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Sample records for biochemistry buenos aires

  1. Isonymy structure of Buenos Aires city.

    PubMed

    Bronberg, Rubén A; Dipierri, José E; Alfaro, Emma L; Barrai, Italo; Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Castilla, Eduardo E; Colonna, Vincenza; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Greta; Bailliet, Graciela

    2009-08-01

    The isonymy structure of Buenos Aires was studied based on its surname frequency. Information on 2,552,359 voters of the 28 Buenos Aires districts was used to estimate Lasker's coefficient of relationship by isonymy (R(i)), surname diversity according to Fisher's alpha, the coefficient of consanguinity resulting from random isonymy (F), and Nei's, Lasker's and the Euclidean isonymy distances. These distances were correlated with geographic distances, which were calculated by assigning an arbitrary point to each district and measuring distances on a map of the city. The R(i) x 10(5) and F x 10(4) averages of the districts located south of Rivadavia Avenue were higher (R(i) = 66.08; F = 3.4) than those situated north of that avenue (R(i) = 46.60; F = 2.4) (p < 0.001). Fisher's alpha showed the opposite behavior (north, alpha = 1,055.5; south, alpha = 757.2). There was a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between geographic distance and Nei's and the Euclidean distances (0.496 and 0.503, respectively), but the correlation was not significant for Lasker's distance (0.051). These results indicate isolation by distance in the city of Buenos Aires and reveal subdivision of the metropolitan population, with greater consanguinity and a lesser variety of surnames in the districts located in the southern section of the city. This structure agrees with the fragmentation and social, cultural, and economic differences observed among the districts of this Latin American metropolis. PMID:20067369

  2. A palace for astronomy in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2011-06-01

    In no other epoch of Western history like in the Middle Ages, cosmology was so key an element of culture and, one way or another, the motion of the heavens ended up impregnating the literature of that time. Among the most noteworthy poets we find Dante Alighieri, who became famous for his Commedia, a monumental poem written roughly between 1307 and his death in 1321, and which the critics from 16th century onwards dubbed Divina. In this and other works, Dante pictures the cosmic image for the world, summing up the current trends of Neoplatonic and Islamic traditions. The Barolo Palace in the city of Buenos Aires is a singular combination of both astronomy and the worldview displayed in Dante's poetic masterpiece. Some links of the Palace's main architectural structure with the three realms of the Comedy have been studied in the past. In this note we consider its unique astronomical flavor, an issue which has not been sufficiently emphasized yet.

  3. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ayelén A; Bellomo, Carla M; Martínez, Valeria P

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study. PMID:26826986

  4. Conditions for free-air laser communications in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, D. S.; Castro, E. H.

    2005-08-01

    The wavelength, availability, range and power budget of an infrared free-space laser communication system critically depend on the atmospheric channel, which in turn is closely related to local weather conditions. As a result, the atmospheric propagation characteristics of the transmission medium must be taken into account from the beginning in the design of a free-space laser communication link. The most important linear effects that affect the attenuation of laser beam propagation through the atmosphere are absorption, scattering and turbulence. Weather parameters such as humidity, temperature and visibility are essential in determining the performance of a free-space laser communication system. Based on weather data recorded in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) at every hour during two years and made available to us by the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (National Meteorological Service of the Argentinean Air Force), we calculate attenuation of laser radiation for an horizontal transmission path of 1 km for a near infrared direct detection optical communication system. Then, with these results, we estimate link availability and draw conclusions about when it is more convenient to transfer information.

  5. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Echavarria, Marcela; Querci, Marcia; Marcone, Debora; Videla, Cristina; Martinez, Alfredo; Bonvehi, Pablo; Carballal, Guadalupe

    2010-02-01

    To determine clinical and virologic characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, we conducted real-time reverse transcription-PCR on samples from patients with influenza-like illness, June 11-30, 2009. Of 513 patients tested, 54% were positive for influenza virus subtype H1N1. Infection rate was lowest for patients >or=60 years of age. PMID:20113568

  6. [Structure and functioning of research ethics committees in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Sabio, María Fernanda; Bortz, Jaime Elías

    2015-06-01

    Given the few existing studies on research ethics committees (RECs) in Argentina, this paper aims to describe the structure and functioning of institutional RECs in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires. A descriptive, qualitative and quantitative research study was carried out using a survey conducted between March and July 2012. The sample was made up of 46 RECs. Forty percent of committee members were doctors and the age and sex distribution met standards. Inadequate numbers of methodologists, community representatives, lawyers and members external to the institution were identified, as well as shortcomings regarding administrative staff, fixed locations for meetings, budgets adequate to expenditures and training in research ethics. Some of those surveyed reported problems in their relationship with the institution and with researchers, in addition to difficulties regarding the time available to perform tasks. PMID:26172100

  7. [Marchigiani in Buenos Aires: work and associated life].

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, A

    1997-12-01

    "Studies on Italian immigration in Argentina have shown that approaches at the provincial level add to our understanding of migration patterns and processes. The case study of urban immigrants from a region in central Italy shows similarities and differences with Italian immigration in Buenos Aires in general. Residential patterns and occupations are analyzed through a combination of mutual association membership registers and shipping lists; the linkage of available sources showed, at least for these immigrants, a considerable gap between arrival and entry in a mutual aid society, a fact which reduces the importance of the voluntary associations in assisting recent immigrants to obtain a job." (EXCERPT) PMID:12322010

  8. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  9. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

  10. [RESEARCH AMONG PSYCHIATRISTS IN TRAINING IN CIUDAD DE BUENOS AIRES].

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Berrío Cuartas, Diana M; Villafañe, Claudia I; Pereyra, Walter D; Martínez Didolich, Laura C; Cesoni, Oscar M; Uriarte, Martín A

    2015-01-01

    Research is a cornerstone in the training of medical doctors in any specialty, whereas it substantially contributes to good clinical practice. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of research among psychiatrists in training in Ciudad de Buenos Aires. A cross sectional descriptive study using a paper survey, which was voluntary and anonymous, was sent to psychiatrists in training in different training centers between October-November 2013. 76.6% considered research training deficient; 27.8% participated in a research project during their psychiatric training and only 21.5% presented their results at a scientific activity. 95.6% participants considered important to include research in their training. In summary, a small proportion of psychiatrists in training who participated in this study conducted research and we observed limited experience in the area, as opposed to the interest in being trained in this field. PMID:26966750

  11. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis. PMID:27236582

  12. Continuous measurement of gaseous pollutants in Buenos Aires city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogo, Horacio; Martín Negri, R.; San Román, Enrique

    Data on CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 concentrations measured in Buenos Aires city using a continuous monitoring station are reported. This is the first systematic study of this kind carried out in the city, which is, together with its surroundings, the third more populated in Latin America. Measurements were performed during 12 months in one of the principal avenues near downtown. Results indicate that vehicular traffic is the principal source of CO and NO x. The concentration of O 3 is generally quite low and results from the mixing of clean air masses with exhaust gases containing high amounts of NO. The monthly averages of CO and NO decrease from Winter to Summer in correlation with the increase of the mean wind speed and average temperature. These results are compared with previous measurements on the spatial distribution of NO 2 in the whole city using passive diffusion tubes and with the concentration of CO, which is being continuously registered since several years in the downtown area. Measurements performed at a green, windy, low traffic area beneath the La Plata river are also shown.

  13. Tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Morello, P; Duggan, A; Adger, H; Anthony, J C; Joffe, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were given to 3909 8th and 11th graders in a stratified random sample of 49 public and private schools. The instrument included items from American surveys, translated and validated among Argentinean teens. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate possible effects on smoking behavior of environment, students' personal characteristics, and their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding smoking. RESULTS: Of 8th and 11th graders, 20% and 43%, respectively, were classified as current smokers. Overall, 29% of males and 32% of females were current smokers. Students attending public schools were more likely to smoke than those in private schools (P < .05). Current smoking was associated with having a best friend who smokes, reporting that more than 50% of friends of the same sex smoke, having positive attitudes and beliefs toward smoking, and having a positive intention to smoke within the next year (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over 20% of the 8th graders in our sample were current smokers; prevention efforts must therefore start early. PMID:11213790

  14. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine. PMID:24247021

  15. John Tweedie and Charles Darwin in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Jeff; Chancellor, Gordon; van Wyhe, John

    2012-06-20

    The journey of exploration undertaken by Charles Darwin FRS during the voyage of HMS Beagle has a central place within the historical development of evolutionary theory and has been intensively studied. Despite this, new facts continue to emerge about some of the details of Darwin's activities. Drawing on recently published Darwin material and unpublished letters in the archives of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, we document a hitherto unexamined link between Darwin and John Tweedie (1775-1862), a relatively obscure Scottish gardener turned South American plant collector. All of the available evidence points to a meeting between the two men in Buenos Aires in 1832. Tweedie provided Darwin with information about the geography of the Rio Paraná, including the locality of fossilized wood eroding from the river bank. It also seems likely that Tweedie supplied Darwin with seeds that he later shipped back to John Stevens Henslow in Cambridge. Although this brief meeting was at the time relatively unimportant to either man, echoes of that encounter have resonated with Tweedie's descendants to the present day and have formed the basis for a family story about a written correspondence between Darwin and Tweedie. Local information supplied to Darwin by residents such as Tweedie was clearly important and deserves further attention. PMID:23045784

  16. Temporal variability of the Buenos Aires, Argentina, urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilloni, Inés; Barrucand, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the statistical characteristics and temporal variability of the urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Buenos Aires using 32-year surface meteorological data with 1-h time intervals. Seasonal analyses show that the UHI intensity is strongest during summer months and an "inverse" effect is found frequently during the afternoon hours of the same season. During winter, the UHI effect is in the minimal. The interannual trend and the seasonal variation of the UHI for the main synoptic hours for a longer record of 48 years are studied and associated to changes in meteorological factors as low-level circulation and cloud amount. Despite the population growth, it was found a negative trend in the nocturnal UHI intensity that could be explained by a decline of near clear-sky conditions, a negative trend in the calm frequencies and an increase in wind speed. Urban to rural temperature differences and rural temperatures are negatively correlated for diurnal and nocturnal hours both for annual and seasonal scales. This result is due to the lower interannual variability of urban temperatures in comparison to rural ones.

  17. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  18. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  19. First Record and Larval Habitat Description of Culex (Melanoconion) pilosus from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urcola, Juan Ignacio; Fischer, Sylvia

    2015-09-01

    Larvae of Culex (Melanoconion) pilosus were collected during February-April 2014 in temporary pools in "Bosques de Ezeiza," a large forested park, near Buenos Aires city, Argentina. This is the first record in Buenos Aires Province, extending the distribution of this species 380 km to the south. Regarding habitat use, Cx. (Mel.) pilosus is a generalist, although a slight association of larval abundances with pools of lower pH and higher vegetation cover was observed. The comparison of larval instars of Cx. (Mel.) pilosus with those of other genera suggests a life-history strategy similar to that of floodwater mosquitoes. PMID:26375909

  20. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  1. Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype f...

  2. Immigration and Educational Inclusion: Preliminary Evidence from Three Schools in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory comparative case study examines three schools in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires that have a considerable number of recent immigrant students. The article illustrates how these schools advance ideas of inclusiveness and pluralism through the curriculum and educational opportunities, as mandated by the national education law of…

  3. [Nutritional status of vitamin D in mothers and neonates of Ushuaia and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Oliveri, M B; Mautalen, C A; Alonso, A; Velázquez, H; Trouchot, H A; Porto, R; Martinez, L; Barata, A D

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 25 hydroxyvitamin D (250HD) were measured at the end of the winter in Group 1 (Ushuaia, latitude 55 degrees S): 16 women (24-48 hs postpartum serum blood) and 20 neonates (cord blood) and in Group 2 (Buenos Aires, latitude 34 degrees S) 21 women (24-48 hs postpartum serum blood) and their 21 neonates (cord blood). The neonatal serum calcium and phosphorus were higher and the neonatal serum AP and 250HD level were lower than maternal levels in both groups (Table 1 and 2). Serum levels of 250HD were diminished (< 8 ng/ml) in 62% of the mothers and 81% of the neonates of Ushuaia and in 24% of the mothers and 16% of the neonates of Buenos Aires (figure 1). Neonatal serum 250HD levels correlate with maternal serum 250HD levels in the paired group of Buenos Aires (r = 0.65, p < 0.003) (Figure 2). In Ushuaia the serum 250HD levels (X +/- SD) in neonates (3.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml) and in mothers (6.3 +/- 4.8 ng/ml) were lower than in Buenos Aires (neonates: 11.3 +/- 6.0 ng/ml and mothers: 14.4 +/- 8.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Maternal serum calcium levels were lower in Ushuaia (8.7 +/- 0.8 mg/dl) than in Buenos Aires (9.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, 1) In Ushuaia pregnant women and their neonates had a deficient nutritional state of vitamin D. Preventive administration of vitamin D would probably be beneficial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8201913

  4. [Winter serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in Ushuaia and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Oliveri, M B; Ladizesky, M; Somoza, J; Martínez, L; Mautalen, C

    1990-01-01

    Public Health Annals recording diagnosis of nutritional rickets in patients admitted in Public Hospitals disclosed that from birth to age 14, in the period 1980-1981, the incidence was 2.7 higher in the Patagonia (latitude 39 degrees S to 55 degrees S) compared with the Pampeana Region and 8.5 higher than in the rest of the country. After informed parental consent 37 healthy children of Buenos Aires (34 degrees S) with an age of (Av +/- 1 SD) 7.0 +/- 1.2 years, 29 with an age of 13.1 +/- 1.5 years and 63 of Ushuaia (55 degrees S) with an age of 7.1 +/- 0.8 years were studied at the end of winter (August). Serum levels of 25-OH-D were as follows (mean +/- SE): Buenos Aires: 21.1 +/- 2.03 ng/ml (Average: seven years old), 19.0 +/- 1.18 ng/ml (children of thirteen years old) and Ushuaia: 9.3 +/- 0.64 ng/ml (p less than 0.001) (Fig. 2). Serum levels were below 8 ng/ml in 52% of the children in Ushuaia but only in 9% in Buenos Aires. Serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels were similar in the two groups but serum phosphate was higher in Ushuaia (Table 1). The calcium intake was greater in Ushuaia (811 +/- 49 mg/day) than in Buenos Aires (634 +/- 61 mg/day) and was correlated with 25-OH-D levels in children of Ushuaia (r = 0.50, p less than 0.001) but not in Buenos Aires (r = 0.08). The main source of calcium intake was vitamin D fortified milk. These results disclosed a significantly diminished level of serum 25-OH-D in Ushuaia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2130224

  5. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    SciTech Connect

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-02-12

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station.

  6. Use of tree bark for comparing environmental pollution in different sites from Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

    PubMed

    Faggi, Ana Maria; Fujiwara, Fabian; Anido, Carlos; Perelman, Patricia E

    2011-07-01

    Multi-elemental profiles in bark of green ash trees collected in three representative areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were assessed as potential air pollution indicators. Ten elements: Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emissions spectrometry from 70 samples collected in different environments: central, residential and rural (reference site), in order to compare spatial patterns of metal concentration. The samples used as a control were collected from a nature reserve situated far away from any significant influences, not even a nearby road. The reference site (RF) exhibited the lowest concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, Ba and Mn showed similar concentrations in all measured sites. Magnesium is the only element that had a greater concentration in RF than at the other sites. Copper did not show any clear pattern. The Centre of Montevideo (MVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn than the Centre of Buenos Aires (BA). In the A sectors, Montevideo (SAMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Cu, Mg, Ni, and Zn and lower concentrations of Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Pb than Buenos Aires (SABA). In the B sectors, Montevideo (SBMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and lower concentrations of Cr and Mg than Buenos Aires (SBBA), but similar concentrations of Mn and Ni. The use of bark for biomonitoring metals allowed us to detect concentration differences related to the urban fabric and the different kinds of vehicles and their fuels. In the cities, the differences in metal concentrations detected in bark were more striking between the sectors than between centers, despite CBA being much larger than CMVD in population, extension and vehicular traffic. PMID:20844948

  7. [Serological evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus circulation in birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Díaz, Luis A; Konigheim, Brenda; Molina, José; Beaudoin, Juan B; Contigiani, Marta; Spinsanti, Lorena I

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the presence of neutralizing antibodies against St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in sera of wild and domestic birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina. From October 2012 to April 2013, 180 samples were collected and processed by the microneutralization technique. A 7.2% of the sampled birds were seropositive for SLEV, while no seropositive birds for WNV were detected. PMID:26627114

  8. Incidence and prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an HMO of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Mariela; Vicens, Jimena; Giunta, Diego Hernán; Rugiero, Marcelo; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have been published in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ALS in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) of Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina. The population studied was affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, whose distribution across age and gender strata is similar to the population of Buenos Aires. Cases were detected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Incidence density (ID) and prevalence for ALS were estimated for the whole period and at 31 December 2010, respectively. During the seven-year study period, the crude ID estimated was 3.17 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 2.24-4.48) and the age-adjusted ID for the Buenos Aires population was 2.23 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.01). Point prevalence at 31 December 2010 was 8.86 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 4.05-13.68). Mean age at diagnosis was 72.29 years (SD 8.5). In conclusion, estimated age-adjusted ID and prevalence of ALS were similar to the incidence and prevalence rates found in other geographical areas. PMID:23834086

  9. Serological evidence of Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii in humans of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel Leonardo; Degiuseppe, Juan Ignacio; Mamianetti, Andrea; Corin, Marcela Viviana; Linares, María Cielo; De Salvo, María Nazarena; Dohmen, Federico Eugenio Gury

    2015-12-01

    In Buenos Aires city (Argentina), the circulation of these agents has been detected mainly in vectors and animals, few human cases having been described. The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of Rickettsia (spotted fever--SFG--and typhus--TG--groups) and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever agent) in residents of Buenos Aires city. The study involved 99 participants. Rickettsia IgG antibodies against SFG and TG were detected by IFA in 28.3% and 16.2% of serum samples, respectively. SFG titers were mostly 1/64 (53.6%) with a maximum of 1/512 (3.5%) whereas TG titers ranged between 1/64 (62.5%) and 1/256 (6.3%). Only one sample showed a titer of 1/32 for C. burnetii (phases I and II). The circulation of these pathogens in urban areas such as the city of Buenos Aires should be considered by health services, especially at the primary care level. PMID:26616661

  10. Age-related lung cell response to urban Buenos Aires air particle soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Ostachuk, Agustín; Evelson, Pablo; Martin, Susana; Dawidowski, Laura; Sebastián Yakisich, J; Tasat, Deborah R

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) may alter lung homeostasis inducing changes in fluid balance and host defense. Bioavailability of soluble PM compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and transition metals has been shown to play a key role in lung injury. We have previously characterized the size, shape, and chemical components of urban air particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and their biological impact on lungs. Herein, we evaluate the possible toxic effect of UAP-BA-soluble fraction (UAP-BAsf) on pulmonary cells obtained from young (1-2 months old) and aged (9-12 months old) Wistar rats using phagocytosis, oxidant-antioxidant generation, and apoptosis as endpoints. UAP-BA were collected in downtown BA and residual oil fly ash (ROFA), employed as a positive control, was collected from Boston Edison Co., Mystic Power Plant, Mystic, CT, USA. Both particle-soluble fractions (sf) were employed at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 microg/mL. UAP-BAsf and ROFAsf even at the lowest dose assayed (10 microg/mL) showed in both lung cell populations the ability to stimulate phagocytosis and increase superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation. Both types of air particles caused a marked intracellular oxidant stress in aged pulmonary cells that may contribute to subsequent cell activation and production of proinflammatory mediators, leading to cell dysfunction. These data suggest that the impact of UAP-BAsf on phagocytosis, oxidant radical generation, and apoptosis is clearly dependent on the maturational state of the animal and might have different mechanisms of action. PMID:18313661

  11. Luminescence dating of glacial advances at Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, R. K.; Glasser, N. F.; Duller, G. A. T.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing of past glacial advances in Patagonia is of global climatic importance because of the insight this can provide into the influence on glacier behaviour of changes in temperature and precipitation related to the Southern Westerlies. In this paper we present new luminescence ages determined using single grains of K-feldspar from proglacial outwash sediments that were deposited by the Patagonian Ice Sheet around Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), east of the contemporary Northern Patagonian Icefield. The new luminescence ages indicate that major outwash accumulations formed around ∼110 ± 20 ka to 140 ± 20 ka and that these correspond to the Moreno I and II moraine ridges, which were previously dated using cosmogenic isotope dating to 150 ± 30 ka. Luminescence dating at Lago Buenos Aires has also identified outwash sediments that were deposited during glacial advances ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka and ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3) that are not recorded in the moraine record. Younger outwash accumulations were then deposited between ∼14.7 ± 2.1 and 26.2 ± 1.6 ka which correspond to the Fenix I - V moraine ridges. The combined chronology suggests that glacial advances occurred ∼110 ± 20 ka to 150 ± 30 ka (MIS 6), ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka to ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3), and ∼14.7 ± 2.1 to 26.2 ± 1.6 ka (MIS 2) at Lago Buenos Aires. Overall luminescence dating using single grains of K-feldspar has excellent potential to contribute towards the ever-increasing geochronological dataset constraining the timings of glacial advances in Patagonia.

  12. [Demographic dynamics, migrants from bordering countries and economic activity in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Lattes, A E; Bertoncello, R

    1997-04-01

    The growth and changes--by age, sex, and place of birth--in the structure of the total population of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and of the subpopulation over 15 years of age and economically active are analyzed for the decade of the 1980s. Study of the economic participation of migrants and its possible influence on levels of employment or unemployment should be carried out within the framework of changes in the population's structure and economic participation. The 1981 and 1991 censuses and the Permanent Survey of Households were the sources of data. Immigration to Argentina has declined considerably in recent years, but it is still a factor in the population growth of metropolitan Buenos Aires. Between the 1981 and 1991 censuses, the population aged 15 and over grew by 10.9/1000, or a total of 827,806 people. Migrants from bordering countries increased in number (by 85,109, or 10.3%) and in proportion to the total population (from 3.9% to 4.6%). Migrant women increased at the highest rate (30.1/1000). The greatest growth occurred among men aged 40 and over and among women aged 35 and over. The growth of the economically active population over age 15 for different groups of national origin, sex, and age showed much greater heterogeneity. In 1991, women from bordering countries represented 3.8% of all women in metropolitan Buenos Aires but 5.7% of the total economically active female population and nearly 7% of the economically active female population aged 35 and over. Women from neighboring countries were responsible for 10.3% of the growth in the economically active female population aged 30-34 and 40-44 between 1981 and 1991. The absolute and relative increases in migrants from neighboring countries and their greater economic participation tend to increase the general level of economic activity. PMID:12321684

  13. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Evolution with Lidar in Buenos Aires from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer top height evolution is obtained from 2008 to 2011 in Buenos Aires using the multiwavelength lidar located at CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) (34°33' S; 58°30' W; 17 m asl). Algorithms recognition based on covariance wavelet transform are applied to obtain seasonal statistics. This method is being evaluated for use in the Lidar Network in Argentina and it is being deployed in Patagonia region currently. The technique operates in real time in both low and high aerosol loads and with almost no human supervision.

  14. [Cultural patterns of social alcohol use in Buenos Aires' students (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    The turning into an alcoholic state in a group of youngsters at the Province of Buenos Aires in relation to the alcohol consumption and the ideal patterns of availability are focused in an actual youthful celebration. More than half of the students considered amounts of alcohol that surpass 100 cc of absolute alcohol by person in each encounter and with different type of drinks. It was registered the peer pressure for consumption. It was analyzed the social pattern of the consumption in the youthful celebration as a way of managing a social fitness on the base of altering the field of the emotions with base in the alcohol abuse. PMID:20038983

  15. [Buenos Aires, between Eros and Thanatos. Prostitution as dysgenic threat (1930-1955)].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marisa A

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the medical-legal discourse around female prostitution that was articulated in Buenos Aires during the first decades of the 20th century. It focuses on the use of different ideological resources and on the policies and laws that were introduced to gain control over the sex trade and describes parallelisms between prostitution, disease and crime. In fact, the capital of Argentina was internationally known as a centre of prostitution and white slave trafficking, and Jewish participation in these activities allowed the consolidation of xenophobic theories. Medicine and law, among other disciplines, made important inputs into a simplified approach to this problem. PMID:22849217

  16. Unusual localization of an hydatid cyst: first reported case in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm larva of Echinococcus spp. Its relevance lies in its wide distribution, great number of clinical cases and outstanding morbility. Hydatid infection of the orbit comprises far less than 1% of the total incidence. This is a case of a patient from Argentina complaining of a two-week evolution proptosis of the right eye. A microscopic examination revealed the presence of protoscolices of Echinococcus spp. in the fluid obtained during the surgical proceedings. The patient was treated with oral albendazole. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ocular hydatidosis diagnosed in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:21412595

  17. [Seasonal fluctuation of the Oomycetes in a polluted environment: Santigo River and affluents (Buenos Aires, Argentina).].

    PubMed

    Steciow, M M

    1998-03-01

    Oomycetes are ubiquitous filamentous water molds. They occur as saprotrophs on bits of substrata of both plant and animal origin, principally in fresh water. This paper results from an integral research on the Oomycetous flora of Santiago River and several associated shallow streams (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Information is provided concerning this polluted habitat and seasonal distribution of the zoosporic fungi. The principal physico-chemical characteristics of the aquatic environmental samples are described: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate concentration, sulphate concentration, phosphate concentration and heavy metals. PMID:17655404

  18. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Gallardo, Anabella; González-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés

    2009-06-01

    The infestation with the human obligate ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is a common public health problem affecting mainly schoolchildren worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infestation levels of head lice in elementary schools from Buenos Aires with resistant levels to permethrin >100. A total of 1,856 children aged 3-13 years old from eight selected elementary schools were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was observed in all the studied schools. The overall infestation rate was 29.7%. Girls were statistically significant more infested than boys, with infestation rate values of 36.1% and 26.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 42 of the infested girls (12%) and 23 of the infested boys (11.4%) had >10 lice on their hair. The proportions of infested children-both girls and boys-in each age group were not found to differ significantly from one another. The infestation rate among schools varied from 19.12% to 42.74%. This indicated that pediculosis is relatively common in elementary schools from Buenos Aires, and those levels are of epidemic importance. The differences of pediculosis among the studied schools could be explained by the different control strategies applied by parents or advisors to eradicate head lice. PMID:19148682

  19. A method for optimizing waste collection using mathematical programming: a Buenos Aires case study.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Flavio; Durán, Guillermo; Larumbe, Frederico; Marenco, Javier

    2012-03-01

    A method is proposed that uses operations research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles servicing dumpster or skip-type containers. The waste collection problem is reduced to the classic travelling salesman problem, which is then solved using the Concorde solver program. A case study applying the method to the collection system in the southern zone of Buenos Aires is also presented. In addition to the typical minimum distance criterion, the optimization problem incorporates the objective of reducing vehicle wear and tear as measured by the physics concept of mechanical work. The solution approach, employing graph theory and mathematical programming tools, is fully described and the data correction process is also discussed. The application of the proposed method minimized the distance travelled by each collection vehicle in the areas studied, with actual reductions ranging from 10 to 40% of the existing routes. The shortened distances led in turn to substantial decreases in work done and therefore in vehicle wear and tear. Extrapolation of the results to the entire southern zone of Buenos Aires indicates potential savings for the civic authorities of more than US $200,000 per year in addition to the qualitative impacts of less traffic disruption, less vehicle driver fatigue and less pollution. PMID:21460074

  20. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  1. [Nineteenth-century church records for Buenos Aires. The microfilms and their possible uses in socio-demographic studies].

    PubMed

    Siegrist De Gentile, N L

    1993-04-01

    The author explores the history, quality, and availability of Catholic parish registers in Latin America in general. She then describes records for Buenos Aires, Argentina, as preserved on microfilm by the Genealogical Society of Utah. A list of the microfilms by register year, locality, church name, and year of filming is included. PMID:12344971

  2. Decentralization and Structural Change in Secondary Education in Argentina: The Case of the Province of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.; Senen-Gonzalez, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, Argentina created and implemented a compulsory lower-secondary education level, within an ambitious educational reform programme. This article addresses the reform at the national level, diverse provincial responses, and the particular way that the powerful province of Buenos Aires appropriated the structural change. The…

  3. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  4. "Zafar," So Good: Middle-Class Students, School Habitus and Secondary Schooling in the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analia Ines

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how students from the "loser" sections of the middle class dealt with the game of secondary schooling in a "good" state school in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It engages with Bourdieu's theory of social practice and, in particular, with its concepts of game, habitus and cultural capital. It argues that middle-class…

  5. Antimony: a traffic-related element in the atmosphere of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Darío R; Fernanda Giné, María; Claudia Sánchez Bellato, Ana; Smichowski, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    Vehicular traffic is one of the main sources of antimony in highly populated urban areas like Buenos Aires where an overall traffic density of 1 500 000 vehicles per day (corresponding to 7500 vehicles km(-2)) is estimated. In this context, a study was undertaken to ascertain the levels of Sb and other traffic-related elements (TRE) in the atmosphere of this city. To this end, sixty-seven samples of PM-10 particulate matter were collected during eight days in nine representative sampling sites located downtown Buenos Aires and spread over an area of about 30 km2. The collection of particulate matter was performed on ash-free glass-fibre filters using high volume samplers with PM-10 sampling heads. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. The resulting solutions were evaporated and then diluted with 0.1 mol l(-1) HCl. Antimony was determined by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) at ng g(-1) levels. Concentrations of Sb varied from 12.9 +/- 0.9 to 375 +/- 23 microg g(-1)(equivalent to 0.87 +/- 0.06 to 15.3 +/- 0.8 ng m(-3)). Statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured PM-10 mass and Sb concentrations for the monitored period. Correlations of Sb with other TRE namely, Cu and Mo were also assessed. The highest concentrations of Sb were detected at two sites (Hospital Alemán and Casa Rapallini) located in streets with traffic consisting mostly of passenger cars and showing a "stop-and-go" pattern in peak hours. Antimony levels in the Buenos Aires PM-10 are by far below the level of 0.5 mg m(-3)(for an 8 hour workday, 40 hour work week) set by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for occupational exposure. However, monitoring of Sb and other TRE should be carried out in a systematic fashion to detect the possibility of increases in from the present levels. PMID:16307067

  6. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  7. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  8. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  9. Atmospheric control of Aedes aegypti populations in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.

  10. HIV status disclosure among infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men were recruited in Buenos Aires using respondent driven sampling. Of them, 46 respondents (24 of them not gay identified) who were HIV infected were asked questions on serodisclosure. The sample was characterized by indicators of low socioeconomic status. Most of the respondents reported being in good to excellent health despite 42% of them having been diagnosed with AIDS. Only 10% of respondents had not disclosed their serostatus to at least one person. Coworkers and lovers or main sexual partners were those most likely to know the respondents' serostatus. Reactions to disclosure were for the most part supportive. Those who had not disclosed anticipated less favorable reactions than those who had disclosed. No significant differences were observed between gay and non-gay identified respondents. The progressive social environment of Argentina that includes federal laws recognizing gay marriage may contribute to create a climate favorable for serostatus disclosure. PMID:24245593

  11. Paradoxical Personality and Academic Achievement in College Students From Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustín; Fernández Liporace, María Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a study on paradoxical personality, defined as a distinctive feature in creative persons, developed with 350 college students from Buenos Aires. Goals aimed at describing and analysing possible significant differences of paradoxical traits in students from diverse majors representing seven different fields of study, and examining the relationship between each bipolar trait and academic achievement. The sample was composed of 7 groups (n = 50 by group) representing fields of study typically offered in public universities, Biology, Computer Science, Engineering, Law, Nutrition, Psychology, and History of Art. Analyses by career provided descriptive information about students of these majors, concerning their paradoxical personality profiles. Correlational studies verified significant associations between academic achievement and most paradoxical traits in majors such as Computer Science, Nutrition and Psychology. Results are discussed regarding practical outcomes and teaching programs. PMID:27247680

  12. Population data for DXS6800, DXS101 and DXS8377 loci from Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Noseda, Pablo A; Kenline, Jaclyn; Manning, Samantha; Gangitano, David A

    2013-07-01

    The X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) DXS6800, DXS101 and DXS8377 were analysed in a population sample from Buenos Aires (Argentina) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex approach with fluorescent detection. We present allele frequencies for these loci in a population comprising 113 women and 99 men. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested in the female sample and no significant deviations were observed. The homogeneity of allele frequencies of men and women was compared by the Fisher's exact test and showed similar distributions. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests were performed in males for all pairs of loci and no significant associations were detected. Parameters of forensic interest were also estimated. PMID:23756526

  13. Monitoring Aerosol Optical Properties in the ABL, Using Lidar System and Sunphotometer in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, J.; Pawelko, E.; Otero, L.; Ristori, P.; D'Elia, R.; Gonzalez, F.; Dworniczak, J.; Vilar, O.; Quel, E.

    2009-03-01

    At the Lasers and Applications Research Center (CEILAP, CITEFA-CONICET, (34°33' S, 58°30' W), located in an industrial suburb of the metropolitan area (Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina), operates a multiwavelength lidar, based on a Nd:Yag laser (Continuum Surelite III P-IV). This system emits in 1064, 532 and 355 nm simultaneously (10 Hz, 600 mJ @ 1064 nm) and allows the monitoring of the optical aerosols properties in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). On the same experimental site, an AERONET sunphotometer provides the AOT value. An analysis of boundary layer behaviour in some relevant days of March, from the years 2004 to 2006 is presented. On the days analyzed, no aerosols events and clouds were registered over the ABL. Evolutions of some characteristics of the ABL are presented, such as the height of the boundary layer, height of entrainment zone (EZ) and the entrainment flux ratio.

  14. Physicochemical parameters and sensory properties of honeys from Buenos Aires region.

    PubMed

    Silvano, María F; Varela, María S; Palacio, María A; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Yamul, Diego K

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical parameters (moisture, hydroxymethyl furfural, colour, electrical conductivity, free acidity, glucose, fructose and sucrose) and the sensory properties(aroma, taste, appeareance, texture) were determined in honeys from apiaries of the agricultural, hills and meadow zones of the south east region of Buenos Aires province (Argentina). The analysis of variance showed significant differences among zones in the mean value of hydroximethyl furfural, colour, electrical conductivity and sucrose content. The principal component analysis explained the 70% of the variance among samples with the first two principal components in both cases. The cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis showed that samples were grouped in relation to the sampling region coinciding with the results of the principal component analysis. Results suggest that could be possible to classify honeys according to the geographic origin based on the physicochemical parameters; however, the sensory properties were not good predictors. PMID:24444967

  15. [Drug use and crime: the data from Buenos Aires province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    The data of the epidemiologic soundings performed by the Undersecretary's Addictions Attention Office of the Ministry of Health at the Province of Buenos Aires were examined. Consumption of marijuana, cocaine and base paste have associations with behaviors of risk also associated to violence and delinquency. Drug and robbery were connected with the usual consumers of marijuana in 53.4%, of those of cocaine in 42.7% and in 26.9% of those consumers of base paste. High social permissiveness towards alcohol abuse that reaches more than half of the adolescents, as well as the impact in the emergency ward related to the use of substances and violence, were considered as risk factors. PMID:19434299

  16. [Emergency consultations for abuse of psychoactive substances in Buenos Aires hospitals].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H A; Grimson, R W

    1989-10-01

    Emergency consultations connected with psychoactive substance abuse may reflect the particular nature and the magnitude of this problem in a community. A survey of three Buenos Aires hospitals revealed that 5% of all the cases attended during a single week were related to the consumption of alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, or psychoactive drugs, either separately or in combination. Lack of formal education, unemployment, and marital separation were important factors in substance abuse by males (especially in the case of alcohol abuse among older men and the abuse of psychoactive and illegal drugs among the young), while women tended to take overdoses of psychoactive drugs in times of personal crisis. Cultural tolerance of alcoholism and the availability of psychoactive drugs emerged as problems requiring specific study. The research method generated reliable data and could be used to obtain epidemiological information to support the necessary control measures. PMID:2532900

  17. [Decentralization and equity: public health expenditure in the municipalities of the Province of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Lago, Fernando Pablo; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Elorza, María Eugenia; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the degree of equity in access to the public health care system in the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). Through a quantitative retrospective study, we analyze the inequalities in the distribution of the total public health expenditure per capita. This variable is used as a proxy for the ability of the inhabitants of each jurisdiction to access health care services. The results indicate the existence of large disparities in the levels of expenditure devoted to the population without health coverage. Moreover, the existence of greater health care needs (estimated using infant mortality rates and percentage of homes with basic needs unmet) does not translate into higher levels of public expenditure. Finally, we detect a positive association between the relative wealth of municipalities (measured by the gross geographic product per capita) and the public health expenditure per capita. PMID:23681459

  18. Paradoxical Personality and Academic Achievement in College Students From Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustín; Fernández Liporace, María Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on paradoxical personality, defined as a distinctive feature in creative persons, developed with 350 college students from Buenos Aires. Goals aimed at describing and analysing possible significant differences of paradoxical traits in students from diverse majors representing seven different fields of study, and examining the relationship between each bipolar trait and academic achievement. The sample was composed of 7 groups (n = 50 by group) representing fields of study typically offered in public universities, Biology, Computer Science, Engineering, Law, Nutrition, Psychology, and History of Art. Analyses by career provided descriptive information about students of these majors, concerning their paradoxical personality profiles. Correlational studies verified significant associations between academic achievement and most paradoxical traits in majors such as Computer Science, Nutrition and Psychology. Results are discussed regarding practical outcomes and teaching programs. PMID:27247680

  19. First record of Sarcoramphus Dumeril 1806 (Ciconiiformes: Vulturidae) from the Pleistocene of Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Jorge I.; Areta, Juan I.

    2005-10-01

    The finding of an incomplete specimen of Sarcoramphus papa (Linné 1758), commonly known as the King Vulture, from the locality of Camet Norte (Buenos Aires province) in Argentina is reported. The bearing level is referred to the Late Pleistocene Santa Clara Formation (Late Lujanian). Sarcoramphus papa is actually a dweller of undisturbed areas of tropical rainforest and humid tropical and subtropical forests in Central and South America, ranging from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is rarely found in large open areas such as steppes and grasslands and/or habitats with extremely low temperatures in winter. The fossiliferous locality is located geographically more than 700 km south of the species' southern distributional limit and thus far away from suitable habitats for its survival. This fossil record contradicts previous paleoenvironmental reconstructions for the same place and time, suggesting a mixed community with some arboreal structures capable of holding this taxon.

