Central

    Mohammod Mostakim, Golam; Zahangir, Md. Mahiuddin; Monir Mishu, Mahbuba; Rahman, Md. Khalilur; Islam, M. Sadiqul

    2015-01-01

    Quinalphos (QP) is commonly used for pest control in the agricultural fields surrounding freshwater reservoirs. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic toxicity of this pesticide on blood parameters and some organs of silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations, 0.47 ppm and 0.94 ppm, of QP for a period of 28 days. All the blood parameters (red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and blood glucose except for white blood cells decreased with increasing concentration of toxicant and become significantly lower (p < 0.05) at higher concentration when compared with control. The derived hematological indices of mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were equally altered compared to control. Histoarchitectural changes of liver and kidney were observed after exposure to the QP. Hypertrophy of hepatocytes, mild to severe necrosis, ruptured central vein, and vacuolation were observed in the liver of treated groups. Highly degenerated kidney tubules and hematopoietic tissue, degeneration of renal corpuscle, vacuolization, and necrosis were evident in the kidney of treated groups. In conclusion, chronic exposure to QP at sublethal concentrations induced hematological and histological alterations in silver barb and offers a simple tool to evaluate toxicity derived alterations. PMID:26635877

  8. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    PubMed

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. PMID:23692154

  9. Evaluation of the relation between anemia and periodontitis by estimation of blood parameters: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Anumolu, Venkata Naga Sri Harsha; Srikanth, Adusumilli; Paidi, Kusumalatha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia of chronic disease is defined as anemia occurring in chronic infections, inflammatory conditions, or neoplastic disorders which are not due to marrow deficiencies or other diseases, and occurring despite the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. Aims: To evaluate the relation between anemia and periodontitis by estimation of blood parameters and to assess whether periodontitis like other inflammatory conditions can lead to anemia. It is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 healthy controls, 50 chronic generalized gingivitis, and 50 chronic generalized periodontitis patients were selected. Hemoglobin levels (Hb), erythrocyte count red blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), mean corpuscular volu e (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC), gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded. Intergroup comparison of blood parameters is by one-way ANOVA. Intergroup pair wise comparison of the three groups is by Newman–Keuls multiple post-hoc procedures. Karl Pearsons's correlation coefficient method is used for correlation between different parameters for three groups. Results: The results revealed a decrease in Hb and erythrocyte counts and increase in white blood corpuscles counts in chronic generalized periodontitis when compared to healthy controls and chronic generalized gingivitis group. There was no statistically significant difference in MCV, MCH, MCHC, and ESR among the groups. Conclusions: The treatment of periodontitis can lead to an improvement in hematocrit and other related blood parameters in chronic generalized periodontitis patients with anemia. This provides evidence that periodontitis like other chronic diseases may also cause anemia. PMID:27563199

  10. Effect of the treatment with Achyrocline satureioides (free and nanocapsules essential oil) and diminazene aceturate on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo, Guilherme M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Rech, Virginia Cielo; Oliveira, Camila B; Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Alves, Marta P; França, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Schwertz, Claiton I; Mendes, Ricardo E; Monteiro, Silvia G; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to verify the effect of the treatment with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanoencapsulated forms) and diminazene aceturate on hematological and biochemical variables in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. The 56 rats were divided into seven groups with eight rats each. Groups A, C and D were composed by uninfected animals, and groups B, E, F and G were formed by infected rats with T. evansi. Rats from groups A and B were used as negative and positive control, respectively. Rats from the groups C and E were treated with A. satureioides essential oil, and groups D and F were treated with A. satureioides nanoencapsulated essential oil. Groups C, D, E and F received one dose of oil (1.5 mL kg(-1)) during five consecutive days orally. Group G was treated with diminazene aceturate (D.A.) in therapeutic dose (3.5 mg kg(-1)) in an only dose. The blood samples were collected on day 5 PI for analyses of hematological (erythrocytes and leukocytes count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and biochemical (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, urea and creatinine) variables. A. satureioides administered was able to maintain low parasitemia, mainly the nanoencapsulated form, on 5 days post infection. On the infected animals with T. evansi treated with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanocapsules) the number of total leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes present was similar to uninfected rats, and different from infected and not-treated animals (leukocytosis). Treatment with A. satureioides in free form elevated levels of ALT and AST, demonstrating liver damage; however, treatment with nanoencapsulated form did not cause elevation of these enzymes. Finally, treatments inhibited the increase in creatinine levels caused by infection for T. evansi. In summary, the nanoencapsulated

  11. Effects of different levels of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed powder and extract on serum biochemical parameters, microbiota, and immunity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  12. Effects of intravenous infusion of glycerol on blood parameters and urinary glycerol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Nishitani, Yasunori; Dohi, Michiko; Kageyama, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    In sports, the oral intake and intravenous administration of glycerol as a potential masking agent have been prohibited. The effect of glycerol on blood parameters was investigated by comparing the intravenous administration of glycerol (20g/200mL) with that of an electrolyte (8g glucose/200mL) as a comparator (n=7, fixed-dose-rate i.v. infusion, 200mL in 1h). This study was also designed to evaluate whether the urinary concentrations reached the positivity threshold after the intravenous infusion of glycerol. Significant decreases of the haemoglobin (HGB, g/dL), haematocrit (HCT, %) and OFF-h Score (OFF-score) values were observed after the infusion of glycerol (P<0.05 at 1-6h). The differences in the HGB, HCT and OFF-score between pre- and post-administration were -0.49±0.23g/dL (2h), -1.54±0.73% (2h) and -3.89±3.66 (2h), respectively. Glycerol infusion significantly increased the plasma volume by 12.1% (1h), 6.3% (2h) and 5.7% (3h) compared with the initial values. The infusion of the comparator also increased the plasma volume by 9.6% (1h), 5.8% (2h) and 4.9% (3h) compared with the values before infusion. There were no significant differences in the change of the plasma volume between the intravenous infusions of glycerol and the glucose-based electrolyte (as the comparator) (P≥0.05). This finding might indicate that glycerol itself only exhibited limited effects on the expansion of plasma. After administration of glycerol, the urinary glycerol concentrations increased from 0.0013±0.0004mg/mL to 6.86±2.86mg/mL at 1h and 6.45±3.08mg/mL at 2h. The intravenous infusion of glycerol can most likely be detected using the current urine analysis; however, the dependence of the concentration of urinary glycerol on the urine volume should be considered. PMID:26986972