  20. HIV Knowledge and Beliefs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, MA; Balan, I; Marone, R; Dolezal, C; Barreda, V; Carballo Dieguez, A; Avila, MM

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62%; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men. PMID:23297085

  1. [Historical notes on Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    The Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, is the oldest in Latin America. It is over 100 years old and has a history worthy of pride. It became known as "Hospital of the pests" and was preceded by the old House of Insulation, which served as a quarantine station during epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and smallpox. The new House of Insulation, built in the neighborhood of Parque Patricios ("Barracks Hospital"), was renamed in 1904 in memory of Francisco Javier Muñiz, a former military doctor, naturalist and paleontologist. Its technical name is "Porteño Care Centre and National Reference Regional Infectious-Contagious Disease". It receives numerous national and foreign undergraduate and postgraduate students in its Departments of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Diseases. PMID:23096553

  2. Monitoring trace metals in urban aerosols from Buenos Aires city. Determination by plasma-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Smichowski, Patricia; Gómez, Dario R; Dawidowski, Laura E; Giné, María Fernanda; Bellato, Ana Claudia Sánchez; Reich, Silvia L

    2004-04-01

    A study was undertaken, within the framework of a 3 years national project, to assess the content of 13 elements in airborne particulate matter collected in representative zones of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The sampling strategy followed consisted in collecting simultaneously 67 samples of PM10 particulate matter in 9 sampling sites covering an area of about 30 km2 during one week. The collection was performed on ash-free fibre-glass filters using high volume samplers. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. Key elements, namely Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Zn and Zr, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at micro g g(-1) and ng g(-1) levels. Analyte concentration varied from 130 ng g(-1)(Mo) to over 30%(Ca). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured elemental compositions for the monitored period. The atmospheric concentration found for Pb confirms the decreasing levels of this element since the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1995: 88 ng m(-3)(2001) < 220 ng m(-3)(1997) < 3900 ng m(-3)(1994). The average S concentration above 3 microg m(-3) is somehow unexpectedly high for Buenos Aires since the relatively low S content of liquid fuels and the massive usage of natural gas imply low emissions of this element from combustion activities. To the best of our knowledge, S concentrations are reported for the first time for this city. PMID:15054536

  3. HIV Testing Practices among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C.; Dolezal, Curtis; Pando, María A.; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore HIV-testing practices among MSM in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in light of current international health guidelines that recommend frequent HIV testing for MSM who engage in high-risk behavior. Participants, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), were 500 mostly young, non-gay-identified MSM of low socioeconomic status, high levels of unemployment, living mainly in the less affluent areas surrounding Buenos Aires, and lacking health insurance. They provided blood samples for HIV testing and responded to a Computer Assisted Self Interview. Fifty-two percent had never been tested for HIV, and 20% had been tested only once; 17% were found to be HIV infected, of whom almost half were unaware of their status. Main reasons for never having tested previously were: not feeling at risk, fear of finding out results, and not knowing where to get tested. Among those previously tested, men had been tested a median of 2 times with their most recent test having occurred a median of 2.7 years prior to study enrollment. Of those who had not tested positive before entering the study, only 41% returned for their results. HIV testing was infrequent and insufficient for early detection of infection, entry into treatment, and protection of sexual partners. This was particularly the case among non-gay-identified MSM. Testing campaigns should aim to help MSM become aware of their risk behavior, decrease fear of testing by explaining available treatment resources and decreasing the stigma associated with HIV, and by publicizing information about free and confidential testing locations. Rapid HIV testing should be made available to eliminate the need for a return visit and make results immediately available to individuals who are tested. PMID:23659314

  4. HIV testing practices among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore HIV-testing practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in light of current international health guidelines that recommend frequent HIV testing for MSM who engage in high-risk behavior. Participants, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), were 500 mostly young, nongay-identified MSM of low socioeconomic status, high levels of unemployment, living mainly in the less-affluent areas surrounding Buenos Aires, and lacking health insurance. They provided blood samples for HIV testing and responded to a Computer Assisted Self Interview. Fifty-two percent had never been tested for HIV, and 20% had been tested only once; 17% were found to be HIV infected, of whom almost half were unaware of their status. Main reasons for never having tested previously were: not feeling at risk, fear of finding out results, and not knowing where to get tested. Among those previously tested, men had been tested a median of 2 times with their most recent test having occurred a median of 2.7 years prior to study enrollment. Of those who had not tested positive before entering the study, only 41% returned for their results. HIV testing was infrequent and insufficient for early detection of infection, entry into treatment, and protection of sexual partners. This was particularly the case among nongay-identified MSM. Testing campaigns should aim to help MSM become aware of their risk behavior, decrease fear of testing by explaining available treatment resources and decreasing the stigma associated with HIV, and by publicizing information about free and confidential testing locations. Rapid HIV testing should be made available to eliminate the need for a return visit and make results immediately available to individuals who are tested. PMID:23659314

  5. Dengue Virus 1 in Buenos Aires from 1999 to 2010: Towards Local Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tittarelli, Estefanía; Mistchenko, Alicia S.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a public health problem representing the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. In Argentina, Northern provinces have reported autochthonous cases since 1997, though these outbreaks have originated in bordering countries, where co-circulation of more than one serotype has been reported. In the last decade, imported dengue cases have been reported in Buenos Aires, the urban area of Argentina with the highest population density. In 2009, a dengue outbreak affected Buenos Aires and, for the first time, local transmission was detected. All cases of this outbreak were caused by DENV-1. In this report, we present the full-length sequences of 27 DENV-1 isolates, corresponding to imported cases of 1999–2000, as well as local and imported cases of the 2009 and 2010 outbreaks. We analyzed their phylogenetic and phylodynamic relationships and their global and local spread. Additionally, we characterized their genomic and phenotypic features. All cases belonged to DENV-1 genotype V. The most recent ancestor for this genotype was dated ∼1934, whereas that for the 2009 outbreak was dated ∼2007. The mean rates of nucleotide substitution were 4.98E-4 and 8.53E-4 subs./site/yr, respectively. We inferred an introduction from Paraguay in 1999–2000 and mainly from Venezuela during 2009–2010. Overall, the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site significantly exceeded the number of non-synonymous substitutions per site and 12 positively selected sites were detected. These analyses could contribute to a better understanding regarding spread and evolution of this pathogen in the Southern Cone of South America. PMID:25343372

  6. [Air contamination in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires: the current risk or future climate change, a false option].

    PubMed

    Abrutzky, Rosana; Dawidowski, Laura; Murgida, Ana; Natenzon, Claudia Eleonor

    2014-09-01

    Based on the theoretical framework of environmental risk, this article discusses the management of air quality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires in relation to current and potential impacts of toxic gases and global climate change on the health of the population. Information on historical and current management of the air was linked to the results of the South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate research project to assess danger, exposure, vulnerability and uncertainty as the dimensions of risk. By contextualizing public policies developed in recent decades on this subject, it was possible to identify emerging configurations of risk and uncertainties as accelerators of social vulnerability. On the one hand, the fact that there is a positive correlation between mortality, changes in temperature and air pollution was confirmed. On the other hand, it became clear that there is a disconnect between air quality management and health care management, while limitations were found in the proposed mitigation measures relating to emissions of greenhouse gases produced by fuel, revealing uncertainties regarding their efficacy. PMID:25184582

  7. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  8. Prediction of seasonal water-table fluctuations in La Pampa and Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanco, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2001-07-01

    The fluctuation of the water table east of La Pampa province and northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, influences agricultural production in the region because it is closely related to the alternation of dry and wet periods. Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies have been used as predictors to forecast atmospheric variables in different regions of the world. The objective of this work is to present a simple model to forecast seasonal rainfall using SST distribution in the Pacific Ocean as a predictor. Once the relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuations was established, a methodology for the prediction of water-table fluctuations was developed. A good agreement between observed and predicted water-table fluctuations was found when estimating water-table fluctuations in the summer and autumn seasons. Résumé. Les fluctuations de la nappe à l'est de la province de La Pampa et au nord-ouest de la province de Buenos Aires (Argentine) influence la production agricole de la région parce qu'elle est étroitement liée à l'alternance de saisons sèches et humides. Les anomalies de la température de surface de l'océan (SST) ont été utilisées comme prédicteurs pour prévoir les variables atmosphériques dans différentes régions du monde. L'objectif de ce travail est de présenter un modèle simple de prévision des précipitations saisonnières en utilisant comme prédicteur la distribution des SST dans l'Océan Pacifique. Une fois que la relation entre les fluctuations des précipitations et celles de la nappe a été établie, une méthodologie de prédiction des variations de la nappe a été mise au point. Un bon accord entre les variations de la nappe observées et celles prédites a été trouvé pour les estimations des variations de nappe en été et en automne. Resumen. La fluctuación del nivel freático al este de la provincia de La Pampa y al nordeste de la de Buenos Aires (Argentina) repercute en la producción agr

  9. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996. PMID:12321683

  10. Molecular characterization of Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma platys infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and domestic dogs, Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; Rodríguez Eugui, Juan I; Lebrero, Cecilia González; De Salvo, María N; Beltrán, Fernando J; Gury Dohmen, Federico E; Jado, Isabel; Anda, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    Rickettsioses, ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are emerging diseases that are mainly transmitted by arthropods and that affect humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize those pathogens in dogs and ticks from Buenos Aires city. We studied 207 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and 52 canine blood samples from poor neighborhoods of Buenos Aires city. The samples were molecularly screened for the genera Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae (3.4%) and Anaplasma platys (13.5%) was detected in ticks and blood samples, respectively. For characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (spotted fever group rickettsiae) and a fragment of the groESL gene (specific for A. platys). A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method, revealing that the sequences were closely related to those of strains from other geographic regions. The results indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Buenos Aires city and portray the potentially high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents, especially in poor neighborhoods, where there is close contact with animals in an environment of poor health conditions. PMID:24907186

  11. The HIV/AIDS epidemic and changes in injecting drug use in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Pawlowicz, María Pía; Rangugni, Victoria; Singh, Dhan Zunino; Goltzman, Paula; Cymerman, Pablo; Vila, Marcelo; Touzé, Graciela

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the changes in injecting drug use from 1998 to 2003 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Rapid Situation Assessment and Response methodology was used to obtain the information. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were triangulated: 140 current IDUs and 35 sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) were surveyed; 17 in-depth interviews with the surveyed IDUs and 2 focus groups were held, as well as ethnographic observations. The way in which risk and care practices among injecting drug users changed and the influence of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on this process are described. In recent years, the frequency of injection practices and sharing of injecting equipment has decreased, while injecting drug use is a more hidden practice in a context of increasing impact of the disease in the injecting drug use social networks and changes in the price and quality of drugs. Knowledge about these changes helps build harm reduction activities oriented to IDUs in their particular social context. PMID:16612428

  12. [Neurocysticercosis in a hospital of the city of Buenos Aires: study of 11 cases].

    PubMed

    Villa, A M; Monteverde, D A; Rodriguez, W; Boero, A; Sica, R E

    1993-09-01

    Eleven patients with diagnosis of possible neurocistycercosis were studied in our Department since 1986. All of them were adults. Eight were Bolivian citizens. The commonest neurological clinical manifestation were seizures and/or headache. Brain CT scans showed cystic lesions and calcifications in 5 patients, only calcifications in 3, enlarged ventricles in 2 and an isolated frontal cystic lesion in 1. Six out of 7 patients who were submitted to spinal fluid ELISA test showed positive response for cysticercosis. Patients were put on praziquantel (50 mg/Kg/d) or albendazol (15 mg/Kg/d) with good outcome for all them. Surgery was carried on for treatment of enlarged ventricles (2 patients) and for a like-expansive lesion (1 patient). The aim of this work is to underscore the fact that in Buenos Aires city, which previously was not within the endemic latin american area for cysticercosis, is now possible to find patients with the neurological manifestations of this parasitosis, most probably due to migration of people coming from the north provinces or from countries situated at its border where the disease is endemic. PMID:8297236

  13. Endoparasitic infections in dogs from rural areas in the Lobos District, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dopchiz, Marcela Cecilia; Lavallén, Carla Mariela; Bongiovanni, Roberto; Gonzalez, Patricia Verónica; Elissondo, Celina; Yannarella, Francisco; Denegri, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are definite hosts for several zoonotic helminthes and protozoan. Rural areas from the Lobos District in the northeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are mainly used for livestock activity, increasing in this way the number of dogs on farms as well as the human risk of parasitic infections. The aims of this research were to evaluate the endoparasitic infections in dogs from farms in the Lobos District and analyze their zoonotic importance as well as several risk practices and habits of the rural population. Forty-two dog fecal samples obtained in 21 farms were analyzed through coproparasitological methods and coproantigen tests, which resulted in an overall parasite prevalence of 69.05% and 80.95% of the parasitized farms. The most frequent parasites were Trichuris vulpis and Eucoleus aerophila (26.19%), Echinococcus granulosus (19.05%), Uncinaria stenocephala and coccids (14.29%). The analysis of epidemiological files showed several habits of the rural population considered as risk factors associated with the presence of fecal samples parasitized and the presence of E. granulosus on the farms. It is clear that people involved with the farms studied were exposed to several helminthes that could cause serious diseases like cystic echinococcosis, which can become an important public health issue and affect the economy worldwide. PMID:23538502

  14. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies. PMID:24823605

  15. [Landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Rojas, M C; Vázquez, P M; Verdier, M; Noseda, R

    2011-12-01

    The authors studied the landscape components that favour the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). They made spatial locations of anthrax outbreaks diagnosed by registered veterinary laboratories in the study area's zone of influence. As variables for study, they differentiated areas that are flooded for 20% of the time or more from primary and secondary runoff channels. They also identified areas with low-productivity pasture. Logistic regression analysis of farm populations revealed that landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks are shared runoff channels (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; confidence interval (CI) = 1.2; 4.7) and > or = 40% low-productivity pasture (OR = 5.4; CI = 3.5; 8.3). Contrary to initial assumptions, susceptibility to flooding was not a significant variable (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.5; 2.1). The authors concluded that the first step in decision-making and ensuring more efficient implementation of future anthrax control and eradication plans was to identify risk variables. PMID:22435200

  16. [Factors associated with academic success of medical students at Buenos Aires University].

    PubMed

    Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Álvarez Rodríguez, Juan E; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B; Poveda Camargo, Ricardo L; Couto, Juan L; Provenzano, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common factors relating to the academic success of medical students who were distinguished with honors at the Buenos Aires University. In 2011, 142 graduates were surveyed; the questionnaire included 59 questions on their sociodemographic environment, living conditions and social integration, motivation to study, learning capacity and health quality during their career. Compared to other students, these distinguished students more often lived in the city, far from their families; had been educated at private or universitary high schools, their economic needs were financed by their parents, who were on the whole professionals. Most of them were single and childless. The possibility of future employment oportunities (work) did not influence their choice of a medical career, academic success was important to them and they believed that success depended largely on personal effort; they knew how to handle anxiety, were sociable but independent and preferred solid experience to abstract conceptuality in order to obtain information. Our conclusion, within the current system of candidate selection, these results serve to calculate the covert self-selection mechanisms during the career, or in a more restrictive regime, to select those likely to reach academic success due to their privileged ambience. The analysis of demographic factors indicates some degree of inequality for socially disadvantaged students. Perhaps, a selection system based only on intellectual abilities would help identify and support the best candidates regardless of their social context. PMID:25555005

  17. Prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigafus, Brent H.; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    Information on disease presence can be of use to natural resource managers, especially in areas supporting threatened and endangered species that occur coincidentally with species that are suspected vectors for disease. Ad hoc reports may be of limited utility (Muths et al. 2009), but a general sense of pathogen presence (or absence) can inform management directed at T&E species, especially in regions where disease is suspected to have caused population declines (Bradley et al. 2002). The Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), a species susceptible to infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) (Bradley et al. 2002), and the non-native, invasive American Bullfrog (L. catesbeianus), a suspected vector for chytridiomycosis (Schloegel et al. 2012, Gervasi et al. 2013), both occur at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) and surrounding lands in southern Arizona. Efforts to eradicate the bullfrog from BANWR began in 1997 (Suhre, 2010). Eradication from the southern portion of BANWR was successful by 2008 but the bullfrog remains present at the Arivaca Cienega and in areas immediately adjacent to the refuge (Fig. 1). Curtailing the re-invasion of the bullfrog into BANWR will require vigilance as to ensure the health of Chiricahua Leopard Frog populations.

  18. Factors associated with H pylori epidemiology in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Cinthia; Barrado, Andrés; Janjetic, Mariana; Balcarce, Norma; Rua, Eduardo Cueto; Oshiro, Masaru; Calcagno, María L; Sarrasague, Margarita Martinez; Fuda, Julián; Weill, Ricardo; Zubillaga, Marcela; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Boccio, José

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to investigate factors associated with H pylori positivity. METHODS: A total of 395 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms referred to the Gastroente-rology Unit of the Children Hospital “Sor Maria Ludovica” were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by the 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT). A questionnaire was applied to the recruited population. RESULTS: Prevalence of H pylori infection was 40.0% in this population (mean age 9.97 ± 3.1 years). The factors associated with H pylori positivity were number of siblings (P < 0.001), presence of pet cats (P = 0.03) and birds (P = 0.04) in the household, and antecedents of gastritis among family members (P = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, number of siblings [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.61] and contact with pet cats (OR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09) remained as variables associated with H pylori infection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Argentina was similar to that reported in developed countries. Children from families with a higher crowding index and presence of pet cats have a higher risk of being colonized with H pylori. PMID:16981273

  19. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population. PMID:25444128

  20. Infection levels of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta in rat populations from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hancke, D; Suárez, O V

    2016-03-01

    Ecological studies on zoonotic parasites are crucial for the design and implementation of effective measures to prevent parasite transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors such as season, landscape unit, rat sex and rat body length, affecting the abundance of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta, a parasite of synanthropic rats, within an urban environment. A parasitological survey was undertaken on 169 rats from landscape units such as shantytowns, parklands, industrial-residential areas and scrap-metal yards in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 21.3%, although the occurrence of this species in rats was not homogeneous. The abundance of H. diminuta, using a zero-inflated negative binomial model, was correlated with rat body length. In shantytowns, abundance levels were higher than other landscape units, largely due to differences in individual environmental characteristics and rat assemblages. The populations of arthropod intermediate hosts could be subjected to seasonal fluctuations and the degree of urbanization. Shantytowns are overcrowded urban marginal settlements with most inhabitants living in precarious conditions and supporting large populations of rats, thereby increasing the risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:25869333

  1. Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Berenstein, Ada; Tarlovsky, Ana; Siniawski, Susana; Biancardi, Miguel; Ballering, Griselda; Moroni, Samanta; Schwarcz, Marta; Hernández, Susana; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Cozzi, Andrés Espejo; Freilij, Héctor; Altcheh, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk was greater in those individuals who had relatives with Chagas disease, who remember seeing kissing bugs, who were of Bolivian nationality or were born in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero. The overall prevalence of Chagas disease was 4.08%. Due to migration, Chagas disease is currently predominantly urban. The observed prevalence requires health programme activities that are aimed at urban children and their mothers. Most children were infected congenitally, which reinforces the need for Chagas disease screening of all pregnant women and their babies in Argentina. The active search for new cases is important because the appropriate treatment in children has a high cure rate. PMID:26222020

  2. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Ángela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  3. Ecotoxicological and genotoxic evaluation of Buenos Aires city (Argentina) hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Anahí; Juárez, Angela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Paz, Marta; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  4. Pediatric hydatidosis in the south-east of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dopchiz, M C; Elissondo, M C; Andresiuk, M V; Maiorini, E; Gutiérrez, A M; Muzulin, P M; Rosenzvit, M C; Lavallén, C M; Denegri, G

    2009-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a zoonosis produced by the metacestode Echinococcus spp. The aims of this research are: to contribute to the knowledge of pediatric hydatidosis in the south-east of Buenos Aires province, to study its evolution from 1993 to 2002 at the Regional Maternity and Pediatric Hospital "Dr. Victorio Tetamanti", to determine the strains involved and to discuss the importance of the disease. The clinical records of diagnosed and/or operated patients were reviewed with regard to the hydatid disease. The strain was determined by using PCRs with Eg1 121a/122a primers. Forty-four cases were analyzed. Fifty nine point one per cent of the patients were boys. The mean age was 8 SD=3.8 years. Sixty one point four per cent had urban residence. Ultrasonography was used in 61% of the cases. The hepatic location was most frequently seen and the liver/lung ratio was 1.25. Ninety point nine per cent of patients received surgical treatment. Albendazole was used in 52% of cases. The average hospitalization time was 11 days. The G1/G2 strain group was determined. This report is the first one of its kind in the studied region. The permanence of hydatidosis in the region depends on the natural transmission of the parasite in the absence of control and prevention measures. The health authorities should implement strategies of prevention and control in the study area. PMID:19623901

  5. Sea level oscillations in coastal waters of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragani, W. C.; Mazio, C. A.; Nuñez, M. N.

    2002-03-01

    Sea level oscillations, with periods ranging from a few minutes to almost 2 h, have been observed at various tide stations located on the coast of Buenos Aires. Simultaneous records of sea level elevation measured in Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata during 1982 have been spectrally analyzed. Significant spectral energy has been detected between 0.85 and 4.69 cycles per hour (cph) and the most energetic peaks have frequencies between 1.17 and 1.49 cph. Spectra, coherence, and phase difference have been analyzed for the most energetic event of the year. During that event, the most intensive spectral peak is at 1.17 cph for Mar de Ajó and Pinamar, and at 1.49 cph for Mar del Plata. Simultaneous total energy peaks at Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata, and the coherence function estimated between Mar de Ajó and Pinamar suggests that sea level oscillations could be a regional phenomenon. The analyzed data suggest that sea level oscillations could be forced by atmospheric gravity waves associated with frontal passages.

  6. [Sanitary conditions of community dining halls in greater Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Arango, J; Agostini, A; Silvestre, A; Yaafar, M; López, C; Fishmann, H

    1997-10-01

    Because of the importance of food safety for public health, a study was done to determine the microbiologic quality of foods provided to patrons of community dining halls in greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study was descriptive and was conducted in three municipalities with intermediate or high poverty indices; a sample of 52 dining halls was selected randomly from those municipalities. Information was collected from April 1994 through April 1995 by means of surveys, direct observations, and microbiologic analyses of the water and food served. Water and food analysis followed the recommendations of the Argentine Food Code and the International Commission on Microbiologic Specifications for Foods, respectively. The results were interpreted according to the values for cooked foods agreed upon by the Working Group on Food Monitoring. The microbiologic analysis revealed that 28 (54%) of the dining halls had food or water of inadequate quality and 11 (21%) had inadequacies in both. Bacillus cereus was the most commonly found pathogenic bacterium in the food samples analyzed. The factors that were significantly associated with unsatisfactory microbiologic conditions in the food and water were lack of disinfection of the water (P = 0.009), lack of hygiene in the environment (P = 0.03), the presence of rodents and insects (P = 0.05), the supply system for raw materials (P = 0.01), and a relatively small number of users, i.e., fewer than 100 (P = 0.0008). It was concluded that water disinfection and general clean-up of the dining halls were measures that could be put in place by providing education in the areas of hygiene and food handling to supervisors and employees. The results obtained also indicate the need to include a food safety evaluation among the general evaluation criteria for food assistance programs. PMID:9445768

  7. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  8. Magnetic Characterization of Stream-Sediments From Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, Affected by Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, M. A.; Sinito, A. M.; Bidegain, J. C.; Gogorza, C. S.; Jurado, S.

    2001-12-01

    A wide urban area from Northeast of Buenos Aires Province is exposed to an important anthropogenic influence, mainly due to industrial activity. In this two water streams were chosen: one of them (Del Gato stream, G) next to La Plata City and the another one (El Pescado stream, P) on the outskirts of the city. Both streams have similar characteristics, although the first one (G) has a higher input of pollutants (fluvial effluents, fly ashes, solid wastes, etc.) than the last one (P). Sediments analyzed in this work are limes from continental origin of PostPampeano (Holocene). Although, some cores were affected by sandy-limy sediments with mollusc valves from Querandino Sea (Pleistocene - later Holocene) and limy sediments of chestnut color with calcareous concretions from the Ensenadense. Magnetic measurements and geochemical studies were carried out on the samples. Among the magnetic parameters, specific susceptibility (X), X frequency-dependence (Xfd%), X temperature-dependence, Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM), Saturation IRM (SIRM), coercivity of remanence (Bcr), S ratio and SIRM/X ratio, Anhysteric Remanent Magnetization (ARM), Magnetic and Thermal Demagnetization were studied. The magnetic characteristics for both sites indicate the predominance of magnetically soft minerals on G site and relatively hard minerals on P site. Magnetite is the main magnetic carrier, Pseudo Single Domain and Single Domain grains were found. Chemical studies show (in some cases) a high concentration for some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) on the upper 22-cm. Contents of heavy metals and ARM were correlated. Very good correlation (R> 0.81) is found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe and the sum (of Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni), and a weaker correlation for Pb.

  9. ['Fueguinos', Robert Lehmann-Nitsche, and the study of the Ona at the Buenos Aires National Exhibit (1898)].

    PubMed

    Ballestero, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    Among the first projects of German anthropologist Robert Lehmann-Nitsche as head of the Museum de La Plata's Department of Anthropology in Argentina was his research on the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, deemed evolutionary 'relics' of humanity. The article explores the role of shows and exhibits as spaces where science was popularized and where late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century scholars could do field work. The focus is on the presentation of 'fueguinos' at European shows and exhibits, debates, and studies, especially the work of Robert Lehmann-Nitsche at the National Exhibit of Argentinean Industry, held in Buenos Aires, 1898. PMID:22012098

  10. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  11. Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, Enrique; Aguirre, Marina; Deschamps, Cecilia M.

    2005-10-01

    Abundant invertebrate and vertebrate fossil remains that exhibit excellent preservation and were collected from deposits of both continental and marine origins at Pilar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) add paleoenvironmental data from the northeastern Buenos Aires province area linked to sea-level oscillations and climate variability since approximately 120 ka BP (marine oxygen isotope stage [MOIS] 5e). Two new fossiliferous localities discovered in the Luján River Valley allow for detailed geological studies and new dating of molluscan shells and bones. The studies suggest salinity changes during the Last Interglacial (8 m above m.s.l., min. 14C>40 ka) and the mid-Holocene transgression (5 m above m.s.l., 7-3 14C ka BP) compared with the modern pattern along the adjacent littoral (Río de la Plata). The marine sequences represent the innermost boundary of the sea-level transgression in that area and contain a biogenic record (bivalves, gastropods, forams, ostracods) that indicates marginal marine environments (higher salinity than at present). Vertebrates and molluscs from the continental sequence suggest a freshwater habitat in which remains of marine fish must be allochthonous, probably incorporated by postmortem fluvial transport to the final depositional environment.

  12. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores. PMID:25647550

  13. "We talk of AIDS because we love life": a stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS organizations in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Alicen B; Brieger, William R

    This stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS service providing institutions in Argentina offers insights into the HIV/AIDS crisis in Spanish-speaking Latin America from an institutional level and makes recommendations for strengthening the work and functioning of these institutions. This stakeholder assessment was conducted to determine how HIV/AIDS prevention and management in Argentina affects and is affected by relevant HIV/AIDS institutions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 key leaders of organizations working in HIV/AIDS prevention in Buenos Aires including non-governmental, governmental, and academic institutions. Analyses of interviewee comments are presented according to four major themes: network connections, program resources, perceptions of success, and challenges. Key findings include the need for strengthening formal networks, increasing the involvement of other non-AIDS related social institutions in promoting HIV prevention, finding more sustainable funding options, working more effectively with the public sector to create policies and regulations favorable to the HIV/AIDS field, and addressing the lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS in Argentine culture. From leaders' comments, recommendations are made for strengthening the HIV/AIDS network among key institutions including adapting the UNAIDS "Three Ones" principal to create one crosssector office responsible for coordinating HIV/AIDS work, formalizing agreements with institutions outside of Buenos Aires, increasing the role of schools in HIV/AIDS awareness, and designing programs that address lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among Argentines. PMID:18573753

  14. [Distribution of findings of scorpions in Buenos Aires city in the period 2001-2012 and their sanitary implications].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Lanari, Laura C; Scarlato, Eduardo; Damin, Carlos; de Titto, Ernesto H; de Roodt, Adolfo R

    2016-02-01

    Scorpion stings and their associated mortality increased in the last years in Argentina, with a cumulative record of 73,617 cases and 30 deaths during the period 2001-2012, occurring almost all the deaths in pediatric patients. However, deaths due to severe envenoming by scorpion stings have not been recorded in Buenos Aires city and suburban regions, although the presence of scorpions in this city has been increasingly reported. We studied the temporal and geographical distribution of Tityus trivittatus findings in Buenos Aires city from the database of the Research and Development Area from the National Institute for Production of Biologics of the National Ministry of Health during the period 10/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 in order to correlate these findings with the distribution of health centers in the city. In this period 385 consults with identification of scorpions were recorded. Annual records showed a growing trend. Georeferenced data showed that findings appeared to increase in the surroundings of metro and train stations, mainly at the east of the city with expansion to the west. Although Toxicology services are geographically related to the zones with higher density of finding of scorpions, the accessibility to the centers with antivenom may hinder its application in the recommended time; some measures to avoid possible delays in the application of the treatment are suggested. PMID:26914081

  15. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  16. Talking to Strangers--A Sociolinguistic Experiment: Variation in Initial Dyadic Interactions between Spanish-Speakers in Early 21st Century Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziugis, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    What are the chances of a dyad of Spanish-speaking strangers using informal address in casual, initial interactions in Buenos Aires, Argentina, today? To discover the pattern(s) of contemporary address, the Principal Investigator (PI) conducted a sociolinguistic experiment focusing on strangers' initial interactions to minimize the influence of…

  17. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult…

  18. Prosodic Transfer in Learner and Contact Varieties: Speech Rhythm and Intonation of Buenos Aires Spanish and L2 Castilian Spanish Produced by Italian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Christoph; Kireva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable example of Spanish-Italian contact is the Spanish variety spoken in Buenos Aires (Porteño), which is said to be prosodically "Italianized" due to migration-induced contact. The change in Porteño prosody has been interpreted as a result of transfer from the first language (L1) that occurred when Italian immigrants learned…

  19. The Moral Dimension of Class and Gender Identity-Making: Poverty and Aggression in a Secondary School in the City of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analia Ines

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some results of a qualitative study carried out in a secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It examines how two students from poor families responded to, and viewed, aggression by peers at their school. This paper argues that the examination of students' narratives about aggression (based on classism and…

  20. Insights into Pleistocene palaeoenvironments and biostratigraphy in southern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from continental deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilinson, E.; Gasparini, G. M.; Soibelzon, L. H.; Soibelzon, E.

    2015-07-01

    The coastal cliffs of the Buenos Aires province (Argentina) have been the subject of intense paleontological studies since the XIX century. Therefore, many of the type localities in which is based the late Cenozoic Pampean biostratigraphic/chronostratigraphic scheme are located in this area. In this context, the sedimentites that crop out near the mouth of the Chocorí Creek contain a set of palaeontological sites that, because of their richness and well-preserved fossil content, hold high national and international importance. The aims of the present contribution are: 1) to make a stratigraphic and sedimentological characterization of the study area; 2) to list the fauna outcropped at these palaeontological sites and establish a biostratigraphic framework; 3) to elaborate a palaeoenvironmental model for the area. The study interval was informally subdivided into a lower, middle and upper interval. Interpretation was based on the presence of a number of key features such as architectural elements; channel:overbank ratio and palaeosol occurrence. The first two intervals were interpreted as continental deposits of a fluvio-alluvial nature and are the focus of this paper. The upper interval was related to foreshore marine deposits and will be studied in a future contribution. The lower interval is characterized mainly by overbank architectural elements in which calcisols and argillic protosols were identified. Channel-fill deposits are isolated and surrounded by fine-grained overbank successions and sedimentary structures are suggestive of mixed-load transport. The contact between the lower and middle intervals is an irregular, highly erosive surface characterized by a significant vertical change in the facies. This surface defines the base of multistorey sandbodies which's internal arrangement alongside with the low participation of overbank deposits suggests deposition by a braided fluvial system. Palaeosols and vertebrate fossils were used as palaeoclimatic

  1. Late Quaternary marginal marine deposits and palaeoenvironments from northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, M. L.; Whatley, R. C.

    The late Quaternary marginal marine deposits along eastern Argentina (Southwestern Atlantic) are reviewed according to our present knowledge. In the northeastern coastal area of Buenos Aires Province they have been assigned to a series of transgressions and regressions ranging from the late Pliocene to the late Quaternary. The most widely accepted model is Frenguelli's (1957) classical chronostratigraphical scheme of: 'Belgranense', late Pleistocene marine sediments at 3-6 m above m.s.l. and ca. 26,000->35,000 14C years BP, the 'Querandinense', Pleistocene-Holocene estuarine sediments below or at present m.s.l., and the most extensive 'Platense', mid-Holocene marine deposits at 4.5-2 m above m.s.l. dated at ca. 8000-1340 14C years BP. The restricted 'Belgranense' deposits, recorded in Samborombon Bay, in Magdalena at ca. 32,000 BP, near Mar Chiquita at ca. 24,900 and 30,500 BP and southwards in Bahía Blanca at ca. 26,000-35,500 BP, may belong to an interstadial (González et al., 1986). The molluscan composition suggests a marine invasion of the area but not a typical interglacial cycle characterized by euhaline and warm water elements. However, the oxygen isotope record argues against an interstadial during the interval 34-27 ka and the chronological control for these deposits is very poor, suggesting that they most probably have been elevated neotectonically. The Pleistocene-Holocene 'Querandinense' deposits, extensively distributed along the Bonaerensian coastal plain and continental shelf (ca. 11,000 14C years BP), with very low faunal diversity, abundance of freshwater ostracods and absence of the warm water molluscs characteristic of the Holocene ridges, indicate low salinity and cool water conditions. Further dating and isotope analysis of these deposits are required for a better understanding of the chronology of climatic events by the end of the Pleistocene in this area and to establish whether or not they could correspond to the Younger Dryas event of

  2. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  3. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  4. Three new species and one new record of Campylaimus (Diplopeltidae, Nematoda) from Argentine coasts (Buenos Aires and Santa Cruz, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Villares, Gabriela; Martelli, Antonela; Russo, Virginia Lo; Pastor, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Two new Campylaimus species from Arroyo Pareja, Buenos Aires province and one new species and one new record of Campylaimus from Puerto San Julián, Chubut province are described. The three species are characterized by the shape of the copulatory apparatus of the male and the presence of precloacal papillae. Campylaimus bonariensis sp. nov. has slender and arcuate spicules, with well-developed cephalization at the proximal end, tubular gubernaculum and three precloacal papillae; Campylaimus arcuatus sp. nov. has curved spicules, with well-developed cephalization at the proximal end, gubernaculum with dorso-caudally directed apophysis and five precloacal papillae; Campylaimus patagonicus sp. nov. has slender and arcuate spicules without proximal cephalization, gubernaculum with dorso-caudally directed apophysis and two precloacal papillae. An emended diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus and an identification key to species based on male characters are given. PMID:24698903

  5. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11-12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  6. [From educational and health tourism for children to social tourism: vacation camps in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bruno, Perla

    2015-12-01

    The early twentieth century saw the rise of vacation camps for frail children as educational and health-giving experiences provided by medical and philanthropic organizations. This article analyzes some of these early experiences, seen here as the predecessors of social tourism, in the Province of Buenos Aires. A combination of written sources are examined, mainly institutional reports, periodicals such as the Monitor de la Educación Común - published by the Consejo Nacional de Educación (National Board of Education) - or laws, with photographs and plans for different examples. I argue that these buildings were both physical and cultural "brands" in the places where they were located, and that their architectural structure encapsulated ideas about leisure space and cures in unique natural environments. PMID:26625926

  7. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11–12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  8. ["I was like a ticking bomb": Experiences of severe maternal morbidity in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Szulik, Dalia; Szwarc, Lucila

    2015-12-01

    With the objective of recording and analyzing women's experiences with severe maternal morbidity from their perspective, between February and May 2011, 16 semi-structured interviews with women treated in the public hospitals of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area who suffered from severe maternal morbidity were carried out. In their testimonies, women report a number of delays in care, such as difficulties in identifying the problem on time, obstacles in accessing health centers and important faults in the management of obstetric emergencies. They describe the event as surprising, distressing and painful, a perception reinforced by the violation of their rights and significant communication problems. These findings are meant as a step towards the holistic and comprehensive study of severe maternal morbidity, as well as to confirm the urgent need for further research from a gender and humans rights perspective. PMID:26676597

  9. Entrainment Heat Flux Computed with Lidar and Wavelet Technique in Buenos Aires During Last Chaitén Volcano Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, Ezequiel Eduardo; Salvador, Jacobo Omar; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Pallotta, Juan Vicente; Otero, Lidia Ana; Quel, Eduardo Jaime

    2016-06-01

    At Lidar Division of CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET) a multiwavelength Raman-Rayleigh lidar optimized to measure the atmospheric boundary layer is being operated. This instrument is used for monitoring important aerosol intrusion events in Buenos Aires, such as the arrival of volcanic ashes from the Chaitén volcano eruption on May 2008. That was the first monitoring of volcanic ash with lidar in Argentina. In this event several volcanic ash plumes with high aerosol optical thickness were detected in the free atmosphere, affecting the visibility, surface radiation and therefore, the ABL evolution. In this work, the impact of ashes in entrainment flux ratio is studied. This parameter is obtained from the atmospheric boundary layer height and entrainment zone thickness using algorithms based on covariance wavelet transform.

  10. Acute exposure to Buenos Aires air particles (UAP-BA) induces local and systemic inflammatory response in middle-aged mice: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Orona, Nadia S; Ferraro, Sebastián A; Astort, Francisco; Morales, Celina; Brites, Fernando; Boero, Laura; Tiscornia, Gisela; Maglione, Guillermo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Yakisich, Sebastian; Tasat, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze in vivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. PMID:26255684

  11. [Correlation between results of the residency admission test and of pediatric certification test in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Juan Pablo; Hamui, Magali; Paganini, Agustina; Torres, Fernando A; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Eiguchi, Kumiko; Ferrero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In the city of Buenos Aires (CABA), pediatric residents enter the residency program after taking a unified admission test. After completion of the program and passing a final test, the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) provides a professional certification. The objective of this study is to determine if the results obtained in the residency admission test (RAT) and those of the professional certification test (PCT) correlated. This is a cross-sectional study, that included all subjects who passed the pediatrics RAT in CABA in 2004-2009, and that attended the pediatric PCT of the UBA. The score for each subject in both tests was obtained and the corresponding correlation was calculated. Results were divided in quintiles, and the proportion of subjects who improved their position in the PCT with respect to the RAT was calculated. Data from 303 subjects was obtained. The RAT showed a median of 45.0 (over 60 maximum) (IC-range: 43.0-48.7), and the PCT showed a median of 6 points (over 10 max.)(IC-range: 6-8). A significative correlation between results in RAT and PCT was observed (r = 0.37, p < 0.001). Based on their position in the RAT, 43.8% of subjects improved their position in the PCT, without differences between residents attending pediatric and general hospitals (45.6 vs. 31.5%; p = 0.1). In the case of pediatric residents, results of the residency admission test correlate with those obtained in the professional certification test. PMID:27295703

  12. Assessment of the possible drought impact on farm production in the SE of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Tomas; Di Bella, Carlos; Oricchio, Patricio

    The extended drought situation in the southeast of Buenos Aires during the second half of year 2000 caused the government to invoke emergency laws. This action allowed farmers in the area to receive waivers for taxes and loans. The emergency laws remained in force during 2001, without further verification of environmental conditions for agriculture. Developing an assessment of the actual drought situation was relevant for taxing and national credit institutions. An assessment was performed of the actual drought situation of farms during the spring of 2001 in seven counties in Buenos Aires Province area. The assessment was done by comparing vegetation index values (NDVI)—as measured from NOAA-AVHRR satellite data—of September 2001 against NDVI time series values from previous years. Five categories were established to describe the relationship between the present index and the average of the time series. Farms within the area covered by the study were assigned to the appropriate category using GIS tools. It was confirmed that most of the area had NDVI values that were similar to the average values, or even higher. It was found that there were subareas where the vegetation index had decreased. For those cases, LANDSAT TM images of the area of September and October of 2001 were used for a detailed inspection. The study included rainfall data as well, confirming a normal regional situation. Both low and high-resolution satellite images were found to be useful tools for obtaining fast, economic, objective and conclusive results about the production capability of individual farms as well as the region as a whole.

  13. High rates of serum Se deficiency among HIV and HCV infected and uninfected drug users in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Heidi B; Benetucci, Jorge; Muzzio, Estela; Redini, Liliana; Naveira, Jorge; Segura, Marcela; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Tang, Alice M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and correlates of low serum Se and determine whether HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or types of drugs used are associated with serum Se in a cohort of infected and uninfected drug users. Design Independent correlates of low serum Se levels based on data collected from food recalls, physical exams, and clinical status questionnaires were identified using multivariate analysis. Setting Buenos Aires, Argentina Subjects A total of 205 (25 females and 180 males) former and current drug users Results Drug users had an average serum Se level of 69.8±32.8 μg/dl, and 82% were considered deficient (< 85μg/l). Multivariate analyses found that HIV and/or HCV infection had lower mean Se compared to healthy, uninfected drug users (HIV/HCV co-infection: −25.3 μg/l (SE =7.6, p=0.001); HIV alone: −28.9 μg/l (SE=6.9, p<0.001); HCV alone −19.4 μg/l (SE = 7.1, p=0.006). Current and previous drug use was associated with higher serum Se. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with Se status. Conclusions Low serum Se levels are highly prevalent among drug users in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se supplementation and/or dietary interventions may be warranted in drug users who are at high risk of HIV and/or HCV infection. PMID:21740621

  14. Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and European hare (Lepus europaeus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Pierangeli, Nora; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2013-10-01

    In Argentina, hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is widespread. The south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is one of the three regions where hydatidosis is endemic. Although domestic dogs and sheep are considered to be the main hosts for E. granulosus, the potential role of wildlife in the local transmission of E. granulosus has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the hydatidosis/echinococcosis prevalence in European hare (Lepus europaeus) and Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), two abundant species with a strong predator-prey relationship in rural areas of Buenos Aires province using different diagnostic tests. A total of 61 fox intestines were examined, finding that 52 (85.2%) harbored at least one helminth species. However, no adult or immature form of Echinococcus sp. was found in the intestinal contents. Coproparasitological analysis and Copro-ELISA followed by Copro-PCR were used as supplementary diagnostic tests. Only one (1.7%) of 59 fecal samples was positive to Taeniidae eggs by coproparasitological analysis, but this same sample was negative by the Copro-ELISA test. The analysis by Copro-ELISA showed 6 of 57 (10.6%) positive samples, but the Copro-PCR tests carried out on these samples were negative to E. granulosus. A total of 6,808 lungs, 3,576 livers, and 3,542 hearts of hunted hares were examined and palpated, but no structure resembling hydatid cysts were detected. Our results suggest that hares and Pampas foxes are not currently important wild reservoirs of E. granulosus in the studied area. PMID:23892482

  15. Spatial distribution of ground-level urban background O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L; Venegas, Laura E

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a recently developed urban-scale atmospheric dispersion model (DAUMOD-GRS) is applied to evaluate the ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations resulting from anthropogenic area sources of NOx and VOC in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA). The statistical comparison of model results with observations (including new available data from seventeen sites) shows a good model performance. Estimated summer highest diurnal O3 1-h concentrations in the MABA vary between 15 ppb in the most urbanised area and 53 ppb in the suburbs. All values are below the air quality standard. Several runs are performed to evaluate the impact of possible future emission reductions on O3 concentrations. Under all hypothetical scenarios, the maximum diurnal O3 1-h concentration obtained for the area is slightly reduced (up to 4%). However, maximum diurnal O3 concentrations could increase at some less urbanised areas of MABA depending on the relative reductions of the emissions of NOx and VOC. PMID:23246369

  16. [Comparison of the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization among children with different health care coverage in the cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay)].

    PubMed

    López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care. PMID:25237803

  17. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women. PMID:23989627

  18. Winter survival of immature instars of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae), in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Juan P; Mulieri, Pablo R; Patitucci, Luciano D; Sander, Valeria A; Rodríguez, Patricia L; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a whole year research on the ecology of Mansonia indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, Costanera Sur Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The usage of different floating plants by immature instars and their overwintering was analyzed. The percentage of usage of the available floating macrophytes (Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia) by the larvae and pupae was studied. Also, we defined positivity (P+) as the percentage of plants with immature instars for each plant genus on a monthly basis. Ma. immature instars were captured throughout the year and Pistia was the resource most commonly exploited by the mosquitoes. The percentage of fourth-instar larvae and pupae on Pistia roots with respect to total immature instars captured was assessed on a monthly and seasonal basis. The proportion of fourth-instar larvae and pupae from both species of Mansonia on water lettuce roots, showed significant differences between months and seasons. Our results suggest that the populations of Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, survive during winter mainly as fourth-instar larvae. PMID:17072469

  19. An Assessment of Spontaneous Vegetation Recovery in Aggregate Quarries in Coastal Sand Dunes in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Montoni, María Victoria; Fernández Honaine, Mariana; del Río, Julio Luis

    2014-08-01

    Sand dune quarries are a location of common aggregate mining activity developed in coastal areas, especially in the southeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In this article, spontaneous plant development after extraction activity ceased was evaluated. Five areas (three quarried and two natural/conservation areas) were sampled for plant cover and composition as well as sediment characterization. Different indexes, principal component analysis, and cluster analyses were applied to compare the areas. The dominant families observed in four of the five areas were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, and most of the species are commonly found in sandy and humid soils and/or modified/anthropized ones. Percentages of plant cover increased with time because of the cessation of active aggregate extraction. Indexes and multivariate analyses showed that it was possible to distinguish quarried and natural areas based on composition and vegetation cover. The distribution of plant species among the four areas responded to the presence of mining activity, but it also responded to the topographical position and consequently the depth of the groundwater level. Besides these differences, the four areas shared many native species. The results might indicate that once the activity has ceased, quarried areas may spontaneously and quickly develop a plant community with some similarities to those present in the nonquarried areas. However, given that the extracting activity involves the removal of the soil, revegetation of this type of environment depends on the presence of natural areas in the surroundings, which can serve as a source of seeds and propagules for plant regeneration.

  20. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  1. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-04-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  2. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  3. New toxics, new poverty: a social understanding of the freebase cocaine/Paco in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, María E

    2011-01-01

    Included within the field of research on changes in drug use patterns and vulnerability are conditions of emergency related to economic crisis, wars, and political conflict. This study addresses the complex connections between the rapid propagation of freebase cocaine (FBC)-locally known as "pasta base" or "Paco" in Argentina and the normalization of the consequences of Argentina's 2001-2002 political-economic crisis. On the basis of the results of an ethnographic study carried out in three neighborhoods of the Greater Buenos Aires area between 2001 and 2005, this article aims to analyze how changes in the material and social living conditions are interrelated with the high toxicity of FBC/Paco and engender the emerging compulsion of its consumption and deterioration to the bodies, subjectivities, and social activities of active drug users from these shantytowns. By analyzing the changes in transactions directly or indirectly involving drugs-specifically those ranging from cocaine to FBC/Paco-we can argue how structural poverty, "new poverty," is not only associated with the expansion of FBC/Paco but is also shaped by its use, modes of consumption, associated health problems, and sufferings. PMID:21707470

  4. Embryonic and Morphological Development of Larvae and Juvenile of the Buenos Aires Tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Pisces Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother. PMID:25949207

  5. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks. PMID:23989624

  6. [Young killers: study of distinctive features with youth that have committed other crimes in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Wiese, Renata; Folino, Jorge O

    2009-01-01

    The violence in its different forms, is a social problem that calls for multidisciplinary approaches in actions aimed at prevention. Among the skills needed to guide preventive policies, the highlights are risk and protective factors for violent behavior. This study aims to contribute, from the psychiatric perspective, in exploring factors influencing the behavior of homicidal adolescents. We studied a group of cases (n = 15) of young killers and a control group (n = 35) of juveniles who committed other crimes (simple or qualified theft or rape), all of them institutionalized by court order in La Plata city, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In both groups were evaluated sociodemographic, criminological and psychosocial characteristics through ad hoc questionnaire, as well as psychiatric clinical variables through the MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The results showed that the multiple factors studied were not significantly associated with the condition of being young murderer. The findings aim to sustain that, in this vulnerable population of youth, homicidal behavior depends more on the circumstances than of personal peculiarities. The authors suggest that preventive actions in adolescents with these risk factors could have an effect on criminal behavior in general, as in homicidal behavior in particular. PMID:19434297

  7. Social perceptions about community life with people with mental illness: study of a discharge program in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Gómez, Sara; Ares-Lavalle, Guadalupe; Fernández, Marina; Hartfiel, María Isabel; Borelli, Mariana; Canales, Valeria; Stolkiner, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Effects of living near people with mental illness in community settings have been researched as part of psychiatric reform evaluation. However, these studies have been carried out mostly in industrialized countries, where social contexts differ from those in which psychiatric reform is now being implemented. To analyze the effects of community life with people with mental illness in the neighborhoods in which they live, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A questionnaire was administered to randomly-selected neighbors of group homes of a discharge program and an equivalent control area (n = 236). Data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Significant differences were found between being a neighbor and having a high degree of acceptance toward people with mental illness. In addition, significant associations were found between neighbors having a high-perceived social cohesion and having a high level of acceptance toward the mentally ill. Living near people with mental illness is associated with better acceptance toward them; these results are congruent with those results found in other cultural contexts. PMID:24965092

  8. The glacial geomorphology of the Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Puerreydón ice lobes, Central Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendle, Jacob; Thorndycraft, Varyl; Palmer, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Patagonia is ideally located for reconstructions of late Quaternary ice-climate interaction(s) in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, yet many questions remain concerning post-LGM ice sheet retreat dynamics across the region. While modern-day glaciation is restricted to three small icefields (the North and South Patagonian and Cordillera Darwin icefields), during the Quaternary, and at the LGM, episodes of significant ice advance culminated in an expansive Patagonian ice sheet (PIS) centered over the southern Andes, for which a long and well-preserved landform record exists. Previous mapping in the region has either aimed to achieve regional coverage, necessarily omitting more subtle/complex features suggestive of certain ice-marginal processes, or has focused on the identification of palaeo-ice limits (e.g. moraine ridges) for geochronological applications, with little attention given to other (e.g. glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine) features that are significant for understanding post-LGM ice sheet retreat dynamics. This poster presents a comprehensive and highly detailed (<30m spatial resolution) map of the glacial geomorphology of the Lago Buenos Aires (46.4°S) and Lago Puerreydón (47.2°S) ice lobes, major outlet glaciers of the central sector of the former PIS. The map allows refined reconstructions of glacial and, in particular, deglacial ice-marginal processes, and will underpin further analysis on the retreat history of the palaeo-ice lobes using high-resolution lithostratigraphic (varve) analyses.

  9. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen emitted in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires to coastal waters of de la Plata River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    The Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA) is the third mega-city in Latin America. Atmospheric N emitted in the area deposits to coastal waters of de la Plata River. This study describes the parameterizations included in DAUMOD-RD (v.3) model to evaluate concentrations of nitrogen compounds (nitrogen dioxide, gaseous nitric acid and nitrate aerosol) and their total (dry and wet) deposition to a water surface. This model is applied to area sources and CALPUFF model to point sources of NO x in the MABA. The models are run for 3 years of hourly meteorological data, with a spatial resolution of 1 km 2. Mean annual deposition is 69, 728 kg-N year -1 over 2 339 km 2 of river. Dry deposition contributions of N-NO 2, N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- to this value are 44%, 22% and 20%, respectively. Wet deposition of N-HNO 3 and N-NO 3- represents 3% and 11% of total annual value, respectively. This very low contribution results from the rare occurrence of rainy hours with wind blowing from the city to the river. Monthly dry deposition flux estimated for coastal waters of MABA varies between 7 and 13 kg-N km -2 month -1. These results are comparable to values reported for other coastal zones in the world.

  10. [Prevalence and seasonal variation of Pediculosis capitis in children and the young population of the health region, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, D del C; Abrahamovich, A H; Cicchino, A C; Rigoni, A M; Raffaeli, C; de Barrio, A

    1994-08-01

    The prevalence of the parasitic disease Pediculosis capitis was studied over a period of one year from 1-8-1992 to 31-7-1993, in Sanitary Region XI of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina which is composed of 15 districts located on the ENE, and in other areas under the influence of the Hospital Interzonal de Agudos, Especialidad Pediatría "Sup. Sor María Ludovica" de Plata, center of this Sanitary Region. A total number of 552 individuals of from medium to medium low social level of the child population of from 0 to 16 years of age were sampled at random over 52 consecutive weeks. All individuals who actually had the parasite at the time of examination were considered as positive for this disease. The results are expressed in terms of prevalence and its monthly and seasonal variations analyzed. Prevalence showed high values during all months, the lowest being in February (12%) and the highest in August (56.8%), the annual mean being of 38.04% (+/- 4.05%). Seasonally, its lowest value occurred in the summer (16.8%), the values for the remaining seasons being very similar to one another, but always higher than 38%. PMID:7660026

  11. Resistance to insecticides and effect of synergists on permethrin toxicity in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Picollo, M I; Vassena, C V; Mougabure Cueto, G A; Vernetti, M; Zerba, E N

    2000-09-01

    Permethrin-resistant colonies of Pediculus capitis (De Geer) from Buenos Aires were used to establish a resistance profile and to examine resistance mechanisms. All permethrin-resistant head lice (resistance ratio from 52.8 to > 88.7) were also resistant to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio from 40.86 to > 48.39) and deltamethrin (resistance ratio from 16.24 to 38.06). No cross-resistance to carbaryl was found in any of the pyrethroid-resistant P. capitis tested. Otherwise, all resistant colonies showed low to high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin. This pyrethroid had never been applied as a pediculicide in Argentina; however, the high level of resistance found in these permethrin-resistant colonies (resistance ratio from 9.74 to 50.97) demonstrated that pyrethroid cross-resistance occurred to this novel insecticide. Treatment with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triphenylphosphate (TPP) significantly decreased the toxicity of permethrin in the four colonies tested. The esterase inhibitor TPP produced lower enhancement of toxicity than the multifunction oxidase inhibitor PBO in the colonies having the highest resistance levels. Results presented here concerning the cross-resistance profile and synergism by enzyme inhibitors in permethrin-resistant head lice demonstrated that enhanced metabolism was involved in the pyrethroid resistance. However, the substantial degree of resistance that remained after synergism suggested the presence of another resistance mechanism. Cross-resistance to pyrethroid and susceptibility to the carbamate carbaryl suggested a common action mechanism. PMID:11004784

  12. Environmental health education in schools as strategy for rodent control: an experience in a shantytown of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hancke, Diego; Suárez, Olga Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of this study was to assess the possibility of including elements of environmental health education within the curriculum of a school located in a shantytown of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. An environmental health education campaign was designed to introduce school-aged children to the problems posed by the lack of environmental sanitation, by using rodents as indicators of environmental disorder. The methodology implemented consisted of a lecture and two practical activities where the participating children were the evaluators of their neighborhood environment, recording the environmental factors that indicate direct or indirect presence of rodents and carrying out a survey about rodents among their neighbors. To assess the impact of the activities, an anonymous questionnaire was performed with the students before and after the campaign. The results showed that students were able to identify the man-made factors which favor the presence of rodents and were encouraged to propose strategies related to environmental sanitation to reduce rodent proliferation and the transmission of their parasites. This study demonstrated the feasibility of performing environmental health education campaigns in school-aged children by using practical activities to stimulate observation, participation, and comprehensive understanding of the problems posed by urban pests. PMID:24136385

  13. Factors associated with infection by Campylobacter fetus in beef herds in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, D F; Perez, A M; Carpenter, T E; Martinez, A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a major venereal pathogen of cattle that is considered to be widespread among the livestock population of Argentina. The disease accounts for a 10% reduction in the weaning rate of Argentine infected herds and annual losses of $165 million. A case-control, questionnaire-based study was developed with the objective of quantifying the association between C. fetus infection and demographic, husbandry, and sanitary factors in 196 herds located in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Abortions observed in the herd (OR=3.08, 95% CI=1.52, 6.23), and trespassing of bulls from neighboring herds (OR=2.03, 95% CI=0.98, 4.20), were positively associated with the risk of finding C. fetus-infected bulls, whereas buying bulls was a protective factor for the disease (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.26, 1.08). Results presented here will help to develop and implement actions aimed at preventing the spread and reducing the incidence of C. fetus infection in the beef cattle population of Argentina. PMID:21737166

  14. U-Th and 10Be constraints on sediment recycling in proglacial settings, Lago Buenos Aires, Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogez, Antoine; Herman, Frédéric; Pelt, Eric; Norton, Kevin; Darvill, Christopher; Christl, Marcus; Morvan, Gilles; Reuschlé, Thierry; Chabaux, François

    2016-04-01

    The sedimentary cycle includes the formation by erosion of rocks, transport and deposition. While erosion and deposition can be documented, the history of sediments between the time it is extracted from the rocks and ultimately deposited into basins remains a major challenge. However, the mechanism of transfer and alteration of the sediments during transport plays a key role in the evolution of basins, feedbacks between erosion and climate, and glacial-interglacial variability of sediment transport and weathering. This is particularly true in proglacial settings because large overdeepenings, in particular, are potential sediment traps for which the efficiency at evacuating those sediments is largely unknown. The Lago Buenos Aires moraines in Patagonia are particularly interesting because they are imbricated from the older in the outer part to the younger in the inner part of the system. We sampled fine grained sediments from these moraines and measured U-Th isotopes in the 4-50 μm silicate fraction. Deposition ages were refined using 10Be exposure ages. We show first that the comminution ages model can be improved by measuring also Th isotopes, from which weathering rates can be deduced. Moreover we show from our data that there is a time lag of 300 kyr on average between erosion and deposition in the moraine. This could be attributed to the long residence time of sediments in the lake overdeepening. This conclusion raises perspectives about the transport times and dynamic of the sediments during a whole sedimentary cycle, and the subsequent effect on weathering. This conclusion could also contradict some assumptions commonly made for our erosion rates/sediment fluxes reconstructions based on river sediments analysis, in recently deglaciated catchments.

  15. Childhood Sexual Experiences with an Older Partner among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C.; Pando, María A.; Mabragaña, Marina; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to describe childhood sexual experiences with older partners (CSEOP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. MSM were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling. They responded to a computer administered self-interview with questions on CSEOP, operationalized as manual, oral, genital, or anal contact prior to age 13 with a partner at least 4 years older. Of the 500 respondents, only 25% identified as gay. Eighteen percent of the respondents reported CSEOP, the majority of whom did not feel they were hurt by the experience and did not consider it to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Over two-thirds of MSM who reported CSEOP said that their older partner was a female. Only 4% of those with a female partner felt their experience was CSA compared to 44% of those who had a male partner. Among all men reporting CSEOP, those who felt sexually abused were more likely to have been physically forced or threatened, physically hurt, and emotionally hurt than those who did not feel sexually abused. Having CSEOP, being hurt by the experiences, and perceiving the experiences as sexual abuse were not associated with current HIV sexual risk or substance use behavior. In this sample of MSM in Argentina, a substantial minority reported CSEOP. Those who felt they had been sexually abused were much more likely to have had an older male partner than an older female partner, and were more likely to report having been physically forced and threatened by their older partner. PMID:24210270

  16. Phytoplankton chlorophyte structure as related to ENSO events in a saline lowland river (Salado River, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Lía C; Gabellone, Néstor A; Claps, María C; Casco, María A; Quaíni, Karina P; Neschuk, Nancy C

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the phytoplankton present in the lower sector of the Salado River (Buenos Aires, Argentina) for 10 years (1995–2005) and detected significant changes occurring in chlorophyte abundance and species richness during La Niña event (1998–1999), which period was analyzed throughout the entire basin (main stream and tributaries). We compared the physicochemical and biologic variables between two El Niño–La Niña–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods – El Niño (March 1997–January 1998) and La Niña (May 1998–May 1999) – to identify possible indicators of a relationship between climatic anomalies and chlorophyte performance. Chlorophyte density increased during the La Niña. Under normal or extreme hydrologic conditions, mobile (Chlamydomonas spp.) and nonmobile (Monoraphidium spp.) chlorophytes codominated. These species belonged to Reynolds's functional groups X1 and X2, those typical of nutrient-enriched environments. Comparative analyses between El Niño and La Niña periods indicated significant differences in physicochemical (K+, dissolved polyphenols, particulate reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, pH) and biologic (species diversity and richness, phytoplankton and chlorophyte total densities) variables between the two periods at all basin sites. During the La Niña condition, species richness was greater owing to interconnected shallow lakes and drainage-channel inputs, while the Shannon diversity index was lower because of the high abundance values of Monoraphidium minutum. A detailed analysis of the chlorophytes in the entire basin, indicated that changes in density and species dominance occurred on a regional scale although diverse chlorophyte assemblages were identified in the different sectors of the Salado River basin. After La Niña event, the entire basin had the potential to revert to the previous density values, showing the resilience to global environmental changes and the ability to reestablish the general conditions of

  17. Phytoplankton chlorophyte structure as related to ENSO events in a saline lowland river (Salado River, Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Solari, Lía C; Gabellone, Néstor A; Claps, María C; Casco, María A; Quaíni, Karina P; Neschuk, Nancy C

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the phytoplankton present in the lower sector of the Salado River (Buenos Aires, Argentina) for 10 years (1995-2005) and detected significant changes occurring in chlorophyte abundance and species richness during La Niña event (1998-1999), which period was analyzed throughout the entire basin (main stream and tributaries). We compared the physicochemical and biologic variables between two El Niño-La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods - El Niño (March 1997-January 1998) and La Niña (May 1998-May 1999) - to identify possible indicators of a relationship between climatic anomalies and chlorophyte performance. Chlorophyte density increased during the La Niña. Under normal or extreme hydrologic conditions, mobile (Chlamydomonas spp.) and nonmobile (Monoraphidium spp.) chlorophytes codominated. These species belonged to Reynolds's functional groups X1 and X2, those typical of nutrient-enriched environments. Comparative analyses between El Niño and La Niña periods indicated significant differences in physicochemical (K(+), dissolved polyphenols, particulate reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, pH) and biologic (species diversity and richness, phytoplankton and chlorophyte total densities) variables between the two periods at all basin sites. During the La Niña condition, species richness was greater owing to interconnected shallow lakes and drainage-channel inputs, while the Shannon diversity index was lower because of the high abundance values of Monoraphidium minutum. A detailed analysis of the chlorophytes in the entire basin, indicated that changes in density and species dominance occurred on a regional scale although diverse chlorophyte assemblages were identified in the different sectors of the Salado River basin. After La Niña event, the entire basin had the potential to revert to the previous density values, showing the resilience to global environmental changes and the ability to reestablish the general conditions of stability. PMID

  18. Childhood sexual experiences with an older partner among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Pando, María A; Mabragaña, Marina; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to describe childhood sexual experiences with older partners (CSEOP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. MSM were recruited through respondent driven sampling. They responded to a computer administered self-interview with questions on CSEOP, operationalized as manual, oral, genital, or anal contact prior to age 13 with a partner at least 4 years older. Of the 500 respondents, only 25% identified as gay. Eighteen percent of the respondents reported CSEOP, the majority of whom did not feel they were hurt by the experience and did not consider it to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Over two-thirds of MSM who reported CSEOP said that their older partner was a female. Only 4% of those with a female partner felt their experience was CSA compared to 44% of those who had a male partner. Among all men reporting CSEOP, those who felt sexually abused were more likely to have been physically forced or threatened, physically hurt, and emotionally hurt than those who did not feel sexually abused. Having CSEOP, being hurt by the experiences, and perceiving the experiences as sexual abuse were not associated with current HIV sexual risk or substance use behavior. In this sample of MSM in Argentina, a substantial minority reported CSEOP. Those who felt they had been sexually abused were much more likely to have had an older male partner than an older female partner, and were more likely to report having been physically forced and threatened by their older partner. PMID:24210270

  19. Functional Analysis of the 60-Nucleotide Duplication in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Buenos Aires Strain Attachment Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hotard, Anne L.; Laikhter, Elizabeth; Brooks, Kelsie; Hartert, Tina V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are two subgroups of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), A and B, and within each subgroup, isolates are further divided into clades. Several years ago, multiple subgroup B isolates which contained a duplication of 60 nucleotides in the glycoprotein (G) gene were described. These isolates were given a new clade designation of BA based on the site of isolation, Buenos Aires, Argentina. BA RSV strains have since become the predominant circulating clade of RSV B viruses. We hypothesized that the duplicated region in G serves to enhance the function of G in the virus life cycle. We generated recombinant viruses that express a consensus BA G gene or a consensus BA G gene lacking the duplication (GΔdup). We determined that the duplicated region functions during virus attachment to cells. Additionally, we showed that in vitro, the virus containing the duplication has a fitness advantage compared to the virus without the duplication. Our data demonstrate that the duplicated region in the BA strain G protein augments virus attachment and fitness. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pathogen for infants for which there is no vaccine. Different strains of RSV circulate from year to year, and the predominating strains change over time. Subgroup B RSV strains with a duplication in the attachment glycoprotein (G) emerged and then became the dominant B genotype. We found that a recombinant virus harboring the duplication bound more efficiently to cells and was more fit than a recombinant strain lacking the duplication. Our work advances a mechanism for an important natural RSV mutation. PMID:26018171

  20. Healthcare personnel infected with novel influenza A H1N1 virus in university hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Querci, Marcia; Stryjewski, Martin E; Herrera, Fabián; Temporiti, Elena; Alcalá, Wanda; Chavez, Natalia; Figueras, Laura; Barberis, Fernanda; Echavarría, Marcela; Videla, Cristina; Martínez, Alfredo; Carballal, Guadalupe; Bonvehí, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Data on the clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes for healthcare personnel (HCP) infected with influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1) are limited. From June to July 2009, a prospective study was conducted among HCP with influenza-like illness (ILI) at university hospitals in Buenos Aires. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to diagnose H1N1. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with H1N1. Among 1519 HCP, 96 (6.3%) were diagnosed with an ILI. Of these, 85 (88.5%) were swabbed for H1N1 detection, with 43 positive cases (2.8%). Seasonal influenza immunization was recorded in 76%. Comparison of H1N1-positive vs. H1N1-negative cases showed that H1N1-positive cases more frequently had asthenia (72% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) and cough (79% vs. 43%, p = 0.008) and less frequently had diarrhoea (9% vs. 29%, p = 0.03) and prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir (5% vs. 31%, p = 0.002). The logistic regression model showed that presence of cough (odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24, 21.4) was associated with an increased risk of H1N1. Prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.43) was associated with a lower probability of H1N1 infection. A high proportion of HCP with an ILI were infected with H1N1. Complication rates were relatively low. Prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir was associated with a lower risk of developing H1N1. PMID:20854220

  1. [Histoplasmosis outbreak in Morón, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Negroni, R; Duré, R; Ortiz Nareto, A; Arechavala, A I; Maiolo, E I; Santiso, G M; Iovannitti, C; Ibarra-Camou, B; Canteros, C E

    2010-01-01

    A histoplasmosis outbreak affecting 6 previously healthy Air Force cadets is herein presented. The patients suffered from fever and respiratory symptoms after having cleaned an abandoned hangar soiled with pigeons and bat droppings. They all presented fever, myalgia, tachypnea, and nonproductive cough. Chest X-ray and CT scan studies showed disseminated reticulonodular images affecting both lungs. Hiliar adenomegalies were also observed. All patients achieved a favourable outcome without antifungal treatment. Both serologic tests searching for specificic antibodies (immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis) and histoplasmin skin tests were positive in all cases. Five soil samples mixed with pigeons and bat droppings were collected from the hangar. Suspensions of these samples were inoculated into 20 hamsters by intraperitoneal injection; mycelial phase of H. capsulatum was isolated from liver and spleen cultures. The genetic profile of this strain was compared with 12 isolates obtained from Argentinean patients, and a great degree of homogeneity was observed (> 96% similarity). Although histoplasmosis is endemic in the wet Pampas, this is the first epidemic outbreak reported south of the 34th parallel. PMID:21229193

  2. Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Lerner, J. E.; Sanchez, E. Y.; Sambeth, J. E.; Porta, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    To detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air in small enterprises in La Plata city and surrounding areas, sampling was conducted using passive diffusion monitors (3M-3500) and analysis of the samples were performed byCG-FID. Analytic methodology was optimized for 23 VOCs (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic and chlorinated compounds, ketones and terpenes compounds) by determining the recovery factor and detection limit for each analyte. Different recovery values were obtained by desorbing with a mixture of dichloromethane: methanol (50:50), with a standard deviation lower than 5%. Enterprise analyzed included chemical analysis laboratories, sewing workrooms, electromechanical repair and car painting centers, take away food shops, and a photocopy center. The highest levels of VOCs were found to be in electromechanical repair and car painting centers (hexane, BTEX, CHCl3, CCl4) followed by chemical analysis laboratories and sewing workrooms. Cancer and noncancer risks were assessed using conventional approaches (HQ and LCR, US EPA) using the benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform for cancer risk, and toluene, xylene and n-hexane, for noncancer risks as markers. The results showed different LCR for benzene and trichloroethylene between the different indoor environments analyzed (electromechanical repair and car painting center ≫ others) and chloroform (laboratory > others), but comparing with the results obtained by other research, are in similar order of magnitude for equivalents activities. Similar finding were founded for HQ. Comparing these results with the worker protection legislation the electromechanical repair and car painting center and chemical analysis laboratories are close to the limits advised by OSHA and ACGIH. These facts show the importance of the use of abatement technologies for the complete reduction of VOCs levels, to mitigate their impact in the worker's health and their venting to the atmosphere.

  3. Incidence and prevalence of lupus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a 11-year health management organisation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Valeiras, S M; Marchese, M F; Talani, A S; Avellaneda, N L; Etchepare, A; Etchepare, P; Plou, M S; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking in Argentina. Our purpose was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SLE in a university hospital-based health management organisation in Buenos Aires (HIMCP). Methods For incidence calculation, the population at risk included all adult members of the HIMCP, with continuous affiliation for at least 1 year from January 1998 to January 2009. Each person was followed until he/she voluntarily left the HIMCP, death or finalisation of the study. Multiple methods for case finding were used to ensure complete ascertainment: (a) patients with problem SLE, undifferentiated autoimmune disease or mixed connective tissue disease in the Computer-based Patient Record System, (b) patients with positive antinuclear antibody test, anti-Sm antibodies and/or anti-dsDNA antibodies in the laboratory database and (c) patients who consumed hydroxichloroquine, chloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, cyclosporine or rituximab, from the administrative HIMCP drugs database. Medical records of all patients found were reviewed, and only patients fulfilling ACR criteria for SLE were included. Global and gender incidence rate (IR) was calculated. Prevalence was estimated on 1 January 2009, and the denominator population was the number of active members >18 years at that date (n=127 959). Results In the study period, 68 patients developed SLE. The observed IR (per 100 000 person-years, (CI 95%)) was 6.3 (4.9 to 7.7) for total population; 8.9 (CI 6.6 to 11.2) for women and 2.6 (1.2 to 3.9) for men. On 1 January 2009, 75 prevalent cases were identified. Prevalence rates (cases per 100 000 habitants, (CI 95%)) were 58.6 (46.1 to 73.5) for total population; 83.2 (63.9 to 106.4) for women and 23 (CI 11.9 to 40.1) for men. Conclusions SLE incidence and prevalence rates in Argentina are in agreement with those of other studies from different parts of the world. PMID:25379189

  4. Transmitted drug resistance in women with intrapartum HIV-1 diagnosis: a pilot epidemiological survey in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Diego; Zapiola, Ines; Fernandez Giuliano, Silvina; Martinez, Marina; Rodriguez, Claudia; Belen Bouzas, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surveillance of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs is particularly important in pregnant population, in which infection by drug-resistant HIV has not only implications for maternal treatment, but could also jeopardize the efficacy of neonatal prophylaxis. We aim to describe the prevalence of resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in pregnant women with intrapartum HIV diagnosis in a public hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Materials and Methods Prospective pilot study (period from 2008 to October 2013). Plasma samples were tested for viral load by Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA) and sequenced using HIV-1 TRUGENE™Genotyping Kit (Siemens). The prevalence of RAMs was analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Of 231 HIV-infected pregnant women assisted, 6% (n=14) had intrapartum diagnosis of HIV infection. 12 patients (85.7%) had previous pregnancies, 10 (71.4%) had inadequate prenatal care and 3 (23.1%) seroconverted during pregnancy. Maternal characteristics (expressed medians and ranges) were: age 25.5 (16–35) years; gestational age at birth: 39 (30–42) weeks; CD4 count: 500 (132–925) cells/µL; viral load: 9418 (1800–55299) copies/mL. No one had hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection; four (33.3%) had syphilis. Eight patients (57.1%) had vaginal delivery and six emergency C-section (42.9%). In six cases (46.2%), membrane rupture was spontaneous; four patients (28.6%) failed to receive intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) infusion. In 12 patients a genotypic resistance test was performed: two (16.7%) had WHO RAMs corresponding to K103N mutation in both cases, conferring high-level resistance to nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz. Two newborns (14.3%) were preterm. All received neonatal prophylaxis: ZDV in 1 case and combined prophylaxis (ZDV/3TC/NVP) in the remaining 13 (92.9%). All newborns were formula-fed. Two (14.3%) had congenital syphilis, one of whom died. One newborn was HIV

  5. Potential drug–drug interactions in HIV-perinatally infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Ezequiel; Cecchini, Diego; Rodriguez, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of treatment-experienced perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHA) are being transitioned from paediatric centres to adult HIV-care [1]. Most of them had been heavily exposed to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), harbour drug-resistant viruses and require non-antiretroviral medication due to comorbidities [2]. This may predispose for clinically significant drug–drug interactions (CSDDIs) [3]. There are no studies concerning CSDDIs in PHA. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of concomitant medications and CSDDIs in PHA who were transitioned for adult HIV-care to the Infectious Diseases Unit, Cosme Argerich Hospital, Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Materials and Methods Descriptive pilot cross-sectional study (March to June 2014). PHA under ARVs at the time of the study were assessed for concomitant medication. CSDDIs were screened and categorized using the University of Liverpool Drug Interactions Program (www.hiv-druginteractions.org) [4]. Results Forty-five patients were included. Female sex: 53%. Median (IQR) age: 20 years (18–22). CDC-stage C was observed in 27 (79%); 50% had ≥1 comorbidities including 3 with HCV co-infection. Drug abuse was observed in 6 (13%). The median of prior ARV regimens was 3 (3–5). Current ARV regimen included: PI: 87%, NNRTI: 27%, INSTI: 20%, enfuvirtide: 7% and CCR5 inhibitor: 4%. Median CD4 T-cell count: 568 cells/mL (279–771). Viral load <50 copies/mL: 80%. Sixty percent (27/45) had ≥1 co-medications (median 1). The most frequent co-medications were NSAIDs (40%), hormonal therapy (19%) and antimicrobials (19%). Use of herbal supplements was observed in 10 (22%). Overall, 23 (51%) had ≥ 1 CSDDIs: 19/27 (70%) with co-medication (orange flag=18 and red flag=1); and 2/10 (20%) with herbal supplements. ARV–ARV interactions were observed in 4/45 (9%): unboosted atazanavir+tenofovir (n=2), unboosted atazanavir+efavirenz (n=1) and lopinavir/ritonavir+efavirenz (n=1) (all orange flag). Considering

  6. [Endemic goiter in Argentina. Epidemiologic studies before (1968) and during (1986) prophylaxis with iodized salt in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Salvaneschi, J P; Salvaneschi, B G; Moralejo, A B; García, J R

    1991-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on goiter was conducted in Buenos Aires, on 3882 schoolchildren, a randomized sample of 160,026 children of public schools, before establishing prophylactic measures in 1968. With an estimated error of 5% the result was 14.8% of goiter prevalence. This figure qualified Buenos Aires as an endemic area and was, therefore, included in the National Programme to Combat Endemic Goiter, through iodized salt (proportion 1:30,000 of salt). Schools were qualified according to their social level in high, middle and low; the prevalence of goiter was 6.8%, 12.2% and 26.4%, respectively. The prevalence was also higher in older ages. In 1986, using the same randomized sample, a second survey was conducted, after 18 years of prophylaxis. Goiter prevalence was 8.5%. Goiter in the low social class was about the same as in the middle class. In randomized samples of 49 urines, iodine concentration was determined yielding an average of 139.6 micrograms/g creatinine (median 120.9 micrograms/g creatinine). Urinary iodine level in 14 children with goiter was 146.1 micrograms/g creatinine and in 12 without goiter was 171.4 micrograms/g. There was no statistical difference between these three groups. Variations in radioiodine uptake, urinary iodine, plasma inorganic iodine levels, and water iodine are discussed. PMID:1820512

  7. NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Since 2007, more than half of the world's population live in urban areas. Urban atmospheres are dominated by pollutants associated with vehicular emissions. Transport emissions are an important source of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions, species of high interest because of their negative health effects and their contribution to the formation of secondary pollutants responsible for photochemical smog. NMVOCs emissions are generally not very well represented in emission inventories and their speciation presents a high level of uncertainty. In general, emissions from South American countries are still quite unknown for the international community, and usually present a high degree of uncertainty due to the lack of available data to compile emission inventories. Within the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI, www.iai.int) projects, UMESAM (Urban Mobile Emissions in South American Megacities) and SAEMC (South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate, http://saemc.cmm.uchile.cl/), the effort was made to compute on-road transport emission inventories for South American megacities, namely Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, Sao Paulo and Santiago de Chile, considering megacities as urban agglomerations with more than 5 million inhabitants. The present work is a continuation of these projects, with the aim to extend the calculated NMVOCs emissions inventory into the individual species required by CTMs. The on-road mobile sector of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina, accounted for 70 Gg of NMVOCs emissions for 2006, without considering two-wheelers. Gasoline light-duty vehicles were responsible for 64% of NMVOCs emissions, followed by compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles (22%), diesel heavy-duty vehicles (11%) and diesel light-duty vehicles (7%). NMVOCs emissions were speciated according to fuel and technology, employing the European COPERT (Ntziachristos & Samaras, 2000) VOCs speciation scheme for

  8. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

  9. Long-term variability of heat waves in Argentina and recurrence probability of the severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Kyselý, Jan; Almeira, Gustavo; Lhotka, Ondřej

    2016-05-01

    Heat waves are one of the main concerns related to the impacts of climate change, because their frequency and severity are projected to increase in a future climate. The objectives of this work are to study the long-term variability of heat waves over Argentina and to estimate recurrence probability of the most severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires. We used three definitions of heat waves that were based on (1) daily maximum temperature above the 90th percentile (MaxTHW), (2) daily minimum temperature above the 90th percentile (MinTHW) and (3) both maximum and minimum temperatures above the corresponding 90th percentiles (EHW). The minimum length of a heat wave was 3 days, and the analysis was performed over the October-March period. Decadal values in Buenos Aires experienced clear increases in heat waves according to MinTHW and EHW, with the highest frequency for both in the 2001-2010 decade, but at other stations, combinations of different trends and decadal variability resulted in some cases in a decrease of extreme heat waves. In the north-western part of the country, a strong positive change in the last decade was found, mainly due to the increment in the persistence of MinTHW but also accompanied by increases in MaxTHW. In general, other stations show a clear positive trend in MinTHW and decadal variability in MaxTHW, with the largest EHW cases in the last decade. We also estimated recurrence probability of the longest and most severe heat wave in Buenos Aires (over 1909-2010, according to intensity measured by the cumulative excess of maximum daily temperature above the 90th percentile) that occurred from 3 to 14 November 2008, by means of simulations with a stochastic first-order autoregressive model. The recurrence probability of such long and severe heat wave is small in the present climate but it is likely to increase substantially in the near future even under a moderate warming trend.