  13. Long-term effects of oral tea polyphenols and Lactobacillus brevis M8 on biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes, and cytokines expression in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-li; Li, Zong-jun; Wei, Zhong-shan; Liu, Ting; Zou, Xiao-zuo; Liao, Yong; Luo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term effects of oral tea polyphenols (TPs) and Lactobacillus brevis M8 (LB) on biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes, and cytokines expression in broilers. In experiment 1, 240 broiler chickens were selected to investigate the effects of 0.06 g/kg body weight (BW) TP and 1.0 ml/kg BW LB on broilers; in experiment 2, 180 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to three groups to investigate the effects of different dosages of TP (0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 g/kg BW) combined with 1.0 ml/kg BW LB on broilers; in experiment 3, 180 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to three groups to investigate the effects of different dosages of LB (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ml/kg BW) combined with 0.06 g/kg BW TP on broilers. The results showed that TP and LB affected serum biochemical parameters, and TP reduced serum cholesterol (CHO) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) abundances in a dosage-dependent manner (P<0.05) on Day 84. Meanwhile, broilers fed a diet supplemented with TP or LB had a lower intestinal lipase activity on Day 84 compared with the control group (P<0.05). Middle and high dosages of TP increased pancreatic lipase and proventriculus pepsin activities (P<0.05). Also middle and high dosages of LB significantly enhanced pancreatic lipase activity (P<0.05), while high LB supplementation inhibited intestinal trypsase (P<0.05) on Day 84. Furthermore, both TP and LB reduced intestinal cytokine expression and nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) mRNA level on Days 56 and 84. In conclusion, long-term treatment of TP and LB improved lipid metabolism and digestive enzymes activities, and affected intestinal inflammatory status, which may be associated with the NF-κB signal. PMID:26642185

  14. Misleading biochemical laboratory test results

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Amin A.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845

  15. A lumped-parameter model to investigate the effect of plantar pressure on arterial blood flow in a diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Mahajan, A; Chu, T; Schoen, M

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model for the big-toe region that investigates the effect of plantar pressure on the diameter of the blood vessels, specifically the arteries, in the presence of arterial and/or tissue changes. The model developed in this paper uses a multi-domain energy system approach to develop the lumped-parameter differential equations. Blood flow is modelled as fluidic flow through compliant pipes that have inertia, stiffness, and damping. The tissue material is treated as a soft compliant material that transmits the external force to the blood vessels. Conclusions have been drawn to show the effect of plantar pressure, tissue damage, and their combination on the diameter of the blood vessels. The principles used here can be used to model the entire foot and the model used to investigate the effect of plantar pressure, tissue damage, and arterial changes on different parts of the foot. The work presented here may also have applications in other vascular diseases. PMID:17937206

  16. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity.

    PubMed

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of energy to cows which were similar in body condition score had only minor effects on periparturient immune system function and the metabolism of those cows. PMID:26479393

  17. The effects of UV-B radiation intensity on biochemical parameters and active ingredients in flowers of Qi chrysanthemum and Huai chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiao-Qin; Chu, Jian-Zhou; He, Xue-Li; Si, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The article studied UV-B effects on biochemical parameters and active ingredients in flowers of Qi chrysanthemum and Huai chrysanthemum during the bud stage. The experiment included four UV-B radiation levels (CK, ambient UV-B; T1, T2 and T3 indicated a 5%, 10% and 15% increase in ambient UV-BBE, respectively) to determine the optimal UV-B radiation intensity in regulating active ingredients level in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties. Flower dry weight of two cultivars was not affected by UV-B radiation under experimental conditions reported here. UV-B treatments significantly increased the rate of superoxide radical production, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (except for T1) and malondialdehyde concentration in flowers of Huai chrysanthemum and H2O2 concentration in flowers of Qi chrysanthemum. T2 and T3 treatments induced a significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL) activity, anthocyanins, proline, ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and flavone content in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties, and there were no significant differences in PAL activity, ascorbic acid, flavone and chlorogenic acid content between the two treatments. These results indicated that appropriate UV-B radiation intensity did not result in the decrease in flower yield, and could regulate PAL activity and increase active ingredients content in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties. PMID:25112378

  18. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  19. Non-invasive in situ simultaneous measurement of multi-parameter mechanical properties of red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Huang, Yao-Xiong; Ji, Tao; Tu, Mei; Mao, Xuan; Chen, Wen-Xin; Chen, Guang-Wei

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new dynamic image analyzing technique that will give us the ability to measure the viscoelastic parameters of individual living red blood cells non-invasively, in situ and in real time. With this technique, the bending modulus KC, the shear elasticity mu and their ratio were measured under different temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and osmotic pressures. The results not only show the effects of external conditions on mechanical properties of cell membranes including deformability, flexibility, adhesive ability and plasticity, but also demonstrate that the technique can be used to measure cell membrane parameters continuously under several physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:15944754

  20. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts. PMID:27602221

  1. Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Hemanta; Hazorika, Mousumi; Rajkhowa, Dipjyoti; Datta, Mrinmoy; Haldar, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of indigenous Ghungroo piglets in sub-tropical cold and humid climatic conditions of Tripura, a state of the north eastern hill (NEH) region of India. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 38 indigenous Ghungroo piglets from birth up to 60 days of age. Among the 38 piglets, 19 piglets were provided with supplemental heat ranging between 17.0°C and 21.1°C for the period of the first 30 days and thereafter between 24.1°C and 29.9°C for the next 30 days. The other 19 piglets were exposed to natural environmental minimum temperatures ranging between 7.2°C and 15.0°C during the first 30 days and then between 18.5°C and 25.5°C for the next 30 days. Results: The supplemental heat resulted in 10.6% reduction of piglet mortality from the 2nd till the 7th day of age. These beneficial effects could be related with the lower (p<0.05) plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and cortisol levels and higher (p<0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in heat supplemented group compared to control group. Plasma AP, GPT, glucose, triiodothyronine, and luteinizing hormone concentrations decreased (p<0.05) gradually with the advancement of age in both control and supplemental heat treated piglets. Conclusion: Supplemental heat could be beneficial since it is related to a reduction of piglet mortality during the first week of life under farm management system in the sub-tropical climate of NEH region of India. PMID:27182136

  2. Coupling 1D Navier Stokes equation with autoregulation lumped parameter networks for accurate cerebral blood flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaiyoung; Hu, Xiao; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2014-11-01

    The cerebral circulation is unique in its ability to maintain blood flow to the brain under widely varying physiologic conditions. Incorporating this autoregulatory response is critical to cerebral blood flow modeling, as well as investigations into pathological conditions. We discuss a one-dimensional nonlinear model of blood flow in the cerebral arteries that includes coupling of autoregulatory lumped parameter networks. The model is tested to reproduce a common clinical test to assess autoregulatory function - the carotid artery compression test. The change in the flow velocity at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during carotid compression and release demonstrated strong agreement with published measurements. The model is then used to investigate vasospasm of the MCA, a common clinical concern following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm was modeled by prescribing vessel area reduction in the middle portion of the MCA. Our model showed similar increases in velocity for moderate vasospasms, however, for serious vasospasm (~ 90% area reduction), the blood flow velocity demonstrated decrease due to blood flow rerouting. This demonstrates a potentially important phenomenon, which otherwise would lead to false-negative decisions on clinical vasospasm if not properly anticipated.

  3. Immunological, ionic and biochemical responses in blood serum of the marine fish Trachinotus ovatus to poly-infection by Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Dan, Xueming; Li, Anxing

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the response of pompano fish (Trachinotus ovatus) to white spot disease, we used the protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans to infect live 450-g specimens at concentrations of 40,000 theronts/fish. We assessed the relative infection intensity (RII), serum immobilizing titer, and immunity-related enzyme activities (ACP, AKP, LZM), and assessed feeding, serum ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and K(+)) and blood biochemistry (ALT, AST, LDH) of pompano. The fish were then treated with a lethal dose of C. irritans (70,000 theronts/fish) and the number of deaths was recorded. We found that the relative infection intensities of the control group, group I, and group II were 0, 0.630 ± 0.179, and 0.014 ± 0.006. Poly-infection induced a significant increase in the serum immobilizing titer (853.33 ± 295.60) of group II. In terms of the biochemical assessment, group II had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities than the other groups, and the lowest lysozyme activity (P < 0.05), compared to higher activity in the control group and the highest level in group I. Only the fishes of group I had stopped feeding after treatment. The concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and Ca(2+) in blood serum did not differ significantly among the three groups, but K(+) concentration increased with the increasing infection frequency. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities in fish of group II were significantly higher than those of the other groups. Survival of the fish subjected to the lethal dose of C. irritans was 0, 0, and 100 in groups control, I, and II, respectively. In conclusions, based on the food intake of group II, along with the results of relative infection intensity, serum immobilizing titer, and survival, we speculate that the fish in that group acquired high protective immunity following poly-infection by C. irritans, experiencing limited harm for pompano. PMID

  4. EFFECTS OF HEMORRHAGIC STRESS ON SEVERAL BLOOD PARAMETERS IN ADULT RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood was removed from ten adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on a sequential (7 days) weekly (4 weeks) and monthly (1 month) schedule and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein, acid phosphatase (AP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Of the parame...

  5. Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity Oxidative Stress and Blood Lipoprotein Parameters in Volleyball Players and Sedentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokhan, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to measure, then compare sedentary blood lipoproteins, oxidant- antioxidant state and oxidative stress index in volleyball players. The experimental group of the research consists of regularly practising 20 boys between the ages of 12 and 17, and the control group comprises 32 children practising no particular sports branch, 12 of…

  6. Effects of niacin on milk production and blood parameters in early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Behnam; Vahdani, Narges; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the effects of niacin supplementation in the diet of high producing cows at early lactation, 21 holstein dairy cows were used in this experiment. Animal were assigned in to three groups based on their milk yield and calving date soon after parturition. They were received a basal diet and 0 (group 1), 6 (group 2), 12 (group 3) g of supplementation niacin per day over a 10 weeks experimental period. Milk volume was recorded and milk samples were collected for each cow at two weeks interval for analysis of fat, protein, lactose and SNF (Solid-None Fat). Blood samples were also taken for the measurement of glucose, triglyceride, Beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein at two weeks intervals. No significant difference were observed between milk yield, milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF content in cows received niacin compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Plasma glucose in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control were higher and this difference were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides were not significantly affected by niacin supplementation. BHBA were lower in cows received niacin and this difference were significant (p < 0.05). The trend of changes in the amount of blood total protein were identical in all three groups whole the level of this factor was always higher in control group compared to the others groups. Niacin has showed an increase in the level of plasma glucose and a notable decrease in the amount of blood triglyceride, beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein, which may be due to the effect of this vitamin on the energy metabolism in cows. PMID:18819645

  7. Dried blood spots and sparse sampling: a practical approach to estimating pharmacokinetic parameters of caffeine in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Parul; Mulla, Hussain; Kairamkonda, Venkatesh; Spooner, Neil; Gade, Sonya; Della Pasqua, Oscar; Field, David J.; Pandya, Hitesh C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Dried blood spots (DBS) alongside micro‐analytical techniques are a potential solution to the challenges of performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in children. However, DBS methods have received little formal evaluation in clinical settings relevant to children. The aim of the present study was to determine a PK model for caffeine using a ‘DBS/microvolume platform’ in preterm infants. Methods DBS samples were collected prospectively from premature babies receiving caffeine for treatment of apnoea of prematurity. A non‐linear mixed effects approach was used to develop a population PK model from measured DBS caffeine concentrations. Caffeine PK parameter estimates based on DBS data were then compared with plasma estimates for agreement. Results Three hundred and thirty‐eight DBS cards for caffeine measurement were collected from 67 preterm infants (birth weight 0.6–2.11 kg). 88% of cards obtained were of acceptable quality and no child had more than 10 DBS samples or more than 0.5 ml of blood taken over the study period. There was good agreement between PK parameters estimated using caffeine concentrations from DBS samples (CL = 7.3 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 593 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 57 h) and historical caffeine PK parameter estimates based on plasma samples (CL = 4.9–7.9 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 640–970 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 101–144 h). We also found that changes in blood haematocrit may significantly confound estimates of caffeine PK parameters based on DBS data. Conclusions This study demonstrates that DBS methods can be applied to PK studies in a vulnerable population group and are a practical alternative to wet matrix sampling techniques. PMID:22822712