  10. [New documental evidence on the history of homeopathy in Latin America: a case study of links between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Tarcitano, Conrado Mariano; Waisse, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy began to spread soon after it was formulated by Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800s, reaching the Southern Cone in the 1830s. In processes of this kind, one figure is often cited as being responsible for introducing it, often attaining quasi-mythical status. Little is known, however, about how homeopathy reached Argentina at that time. Through archival research, we discovered that medical and lay homeopaths circulated between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. Given the well-known proselytizing of the circles gravitating around lay homeopaths B. Mure and J.V. Martins in Rio de Janeiro, the documents indicate that this movement actually went as far as Argentina, which had not been confirmed until now. PMID:27438734

  11. [Brachial indicators of fat and muscle in schoolchildren of a rural community according to social groups (General Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Bolzán, A G; Guimarey, L M

    1995-12-01

    In order to determinate the body composition in a schoolchildren rural community--General Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina--the arm circumference (AC) and the triceps skinfold (TS) growth were studied by cross-sectionally methods. From those measurements the arm muscle area was calculated. All the data were transformed to "Z" scores. The sample was divided into seven social groups according to the educational and occupational levels of parents. Statistics analysis of variance (ANOVA test) and Tukey test were performed. Statistically significant differences in AC an TS among the social groups were observed (p < 0.001). Two different patterns of brachial composition were observed according to the social group. This composition was different with respect to urban populations. Our findings suggest an environmental adaptation by growth. PMID:9161442

  12. [The Universidad de Buenos Aires in the 1970s: analysis of the press release expressing solidarity with Rodolfo Puiggrós].

    PubMed

    Recalde, Aritz

    2012-12-01

    This article reconstructs the historical context surrounding the emission of a press release by authorities of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, expressing their solidarity with historian and university rector Rodolfo Puiggrós after his resignation. In his term, Puiggrós attempted to fuse the institution's scientific and technological plans with the new development model initiated by Héctor Cámpora and the Peronist movement in 1973. The article makes reference to the project of university transformation promoted by Puiggrós, combining the ideological traditions of Marxism, reformism, and nationalism. A few key points, useful for analyzing the reasons behind Puiggrós's resignation, are presented, and the arguments highlighted within this press release, published by Office of Media and Communications on October 5, 1973, are discussed. PMID:23681463

  13. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water. PMID:23680749

  14. High Prevalence of Substance Use among Men who have Sex with Men in Buenos Aires, Argentina: Implications for HIV Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Dolezal, Curtis; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M

    2012-01-01

    Five hundred gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) from Buenos Aires, Argentina completed an assessment regarding substance use and sexual behavior. During the past two months, 78% of participants consumed alcohol and 61% drugs. Over 20% of participants reporting alcohol, marijuana, cocaine sulfate, or tranquilizer use, did so daily. Heavy alcohol use was more likely among participants with greater mood reactivity (AOR = 1.64) and less likely among those who identified as gay (AOR=0.38). Weekly drug use was less likely among older (AOR=0.98), and gay-identified participants (AOR=0.50), but more likely among participants with greater mood reactivity (AOR=1.49). Drug use was correlated with unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse with men, women, and transvestites among non-gay identified participants (r= 0.22). Findings highlight the need to reduce substance use and sexual risk behavior in this population. PMID:23196860

  15. [Risk factors for the consumption of illegal drugs. Study in 1904 18-year-old boys in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A

    1996-01-01

    During September 1988 an anonymous, self-administered survey was carried out among a random sample of 18-year-old boys living in Buenos Aires city. The characteristics of 232 boys who reported illegal drug usage during the previous year were compared against those of the 1672 who denied drug consumption during that period. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed strong association between drug use and drug consumption by friends (OR 18.6) or brother/sister (OR 4.3), and consumption of tobacco or alcohol (OR 4.5 and 4.2 respectively). Results show different characteristics that can facilitate the primary care physicians' task of prevention and diagnosis of drug consumption in his/her patients. PMID:8734926

  16. Sixteen years of evolution of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A in Buenos Aires, Argentina: GA2 the prevalent genotype through the years.

    PubMed

    Viegas, M; Goya, S; Mistchenko, A S

    2016-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main viral cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children worldwide. In recent years, several preclinical trials with vaccine candidates have been reported. It is in this sense that molecular epidemiological studies become important. Understanding viral dispersion patterns before and after the implementation of a vaccine can provide insight into the effectiveness of the control strategies. In this work we analyzed the molecular epidemiology of HRSV-A over a period of sixteen years (1999-2014) in Buenos Aires. By bioinformatic tools we analyzed 169 sequences of the G glycoprotein gene from hospitalized pediatric patients with LRTI. We found that GA2 was the most prevalent genotype (73.35%). GA5 genotype co-circulated in our region until 2009 when it was no longer detected, except in 2011. The recently globally emerging ON1 lineage with a 72-nt duplication increased its frequency to become the only lineage detected in Buenos Aires in 2014. By discrete phylogeographic analysis of global ON1 strains we could determine that Panama could be the location of the MRCA dated June 20, 2010; and this lineage could be introduced in Argentina from Spain in April 2011. This analysis also showed temporary and geographical clustering of ON1 strains observed as phylogenetic clades with strains exclusively associated from a single country, nevertheless among our 44 ON1 strains from three outbreaks (2012-2014) we could also detect posterior reintroductions and circulation from United States, Cuba, South Korea, and Spain. The continuous phylogeographic analysis of one sublineage of Argentine ON1 strains allowed us to establish that there could be a local clustering of some strains even in neighborhoods. This work shows the potential of this type of bioinformatic tools in the context of a future vaccine surveillance network to trace the spread of new genetic lineages in human populations. PMID:27154330

  17. Children’s palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children’s palliative care, 18–21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children’s Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children’s palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th–21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was ‘Children’s Palliative Care…. Now!’ emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children’s palliative care, and hidden aspects of children’s palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children’s palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children’s palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children’s palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The ‘Big Debate’ explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children’s palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW. PMID:27610193

  18. Children's palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children's palliative care, 18-21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children's Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children's palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th-21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was 'Children's Palliative Care…. Now!' emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children's palliative care, and hidden aspects of children's palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children's palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children's palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children's palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The 'Big Debate' explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children's palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW. PMID:27610193

  19. Prospective Multicenter Study of Community-Associated Skin and Skin Structure Infections due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López Furst, María José; de Vedia, Lautaro; Fernández, Silvina; Gardella, Noella; Ganaha, María Cristina; Prieto, Sergio; Carbone, Edith; Lista, Nicolás; Rotryng, Flavio; Morera, Graciana I.; Mollerach, Marta; Stryjewski, Martín E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now the most common cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) in several world regions. In Argentina prospective, multicenter clinical studies have only been conducted in pediatric populations. Objective Primary: describe the prevalence, clinical and demographic characteristics of adult patients with community acquired SSSI due to MRSA; secondary: molecular evaluation of CA-MRSA strains. Patients with MRSA were compared to those without MRSA. Materials and Methods Prospective, observational, multicenter, epidemiologic study, with molecular analysis, conducted at 19 sites in Argentina (18 in Buenos Aires) between March 2010 and October 2011. Patients were included if they were ≥14 years, were diagnosed with SSSI, a culture was obtained, and there had no significant healthcare contact identified. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with CA-MRSA. Pulse field types, SCCmec, and PVL status were also determined. Results A total of 311 patients were included. CA-MRSA was isolated in 70% (218/311) of patients. Clinical variables independently associated with CA-MRSA were: presence of purulent lesion (OR 3.29; 95%CI 1.67, 6.49) and age <50 years (OR 2.39; 95%CI 1.22, 4.70). The vast majority of CA-MRSA strains causing SSSI carried PVL genes (95%) and were SCCmec type IV. The sequence type CA-MRSA ST30 spa t019 was the predominant clone. Conclusions CA-MRSA is now the most common cause of SSSI in our adult patients without healthcare contact. ST30, SCCmec IV, PVL+, spa t019 is the predominant clone in Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:24324543

  20. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  1. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Irazola, Vilma; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Alcaraz, Andrea; Carrara, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision-makers have begun to recognize Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as an important and measurable outcome of healthcare interventions; and HRQoL data is increasingly being used by policy-makers to prioritize health resources. Our objective was to measure HRQoL in a group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM over 21 years of age, treated with either Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or Insulin Glargine (IG), who had not changed their baseline schedule in the last 6 months. The recruitment was during 2006–7 in nine private diabetes specialists’ offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A standardized diabetes-specific HRQoL questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), was used. Results: A total of 183 patients were included (93 receiving NPH and 90 receiving IG). The mean QoL score was: 0.98 (SD: 0.89) and the diabetes specific QoL was: -1.49 (SD: 0.90). T2DM had a negative impact on HRQoL with a mean Average Weighted Impact (AWI) score on QoL of -1.77 (SD: 1.58). The greatest negative impact was observed for domains: ‘worries about the future’, ‘freedom to eat’, ‘living conditions’, ‘sex life’, and ‘family life’. The mean AWI score was -1.71 (SD: 1.48) in patients treated with IG and -1.85 (SD: 1.68) in patients receiving NPH, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ADDQoL questionnaire is a tool that can be used in Argentina to measure the QoL of patients with diabetes when evaluating diabetes care programs. The scores of QoL in our selected population did not differ from those reported in high-income countries. We expect that the results of this study will increase healthcare providers’ awareness of patients’ perceived QoL and help to overcome the barriers that delay insulin treatment; mainly clinical inertia and patient

  2. Diversity of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b in Buenos Aires, Argentina: description of a new cluster associated with response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Di Lello, Federico; Garcia, Gabriel; Kott, Verónica; Sookoian, Silvia; Campos, Rodolfo

    2008-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b is the most prevalent in Argentina. As observed in most HCV-genotype 1b described previously worldwide, the population analyzed in this work is growing at exponential rate. Ten out of 22 samples tested comprise a well-defined cluster. This new cluster appears to be highly susceptible to therapy with non-pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (80% rate of sustained response). The comparative analysis of amino acid sequences yielded a characteristic pattern for responder samples defined by amino acids S75, V147, V158 (Core region) and AC2217-8 (NS5A region). In conclusion, this study describes the epidemic spread of genotype 1b in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and shows the emergence of a new cluster that would result from a founder effect of an unusual sequence or a quasispecies variant that evolved through the time. This cluster, which appears to be highly susceptible to therapy, suggests that the virus itself might be more important than individual patient characteristics when responding to treatment. PMID:18297718

  3. Survey and first molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Fugassa, Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ninety-five whole intestines were analyzed using the sedimentation and counting technique with a result of 83 foxes (87.37%) harboring at least one helminth species. E. granulosus s. l. adults were found in one Pampas fox (1.05%). These adult helminthes were E. granulosus s. s. (G1) according to the genotyping analysis of a 450-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PMID:26892869

  4. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses of human parainfluenza type 3 virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 2009 and 2013: The emergence of new genetic lineages.

    PubMed

    Goya, Stephanie; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana; Viegas, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Despite that human parainfluenza type 3 viruses (HPIV3) are one of the leading causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children under five, there is no licensed vaccine and there is limited current information on the molecular characteristics of regional and global circulating strains. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular characterization of HPIV3 circulating in Buenos Aires. We performed a genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the HN glycoprotein gene. Between 2009 and 2013, 124 HPIV3-positive samples taken from hospitalized pediatric patients were analyzed. Four new genetic lineages were described. Among them, C1c and C3d lineages showed local circulation patterns, whereas C3e and C3f comprised sequences from very distant countries. Despite the diversity of the described genotypes, C3a and C3d predominated over the others, the latter was present during the first years of the study and it was progressively replaced by C3a. Molecular analyses showed 28 non-synonymous substitutions; of these, 13 were located in potentially predicted B-cell epitopes. Taken together, the emergence of genetic lineages and the information of the molecular characteristics of HN protein may contribute to the general knowledge of HPIV3 molecular epidemiology for future vaccine development and antiviral therapies. PMID:26780643

  5. Relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuation in a coastal dune aquifer: northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2012-12-01

    The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method is one of the most widely used means to estimate aquifer recharge. In the northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the geomorphological and climatic characteristics, as well as the presence of a shallow, homogeneous unconfined aquifer, make it possible to apply this methodology. The relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation in a humid climate, considering its seasonal variations, is assessed. Water tables were measured monthly between February 2008 and September 2010 in a monitoring network; rainfall data were analysed. The water table rises when the accumulated precipitation between measurements is more than 53 mm/month in the dry season and more than 97 mm/month in the rainy season. The index, relating water-table fluctuations and precipitation occurring between measurements, shows that values below 0 suggest no increase in the water reserves, whereas higher values entail an increase. In the study area, where there is a lack of historical data, finding out the relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation will constitute a tool for groundwater use and management, and set up an early warning system for dry periods. It could also be extrapolated to other regions with similar hydrological conditions lacking in data.

  6. [Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, H A; González, S R; Prat, M I; Baldi, P C

    2006-01-01

    Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the tube agglutination test (SAT), the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19 (CYT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free cytosolic proteins (CP). Out of a total of 325 samples analyzed, 17.8% reacted positively to BPA, 13.8% to SAT, 8.0% to 2-ME, 21.0% to ELISA-CYT and 10.0% to ELISA-CP. These results agree with the few data available in our country and suggest that brucellosis screening should be extended to other regions. PMID:17037254

  7. Individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural populations (Gastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the multiple use natural Reserve Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martin, S M

    2008-08-01

    The present work analyses the individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Isla Martín García is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay river (34 degrees 11' 25" S and 58 degrees 15' 38" W). Monthly collections were made from July 2005 to July 2006 in the eastern part of the island (Arena Beach). The population of H. piscium showed a complex and dynamic structure of sizes during a long period of the annual cycle. Two cohorts could be detected. The Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 6 (1-e -1.85 (t+0.38)) and Lt = 3.9 (1-e -0.19 (t+4.84)) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The pattern of population growth displayed a staggered model, where the greatest growth is observed during the summer. The reproductive period occurred during six months, from the beginning of summer to middle of fall. Based on only one reproductive effort, this pattern is not similar to that of other cogeneric species already studied. PMID:18833484

  8. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  9. Chacarita Project: conformation and analysis of a modern and documented human osteological collection from Buenos Aires City--theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bosio, L A; García Guraieb, S; Luna, L H; Aranda, C

    2012-12-01

    Osteological reference collections play a key role in bioanthropological research; they allow the development and testing of methods for sexing and ageing individuals using various bone and dental attributes. This paper presents the first stage results of the ongoing Chacarita Research Project, which aims to generate and study a reference collection of adult skeletons representative of the contemporary population of Buenos Aires city. The Chacarita Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of individuals of known nationality, sex, age, cause and date of death from the Chacarita Public Cemetery. Unlike other similar endeavours, this sample has been completely exhumed using archaeological techniques. So far, a total of 146 adult skeletons have been recovered (60 females - 41.1% and 86 males - 58.90%), the majority of which have ages-at-death in the range of 71-90 years. They were born primarily in Argentina (n=133; 91.1%), although other nationalities are also represented. Dates of death range between 1987 and 2000. In the short term, the osteological study of this collection will allow assessment of the performance of classical methods of sex determination and age-at-death estimation in a local setting. A special priority will be given to the study of osteological changes in individuals over 50 years. As the sample is being retrieved by exhumation, the impact of taphonomic agents on the most diagnostic bone structures is also being assessed. In the long term, this osteological collection will be available to generate new population-specific techniques and to develop comparative biological studies. PMID:23062625

  10. An early work [1910-1913] in Biological Psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher José Ingenieros, M.D. (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2006-04-01

    One of the earliest recorded works in Biological Psychology was published in 1910 by Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros (1877-1925), Professor of Experimental Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Ingenieros, a multifaceted personality and prolific author and educator famous for his lapidary aphorisms, has been considered a 'luminary' for generations. Trained as a physician, he was the first scientist to establish a comprehensive psychological system in Latin America. His long list of publications includes more than 300 titles generally divided in two periods: studies in mental pathology and criminology (1897-1908) and studies in philosophy, psychology and sociology (1908-1925). His works were never made particularly available to English-speaking audiences, despite the fact that certain of his books are still best-sellers in the Spanish-speaking world. We present an overview of Ingenieros' life and work, and a detailed account of his profoundly interesting work Principios de Psicología Biológica, in which he analyzes the development, evolution and social context of mental functions. We also provide an English translation of the Introduction contributed by Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) to the 1922 German edition of the work, pertinent to the energetic principles Ingenieros used and the study of Psychology as a natural science. It is a hope, 80 years after Ingenieros' parting, to bibliographically resurrect this champion of reason, who, until now, has not been given his due placement in the international psychological and biomedical literature. PMID:16188365

  11. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (<1 year) was higher than in adult dogs (62.7% versus 40.8%, respectively). Only the prevalence of A. caninum differed between genders, with higher values for males. The prevalences of six of the parasite species showed a decreasing trend with increasing host age, and an inverse pattern was found for two other species. The prevalences of three protozoa were significantly higher in pure-breed dogs, and those of two nematodes were significantly higher in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalences of T. canis, A. caninum, and T. vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed. PMID:16364551

  12. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  13. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Patricia; Barnech, Laura; Irino, Kinue; Rumi, María Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1%) samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57); stx2, 86.0% (49/57); stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57); ehxA, 61.4% (35/57); eae, 26.3% (15/57); saa, 24.6% (14/57). Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54); stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54); stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54); stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54); stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54); stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54). Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1%) were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population. PMID:25006586

  14. A Series of Stacked and Entrenched Fan Deltas at Lake General Carrera/Buenos Aires (Chile/Argentina) as Terrestrial Analog to Understand the Entrenchment of Martian Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Achille, G.; Salese, F.

    2014-12-01

    The apparent lack of entrenchment on Martian fan deltas has been hitherto uniquely interpreted as evidence for fast disappearance of water and used to support the hypothesis of an abrupt climate change on Mars around 3.7-3.4 Ga. However, hi-res imagery and topography of several martian fan deltas show evidence of erosion and entrenchment in response to decreasing water level settings. Moreover, the boundary conditions for entrenchment have never been investigated from a quantitative point of view. To gain a quantitative understanding on fan delta entrenchment processes, we are studying (using remote sensing, modeling, and fieldwork campaigns) a series of seven stacked fan deltas formed at Lake General Carrera/Buenos Aires (Chile/Argentina). The uppermost deposit is located more than 400 m above the lowest delta presently forming at the current lake water level. The six raised deltas formed during highstands punctuating the overall 15000 yrs long retreat of the lake and are entirely entrenched thus allowing potential sampling over the entire thickness of the sedimentary sequences. These windows to the internal outcrops enable the assessment of water and sediment paleo-discharges (based on the analysis of the grain sizes) and to implement numerical simulations to reproduce the sedimentary deposits using numeric code such as Sedflux 2.0 (Hutton and Syvitski, 2008). The studied sedimentary assemblage offers the unique opportunity to place constraints on the fan deltas entrenchment with strong implications for the modeling of martian entrenched fans and thus for the understanding of the paleoclimate and paleohydrology during their terminal activity. We present the results of remote sensing study from satellite hi-res imagery and topography, numerical modeling, and from a survey field campaign. E. W. H. Hutton and J. P. M. Syvitski, Sedflux 2.0: An advanced process-response model that generates three-dimensional stratigraphy, Computers & Geosciences 34 (2008) 1319-1337.

  15. HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited by RDS in Buenos Aires, Argentina: High HIV and HPV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pando, María A.; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Squiquera, Luis; Barreda, Victoria; Rodriguez Fermepín, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Rey, Jorge; Picconi, María; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, among MSM from Buenos Aires (2007–2009). Methods Responding Driven Sampling was used for recruitment of MSM. Participants completed a structured web-based survey and provided biological samples. Results A total of 496 MSM were studied for HIV, HBV, HCV, and T pallidum infections. Chlamydia and HPV diagnoses were only performed in 98 and 109 participants, respectively. Prevalence of HIV was 17.3%, HBV 22.9%, HCV 7.5%, T pallidum 20.5%, HPV 83.5%, and C trachomatis 1.7%. In the year prior to the evaluation, 71% of the participants had had sex with men and/or trans and women (MMW) while 29% had not had sex with women (MM). Comparing MM to MMW, prevalence of HIV (30.7% vs. 11.9%, p<0.001), HBV (36.4% vs. 17.8%, p<0.001), T pallidum (32.1% vs. 15.7%, p<0.001), and HPV (88.3% vs. 70.4%, p = 0.039) were significantly higher among MM, whereas no significant differences were found for HCV and C trachomatis. The MM group had also significantly higher HIV incidence (5.60 vs. 4.28 per 100 persons-year, p = 0.032). HPV genotypes 16, 6, and 11 were the most frequently found; 40.7% of the MSM had more than one genotype and one high risk genotype was detected in 43.6% of participants. Conclusions Both MM and MMW are at high risk of infection for HIV and other STIs. Rates of HIV, HBV, T pallidum and HPV infections are higher in the MM group. PMID:22768137

  16. Use of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) Generates a Very Diverse Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balan, Ivan; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Barreda, Victoria; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior research focusing on men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina, used convenience samples that included mainly gay identified men. To increase MSM sample representativeness, we used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) for the first time in Argentina. Using RDS, under certain specified conditions, the observed estimates for the percentage of the population with a specific trait are asymptotically unbiased. We describe, the diversity of the recruited sample, from the point of view of sexual orientation, and contrast the different subgroups in terms of their HIV sexual risk behavior. Methodology 500 MSM were recruited using RDS. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Web-based CASI. Conclusion In contrast with prior studies, RDS generated a very diverse sample of MSM from a sexual identity perspective. Only 24.5% of participants identified as gay; 36.2% identified as bisexual, 21.9% as heterosexual, and 17.4% were grouped as “other.” Gay and non-gay identified MSM differed significantly in their sexual behavior, the former having higher numbers of partners, more frequent sexual contacts and less frequency of condom use. One third of the men (gay, 3%; bisexual, 34%, heterosexual, 51%; other, 49%) reported having had sex with men, women and transvestites in the two months prior to the interview. This population requires further study and, potentially, HIV prevention strategies tailored to such diversity of partnerships. Our results highlight the potential effectiveness of using RDS to reach non-gay identified MSM. They also present lessons learned in the implementation of RDS to recruit MSM concerning both the importance and limitations of formative work, the need to tailor incentives to circumstances of the less affluent potential participants, the need to prevent masking, and the challenge of assessing network size. PMID:22102896

  17. TENDENCIA DE LA TUBERCULOSIS EN LA REGIÓN SANITARIA V DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, AÑOS 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    CHIRICO, CRISTINA; SANJURJO, MYRIAM; IRIBARREN, SARAH; APPENDINO, ANDREA; ZERBINI, ELSA; ETCHEVARRIA, MIRTA

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis (TB) en la Región Sanitaria V (RSV), provincia de Buenos Aires. El estudio de tendencia permitió conocer un valor promedio de las variaciones de la tasa de incidencia (TI), calculadas por regresión lineal simple y expresadas como variación anual promedio (VAP). Se analizaron el número de casos notificados y TI por 100 000 habitantes de todas las formas de TB, los casos de TB pulmonar (TBP) y TBP confirmados por bacteriología, total casos por grupos de edad: 0 – 14; 15 – 29 y mayores de 64 años, entre el 1° de enero de 2000 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. La declinación de la TI fue menor al 5% para todas las formas de TB e inferior en las TBP confirmadas bacteriológicamente. Los casos de TBP y TI más elevadas, se concentraron en el grupo de 15 a 29 años, con tendencia estable o ligeramente ascendente de la TI en la TBP bacilífera. El mismo comportamiento presentaron los casos de TBP infantil con confirmación bacteriológica. La mayor velocidad de descenso en la TI de la TBP se produjo en este grupo de edad, mientras que en mayores de 64 años, el descenso fue sostenido en el tiempo. La TB persiste como un riesgo de salud en la RSV, con casos en edades jóvenes, por lo que sigue siendo necesario fortalecer el control de la TB en esta región. PMID:26117604

  18. [The case of the 'lowlife': perceptions of danger and the prevention of disreputable behaviors in theRevista de Criminología, Psiquiatría, Medicina Legal y Ciencias Afinesin Buenos Aires, 1914-1923].

    PubMed

    Dovio, Mariana

    2013-11-30

    We analyze the construction of the notion of the 'lowlife' in the city of Buenos Aires in the Revista de Criminología, Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal, from 1914-1923. We shall analyze the notion of 'lowlife', meaning behaviors situated in a border zone between crime and madness, from the point of view of prevention and perception of danger. The first way of analyzing the 'lowlife' examines institutional projects that were related to eugenics and that advocated preventive detention of dangerous people, 'alcoholists' and vagrants. The second involves identifying in moral and physical terms the kind of people who were targeted in the creation of intervention projects for those considered to be 'lowlifes', who could potentially damage the fabric of society in some way. PMID:24346199

  19. Curricular Guidelines in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, A. Birk; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Curricular guidelines for biochemistry are presented, developed by the Section on Biochemistry and Nutrition and the Section on Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. (MLW)

  20. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  1. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  2. Land plant biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J A

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical studies have complemented ultrastructural and, subsequently molecular genetic evidence consistent with the Charophyceae being the closest extant algal relatives of the embryophytes. Among the genes used in such molecular phylogenetic studies is that rbcL) for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RUBISCO). The RUBISCO of the embryophytes is derived, via the Chlorophyta. from that of the cyanobacteria. This clade of the molecular phylogeny of RUBISCO shows a range of kinetic characteristics, especially of CO2 affinities and of CO2/O2 selectivities. The range of these kinetic values within the bryophytes is no greater than in the rest of the embryophytes; this has implications for the evolution of the embryophytes in the high atmospheric CO2 environment of the late Lower Palaeozoic. The differences in biochemistry between charophycean algae and embryophytes can to some extent be related functionally to the structure and physiology of embryophytes. Examples of components of embryophytes, which are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those of charophytes, are the water repellent/water resistant extracellular lipids, the rigid phenolic polymers functional in water-conducting elements and mechanical support in air, and in UV-B absorption, flavonoid phenolics involved in UV-B absorption and in interactions with other organisms, and the greater emphasis on low Mr organic acids. retained in the plant as free acids or salts, or secreted to the rhizosphere. The roles of these components are discussed in relation to the environmental conditions at the time of evolution of the terrestrial embryophytes. A significant point about embryophytes is the predominance of nitrogen-free extracellular structural material (a trait shared by most algae) and UV-B screening components, by contrast with analogous components in many other organisms. An important question, which has thus far been incompletely addressed, is the extent to which

  3. Land plant biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Raven, J A

    2000-06-29

    Biochemical studies have complemented ultrastructural and, subsequently molecular genetic evidence consistent with the Charophyceae being the closest extant algal relatives of the embryophytes. Among the genes used in such molecular phylogenetic studies is that rbcL) for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RUBISCO). The RUBISCO of the embryophytes is derived, via the Chlorophyta. from that of the cyanobacteria. This clade of the molecular phylogeny of RUBISCO shows a range of kinetic characteristics, especially of CO2 affinities and of CO2/O2 selectivities. The range of these kinetic values within the bryophytes is no greater than in the rest of the embryophytes; this has implications for the evolution of the embryophytes in the high atmospheric CO2 environment of the late Lower Palaeozoic. The differences in biochemistry between charophycean algae and embryophytes can to some extent be related functionally to the structure and physiology of embryophytes. Examples of components of embryophytes, which are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those of charophytes, are the water repellent/water resistant extracellular lipids, the rigid phenolic polymers functional in water-conducting elements and mechanical support in air, and in UV-B absorption, flavonoid phenolics involved in UV-B absorption and in interactions with other organisms, and the greater emphasis on low Mr organic acids. retained in the plant as free acids or salts, or secreted to the rhizosphere. The roles of these components are discussed in relation to the environmental conditions at the time of evolution of the terrestrial embryophytes. A significant point about embryophytes is the predominance of nitrogen-free extracellular structural material (a trait shared by most algae) and UV-B screening components, by contrast with analogous components in many other organisms. An important question, which has thus far been incompletely addressed, is the extent to which

  4. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  5. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  6. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  7. A Freshman Biochemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Toma, Francis J.; Campbell, Mary K.

    1982-01-01

    A one-semester biochemistry course was developed as an alternative to traditional freshman chemistry. Lecture topics and laboratory exercises focus on the course's unifying theme of the origin and early stages of the evolution of life on earth. (Author/SK)

  8. Biochemistry Off the Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jerry L.

    1985-01-01

    Provides sources of nonanimal biochemical materials (which are relatively inexpensive, readily available, and require no special storage) suitable for use in biochemistry experiments. They are presented under these headings: (1) enzymes and other proteins; (2) carbohydrates; (3) lipids; (4) nucleic acids; and (5) metabolism. (JN)

  9. Biochemistry and endocrinology results

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    Blood (plasma or serum) biochemistry findings show postflight decreases below preflight findings for uric acid triglycerides, and AST. Postflight increases above preflight values were observed in glucose, cholesterol, BUN, calcium phosphate, angiotensin I, aldosterone, insulin, T3, T4, HGH, ACTH and GGTP. It is suggested that special attention should be given to the fluid and electrolyte intake in the astronauts so that homeostatic perturbations are not consequential.

  10. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  11. Subduction of the South-Chile active spreading ridge: a 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, Emmanuelle; Arnaud, Nicolas; Guivel, Christèle; Lagabrielle, Yves; Scalabrino, Bruno; Espinoza, Felipe

    2010-05-01

    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4- 3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  12. Thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The present studies have shown that GSH metabolism arose in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria where it functions to protect against oxygen toxicity. Evidence was obtained indicating that GSH metabolism was incorporated into eucaryotes via the endosymbiosis giving rise to mitochrondria and chloroplasts. Aerobic bacteria lacking GSH utilize other thiols for apparently similar functions, the thiol being coenzyme A in Gram positive bacteria and chi-glutamylcysteine in the halobacteria. The thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes is thus seen to be much more highly diversified than that of eucaryotes and much remains to be learned about this subject.

  13. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  14. Biochemistry of Statins.

    PubMed

    Egom, Emmanuel Eroume A; Hafeez, Hafsa

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated blood lipids may be a major risk factor for CVD. Due to consistent and robust association of higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels with CVD across experimental and epidemiologic studies, therapeutic strategies to decrease risk have focused on LDL-cholesterol reduction as the primary goal. Current medication options for lipid-lowering therapy include statins, bile acid sequestrants, a cholesterol-absorption inhibitor, fibrates, nicotinic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids, which all have various mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetic properties. The most widely prescribed lipid-lowering agents are the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins. Since their introduction in the 1980s, statins have emerged as the one of the best-selling medication classes to date, with numerous trials demonstrating powerful efficacy in preventing cardiovascular outcomes (Kapur and Musunuru, 2008 [1]). The statins are commonly used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and mixed hyperlipidemia. This chapter focuses on the biochemistry of statins including their structures, pharmacokinetics, and mechanism of actions as well as the potential adverse reactions linked to their clinical uses. PMID:26975972

  15. Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

  16. Biochemistry (by Jochanan Stenesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasfeld, Arthur

    1999-06-01

    Plenum: New York, 1998. Hardcover, ISBN 0 306-45732-6. 95. Paperback, ISBN 0 306 45733 4. 55 (set of 3). Solutions manual and transparencies available. According to the promotional materials accompanying this text, its intended audience is students in one-semester undergraduate biochemistry courses. At just over 500 pages, the book is shorter than the norm of well over 1000 pages. The challenge, then, is to present the subject in a coherent and compelling fashion while necessarily omitting a large fraction of the material that one normally finds in more inclusive texts. That kind of editing is obviously going to lead to squawking from some quarters, so I should put my prejudices on the table. I teach a one-semester course in biochemical structure, and I have a long-standing interest in using molecular models to explain biochemical behavior, both in research and in teaching. The editing performed by Professor Stenesh is likely to trouble someone with a structural or mechanistic background. Rather than selectively excluding some topics, Stenesh has created a table of contents that looks like it's from a much longer text. The usual chapters on biochemical structure, catalysis, metabolism and molecular genetics are included here. The ax fell elsewhere, and most obvious to my eye are the omissions of structure and chemical mechanism beyond those few chapters that are dedicated to them. A brief presentation on the structure and function of hemoglobin is given in the chapter on proteins, and the catalytic mechanism of chymotrypsin is briefly presented in the chapter on catalysis. But in chapters on metabolism, the structures of substrates and products are shown while mechanisms of conversion are omitted. For example, in the description of aldolase, we're informed that the enzyme catalyzes a reverse aldol condensation, but the reader isn't shown how the aldol condensation relates to the chemical conversion we see in the figure. (Part of the problem may be that the text

  17. Promising New Directions in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2003-01-01

    "Biochemistry," by Lubert Stryer, has become one of the standard textbooks for the field. The Fifth Edition has two new authors: Jeremy Berg, Professor and Director of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; and John Tymoczko, the Towsley Professor of Biology at Carleton College. The new edition does,…

  18. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  19. New challenges in computational biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, B.

    1996-12-31

    The new challenges in computational biochemistry to which the title refers include the prediction of the relative binding free energy of different substrates to the same protein, conformational sampling, and other examples of theoretical predictions matching known protein structure and behavior.

  20. Commentary: Biochemistry Re-Natured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    In his last commentary on "Biochemistry Denatured," this author dealt with his perception that college students today have spent too little of their childhood years playing outside in nature and as a consequence have not learned basic things about the world from personal experience. This "nature-deficit disorder" removes many opportunities for…

  1. Essays in biochemistry. Volume 20

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.W.; Marshall, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains four papers. The titles of the papers are: The Mechanism of Action of Oestrogens; Mucous Glycoproteins: A Gel of a Problem; Actin and Myosin Multigene Families: Their Expression During the Formation of Skeletal Muscle; and The Biochemistry of an Inefficient Tissue: Brown Adipose Tissue.

  2. New Edition of Chinese Biochemistry Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian-Chuan, Ma

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the four previous editions of the biochemistry medical textbooks called the "Nationwide Unified Textbooks." Notes the new (1989) edition is much smaller, is organized differently, has new material, has a reorganized Dynamic Biochemistry core, and shows great importance to clinical biochemistry. (MVL)

  3. Metabolism and biochemistry in hypogravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    The headward shift of body fluid and increase in stress-related hormones that occur in hypogravity bring about a number of changes in metabolism and biochemistry of the human body. Such alterations may have important effects on health during flight and during a recovery period after return to earth. Body fluid and electrolytes are lost, and blood levels of several hormones that control metabolism are altered during space flight. Increased serum calcium may lead to an increased risk of renal stone formation during flight, and altered drug metabolism could influence the efficacy of therapeutic agents. Orthostatic intolerance and an increased risk of fracturing weakened bones are concerns at landing. It is important to understand biochemistry and metabolism in hypogravity so that clinically important developments can be anticipated and prevented or ameliorated.

  4. Gender Performance Differences in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberger, Matthew M.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the historical performance of students at Michigan State University in a two-part biochemistry series Biochem I (n = 5,900) and Biochem II (n = 5,214) for students enrolled from 1997 to 2009. Multiple linear regressions predicted 54.9-87.5% of the variance in student from Biochem I grade and 53.8-76.1% of the variance in…

  5. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  6. Genesis of "Biochemistry: A Problems Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    When the author began teaching as a young assistant professor at Caltech in 1966, his assignment was to take over the undergraduate biochemistry course taught for many years by Henry Borsook, who was about to retire. Students dreaded this course. Having delighted in biochemistry during his graduate training at Stanford, he was determined to put…

  7. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  8. The biochemistry of methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hakemian, Amanda S; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2007-01-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol in the first step of their metabolic pathway. Two forms of methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes catalyze this reaction: soluble MMO (sMMO) and membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO). pMMO is expressed when copper is available, and its active site is believed to contain copper. Whereas sMMO is well characterized, most aspects of pMMO biochemistry remain unknown and somewhat controversial. This review emphasizes advances in the past two to three years related to pMMO and to copper uptake and copper-dependent regulation in methanotrophs. The pMMO metal centers have been characterized spectroscopically, and the first pMMO crystal structure has been determined. Significant effort has been devoted to improving in vitro pMMO activity. Proteins involved in sMMO regulation and additional copper-regulated proteins have been identified, and the Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) genome has been sequenced. Finally, methanobactin (mb), a small copper chelator proposed to facilitate copper uptake, has been characterized. PMID:17328677

  9. Annual review of biochemistry. Volume 59

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.C. ); Abelson, J.N. ); Meister, A. ); Walsh, C.T. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains articles reviewing significant developments in the field of biochemistry. Topics covered include: How to Succeed in Research Without Being a Genius, Pgruvagl-Dependent Enzymes, and Phytochelatins.

  10. A Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a biochemistry laboratory course in which the curriculum revolves around a single theme: the purification, characterization, and molecular biology of threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) from Escherechia coli. Lists examples of related class research projects. Contains 41 references. (WRM)

  11. Useful Demonstrations for a Medial Biochemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragatz, Barth H.; Modrak, Gina

    1986-01-01

    Describes six demonstrations used in a medical biochemistry course. These demonstrations focus on: (1) platelet aggregometry; (2) ion-transporting antibiotics; (3) glycosylated hemoglobin; (4) molecular models; (5) serum preparation; and (6) bioluminescence. (JN)

  12. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for biochemistry was modeled on extensive work related to TCs across a range of disciplines and included faculty workshops and student interviews. Using an iterative process, we prioritized five concepts on which to focus future development of instructional materials. Broadly defined, the concepts are steady state, biochemical pathway dynamics and regulation, the physical basis of interactions, thermodynamics of macromolecular structure formation, and free energy. The working list presented here is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather is meant to identify a subset of TCs for biochemistry for which instructional and assessment tools for undergraduate biochemistry will be developed. PMID:25185234

  13. Pedro Gutierrez Bueno's Textbooks: Audiences, Teaching Practices and Chemical Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jose Ramon Bertomeu; Belmar, Antonio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Pedro Gutierrez Bueno wrote two editions of a chemistry textbook between 1788 and 1802. The paper offers a comparative view of both editions taking into account Gutierrez Bueno's biography, his intended audience and the changes related to the so-called chemical revolution. Some conclusions are at odds with common images about scientific…

  14. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  15. Glycoprotein Biochemistry--Some Clinical Aspects of Interest to Biochemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe some clinical features of glycoprotein biochemistry, including recognition, selected blood glycoproteins, glycated proteins, histochemistry, and cancer. The material presented has largely been taught to medical laboratory students; however, it can be used to teach premedical students and pure biochemistry students. Includes two…

  16. The Biochemistry Tetrahedron and the Development of the Taxonomy of Biochemistry External Representations (TOBER)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Marcy H.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Becker, Nicole; Harle, Marissa; Sutcliffe, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Visual literacy, the ability to interpret and create external representations (ERs), is essential to success in biochemistry. Studies have been conducted that describe students' abilities to use and interpret specific types of ERs. However, a framework for describing ERs derived through a naturalistic inquiry of biochemistry classrooms has not…

  17. Liverpool: the early years of biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pitt, G A

    2003-02-01

    The first Chair and department of biochemistry in the U.K. were founded at the University of Liverpool in 1902, thanks to a generous donation by William Johnston, a Liverpool shipowner. The first holder of the Johnston Chair, Benjamin Moore, was a dynamic man, who set up an active research centre. In 1906, he and Edward Whitley founded The Bio-Chemical Journal as a private venture, and in 1912, they sold it to the Biochemical Society. Moore also initiated the first Honours School of Biochemistry in the country before moving to London in 1914 and being succeeded by Walter Ramsden. The development of the department was stopped by World War I, and there was little expansion in the 1920s. After Ramsden's retirement in 1931, the third Johnston Professor, Harold Channon, increased staff numbers, ran a successful research school and re-established the Honours course. World War II brought that to an end, and Channon moved into industry. After the war, biochemistry expanded from a niche subject in a small number of British universities into one that was strongly represented in most universities, but the penetration of biochemistry into wide areas of functional biology has blurred conventional subject boundaries, so in many universities (including the University of Liverpool), departments of biochemistry have been incorporated into large more general schools. PMID:12546645

  18. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Canopy Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Charest, Martin; Sy, Mikailou

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJR, OBS, UBS, and OA sites, including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Electrospray and tandem mass spectrometry in biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, W J; Jonsson, A P; Liu, S; Rai, D K; Wang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, biological MS has changed out of all recognition. This is primarily due to the development in the 1980s of 'soft ionization' methods that permit the ionization and vaporization of large, polar, and thermally labile biomolecules. These developments in ionization mode have driven the design and manufacture of smaller and cheaper mass analysers, making the mass spectrometer a routine instrument in the biochemistry laboratory today. In the present review the revolutionary 'soft ionization' methods will be discussed with particular reference to electrospray. The mass analysis of ions will be described, and the concept of tandem MS introduced. Where appropriate, examples of the application of MS in biochemistry will be provided. Although the present review will concentrate on the MS of peptides/proteins and lipids, all classes of biomolecules can be analysed, and much excellent work has been done in the fields of carbohydrate and nucleic acid biochemistry. PMID:11311115

  20. Commentary: PhDs in Biochemistry Education--5 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  1. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Receptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Judy A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The syllabus for a refresher course on the physiology and biochemistry of receptors (presented at the 1983 American Physiological Society meeting) is provided. Topics considered include receptor regulation, structural/functional aspects of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors, calcium channel inhibitors, and role of lipoprotein…

  2. Teaching Receptor Theory to Biochemistry Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benore-Parsons, Marilee; Sufka, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Receptor:ligand interactions account for numerous reactions critical to biochemistry and molecular biology. While students are typically exposed to some examples, such as hemoglobin binding of oxygen and signal transduction pathways, the topic could easily be expanded. Theory and kinetic analysis, types of receptors, and the experimental assay…

  3. A Kinetic Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of specific reactions of metabolic pathways to make measurements in the laboratory. Describes an adaptation of an experiment used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories involving the induction of an enzyme in E. coli, as well as its partial purification and characterization. (TW)

  4. Assessment of Molecular Construction in Undergraduate Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Deborah; Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Weiner, Steven W.; Farwell, Mary; Putnam-Evans, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    White and group used a two question, open-ended tests to separately evaluate students' learning of specific biochemical concepts in the general biology lecture and laboratory, in the first performance assessment of molecular visualization in teaching biochemistry. Two studies were devoted to protein structure using globins followed by one…

  5. Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate…

  6. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for…

  7. Jmol-Enhanced Biochemistry Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saderholm, Matthew; Reynolds, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We developed a protein research project for a one-semester biochemistry lecture class to enhance learning and more effectively train students to understand protein structure and function. During this semester-long process, students select a protein with known structure and then research its structure, sequence, and function. This project…

  8. [Alcohol and drug consumption by adolescents in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H H; Pecci, M C

    1994-09-01

    In a group of 4800 young man--sample--who were called on to the Military Service Medical Examination in 1992, was investigated the legal and illegal psychoactive drugs using in. Findings show that: a) 42% were alcohol abusers during last 30 days; b) more than 17% have used marihuana once in their lives; c) 9.7% have used cocaine and d) 1 of each 10 have recognized use psychoactive drugs without medical prescription. Cultural practices linked to excessive alcohol abuse and the present increase use of other psychoactive drugs by young people are discussed. PMID:7872028

  9. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…

  10. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  11. Television Medical Dramas as Case Studies in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Julie T.

    2009-01-01

    Several case studies from popular television medical dramas are described for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. These cases, which illustrate fundamental principles of biochemistry, are used as the basis for problems that can be discussed further in small groups. Medical cases provide an interesting context for biochemistry with video…

  12. Teachers as Learners in a Cooperative Learning Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Marcy P.; Mitchell, Steve M.; Anderson, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Upper level college students majoring in biochemistry at the University of New Mexico have the opportunity to participate in an advanced biochemistry course entitled "Biochemistry Education." This course introduces theories of teaching and learning, provides opportunities for participation in course organization, design, and assessment strategies,…

  13. Hematology and serum biochemistry of free-ranging nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Martino, Pablo E; Aráuz, Sandra M; Anselmino, Fernando; Cisterna, Cecilia C; Silvestrini, Maria P; Corva, Santiago; Hozbor, Federico A

    2012-06-01

    Information on reference blood values in the literature is lacking for many wild rodents. In this study, comprehensive reference intervals (RIs) for a wide range of analytes from 101 healthy free-ranging nutria were determined. Animals were captured in Buenos Aires, Argentina (37degrees 50'S, 57 degrees 34'W), and southward (38 degrees 60'S, 58 degrees 23'W), encompassing major biotopes of agricultural pampas with dunes and grassland steppes on the east coast. Traps were set at locations with high-density nutria populations (i.e., those areas that showed signs of movement, territorial marking, or feeding activities). Although the small sample size limits the interpretation of these findings, RIs were determined by a robust method using the central 95th percentile. In nutria, the RI range varied greatly for the leukocyte differentials, with mature neutrophils: 3,907-5,544/mmicrol for females and 3,744-5,900/microl for males; band neutrophils: 0-10/ll for females and 3-18/microl for males; lymphocytes: 4,213 5,940/microl for both sexes combined; monocytes: 165-402/microl for both sexes combined; eosinophils: 13-91/microl for females and 108-165/microl for males; and basophils: 0-87/microl for both sexes combined. Platelet concentration was 543-727 x 10(9)/L for both sexes combined. There was also a wide RI range for biochemistry values for some enzymes, such as alkaline phosphatase: 200-399 IU/L for both sexes combined; cholinesterase: 762-1,407 IU/L for females and 763-1,284 IU/L for males; creatine kinase: 182-552 IU/L for females and 162-451 IU/L for males; amylase: 853-1,865 IU/L for females and 779-1,293 IU/L for males; and glucose concentration 120.2-180.6 mg/dl for both sexes combined. Conversely, there was not a wide pooled RI range for calcium: 7.0-11.2 mg/dl; phosphorous: 6.1-9.3 mg/dl; sodium: 133.0-159.0 mEq/L; potassium: 3.0-8.2 mEq/L; chloride: 101.4-143.0 mEq/L; and urea: 11.3-36.8 mg/dl. The red blood cell indices had a narrow range, with mean

  14. A Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Paul A.

    1999-08-01

    A project-oriented laboratory course has been designed to introduce students to the study of biochemistry as it is practiced. The course is designed to be a capstone experience for students enrolled in a variety of majors at the Rochester Institute of Technology, including those who enter our new B.S. Biochemistry program. The experiments in this course enable the students to explore the protein chemistry, enzymology, and molecular biology of a single enzyme, threonine dehydrogenase, in a series of integrated experiments. The laboratory incorporates both traditional methods (centrifugation, UV-vis spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and chromatography) and more recent developments in the field (polymerase chain reaction). Students use a small computer network to prepare for experiments (using simulation software developed at RIT), to evaluate data, to access sequence homology databases over the Internet, and to visualize and model proteins and nucleic acids. The change in the biochemistry teaching lab from a sequence of unrelated experiments to an integrated series of experiments is a model that can be readily adapted by other educators, who can change their courses to focus on a single enzyme with which they are most familiar.

  15. Writing throughout the Biochemistry Curriculum: Synergistic Inquiry-Based Writing Projects for Biochemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Pamela; Streu, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a synergistic two-semester writing sequence for biochemistry courses. In the first semester, students select a putative protein and are tasked with researching their protein largely through bioinformatics resources. In the second semester, students develop original ideas and present them in the form of a research grant…

  16. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  17. The Biochemistry of Bereavement: Possible Basis for Chemotherapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Jerome F.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the physiological effect of acute grief and explores the increased susceptibility to infectious disease agents in terms of the altered biochemistry of the bereaved individual. Until basic reactions of grief are defined and the altered biochemistry established, psychological methods appear to offer the best therapy. (Author/JAC)

  18. Biochemistry for Nutrition/Dietetics Students: Course Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Lorraine Handler

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed dietetics directors (N=186) and biochemistry instructors (N=153) on topics emphasized in biochemistry courses for dietetics and nutrition students. Results indicate a consistent pattern of variation in topics emphasized and that this variation is influenced by whether students in other major fields are also in a course. (JN)

  19. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  20. News from Online: WWW Sites for Biochemistry Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Barry W.

    2002-05-01

    With so many biochemistry sites to choose from, searching the Web for biochemistry topics is like being a "kid in a candy shop." However, to reap the benefits, you must put in a bit of time and have a bit of patience. Good hunting.

  1. Using Pamphlets to Teach Biochemistry: A Service-Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melinda A.; Dunbar, David; Lopatto, David

    2013-01-01

    A service-learning project appropriate for a biochemistry or advanced biochemistry course was designed and implemented. The project involved students partnering with a homeless shelter to design informational pamphlets to be displayed at the shelter for the clients' use. The pamphlet topics were based on diseases studied within the course.…

  2. Blended Learning in Biochemistry Education: Analysis of Medical Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardenski, Rosilaine de Fatima; de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Tais Rabetti

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for…

  3. A Streamlined Molecular Biology Module for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Gregory W.; Chihade, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology techniques, including plasmid manipulation and restriction analysis, are commonly used tools in the biochemistry research laboratory. In redesigning our biochemistry lab curricula, we sought to integrate these techniques into a term-long, project-based course. In the module presented here,…

  4. Incorporation of Bioinformatics Exercises into the Undergraduate Biochemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feig, Andrew L.; Jabri, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    The field of bioinformatics is developing faster than most biochemistry textbooks can adapt. Supplementing the undergraduate biochemistry curriculum with data-mining exercises is an ideal way to expose the students to the common databases and tools that take advantage of this vast repository of biochemical information. An integrated collection of…

  5. Immobilized alpha-Galactosidase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, V. H.; Dhananjay, K.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment was designed to demonstrate the application of immobilized galactosidase in food industry to hydrolyze raffinose family oligosaccharides in soymilk. This laboratory experiment was conducted for postgraduate students of biochemistry and developed for graduate and undergraduate students of biochemistry, biotechnology,…

  6. Enhanced Podcasts for Teaching Biochemistry to Veterinary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of biochemistry within medical disciplines presents certain challenges; firstly to relay a large body of complex facts and abstract concepts, and secondly to motivate students that this relatively difficult topic is worth their time to study. Here, nutrient biochemistry was taught within a multidisciplinary module as part of an…

  7. Update on the biochemistry of chlorophyll breakdown.

    PubMed

    Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    In land plants, chlorophyll is broken down to colorless linear tetrapyrroles in a highly conserved multi-step pathway. The pathway is termed the 'PAO pathway', because the opening of the chlorine macrocycle present in chlorophyll catalyzed by pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), the key enzyme of the pathway, provides the characteristic structural basis found in all further downstream chlorophyll breakdown products. To date, most of the biochemical steps of the PAO pathway have been elucidated and genes encoding many of the chlorophyll catabolic enzymes been identified. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the biochemistry of the PAO pathway and provides insight into recent progress made in the field that indicates that the pathway is more complex than thought in the past. PMID:22790503

  8. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  9. Immobilized Lactase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Matthew J.; Bering, C. Larry

    1998-10-01

    Immobilized enzymes have many practical applications. They may be used in clinical, industrial, and biotechnological laboratories and in many clinical diagnostic kits. For educational purposes, use of immobilized enzymes can easily be taught at the undergraduate or even secondary level. We have developed an immobilized enzyme experiment that combines many practical techniques used in the biochemistry laboratory and fits within a three-hour time frame. In this experiment, lactase from over-the-counter tablets for patients with lactose intolerance is immobilized in polyacrylamide, which is then milled into small beads and placed into a chromatography column. A lactose solution is added to the column and the eluant is assayed using the glucose oxidase assay, available as a kit. We have determined the optimal conditions to give the greatest turnover of lactose while allowing the immobilized enzymes to be active for long periods at room temperature.

  10. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  11. International Environmental Law and Biochemistry: An Innovative Teaching Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candlish, John

    1998-01-01

    Explores the ties between international environmental law and biochemistry with respect to genetically modified organisms, biodiversity, marine pollution, cancer biology, and pesticide contamination of food. Contains 30 references. (DDR)

  12. Curriculum Guidelines on Biochemistry and Nutrition for Dental Hygienists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Sections of Biochemistry and Nutrition and Dental Hygiene Education of the American Association of Dental Schools are intended for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. (MLW)

  13. A Continuing Education Project for Updating Women in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary Kieran, McElroy, Sister

    1978-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program in the areas of biochemistry, biology, and computer science offered at Chestnut Hill College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to update 30 women in order to prepare them to return to the job market in chemistry. (HM)

  14. An integrated strategy for teaching biochemistry to biotechnology specialty students.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-07-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of each pedagogy and better solve the main difficulties that lay in the teaching of biochemistry to biotechnology specialty students in the East China University of Science and Technology. PMID:21591104

  15. Can Polyphosphate Biochemistry Affect Biological Apatite Saturation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelon, S. J.; Matsuura, N.; Gorelikov, I.; Wynnyckyj, C.; Grynpas, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important and limiting element for life. One strategy for storing ortho phosphates (Pi) is polymerization. Polymerized Pi's (polyphosphates: (PO3-)n: polyPs) serve as a Pi bank, as well as a catiion chelator, energy source, & regulator of responses to stresses in the stationary phase of culture growth and development1. PolyP biochemistry has been investigated in yeasts, bacteria & plants2. Bigeochemical cycling of P includes the condensation of Pi into pyro (P2O7-4), & polyPs, & the release of Pi from these compounds by the hydrolytic degradation of Pi from phosphomonoester bonds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the predominate enzymes for regenerating Pi in aquatic systems3, & it cleaves Pi from polyPs. ALP is also the enzyme associated with apatite biomineralization in vertebrates4. PolyP was proposed to be the ALP substrate in bone mineralization5. Where calcium ions are plentiful in many aquatic environments, there is no requirement for aquatic life to generate Ca-stores. However, terrestrial vertebrates benefit from a bioavailable Ca-store such as apatite. The Pi storage strategy of polymerizing PO4-3 into polyPs dovetails well with Ca-banking, as polyPs sequester Ca, forming a neutral calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP: (Ca(PO3)2)n) complex. This neutral complex represents a high total [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], without the threat of inadvertent apatite precipitation, as the free [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], and therefore apatite saturation, are zero. Recent identification of polyP in regions of bone resorption & calcifying cartilage5 suggests that vertebrates may use polyP chemistry to bank Ca+2 and PO4-3. In vitro experiments with nanoparticulate Ca-polyP & ALP were undertaken to determine if carbonated apatite could precipitate from 1M Ca-polyP in Pi-free “physiological fluid” (0.1 M NaCl, 2 mM Ca+2, 0.8 mM Mg+2, pH ~8.0 ±0.5, 37 °C), as this is estimated to generate the [Ca+2] & [PO4-3] required to form the apatite content of bone tissue

  16. Recent advances in the biochemistry of spinosyns.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-xue; Xia, Liqiu; Zhang, Youming; Ding, Xuezhi; Zahn, James A

    2009-02-01

    Spinosyn and its analogs, produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa, are the active ingredients in a family of insect control agents. They are macrolides with a 21-carbon, 12-membered tetracyclic lactones that are attached to two deoxysugars, tri-O-methylrhamnose and forosamine. Labeling studies, analysis of the biosynthetically blocked mutants, and the genetic identification of the spinosyn gene cluster have provided detailed information concerning the mechanism of spinosyn biosynthesis and have enabled combinatorial biosynthesis of a large group of new spinosyns. The following developments have recently impacted the field of spinosyn biology: (1) A second-generation spinosyn called spinetoram (XDE-175) was launched in late 2007; it is a semisynthesized spinosyn derivative produced through the modification of 3'-O-methyl group of rhamnose and the double bond between C5 and C6 of spinosyn J and L. This molecule was shown to have improved insecticidal activity, enhanced duration of control, and an expanded pest spectrum. (2) A new class of spinosyns, the butenyl-spinosyns, was discovered from Saccharopolyspora pogona. The butenyl-spinosyns are similar to spinosyns, but differ in the length of the side chain at C-21. In addition to structural similarities with the spinosyns, the butenyl-spinosyns exhibit a high level of similarity in insecticidal activity to spinetoram. (3) Spinosyn analogs, 21-cyclobutyl-spinosyn A and 21-cyclobutyl-spinosyn D were generated by metabolic engineering of the spinosyn biosynthetic gene cluster. They showed better insecticidal activities against cotton aphid and tobacco budworm than that of spinosyn A and D. Future progress toward the development of more potent spinosad analogs, as well as enhancements in production yields will likely result from these recent advances in the genetics and biochemistry of spinosyns. PMID:19082588

  17. Geobiochemistry: Placing Biochemistry in Its Geochemical Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.; Boyer, G. M.; Canovas, P. A., III; Prasad, A.; Dick, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Goals of geobiochemistry include simultaneously evaluating the relative stabilities of microbial cells and minerals, and predicting how the composition of biomolecules can change in response to the progress of geochemical reactions. Recent developments in theoretical geochemistry make it possible to predict standard thermodynamic properties of proteins, nucleotides, lipids, and many metabolites including the constituents of the citric acid cycle, at all temperatures and pressures where life is known to occur, and beyond. Combining these predictions with constraints from geochemical data makes it possible to assess the relative stabilities of biomolecules. Resulting independent predictions of the environmental occurrence of homologous proteins and lipid side-chains can be compared with observations from metagenomic and metalipidomic data to quantify geochemical driving forces that shape the composition of biomolecules. In addition, the energetic costs of generating biomolecules from within a diverse range of habitable environments can be evaluated in terms of prevailing geochemical variables. Comparisons of geochemical bioenergetic calculations across habitats leads to the generalization that the availability of H2 determines the cost of autotrophic biosynthesis relative to the aquatic environment external to microbial cells, and that pH, temperature, pressure, and availability of C, N, P, and S are typically secondary. Increasingly reduced conditions, which are determined by reactions of water with mineral surfaces and mineral assemblages, allow many biosynthetic reactions to shift from costing energy to releasing energy. Protein and lipid synthesis, as well as the reverse citric acid cycle, become energy-releasing processes under these conditions. The resulting energy balances that determine habitability contrast dramatically with assumptions derived from oxic surface conditions, such as those where human biochemistry operates.

  18. Bacterial dehalogenases: biochemistry, genetics, and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed Central

    Fetzner, S; Lingens, F

    1994-01-01

    This review is a survey of bacterial dehalogenases that catalyze the cleavage of halogen substituents from haloaromatics, haloalkanes, haloalcohols, and haloalkanoic acids. Concerning the enzymatic cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond, seven mechanisms of dehalogenation are known, namely, reductive, oxygenolytic, hydrolytic, and thiolytic dehalogenation; intramolecular nucleophilic displacement; dehydrohalogenation; and hydration. Spontaneous dehalogenation reactions may occur as a result of chemical decomposition of unstable primary products of an unassociated enzyme reaction, and fortuitous dehalogenation can result from the action of broad-specificity enzymes converting halogenated analogs of their natural substrate. Reductive dehalogenation either is catalyzed by a specific dehalogenase or may be mediated by free or enzyme-bound transition metal cofactors (porphyrins, corrins). Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 couples energy conservation to a reductive dechlorination reaction. The biochemistry and genetics of oxygenolytic and hydrolytic haloaromatic dehalogenases are discussed. Concerning the haloalkanes, oxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, halidohydrolases, and dehydrohalogenases are involved in the dehalogenation of different haloalkane compounds. The epoxide-forming halohydrin hydrogen halide lyases form a distinct class of dehalogenases. The dehalogenation of alpha-halosubstituted alkanoic acids is catalyzed by halidohydrolases, which, according to their substrate and inhibitor specificity and mode of product formation, are placed into distinct mechanistic groups. beta-Halosubstituted alkanoic acids are dehalogenated by halidohydrolases acting on the coenzyme A ester of the beta-haloalkanoic acid. Microbial systems offer a versatile potential for biotechnological applications. Because of their enantiomer selectivity, some dehalogenases are used as industrial biocatalysts for the synthesis of chiral compounds. The application of dehalogenases or bacterial

  19. Rembrandt’s Jewish Physician—Dr Ephraim Bueno (1599–1665): A Brief Medical History

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.; Albury, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Medicine in the Middle Ages was, and ever since remained, one of the main preoccupations of the professionally restricted Jews. One of the medical dynasties on the Iberian Peninsula was the Bueno (Bonus) family. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and their spread in Europe, these Iberian physicians became successful everywhere—just as the Buenos were in the Netherlands. PMID:23908860

  20. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  1. The use of multiple tools for teaching medical biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sé, Alexandre B; Passos, Renato M; Ono, André H; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2008-03-01

    In this work, we describe the use of several strategies employing the philosophies of active learning and problem-based learning (PBL) that may be used to improve the teaching of metabolic biochemistry to medical and nutritional undergraduate students. The main activities are as follows: 1) a seminar/poster system in a mini-congress format (using topics of applied biochemistry); 2) a true/false applied biochemistry exam (written by peer tutors); 3) a 9-h exam on metabolism (based in real publications); 4) the Advanced Biochemistry course (directed to peer tutors, where students learn how to read and criticize real medical papers); 5) experiments about nutrition and metabolism, using students as volunteers, and about free radicals (real science for students); 6) the BioBio blog (taking advantage of the "web age," this enhances out of class exchanges of information between the professor, students, and peer tutors); 7) student lectures on public health issues and metabolic disorders directed to the community and lay people; and 8) the BioBio quiz show. The main objective of these activities is to provide students with a more practical and interesting approach to biochemistry, such as the application of theoretical knowledge to real situations (diseases, experiments, media information, and scientific discoveries). In addition, we emphasize the importance of peer tutor activities for optimized learning of both students and peer tutors, the importance of a closer interaction between students and teaching staff, and the necessity to initiate students precociously in two broad fields of medical activity: "real" basic science and contact with the public (also helping students--future doctors and nutritionists--to be able to communicate with lay people). Most activities were evaluated by the students through written questionnaires and informal conversations, along various semesters, indicating good acceptance and approval of these methods. Good student scores in the

  2. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of

  3. Osmotic Stressing, Membrane Leakage, and Fluorescence: An Introductory Biochemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seu, Kalani J.

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescence demonstration is described that incorporates several fundamental aspects of an introductory biochemistry course. A variation of a known leakage assay is utilized to prepare vesicles containing a quenched fluorophore. The vesicles are exposed to several osmotic environments ranging from isotonic to hypotonic. The degree of vesicle…

  4. Concepts and Skills in the Biochemistry/Molecular Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Most colleges and universities throughout the world now offer a Biochemistry/Molecular Biology (BMB) lab course that is designed for undergraduate students in the molecular life sciences, chemistry, and related fields. To best serve our students, we must introduce them to the most current concepts, skills, and methods available. Suggestions for…

  5. A Biochemistry Course for High-Ability Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Marie

    1984-01-01

    Describes a one-semester biochemistry course designed for students who have completed courses in biology, CHEMStudy chemistry, and physical science. Course goals include presenting biochemical concepts (in preparation for college courses), challenging students considering science-related careers, and serving as a springboard for science fairs. (JN)

  6. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Investigations for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Kathy; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) has many features that make it attractive as a focal point of a semester-long, advanced biochemistry laboratory for undergraduate students. The protein can easily and inexpensively be isolated from spinach using traditional purification techniques. Characterization of RpiA enzyme activity can be…

  7. A Problem-Based Learning Design for Teaching Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dods, Richard F.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the design of a biochemistry course that uses problem-based learning. Provides opportunities for students to question, dispute, confirm, and disconfirm their understanding of basic concepts. Emphasizes self-correction through dialogue. Topics covered include amino acids, metabolic pathways and inherited disease, proteins, enzymes and…

  8. Biochemistry in Undergraduate Health Courses: Structure and Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Irani F.; Batista, Nildo A.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the following aspects of teaching biochemistry in undergraduate health courses: objectives, number of hours, time in which the subject is studied, selection of content, teaching strategies, and evaluation methodologies used. Fifty-three courses distributed in 13 areas within the health field and offered by 12 institutions…

  9. An Integrated Strategy for Teaching Biochemistry to Biotechnology Specialty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-01-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of…

  10. Lecture-Free Biochemistry: A Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minderhout, Vicky; Loertscher, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Biochemistry courses at Seattle University have been taught exclusively using process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) without any traditional lecture component since 1997. In these courses, students participate in a structured learning environment, which includes a preparatory assignment, an in-class activity, and a follow-up skill…

  11. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  12. Differentiating Biochemistry Course Laboratories Based on Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2011-01-01

    Content and emphases in undergraduate biochemistry courses can be readily tailored to accommodate the standards of the department in which they are housed, as well as the backgrounds of the students in the courses. A more challenging issue is how to construct laboratory experiences for a class with both chemistry majors, who usually have little or…

  13. A Laboratory Course in Clinical Biochemistry Emphasizing Interest and Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Peter L.

    1975-01-01

    Ten laboratory experiments are described which are used in a successful clinical biochemistry laboratory course (e.g. blood alcohol, glucose tolerance, plasma triglycerides, coronary risk index, gastric analysis, vitamin C and E). Most of the experiments are performed on the students themselves using simple equipment with emphasis on useful…

  14. Active Learning of Biochemistry Made Easy (for the Teacher)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobich, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    This active learning pedagogical technique aims to improve students' learning in a two-semester, upper-division biochemistry course sequence in which the vast majority of students enrolled will continue on to medical or graduate schools. Instead of lecturing, the Instructor moves to the side of the room, thereby becoming "the guide on the side".…

  15. Development of Student Writing in Biochemistry Using Calibrated Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartberg, Yasha; Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Simspon, Nancy J.; Balester, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This study investigating the effectiveness of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR )[TM] in a senior-level biochemistry class had three purposes: to (a) compare the CPR process for feedback with TA-generated feedback in improving students' ability to write scientific abstracts; (b) compare CPR results for males and females; and (c) observe whether CPR…

  16. Teaching of Biochemistry in Integrated Curricula: Experiences in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    1997-01-01

    Presents an historical perspective on the teaching of biochemistry in Hungary starting during the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Discusses integration and interdisciplinarity in terms of what should be included in the lecture material and what can be borrowed from other closely related subjects without excessive overlapping. Highlights differences…

  17. Biochemistry Instructors' Perceptions of Analogies and Their Classroom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, MaryKay; Bussey, Thomas J.; Bodner, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' abilities to conceptualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. From a constructivist standpoint, students build their understandings of these abstract processes by connecting, expanding, or revising their prior conceptions and experiences. As such, biochemistry…

  18. The Use of Multiple Tools for Teaching Medical Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Se, Alexandre B.; Passos, Renato M.; Ono, Andre H.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we describe the use of several strategies employing the philosophies of active learning and problem-based learning (PBL) that may be used to improve the teaching of metabolic biochemistry to medical and nutritional undergraduate students. The main activities are as follows: 1) a seminar/poster system in a mini-congress format (using…

  19. Positron Emission Tomography: Human Brain Function and Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Michael E.; Mazziotta, John C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the method, present status, and application of positron emission tomography (PET), an analytical imaging technique for "in vivo" measurements of the anatomical distribution and rates of specific biochemical reactions. Measurements and image dynamic biochemistry link basic and clinical neurosciences with clinical findings suggesting…

  20. Synthesis of Vitamin K Expoxide: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry-Palmer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Provides procedures for synthesizing and purifying a vitamin K metabolite (2,3-epoxide) to introduce many of the techniques used in lipid biochemistry. Includes typical results obtained as well as an optional experiment designed to test the purity of the epoxide obtained. (JM)

  1. Remote sensing of foliar biochemistry with a terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel, J.; Vierling, L. A.; Long, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Foliar biochemistry provides important information about the physiological status of plants. Several different tools and techniques have been developed to infer plant biochemistry (such as state and change of foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll) using remote sensing. However, few techniques allow accurate mapping of foliar biochemistry in 3-dimensions at a sub-cm level. Scanning laser technology is available that measures the x,y,z location of each reflected laser pulse in addition to the intensity of the reflected laser light within a mm-scale ground instantaneous field of view at a very high sampling rate (up to 50,000 points sec-1 in this study). We examined the ability to quantify foliar N of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chlorophyll content of two broadleaf tree species saplings (Quercus macrocarpa and Acer saccharum) using a green (532 nm) terrestrial laser scanner. The return intensity of the reflected green laser light was significantly correlated with foliar N concentration of wheat (r2 = 0.68) and the foliar chlorophyll content (r2 = 0.77) of the broadleaf saplings. The results indicate that laser scanners are useful to obtain spatially explicit estimates of foliar biochemistry.

  2. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  3. Uncovering Students' Incorrect Ideas about Foundational Concepts for Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villafane, Sachel M.; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data on how an assessment instrument with a unique structure can be used to identify common incorrect ideas from prior coursework at the beginning of a biochemistry course, and to determine whether these ideas have changed by the end of the course. The twenty-one multiple-choice items address seven different…

  4. Using Assessment to Improve Learning in the Biochemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, major drivers of undergraduate science education reform including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) have called on college and university instructors to take a more scientific approach to their teaching. Although many biochemistry instructors are gaining confidence in using…

  5. Serum haptoglobin in clinical biochemistry: change of a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Robert, L

    2013-12-01

    Serum haptoglobin (Hp) was discovered by Max Fernand Jayle as a young assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry of the Paris Medical Faculty, headed by Professor Michel Polonovski. Jayle showed that Hp was an acute phase glycoprotein and worked out its routine determination in the blood-serum, based on its complex formation with hemoglobin, using the increased peroxidase activity of the hemoglobin-haptoglobin (Hb-Hp) complex, for routine determination in clinical biochemistry for the characterisation of inflammatory processes, together with other acute phase glycoproteins as orosomucoide. Later Smithies described the genetic control of human Hp-isoforms and quite recently Andersen et al. reported the elucidation of the crystal structure of the porcine Hb-Hp complex. In that article there was no mention of the discovery of Hp, neither of its determination in clinical biochemistry as an inflammatory marker. The only biologically significant role assigned to Hp by Andersen et al. is its (hypothetical) role to prevent or minimize the harmful effects of Hb during intravascular hemolysis, by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and complexing it. This shift of paradigm, not at all exceptional in medical biochemistry, will be described and discussed with its pitfalls and consequences. PMID:24011966

  6. An "in Silico" DNA Cloning Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced…

  7. Raising Environmental Awareness through Applied Biochemistry Laboratory Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salman Ashraf, S.

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment…

  8. Playing with a double-edged sword: Analogies in biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, Marykay

    Analogy pervades our everyday reasoning. No situation we encounter is exactly like a situation we have encountered previously, and our ability to learn and survive in the world is based on our ability to find similarities between past and present situations and use the knowledge we have gained from past situations to manage current situations. Analogies can be powerful teaching tools because they can make new material intelligible to students by comparing it to material that is already familiar. It is clear, though, that not all analogies are good and that not all good analogies are useful to all students. In this study, I have used textbook analysis, classroom observations, student interviews and instructor interviews to determine the role that analogies play in biochemistry learning. Analogies are an important teaching technique in biochemistry classes, being used more often in both biochemistry classes and textbooks than they are in high school chemistry classes and textbooks. Most biochemistry students like, pay particular attention to, and remember the analogies their instructors provide; and they use these analogies to understand, visualize, and recall information from class. Even though students like and use analogies, they do not understand what analogies are or the mechanism by which they improve learning. For the students, analogies are simply any teaching technique that eases understanding, visualization, or recall. Instructors, on the other hand, have a good understanding of what analogies are and of how they should be presented in class; but they do not use analogies as effectively as they should. They do not plan, explain or identify the limitations of the analogies they use in class. However, regardless of how effectively instructors present analogies in class, this study indicates that, in general, analogies are useful in promoting understanding, visualization, recall, and motivation in biochemistry students at all levels. They would be even more

  9. Biochemistry Students' Ideas about Shape and Charge in Enzyme-Substrate Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry is a visual discipline that requires students to develop an understanding of numerous representations. However, there is very little known about what students actually understand about the representations that are used to communicate ideas in biochemistry. This study investigated biochemistry students' understanding of multiple…

  10. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO AGENCY... issuance of a license amendment to Materials License No. 24-13365-01 issued to Analytical Bio-Chemistry... accession numbers are: 1. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Licensee amendment request...

  11. Isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries - Carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schidlowski, M.; Hayes, J. M.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    In processes of biological incorporation and subsequent biochemical processing sizable isotope effects occur as a result of both thermodynamic and kinetic fractionations which take place during metabolic and biosynthetic reactions. In this chapter a review is provided of earlier work and recent studies on isotope fractionations in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Attention is given to the biochemistry of carbon isotope fractionation, carbon isotope fractionation in extant plants and microorganisms, isotope fractionation in the terrestrial carbon cycle, the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism on the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon, the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon through time, implications of the sedimentary carbon isotope record, the biochemistry of sulfur isotope fractionation, pathways of the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, and the D/H ratio in naturally occurring materials.

  12. Biochemistry and evolutionary biology: two disciplines that need each other?

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Pereto, Juli; Cardenas, Maria Luz

    2014-03-01

    Biochemical information has been crucial for the development of evolutionary biology. On the one hand, the sequence information now appearing is producing a huge increase in the amount of data available for phylogenetic analysis; on the other hand, and perhaps more fundamentally, it allows understanding of the mechanisms that make evolution possible. Less well recognized, but just as important, understanding evolutionary biology is essential for understanding many details of biochemistry that would otherwise be mysterious, such as why the structures of NAD and other coenzymes are far more complicated than their functions would seem to require. Courses of biochemistry should thus pay attention to the essential role of evolution in selecting the molecules of life. PMID:24499786

  13. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    PubMed

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format. PMID:26593859

  14. Enhanced podcasts for teaching biochemistry to veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of biochemistry within medical disciplines presents certain challenges; firstly to relay a large body of complex facts and abstract concepts, and secondly to motivate students that this relatively difficult topic is worth their time to study. Here, nutrient biochemistry was taught within a multidisciplinary module as part of an undergraduate veterinary curriculum. The teaching approach was initially focussed on a mixture of didactic lectures and student-centred activities such as directed group/self learning. In subsequent years the core didactic lectures were replaced with enhanced podcasts covering the same material, along with the introduction of student presentations delivered within groups with both peer and facilitator assessment. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the time dedicated to this topic to allow sufficient time for students to work through podcasts and prepare presentations. The combination of these changes resulted in significant improvements in student performance within an in-course biochemistry long essay. These changes in the teaching approach, and particularly the introduction of extensive podcasts, was well received by students who perceived the process of going through the podcasts as time consuming but allowing them flexibility in both the pace that they studied this topic as well as the location and times that they studied it. PMID:22081546

  15. Postprandial biochemistry changes in penguins (Spheniscus demersus) including hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Stremme, Donald W; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2010-06-01

    In a clinical setting, it is important to differentiate abnormal values that may be a normal change resulting from feeding and those that may be disease related. Such postprandial changes have been identified in mammalian and avian species. In the current study, pre- and postvalues for several routine biochemical analytes from penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were examined. Significant increases were found in uric acid, triglycerides, and bile acids (P < 0.001). Uric acid levels increased more than threefold. These data indicate that postprandial changes should be considered when interpreting abnormal biochemistry values in penguins. PMID:20597226

  16. Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinman, Richard D.