  8. Evaluation of Blood Pressure Control using a New Arterial Stiffness Parameter, Cardio-ankle Vascular Index (CAVI)

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Kohji; Utino, Junji; Saiki, Atsuhito; Endo, Kei; Ohira, Masahiro; Nagayama, Daiji; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mao; Takahara, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness has been known to be a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also of vascular function. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) had been the most popular index and was known to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. But, it depends on blood pressure at measuring time. To overcome this problem, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed. CAVI is derived from stiffness parameter β by Hayashi, and the equation of Bramwell-Hill, and is independent from blood pressure at a measuring time. Then, CAVI might reflect the proper change of arterial wall by antihypertensive agents. CAVI shows high value with aging and in many arteriosclerotic diseases and is also high in persons with main coronary risk factors. Furthermore, CAVI is decreased by an administration of α1 blocker, doxazosin for 2-4 hours, Those results suggested that CAVI reflected the arterial stiffness composed of organic components and of smooth muscle cell contracture. Angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan decreased CAVI much more than that of calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, even though the rates of decreased blood pressure were almost same. CAVI might differentiate the blood pressure-lowering agents from the point of the effects on proper arterial stiffness. This paper reviewed the principle and rationale of CAVI, and the possibilities of clinical applications, especially in the studies of hypertension. PMID:23807874

  9. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and/or zinc chloride on biochemical parameters and mineral levels in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Amara, S; Slama, I Ben; Mrad, I; Rihane, N; Khemissi, W; El Mir, L; Rhouma, K Ben; Abdelmelek, H; Sakly, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential subacute toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in Wistar rats in comparison with reference toxicant, zinc chloride (ZnCl2), of a non-nanoparticulate form. We therefore studied the relationships between zinc (Zn) accumulation, liver and kidney trace element levels, and plasmatic biochemical parameters. Rats in all groups were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs and/or ZnCl2 solution (25 mg/kg) every other day for 10 days. The contents of trace element in the liver and kidney were slightly modulated after ZnO NPs and/or ZnCl2 solution exposure. The same treatment increased the aspartate aminotransferase activity and uric acid concentration. However, ZnO NPs or ZnCl2 solution decreased the creatinine levels, whereas the combined intake of ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 decreased the glucose concentration. Interestingly, the analysis of the lyophilized powder of liver using the x-ray diffractometer showed the degradation of ZnO NPs in ZnO-treated group, instead there is a lack of NPs ZnO biosynthesis from the ZnCl2 solution injected in rats. These investigations suggest that combined injection of ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 solution has a possible toxic effect in rats. This effect could be related to Zn(2+) ion release and accumulation of this element in organs. Our findings provide crucial information that ZnO appeared to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form. PMID:24501101

  10. Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban.

    PubMed

    Kamel, E G; El-Emam, M A; Mahmoud, S S M; Fouda, F M; Bayaumy, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to detect the antischistosomal properties of the plants' Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban methanol extract against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice, including determination of total protein and albumin levels and the activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases (AlT, AsT) and acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AkP) enzymes in the serum of infected treated mice. Male Swiss albino mice were infected with S. mansoni and orally treated with methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg/day), C. dioscorides and S. sesban (1000 mg/kg/day from each) for 2 consecutive days 7 weeks post infection (PI). In addition, treatment of mice with the tested dose of each plant extract was successively done (i.e. the 1st extract followed by the 2nd and 3rd one with an hour interval). Parasitological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Nine weeks PI, the reduction rates of worm load/mouse treated with either C. dioscorides (1000 mg/kg), C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg) or S. sesban (1000 mg/kg) were 40.9%, 53.7% and 54.4%, respectively. Successive treatment raised the reduction rates of worm load/mouse to 66.3% and the ova/g tissue in liver to 76.9%. Moreover, serum total protein and albumin levels and activities of AlT, Ast, AcP and AkP enzymes of infected treated mice were improved in comparison with those of infected untreated ones. It is concluded that administration of C. dioscorides, C. ambrosioides and S. sesban methanol extract to infected mice exhibited a moderate antischistosomal effect. Successive treatment improved the antischistosomal properties of these plant species, hence ameliorated the liver functions of treated mice that may suggest degenerations of liver granulomas and regenerative changes. PMID:21740980

  11. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change. PMID:26909467

  12. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    PubMed Central

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  13. Effects of supplementing rare earth element cerium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, S X; Wei, C; Zhao, G Y; Zhang, T T; Yang, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing rare earth element (REE) cerium (Ce) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4 ) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged at 14 months, with initial liveweight of 355 ± 8 kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannulas, were used as experimental animals. The cattle were fed with a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of concentrate mixture and corn silage. Four levels of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ·7H2 O, purity 99.9%), that is 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg CeCl3 /kg DM, were added to basal ration in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pre-treatment and the last 3 days were for sampling. The results showed that supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM increased neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (p < 0.05) and tended to increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility (p = 0.083). Supplementing CeCl3 at 80, 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate linearly (p < 0.05). Supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased total N excretion, urinary N excretion and increased N retention (p < 0.05), increased excretion of total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p < 0.05) and decreased CH4 /kg DMI (p < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM in the ration of beef cattle increased the digestibility of NDF, decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate, increased N retention and microbial N flow and decreased CH4 /kg DMI. PMID:25787979

  14. Role of sudarshan kriya and pranayam on lipid profile and blood cell parameters during exam stress: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Swapna; Elango, Tamilselvi; Malligarjunan, Hemamalini; Kochupillai, Vinod; Dayalan, Haripriya

    2012-01-01

    Background: Yoga is a science practiced in India over thousands of years. It produces constituent physiological changes and has sound scientific basis. Aim: Since exam stress modifies lipid profile and hematological parameters, we conducted an investigation on the effect of sudarshan kriya (SK and P) program on these parameters. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 43 engineering students were collected at four intervals namely baseline (BL), exam stress (ES), three and six weeks practice of SK and P during exam stress. Lipid profile and hematological parameters were measured at all four intervals. Results: ES elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Hematological parameters affected by ES included neutrophil, lymphocytes, platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV) and mean cell volume (MCV). Three and six weeks practice of SK and P reduced the elevated lipid profile, hematological parameters and improved lymphocyte levels. Conclusion: Our study indicates that SK and P practice has the potential to overcome ES by improving lipid profile and hematological parameters. PMID:22346062

  15. Hematological parameters in Polish mixed breed rabbits with addition of meat breed blood in the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we studied haematologic values, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, thrombocytes, leucocytes: lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes in the pheral blood in Polish mixed-breeds with addition of meat breed blood in order to obtain the reference values which are until now not available for this animals. In studying this indices we took into consideration the impact of the season (spring, summer, autumn, winter), and sex of the animals. The studies have shown a high impact of the season of the year on those rabbits, but only in spring and summer. Moreover we observed that the sex has mean impact on the studied values of haematological parameters in those rabbits. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper on haematologic values in this widely used group of rabbits, so they may serve as reference values. PMID:26812808

  16. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  17. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1

  18. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus). PMID:20806654

  19. Diagnosis and follow-up of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: role of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and biochemical parameters in patients with renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Fofi, Claudia; Prosperi, Daniela; Pettorini, Laura; Festuccia, Francescaromana; Pirisino, Riccardo; Lanni, Valerio; Scopinaro, Francesco; Punzo, Giorgio; Menè, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is a rare disease characterized by fibro-inflammatory reaction surrounding ureters and other inner organs with possible secondary renal involvement. Symptoms are aspecific and recurrent phases of activity are generally associated with elevation of inflammatory indices. 18F-FDG-PET is nowadays an important tool for the detection of this disease, allowing differentiation between metabolically active tissue and fibrotic one. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of 18F-FDG-PET in the management of IRF and to evaluate possible correlations between biochemical parameters and PET/CT findings of disease activity. We enrolled seven consecutive patients with IRF (in five histology proved the disease) observed from 2003 to 2012 (5 M:2 F, mean age 53.8 years, range 44-86 years). All patients presented with fever as first symptom; two had obstructive renal failure requiring hemodialysis; one underwent monolateral nephrectomy for parenchyma infiltration; six presented ureteral involvement; three underwent ureteral stent placement. For each patient, during a mean total follow-up of 26.5 months we evaluated serum creatinine, BUN, Hb, RBCs, WBCs, PLT, CRP, ESR. Periodic 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans (every 5.9 months-mean) were performed in all patients. Statistical evaluation was performed using "stepwise regression" analysis. Steroids and immunosuppressive agents induced a progressive normalization of PET/CT scans in all patients at the end of follow-up. Stepwise regression analysis showed that BUN, serum creatinine and CRP only if considered together, significantly correlated with SUV max (p value = 0.000003057). 18F-FDG-PET is a useful tool for clinical decision making in patient with IRF, allowing to evaluate the efficacy of the pharmacological treatment and to detect early recurrences, to modify the therapeutic approach. Acute phase reactants are not reliable alone for the management and the follow-up as they are often

  20. Dopamine-β-Hydroxylase Activity and Levels of Its Cofactors and Other Biochemical Parameters in the Serum of Arsenicosis Patients of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Khalilur; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Arif, M.; Morshed, M. Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) is a neurotransmitter (catecholamine)-mediating enzyme, which catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine. The levels of DBH activity, its coenzyme (ascorbic acid) and cofactor (Cu++) and other biochemical parameters were measured in the serum of 32 arsenicosis patients of Bangladesh at three different age groups, namely, group 1 (10–18 years, 9 patients), group 2 (19–40 years, 14 patients) and group 3 (41–70 years, 9 patients) of the locality of Stadium Para of Meherpur district of Bangladesh. The values were compared with the same number of age-matched normal healthy individuals of the respective group. DBH activity was markedly decreased in the patients of group 1 as compared to that of the normal healthy people. The activities of DBH were decreased to lesser extents for the other two age groups. The total protein contents in the serum of arsenicosis patients were also significantly low as compared to that in the age-matched control groups. The levels of ascorbic acid and copper were found to be decreased in the serum of arsenicosis patients. The serum glucose levels were elevated in arsenicosis patients, as compared to that of the respective healthy controls. Other parameters, such as zinc and vitamin A levels were also decreased in the serum of arsenicosis patients. It was evident from the results of drinking of the arsenic contaminated water of shallow tube wells that the levels of DBH activity decreased significantly as compared to the control healthy persons. The levels of proteins, ascorbic acid, copper, zinc and vitamin A were decreased in the serum of people drinking the arsenic contaminated tube wells water as compared to that in the control healthy people with the exception that the levels of glucose were elevated in the serum of these patients. The pathophysiological significance of the results could be correlated with the decreased in proteins and that in DBH activities as DBH deficiency is

  1. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. PMID:25592965

  2. Blood Coagulation Parameters and Platelet Indices: Changes in Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies and Predictive Values for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Zou, Jiaqun; Yang, Zhiling; Han, Jian; Huang, Wei; Yu, Lili; Zheng, Yingru; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE. Objectives We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE. Methods Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79), mild preeclampsia (mPE) (n = 53) and severe preeclampsia (sPE) (n = 42), were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis. Results During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV) increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05). However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD) during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743) and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671) and ideal predictive efficiency. Conclusion Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring

  3. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  4. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P < 0.05). T5 has also significantly lower level of triglyceride than the control (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of dried orange residues improved some performance (e.g. feed intake and body weight gain), decreased liver and abdominal fat and also serum triglyceride level in broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  5. Reconstruction of the blood flow pattern by tomography of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter: Computer simulation and physical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. A.; Evtukhov, S. N.; Rumyantseva, O. D.

    2008-09-01

    A method is proposed for reconstructing the distribution of the total blood flow velocity vector from the data obtained within the nonlinear parameter tomography scheme. The method calculates the Doppler shift of the combination frequency with the use of the spectral analysis of the combination signal and the moving target selection procedure. Results of numerical simulations are presented, and possibilities of practical application of the method are discussed. A physical experiment is carried out. The results of this experiment are found to be in good agreement with the theory and the numerical model.

  6. Towards noninvasive method for the detection of pathological tissue variations by mapping different blood parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Omar; Qananwah, Qasem; Abo Alam, Kawther; Bolz, Armin

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an early detection method for probing pathological tissue variations. The method could be used for classifying various tissue alteration namely tumors tissue or skin disorders. The used approach is based on light scattering and absorption spectroscopy. Spectral content of the scattered light provides diagnostic information about the tissue contents. The importance of this method is using a safe light that has less power than the used in the imaging methods that will enable the frequent examination of tissue, while the exiting modalities have drawbacks like ionization, high cost, time-consuming, and agents' usage. A modality for mapping the oxygen saturation distribution in tissues noninvasively is new in this area of research, since this study focuses on the oxygen molecule in the tissue which supposed to be homogenously distributed through the tissues. Cancers may cause greater vascularization and greater oxygen consumption than in normal tissue. Therefore, oxygen existence and homogeneity will be alternated depending on the tissue state. In the proposed system, the signal was extracted after illuminating the tissue by light emitting diodes (LED's) that emits light in two wavelengths, red (660 nm) and infrared (880 nm). The absorption in these wavelengths is mainly due to oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) while other blood and tissue contents nearly have low effect on the signal. The backscattered signal which is received by a photodiodes array (128 PDs) was measured and processed using LabVIEW. Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals have been measured at different locations. These signals will be used to differentiate between the normal and the pathological tissues. Variations in hemoglobin concentration and blood perfusion will also be used as an important indication feature for this purpose.