    2001-09-01

    To ease the transition from organic chemistry at the beginning of a biochemistry course or at the beginning of the metabolism section of the organic course, an early presentation of the oxidation of ethanol is proposed. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions can smooth the introduction to biochemistry, since they involve three of the simplest compounds: ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Using these reactions as a model encourages the study of metabolic pathways by a systematic approach rather than by rote memorization. Reactions that can be presented as variations on a theme include methanol poisoning, the polyol reaction, and, most important, the sequence glycerol-3-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. This last sequence integrates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and, by comparison with the model reaction, brings out the principles of substrate-level phosphorylation. The method has evoked favorable verbal feedback from students and, in addition to medical and graduate courses, has been successfully used in the biochemical section of an undergraduate organic course.

  17. Active Learning of Biochemistry Made Easy (for the Teacher)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobich, Joseph A.

    2008-02-01

    This active learning pedagogical technique aims to improve students' learning in a two-semester, upper-division biochemistry course sequence in which the vast majority of students enrolled will continue on to medical or graduate schools. Instead of lecturing, the Instructor moves to the side of the room, thereby becoming "the guide on the side". Students take turns being the "Discussion Leader" (DL, instructor for the day) and administer an oral quiz that requires answering questions of the DL's own devising. The remaining students, knowing they must learn the assigned material in advance, come prepared for every class. They prepare by creating written work abstracting the most important things they have learned on the given topic. Students use their prior writing and learning to answer the questions asked by the Discussion Leader; they also annotate these abstracts as they learn more during class. At the end of each class, the annotated writing is turned in to the Instructor for grading: that grade combined with points for oral performance yields the day's grade for each student. The students appear to learn biochemistry better using these procedures compared to the previous lecture-based approach.

  18. Biochemistry of Microbial Degradation of Hexachlorocyclohexane and Prospects for Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Rup; Pandey, Gunjan; Sharma, Pooja; Kumari, Kirti; Malhotra, Shweta; Pandey, Rinku; Raina, Vishakha; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Holliger, Christof; Jackson, Colin; Oakeshott, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Lindane, the γ-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), is a potent insecticide. Purified lindane or unpurified mixtures of this and α-, β-, and δ-isomers of HCH were widely used as commercial insecticides in the last half of the 20th century. Large dumps of unused HCH isomers now constitute a major hazard because of their long residence times in soil and high nontarget toxicities. The major pathway for the aerobic degradation of HCH isomers in soil is the Lin pathway, and variants of this pathway will degrade all four of the HCH isomers although only slowly. Sequence differences in the primary LinA and LinB enzymes in the pathway play a key role in determining their ability to degrade the different isomers. LinA is a dehydrochlorinase, but little is known of its biochemistry. LinB is a hydrolytic dechlorinase that has been heterologously expressed and crystallized, and there is some understanding of the sequence-structure-function relationships underlying its substrate specificity and kinetics, although there are also some significant anomalies. The kinetics of some LinB variants are reported to be slow even for their preferred isomers. It is important to develop a better understanding of the biochemistries of the LinA and LinB variants and to use that knowledge to build better variants, because field trials of some bioremediation strategies based on the Lin pathway have yielded promising results but would not yet achieve economic levels of remediation. PMID:20197499

  19. The Use of Case Studies in an Undergraduate Biochemistry Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornely, Kathleen

    1998-04-01

    Most college biochemistry courses are taught in a format in which the professor lectures and the student memorizes. Although this is the best method for conveying large amounts of material, it puts the student in the position of passive learner. The lecture-based format has not been abandoned, but has been supplemented with case study projects assigned to the students upon completion of the intermediary metabolism unit. The case study assignment is modeled on similar exercises carried out in medical school biochemistry courses in the US and around the world. A description of the assignment follows: a group of 4-5 students is given a case study which gives the medical history of a patient with an inherited metabolic disease. The group is asked to provide biochemical explanations for the patient's symptoms and to suggest an effective course of treatment. The evaluation consists of a short paper that the students write as a group. The assignment provides the opportunity for small group interaction within a larger class and emphasizes cooperative-collaborative learning. Students learn by researching the topic on their own and debating it in small group discussions, and in so doing, gain a sense of confidence in themselves and the material they have learned over the course of the semester. Solving a "real-life" problem helps develop analytical and higher-order thinking skills and allows the students to see how biochemical concepts they have learned apply to a clinical situation.

  20. [Development of biochemistry in the Biology Department of Kharkhov State University. Formation of a new direction--physiology and biochemistry of aging].

    PubMed

    Kalyman, P A; Chernyshenko, A A

    2000-01-01

    The article presents some data on teaching Biochemistry at the Nature Department of Kharkiv Imperial University Physico-Mathematical Faculty, as well as restoration of biochemical education and scientific researches as a result of the University reorganization in the Soviet period and foundation of the Biochemistry Chair at the Biological Faculty in the renovated Kharkiv State University. The analysis of scientific biochemical investigations conducted in the Kharkiv University till now is revealed. The special attention is paid to development of such a scientific trend as age physiology and biochemistry. The article deals with the comprehensive information on scientific and pedagogical activity of the outstanding scientists such as O. V. Nagorny and I. M. Bulankin as founders of the Kharkiv school of age physiology and biochemistry. The work has utilized some archive data. PMID:11200470

  1. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  2. A Curriculum Skills Matrix for Development and Assessment of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…

  3. Biochemistry Students' Ideas about How an Enzyme Interacts with a Substrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-substrate interactions are a fundamental concept of biochemistry that is built upon throughout multiple biochemistry courses. Central to understanding enzyme-substrate interactions is specific knowledge of exactly how an enzyme and substrate interact. Within this narrower topic, students must understand the various binding sites on an…

  4. Suitable Class Experiments in Biochemistry for High-school Chemistry and Biology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, A.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates the scope of experimental investigations for biochemistry education in high school biology and chemistry courses. Gives a brief overview of biochemistry experiments with proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins, metabolism, electron transport, and photosynthesis including materials, procedures, and outcomes.…

  5. What Are the Appropriate Curriculum Contents for Biochemistry Courses in Veterinary Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, A. A. D.; Correia, J. H. R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the important items that the author's suggest should be included in a biochemistry course given to students in veterinary medicine. Presents a broad range of specific topics in biochemistry and strategies for covering as many topics as possible in one course. (LZ)

  6. Biochemistry Instructors' Views toward Developing and Assessing Visual Literacy in Their Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors are inundated with various representations from which to choose to depict biochemical phenomena. Because of the immense amount of visual know-how needed to be an expert biochemist in the 21st century, there have been calls for instructors to develop biochemistry students' visual literacy. However, visual literacy has…

  7. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Analogy Use in College-Level Biochemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, MaryKay; Bodner, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Science instructors and textbook authors often use analogies to help their students use information they already understand to develop an understanding of new concepts. This study reports the results of an analysis of the use of analogies in eight biochemistry textbooks, which included textbooks written for one-semester survey biochemistry courses…

  8. Case Study of How Turkish University Students Improve Their Biochemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry courses have an important place as a common subject in faculties of medicine, food engineering, biology and chemistry. MSLQ, Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and Learning Approach Questionnaire were used. The study also involves repeated observations of the same instructor in a biochemistry class over eight weeks to describe…

  9. The Use of Contextual Learning to Teach Biochemistry to Dietetic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, J. O.; Van Damme, M. -P.; Walker, K. Z.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of contextualized and "blended" learning to teach biochemistry to dietetic students during the second year of their professional training in a 4-year undergraduate degree (Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics). Contextualized content was used to engage students and motivate them to learn biochemistry, which many…

  10. Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular biology,…

  11. An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course with an Emphasis on a Research Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their junior or senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy are required to take a two-credit biochemistry laboratory course. Five years ago, the format of this course was changed from structured experiments to a more project-based approach. Several structured experiments were included at the beginning of the course…

  12. Teaching Structure: Student Use of Software Tools for Understanding Macromolecular Structure in an Undergraduate Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaswal, Sheila S.; O'Hara, Patricia B.; Williamson, Patrick L.; Springer, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Because understanding the structure of biological macromolecules is critical to understanding their function, students of biochemistry should become familiar not only with viewing, but also with generating and manipulating structural representations. We report a strategy from a one-semester undergraduate biochemistry course to integrate use of…

  13. Teaching Arrangements of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Biochemistry Curriculum in Peking University Health Science Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hao; Ni, Ju-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry occupies a unique place in the medical school curricula, but the teaching of biochemistry presents certain challenges. One of these challenges is facilitating students' interest in and mastery of metabolism. The many pathways and modes of regulation can be overwhelming for students to learn and difficult for professors to teach…

  14. Probing Changes in the Conformation of tRNA[superscript Phe]: An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.; Taylor, Buck L. H.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a new guided-inquiry laboratory for an advanced biochemistry course. This integrated laboratory focuses on the biomolecule tRNA[superscript Phe] and combines elements of bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry with biochemistry. Throughout the semester students work together to study tRNA[superscript Phe] structure and ligand…

  15. Lignin biochemistry and soil N determine crop residue decomposition and soil priming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping history can affect soil properties, including available N, but little is known about the interactive effects of residue biochemistry, temperature and cropping history on residue decomposition. A laboratory incubation examined the role of residue biochemistry and temperature on the decomposi...

  16. Glycobiology, How to Sugar-Coat an Undergraduate Advanced Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Katherine D.

    2006-01-01

    A second semester biochemistry laboratory has been implemented as an independent projects course at California State University, Sacramento since 1999. To incorporate aspects of carbohydrate biochemistry, or glycobiology, into our curriculum, projects in lectin isolation and purification were undertaken over the course of two semesters. Through…

  17. The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field, Rondônia, Brazil: Tuffisitic kimberlite and transitional textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masun, K. M.; Scott Smith, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field of Rondônia State, Brazil is located near the edge of the Amazon Craton and contains more than thirty bodies. A late to mid-Triassic emplacement age has been obtained for two kimberlites. The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field includes pipes of up to 15 ha and a few apparently flat-lying hypabyssal kimberlite sills. In the three pipes and one sill examined, three textural end member types of kimberlite are recognized: hypabyssal kimberlite (HK), tuffisitic kimberlite (TK), and resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite (RVK). There are gradations in textures between the three types. The overall gradation with depth is VKB, VK, TK, TKt, HKt to HK (where "t" denotes transitional varieties), and the textural gradations are apparent at all scales, megascopically to microscopically. Importantly, these gradations appear to occur within single phases of kimberlite. TK and the associated transitional varieties observed in the Pimenta Bueno field have striking similarities to those of many kimberlites of southern Africa and Canada. The Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field thus represents a newly recognized example of southern-African-style kimberlite pipes occurring on a third continent. The TK-bearing pipes of Pimenta Bueno, southern Africa, and Canada are markedly different from those found in the Canadian Prairies and Lac de Gras, Northwest Territories, which indicates that pipes containing TK and related textures are repeated in space and time but only form in certain circumstances. There is an apparent correlation between kimberlite texture and pipe size. In the larger pipes (> 5 ha), the TK is overlain by VKB. In the small pipes (< 3 ha) there is a textural gradation with depth from TK to HK and VKB is not present. One TKt-HKt transition appears to be ~ 60 m thick. The nature of the TK-TKt-HKt-HK textural transition suggests that TK developed by the textural modification of magmatic kimberlite within the pipe. The textures may reflect increased

  18. Whither life? Conjectures on the future evolution of biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Jodi L; Finn, Thomas J; Ramirez, Miguel A; Patrick, Wayne M

    2016-08-01

    Life has existed on the Earth for approximately four billion years. The sheer depth of evolutionary time, and the diversity of extant species, makes it tempting to assume that all the key biochemical innovations underpinning life have already happened. But we are only a little over halfway through the trajectory of life on our planet. In this Opinion piece, we argue: (i) that sufficient time remains for the evolution of new processes at the heart of metabolic biochemistry and (ii) that synthetic biology is providing predictive insights into the nature of these innovations. By way of example, we focus on engineered solutions to existing inefficiencies in energy generation, and on the complex, synthetic regulatory circuits that are currently being implemented. PMID:27555646

  19. Myoglobin structure and function: A multiweek biochemistry laboratory project.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Todd P; Kirk, Sarah R; Meyer, Scott C; Holman, Karen L McFarlane

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multiweek laboratory project in which students isolate myoglobin and characterize its structure, function, and redox state. The important laboratory techniques covered in this project include size-exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrophotometric titration, and FTIR spectroscopy. Regarding protein structure, students work with computer modeling and visualization of myoglobin and its homologues, after which they spectroscopically characterize its thermal denaturation. Students also study protein function (ligand binding equilibrium) and are instructed on topics in data analysis (calibration curves, nonlinear vs. linear regression). This upper division biochemistry laboratory project is a challenging and rewarding one that not only exposes students to a wide variety of important biochemical laboratory techniques but also ties those techniques together to work with a single readily available and easily characterized protein, myoglobin. PMID:25726810

  20. The biochemistry and biology of the atypical chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Graham, G J; Locati, M; Mantovani, A; Rot, A; Thelen, M

    2012-07-30

    A subset of chemokine receptors, initially called "silent" on the basis of their apparent failure to activate conventional signalling events, has recently attracted growing interest due to their ability to internalize, degrade, or transport ligands and thus modify gradients and create functional chemokine patterns in tissues. These receptors recognize distinct and complementary sets of ligands with high affinity, are strategically expressed in different cellular contexts, and lack structural determinants supporting Gα(i) activation, a key signalling event in cell migration. This is in keeping with the hypothesis that they have evolved to fulfil fundamentally different functions to the classical signalling chemokine receptors. Based on these considerations, these receptors (D6, Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), CCX-CKR1 and CXCR7) are now collectively considered as an emerging class of 'atypical' chemokine receptors. In this article, we review the biochemistry and biology of this emerging chemokine receptor subfamily. PMID:22698181

  1. Hallmarks of a new era in mitochondrial biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, David J.; Rutter, Jared

    2013-01-01

    Stemming from the pioneering studies of bioenergetics in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, mitochondria have become ingrained in the collective psyche of scientists as the “powerhouses” of the cell. While this remains a worthy moniker, more recent efforts have revealed that these organelles are home to a vast array of metabolic and signaling processes and possess a proteomic landscape that is both highly varied and largely uncharted. As mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly being implicated in a spectrum of human diseases, it is imperative that we construct a more complete framework of these organelles by systematically defining the functions of their component parts. Powerful new approaches in biochemistry and systems biology are helping to fill in the gaps. PMID:24352419

  2. [Foundation and development of biochemistry at the Imperial Kharkov University].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Chernyshenko, A A

    2000-01-01

    The article summarizes the biochemical researches carried out at Kharkiv Imperial University from the middle of XIX century up to the cessation of its existence in 1920 as a result of transformation into the Kharkiv Institute of National Education. Scientific activity at the Chair of Medical Chemistry at Medical Department is described in details. Information on professors who led the chair and their researches are represented. Among them a great attention is spared to the Kharkiv works of such famous scientists as A. Danilevsky and V. Gulevich, who made a great contribution to the development of Russian and world biochemistry. There are also some resordes about researches of biological and physiological chemistry carried out at other chairs of Medical Department and Department of Physics and Mathematics of the Kharkiv University. In particular, the article presents the works of well-known plant physiologists and biochemists prof. V. Palladin and V. Zalessky, and the endocrinological researches led by prof. A. Reprev. PMID:10979572

  3. Whither life? Conjectures on the future evolution of biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Jodi L.; Finn, Thomas J.; Ramirez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Life has existed on the Earth for approximately four billion years. The sheer depth of evolutionary time, and the diversity of extant species, makes it tempting to assume that all the key biochemical innovations underpinning life have already happened. But we are only a little over halfway through the trajectory of life on our planet. In this Opinion piece, we argue: (i) that sufficient time remains for the evolution of new processes at the heart of metabolic biochemistry and (ii) that synthetic biology is providing predictive insights into the nature of these innovations. By way of example, we focus on engineered solutions to existing inefficiencies in energy generation, and on the complex, synthetic regulatory circuits that are currently being implemented. PMID:27555646

  4. Reflections on my career in analytical chemistry and biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    SWEELEY, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    My career has been focused in two major areas, analytical chemistry and biochemistry of complex lipids and glycoconjugates. Included here are the pioneering work on the gas chromatography of long-chain sphingolipid bases, carbohydrates, steroids and urinary organic acids. Mass spectrometry was utilized extensively in structural studies of sphingolipids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, steroids, urinary organic acids, polyisoprenoid alcohols, and juvenile hormone. Computer systems were developed for the acquisition and analysis of mass spectra, and were used for development of automated metabolic profiling of complex mixtures of metabolites. Fabry’s disease was discovered to be a glycosphingolipidosis. Enzymes of lysosomal metabolism of glycosphingolipids were purified, characterized, and used in one of the first demonstrations of the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy in a lysosomal storage disorder (Fabry’s disease). Extracellular sialidases were studied to evaluate the hypothesis that they might be involved in the regulation of membrane growth factor receptors. The enzyme for hematoside synthesis was purified and characterized. PMID:20948176

  5. Modelling Rho GTPase biochemistry to predict collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Brian; Feng, James

    The collective migration of cells, due to individual cell polarization and intercellular contact inhibition of locomotion, features prominently in embryogenesis and metastatic cancers. Existing methods for modelling collectively migrating cells tend to rely either on highly abstracted agent-based models, or on continuum approximations of the group. Both of these frameworks represent intercellular interactions such as contact inhibition of locomotion as hard-coded rules defining model cells. In contrast, we present a vertex-dynamics framework which predicts polarization and contact inhibition of locomotion naturally from an underlying model of Rho GTPase biochemistry and cortical mechanics. We simulate the interaction between many such model cells, and study how modulating Rho GTPases affects migratory characteristics of the group, in the context of long-distance collective migration of neural crest cells during embryogenesis.

  6. A focused assignment encouraging deep reading in undergraduate biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Spiegelberg, Bryan D

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging undergraduate students to access, read, and analyze current primary literature can positively impact learning, especially in advanced courses. The incorporation of literature into coursework typically involves reading and responding to full research reports. Such exercises have clear value as students make connections between experiments and are able to probe and critique scientific logic. The exclusive use of full papers, though, may reinforce certain students' tendencies to rely on textual clues rather than a critical analysis of the actual data presented. I propose that structured activities requiring students to focus on individual parts of research papers, even on a single figure, are beneficial in a literature-centered advanced undergraduate course, because they promote the deep reading that is critical to scientific discourse. In addition, I describe how one such focused assignment boosted learning and was well received by students in a second-semester biochemistry course. PMID:24243802

  7. Biochemistry and physiological functions of ADAMTS7 metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Hanby, Hayley A.; Zheng, X. Long

    2013-01-01

    Here, we provide a comprehensive review of current findings concerning the biochemistry and physiological functions of ADAMTS7, a metalloprotease that is known to interact with cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, progranulin, and alpha2-macroglobulin. Such broad substrate specificity and potentially diverse physiological functions make ADAMTS7 an interesting enzyme to study. ADAMTS7 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritis and disc disorders. More recently, the ADAMTS7 locus is identified to have a strong association with coronary atherosclerotic disease. However, the role of ADAMTS7 in the development of atherosclerosis is yet to be determined. The development of an easy and high throughput assay for ADAMTS7 activity and appropriate animal models will allow us to uncover the novel mechanisms of coronary arterial disease. PMID:24222922

  8. Probing RNA–protein networks: biochemistry meets genomics

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Zachary T.; Wickens, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    RNA–protein interactions are pervasive. The specificity of these interactions dictates which RNAs are controlled by what protein. Here we describe a class of revolutionary new methods that enable global views of RNA-binding specificity in vitro, for both single proteins and multiprotein complexes. In vitro methods provide insight into central issues in RNA regulation in living cells, including understanding the balance between free and bound components in cells, the basis for exclusion of binding sites in vivo, detection of binding events in the absence of discernible regulatory elements, and new approaches to targeting specific cellular RNAs by design. Comparisons of in vitro and in vivo binding provide a foundation for comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry of protein-mediated RNA regulatory networks. PMID:25636997

  9. A new species of Tullbergia (Collembola, Tullbergiidae) from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Vargas, José G.; Martínez, Ana E. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Tullbergia from Argentina is described and illustrated; it is differentiated from Tullbergia paranensis by the number of vesicles of postantennal organ, pseudocelli shape and its formulae and the number of dorsal sensilla on Ant. IV. In addition a key for the identification of the members of the family from Argentina is included. PMID:25061344

  10. [Poverty, child malnutrition and morbidity in urban area families from Gran La Plata, Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ortale, S; Rodrigo, M A

    1998-06-01

    A comparative study was carried out over two samples of 50 families each. Both groups belong to the low income social level from Gran La Plata. One of the groups was made up of families in which at least one child suffer malnutrition. The other group of families did not present children under malnutrition conditions. Differences sociodemographic, economic and environmental factors are identified. At the same time, a strong link between primary malnutrition and an increase in children morbility and mortality was found. The results obtained demonstrate that the lack of programmes that these cases deserve, have a high social and economic cost, as malnutrition treatment demand a higher budget than its prevention. PMID:9830490

  11. Abnormalities in amphibian populations inhabiting agroecosystems in Northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agostini, M G; Kacoliris, F; Demetrio, P; Natale, G S; Bonetto, C; Ronco, A E

    2013-05-27

    The occurrence of abnormalities in amphibians has been reported in many populations, and its increase could be related to environmental pollution and habitat degradation. We evaluated the type and prevalence of abnormalities in 5 amphibian populations from agroecosystems with different degrees of agricultural disturbance (cultivated and reference areas). We detected 9 types of abnormalities, of which the most frequent were those occurring in limbs. The observed prevalence of abnormality in assessed populations from cultivated and reference areas was as follows: Rhinella fernandezae (37.1 and 10.2%, respectively), Leptodactylus latrans adults (28.1 and 9.2%) and juveniles (32.9 and 15.3%), and Hypsiboas pulchellus (11.6 and 2.8%). Scinax granulatus populations did not show abnormalities. Pseudis minuta, which was only detected in the reference area, exhibited a prevalence of 13.3%. For R. fernandezae, L. latrans, and H. pulchellus, generalized linear mixed models showed that prevalence of abnormalities was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cultivated than in reference areas. L. latrans juveniles were more vulnerable to abnormalities than adults (p < 0.05). The presence of abnormalities in some species inhabiting different agroecosystems suggests that environmental stress factors might be responsible for their occurrence. While we detected pesticides (endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos) and lower dissolved oxygen levels in ponds of the cultivated area, no data are currently available on how other factors, such as injuries from predators and parasite infections, vary by land use. Further research will be necessary to evaluate possible causes of abnormalities detected in the present study mainly in the context of factor interactions. PMID:23709469

  12. School Autonomy in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Evidence from Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence of policy adoption, outcomes and consequences of decentralization and school autonomy initiatives enacted in Argentina during the 1990s. The study examines what school autonomy meant in Argentina and how it was adopted at the provincial and school levels. Using qualitative data on school districts of the…

  13. SPIRE, the ``Spin Triangle'': Athens, Hamburg, Buenos Aires: Advancing Nanospintronics and Nanomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-02-01

    Future technological advances at the frontier of `elec'tronics will increasingly rely on the use of the spin property of the electron at ever smaller length scales. As a result, it is critical to make substantial efforts towards understanding and ultimately controlling spin and magnetism at the nanoscale. In SPIRE, the goal is to achieve these important scientific advancements through a unique combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, as well as complementary expertise and coherent efforts across three continents. The key experimental tool of choice is spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy -- the premier method for accessing the spin structure of surfaces and nanostructures with resolution down to the atomic scale. At the same time, atom and molecule deposition and manipulation schemes are added in order to both atomically engineer, and precisely investigate, novel nanoscale spin structures. These efforts are being applied to an array of physical systems, including single magnetic atomic layers, self-assembled 2-D molecular arrays, single adatoms and molecules, and alloyed spintronic materials. Efforts are aimed at exploring complex spin structures and phenomena occurring in these systems. At the same time, the problems are approached, and in some cases guided, by the use of leading theoretical tools, including analytical approaches such as renormalization group theory, and computational approaches such as first principles density functional theory. The scientific goals of the project are achieved by a collaborative effort with the international partners, engaging students at all levels who, through their research experiences both at home and abroad, gain international research outlooks as well as understandings of cultural differences, by working on intriguing problems of mutual interest. A novel scientific journalism internship program based at Ohio University furthers the project's broader impacts.

  14. Comparing International Student Friendship Networks in Buenos Aires: Direct Enrollment Programs vs. Study Abroad Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Blake

    2016-01-01

    In March of 2011 Unite States president Barack Obama announced the "100,000 strong in the Americas" program during his visit to Chile (U.S. State Department, 2011). The initiative's goal is to reach 100,000 U.S. students studying in Latin America and 100,000 Latin American students studying in the United States. This interchange of…

  15. [Spider community (Arachnida, Araneae) of alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa) in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Armendano, Andrea; González, Alda

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural enemies to control pest insects, including spiders. We studied a spider community in Argentina by sampling every two weeks during 2004-2006 in one-hectare lots. Soil stratum spiders were collected using nets and pitfall traps. A total of 6229 specimens were collected (15 families and 50 species). Seven families were found in the herbal stratum, the most abundant were Thomisidae (n=2012, 32.30%), Araneidae (n=1516, 24.33%) and Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%). The soil had 14 families, mainly: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10%) and Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%). Hunting spiders predominated: ambushers (32.99%); stalkers (11.77%) and ground-runners (10.84%) were less common. The most abundant web building spiders were the orb weavers (27.56%). The diversity indexes were: H'=2.97, Dsp=0.11 and J=0.79, evidencing a moderately diverse spider community with predominance of Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. The spiders were present throughout the phenological development of the crop with abundance peaks in spring and summer. PMID:20527473

  16. Effect of a reservoir in the water quality of the Reconquista River, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rigacci, Laura N; Giorgi, Adonis D N; Vilches, Carolina S; Ossana, Natalia Alejandra; Salibián, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    The lower portion of the Reconquista River is highly polluted. However, little is known about the state of the high and middle basins. The aims of this work were to assess the water quality on the high and middle Reconquista River basins and to determinate if the presence of a reservoir in the river has a positive effect on the water quality. We conducted a seasonal study between August 2009 and November 2010 at the mouth of La Choza, Durazno, and La Horqueta streams at the Roggero reservoir--which receives the water from the former streams--at the origin of the Reconquista River and 17 km downstream from the reservoir. We measured 25 physical and chemical parameters, including six heavy metal concentrations, and performed a multivariate statistical analysis to summarize the information and allow the interpretation of the whole data set. We found that the Durazno and La Horqueta streams had better water quality than La Choza, and the presence of the reservoir contributed to the improvement of the water quality, allowing oxygenation of the water body and processing of organic matter and ammonia. The water quality of the Reconquista River at its origin is good and similar to the reservoir, but a few kilometers downstream, the water quality declines as a consequence of the presence of industries and human settlements. Therefore, the Roggero reservoir produces a significant improvement of water quality of the river, but the discharge of contaminants downstream quickly reverses this effect. PMID:23677681

  17. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  18. Knowing the enemy: ant behavior and control in a pediatric hospital of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Josens, Roxana; Sola, Francisco J; Marchisio, Nahuel; Di Renzo, María Agostina; Giacometti, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Ant control is difficult in systems even where a variety of control strategies and compounds are allowed; in sensitive places such as hospitals, where there are often restrictions on the methods and toxicants to be applied, the challenge is even greater. Here we report the methods and results of how we faced this challenge of controlling ants in a pediatric hospital using baits. Our strategy was based on identifying the species present and analyzing their behavior. On the one hand, we evaluated outdoors in the green areas of the hospital, the relative abundance of ant genera, their food preferences and the behavioral dominances. On the other hand, control treatments were performed using separately two boron compounds added to sucrose solution which was not highly concentrated to avoid constrains due to the viscosity. Most of the species in the food preference test accepted sugary food; only one species was recorded to visit it less than the protein foods. This result was consistent with the efficacy of control treatments by sugary baits within the rooms. For species that showed good acceptance of sugar solutions in the preference test outdoors, sugar bait control indoors was 100& effective. Conversely, for the only species that foraged significantly less on sugar food, the bait treatment was ineffective. This work reveals the importance of considering the behavior and feeding preferences of the species to be controlled by toxic baits. PMID:24855592

  19. [Tertiary syphilis diagnosed in a psychiatric unit in Buenos Aires, XXI century].

    PubMed

    Cestaro, Omar A; Calicchio, Ada D; Loidl, Fabián; Presas, Lina

    2012-01-01

    It is a common belief that syphilis, since its effective treatment, is eradicated. However, because of failure prevention and control it is still present. Therefore, we describe what happened in our service with a young patient who was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of delusional syndrome with a history of multiple symptoms and signs that led him to wander around different specialties in many hospitals. Semiology led us to think of neurosyphilis which was confirmed by laboratory tests on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Due was then applied in addition to psychiatric treatment for syphilis, but despite this, the patient had a torpid evolution given the lateness of his picture. In this paper we wish to make a warning to doctors about the need to consider when framing neurosyphilis differential diagnosis and thus avoid the progression of the disease. PMID:23979549

  20. Land use effect on invertebrate assemblages in Pampasic streams (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Solis, Marina; Mugni, Hernán; Hunt, Lisa; Marrochi, Natalia; Fanelli, Silvia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture and livestock may contribute to water quality degradation in adjacent waterbodies and produce changes in the resident invertebrate composition. The objective of the present study was to assess land use effects on the stream invertebrate assemblages in rural areas of the Argentine Pampa. The four sampling events were performed at six sites in four streams of the Pampa plain; two streams were sampled inside a biosphere reserve, and another one was surrounded by extensive livestock fields. The fourth stream was sampled at three sites; the upstream site was adjacent to agricultural plots, the following site was adjacent to an intensive livestock plot and the downstream site was adjacent to extensive breeding cattle plots. Higher pesticide concentrations were found at the site adjacent to agricultural plots and higher nutrient concentrations at the sites adjacent to agricultural and intensive breeding cattle plots. The invertebrate fauna were also different at these sites. Multivariate analysis showed a relationship between nutrient concentrations and taxonomic composition. Amphipoda (Hyalella curvispina) was the dominant group in the reserve and extensive breeding cattle sites, but was not present in the agricultural site. Also, Chironomidae were absent from the agricultural site while present at other sites. Gasteropoda (Biomphalaria peregrina), Zygoptera, and Hirudinea were dominant at the most impacted agricultural and intensive breeding cattle sites. PMID:27581006

  1. Aquatic macrophytes potential for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Miretzky, Patricia; Saralegui, Andrea; Cirelli, Alicia Fernández

    2004-11-01

    Heavy metal removal from water has been approached by using different technologies. Phytotechnologies, with an increasing development during the last two decades, involve using plants for metal removal. Three autochthonous floating macrophytes, common in pampean shallow lakes (Argentina), Pista stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia and Lemna minor were used in laboratory experiences for the simultaneously removal of several heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and Pb) resulting from anthropogenic activity, in order to simulate a naturally polluted environment. The experiences were performed for different concentrations of metals along 15 days. High metal removal percentages were obtained for the 3 species and metals. L. minor did not survive the conditions of the experiment. High correlation between the final water and the macrophytes metal concentration was obtained, deviations were due to PbCrO(4) precipitation. The rate of metal uptake was dependent on the metal concentration for the 3 species studied. PMID:15488590

  2. Hospital capacity during an influenza pandemic-Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009.

    PubMed

    Meites, Elissa; Farias, Daniel; Raffo, Lucrecia; Albalak, Rachel; Carlino, Oreste Luis; McDonald, L Clifford; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2011-01-01

    At a major referral hospital in the Southern Hemisphere, the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic brought increased critical care demand and more unscheduled nursing absences. Because of careful preparedness planning, including rapid expansion and redistribution of the numbers of available beds and staff, hospital surge capacity was not exceeded. PMID:21087127

  3. [Amputations. A five-year epidemiological study in Buenos Aires City].

    PubMed

    Mendelevich, Alejandro; Kramer, Marcia; Maiarú, Mariano; Módica, Mariela; Ostolaza, Marco; Peralta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    An amputation is the removal of a limb by surgery or accident. The aim of this paper was to carry out an epidemiological analysis on patients with amputations treated at the Instituto de Rehabilitación Psicofísica between 2009 and 2013. This is a retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study. The analyzed data included a total of 262 patients: 180 men (68.7%) and 82 women (31.3%). Our population mainly included subjects with only one amputated lower limb (83.6%), of vascular etiology (mostly diabetics) and with an average age of 63.5 years. The second sample group comprised traumatic amputees (29.8%), with an average age of 37 years and with a higher frequency of phantom pain. The characteristics of these groups can make them to behave differently during rehabilitation. PMID:26707661

  4. [V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University as the foundation of biochemistry in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the data on foundation and development of physiological chemistry (biochemistry) as independent science and education subject in the V. N. Karazin Kharkov National University before and after the organization of the Department of Physiological Chemistry. Studying the chemistry of natural compounds, their qualitative and quantitative content and transformations in living organisms both by foreign and home researchers made the basis for the appearance of physiological chemistry as static biochemistry. The improvement of the investigation methods and further discoveries caused the appearing of new branches--dynamic and functional biochemistry. The attention is paid to the fact that biochemistry arised at the Kharkov University as the education subject (A. I. Khodnev) and then developed as independent science due to efforts of A. Ya. Danilevskiy as well as biochemical school created by him. The Kazan' and Kharkov periods of scientific activity of A.Ya. Danilevskiy are described. The leading role of A. Ya. Danilevskiy in development of the home school of biochemistry is considered. Important role of A. V. Palladin in the foundation of Kharkov biochemists' school and organization of the Scientific-research Institute of Biochemistry in Kharkov is considered as well. It is stated that the Institute of Biochemistry after its arrival to Kiev and joining the Academy of Sciences became the center of Ukrainian biochemistry. The role of A. V. Nagorny and I. N. Bulankin in further development of biochemistry and foundation of a new scientific branch--age-related physiology and biochemistry--at the Kharkov University after its re-organization is discussed. PMID:18030743

  5. Preparing the Biochemistry Laboratory for the Next Outbreak: Lessons from SARS in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging disease characterised by fever and atypical pneumonia and caused by a novel coronavirus. Singapore was affected by the global pandemic in early 2003, with 238 cases and 33 deaths. Samples sent to the biochemistry laboratory made up the majority (69%) of all SARS samples, yet remained a minority (29%) of total biochemistry workload. This paper describes the problems encountered and solutions adopted by the biochemistry laboratory at the designated SARS hospital in coping with this epidemic. It provides practical advice for laboratories planning for the handling of samples from future outbreaks. PMID:16450013

  6. The importance of fracturing in the structure of the Pimenta-Bueno Basin (RO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouzapontes, Clayton; Veneziani, Paulo; Demattos, Juercio T.; Jimenezrueda, J. R.

    1990-05-01

    The Pimenta Bueno Sedimentary Basin is located in the Rondonia State, and is characterized as a graben. Although this tectonic configuration is accepted in the geological community, there is not much knowledge about the stratigraphy, structural patterns, and economic potential of the basin. The objective is to identify old crustal weakness lines which would have acted significantly during the subsidence and sedimentation processes. They could also have been responsible for the paleogeographic, sedimentologic, and tectono/structural controls of this basin. This research was carried out by the use of remote sensing products, in the scale of 1:250,000 (Radar mosaic and LANDSAT-TM images), as well as by the use of digital analysis techniques. According to the first results, the EW-N65W, N40-50W, NS-N10E, and N40-45E fracture trends are the main controlling structural features in the Pimenta Bueno Basin.

  7. Engagement of students with lectures in biochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth Ann; Hodgson, Yvonne; Macaulay, Janet Olwyn

    2012-01-01

    Academic staff at universities have become concerned about the decrease in student attendance at lectures and the implication of this on student achievement and learning. Few studies have measured actual lecture attendance in a coherent or comprehensive way. The aim of this study was to measure actual lecture attendance of students over two year levels enrolled in two separate science disciplines, biochemistry and pharmacology. The study further sought to determine the factors that influence lecture attendance. Attendance at lectures in four units of study was monitored over a 12-week semester. Attendance at lectures decreased over the semester and was lower at early morning lectures (8 A.M.; 9 A.M.). A questionnaire surveying students about their preparation for lectures, their compensation for missed lectures and the factors influencing their nonattendance was administered at the end of the semester. Students reported that the major factors influencing their attendance at lectures related to timetable issues and the quality of lecturing. If students missed lectures, the majority read the lecture notes and listened to the online recordings. The availability of online recordings of lectures was not a major influence on attendance at lectures. In three of the four units studied there was no correlation between self-reported lecture attendance and exam performance. The results of the study indicate that universities should dedicate more resources to timetabling and to supporting staff to improve the quality of their lectures. PMID:22987551

  8. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Rossi, Alessandra; Giannaccini, Gino

    2016-01-01

    L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the “kynurenine shunt” which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). This review aims therefore at tracing a “map” of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field. PMID:26881063

  9. Contributions of nuclear magnetic resonance to renal biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Freeman, D.; Chan, L.

    1986-01-01

    /sup 31/P NMR as a descriptive technique is of interest to nephrologists. Particular contributions of /sup 31/P NMR to our understanding of renal function may be enumerated.: Free metabolite levels are different from those classically accepted; in particular, ADP and Pi are low with implications for the control of renal metabolism and Pi transport, and, via the phosphorylation potential, for Na+ transport. Renal pH is heterogeneous; between cortex, outer medulla, and papilla, and between cell and lumen, a large pH gradient exists. Also, quantitation between cytosol and mitochondrion of the pH gradient is now feasible. In acute renal failure of either ischemic or nonischemic origin, both ATP depletion and acidification of the renal cell result in damage, with increasing evidence for the importance of the latter. Measurements of renal metabolic rate in vivo suggest the existence of a prodromal phase of acute renal failure, which could lead to its detection at an earlier and possibly reversible stage. Human renal cancers show a unique /sup 31/P NMR spectrum and a very acidic environment. Cancer chemotherapy may alter this and detection of such changes with NMR offers a method of therapeutic monitoring with significance beyond nephrology. Renal cortex and medulla have a different T1 relaxation time, possibly due to differences in lipid composition. It seems that NMR spectroscopy has much to offer to the future understanding of the relationship between renal biochemistry and function. 56 references.