  7. Biochemical profile of gin women laborers in Tirupur

    PubMed Central

    Jannet, J. V.; Jeyanthi, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Ginning factories discharge large amounts of cotton dusts that lead to decreased pulmonary function in the exposed subjects. An attempt was made to study the biochemical profile of women laborers employed in ginning factory located in Tirupur, a textile based city in Coimbatore district of Tamilnadu, India. The blood parameters that were analyzed were hemoglobin, total and differential count of leucocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total proteins, immunoglobulins, total and isozymic content of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and histamine. Student's ‘t’ test was carried out to compare the results with the control women. Correlation analysis was done between/within the biochemical parameters and also between the pulmonary function parameters results reported earlier by Jannet and Jeyanthi. Significant changes in the levels of hemoglobin, ESR, immunoglobins and histamine were reported in this study. Correlation studies between the pulmonary function parameters and biochemical parameters revealed significant negative correlation of FVC, FEV1 and PEF with ESR (P <0.05). There was also positive correlation between immunoglobin G and histamine. A significant negative correlation was observed between LDH1 and LDH3 and between albumin and γ globulin. The study suggested that the ginning factory women laborers exhibited significant changes in the levels of certain biochemical parameters apart from the pulmonary functional changes. PMID:21938218

  8. Effects of centrophenoxine on body composition and some biochemical parameters of demented elderly people as revealed in a double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fülöp, T; Wórum, I; Csongor, J; Leövey, A; Szabó, T; Pék, G; Zs -Nagy, I

    1990-01-01

    A double-blind clinical trial was performed on 50 persons (25 men, 25 women, average age 77 years) suffering from dementias of medium level (DSM III, Category 1, ICD No. 299). All subjects were residents in an old age home. The patients were treated first for 2 weeks by placebo tablets. During this period, body composition parameters were determined and these data served as controls. This was then followed by an 8-week-long treatment with the nootropic drug, centrophenoxine (CPH), 2 g/day distributed in 2x2 tablets of Helfergin(500) (Promonta, Hamburg, F.R.G.), or placebo tablets of identical size. After 8 weeks the laboratory tests were repeated again. The randomization code for verum or placebo treatment was revealed only after completing the trial. Four dropouts occurred during the treatment period. The total body water, extracellular water volume and exchangable Na(+) were determined by means of radioisotope methods. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by indocyanine-green dilution test. Body weights were also recorded. From the above data further parameters could be calculated. Serum lipid data as well as several hormone levels were also checked in the blood samples. The main results were better performance in psychometric tests (Pék et al., 1989) and a significant increase of the average intracellular water content (2.2-2.5% by weight) in the verum-treated group. The rehydration of the intracellular mass due to CPH treatment is consistent with the OH(*.) free radical scavenger properties of CPH and the predictions of the membrane hypothesis of aging. PMID:15374499

  9. Deoxynivalenol in chicken feed alters the vaccinal immune response and clinical biochemical serum parameters but not the intestinal and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Zebeli, Q; Böhm, J

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) feeding either alone or in combination with a microbial feed additive (MFA) on the immune response to a viral vaccine and serum clinical chemical parameters. Forty 1-day-old boiler chicks were weighed and randomly divided into four groups, 10 birds in each group: (i) control group fed with basal diet; (ii) DON group fed with basal diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; (iii) DON + MFA group fed with basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed; and (iv) MFA group fed with basal diet supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed. At 35 days of age, birds were slaughtered and blood was collected for investigating the antibody titre against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and clinical chemical parameters. The results showed that DON reduced (p = 0.032) the titre against IBV, decreased (p = 0.005) the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) (4.2 ± 0.5 U/l) compared with control birds (6.4 ± 0.5 U/l), increased (p = 0.002) the serum cholesterol concentration (144 ± 6 mg/dl) compared with their control counterparts (123 ± 5 mg/dl) and increased (p = 0.074) the amount of circulating triglycerides (62.25 ± 7.50 mg/dl) compared with controls (39.55 ± 4.74). These results indicate that dietary DON altered the humoral immune response to viral vaccine and affected the serum clinical biochemistry. However, DON in combination with MFA did not affect serum IBV titre. Taken together, DON in the feed of broilers produced an impairment of the success of IBV vaccine and affected the health of birds. PMID:25900321

  10. Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers.

    PubMed

    Pourakbari, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Asadpour, Leila; Martínez, Andrés

    2016-05-31

    Probiotic effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers were studied. Two hundred one-day-old male chickens were allocated to one of five treatments (four replicates of 10 birds per treatment): control, and the same control diet supplemented with 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.015% and 0.02% probiotics. Probiotics in feed at 0.01% or higher levels of supplementation improved body weight gain (+12%) and feed conversion rate (-5%) compared with the control. There were no effects on carcass traits, but the relative weights of drumsticks and wings showed increasing and decreasing linear responses, respectively, to probiotic supplementation level. Blood plasma glucose and albumin contents linearly increased (from 167.1 to 200.5 mg dl-1, and from 1.70 to 3.25 g dl-1) with increasing probiotic supplementation. Triglycerides and cholesterol contents were lower in probiotic supplemented treatments (average contents 71.3 and 125.3 mg dl-1 vs. 92.6 and 149.9 mg dl-1 in the control). Probiotics decreased cecal Escherichia coli counts, but had no effects on immunity related organs or immune response. The linear trends, either positive or negative, observed in many of the parameters studied, suggest that more studies are needed to establish the optimal concentration of probiotics in broiler feed. PMID:27254451

  11. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Clinically, adult with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not been reported previously. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults people with ID can be influenced positively from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program, the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre-to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19089748

  12. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, adults with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not previously been reported. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults with ID can be positively influenced from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19479628

  13. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST INHALATION BY HUMAN SUBJECTS WHILE AT REST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the effect of sulfuric acid aerosol exposure for 2 consecutive days on seven human biochemical blood parameters. A total of 20 human subjects were exposed to 100 micrograms per cu. m. sulfuric acid aerosol for 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. A total of 17 hum...

  14. Phthalate levels in cord blood are associated with preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujing; Li, Junnan; Garcia, Jose M; Lin, Hui; Wang, Yanzhou; Yan, Ping; Wang, Lingqiao; Tan, Yao; Luo, Jiaohua; Qiu, Zhiqun; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    Data concerning the effects of phthalate exposure on preterm delivery and fetal growth are limited in humans. In this paper, we assessed the relationship between 15 phthalate levels in cord blood and preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in 207 Chinese women going into labor. Exposure to phthalates except DCHP was associated with gestational age reduction and preterm delivery (p<0.05). There were associations between phthalates and fetal growth parameters, many of which disappeared when analyses were adjusted for gestational age, especially in male infants (Only DEEP was associated with birth weight; DEP, DNHP, BBP, DNP with abdominal circumference; DEP, DBP, DCHP, DEHP with femur length in female infants. And DPP, DBEP was associated with birth length in male infants. p<0.05). This study indicates that prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with younger gestational age and preterm delivery. Also, phthalate exposure may adversely affect fetal growth parameters via gestational age reduction and preterm delivery with a significant gender effect. PMID:24503621

  15. Laser Doppler monitoring of alterations of blood-flow parameters in fish embryos in response to light irradiation: study of long-term and short-term reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Natalia B.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Revutsky, Pavel V.; Levenko, Borislav A.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper new experimental results on monitoring of alterations of blood flow parameters in growing fish embryos under laser and non-laser light irradiation are discussed. The measurements were performed by means of laser Doppler technique with high temporal and spatial resolution. Two parameters of blood flows were mostly measured: average velocity and frequency of velocity pulsations. These parameters were shown to be an adequate characteristics of nonstationary blood flows in fishes. The problem of noninvasivity of such experiments is discussed. For this purpose absorption spectra of fish embryos were measured. The quantitative response of blood flows to irradiation at different light wavelengths was recorded. Different species of fishes were used to compare the responses. Different effects were recorded which depend upon the doze and the wavelength of irradiation, and upon the stage of the embryo development at which the irradiation had taken place. Among those effects long-term and short-term reactions can be distinguished.

  16. [Monitoring of blood parameters under course-modified MS therapy : Substance-specific relevance and current recommendations for action].

    PubMed

    Klotz, L; Berthele, A; Brück, W; Chan, A; Flachenecker, P; Gold, R; Haghikia, A; Hellwig, K; Hemmer, B; Hohlfeld, R; Korn, T; Kümpfel, T; Lang, M; Limmroth, V; Linker, R A; Meier, U; Meuth, S G; Paul, F; Salmen, A; Stangel, M; Tackenberg, B; Tumani, H; Warnke, C; Weber, M S; Ziemssen, T; Zipp, F; Wiendl, H

    2016-06-01

    With the approval of various substances for the immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment possibilities have improved significantly over the last few years. Indeed, the choice of individually tailored preparations and treatment monitoring for the treating doctor is becoming increasingly more complex. This is particularly applicable for monitoring for a treatment-induced compromise of the immune system. The following article by members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Skills Network (KKNMS) and the task force "Provision Structures and Therapeutics" summarizes the practical recommendations for approved immunotherapy for mild to moderate and for (highly) active courses of MS. The focus is on elucidating the substance-specific relevance of particular laboratory parameters with regard to the mechanism of action and the side effects profile. To enable appropriate action to be taken in clinical practice, any blood work changes that can be expected, in addition to any undesirable laboratory findings and their causes and relevance, should be elucidated. PMID:26927677

  17. The effect of low-sodium dialysate on ambulatory blood pressure measurement parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Tosu, Aydin Rodi; Asker, Muntecep; Yaman, Mehmet; Babat, Naci; Soyoral, Yasemin; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Gur, Ali Kemal; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease is related to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorder among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-sodium dialysate on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels detected by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) in patients undergoing sustained HD treatment. Patients and methods The study included 46 patients who had creatinine clearance levels less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 and had been on chronic HD treatment for at least 1 year. After the enrollment stage, the patients were allocated low-sodium dialysate or standard sodium dialysate for 6 months via computer-generated randomization. Results Twenty-four hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP were significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group (P<0.05). No significant reduction was observed in both groups in terms of 24-hour DBP and daytime DBP (P=NS). No difference was found in the standard sodium dialysate group in terms of ABPM. Furthermore, IDWG was found to be significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group after 6 months (P<0.001). Conclusion The study revealed that low-sodium dialysate leads to a decrease in ABPM parameters including 24-hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP and it also reduces the number of antihypertensive drugs used and IDWG. PMID:26715849

  18. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  19. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  20. Mercury and selenium in blood and epidermis of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, FL: interaction and relevance to life history and hematologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Woshner, Victoria; Knott, Katrina; Wells, Randall; Willetto, Carla; Swor, Rhonda; O'Hara, Todd

    2008-09-01

    Blood and epidermal biopsies from free-ranging Tursiops truncatus captured and released during either summer or winter health assessments in Sarasota Bay, FL, were evaluated for concentrations of mercury, selenium, stable isotopes (d(13)C and d(15)N), and blood glutathione peroxidase activity in conjunction with routine hematology and serum chemistry panels. Major objectives were to: 1) quantify and describe relationships among mercury, selenium, glutathione peroxidase, and stable isotopes of C and N in blood and epidermis; 2) elucidate major parameters that influence blood mercury and glutathione peroxidase activity; 3) relate measures of tissue mercury, selenium, and glutathione peroxidase to specific ecological, hematological, morphological, or life history parameters, including season, sex, age, and trophic level. Mercury in both tissues examined is almost exclusively methylmercury. Epidermal concentrations of mercury and selenium reflect their respective amounts in blood, albeit at several times blood concentrations of mercury. The strong association between blood mercury and serum selenium, in conjunction with a lack of significant correlation between blood mercury and glutathione peroxidase, implies that a substantial proportion of blood mercury is affiliated with another selenium-containing moiety or is related to recent dietary intakes (e.g., trophic level, intensive fish consumption). Circulating blood mercury may be described in terms of serum selenium concentration, along with interaction terms among serum selenium, blood d(15)N, and age. Current selenium concentrations in Sarasota Bay dolphins appear adequate for maintenance of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. However, dolphins evidently are subject to seasonal exacerbation of oxidative stress, which might render them more vulnerable to toxic effects of mercury. PMID:19165553