  10. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans.

    PubMed

    Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Rossi, Alessandra; Giannaccini, Gino

    2016-01-01

    L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the "kynurenine shunt" which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This review aims therefore at tracing a "map" of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field. PMID:26881063

  11. Effects of spaceflight on rat humerus geometry, biomechanics, and biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Zernicke, R. F.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G. N.; Li, K. C.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) on the geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical characteristics of humeri of male specific pathogen-free rats were examined. Humeri of age-matched basal control, synchronous control, and vivarium control rats were contrasted with the flight bones to examine the influence of growth and space environment on bone development. Lack of humerus longitudinal growth occurred during the 12.5 days in spaceflight. In addition, the normal mid-diaphysial periosteal appositional growth was affected; compared with their controls, the spaceflight humeri had less cortical cross-sectional area, smaller periosteal circumferences, smaller anterior-posterior periosteal diameters, and smaller second moments of area with respect to the bending and nonbending axes. The flexural rigidity of the flight humeri was comparable to that of the younger basal control rats and significantly less than that of the synchronous and vivarium controls; the elastic moduli of all four groups, nonetheless, were not significantly different. Generally, the matrix biochemistry of the mid-diaphysial cross sections showed no differences among groups. Thus, the spaceflight differences in humeral mechanical strength and flexural rigidity were probably a result of the differences in humeral geometry rather than material properties.

  12. Structure Leads To Function: An Integrated Biophysical Approach To Teaching a Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; deLannoy, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated approach to teaching a biochemistry laboratory focusing on the relationship between the three-dimensional structure of a macromolecule and its function. RNA is chosen as the model system. Discusses curriculum and student assessment. (AIM)

  13. An Experiment Using Sucrose Density Gradients in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchi, Sandra L.; Weiss, Monica

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment to be performed in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory that is based on a gradient centrifugation system employing a simple bench top centrifuge, a freezer, and frozen surcose gradient solution to separate macromolecules and subcellular components. (CW)

  14. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  15. Learning Biochemistry through Manga--Helping Students Learn and Remember, and Making Lectures More Exciting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    1999-01-01

    Uses panels taken from manga, Japanese comics and cartoons, to supplement explanations of biochemical terms and topics in biochemistry classes. Results indicate that the use of manga helped students remember what they had learned. (Author/CCM)

  16. A synthetic biochemistry module for production of bio-based chemicals from glucose.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, Paul H; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic biochemistry, the cell-free production of biologically based chemicals, is a potentially high-yield, flexible alternative to in vivo metabolic engineering. To limit costs, cell-free systems must be designed to operate continuously with minimal addition of feedstock chemicals. We describe a robust, efficient synthetic glucose breakdown pathway and implement it for the production of bioplastic. The system's performance suggests that synthetic biochemistry has the potential to become a viable industrial alternative. PMID:27065234

  17. Need assessment of enhancing the weightage of applied biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at MGIMS, sevagram.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-05-01

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A web-based data collection and analysis tool was designed for online questionnaire distribution, data collection, and analysis. Response rate was 100%. Most of the respondents agreed that the subject Biochemistry has relevance in clinical practice (81.24%) and applied based learning of Biochemistry by medical undergraduates would help in overall improvement in the health standards/patients care (83.44%). According to 65.12% respondents, most of the medical undergraduates read Biochemistry just for examination purpose only. Nearly half of the respondents agreed that minute details of biochemical reactions were not much useful in clinical practice (53.86%) and the vast majority of diagrammatic cycles memorized by the medical undergraduates had no relevance in clinical practice (51.21%), the decreased interest in learning the Applied Biochemistry was due to more amount of clinically irrelevant information taught to medical undergraduates (73.51%), there was a need to rethink for removing the diagrammatic biochemical cycles from curriculum for medical undergraduates (48.12%), the less learning of Applied Biochemistry or competencies would affect the clinical skills and knowledge of medical undergraduates (70.42%). The result of this study suggests that there is need for restructuring the Biochemistry curriculum with more clinical relevance. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:230-240, 2016. PMID:26900873

  18. Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Miklós; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified. PMID:22688819

  19. Assessment for learning with Objectively Structured Practical Examination in Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Jaswal, Shivani; Chattwal, Jugesh; Kaur, Jasbinder; Gupta, Seema; Singh, Tejinder

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite a radical shift in assessment methodologies over the last decade, the majority of medical colleges still follow the Traditional Practical Examination (TPE). TPE raises concerns about examiner variability, standardization, and uniformity of assessment. To address these issues and in line with the notion of assessments as motivating what and how students learn, Objectively Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) was introduced, as an assessment modality. Despite its usefulness, awareness and motivation to use the same, still needs to be probed. Aims: To implement OSPE in the assessment of practical skills in biochemistry, and to know student and faculty perspectives regarding OSPE. Settings and Design: OSPE was introduced at the stage of formative assessment of practical skills, for 94 year one MBBS students. Subjects and Methods: Students were divided into two groups; the first group was evaluated by the traditional method and the second by OSPE. Students were crossed over on a second examination. The mean score obtained by both the methods was compared statistically. Students and faculty perspectives regarding OSPE were obtained by a questionnaire. Student performance was compared using “Bland–Altman technique,” and Student's t-test. Results: The mean scores of students was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.0001) when assessed with OSPE as compared to TPE. Number of students achieving >70% marks was also significantly higher with OSPE. Validity was supported by a significant correlation coefficient of comparison of marks by the two methods. Feedback from students and faculty indicated that they endorsed OSPE. Conclusions: This evaluation demonstrated the need for a structured approach to assessment. Going in line with the notion that assessment drives learning, introducing OSPE would help tailoring teaching-learning to optimize student satisfaction and learning. PMID:26380217

  20. Cellular Biochemistry Methods for Investigating Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Stephanie M.; Ahmed, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a family of proteins that play critical roles in cellular signaling and influence many aspects of human health and disease. Although a wealth of information has been collected about PTPs since their discovery, many questions regarding their regulation and function still remain. Critical Issues: Of particular importance are the elucidation of the biological substrates of individual PTPs and understanding of the chemical and biological basis for temporal and spatial resolution of PTP activity within a cell. Recent Advances: Drawing from recent advances in both biology and chemistry, innovative approaches have been developed to study the intracellular biochemistry and physiology of PTPs. We provide a summary of PTP-tailored techniques and approaches, emphasizing methodologies to study PTP activity within a cellular context. We first provide a discussion of methods for identifying PTP substrates, including substrate-trapping mutants and synthetic peptide libraries for substrate selectivity profiling. We next provide an overview of approaches for monitoring intracellular PTP activity, including a discussion of mechanistic-based probes, gel-based assays, substrates that can be used intracellularly, and assays tied to cell growth. Finally, we review approaches used for monitoring PTP oxidation, a key regulatory pathway for these enzymes, discussing the biotin switch method and variants of this approach, along with affinity trapping techniques and probes designed to detect PTP oxidation. Future Directions: Further development of approaches to investigate the intracellular PTP activity and functions will provide specific insight into their mechanisms of action and control of diverse signaling pathways. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2160–2178. PMID:24294920

  1. Teaching Biochemistry at Lisbon University--Facing the Challenge of the Bologna Declaration in the 25th Anniversary of the Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2007-01-01

    The biochemistry degree has been taught at Lisbon University for 25 years. Since its creation, the curriculum is characterized for being widely eclectic and multidisciplinary. The adoption of the concepts proposed in Europe by the Declaration of Bologna and incorporation of these ideas at Lisbon University is discussed here for the biochemistry…

  2. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment and Evaluation System for Biotechnology Specialty Students: An Effective Evaluation System to Improve the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Suxia; Wu, Haizhen; Zhao, Jian; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to achieve high success in knowledge and technique acquisition as a whole, a biochemistry and molecular biology experiment was established for high-grade biotechnology specialty students after they had studied essential theory and received proper technique training. The experiment was based on cloning and expression of alkaline…

  3. Medical biochemistry in Macedonia: a profession for physicians and natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Traikovska, S; Dzhekova-Stojkova, S

    2001-06-01

    Medical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in its roots is an interdisciplinary science between natural sciences and medicine. The largest part of medical biochemistry is natural science (chemistry, biochemistry, biology, physics, mathematics), which is very well integrated in deduction of medical problems. Medical biochemistry throughout the world, including Macedonia, should be a professional field open to both physicians and natural scientists, according to its historical development, theoretical characteristics and applied practice. Physicians and natural scientists follow the same route in clinical chemistry during the postgraduate training of specialization in medical biochemistry/clinical chemistry. However, in Macedonia the specialization in medical biochemistry/clinical chemistry is today regulated by law only for physicians and pharmacists. The study of clinical chemistry in Europe has shown its interdisciplinary character. In most European countries different professions, such as physicians, chemists/biochemists, pharmacists, biologists and others could specialize in clinical chemistry. The question for the next generation of specialists in Macedonia is whether to accept the present conditions or to attempt to change the law to include chemists/biochemists and biologists as well. The latter used to be a practice in Macedonia 20 years ago, and still is in many European countries. Such change in law would also result in changes in the postgraduate educational program in medical biochemistry in Macedonia. The new postgraduate program has to follow the European Syllabus, recommended by EC4. To obtain sufficient knowledge in clinical chemistry, the duration of vocational training (undergraduate and postgraduate) for all trainees (physicians, pharmaceutics, chemists/biochemists and biologists) should be 8 years. PMID:11506455

  4. Predictors of performance of students in biochemistry in a doctor of chiropractic curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kathy; Rabatsky, Ali; Dishman, Veronica; Meseke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of completion of course prerequisites, undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate degree, and study habits on the performance of students in the biochemistry course at Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida. Methods Students self-reported information regarding academic preparation at the beginning of the semester using a questionnaire. Final exam grade and final course grade were noted and used as measures of performance. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine if number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate GPA, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program were associated significantly with the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course. Results The number of prerequisites completed, undergraduate degree, hours spent studying in undergraduate study, and hours spent studying in the first quarter of the chiropractic program did not significantly affect the biochemistry final exam grade or the final grade for the biochemistry course, but undergraduate GPA did. Subsequent univariate analysis and Tukey's post hoc comparisons revealed that students with an undergraduate GPA in the 3.5 to 3.99 range earned significantly higher final course grades than students with an undergraduate GPA in the 2.5 to 2.99 range. Conclusion No single variable was determined to be a factor that determines student success in biochemistry. The interrelationship between the factors examined warrants further investigation to understand fully how to predict the success of a student in the biochemistry course. PMID:24295362

  5. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry‐based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry‐ and research‐based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year‐long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three‐dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry‐based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as assessed by various metrics. To disseminate teaching resources to students and instructors alike, a freely accessible Biochemistry Laboratory Education resource is available at http://biochemlab.org. © 2015 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(4):245–262, 2015. PMID:26148241

  6. Evolutionary biochemistry: revealing the historical and physical causes of protein properties

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Michael J.; Thornton, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    The repertoire of proteins and nucleic acids in the living world is determined by evolution; their properties are determined by the laws of physics and chemistry. Explanations of these two kinds of causality — the purviews of evolutionary biology and biochemistry, respectively — are typically pursued in isolation, but many fundamental questions fall squarely at the interface of fields. Here we articulate the paradigm of evolutionary biochemistry, which aims to dissect the physical mechanisms and evolutionary processes by which biological molecules diversified and to reveal how their physical architecture facilitates and constrains their evolution. We show how an integration of evolution with biochemistry moves us towards a more complete understanding of why biological molecules have the properties that they do. PMID:23864121

  7. A synthetic biochemistry molecular purge valve module that maintains redox balance.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, Paul H; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-01-01

    The greatest potential environmental benefit of metabolic engineering would be the production of high-volume commodity chemicals, such as biofuels. Yet, the high yields required for the economic viability of low-value chemicals is particularly hard to achieve in microbes owing to the myriad competing biochemical pathways. An alternative approach, which we call synthetic biochemistry, is to eliminate the organism by constructing biochemical pathways in vitro. Viable synthetic biochemistry, however, will require simple methods to replace the cellular circuitry that maintains cofactor balance. Here we design a simple purge valve module for maintaining NADP(+)/NADPH balance. We test the purge valve in the production of polyhydroxybutyryl bioplastic and isoprene--pathways where cofactor generation and utilization are unbalanced. We find that the regulatory system is highly robust to variations in cofactor levels and readily transportable. The molecular purge valve provides a step towards developing continuously operating, sustainable synthetic biochemistry systems. PMID:24936528

  8. Utilizing Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Enzymes as Project-Oriented Labs for Undergraduate Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, S. Todd; Hurst, Michael O.

    1997-02-01

    Senior-level biochemistry labs are mostly verification-type laboratories with little chance for exploration. We have developed a project-based biochemistry laboratory which gives them a chance to carry out a major biochemistry project. In the first quarter it is based on the purification of the enzyme lysozyme. The students are given some basic information, and then work out the details of their own procedures, make up their own solutions, and work at their own pace. Students use centrifugation, ion-exchange chromatography, spectral enzyme assays, and SDS-gel electrophoresis to purify and characterize the protein. In the second quarter students are given acid phosphatase and the basic assay for the enzyme, and then develop and carry out a method for determining the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. These experiments continue the development of laboratory independence of the students which steadily progresses in most curriculum

  9. The biochemistry of blister fluid from pediatric burn injuries: proteomics and metabolomics aspects.

    PubMed

    Zang, Tuo; Broszczak, Daniel A; Broadbent, James A; Cuttle, Leila; Lu, Haitao; Parker, Tony J

    2016-01-01

    Burn injury is a prevalent and traumatic event for pediatric patients. At present, the diagnosis of burn injury severity is subjective and lacks a clinically relevant quantitative measure. This is due in part to a lack of knowledge surrounding the biochemistry of burn injuries and that of blister fluid. A more complete understanding of the blister fluid biochemistry may open new avenues for diagnostic and prognostic development. Burn insult induces a highly complex network of signaling processes and numerous changes within various biochemical systems, which can ultimately be examined using proteome and metabolome measurements. This review reports on the current understanding of burn wound biochemistry and outlines a technical approach for 'omics' profiling of blister fluid from burn wounds of differing severity. PMID:26581649

  10. Reef facies distribution patterns, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation, Rio Bueno, Jamaica, W. I

    SciTech Connect

    Precht, W.F. ); Hoyt, W.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed paleoecologic and sedimentologic studies of the well-exposed, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation from Rio Bueno, Jamaica, where undertaken to define both temporal and spatial changes in reef architecture. Analyses of samples reveal an overall shallowing - upwards motif and a distinct lateral zonation of reefal facies similar to those observed in Recent fringing-reef and bank-barrier reef complexes from the eastern and western sides of Discovery Bay, Jamaica, respectively. The Falmouth Formation that crops out on the eastern shore of Rio Bueno Harbor is continually exposed (north-south) for approximately 0.5 km in length. The top of the reef exposure is approximately +4.5 m above MSL. This height correlates directly with sea level maxima for the Sangamon in Jamaica based upon a wavecut notch in the Hopegate Formation at the top of the Falmouth onlap surface. Interpretation of these deposits indicates that no lagoon or back-reef facies were present and that there was a gradation of energy regimes from high-to-low, north-to-south within this true fringing reef complex. Detailed sedimentologic analysis of thin-sections from all the above lithologies confirms the aforementioned paleoenvironmental interpretations. This study emphasizes the usefulness of modern counterparts in Pleistocene reef analysis and interpretation, and allows for an understanding of temporal (vertical) and spatial (horizontal) variations due to both physical disturbance and local sea level history that are preserved in these reefal deposits.

  11. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  12. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  13. Diverse Assessment and Active Student Engagement Sustain Deep Learning: A Comparative Study of Outcomes in Two Parallel Introductory Biochemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, Samantha J.; Chan, Cecilia W. L.; Tanner, Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence for a relationship between courses that emphasize student engagement and achievement of student deep learning, there is a paucity of quantitative comparative studies in a biochemistry and molecular biology context. Here, we present a pedagogical study in two contrasting parallel biochemistry introductory…

  14. Students' Ability to Organize Biochemical and Biochemistry-Related Terms Correlates with Their Performance in a Biochemical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    2007-01-01

    Organization is believed to be related to understanding and memory. Whether this belief was applicable in biochemical education was examined about two years after students had experienced biochemistry classes in their first year. The ability of organizing information in biochemistry was judged from the number of correct links of 886 biochemical…

  15. The Sublime Corpse in Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's Women's Journal "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello" (1860)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's choice to include articles depicting the advanced decay of cadavers, which are simultaneously horrible and awesome, in her women's periodical "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello". Background on Avellaneda's biography, women's print culture, and theories of the sublime provide a frame for the…

  16. On the Radiative Transfer Based Remote Sensing of Forest Structure and Leaf Biochemistry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazikhin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The architecture of individual trees, their spatial distribution and leaf optical properties are among key variables that determine angular patterns of reflected radiation, or the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF), which is measured by air- and satellite-borne sensors. Forest shortwave radiative response is described by the three-dimensional radiative transfer equation. The interaction cross-section that appears in this equation is treated as wavelength independent considering the size of the scattering elements (leaves, branches, twigs, etc.) relative to the wavelength of solar radiation. Although the scattering and absorption processes are different at different wavelengths, the interaction probabilities for photons in vegetation media are determined by the structure of the canopy rather than photon frequency or the optics of the canopy. This feature results in a unique spectrally invariant behavior for a vegetation canopy bounded from below by a non-reflecting surface: the BRF to leaf albedo ratio is linearly related to BRF, where the slope and intercept are the recollision and escape probabilities. These spectrally invariant (wavelength independent) parameters specify a new variable, the Directional Area Scattering Factor (DASF), which is an estimate of the fraction of leaf area inside the canopy that is visible from outside the canopy along a given direction. The DASF is determined entirely by canopy geometrical properties such as shape and size of the tree crowns, spatial distribution of trees on the ground, within-crown foliage arrangement, and properties of the leaf surfaces, and accounts for the cumulative effect of canopy structural properties at different scales on the reflectance. In dense vegetation, this variable can be directly retrieved from the reflectance spectrum without the use of canopy-reflectance models, prior knowledge, or ancillary information regarding leaf optical properties. Here we will discuss the physical basis of the spectral

  17. Teaching foundational topics and scientific skills in biochemistry within the conceptual framework of HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    HIV protease has served as a model protein for understanding protein structure, enzyme kinetics, structure-based drug design, and protein evolution. Inhibitors of HIV protease are also an essential part of effective HIV/AIDS treatment and have provided great societal benefits. The broad applications for HIV protease and its inhibitors make it a perfect framework for integrating foundational topics in biochemistry around a big picture scientific and societal issue. Herein, I describe a series of classroom exercises that integrate foundational topics in biochemistry around the structure, biology, and therapeutic inhibition of HIV protease. These exercises center on foundational topics in biochemistry including thermodynamics, acid/base properties, protein structure, ligand binding, and enzymatic catalysis. The exercises also incorporate regular student practice of scientific skills including analysis of primary literature, evaluation of scientific data, and presentation of technical scientific arguments. Through the exercises, students also gain experience accessing computational biochemical resources such as the protein data bank, Proteopedia, and protein visualization software. As these HIV centered exercises cover foundational topics common to all first semester biochemistry courses, these exercises should appeal to a broad audience of undergraduate students and should be readily integrated into a variety of teaching styles and classroom sizes. PMID:24652697

  18. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  19. Use of Solid Phase Extraction in the Biochemistry Laboratory to Separate Different Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flurkey, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to demonstrate how various lipids and lipid classes could be separated in a biochemistry laboratory setting. Three different SPE methods were chosen on their ability to separate a lipid mixture, consisting of a combination of a either a fatty acid, a triacylglycerol, a mono- or diacylglycerol, phospholipid,…

  20. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  1. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have upon Graduation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of…

  2. A Semester-Long Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Based on "Helicobacter pylori" Urease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham, Kate R.; Dube, Danielle H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a 13 week project-oriented biochemistry laboratory designed to introduce students to foundational biochemical techniques and then enable students to perform original research projects once they have mastered these techniques. In particular, we describe a semester-long laboratory that focuses on a biomedically…

  3. Reversible Ligand Binding Reactions: Why Do Biochemistry Students Have Trouble Connecting the Dots?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Duane W.; Thompson, Scott E.; Saxon, S. Robin

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive chemical behavior is essential for an organism's function and survival, and it is no surprise that biological systems are capable of responding both rapidly and selectively to chemical changes in the environment. To elucidate an organism's biochemistry, its chemical reactions need to be characterized in ways that reflect the normal…

  4. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

  5. Use of Molecular Models for Active Learning in Biochemistry Lecture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hageman, James H.

    2010-01-01

    The pedagogical value of having biochemistry and organic chemistry students build and manipulate physical models of chemical species is well established in the literature. Nevertheless, for the most part, the use of molecular models is generally limited to several laboratory exercises or to demonstrations in the classroom setting. A simple…

  6. Introductory Course Based on a Single Problem: Learning Nucleic Acid Biochemistry from AIDS Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Neena

    2004-01-01

    In departure from the standard approach of using several problems to cover specific topics in a class, I use a single problem to cover the contents of the entire semester-equivalent biochemistry classes. I have developed a problem-based service-learning (PBSL) problem on HIV/AIDS to cover nucleic acid concepts that are typically taught in the…

  7. An SDS-PAGE Examination of Protein Quaternary Structure and Disulfide Bonding for a Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Carla S.; St. Antoine, Caroline C.; Jain, Swapan S.; Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Electrophoresis is a valuable tool for biochemists, yet this technique is often not included in biochemistry laboratory curricula owing to time constraints or lack of equipment. Protein structure is also a topic of interest in many disciplines, yet most undergraduate lab experiments focus only on primary structure. In this experiment, students use…

  8. Book Review: "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic Substances at the Soil-Plant Interface, Second Edition"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complexity of the biological, chemical, and physical interactions occurring in the volume of soil surrounding the root of a growing plant dictates that a multidisciplinary approach must be taken to improve our understanding of this rhizosphere. Hence, "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic S...

  9. Tagging and Purifying Proteins to Teach Molecular Biology and Advanced Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…

  10. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  11. Physical Models Enhance Molecular Three-Dimensional Literacy in an Introductory Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jacqueline R.; Hagedorn, Eric; Dillenburg, Paul; Patrick, Michael; Herman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the results of a recent study to evaluate the usefulness of physical models of molecular structures as a new tool with which to teach concepts of molecular structure and function. Of seven different learning tools used by students in this introductory biochemistry class, the use of the physical models in a laboratory was rated…

  12. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  13. Filtrates & Residues: Hemoglobinometry--A Biochemistry Experiment that Utilizes the Principles of Transition Metal Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment dealing with hemoglobinometry that can apply to transition metal chemistry, colorimetry, and biochemistry. Provides a detailed description of the experimental procedure, including discussions of the preparation of the cyanide reagent, colorimetric measurements, and waste disposal and treatment. (TW)

  14. Kinetics of Carboxylesterase: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, C. S.; Cromartie, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a convenient, inexpensive experiment in enzyme kinetics developed for the undergraduate biochemistry laboratory at the University of Virginia. Required are a single beam visible spectrophotometer with output to a recorder, a constant temperature, a commercially available enzyme, substrates, and buffers. (BT)

  15. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  16. Using a Scholarly Approach to Improve Teaching and Learning in Biochemistry Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Although the biochemistry education community is far from avoiding conversations about improving teaching and learning, reexamining individual and community teaching practices through the lens of the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) is critical for continued growth and improvement. The contemporary vision of SoTL, which has been…

  17. Known Structure, Unknown Function: An Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's…

  18. Teaching of Biochemistry in Medical School: A Well-Trodden Pathway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…

  19. Need Assessment of Enhancing the Weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the Undergraduate Curriculum at MGIMS, Sevagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A…

  20. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  1. Motivating Active Learning of Biochemistry through Artistic Representation of Scientific Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruna, Carola

    2013-01-01

    First-year students often feel discouraged, especially with courses that require complex thinking and involve establishing relations between different subjects such as biochemistry. It has been proposed that student-centred pedagogy can achieve motivation and improve learning. In this context, this case study reports the use of art as a strategy…

  2. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  3. A Statistical Analysis of College Biochemistry Textbooks in China: The Statuses on the Publishing and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Qinwen; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingqiu; Guo, Junming; Gong, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the statuses on the publishing and usage of college biochemistry textbooks in China. A textbook database was constructed and the statistical analysis was adopted to evaluate the textbooks. The results showed that there were 945 (~57%) books for theory teaching, 379 (~23%) books for experiment teaching and 331 (~20%)…

  4. A Guide to Using Case-Based Learning in Biochemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulak, Verena; Newton, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate that the majority of students in undergraduate biochemistry take a surface approach to learning, associated with rote memorization of material, rather than a deep approach, which implies higher cognitive processing. This behavior relates to poorer outcomes, including impaired course performance and reduced knowledge retention. The…

  5. The Concept Lens Diagram: A New Mechanism for Presenting Biochemistry Content in Terms of "Big Ideas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan L.; Smith, Christopher A.; Gillam, Elizabeth M. A.; Wright, Tony

    2011-01-01

    A strong, recent movement in tertiary education is the development of conceptual, or "big idea" teaching. The emphasis in course design is now on promoting key understandings, core competencies, and an understanding of connections between different fields. In biochemistry teaching, this radical shift from the content-based tradition is being…

  6. A Two-Week Guided Inquiry Protein Separation and Detection Experiment for Undergraduate Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, James P.; Nolta, Kathleen V.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for teaching protein separation and detection in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course is described. This experiment, performed in two, 4 h laboratory periods, incorporates guided inquiry principles to introduce students to the concepts behind and difficulties of protein purification. After using size-exclusion…

  7. The Views of Undergraduates about Problem-Based Learning Applications in a Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Ayyildiz, Yildizay

    2015-01-01

    The effect of problem-based learning (PBL) applications in an undergraduate biochemistry course on students' interest in this course was investigated through four modules during one semester. Students' views about active learning and improvement in social skills were also collected and evaluated. We conducted the study with 36 senior students from…

  8. Integrating Internet Assignments into a Biochemistry/Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Roger L.

    2002-01-01

    A main challenge in educating undergraduate students is to introduce them to the Internet and to teach them how to effectively use it in research. To this end, an Internet assignment was developed that introduces students to websites related to biomedical research at the beginning of a biochemistry/molecular biology laboratory course. The basic…

  9. Web Camera Use in Developing Biology, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Paul J.; Deibel, Michael; Kelly, Ian; Mulnix, Amy B.; Peck, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    The use of a network-ready color camera is described which is primarily marketed as a security device and is used for experiments in developmental biology, genetics and biochemistry laboratories and in special student research projects. Acquiring and analyzing project and archiving images is very important in microscopy, electrophoresis and…

  10. Students' Preferred Teaching Techniques for Biochemistry in Biomedicine and Medicine Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Ethel L.B.; Fernandes, Ana Angelica H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the students' preferred teaching techniques, such as traditional blackboard, power-point, or slide-projection, for biochemistry discipline in biomedicine and medicine courses from Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Preferences for specific topic and teaching techniques were…

  11. The Kinetics and Inhibition of Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splittgerber, A. G.; Sohl, Julie

    1988-01-01

    Discusses an enzyme kinetics laboratory experiment involving a two substrate system for undergraduate biochemistry. Uses the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as this enzyme in blood serum is of clinical significance. Notes elevated levels are seen in liver disease, alcoholism, and epilepsy. Uses a spectrophotometer for the analysis. (MVL)

  12. A Pilot Project in Augmentative Distance Learning... George Mason University Graduate Course in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, James D.; Keefe, David D.

    This paper describes the use of distance learning capabilities to augment and amplify the learning opportunities for part-time graduate students at George Mason University. The students in the biochemistry course described meet periodically on campus for brief interactions with the instructor and peer classmates. Between these synchronous…

  13. Cooperative Learning Combined with Short Periods of Lecturing: A Good Alternative in Teaching Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Santander, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The informal activities of cooperative learning and short periods of lecturing has been combined and used in the university teaching of biochemistry as part of the first year course of Optics and Optometry in the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The lessons were previously elaborated by the teacher and included all that is necessary to…

  14. Learning Transferable Skills in Large Lecture Halls: Implementing a POGIL Approach in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl P.; Minderhout, Vicky; Loertscher, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    As research-based, active learning approaches become more common in biochemistry classrooms, the large lecture course remains the most challenging to transform. Here, we provide a case study demonstrating how process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) can be implemented in a large class taught in a traditional lecture hall. Course structure…

  15. Integrative Metabolism: An Interactive Learning Tool for Nutrition, Biochemistry, and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Gale

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism is a dynamic, simultaneous, and integrative science that cuts across nutrition, biochemistry, and physiology. Teaching this science can be a challenge. The use of a scenario-based, visually appealing, interactive, computer-animated CD may overcome the limitations of learning "one pathway at a time" and engage two- and four-year college…

  16. The Metabolic Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Incorporation into a Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogozelski, Wendy; Arpaia, Nicholas; Priore, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges in teaching biochemistry is facilitating students' interest in and mastery of metabolism. The many pathways and modes of regulation can be overwhelming for students to learn and difficult for professors to teach in an engaging manner. We have found it useful to take advantage of prevailing interest in popular yet…

  17. Creating a Cell Map as an Active-Learning Tool in a Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bianco, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Teaching metabolism to a biochemistry class with diverse academic backgrounds is a challenging task. Often students lack the global perspective that is needed to understand how different metabolic pathways are reciprocally regulated. The classroom activity presented in this article is designed to facilitate the learning of metabolism by having the…

  18. A Model of Factors Determining Students' Ability to Interpret External Representations in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonborn, Konrad J.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a model of factors affecting students' ability to interpret external representations (ERs) in biochemistry. The study was qualitative in design and was guided by the modelling framework of Justi and Gilbert. Application of the process outlined by the framework, and consultation with relevant literature, led…

  19. A Course Designed for Undergraduate Biochemistry Students to Learn about Cultural Diversity Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2006-01-01

    Biology, biochemistry, and other science students are well trained in science and familiar with how to conduct and evaluate scientific experiments. They are less aware of cultural issues or how these will impact their careers in research, education, or as professional health care workers. A course was developed for advanced undergraduate science…

  20. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the history of the organization of chemical principles in chemistry textbooks. Describes a higher-order organizing principle, based in chemical logic and understanding, from which topics and order of presentation are derived. Provides an example of a biochemistry curriculum developed using this organizing principle. (DDR)

  1. Sustaining Change in Upper Level Courses: Peer-Led Workshops in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Terry; Roth, Vicki; Kampmeier, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Our peer-led collaborative learning groups, called Workshops, have now had extended success in two upper-level courses in chemistry and biochemistry. These Workshops are in turn supported by a third upper-level course for training peer-leaders. Our data confirm that the initial positive results from the introduction of Workshops in organic…

  2. Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical techniques…

  3. Purification and Characterization of Taq Polymerase: A 9-Week Biochemistry Laboratory Project for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellin, Robert M.; Bruno, Mary K.; Farrow, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a 9-week undergraduate laboratory series focused on the purification and characterization of "Thermus aquaticus" DNA polymerase (Taq). Our aim was to provide undergraduate biochemistry students with a full-semester continuing project simulating a research-like experience, while having each week's procedure focus on a single…

  4. A Proposal for Teaching Undergraduate Chemistry Students Carbohydrate Biochemistry by Problem-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueira, Angela C. M.; Rocha, Joao B. T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching elementary biochemistry to undergraduate students. The activity was based on "the foods we eat." It was used to engage students' curiosity and to initiate learning about a subject that could be used by the future teachers in the high school. The experimental…

  5. Learning Medical School Biochemistry Through Self-Directed Case-Oriented Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Colin G. D.; Blumberg, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Describes an alternative medical school curriculum for the first two years of preclinical basic science studies. Discusses student and faculty selection for the program. Details the format for teaching biochemistry in the Alternative Curriculum, including program structure, content organization and exams. Evaluates the success of the program. (CW)

  6. Virtual Office Hours Using a Tablet PC: E-lluminating Biochemistry in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohorst, Kelly; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of online collaboration software has provided new opportunities for instructors to interact with students outside the classroom. This report describes how Elluminate "Live!"[R], a particular conferencing software package, can be used with a tablet PC to conduct virtual office hours in a biochemistry course. The educational value…

  7. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of Foundational Concepts before Biochemistry Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villafane, Sachel M.; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemistry is a challenging subject because student learning depends on the application of previously learned concepts from general chemistry and biology to new, biological contexts. This article describes the development of a multiple-choice instrument intended to measure five concepts from general chemistry and three from biology that are…

  8. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  9. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  10. Preparative Protein Production from Inclusion Bodies and Crystallization: A Seven-Week Biochemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Megan J.; Snyder, W. Kalani; Westerman, Shelley; McFarland, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe how to produce and purify proteins from "Escherichia coli" inclusion bodies by adapting versatile, preparative-scale techniques to the undergraduate laboratory schedule. This 7-week sequence of experiments fits into an annual cycle of research activity in biochemistry courses. Recombinant proteins are expressed as inclusion bodies,…

  11. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  12. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  13. Review of the Fourth Edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  14. [Biochemistry and prepared diagnosis of lung maturation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kuss, E

    1976-11-01

    The composition and structure of acellular alveolar material are described. Evidences as summarized that 1,2-dipalmityl-sn-glycero-phosphoryl-choline, depending of the presence of other components of the hypophasis, determines the surface tension of the air-alveolus interface. The foetal maturation of the lung is defined according to the Avery-Clements-Gluck theory, as a stabilisation of the alveolar lecthin production; and the dependence of the relevant enzyme activities on the stage of the pregnancy is discussed. Attention is drawn to the possibility of enzyme induction by medication; the biochemical and clinical aspects of the acceleration of lung maturation following glucocorticoid therapy are treated in detail. Finally, methods for the prepartal and postpartal characterisation of lung maturation,and especially the biochemical methods for the determination of lecithin in amniotic fluid, tracheal, and gastric secretion are discussed. PMID:794434

  15. Physiology and biochemistry of human subjects during entrapment.

    PubMed

    Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Giotaki, Z K; Kolostoumbis, D; Papageorgiou, C; Zorba, E; Spiliopoulou, C; Amann, A; Statheropoulos, M

    2013-03-01

    A classification of various categories of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings after earthquakes, technical failures or explosions is proposed. Type and degree of injury at the moment of building collapse and duration of entrapment are the two basic parameters in this classification. The aim is to provide sources and types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be used for establishing a new method for locating entrapped victims based on human chemical signatures. Potential target compounds, among others, are ammonia, acetone, isoprene, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and trimethylamine. In this context, the possible neuroendocrine, metabolic and physical responses of potential victims during the different types of entrapment are correlated with the sources of VOCs such as expired air, urine, blood and sweat. The proposed classification scheme was developed as part of an integrated research project which investigates the use of combined audio, video and chemical methods for the early location of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings. PMID:23318246

  16. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-01-01

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs. PMID:26974036

  17. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  19. Robust Affinity Standards for Cu(I) Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Pritha; Morgan, M. Thomas; Bacsa, John; Fahrni, Christoph J.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of reliable Cu(I) protein binding affinities requires competing reference ligands with similar binding strengths; however, the literature on such reference ligands is not only sparse but often conflicting. To address this deficiency, we have created and characterized a series of water-soluble monovalent copper ligands, MCL-1, MCL-2, and MCL-3, that form well-defined, air-stable, and colorless complexes with Cu(I) in aqueous solution. Concluding from X-ray structural data, electrochemical measurements, and an extensive network of equilibrium titrations, all three ligands form discrete Cu(I) complexes with 1:1 stoichiometry and are capable of buffering Cu(I) concentrations between 10−10 and 10−17 M. As most Cu(I) protein affinities have been obtained from competition experiments with bathocuproine disulfonate (BCS) or 2,2′-bicinchoninic acid (BCA), we further calibrated their Cu(I) stability constants against the MCL-series. To demonstrate the application of these reagents, we determined the Cu(I) binding affinity of CusF (logK = 14.3±0.1), a periplasmic metalloprotein required for the detoxification of elevated copper levels in E. coli. Altogether, this interconnected set of affinity standards establishes a reliable foundation that will facilitate the precise determination of Cu(I) binding affinities of proteins and small molecule ligands. PMID:24298878

  20. Biochemistry of photosynthesis in species of triticum of differing ploidy.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, G P; Keys, A J; Leech, R M

    1984-01-01

    Illuminated flag leaves of Triticum monococcum(2X), T. urartu(2X), T. dicoccum(4X), T. dicoccoides(4X), and T. aestivum(6X) were exposed to (14)CO(2) for 10 seconds and subsequently allowed to continue photosynthesis in the ambient air for periods of up to 2 minutes. The relative distribution of (14)C among water-soluble products in the leaves was similar for each species at each sampling time. After the 10-second pulse of (14)CO(2), radioactivity was mainly in phosphate esters with less than 5% in C(4) acids. Subsequently, radioactivity increased in sucrose, glycine, and serine at the expense of that in phosphate esters. By 2 minutes, between 18% and 29% of the (14)C was in glycine plus serine. The results suggest rapid photorespiration in all species and an absence of C(4) photosynthesis.d-Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.39) was partly purified from seedling leaves of each of the five Triticum species. Each preparation was assayed for simultaneous carboxylase and oxygenase activities in 2.1 millimolar NaHCO(3) and 265 micromolar O(2) at pH 8.2 and 25 degrees C. The mean ratio of carboxylase to oxygenase activities was 6.11 +/- 0.16 (standard error); differences between values for different species were not statistically significant. The results do not explain the faster rates of photosynthesis per unit leaf area reported for diploid and tetraploid species of Triticum compared to the hexaploid. PMID:16663364

  1. A One-Semester General, Organic, and Biochemistry Course Format Linked by a Molecular Model Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Henry J.

    1998-11-01

    The article describes a curriculum for a condensed one-semester health sciences chemistry course that is tied together with a molecular model project. A course format of four sections is used to organize the abundant material of the course. Coverage of some organic chemistry topics is reduced, allowing the course to focus on the more relevant biochemistry material. The semester-long molecular model project, which requires students to produce three-dimensional representations of important biomolecules and analyze the molecules' acid-base properties, serves as a bridge between the molecular structure, acid-base, and biochemistry sections of the course. This approach has been well received by the USM College of Nursing and students.