  1. Blood parameters in fattening pigs fed whole-ear corn silage and housed in group pens or in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Petrera, F; Dal Prà, A; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of whole-ear corn silage (WECS) in diets for advanced fattening heavy pigs (substitution for part of the dry corn and wheat bran) allocated or not in metabolic cages on the main blood parameters. The high-moisture shelled corn is largely used in pig feeding while WECS is less often used despite the fact that it increases the DM crop yield. Three experimental diets were fed to 27 barrows (Italian Large White × Italian Duroc), with an average BW of 98.2 (±5.6) kg at the start of the trial, and randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups including a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals (corn, barley, and wheat, 80.2% DM in total), soybean meal (9% DM), wheat bran (8% DM), minerals and supplements (2.8% DM), and 2 diets containing WECS (15 or 30% DM referred to as 15WECS and 30WECS, respectively) in partial or complete substitution for wheat bran and corn meal. The pigs were randomly housed in 9 pens with 3 animals per pen and 3 pens per dietary treatment. Six pigs per each of the 3 treatments were moved from the pens to individual metabolic cages for 3 consecutive periods (2 pigs per treatment per period). Each period lasted 14 d, and blood was collected at the start and at the end of the periods. Blood was drawn from the jugular vein before feed distribution in the morning, at 14 d intervals, and analyzed for hematological, metabolic, and serum protein profiles. The effect of the metabolic cage housing was included in the statistical model to compare the results obtained in the 2 different environments of restrained and group-housed barrows. The WECS affected the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The main diet effect on plasma metabolites was recorded for plasma NEFA, with higher values in WECS diets compared with the CON. The metabolic cage housing affected both hematological (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) and metabolic (protein and

  2. Meat quality, oxidative stability and blood parameters from Graylag geese offered alternative fiber sources in growing period.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary fiber sources on the meat quality, oxidative stability, and blood parameters of growing Graylag geese (28-112d) were investigated. The birds were randomly allocated into 4 treatments, of which dietary fiber was mainly from corn straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS). No influence (P>0.05) on the basic chemical components, oxidative stability, or organoleptic traits of muscle were observed, except that birds fed SECS had a higher (P<0.05) protein proportion than those fed CSS or SERS, and CSS increased (P<0.01) the cholesterol content when compared to SEWS or SERS. Regarding fatty acid profile in meat, CSS and SECS increased (P<0.01) the proportion of C18:2n6t and decreased that of C21:0 and C22:0 when compared to the others. The birds fed SERS had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of C20:0 and C22:0 than the others, a higher proportion of C20:5n3, n-3 fatty acids, Δ-9 desaturase (18) index compared to those fed CSS or SECS, and a lower (P<0.01) proportion of C20:1n9 than those fed SECS or SEWS. Additionally, SEWS resulted in a higher (P<0.01) proportion of C20:2 when compared to the others. In conclusion, these fibers affect just the protein proportion, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of breast muscle, along with the concentration of TG and MDA in blood, but not the other characteristics. No superior fiber source exists with respect to meat quality, suggesting that Graylag geese feeding should make the most economically of the convenient fiber source with appropriate pretreatment. PMID:25717090

  3. A review of methods for the signal quality assessment to improve reliability of heart rate and blood pressures derived parameters.

    PubMed

    Gambarotta, Nicolò; Aletti, Federico; Baselli, Giuseppe; Ferrario, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The assessment of signal quality has been a research topic since the late 1970s, as it is mainly related to the problem of false alarms in bedside monitors in the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence of which can be as high as 90 %, leading to alarm fatigue and a drop in the overall level of nurses and clinicians attention. The development of efficient algorithms for the quality control of long diagnostic electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings, both single- and multi-lead, and of the arterial blood pressure (ABP) signal is therefore essential for the enhancement of care quality. The ECG signal is often corrupted by noise, which can be within the frequency band of interest and can manifest similar morphologies as the ECG itself. Similarly to ECG, also the ABP signal is often corrupted by non-Gaussian, nonlinear and non-stationary noise and artifacts, especially in ICU recordings. Moreover, the reliability of several important parameters derived from ABP such as systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure is strongly affected by the quality of the ABP waveform. In this work, several up-to-date algorithms for the quality scoring of a single- or multi-lead ECG recording, based on time-domain approaches, frequency-domain approaches or a combination of the two will be reviewed, as well as methods for the quality assessment of ABP. Additionally, algorithms exploiting the relationship between ECG and pulsatile signals, such as ABP and photoplethysmographic recordings, for the reduction in the false alarm rate will be presented. Finally, some considerations will be drawn taking into account the large heterogeneity of clinical settings, applications and goals that the reviewed algorithms have to deal with. PMID:26906277

  4. Effect of different fat sources on in vitro degradation of nutrients and certain blood parameters in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fébel, Hedvig; Husvéth, F; Veresegyházy, T; Andrásofszky, Emese; Várhegyi, Ildikó; Huszár, Szilvia

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (CS), hydroxyethylsoyamide (HESA), butylsoyamide (BSA) and soybean oil (SO) on degradation of crude protein and fibre in vitro, and on the blood plasma lipid parameters in vivo. Five mature wethers (body weight 75 kg) were fed five diets in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. The control diet consisted of 50% meadow hay and 50% concentrate with no added fat. The control diet was supplemented with CS, HESA, BSA, or SO. Fat was added at 3.5% of dietary dry matter (DM). The final ether extract content of the ration was near 6%. Each period lasted 20 days. Fat supplements, except HESA, consistently decreased the in vitro DM disappearance of soybean meal as compared to control. In contrast to the effect of other treatments, crude protein degradation was greatest in the test tubes with inocula obtained from sheep fed diet with HESA. Fat supplements equally inhibited the DM and fibre breakdown of alfalfa pellet. CS and HESA seemed to be less detrimental to in vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than BSA and SO. All fat supplements increased blood plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and total lipid content. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and total lipid was highest with SO. The inclusion of CS in the diet increased 16:0, while all fat supplements increased plasma 18:0 and decreased 16:1 and 18:1 fatty acid content. Plasma 18:2n-6 was not changed by feeding CS and SO. However, compared to the control diet, 18:2n-6 increased with 12 and 41% in plasma fatty acids when sheep were fed HESA and BSA, respectively. The results showed that plasma concentration of linoleic acid was enhanced more when the amide was synthesised from butylamine than when from ethanolamine. PMID:12113177

  5. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical ana