  2. Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

    1998-06-01

    At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

  3. Label-free analysis of cellular biochemistry by Raman spectroscopy and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schie, Iwan W; Huser, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    We review the biomedical applications of Raman spectroscopy at the single cell and tissue level. Raman scattering is the inelastic scattering of light by molecular bonds resulting in a wealth of spectral bands, which enable the identification of biological materials and the nondestructive analysis of dynamic changes in their biochemistry. We briefly review the basics behind highly sensitive Raman spectroscopy and highlight recent applications to biomedical research. We discuss advanced chemometrics methods that are utilized to analyze Raman spectral data and which permit one, for example, to distinguish between normal and diseased cells or which enable one to follow the differentiation of stem cells without perturbing the cellular biochemistry. We also discuss advanced coherent Raman scattering techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering, which allow for the molecularly specific imaging of cells, tissues, and entire organisms in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23720335

  4. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  5. Protein Biomarker Research in UK Hospital Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories: A Survey of Current Practice and Views

    PubMed Central

    Hepburn, Sophie; Banks, Rosamonde E; Thompson, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the increasing drive for more and better disease biomarkers to underpin the stratified or personalised medicine agenda, clinical biochemistry laboratories should be ideally placed to play a major role in their translation into clinical practice. However, little is known about the current extent of biomarker-related research activity in UK National Health Service clinical biochemistry departments. Methods: In December 2010, an online questionnaire was sent to active UK members of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry (ACB) to determine the extent of their current research activity and involvement in protein biomarker discovery and translation, including an assessment of the awareness of proteomics. Results: A total of 198 eligible responses (19% response rate) was received from across the UK. Of a further 50 eligible people who responded to a follow-up for initial non-responders, most cited insufficient knowledge about the topic as the reason for non-response (24% total response rate). The results illustrate the highly skilled nature of the workforce with many having experience in a research environment (75%) with postgraduate qualifications. However, more than half spend <10% of their time undertaking research in their current role, and many (61%) would like to be more research active. Encouragingly, approximately a third were involved in biomarker discovery activities, even though for <10% of their time, with slightly more reporting involvement in biomarker translation. Conclusions: Although there are people with the necessary skills and desire to be involved in biomarker research in clinical biochemistry departments, their involvement is small, predominantly due to issues with capacity and resources. It is likely that the majority of biomarker programmes will therefore continue to be carried out by a small number of academic groups, hopefully with collaborative input from hospital laboratories. PMID:25210209

  6. [Hommage to M.L. Girard: gestation and birth of biochemistry in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dreux, C

    1999-01-01

    Prof Claude Dreux pays hommage to Prof Maurice-Louis Girard and relates the gestation and the birth of biochemistry in hospitals. He successively evokes Hippocrates, Galen, Paracelsius, Robert Boyle, Nicolas Vauquelin, J.J. Von Scherer, J.F. Zeller, G.H. Esbach, Apollinaire Bouchardat, Georges Deniges, Paul Yvon, Ambard, Loiseleur, Leon Grimbert, Paul Fleury, Jean-Emile Courtois and last but not the least Maurice-Louis Girard. PMID:11625655

  7. Summary report of a workshop on research opportunities in plant biochemistry, December 11--13, 1992, Kona, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    A DOE-sponsored workshop was held December 11--13, 1992 in Kona, Hawaii to discuss those aspects of fundamental research in plant biochemistry deemed essential to provide the basic information base necessary for exploiting plant biotechnology to meet future societal needs. Twenty nine scientists, with interests representing many of the various areas of plant biochemistry, participated. The workshop was intended to define in both broad and specific terms the current state of knowledge in the general area of metabolic biochemistry, and to identify those areas that afford unusual opportunity or that are relatively underdeveloped in comparison with other areas of plant biology. Participants provided critiques of the state of knowledge of the major areas of metabolic biochemistry in relation to a series of questions that are presented herein.

  8. Thalidomide Makes a Comeback: A Case Discussion Exercise That Integrates Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Nicole; Cornely, Kathleen

    2001-06-01

    The case discussion method, which involves teaching scientific theory in a framework that students can relate to their own world, is an interdisciplinary pedagogical tool. Therefore, case study exercises can be used to integrate biochemistry with other advanced chemistry courses. The case presented here can be used at the end of a second-semester organic chemistry course or in an introductory biochemistry course. The case is a fact-based, fictional story in which an FDA official must decide whether to carry out the agency's threat to shut down several buyers clubs that import thalidomide from overseas and dispense it to their members for the treatment of AIDS. Students are required to read the body of the case, analyze data, and search for information using limited leads. Using well-considered arguments based on their research, they are asked to come to conclusions about how the element of risk involved in thalidomide distribution is assessed. They apply their knowledge of biochemistry to assess how thalidomide acts at the cellular level and they apply their knowledge of organic chemistry in writing mechanisms of thalidomide hydrolysis and in the design of thalidomide analogs. Students are assessed on their ability to work in groups, to critically analyze scientific data, and to develop public policies based on risk-benefit analysis.

  9. The Proteomics Stock Market Project. A Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration in Biochemistry and Business Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Heath; Cox, James R.

    2004-04-01

    Students taking courses in different disciplines can work together to add unique elements to their educational experience. A model for this type of pedagogical approach has been established in the Proteomics Stock Market Project, a collaborative effort between instructors and students in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration at Murray State University. Stage I involved biochemistry students investigating the topic of proteomics and choosing companies for potential investment based only on scientific investigation. Marketing and management students completed Stage II and provided an investment analysis on the companies selected in Stage I. In Stage III, the biochemistry students focused on a particular company and investigated a protein-based therapeutic product. Blackboard software was utilized in each stage of the project to facilitate the exchange of information and electronic documents. This project was designed to give biochemistry students an appreciation for the emerging field of proteomics and the marketing and management students a flavor for real-world applications of business principles. During the project, students were exposed to ideas and concepts not typically covered in their courses. With this involvement, the students had the opportunity to gain a broader perspective of course content compared to a more traditional curriculum.

  10. The Teaching of Biochemistry: An Innovative Course Sequence Based on the Logic of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.; Owen, Whyte G.

    1998-06-01

    An innovative course sequence for the teaching of biochemistry is offered, which more truly reflects the common philosophy found in biochemistry texts: that the foundation of biological phenomena can best be understood through the logic of chemistry. Topic order is chosen to develop an emerging understanding that is based on chemical principles. Preeminent biological questions serve as a framework for the course. Lipid and lipid-aggregate structures are introduced first, since it is more logical to discuss the intermolecular association of simple amphiphiles to form micelle and bilayer formations than to discuss the complexities of protein structure/folding. Protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structures are studied next. Binding, a noncovalent process and the simplest expression of macromolecular function, follows. The physical (noncovalent) transport of solute molecules across a biological membrane is studied next, followed by the chemical transformation of substrates by enzymes. These are logical extensions of the expression of molecular function, first involving a simpler (physical transport) and second, a more complex (covalent transformation) process. The final sequence involves energy and signal transduction. This unique course sequence emerges naturally when chemical logic is used as an organizing paradigm for structuring a biochemistry course. Traditional order, which seems to reflect historic trends in research, or even an order derived from the central dogma of biology can not provide this logical framework.

  11. Something Old, Something New. Educational Inclusion and Head Teachers as Policy Actors and Subjects in the City of Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analía Inés

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina, "'inclusion" has become a central target of national and provincial educational policy since the mid-2000s. Unlike in other countries, inclusion has been associated with the transformation of upper secondary schooling into a compulsory level of education, together with the effective integration of pupils from…

  12. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes. PMID:25586510

  13. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; García Martí, Sebastián; Souto, Alberto; Ferrante, Daniel; Augustovski, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE) is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk) and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity) were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years). To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod). Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$) per DALY for the different interventions were: (i) less salt in bread $151; (ii) mass media campaign $547; (iii) combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv) high blood pressure (HBP) lowering therapy $7,716; (v) tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv) high-cholesterol lowering therapy with statins $ 70,994. Conclusion Against a threshold of average per capita income in Argentina, the two selected population-based interventions (lowering salt intake and health education through mass-media campaigns) plus the modified polypill strategy targeting people with a 20% or greater risk were cost-effective. Use of this methodology in developing countries can make resource-allocation decisions less intuitive and more driven by evidence. PMID:19419570

  14. [Ultraviolet radiation impact on seasonal variations of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in healthy young adults in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Constanzo, Pablo R; Elías, Natalia O; Kleiman Rubinsztein, Jessica; García Basavilbaso, Natalia X; Piacentini, Rubén; Salerni, Helena H

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sunlight (ES) is the main source of vitamin D. There are few reports regarding the seasonal variations of serum 25(OH) vitamin D in young adults and its correlation with ultraviolet radiation dose (UVRd). Our aims were to determine 25OHD variations in young adults and assess the correlation between 25OHD levels, dietary calcium intake (DCI) and the UVRd. Eighty two healthy volunteers were prospectively studied: 42 women and 40 men. Serum 25OHD, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured at the end of winter and at the end of summer. ES and UVRd were determined hourly in winter and summer. Seasonal variation in serum 25OHD levels was observed with significantly higher levels in summer in both gender. Serum 25OHD <20 ng/ml was more frequently found in winter (42.6% in women and 50% in men). The ES and UVRd were significantly lower in winter vs. summer. ES and UVRd positively correlated with 25OHD only in winter in both men and women. DCI was lower than recommended and did not correlate with 25OHD levels. PMID:21893446

  15. [Biocultural study of infant malnutrition of primary cause in the urban setting of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ortale, S; Rodrigo, M A

    1996-06-01

    The present study, of microsocial nature, attempts to recover the biology-culture unity in the analysis of child undernutrition. A sample was selected of 52 children with primary undernutrition and their families, from the population attending the Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit of La Plata Children Hospital. The specific index was used to measure the low socioeconomic level in families with undernourished children. The mothers were interviewed to obtain information on the perception and recognition of undernutrition. Observation and interviews to the medical staff were performed in ten centers of primary health care (PHC), in order to reveal the medical practices related to this problem. The results obtained showed that the studied families conjugated the most unfavorable life conditions within poverty. Children with adequate weight at birth were nutritionally affected between 3 and 18 months of age, leading to height disorders. The representations and practices sustained by the mothers, relating undernutrition to a popular disease named "pata de cabra" lead to limitations in treatment. In PHC centers, conceptual and operative limitations are recorded for its detection and early treatment. It is concluded that cultural factors present in the two most directly related agents to child health (the mother and the PHC center) do not allow to modify the environmental effects that prematurely affect the children of poverty. PMID:9239292

  16. [The foundational myth of Argentinian homeopathy. The journal "Homeopatía," Buenos Aires (1933-1940)].

    PubMed

    González Korzeniewski, Manuel A

    2010-01-01

    The present article analyzes the historical-identitary construction in the older and most important institution of Homeopathy in Argentina. Two analytical axes are constructed: on the one hand, the construction of a foundational myth that outlines a genealogical thread between the "divinities" of the medicine, and on the other hand, the mitification of Hahnemann, founding father of the discipline. Using both axes we explain how the discourses of the journal were creating a symbolic support for the weak conjuncture in which they tried to be consolidated legally as an institution. PMID:21186698

  17. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological based assessment of bottom sediments from the Luján River basin, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Leticia; Bulus Rossini, Gustavo; Salibián, Alfredo; Ronco, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The physicochemical analysis of bottom sediments of the Lujan River was done on samples from 14 sites situated along its course and covered grain size and organic matter, total N and P, sulfides, heavy metals, organochlorine, and pyrethroid pesticides. In addition, acute 10-day whole-sediment laboratory toxicity tests were carried with each sample, using the native amphipod Hyalella curvispina as test organism. In order to correlate both types of results, data were assessed by multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA). The physicochemical profile of samples resulted similar along the river course, though several anomalous data were registered in the middle course of the river, mainly in samples taken downstream a large industrial complex; with a few exceptions in upper basin sites characterized by the dominance of agricultural activities, the pesticides concentration were consistently below the analytical detection limits. Almost 50% of the samples induced adverse effects on the amphipod when testing sublethal and lethal end points. The toxicity of the samples in terms of survival rate was extremely high in two sites, in particular in samples taken downstream the Pilar industrial complex. The integration of a selection of physicochemical and toxicological parameters of the sediments by PCA allowed discriminating areas of the river basin according the type and intensity of their particular pollution condition. PMID:23179726

  18. Water quality of the Luján river, a lowland watercourse near the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Castañé, Patricia M; Sánchez-Caro, Aníbal; Salibián, Alfredo

    2015-10-01

    Luján river is a lowland watercourse which runs 130 km before flowing into the Río de la Plata Estuary, and receives a mixture of domestic and industrial wastewaters originating at its margins. In order to know the physicochemical profile of its surface water, 36 physical-chemical variables were analyzed in samples collected seasonally between 2004 and 2006 at three sampling stations. The results obtained through the principal component analysis (PCA) suggest that the variations in water quality are explained by natural components (soluble salts; metals), nonpoint inputs (nutrients), and anthropogenic (organic and bacterial) and industrial (toxic heavy metals) pollutants. The cases did not fit a clear spatial or seasonal pattern when plotted against the first two PCA axes. The three water quality indices calculated gave middle scores; Sampling station 1 gave a baseline for the comparison of the river's water quality along its course while Sampling station 3 (downriver) was the most degraded. A variety of pollution pulses reach and affect the watercourse downstream. Cities' sewage discharges into the river seem to be the major polluting factor, together with natural metals and other solutes loads that are present from the headwaters. The results may be useful for the development of local and regional mitigation and remediation programs regarding toxic and eutrophying loads in the upper basin of the river. PMID:26407859

  19. Spatial and temporal trends of physicochemical parameters in the water of the Reconquista river (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Castañé, Patricia M; Rovedatti, María G; Topalián, Mirta L; Salibián, Alfredo

    2006-06-01

    The Reconquista river is one of the most polluted watercourses in Argentina. More than 3 million people and over 10,000 industries are settled on its basin. The available data show that pollution is mainly related to the discharge of domestic and industrial liquid wastes that are poured into the river almost untreated. At present no site of the river can be characterized as free of pollutants. Samples were taken monthly from 5 sites of the river; some 18-20 physicochemical parameters were determined in each sample. Analyses revealed significant differences in the degree of deterioration between sites. Two of them, close to the source of the river (Cascallares-S(1) and Paso del Rey-S(2)) resulted less polluted than the two points located close to the mouth of the river (San Martin-S(4) and Bancalari-S(5)). The worsening of the water quality in S(4)-S(5) was attributed to the discharges of the Moron stream, a tributary that flows into the main course of the river a complex mixture of non treated waste waters. PCA was used in the ordination of samples (sites, season and physicochemical parameters). In the PCA performed using all variables, the first principal component showed positive correlation with N-NH(4) (+), conductivity, orthophosphate, BOD(5), COD and alkalinity, and negative correlation with DO. The second principal component was positively correlated with pH, temperature and chlorophyll a and negatively with phenols and hardness. In respect to the spatial distribution, the plot of the scores for the first two components of samples taken in each sampling station showed S(1) and S(2) values displayed farthest at the left side of the X axis with high DO. In contrast, S(4) and S(5) values stayed at the right side of this axis with high N-NH(4) (+), conductivity, orthophosphate, BOD(5), COD and alkalinity; data of S(3) were "intermediate". In order to identify seasonal trends in the concentration of contaminants scores of cases labeled by season were plotted. The line drawn on the ordination plane showed that summer samples tended to converge to the upper right portion of the graph where pollution variables had more importance on the first axis, and along the second axis with high correlation with pH, temperature and chlorophyll a. Winter scores were settled in the left lower part of the plot with minor contribution of pollution parameters and more importance of DO on the first axis. Samples of autumn and spring did not fit a clear cut pattern. PMID:16917703

  20. Commensal Rodents in the City of Buenos Aires: A Temporal, Spatial, and Environmental Analysis at the Whole City Level.

    PubMed

    Cavia, Regino; Muschetto, Emiliano; Cueto, Gerardo Rubén; Suárez, Olga Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Commensal rodents are some of the main vertebrate pests in urban areas; however, knowledge about factors that favor them at large scales is scarce. We studied spatial and temporal variations in rodent infestation levels at the whole city scale using the complaints of rodent sightings and questionnaire surveys to city neighbors. Demographic, socio-economic, and environmental characteristics handled with a geographic information system were evaluated as possible indicators of rodent infestation. The number of rodent sightings was lower in months with low mean temperature with two months time lag and higher in areas with high number of meat and metal industries. Rodent infestation estimated by the questionnaire survey showed spatial autocorrelation defining large areas with similar infestation levels. It decreased when the apartment density increased, while increased when the proportion of area occupied by shantytowns, the density of meat industries, and the proportion of area occupied by moderate urban development increased. Rodent control programs at the whole city level would have better results if public health pest agencies and/or governments will focus the efforts on areas with more precarious conditions as well as the industrial areas in the cold season when have lower rodent abundances. PMID:25681115

  1. Host plant selection of two Mansonia blanchard species (Diptera: Culicidae) in a heterogeneous habitat of Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo R; Torretta, Juan P; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2005-12-01

    Larvae and pupae of the genus Mansonia Blanchard attach to the roots of aquatic plants by means of modified structures to obtain oxygen. A study of the association of larval Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans with floating macrophytes was conducted at Macies Pond, Argentina. Fifty-four sampling units were taken from January to May 2003. Three genera of host plants were considered: Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia. A total of 402 immatures of Ma. indubitans and 217 of Ma. titillans were captured and associations between Mansonia immatures and roots of each genera were assesed. Significant association was noted between Ma. indubitans and certain host plant species (K-W H=42.74, df=2, p<0.001). The same result was observed for Ma. titillans (K-W H=23.42, df=2, p<0.001). Both Mansonia species utilized roots of P. stratiotes in significantly higher proportions than expected by random selection. Both species showed significant negative association with Salvinia spp., while no clear relationships were detected with L. laevigatum. PMID:16599153

  2. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of influenza A H1N1pdm virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barrero, P R; Viegas, M; Valinotto, L E; Mistchenko, A S

    2011-01-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm) spread worldwide in 2009, with 12,080 confirmed cases and 626 deaths occurring in Argentina. A total of 330 H1N1pdm viruses were detected from May to August 2009, and phylogenetic and genetic analyses of 21 complete genome sequences from both mild and fatal cases were achieved with reference to concatenated whole genomes. In addition, the analysis of another 16 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) gene sequences of Argentinean isolates was performed. The microevolution timeline was assessed and resistance monitoring of an NA fragment from 228 samples throughout the 2009 pandemic peak was performed by sequencing and pyrosequencing. We also assessed the viral growth kinetics for samples with replacements at the genomic level or special clinical features. In this study, we found by Bayesian inference that the Argentinean complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 7 sequences. The HA sequences were related to samples from the northern hemisphere autumn-winter from September to December 2009. The NA of Argentinean sequences belonged to the New York group. The N-4 fragment as well as the hierarchical clustering of samples showed that a consensus sequence prevailed in time but also that different variants, including five H275Y oseltamivir-resistant strains, arose from May to August 2009. Fatal and oseltamivir-resistant isolates had impaired growth and a small plaque phenotype compared to oseltamivir-sensitive and consensus strains. Although these strains might not be fit enough to spread in the entire population, molecular surveillance proved to be essential to monitor resistance and viral dynamics in our country. PMID:21047959

  3. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  4. Atmospherically-induced water oscillations detected in the port of Quequén, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragani, Walter C.; D'Onofrio, Enrique E.; Grismeyer, Walter; Fiore, Monica M. E.; Campos, María Inés

    Sea level data gathered at Quequén, corresponding to the four most energetic events detected in 1982, are analyzed and compared with simultaneous sea level data recorded at Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó. Large-amplitude sea-level oscillations at these locations are generally superposed to low-amplitude oscillations (“background”) which are one or two order of magnitude lower than the first ones. Background at Quequén is characterized by a broadband energy spectrum with maximum energy around 17-35 min. During energetic events at Quequén, the spectral peaks are situated between 0.8 and 4.0 cph (15-75 min) and wavelet analysis shows intermittent activity of large-amplitude waves (they show up irregularly during short lapses of 100-200 min long, approximately). The computed ratios between sea level variances of the active event and the preceding background at Quequén, Mar de Ajó, Pinamar and Mar del Plata apparently do not have a relationship among locations nor events. Such noticeable variability in the spectral peak positions, variances and ratios could likely be related to the celerity, amplitude, direction and period of atmospheric gravity waves in the region. Large-amplitude sea-level oscillations are always firstly observed at Quequén and, subsequently further north, at Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó, respectively. Maximum amplitudes detected for each event at these different locations are very similar. These results support that atmospherically-induced large-amplitude sea-level oscillations (generated on the continental shelf) would enter the port of Quequén through its narrow mouth while they propagate towards Mar del Plata, Pinamar and Mar de Ajó, where they show up in tidal records some hours later.

  5. The Linguistic Experience of Italians in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1890-1914: Language Shift as Seen through Social Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano-McGreevy, Maria

    2013-01-01

    From 1890-1914, Argentina received a large influx of Italian immigrants who wanted to "hacer la América," or live the American dream of economic prosperity. With Italian immigrants representing nearly half of all immigrants entering Argentina, the government strived to create a new sense of Argentine pride and nationalism. The objective…

  6. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  7. Vectorial Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowne, S. W., Jr.; Bowne, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a biochemical concept called Mitchell's chemiosmotic hypothesis, which proposes a system that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate. The system is reversible and causes a translocation of protons across a physiological membrane. (MLH)

  8. Ganglioside Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kolter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They occur especially on the cellular surfaces of neuronal cells, where they form a complex pattern, but are also found in many other cell types. The paper provides a general overview on their structures, occurrence, and metabolism. Key functional, biochemical, and pathobiochemical aspects are summarized. PMID:25969757

  9. Clinical biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Leach, C. S.; Fischer, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the biochemical studies conducted for the Apollo program were (1) to provide routine laboratory data for assessment of preflight crew physical status and for postflight comparisons; (2) to detect clinical or pathological abnormalities which might have required remedial action preflight; (3) to discover as early as possible any infectious disease process during the postflight quarantine periods following certain missions; and (4) to obtain fundamental medical knowledge relative to man's adjustment to and return from the space flight environment. The accumulated data presented suggest that these requirements were met by the program described. All changes ascribed to the space flight environment were subtle, whereas clinically significant changes were consistent with infrequent illnesses unrelated to the space flight exposure.

  10. The Impact of Biochemistry vs. Population Membership on Floral Scent Profiles in Colour Polymorphic Hesperis matronalis

    PubMed Central

    Majetic, Cassie J.; Raguso, Robert A.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of floral scent evolution often attribute variation in floral scent to differences in pollinator behaviour, ignoring the potential for shared biochemistry between floral scent and floral colour to dictate patterns of phenotypic variation in scent production. To determine the relative effects of shared biochemistry and/or localized population-level phenomena on floral scent phenotype, floral scent composition and emission rate were examined in five wild populations of colour polymorphic Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae). Methods Floral scent was collected by in situ dynamic headspace extraction on purple and white colour morphs in each of five wild populations. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of extracts allowed determination of floral scent composition and emission rate for all individuals, which were examined by non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively, to determine the contributions of floral colour and population membership to scent profile variation. Key Results Despite the fact that colour morph means were very similar in some populations and quite different in other populations, colour morphs within populations did not differ from each other in terms of scent composition or emission rate. Populations differed significantly from one another in terms of both floral scent composition and emission rate. Conclusions Shared biochemistry alone cannot explain the variation in floral scent phenotype found for H. matronalis. Such a result may suggest that the biochemical association between floral scent and floral colour is complex or dependent on genetic background. Floral scent does vary significantly with population membership; several factors, including environmental conditions, founder effects and genetics, may account for this differentiation and should be considered in future studies. PMID:18819948

  11. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

    2014-06-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

  12. Automation in clinical biochemistry: core, peripheral, STAT, and specialist laboratories in Australia.

    PubMed

    Streitberg, George S; Angel, Lyndall; Sikaris, Kenneth A; Bwititi, Phillip T

    2012-10-01

    Pathology has developed substantially since the 1990s with the introduction of total laboratory automation (TLA), in response to workloads and the need to improve quality. TLA has enhanced core laboratories, which evolved from discipline-based laboratories. Work practices have changed, with central reception now loading samples onto the Inlet module of the TLA. It is important to continually appraise technology. This study looked at the impact of technology using a self-administered survey to seniors in clinical biochemistry in NATA GX/GY-classified laboratories in Australia. The responses were yes, no, or not applicable and are expressed as percentages of responses. Some of the questions sourced for descriptive answers. Eighty-one laboratories responded, and the locations were 63%, 33%, and 4% in capital cities, regional cities, and country towns, respectively. Forty-two percent were public and 58% private. Clinical biochemistry was in all core laboratories of various sizes, and most performed up to 20 tests per sample. Thirty percent of the 121 surveyed laboratories had plans to install an automated line. Fifty-eight percent had hematology and biochemistry instrumentations in their peripheral laboratory, and 16% had a STAT laboratory on the same site as the core laboratory. There were varied instruments in specialist laboratories, and analyzers with embedded computers were in all laboratories. Medium and large laboratories had workstations with integrated instruments, and some large laboratories had TLA. Technology evolution and rising demand for pathology services make it imperative for laboratories to embrace such changes and reorganize the laboratories to take into account point-of-care testing and the efficiencies of core laboratories and TLA. PMID:22661200

  13. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research. PMID:27051442

  14. Physical models enhance molecular three-dimensional literacy in an introductory biochemistry course*.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jacqueline R; Hagedorn, Eric; Dillenburg, Paul; Patrick, Michael; Herman, Timothy

    2005-03-01

    This article reports the results of a recent study to evaluate the usefulness of physical models of molecular structures as a new tool with which to teach concepts of molecular structure and function. Of seven different learning tools used by students in this introductory biochemistry class, the use of the physical models in a laboratory was rated as most useful. These results suggest that physical models can play an important role in capturing the interest of students in the subject of molecular structure and function. These physical models often stimulate more sophisticated questions in the minds of students, which can then be more appropriately explored using computer visualization tools. PMID:21638554

  15. Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M.

    2003-04-01

    A recent forensic approach for identification of unknown biological samples is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify a 440 base pair hypervariable region of human mtDNA from a variety of "crime scene" samples (e.g., teeth, hair, nails, cigarettes, envelope flaps, toothbrushes, and chewing gum). Amplification is verified via agarose gel electrophoresis and then samples are subjected to cycle sequencing. Sequence alignments are made via the program CLUSTAL W, allowing students to compare samples and solve the "crime."

  16. Dishonesty in the biochemistry classroom laboratory: A synthesis of causes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Bodner, George

    2006-09-01

    Although reports of academic cheating are abundant, there are relatively few papers in the literature that focus on cheating in the context of science courses and even fewer that address dishonest practices, such as "cooking" or fudging data, within the classroom laboratory. This paper briefly reviews the existing literature on academic dishonesty and explores two theories that can be used to explain why cheating occurs: (1) classroom goal structure and (2) attitudes of neutralization. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these theories within the context of a biochemistry and molecular biology teaching laboratory. PMID:21638711

  17. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin. PMID:25752808

  18. Modifying skin pigmentation – approaches through intrinsic biochemistry and exogenous agents

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Michaela; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    Rates of skin cancer continue to increase despite the improved use of traditional sunscreens to minimize damage from ultraviolet radiation. The public perception of tanned skin as being healthy and desirable, combined with the rising demand for treatments to repair irregular skin pigmentation and the desire to increase or decrease constitutive skin pigmentation, arouses great interest pharmaceutically as well as cosmeceutically. This review discusses the intrinsic biochemistry of pigmentation, details mechanisms that lead to increased or decreased skin pigmentation, and summarizes established and potential hyper- and hypo-pigmenting agents and their modes of action. PMID:19578486

  19. Virtual office hours using a tablet PC: E-lluminating biochemistry in an online environment.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Kelly; Cox, James R

    2007-05-01

    The availability of online collaboration software has provided new opportunities for instructors to interact with students outside the classroom. This report describes how Elluminate Live!®, a particular conferencing software package, can be used with a tablet PC to conduct virtual office hours in a biochemistry course. The educational value of engaging students in an online environment, with text messaging, voice-over-internet protocol (VoIP), and application sharing is also discussed. A student perspective is provided to illustrate the advantages of conducting virtual office hours and how the combination of online collaboration software and tablet PC technology can provide an enhanced learning experience. PMID:21591087

  20. Guard cell biochemistry: response to environmental stimuli causing changes in gas exchange. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A progress report covering several interrelated studies on the biochemistry and metabolism of leaf guard cells is presented. Subjects covered are: (1) abscisic acid and the control of stomatal aperture size; (2) real-time, direct measurements of NAD(P)H in microdroplets; (3) electron transport through the PSII reaction center in guard cells; (4) organic anion/acid fluctuations as a general phenomena; (5) histological compartmentation of metabolic functions; (6) construction of a gas exchange system; and (7) guard cell protoplast isolation. (DT)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Use of dissociative anesthetics for the immobilization of captive bears: blood gas, hematology and biochemistry values.

    PubMed

    Bush, M; Custer, R S; Smith, E E

    1980-10-01

    Nineteen bears, representing five species (Helarctos malayanus, Ursus americanus, Ursus arctos, Tremarctos ornatus, Melursus ursinus) were immobilized a total of 52 times using either phencyclidine-promazine or tiletamine-zolazepam. Blood gas, hematology, and serum biochemistry values were determined during the immobilizations. Immobilizations conducted with tiletamine-zolazepam were characterized by rapid induction and recovery times, good muscle relaxation, and relative freedom from convulsions. Bears immobilized with phencyclidine-promazine had longer induction and recovery times and showed convulsive activity in 29% of the trials with that combination. PMID:7463600

  3. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory exercise for Health Science Biochemistry students to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. The concentration dependence of the absorbance of aspartame at 257 nm is also studied. Data from all members of the class are averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the typical hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots. This laboratory exercise illustrates the concept of binding saturation to students.

  4. [Nutrimetabolomics--the new stage of biochemistry of nutrition. The role of nutrilipidomic analysis].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A V; Sharanova, N É; Kulakova, S N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, in the light of current trends in the development of nutritional science and nutritional biochemistry the key directions associated with complex comprehensive study of metabolic processes in the body are discussed. We highlight the development of lipidomic researches and formation of nutrilipidomic analysis. We review the role of different lipids, including omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, in mechanism of protein expression, the nature of lipid-protein interactions, and the signaling function of lipids. Since PUFAs influence the increase of peroxide oxidation of lipids, this review summarizes current methodology used to estimate the oxidative stress. PMID:25059050

  5. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  6. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

  7. The Oxygen Dissociation Curve of Hemoglobin: Bridging the Gap between Biochemistry and Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Cambronero, Julian

    2001-06-01

    Cooperativity is a very difficult concept for biochemistry students in the health sciences. An analogy between breaking salt bonds and tearing apart a block of four stamps has been proposed for hemoglobin (Hb). However, since tearing is equated to binding of molecules, two intrinsically contradictory terms, students still have difficulty. I apply the pictorial analogy to the releasing of oxygen instead of the binding, thus bridging biochemistry (cooperativity) with physiology (oxygen dissociation). I embark on an imaginary journey from the lungs (saturation at 100 mmHg) to the oxygen-starved tissues. The stamps represent fully loaded Hb. By making two cuts the first "oxygen" is released. For the second, only one cut is needed. With one final cut, the last two stamps are separated. This means that less energy is needed to unload oxygen: just small drops in partial pressure do the trick in the right place (tissues) but not in the wrong one (lungs). In doing this, I use the three main models of learning: association, discovery and mentoring. Additionally, by guiding students to discover the truth by themselves, I can use hemoglobin as a wonderful excuse to apply the "Socratic method" in the classroom.

  8. An Integrated Biochemistry and Genetics Outreach Program Designed for Elementary School Students

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Eric D.; Lee, Sarah K.; Radebaugh, Catherine A.; Stargell, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to genetic and biochemical experiments typically occurs late in one’s academic career. By the time students have the opportunity to select specialized courses in these areas, many have already developed negative attitudes toward the sciences. Given little or no direct experience with the fields of genetics and biochemistry, it is likely that many young people rule these out as potential areas of study or career path. To address this problem, we developed a 7-week (∼1 hr/week) hands-on course to introduce fifth grade students to basic concepts in genetics and biochemistry. These young students performed a series of investigations (ranging from examining phenotypic variation, in vitro enzymatic assays, and yeast genetic experiments) to explore scientific reasoning through direct experimentation. Despite the challenging material, the vast majority of students successfully completed each experiment, and most students reported that the experience increased their interest in science. Additionally, the experiments within the 7-week program are easily performed by instructors with basic skills in biological sciences. As such, this program can be implemented by others motivated to achieve a broader impact by increasing the accessibility of their university and communicating to a young audience a positive impression of the sciences and the potential for science as a career. PMID:22135354

  9. Predictors of Nursing Students' Performance in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lanen, Robert J.; Lockie, Nancy M.; McGannon, Thomas

    2000-06-01

    In an effort to empower nursing students to successfully persist in chemistry, predictors of success for undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a one-semester organic and biochemistry course were identified. The sample consisted of 308 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in Chemistry 108 (Principles of Organic and Biochemistry) during a period of seven semesters. In this study, Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a nonremedial academic support program offered for Chemistry 108 students. Placement tests in Mathematics, Reading, and English are required of all entering students. The English Placement Test assesses proficiency in analytical reading and writing; the Nelson Denny Reading Test (Form E) assesses the student's understanding of written vocabulary and the mastery of reading comprehension, and the Mathematics Placement Test measures the student's mastery of arithmetic and algebraic calculations. Both demographic and academic variables were examined. For the entire sample, five predictor variables were identified: Mathematics Placement Test score, Chemistry 107 grade (a prerequisite), total number of SI sessions attended, Nelson Denny Reading Test (Form E) score, and age. Predictors for various subpopulations of the sample were also identified. Predictors for students of traditional age were Mathematics Placement Test score, total number of SI sessions attended, and Chemistry 107 grade. The best predictors for continuing education students were Chemistry 107 grade and Nelson Denny Test score.

  10. Introduction to the Minireview Series on Modern Technologies for In-cell Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-02-19

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in the exploration and understanding of the behavior of molecules in their natural cellular environments at increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution. Advances in microscopy and the development of new fluorescent reagents as well as genetic editing techniques have enabled quantitative analysis of protein interactions, intracellular trafficking, metabolic changes, and signaling. Modern biochemistry now faces new and exciting challenges. Can traditionally "in vitro" experiments, e.g. analysis of protein folding and conformational transitions, be done in cells? Can the structure and behavior of endogenous and/or non-tagged recombinant proteins be analyzed and altered within the cell or in cellular compartments? How can molecules and their actions be studied mechanistically in tissues and organs? Is personalized cellular biochemistry a reality? This thematic series summarizes recent studies that illustrate some first steps toward successfully answering these modern biochemical questions. The first minireview focuses on utilization of three-dimensional primary enteroids and organoids for mechanistic studies of intestinal biology with molecular resolution. The second minireview describes application of single chain antibodies (nanobodies) for monitoring and regulating protein dynamics in vitro and in cells. The third minireview highlights advances in using NMR spectroscopy for analysis of protein folding and assembly in cells. PMID:26677225

  11. A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

  12. [Biochemistry for the benefit of humanity (practical achievements of my scientific work)].

    PubMed

    Huliĭ, M F

    2005-01-01

    Science unites theory and practice, but theory is always in advance. Even our works (mentioned above) which are also important for practice and were awarded the State prizes could not be made without preliminary theoretical investigations. It should be said that our works with elaborated methods of therapy and drugs to treat chronic alcoholism, drug addiction, leucosis are rather of theoretical than of practical importance. Some our works which proved that carbon dioxide is the basis of life are also of especially great theoretical value. The paper deals with the investigations devoted to the problems of biochemistry in cattle breeding (the raising of fat content in milk; elaboration of the efficient method of fodder ensilage; raising of milk yield using the drug "Karboxilin"; development of the methods of isolation of crystalline glucose-oxidase and catalase used for clarifying blood) as well as to the problems of biochemistry in medicine (creation of the drug "Microcid", antileucosis drug "Corectin", drugs "Medichronal" and "Medicit" for treating alcoholism and drug addiction, drug "Namacit" for hindering the organism aging). Great attention is given to the problem of relations between the theoretical conception concerning the importance of CO2 in vital activity of human and animal organism and production of new drugs. PMID:16335264

  13. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish. PMID:21413511

  14. Differences in students' perceptions of learning compulsory foundation biochemistry in the health sciences professions.

    PubMed

    Minasian-Batmanian, Laura C; Lingard, Jennifer; Prosser, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Student approaches to learning vary from surface approaches to meaningful, deep learning practices. Differences in approach may be related to students' conceptions of the subject, perceptions of the learning environment, prior study experiences and performance on assessment. This study aims to explore entering students' conceptions of the unit they are about to study and how they intend to approach their studies. It involved a survey of 203 (of 250) first year students in a cross disciplinary unit in the Faculty of Health Sciences. They were asked to complete an open-ended response survey, including questions on what they thought they needed to do to learn biochemistry and what they thought the study of biochemistry was about. A phenomenographic methodology was used to identify categories of description for the questions. The paper will describe the categories in detail, the structural relationship between the categories and the distribution of responses within categories. The study reports a relationship between conception of the topic and approaches to learning. Students with more complex and coherent conceptions of the topic report that they were more likely to adopt deeper approaches to study than those with more fragmented conceptions. However, compared to previous studies, a surprisingly high proportion of students with more cohesive conceptions still intended to adopt more surface approaches. This may reflect the particular context of their learning, namely in a compulsory unit involving material for which most students have minimal background and difficulty seeing its relevance. Implications for teaching such foundation material are discussed. PMID:16362617

  15. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  16. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. PMID:25846233

  17. Calcium carbonate budgets for two coral reefs affected by different terrestrial runoff regimes, Rio Bueno, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallela, J.; Perry, C. T.

    2007-03-01

    A process-based carbonate budget was used to compare carbonate framework production at two reef sites subject to varying degrees of fluvial influence in Rio Bueno, Jamaica. The turbid, central embayment was subjected to high rates of fluvial sediment input, framework accretion was restricted to ≤30 m, and net carbonate production was 1,887 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1. Gross carbonate production (GCP) was dominated by scleractinians (97%), particularly by sediment-resistant species, e.g. Diploria strigosa on the reef flat (<2 m). Calcareous encrusters contributed very little carbonate. Total bioerosion removed 265 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1 and was dominated by microborers. At the clear-water site, net carbonate production was 1,236 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1; the most productive zone was on the fore-reef (10 m). Corals accounted for 82% of GCP, and encrusting organisms 16%. Bioerosion removed 126 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1 and was dominated by macroborers. Total fish and urchin grazing was limited throughout (≤20 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1). The study demonstrates that: (1) carbonate production and net reef accretion can occur where environmental conditions approach or exceed perceived threshold levels for coral survival; and (2) although live coral cover (and carbonate production rates) were reduced on reef-front sites along the North Jamaican coast, low population densities of grazing fish and echinoids to some extent offset this, thus maintaining positive carbonate budgets.

  18. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  20. What Can Biochemistry Students Learn about Protein Translation? Using Variation Theory to Explore the Space of Learning Created by Some Common External Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and…